WorldWideScience

Sample records for linear excess relative

  1. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  2. Calculating excess lifetime risk in relative risk models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, M.; Pierce, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    When assessing the impact of radiation exposure it is common practice to present the final conclusions in terms of excess lifetime cancer risk in a population exposed to a given dose. The present investigation is mainly a methodological study focusing on some of the major issues and uncertainties involved in calculating such excess lifetime risks and related risk projection methods. The age-constant relative risk model used in the recent analyses of the cancer mortality that was observed in the follow-up of the cohort of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is used to describe the effect of the exposure on the cancer mortality. In this type of model the excess relative risk is constant in age-at-risk, but depends on the age-at-exposure. Calculation of excess lifetime risks usually requires rather complicated life-table computations. In this paper we propose a simple approximation to the excess lifetime risk; the validity of the approximation for low levels of exposure is justified empirically as well as theoretically. This approximation provides important guidance in understanding the influence of the various factors involved in risk projections. Among the further topics considered are the influence of a latent period, the additional problems involved in calculations of site-specific excess lifetime cancer risks, the consequences of a leveling off or a plateau in the excess relative risk, and the uncertainties involved in transferring results from one population to another. The main part of this study relates to the situation with a single, instantaneous exposure, but a brief discussion is also given of the problem with a continuous exposure at a low-dose rate

  3. Integrodifferential relations in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Kostin, Georgy V

    2012-01-01

    This work treats the elasticity of deformed bodies, including the resulting interior stresses and displacements.It also takes into account that some of constitutive relations can be considered in a weak form. To discuss this problem properly, the method of integrodifferential relations is used, and an advanced numerical technique for stress-strain analysis is presented and evaluated using various discretization techniques. The methods presented in this book are of importance for almost all elasticity problems in materials science and mechanical engineering.

  4. Acute acquired comitant esotropia related to excessive Smartphone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Seok; Park, Sang Woo; Heo, Hwan

    2016-04-09

    To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) related to excessive smartphone use in adolescents. The medical records of 12 patients with AACE and a history of excessive smartphone use were retrospectively reviewed, and the duration of smartphone use, angle of deviation, refractive error, stereopsis, and treatment options were analyzed. All patients showed convergent and comitant esotropia ranging from 15 to 45 prism diopters (PD; average: 27.75 ± 11.47 PD) at far fixation. The angle of deviation was nearly equivalent for far and near fixation. Every patient used a smartphone for more than 4 h a day over a period of several months (minimum 4 months). Myopic refractive errors were detected in eight patients (average:-3.84 ± 1.68 diopters (D]), and the remaining four patients showed mild hyperopic refractive error (average: +0.84 ± 0.53 D). Reductions in esodeviation were noted in all patients after refraining from smartphone use, and bilateral medial rectus recession was performed in three patients with considerable remnant esodeviation. Postoperative exams showed orthophoria with good stereoacuity in these patients. Excessive smartphone use might influence AACE development in adolescents. Refraining from smartphone use can decrease the degree of esodeviation in these patients, and remnant deviation can be successfully managed with surgical correction.

  5. Ascent, descent, nullity, defect, and related notions for linear relations in linear spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandovici, Adrian; de Snoo, Henk; Winkler, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    For a linear relation in a linear space the concepts of ascent, descent, nullity, and defect are introduced and studied. It is shown that the results of A.E. Taylor and M.A. Kaashoek concerning the relationship between ascent, descent, nullity, and defect for the case of linear operators remain

  6. Spectroscopic properties of the S1 state of linear carotenoids after excess energy excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valentyna; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Fuciman, Marcel; Polívka, Tomáš

    2017-09-01

    Properties of the S1 state of neurosporene, spheroidene and lycopene were studied after excess energy excitation in the S2 state. Excitation of carotenoids into higher vibronic levels of the S2 state generates excess vibrational energy in the S1 state. The vibrationally hot S1 state relaxes faster when carotenoid is excited into the S2 state with excess energy, but the S1 lifetime remains constant regardless of which vibronic level of the S2 state is excited. The S∗ signal depends on excitation energy only for spheroidene, which is likely due to asymmetry of the molecule, facilitating conformations responsible for the S∗ signal.

  7. Green-Kubo relations for dynamic interfacial excess properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the fluctuations of the in-plane interfacial excess fluxes in multiphase systems, in the context of the extended irreversible thermodynamics formalism. We derive expressions for the time correlation functions of the surface extra stress tensor, the surface mass flux vector,

  8. Some computer simulations based on the linear relative risk model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1991-10-01

    This report presents the results of computer simulations designed to evaluate and compare the performance of the likelihood ratio statistic and the score statistic for making inferences about the linear relative risk mode. The work was motivated by data on workers exposed to low doses of radiation, and the report includes illustration of several procedures for obtaining confidence limits for the excess relative risk coefficient based on data from three studies of nuclear workers. The computer simulations indicate that with small sample sizes and highly skewed dose distributions, asymptotic approximations to the score statistic or to the likelihood ratio statistic may not be adequate. For testing the null hypothesis that the excess relative risk is equal to zero, the asymptotic approximation to the likelihood ratio statistic was adequate, but use of the asymptotic approximation to the score statistic rejected the null hypothesis too often. Frequently the likelihood was maximized at the lower constraint, and when this occurred, the asymptotic approximations for the likelihood ratio and score statistics did not perform well in obtaining upper confidence limits. The score statistic and likelihood ratio statistics were found to perform comparably in terms of power and width of the confidence limits. It is recommended that with modest sample sizes, confidence limits be obtained using computer simulations based on the score statistic. Although nuclear worker studies are emphasized in this report, its results are relevant for any study investigating linear dose-response functions with highly skewed exposure distributions. 22 refs., 14 tabs

  9. Linear time relational prototype based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbrecht, Andrej; Mokbel, Bassam; Schleif, Frank-Michael; Zhu, Xibin; Hammer, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Prototype based learning offers an intuitive interface to inspect large quantities of electronic data in supervised or unsupervised settings. Recently, many techniques have been extended to data described by general dissimilarities rather than Euclidean vectors, so-called relational data settings. Unlike the Euclidean counterparts, the techniques have quadratic time complexity due to the underlying quadratic dissimilarity matrix. Thus, they are infeasible already for medium sized data sets. The contribution of this article is twofold: On the one hand we propose a novel supervised prototype based classification technique for dissimilarity data based on popular learning vector quantization (LVQ), on the other hand we transfer a linear time approximation technique, the Nyström approximation, to this algorithm and an unsupervised counterpart, the relational generative topographic mapping (GTM). This way, linear time and space methods result. We evaluate the techniques on three examples from the biomedical domain.

  10. Gravitational Wave in Linear General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, D. J.

    2017-07-01

    General relativity is the best theory currently available to describe the interaction due to gravity. Within Albert Einstein's field equations this interaction is described by means of the spatiotemporal curvature generated by the matter-energy content in the universe. Weyl worked on the existence of perturbations of the curvature of space-time that propagate at the speed of light, which are known as Gravitational Waves, obtained to a first approximation through the linearization of the field equations of Einstein. Weyl's solution consists of taking the field equations in a vacuum and disturbing the metric, using the Minkowski metric slightly perturbed by a factor ɛ greater than zero but much smaller than one. If the feedback effect of the field is neglected, it can be considered as a weak field solution. After introducing the disturbed metric and ignoring ɛ terms of order greater than one, we can find the linearized field equations in terms of the perturbation, which can then be expressed in terms of the Dalambertian operator of the perturbation equalized to zero. This is analogous to the linear wave equation in classical mechanics, which can be interpreted by saying that gravitational effects propagate as waves at the speed of light. In addition to this, by studying the motion of a particle affected by this perturbation through the geodesic equation can show the transversal character of the gravitational wave and its two possible states of polarization. It can be shown that the energy carried by the wave is of the order of 1/c5 where c is the speed of light, which explains that its effects on matter are very small and very difficult to detect.

  11. Excess relative risk of solid cancer mortality after prolonged exposure to naturally occurring high background radiation in Yangjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Quanfu; Tao Zufan [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China). Lab. of Industrial Hygiene; Akiba, Suminori (and others)

    2000-10-01

    A study was made on cancer mortality in the high-background radiation areas of Yangjiang, China. Based on hamlet-specific environmental doses and sex- and age-specific occupancy factors, cumulative doses were calculated for each subject. In this article, we describe how the indirect estimation was made on individual dose and the methodology used to estimate radiation risk. Then, assuming a linear dose response relationship and using cancer mortality data for the period 1979-1995, we estimate the excess relative risk per Sievert for solid cancer to be -0.11 (95% CI, -0.67, 0.69). Also, we estimate the excess relative risks of four leading cancers in the study areas, i.e., cancers of the liver, nasopharynx, lung and stomach. In addition, we evaluate the effects of possible bias on our risk estimation. (author)

  12. Spectral analysis of linear relations and degenerate operator semigroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskakov, A G; Chernyshov, K I

    2002-01-01

    Several problems of the spectral theory of linear relations in Banach spaces are considered. Linear differential inclusions in a Banach space are studied. The construction of the phase space and solutions is carried out with the help of the spectral theory of linear relations, ergodic theorems, and degenerate operator semigroups

  13. The mathematical structure of the approximate linear response relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Muneki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the mathematical structures of the linear response relation based on Plefka's expansion and the cluster variation method in terms of the perturbation expansion, and we show how this linear response relation approximates the correlation functions of the specified system. Moreover, by comparing the perturbation expansions of the correlation functions estimated by the linear response relation based on these approximation methods with exact perturbative forms of the correlation functions, we are able to explain why the approximate techniques using the linear response relation work well

  14. Effectiveness of policies restricting hours of alcohol sales in preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team's initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  16. Time signal filtering by relative neighborhood graph localized linear approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1994-01-01

    A time signal filtering algorithm based on the relative neighborhood graph (RNG) used for localization of linear filters is proposed. The filter is constructed from a training signal during two stages. During the first stage an RNG is constructed. During the second stage, localized linear filters...

  17. Relation of deformed nonlinear algebras with linear ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, A; Tkachuk, V M

    2014-01-01

    The relation between nonlinear algebras and linear ones is established. For a one-dimensional nonlinear deformed Heisenberg algebra with two operators we find the function of deformation for which this nonlinear algebra can be transformed to a linear one with three operators. We also establish the relation between the Lie algebra of total angular momentum and corresponding nonlinear one. This relation gives a possibility to simplify and to solve the eigenvalue problem for the Hamiltonian in a nonlinear case using the reduction of this problem to the case of linear algebra. It is demonstrated in an example of a harmonic oscillator. (paper)

  18. The effectiveness of tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Randy W; Lawrence, Briana; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Naimi, Timothy S; Brewer, Robert D; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Toomey, Traci L; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2010-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specified quality criteria, and included evaluation outcomes relevant to public health (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol-related crash fatalities), were included in the final review. Nearly all studies, including those with different study designs, found that there was an inverse relationship between the tax or price of alcohol and indices of excessive drinking or alcohol-related health outcomes. Among studies restricted to underage populations, most found that increased taxes were also significantly associated with reduced consumption and alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these results constitute strong evidence that raising alcohol excise taxes is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The impact of a potential tax increase is expected to be proportional to its magnitude and to be modified by such factors as disposable income and the demand elasticity for alcohol among various population groups. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Hostility among adolescents in Switzerland? multivariate relations between excessive media use and forms of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel N

    2004-03-01

    To determine what kind of violence-related behavior or opinion is directly related to excessive media use among adolescents in Switzerland. A national representative sample of 4222 schoolchildren (7th- and 8th-graders; mean age 13.9 years) answered questions on the frequency of television-viewing, electronic game-playing, feeling unsafe at school, bullying others, hitting others, and fighting with others, as part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) international collaborative study protocol. The Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to high-risk groups of adolescents. For the total sample, all bivariate relationships between television-viewing/electronic game-playing and each violence-related variable are significant. In the multivariate comparison, physical violence among boys ceases to be significant. For girls, only television-viewing is linked to indirect violence. Against the hypothesis, females' electronic game-playing only had a bearing on hitting others. Experimental designs are needed that take into account gender, different forms of media, and violence to answer the question of whether excessive media use leads to violent behavior. With the exception of excessive electronic game-playing among girls, this study found that electronic media are not thought to lead directly to real-life violence but to hostility and indirect violence.

  20. Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Miller, Joshua; Minjares, Ray; Du, Li; Henze, Daven K.; Lacey, Forrest; Malley, Christopher S.; Emberson, Lisa; Franco, Vicente; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris

    2017-05-01

    Vehicle emissions contribute to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and tropospheric ozone air pollution, affecting human health, crop yields and climate worldwide. On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20 per cent of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM2.5 and ozone precursors. Regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, but current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These excess emissions (totalling 4.6 million tons) are associated with about 38,000 PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including about 10 per cent of all ozone-related premature deaths in the 28 European Union member states. Heavy-duty vehicles are the dominant contributor to excess diesel NOx emissions and associated health impacts in almost all regions. Adopting and enforcing next-generation standards (more stringent than Euro 6/VI) could nearly eliminate real-world diesel-related NOx emissions in these markets, avoiding approximately 174,000 global PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040. Most of these benefits can be achieved by implementing Euro VI standards where they have not yet been adopted for heavy-duty vehicles.

  1. Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C; Miller, Joshua; Minjares, Ray; Du, Li; Henze, Daven K; Lacey, Forrest; Malley, Christopher S; Emberson, Lisa; Franco, Vicente; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris

    2017-05-25

    Vehicle emissions contribute to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and tropospheric ozone air pollution, affecting human health, crop yields and climate worldwide. On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20 per cent of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), which are key PM 2.5 and ozone precursors. Regulated NO x emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, but current diesel vehicles emit far more NO x under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These excess emissions (totalling 4.6 million tons) are associated with about 38,000 PM 2.5 - and ozone-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including about 10 per cent of all ozone-related premature deaths in the 28 European Union member states. Heavy-duty vehicles are the dominant contributor to excess diesel NO x emissions and associated health impacts in almost all regions. Adopting and enforcing next-generation standards (more stringent than Euro 6/VI) could nearly eliminate real-world diesel-related NO x emissions in these markets, avoiding approximately 174,000 global PM 2.5 - and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040. Most of these benefits can be achieved by implementing Euro VI standards where they have not yet been adopted for heavy-duty vehicles.

  2. A linearized dispersion relation for orthorhombic pseudo-acoustic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xiaolei; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation in acoustic orthorhombic anisotropic media suffers from wave-mode coupling and stability limitations in the parameter range. We introduce a linearized form of the dispersion relation for acoustic orthorhombic media to model acoustic wavefields. We apply the lowrank approximation approach to handle the corresponding space-wavenumber mixed-domain operator. Numerical experiments show that the proposed wavefield extrapolator is accurate and practically free of dispersions. Further, there is no coupling of qSv and qP waves, because we use the analytical dispersion relation. No constraints on Thomsen's parameters are required for stability. The linearized expression may provide useful application for parameter estimation in orthorhombic media.

  3. Validity of the Stokes-Einstein relation in liquids: simple rules from the excess entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasturel, A; Jakse, N

    2016-12-07

    It is becoming common practice to consider that the Stokes-Einstein relation D/T~ η -1 usually works for liquids above their melting temperatures although there is also experimental evidence for its failure. Here we investigate numerically this commonly-invoked assumption for simple liquid metals as well as for their liquid alloys. Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations we show how entropy scaling relationships developed by Rosenfeld can be used to predict the conditions for the validity of the Stokes-Einstein relation in the liquid phase. Specifically, we demonstrate the Stokes-Einstein relation may break down in the liquid phase of some liquid alloys mainly due to the presence of local structural ordering as evidenced in their partial two-body excess entropies. Our findings shed new light on the understanding of transport properties of liquid materials and will trigger more experimental and theoretical studies since excess entropy and its two-body approximation are readily obtainable from standard experiments and simulations.

  4. Modeling patterns in data using linear and related models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    This report considers the use of linear models for analyzing data related to reliability and safety issues of the type usually associated with nuclear power plants. The report discusses some of the general results of linear regression analysis, such as the model assumptions and properties of the estimators of the parameters. The results are motivated with examples of operational data. Results about the important case of a linear regression model with one covariate are covered in detail. This case includes analysis of time trends. The analysis is applied with two different sets of time trend data. Diagnostic procedures and tests for the adequacy of the model are discussed. Some related methods such as weighted regression and nonlinear models are also considered. A discussion of the general linear model is also included. Appendix A gives some basic SAS programs and outputs for some of the analyses discussed in the body of the report. Appendix B is a review of some of the matrix theoretic results which are useful in the development of linear models

  5. Relative controllability and null controllability of linear delay systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are established for the relative, absolute controllability and null controllability of the generalized linear delay system and its discrete prototype. The paper presents illuminating examples on previous controllability results by Manitius and Olbrot [7] and carries over the results of Onwuatu [8] ...

  6. Dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Dobrowolny, M [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleaire, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Plasma Spazio

    1975-12-15

    A numerical study is presented of the dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves in a cold electron plasma. The nonlinear effects introduced by the relativistic motion of electrons are: (1) the dispersion relation depends explicitly on the field strength ..cap alpha..=eE/sub 0//mc..omega../sub 0/, and (2) the propagation of modes with frequencies below the formal electron plasma frequency is allowed.

  7. Relative Importance for Linear Regression in R: The Package relaimpo

    OpenAIRE

    Groemping, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    Relative importance is a topic that has seen a lot of interest in recent years, particularly in applied work. The R package relaimpo implements six different metrics for assessing relative importance of regressors in the linear model, two of which are recommended - averaging over orderings of regressors and a newly proposed metric (Feldman 2005) called pmvd. Apart from delivering the metrics themselves, relaimpo also provides (exploratory) bootstrap confidence intervals. This paper offers a b...

  8. Relative risk for cardiovascular atherosclerotic events after smoking cessation: 6–9 years excess risk in individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelein John JP

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking history is often di- or trichotomized into for example "never, ever or current smoking". However, smoking must be treated as a time-dependent covariate when lifetime data is available. In particular, individuals do not smoke at birth, there is usually a wide variation with respect to smoking history, and smoking cessation must also be considered. Methods Therefore we analyzed smoking as a time-dependent risk factor for cardiovascular atherosclerotic events in a cohort of 2400 individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia who were followed from birth until 2004. Excess risk after smoking-cessation was modelled in a Cox regression model with linear and exponential decaying trends. The model with the highest likelihood value was used to estimate the decay of the excess risk of smoking. Results Atherosclerotic events were observed in 779 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and 1569 individuals had a smoking history. In the model with the highest likelihood value the risk reduction of smoking after cessation follows a linear pattern with time and it appears to take 6 to 9 years before the excess risk is reduced to zero. The risk of atherosclerotic events due to smoking was estimated as 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.5; 2.9. Conclusion It was concluded that excess risk due to smoking declined linearly after cessation in at least six to nine years.

  9. Relative Importance for Linear Regression in R: The Package relaimpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Gromping

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Relative importance is a topic that has seen a lot of interest in recent years, particularly in applied work. The R package relaimpo implements six different metrics for assessing relative importance of regressors in the linear model, two of which are recommended - averaging over orderings of regressors and a newly proposed metric (Feldman 2005 called pmvd. Apart from delivering the metrics themselves, relaimpo also provides (exploratory bootstrap confidence intervals. This paper offers a brief tutorial introduction to the package. The methods and relaimpo’s functionality are illustrated using the data set swiss that is generally available in R. The paper targets readers who have a basic understanding of multiple linear regression. For the background of more advanced aspects, references are provided.

  10. A linearized dispersion relation for orthorhombic pseudo-acoustic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xiaolei

    2012-11-04

    Wavefield extrapolation in acoustic orthorhombic anisotropic media suffers from wave-mode coupling and stability limitations in the parameter range. We introduce a linearized form of the dispersion relation for acoustic orthorhombic media to model acoustic wavefields. We apply the lowrank approximation approach to handle the corresponding space-wavenumber mixed-domain operator. Numerical experiments show that the proposed wavefield extrapolator is accurate and practically free of dispersions. Further, there is no coupling of qSv and qP waves, because we use the analytical dispersion relation. No constraints on Thomsen\\'s parameters are required for stability. The linearized expression may provide useful application for parameter estimation in orthorhombic media.

  11. [Relations between biomedical variables: mathematical analysis or linear algebra?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucher, M; Berlie, J; Brunet, M

    1977-01-01

    The authors, after a short reminder of one pattern's structure, stress on the possible double approach of relations uniting the variables of this pattern: use of fonctions, what is within the mathematical analysis sphere, use of linear algebra profiting by matricial calculation's development and automatiosation. They precise the respective interests on these methods, their bounds and the imperatives for utilization, according to the kind of variables, of data, and the objective for work, understanding phenomenons or helping towards decision.

  12. Canonical perturbation theory in linearized general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, R.; Pavlenko, Yu.G.

    1986-01-01

    Canonical perturbation theory in linearized general relativity theory is developed. It is shown that the evolution of arbitrary dynamic value, conditioned by the interaction of particles, gravitation and electromagnetic fields, can be presented in the form of a series, each member of it corresponding to the contribution of certain spontaneous or induced process. The main concepts of the approach are presented in the approximation of a weak gravitational field

  13. Influences of optical-spectrum errors on excess relative intensity noise in a fiber-optic gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Chunxi; Li, Lijing

    2018-03-01

    The excess relative intensity noise (RIN) generated from broadband sources degrades the angular-random-walk performance of a fiber-optic gyroscope dramatically. Many methods have been proposed and managed to suppress the excess RIN. However, the properties of the excess RIN under the influences of different optical errors in the fiber-optic gyroscope have not been systematically investigated. Therefore, it is difficult for the existing RIN-suppression methods to achieve the optimal results in practice. In this work, the influences of different optical-spectrum errors on the power spectral density of the excess RIN are theoretically analyzed. In particular, the properties of the excess RIN affected by the raised-cosine-type ripples in the optical spectrum are elaborately investigated. Experimental measurements of the excess RIN corresponding to different optical-spectrum errors are in good agreement with our theoretical analysis, demonstrating its validity. This work provides a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the excess RIN under the influences of different optical-spectrum errors. Potentially, it can be utilized to optimize the configurations of the existing RIN-suppression methods by accurately evaluating the power spectral density of the excess RIN.

  14. An exact linear dispersion relation for CRM instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choyal, Y; Minami, K

    2011-01-01

    An exact self-consistent linear dispersion relation of a large orbit electron beam including two principles of cyclotron emission with oscillation frequencies above and below the relativistic electron frequency is derived and analyzed numerically for the first time in the literature. The two principles are cyclotron resonance maser (CRM) instability and Cherenkov instability in the azimuthal direction. Self-consistency in the formulation and inclusion of proper boundary conditions have removed the unphysical instability existing for infinitely large k z observed in conventional dispersion relations of CRM instability.

  15. Projections of temperature-related excess mortality under climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparrini, Antonio; Guo, Yuming; Sera, Francesco; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana Maria; Huber, Veronika; Tong, Shilu; de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Micheline; Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilario; Lavigne, Eric; Matus Correa, Patricia; Valdes Ortega, Nicolas; Kan, Haidong; Osorio, Samuel; Kyselý, Jan; Urban, Aleš; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Ryti, Niilo R I; Pascal, Mathilde; Goodman, Patrick G; Zeka, Ariana; Michelozzi, Paola; Scortichini, Matteo; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Hurtado-Diaz, Magali; Cesar Cruz, Julio; Seposo, Xerxes; Kim, Ho; Tobias, Aurelio; Iñiguez, Carmen; Forsberg, Bertil; Åström, Daniel Oudin; Ragettli, Martina S; Guo, Yue Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel; Bell, Michelle L; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Van, Dung Do; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Hajat, Shakoor; Haines, Andy; Armstrong, Ben

    2017-12-01

    Climate change can directly affect human health by varying exposure to non-optimal outdoor temperature. However, evidence on this direct impact at a global scale is limited, mainly due to issues in modelling and projecting complex and highly heterogeneous epidemiological relationships across different populations and climates. We collected observed daily time series of mean temperature and mortality counts for all causes or non-external causes only, in periods ranging from Jan 1, 1984, to Dec 31, 2015, from various locations across the globe through the Multi-Country Multi-City Collaborative Research Network. We estimated temperature-mortality relationships through a two-stage time series design. We generated current and future daily mean temperature series under four scenarios of climate change, determined by varying trajectories of greenhouse gas emissions, using five general circulation models. We projected excess mortality for cold and heat and their net change in 1990-2099 under each scenario of climate change, assuming no adaptation or population changes. Our dataset comprised 451 locations in 23 countries across nine regions of the world, including 85 879 895 deaths. Results indicate, on average, a net increase in temperature-related excess mortality under high-emission scenarios, although with important geographical differences. In temperate areas such as northern Europe, east Asia, and Australia, the less intense warming and large decrease in cold-related excess would induce a null or marginally negative net effect, with the net change in 2090-99 compared with 2010-19 ranging from -1·2% (empirical 95% CI -3·6 to 1·4) in Australia to -0·1% (-2·1 to 1·6) in east Asia under the highest emission scenario, although the decreasing trends would reverse during the course of the century. Conversely, warmer regions, such as the central and southern parts of America or Europe, and especially southeast Asia, would experience a sharp surge in heat-related

  16. General Deficit in Inhibitory Control of Excessive Smartphone Users: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingwei; Liang, Yunsi; Mai, Chunmiao; Zhong, Xiyun; Qu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral, and smartphone-related), the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology [event-related potentials (ERPs)] to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal use group. Results showed that participants in both groups had larger amplitude of N2 and P3 on NoGo trials than Go trials. NoGo N2, an ERP component associated with inhibitory control, was more negative in the excessive smartphone use group than the normal use group. These results suggest that in the early stage of inhibition processing, excessive smartphone users experience more conflicts and show a general deficit that does not depend on smartphone-related cues. Moreover, the study provides further neuroscience evidence of the physiological correlates of excessive smartphone use. PMID:27148120

  17. General deficit in inhibitory control of excessive smartphone users: Evidence from an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei eChen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral and smartphone-related, the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology (event-related potentials, ERPs to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal use group. Results showed that participants in both groups had larger amplitude of N2 and P3 on NoGo trials than Go trials. NoGo N2, an ERP component associated with inhibitory control, was more negative in the excessive smartphone use group than the normal use group. These results suggest that in the early stage of inhibition processing, excessive smartphone users experience more conflicts and show a general deficit that does not depend on smartphone-related cues. Moreover, the study provides further neuroscience evidence of the physiological correlates of excessive smartphone use.

  18. Relating Reasoning Methodologies in Linear Logic and Process Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Deng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that the proof-theoretic notion of logical preorder coincides with the process-theoretic notion of contextual preorder for a CCS-like calculus obtained from the formula-as-process interpretation of a fragment of linear logic. The argument makes use of other standard notions in process algebra, namely a labeled transition system and a coinductively defined simulation relation. This result establishes a connection between an approach to reason about process specifications and a method to reason about logic specifications.

  19. Relatively Inexact Proximal Point Algorithm and Linear Convergence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram U. Verma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a notion of relatively maximal (m-relaxed monotonicity, the approximation solvability of a general class of inclusion problems is discussed, while generalizing Rockafellar's theorem (1976 on linear convergence using the proximal point algorithm in a real Hilbert space setting. Convergence analysis, based on this new model, is simpler and compact than that of the celebrated technique of Rockafellar in which the Lipschitz continuity at 0 of the inverse of the set-valued mapping is applied. Furthermore, it can be used to generalize the Yosida approximation, which, in turn, can be applied to first-order evolution equations as well as evolution inclusions.

  20. Assessment of Excess Sludge Ultrasonic, Mechanical and Hybrid Pretreatment in Relation to the Energy Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Skórkowski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is the most common stabilization process at large sewage treatment plants. To improve its effects, a sludge pre-conditioning process called disintegration is recommended. The aim of the presented study was to compare the direct effects of various types of mechanical disintegration, performed for the same excess sludge, in relation to the energy parameters and effectiveness of the process. Four different disintegration methods were used: mechanical disintegration in semi-technical and laboratory scale homogenizing mixers, ultrasonic disintegration (US and combined (hybrid process. The disintegration was performed for volumetric energy EV = 4.67–100 kWh m−3, the results were evaluated based on dispersion (kdCOD, kdCST, lysis (kdSCOD, acidification (kdVFA and nutrient release (kdTN, kdTP disintegration indicators. The statistical analysis of the results indicates the influence of disintegrator type (mixer/US/hybrid, scale (laboratory/semi-technical and energy input on the direct results of disintegration. Hybrid disintegration delivered better direct results than two pre-treatment processes used separately. The efficiency of the hybrid process defined as the increase of the indicator (disintegration products—∆FCOD, ∆SCOD per unit of energy was considerably higher than for a single stage disintegration process.

  1. Excess mortality in treated and untreated hyperthyroidism is related to cumulative periods of low serum TSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillevang-Johansen, Mads; Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Aim: Cumulative time-dependent excess mortality in hyperthyroid patients has been suggested. However, the effect of anti-thyroid treatment on mortality, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism remains unclarified. We investigated the association between hyperthyroidism and mort...

  2. Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, T.F.; Ng, M.; Wan, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    We consider using Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)} for 1 {le} i {le} s, where A{sup (i)} and b{sup (i)} are different in general. We start with the special case where A{sup (i)} = A and A is symmetric positive definite. The method generates a Krylov subspace from a set of direction vectors obtained by solving one of the systems, called the seed system, by the CG method and then projects the residuals of other systems orthogonally onto the generated Krylov subspace to get the approximate solutions. The whole process is repeated with another unsolved system as a seed until all the systems are solved. We observe in practice a super-convergence behaviour of the CG process of the seed system when compared with the usual CG process. We also observe that only a small number of restarts is required to solve all the systems if the right-hand sides are close to each other. These two features together make the method particularly effective. In this talk, we give theoretical proof to justify these observations. Furthermore, we combine the advantages of this method and the block CG method and propose a block extension of this single seed method. The above procedure can actually be modified for solving multiple linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)}, where A{sup (i)} are now different. We can also extend the previous analytical results to this more general case. Applications of this method to multiple related linear systems arising from image restoration and recursive least squares computations are considered as examples.

  3. Relative null controllability of linear systems with multiple delays in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    varying multiple delays in state and control are developed. If the uncontrolled system is uniformly asymptotically stable, and if the linear system is controllable, then the linear system is null controllable. Journal of the Nigerian Association of ...

  4. New Inequalities and Uncertainty Relations on Linear Canonical Transform Revisit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guanlei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty principle plays an important role in mathematics, physics, signal processing, and so on. Firstly, based on definition of the linear canonical transform (LCT and the traditional Pitt's inequality, one novel Pitt's inequality in the LCT domains is obtained, which is connected with the LCT parameters a and b. Then one novel logarithmic uncertainty principle is derived from this novel Pitt's inequality in the LCT domains, which is associated with parameters of the two LCTs. Secondly, from the relation between the original function and LCT, one entropic uncertainty principle and one Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in the LCT domains are derived, which are associated with the LCT parameters a and b. The reason why the three lower bounds are only associated with LCT parameters a and b and independent of c and d is presented. The results show it is possible that the bounds tend to zeros.

  5. Linear rate-equilibrium relations arising from ion channel-bilayer energetic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Per Junior; Lum, Kevin; Ashrafuzzaman, Md

    2011-01-01

    Linear rate-equilibrium (RE) relations, also known as linear free energy relations, are widely observed in chemical reactions, including protein folding, enzymatic catalysis, and channel gating. Despite the widespread occurrence of linear RE relations, the principles underlying the linear relatio...

  6. Depression, materialism, and excessive Internet use in relation to compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; Peterson, Lisa A; Faber, Ronald J; Steffen, Kristine J; Crosby, Ross D; Claes, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), depression, materialism, and excessive Internet use. An online survey of 387 consumers was conducted including questions about demographics and shopping venues, the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale, the Materialistic Values Scale, and questions concerning excessive Internet use. Seventeen percent of the participants reported Compulsive Buying Scale scores less than -1.34 and were considered to be having CB. Participants with CB did not significantly differ from those without CB regarding age, sex, marital status, annual household income, and shopping preferences. Individuals with CB reported more depressive symptoms, higher materialistic values endorsement, and more severe excessive Internet use compared with those without CB. Results of a stepwise logistic regression analysis with CB as the dependent variable showed that materialism and depression were associated with CB, whereas excessive Internet use was not. Materialism and depression jointly influence CB. Further research is needed to examine the influence of materialism on CB in a clinical sample consisting of patients with diagnosed CB. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inappropriate and Excessive Guilt: Instrument Validation and Developmental Differences in Relation to Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilghman-Osborne, Carlos; Cole, David A.; Felton, Julia W.

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate or excessive guilt is listed as a symptom of depression by the American Psychiatric Association ("1994"). Although many measures of guilt have been developed, definitional and operational problems exist, especially in the application of such measures in childhood and adolescence. To address these problems, the current study…

  8. Effectiveness of policies maintaining or restricting days of alcohol sales on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  10. Excess lead in the neural retina in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erie, Jay C; Good, Jonathan A; Butz, John A

    2009-12-01

    To measure lead and cadmium in retinal tissues of human donor eyes with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Laboratory investigation. Lead and cadmium concentrations in retinal tissues (neural retina and retinal pigment epithelium [RPE]-choroid complex) in 25 subjects with AMD (50 donor eyes) and 36 normal subjects (72 donor eyes) were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Severity of AMD was graded by using color fundus photographs and the Minnesota Grading System. Differences in metal concentrations were compared by using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. The neural retinas of subjects with AMD had increased lead concentrations (median, 12.0 ng/g; 25% to 75% interquartile range, 8 to 18 ng/g; n = 25) compared with normal subjects (median, 8.0 ng/g; 25% to 75% interquartile range, 0 to 11 ng/g; P = .04; n = 36). There was no difference in lead concentration in the RPE-choroid complex between subjects with AMD (median, 198 ng/g; 25% to 75% interquartile range, 87 to 381 ng/g) and normal subjects (median, 172 ng/g; 25% to 75% interquartile range, 100 to 288 ng/g; P = .25). Cadmium concentration in the neural retina (median, 0.9 microg/g; 25% to 75% interquartile range, 0.7 to 1.8 microg/g) and RPE-choroid complex (median, 2.2 microg/g; 25% to 75% interquartile range, 1.8 to 3.7 microg/g) in subjects with AMD was not different from concentrations in the neural retina (median, 0.9 microg/g; 25% to 75% interquartile range, 0.7 to 1.4 microg/g; P = .32) and RPE-choroid complex (median, 1.5 microg/g; 25% to 75% interquartile range, 0.9 to 2.5 microg/g; P = .12) of normal subjects. AMD is associated with excess lead in the neural retina, and this relationship suggests that metal homeostasis in AMD eyes is different from normal.

  11. Excessive growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Vasudha; Rettig, Kenneth R; Bhowmick, Samar K

    2008-09-01

    Tall stature and excessive growth syndrome are a relatively rare concern in pediatric practice. Nevertheless, it is important to identify abnormal accelerated growth patterns in children, which may be the clue in the diagnosis of an underlying disorder. We present a case of pituitary gigantism in a 2 1/2-year-old child and discuss the signs, symptoms, laboratory findings, and the treatment. Brief discussions on the differential diagnosis of excessive growth/tall stature have been outlined. Pituitary gigantism is very rare in the pediatrics age group; however, it is extremely rare in a child that is less than 3 years of age. The nature of pituitary adenoma and treatment options in children with this condition have also been discussed.

  12. A method for determining weights for excess relative risk and excess absolute risk when applied in the calculation of lifetime risk of cancer from radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Linda [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Oberschleissheim (Germany); University of Manchester, The Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Schneider, Uwe [University of Zurich, Vetsuisse Faculty, Zurich (Switzerland); Radiotherapy Hirslanden AG, Aarau (Switzerland)

    2013-03-15

    Radiation-related risks of cancer can be transported from one population to another population at risk, for the purpose of calculating lifetime risks from radiation exposure. Transfer via excess relative risks (ERR) or excess absolute risks (EAR) or a mixture of both (i.e., from the life span study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors) has been done in the past based on qualitative weighting. Consequently, the values of the weights applied and the method of application of the weights (i.e., as additive or geometric weighted means) have varied both between reports produced at different times by the same regulatory body and also between reports produced at similar times by different regulatory bodies. Since the gender and age patterns are often markedly different between EAR and ERR models, it is useful to have an evidence-based method for determining the relative goodness of fit of such models to the data. This paper identifies a method, using Akaike model weights, which could aid expert judgment and be applied to help to achieve consistency of approach and quantitative evidence-based results in future health risk assessments. The results of applying this method to recent LSS cancer incidence models are that the relative EAR weighting by cancer solid cancer site, on a scale of 0-1, is zero for breast and colon, 0.02 for all solid, 0.03 for lung, 0.08 for liver, 0.15 for thyroid, 0.18 for bladder and 0.93 for stomach. The EAR weighting for female breast cancer increases from 0 to 0.3, if a generally observed change in the trend between female age-specific breast cancer incidence rates and attained age, associated with menopause, is accounted for in the EAR model. Application of this method to preferred models from a study of multi-model inference from many models fitted to the LSS leukemia mortality data, results in an EAR weighting of 0. From these results it can be seen that lifetime risk transfer is most highly weighted by EAR only for stomach cancer. However

  13. Low energy IceCube data and a possible Dark Matter related excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianese, M., E-mail: chianese@na.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Ettore Pancini, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Miele, G.; Morisi, S. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Ettore Pancini, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Vitagliano, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Ettore Pancini, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2016-06-10

    In this Letter we focus our attention on the IceCube events in the energy range between 60 and 100 TeV, which show an order 2-sigma excess with respect to a power-law with spectral index 2. We analyze the possible origin of such an excess by comparing the distribution of the arrival directions of IceCube events with the angular distributions of simply distributed astrophysical galactic/extragalactic sources, as well as with the expected flux coming from DM interactions (decay and annihilation) for different DM profiles. The statistical analysis performed seems to disfavor the correlation with the galactic plane, whereas rules out the DM annihilation scenario only in case of small clumpiness effect. The small statistics till now collected does not allow to scrutinize the cases of astrophysical isotropic distribution and DM decay scenarios. For this reason we perform a forecast analysis in order to stress the role of future Neutrino Telescopes.

  14. Television food advertisement exposure and FTO rs9939609 genotype in relation to excess consumption in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Diamond, D; Emond, J A; Lansigan, R K; Rapuano, K M; Kelley, W M; Heatherton, T F; Sargent, J D

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to food advertisements may cue overeating among children, especially among those genetically predisposed to respond to food cues. We aimed to assess how television food advertisements affect eating in the absence of hunger among children in a randomized trial. We hypothesized that the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism would modify the effect of food advertisements. In this randomized experiment, 200 children aged 9-10 years were served a standardized lunch and then shown a 34-min television show embedded with either food or toy advertisements. Children were provided with snack food to consume ad libitum while watching the show and we measured caloric intake. Children were genotyped for rs9939609 and analyses were conducted in the overall sample and stratified by genotype. A formal test for interaction of the food advertisement effect on consumption by rs9939609 was conducted. About 172 unrelated participants were included in this analysis. Children consumed on average 453 (s.d.=185) kcals during lunch and 482 (s.d.=274) kcals during the experimental exposure. Children who viewed food advertisements consumed an average of 48 kcals (95% confidence interval: 10, 85; P=0.01) more of a recently advertised food than those who viewed toy advertisements. There was a statistically significant interaction between genotype and food advertisement condition (P for interaction=0.02), where the difference in consumption of a recently advertised food related to food advertisement exposure increased linearly with each additional FTO risk allele, even after controlling for body mass index percentile. Food advertisement exposure was associated with greater caloric consumption of a recently advertised food, and this effect was modified by an FTO genotype. Future research is needed to understand the neurological mechanism underlying these associations.

  15. Improvements in or relating to devices for conducting excess heat away from heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to radioisotope powered heat engines. Should such an engine stop working for any reason the radioisotope heat source will continue to generate heat, and this may cause overheating and possible damage to the engine as well as the heat source. A device is described for conducting excess heat from the heat source to a heat sink but which in normal operation of the engine will impede heat conduction and so reduce thermal losses. The device may be used to support and/or locate the heat source. Constructional and operational details are given. (U.K.)

  16. Analysis of Gambling in the Media Related to Screens: Immersion as a Predictor of Excessive Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémond, Jean-Jacques; Romo, Lucia

    2018-01-02

    This study investigates the intricacies between the player interface proposed by the screens, (in particular on smartphone applications or in video games) and gambling. Recent research indicates connections between "immersion" and excessive screen practice. We want to understand the causal-effects between online gambling and the "immersion" variable and understand their relationship and its contingencies. This article empirically investigates whether and how it is possible to observe immersion with its sub-dimensions in gambling on different screens. The objective of this study was to analyze: (1) the costs and benefits associated with gambling practice on screens (2) the link between gambling practice and screen practice (video game, Internet, mobile screen); (3) to observe the propensity to immersion for individuals practicing gambling on screens; and (4) to examine the comorbidities and cognitive factors associated with the practice of gambling on screen. A total of 432 adults (212 men, 220 women), recruited from Ile-de-France (France), responded to a battery of questionnaires. Our study suggests that immersion variables make it possible to understand the cognitive participation of individuals towards screens in general, the practice of gambling on screens and the excessive practice of screens.

  17. Is the excess cardiovascular morbidity in pheochromocytoma related to blood pressure or to catecholamines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Roeland F; Bakx, Carel; Mulder, Jan; Timmers, Henri J L M; Lenders, Jacques W M

    2013-03-01

    It is generally accepted that pheochromocytoma is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. This is however not based on studies with an appropriate control group of patients with essential hypertension. We examined whether patients with pheochromocytoma have an excess cardiovascular morbidity as compared to hypertensive patients. In a retrospective case-control study we reviewed the medical charts of 109 pheochromocytoma patients for cardiovascular events within 5 years prior to the diagnosis. These patients were matched to control patients with essential hypertension for gender and year of birth and diagnosis. Outcome variables were ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular accidents, and transient ischemic attacks. Classical cardiovascular risk factors were also assessed. A significantly higher rate of patients with pheochromocytoma suffered a cardiovascular event (13.8%; 95% confidence interval: 7.9%-21.6%) as compared to hypertensive patients (1.1%, 95% confidence interval: 0.1%-3.9%) (P risk factors. Pheochromocytoma patients have a clearly higher rate of cardiovascular events than patients with essential hypertension. This cannot be attributed to differences in blood pressure or other cardiovascular risk factors. The most likely explanation for the excess event rate is the prolonged exposure to the toxic effects of tumoral catecholamines. These data underpin the importance of a timely diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma.

  18. Effects of alcohol retail privatization on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms: a community guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci L; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Lawrence, Briana; Campbell, Carla Alexia

    2012-04-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is the third-leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. This systematic review is one in a series exploring effectiveness of interventions to reduce alcohol-related harms. The focus of this review was on studies evaluating the effects of the privatization of alcohol retail sales on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Using Community Guide methods for conducting systematic reviews, a systematic search was conducted in multiple databases up to December 2010. Reference lists of acquired articles and review papers were also scanned for additional studies. A total of 17 studies assessed the impact of privatizing retail alcohol sales on the per capita alcohol consumption, a well-established proxy for excessive alcohol consumption; 9 of these studies also examined the effects of privatization on the per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages that were not privatized. One cohort study in Finland assessed the impact of privatizing the sales of medium-strength beer (MSB) on self-reported alcohol consumption. One study in Sweden assessed the impact of re-monopolizing the sale of MSB on alcohol-related harms. Across the 17 studies, there was a 44.4% median increase in the per capita sales of privatized beverages in locations that privatized retail alcohol sales (interquartile interval: 4.5% to 122.5%). During the same time period, sales of nonprivatized alcoholic beverages decreased by a median of 2.2% (interquartile interval: -6.6% to -0.1%). Privatizing the sale of MSB in Finland was associated with a mean increase in alcohol consumption of 1.7 liters of pure alcohol per person per year. Re-monopolization of the sale of MSB in Sweden was associated with a general reduction in alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, there is strong evidence that privatization of retail alcohol sales leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Excess Mortality in Treated and Untreated Hyperthyroidism Is Related to Cumulative Periods of Low Serum TSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillevang-Johansen, Mads; Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative time-dependent excess mortality in hyperthyroid patients has been suggested. However, the effect of antithyroid treatment on mortality, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism, remains unclarified. We investigated the association between hyperthyroidism and mortality in both treated and untreated hyperthyroid individuals. Register-based cohort study of 235,547 individuals who had at least one serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement in the period 1995 to 2011 (7.3 years median follow-up). Hyperthyroidism was defined as at least two measurements of low serum TSH. Mortality rates for treated and untreated hyperthyroid subjects compared with euthyroid controls were calculated using multivariate Cox regression analyses, controlling for age, sex, and comorbidities. Cumulative periods of decreased serum TSH were analyzed as a time-dependent covariate. Hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was increased in untreated [1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12 to 1.37; P hyperthyroid patients. When including cumulative periods of TSH in the Cox regression analyses, HR for mortality per every 6 months of decreased TSH was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.13; P hyperthyroid patients (n = 1137) and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.15; P hyperthyroidism, respectively. Mortality is increased in hyperthyroidism. Cumulative periods of decreased TSH increased mortality in both treated and untreated hyperthyroidism, implying that excess mortality may not be driven by lack of therapy, but rather inability to keep patients euthyroid. Meticulous follow-up during treatment to maintain biochemical euthyroidism may be warranted. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  20. Excess relative risk for solid cancer mortality during prolonged exposure to high-background natural radiation in Yangjiang area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Quanfu; Tao Zufan; Yuan Yongling; Zou Jianming; Cha Yongru; Jian Yuannu; Wei Luxin; Akiba, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the excess relative risk for solid cancer associated with chronically exposure to high-background natural radiation in Yangjiang area of China. Methods: Based on hamlet-specific environmental doses and sex-and age-specific occupancy factors, the authors calculated cumulative doses for each cohort member. Assuming a linear dose response relationship and using cancer mortality data for the period 1979-1995 and Poisson model, the authors estimated the excess relative risk (ERR) for solid cancer. Results: The ERR per Sv of all solid cancer is estimated to be -0.11 (95% CI, -0.67, 0.69 to 95%). The corresponding figures for cancers of liver, nasopharynx, lungs and stomach are -0.99 (-1.60, 0.10), 0.10 (-1.21, 3.28), -0.68 (-1.58, 1.66) and -0.27 (-1.37, 2.69) respectively. Conclusion: The association between ERR of solid cancer and dose can not be found

  1. Production of Excess CO2 relative to methane in peatlands: a new H2 sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Varner, R. K.; Tyson, G. W.; Tfaily, M. M.; Sebestyen, S.; Saleska, S. R.; Rogers, K.; Rich, V. I.; McFarlane, K. J.; Kostka, J. E.; Kolka, R. K.; Keller, J.; Iversen, C. M.; Hodgkins, S. B.; Hanson, P. J.; Guilderson, T. P.; Griffiths, N.; de La Cruz, F.; Crill, P. M.; Chanton, J.; Bridgham, S. D.; Barlaz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Methane is generated as the end product of anaerobic organic matter degradation following a series of reaction pathways including fermentation and syntrophy. Along with acetate and CO2, syntrophic reactions generate H2 and are only thermodynamically feasible when coupled to an exothermic reaction that consumes H2. The usual model of organic matter degradation in peatlands has assumed that methanogenesis is that exothermic H2-consuming reaction. If correct, this paradigm should ultimately result in equimolar production of CO2 and methane from the degradation of the model organic compound cellulose: i.e. C6H12O6 à 3CO2 + 3CH4. However, dissolved gas measurement and modeling results from field and incubation experiments spanning peatlands across the northern hemisphere have failed to demonstrate equimolar production of CO2 and methane. Instead, in a flagrant violation of thermodynamics, these studies show a large bias favoring CO2 production over methane generation. In this talk, we will use an array of complementary analytical techniques including FT-IR, cellulose and lignin measurements, 13C-NMR, fluorescence spectroscopy, and ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry to describe organic matter degradation within a peat column and identify the important degradation mechanisms. Hydrogenation was the most common transformation observed in the ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry data. From these results we propose a new mechanism for consuming H2 generated during CO2 production, without concomitant methane formation, consistent with observed high CO2/CH4 ratios. While homoacetogenesis is a known sink for H2 in these systems, this process also consumes CO2 and therefore does not explain the excess CO2 measured in field and incubation samples. Not only does the newly proposed mechanism consume H2 without generating methane, but it also yields enough energy to balance the coupled syntrophic reactions, thereby restoring thermodynamic order. Schematic of organic matter

  2. Excessive red and processed meat intake: relations with health and environment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Aline Martins de; Selem, Soraya Sant'ana de Castro; Miranda, Andreia Machado; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2016-06-01

    The aims of the present study were to verify the proportion of population that consumed more red and processed meat than the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) dietary recommendation, to estimate the environmental impact of beef intake and the possible reduction of greenhouse gas emissions if the dietary recommendation was followed. We used the largest, cross-sectional, population-based survey entitled the National Dietary Survey (34 003 participants aged 10-104 years). The usual meat intake was obtained by two food records completed on 2 non-consecutive days. The usual intake was estimated by the multiple source method. The environmental impact was analysed according to estimates of CO2 equivalent emissions from beef intake as a proxy for beef production in Brazil. The red and processed meat intake mean was 88 g/d. More than 80 % of the population consumed more red and processed meat than the WCRF recommendation. Beef was the type of meat most consumed, accounting to almost 50 %. Each person contributed 1005 kg of CO2 equivalents from beef intake in 2008, the same quantity of CO2 produced if a car travelled a distance between the extreme north and south of Brazil (5370 km). The entire Brazilian population contributed more than 191 million tons of CO2 equivalents, which could have been reduced to more than 131 million tons if the dietary recommendation was followed. The present study shows that the magnitude of the excessive red and processed meat intake in Brazil can impact on health and the environment, pointing to the urgency of promoting a sustainable diet.

  3. Relating Cohesive Zone Model to Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The conditions required for a cohesive zone model (CZM) to predict a failure load of a cracked structure similar to that obtained by a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis are investigated in this paper. This study clarifies why many different phenomenological cohesive laws can produce similar fracture predictions. Analytical results for five cohesive zone models are obtained, using five different cohesive laws that have the same cohesive work rate (CWR-area under the traction-separation curve) but different maximum tractions. The effect of the maximum traction on the predicted cohesive zone length and the remote applied load at fracture is presented. Similar to the small scale yielding condition for an LEFM analysis to be valid. the cohesive zone length also needs to be much smaller than the crack length. This is a necessary condition for a CZM to obtain a fracture prediction equivalent to an LEFM result.

  4. Excessive Progression in Weekly Running Distance and Risk of Running-related Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.O.; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    Study Design An explorative, 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury varies according to injury type. Background It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance...... is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. Methods A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners who started a self-structured running regimen were provided a global-positioning-system watch. After each running session during the study...... period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups, based on the progression of their weekly running distance: less than 10% or regression, 10% to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. Results A total of 202 runners sustained a running...

  5. Uncertainty relations, zero point energy and the linear canonical group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, E. C. G.

    1993-01-01

    The close relationship between the zero point energy, the uncertainty relations, coherent states, squeezed states, and correlated states for one mode is investigated. This group-theoretic perspective enables the parametrization and identification of their multimode generalization. In particular the generalized Schroedinger-Robertson uncertainty relations are analyzed. An elementary method of determining the canonical structure of the generalized correlated states is presented.

  6. Technology-related transformations of imaginary body boundaries: Psychopathology of the everyday excessive Internet and mobile phone use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelin V. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. In line with the approach of Larkin et al. (2006, we consider technological dependence in the context of the interaction between personality, environment, and culture. Objective. The aim of this study is to discover technology-related changes in psycho- logical needs and boundaries that could mediate the relationship between psychopathological symptoms and indicators of excessive use of info-communication technologies (ICT. The application of the Body Function Regulation Model to the use of ICT suggests that technology-related changes in the system of an individual’s needs and psychological boundaries mediate the relationship between a sense of poor psychological well-being and the risk of technology dependence. Design. The study of a normative sample (N = 275 using two technologies–mobile phones and the Internet–was performed. Results and Discussion. We demonstrated that the relationship between the general level of psychopathological symptoms and excessive use of technology (subjective dependence and inability to refrain from use of mobile phones and the Internet is indeed mediated by the perception of their indispensability for extension of psychological boundaries, and (for the Internet its use in image-making.

  7. Review of relative biological effectiveness dependence on linear energy transfer for low-LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Nezahat; Muirhead, Colin R

    2009-01-01

    Information on Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to gamma radiation has been used to estimate cancer risks for the whole range of photon (x-rays) and electron energies which are commonly encountered by radiation workers in the work place or by patients and workers in diagnostic radiology. However, there is some uncertainty regarding the radiation effectiveness of various low-linear energy transfer (low-LET) radiations (x-rays, gamma radiation and electrons). In this paper we review information on the effectiveness of low-LET radiations on the basis of epidemiological and in vitro radiobiological studies. Data from various experimental studies for chromosome aberrations and cell transformation in human lymphocytes and from epidemiological studies of the Japanese A-bomb survivors, patients medically exposed to radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and occupational exposures of nuclear workers are considered. On the basis of in vitro cellular radiobiology, there is considerable evidence that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-energy low-LET radiation (gamma radiation, electrons) is less than that of low-energy low-LET radiation (x-rays, betas). This is a factor of about 3 to 4 for 29 kVp x-rays (e.g. as in diagnostic radiation exposures of the female breast) and for tritium beta-rays (encountered in parts of the nuclear industry) relative to Co-60 gamma radiation and 2-5 MeV gamma-rays (as received by the Japanese A-bomb survivors). In epidemiological studies, although for thyroid and breast cancer there appears to be a small tendency for the excess relative risks to decrease as the radiation energy increases for low-LET radiations, it is not statistically feasible to draw any conclusion regarding an underlying dependence of cancer risk on LET for the nominally low-LET radiations. (review)

  8. Overly long centrioles and defective cell division upon excess of the SAS-4-related protein CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmaier, Gregor; Loncarek, Jadranka; Meng, Xing; McEwen, Bruce F; Mogensen, Mette M; Spektor, Alexander; Dynlacht, Brian D; Khodjakov, Alexey; Gönczy, Pierre

    2009-06-23

    The centrosome is the principal microtubule organizing center (MTOC) of animal cells. Accurate centrosome duplication is fundamental for genome integrity and entails the formation of one procentriole next to each existing centriole, once per cell cycle. The procentriole then elongates to eventually reach the same size as the centriole. The mechanisms that govern elongation of the centriolar cylinder and their potential relevance for cell division are not known. Here, we show that the SAS-4-related protein CPAP is required for centrosome duplication in cycling human cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CPAP overexpression results in the formation of abnormally long centrioles. This also promotes formation of more than one procentriole in the vicinity of such overly long centrioles, eventually resulting in the presence of supernumerary MTOCs. This in turn leads to multipolar spindle assembly and cytokinesis defects. Overall, our findings suggest that centriole length must be carefully regulated to restrict procentriole number and thus ensure accurate cell division.

  9. Extrapolations of nuclear binding energies from new linear mass relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, D.; Jensen, A. S.; Riisager, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to extrapolate nuclear binding energies from known values for neighboring nuclei. We select four specific mass relations constructed to eliminate smooth variation of the binding energy as function nucleon numbers. The fast odd-even variations are avoided by comparing nuclei...

  10. Linking Excessive Heat with Daily Heat-Related Mortality over the Coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Crosson, William L.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, extreme heat is the most deadly weather-related hazard. In the face of a warming climate and urbanization, which contributes to local-scale urban heat islands, it is very likely that extreme heat events (EHEs) will become more common and more severe in the U.S. This research seeks to provide historical and future measures of climate-driven extreme heat events to enable assessments of the impacts of heat on public health over the coterminous U.S. We use atmospheric temperature and humidity information from meteorological reanalysis and from Global Climate Models (GCMs) to provide data on past and future heat events. The focus of research is on providing assessments of the magnitude, frequency and geographic distribution of extreme heat in the U.S. to facilitate public health studies. In our approach, long-term climate change is captured with GCM outputs, and the temporal and spatial characteristics of short-term extremes are represented by the reanalysis data. Two future time horizons for 2040 and 2090 are compared to the recent past period of 1981- 2000. We characterize regional-scale temperature and humidity conditions using GCM outputs for two climate change scenarios (A2 and A1B) defined in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). For each future period, 20 years of multi-model GCM outputs are analyzed to develop a 'heat stress climatology' based on statistics of extreme heat indicators. Differences between the two future and the past period are used to define temperature and humidity changes on a monthly time scale and regional spatial scale. These changes are combined with the historical meteorological data, which is hourly and at a spatial scale (12 km) much finer than that of GCMs, to create future climate realizations. From these realizations, we compute the daily heat stress measures and related spatially-specific climatological fields, such as the mean annual number of days above certain thresholds of maximum and minimum air

  11. Parents' perception of health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Melissa Maria Romero; Melo, Tatiana Rocha; Pinto, Rogério Melo Costa; Morales, Nívea Macedo Oliveira; Mendonça, Tânia Maria Silva; Paro, Helena Borges Martins da Silva; Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the perception of parents or caregivers on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity and possible factors associated with this perception. This was a cross-sectional study involving 297 caregivers of children and adolescents with normal weight (n=170) and with overweight/obesity (n=127), from public and private schools in the study municipality. HRQOL scores obtained through the Child Health Questionnaire - Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50) were compared according to the nutritional status and gender of the children/adolescents. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value of studied variables for the variation in HRQOL scores. Parents of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity attributed lower HRQOL scores to their children in the following domains: physical functioning (pnutritional status (β=-0.18; p≤0.01); emotional impact on parents, impact on parents' time (β=0.31; pchildren/adolescents with overweight/obesity was observed in the physical and psychosocial aspects. The nutritional status was the variable with the greatest contribution for the assessment the self-esteem of children and adolescents in this study. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Linear relations between leaf mass per area (LMA) and seasonal climate discovered through Linear Manifold Clustering (LMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, N. Y.; Haralick, R. M.; Diky, A.; Kattge, J.; Su, X.

    2016-12-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a critical variable in plant carbon allocation, correlates with leaf activity traits (photosynthetic activity, respiration), and is a controller of litterfall mass and hence carbon substrate for soil biogeochemistry. Recent advances in understanding the leaf economics spectrum (LES) show that LMA has a strong correlation with leaf life span, a trait that reflects ecological strategy, whereas physiological traits that control leaf activity scale with each other when mass-normalized (Osnas et al., 2013). These functional relations help reduce the number of independent variables in quantifying leaf traits. However, LMA is an independent variable that remains a challenge to specify in dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), when vegetation types are classified into a limited number of plant functional types (PFTs) without clear mechanistic drivers for LMA. LMA can range orders of magnitude across plant species, as well as vary within a single plant, both vertically and seasonally. As climate relations in combination with alternative ecological strategies have yet to be well identified for LMA, we have assembled 22,000 records of LMA spanning 0.004 - 33 mg/m2 from the numerous contributors to the TRY database (Kattge et al., 2011), with observations distributed over several climate zones and plant functional categories (growth form, leaf type, phenology). We present linear relations between LMA and climate variables, including seasonal temperature, precipitation, and radiation, as derived through Linear Manifold Clustering (LMC). LMC is a stochastic search technique for identifying linear dependencies between variables in high dimensional space. We identify a set of parsimonious classes of LMA-climate groups based on a metric of minimum description to identify structure in the data set, akin to data compression. The relations in each group are compared to Köppen-Geiger climate classes, with some groups revealing continuous linear relations

  13. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most common sleep-related patient symptoms, with preva-lence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness may exhibit life threatening road and work accidents, social maladjustment, decreased academic and occupational performance and have poorer health than comparable adults. Thus, excessive daytime sleepiness is a serious condition that requires investigation, diagnosis and treatment primarily. As with most medical condition, evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness begins a precise history and various objective and subjective tools have been also developed to assess excessive daytime sleepiness. The most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness are insufficient sleep hygiene, chronic sleep deprivation, medical and psychiatric conditions and sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea, medications, and narcolepsy. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity by ensuring good sleep hygiene. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 114-132

  14. Feasibility of a controlled trial aiming to prevent excessive pregnancy-related weight gain in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiderpass Elisabete

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention may predispose women to long-term overweight and other health problems. Intervention studies aiming at preventing excessive pregnancy-related weight gain are needed. The feasibility of implementing such a study protocol in primary health care setting was evaluated in this pilot study. Methods A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in three intervention and three control maternity and child health clinics in primary health care in Finland. Altogether, 132 pregnant and 92 postpartum women and 23 public health nurses (PHN participated in the study. The intervention consisted of individual counselling on physical activity and diet at five routine visits to a PHN and of an option for supervised group exercise until 37 weeks' gestation or ten months postpartum. The control clinics continued their usual care. The components of the feasibility evaluation were 1 recruitment and participation, 2 completion of data collection, 3 realization of the intervention and 4 the public health nurses' experiences. Results 1 The recruitment rate was slower than expected and the recruitment period had to be prolonged from the initially planned three months to six months. The average participation rate of eligible women at study enrolment was 77% and the drop-out rate 15%. 2 In total, 99% of the data on weight, physical activity and diet and 96% of the blood samples were obtained. 3 In the intervention clinics, 98% of the counselling sessions were realized, their contents and average durations were as intended, 87% of participants regularly completed the weekly records for physical activity and diet, and the average participation percentage in the group exercise sessions was 45%. 4 The PHNs regarded the extra training as a major advantage and the high additional workload as a disadvantage of the study. Conclusion The study protocol was mostly feasible to implement, which

  15. The density, the refractive index and the adjustment of the excess thermodynamic properties by means of the multiple linear regression method for the ternary system ethylbenzene–octane–propylbenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisa, C.; Ungureanu, M.; Cosmaţchi, P.C.; Bolat, G.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermodynamic properties of the ethylbenzene–octane–propylbenzene system. • Equations with much lower standard deviations in comparison with other models. • The prediction of the V E based on the refractive index by means of the MLR method. - Abstract: The density (ρ) and the refractive index (n) have been experimentally determined for the ethylbenzene (1)–octane (2)–propylbenzene (3) ternary system in the entire variation range of the composition, at three temperatures: 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15 K and pressure 0.1 MPa. The excess thermodynamic properties that had been calculated based on the experimental determinations have been used to build empirical models which, despite of the disadvantage of having a greater number of coefficients, result in much lower standard deviations in comparison with the Redlich–Kister type models. The statistical processing of experimental data by means of the multiple linear regression method (MLR) was used in order to model the excess thermodynamic properties. Lower standard deviations than the Redlich–Kister type models were also obtained. The adjustment of the excess molar volume (V E ) based on refractive index by means of the Multiple linear regression of the SigmaPlot 11.2 program was made for the ethylbenzene (1)–octane (2)–propylbenzene (3) ternary system, obtaining a simple mathematical model which correlates the excess molar volume with the refractive index, the normalized temperature and the composition of the ternary mixture: V E = A 0 + A 1 X 1 + A 2 X 2 + A 3 (T/298.15) + A 4 n for which the standard deviation is 0.03.

  16. A complex linear least-squares method to derive relative and absolute orientations of seismic sensors

    OpenAIRE

    F. Grigoli; Simone Cesca; Torsten Dahm; L. Krieger

    2012-01-01

    Determining the relative orientation of the horizontal components of seismic sensors is a common problem that limits data analysis and interpretation for several acquisition setups, including linear arrays of geophones deployed in borehole installations or ocean bottom seismometers deployed at the seafloor. To solve this problem we propose a new inversion method based on a complex linear algebra approach. Relative orientation angles are retrieved by minimizing, in a least-squares sense, the l...

  17. THE MASS LOSS RETURN FROM EVOLVED STARS TO THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: EMPIRICAL RELATIONS FOR EXCESS EMISSION AT 8 AND 24 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Sundar; Meixner, Margaret; Leitherer, Claus; Vijh, Uma; Gordon, Karl D.; Sewilo, Marta; Volk, Kevin; Blum, Robert D.; Harris, Jason; Babler, Brian L.; Bracker, Steve; Meade, Marilyn; Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Charles W.; For, Bi-Qing; Misselt, Karl A.; Cohen, Martin; Hora, Joseph L.; Indebetouw, Remy; Markwick-Kemper, Francisca

    2009-01-01

    We present empirical relations describing excess emission from evolved stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE) survey which includes the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm and Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) 24, 70, and 160 μm bands. We combine the SAGE data with the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS; J, H, and K s ) and the optical Magellanic Cloud Photometric Survey (MCPS; U, B, V, and I) point source catalogs in order to create complete spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star candidates in the LMC. AGB star outflows are among the main producers of dust in a galaxy, and this mass loss results in an excess in the fluxes observed in the 8 and 24 μm bands. The aim of this work is to investigate the mass loss return by AGB stars to the interstellar medium of the LMC by studying the dependence of the infrared excess flux on the total luminosity. We identify oxygen-rich, carbon-rich, and extreme AGB star populations in our sample based on their 2MASS and IRAC colors. The SEDs of oxygen- and carbon-rich AGB stars are compared with appropriate stellar photosphere models to obtain the excess flux in all the IRAC bands and the MIPS 24 μm band. Extreme AGB stars are dominated by circumstellar emission at 8 and 24 μm; thus we approximate their excesses with the flux observed in these bands. We find about 16,000 O-rich, 6300 C-rich, and 1000 extreme sources with reliable 8 μm excesses, and about 4500 O-rich, 5300 C-rich, and 960 extreme sources with reliable 24 μm excesses. The excesses are in the range 0.1 mJy to 5 Jy. The 8 and 24 μm excesses for all three types of AGB candidates show a general increasing trend with luminosity. The color temperature of the circumstellar dust derived from the ratio of the 8 and 24 μm excesses decreases with an increase in excess, while the 24 μm optical depth increases with

  18. [Estimation of the excess death associated with influenza pandemics and epidemics in Japan after world war II: relation with pandemics and the vaccination system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmi, Kenichi; Marui, Eiji

    2011-10-01

    To estimate the excess death associated with influenza pandemics and epidemics in Japan after World War II, and to reexamine the relationship between the excess death and the vaccination system in Japan. Using the Japanese national vital statistics data for 1952-2009, we specified months with influenza epidemics, monthly mortality rates and the seasonal index for 1952-74 and for 1975-2009. Then we calculated excess deaths of each month from the observed number of deaths and the 95% range of expected deaths. Lastly we calculated age-adjusted excess death rates using the 1985 model population of Japan. The total number of excess deaths for 1952-2009 was 687,279 (95% range, 384,149-970,468), 12,058 (95% range, 6,739-17,026) per year. The total number of excess deaths in 6 pandemic years of 1957-58, 58-59, 1968-69, 69-70, 77-78 and 78-79, was 95,904, while that in 51 'non-pandemic' years was 591,376, 6.17 fold larger than pandemic years. The average number of excess deaths for pandemic years was 23,976, nearly equal to that for 'non-pandemic' years, 23,655. At the beginning of pandemics, 1957-58, 1968-69, 1969-70, the proportion of those aged pandemic' years. In the 1970s and 1980s, when the vaccination program for schoolchildren was mandatory in Japan on the basis of the "Fukumi thesis", age-adjusted average excess mortality rates were relatively low, with an average of 6.17 per hundred thousand. In the 1990s, when group vaccination was discontinued, age-adjusted excess mortality rose up to 9.42, only to drop again to 2.04 when influenza vaccination was made available to the elderly in the 2000s, suggesting that the vaccination of Japanese children prevented excess deaths from influenza pandemics and epidemics. Moreover, in the age group under 65, average excess mortality rates were low in the 1970s and 1980s rather than in the 2000s, which shows that the "Social Defensive" schoolchildren vaccination program in the 1970s and 1980s was more effective than the

  19. Linear relations in microbial reaction systems: a general overview of their origin, form, and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorman, H J; Heijnen, J J; Ch A M Luyben, K

    1991-09-01

    In microbial reaction systems, there are a number of linear relations among net conversion rates. These can be very useful in the analysis of experimental data. This article provides a general approach for the formation and application of the linear relations. Two type of system descriptions, one considering the biomass as a black box and the other based on metabolic pathways, are encountered. These are defined in a linear vector and matrix algebra framework. A correct a priori description can be obtained by three useful tests: the independency, consistency, and observability tests. The independency are different. The black box approach provides only conservations relations. They are derived from element, electrical charge, energy, and Gibbs energy balances. The metabolic approach provides, in addition to the conservation relations, metabolic and reaction relations. These result from component, energy, and Gibbs energy balances. Thus it is more attractive to use the metabolic description than the black box approach. A number of different types of linear relations given in the literature are reviewed. They are classified according to the different categories that result from the black box or the metabolic system description. Validation of hypotheses related to metabolic pathways can be supported by experimental validation of the linear metabolic relations. However, definite proof from biochemical evidence remains indispensable.

  20. Association between Excessive Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Injuries in College Students: A Multi-Center Cross-Sectional Study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Hisashi; Takayashiki, Ayumi; Goto, Ryohei; Saito, Go; Kawaida, Kyoko; Hieda, Rika; Kataoka, Yoshihiro; Aramaki, Maie; Sakamoto, Naoto; Maeno, Tetsuhiro; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Takemura, Yousuke C

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol-related injuries in college students are a major public health problem worldwide. We clarified the association between excessive drinking and alcohol-related injuries in Japanese college students. This was a cross-sectional study with a self-administered questionnaire. From January to March 2013, we sampled all college students and graduate students aged 20 years or older during annual health examinations at three colleges in Mie Prefecture in Japan. The questionnaire assessed the frequency of alcohol drinking, amount of alcohol consumed per day, binge drinking during the past year, alcohol-related injuries during the past year, and demographic data. Logistic regression analysis was conducted on the association between excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related injuries. A total of 2,842 students underwent health examinations, of whom 2,177 (76.6%) completed the questionnaire. Subjects included 1,219 men (56.0%) and 958 women (44.0%). Eighty-eight men (7.2%) and 93 women (9.7%) were classified as excessive weekly drinkers, while 693 men (56.8%) and 458 women (47.8%) were determined to be binge drinkers. Eighty-one men (6.6%) and 26 women (2.7%) had experienced alcohol-related injuries during the past year. In the logistic regression analysis, binge drinkers (odds ratio 25.6 [8.05-81.4]) and excessive weekly drinkers (odds ratio 3.83 [2.41-6.09]) had a history of significantly more alcohol-related injuries, even after adjusting for age and sex. In conclusion, alcohol-related injuries in college students in Japan were strongly associated with excessive drinking. As a strategy for preventing such injuries in this population, an interventional study is required to identify effective methods for reducing excessive alcohol use.

  1. Extensive clinical experience: relative prevalence of different androgen excess disorders in 950 women referred because of clinical hyperandrogenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmina, E; Rosato, F; Jannì, A; Rizzo, M; Longo, R A

    2006-01-01

    We undertook this study to estimate the prevalence of the various androgen excess disorders using the new criteria suggested for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study was performed at two endocrine departments at the University of Palermo (Palermo, Italy). The records of all patients referred between 1980 and 2004 for evaluation of clinical hyperandrogenism were reevaluated. All past diagnoses were reviewed using the actual diagnostic criteria. To be included in this study, the records of the patients had to present the following available data: clinical evaluation of hyperandrogenism, body weight and height, testosterone (T), free T, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, progesterone, and pelvic sonography. A total of 1226 consecutive patients were seen during the study period, but only the scores of 950 patients satisfied all criteria and were reassessed for the diagnosis. The prevalence of androgen excess disorders was: PCOS, 72.1% (classic anovulatory patients, 56.6%; mild ovulatory patients, 15.5%), idiopathic hyperandrogenism, 15.8%; idiopathic hirsutism, 7.6%; 21-hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia, 4.3%; and androgen-secreting tumors, 0.2%. Compared with other androgen excess disorders, patients with PCOS had increased body weight whereas nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia patients were younger and more hirsute and had higher serum levels of T, free T, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone. Classic PCOS is the most common androgen excess disorder. However, mild androgen excess disorders (ovulatory PCOS and idiopathic hyperandrogenism) are also common and, in an endocrine setting, include about 30% of patients with clinical hyperandrogenism.

  2. Heat-Related Mortality in India: Excess All-Cause Mortality Associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad Heat Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Knowlton, Kim; Hess, Jeremy J.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Deol, Bhaskar; Bhaskar, Priya Shekhar; Hess, Jeremy; Jaiswal, Anjali; Khosla, Radhika; Knowlton, Kim; Mavalankar, Mavalankar; Rajiva, Ajit; Sarma, Amruta; Sheffield, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8°C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality. Methods We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1–31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations. Results The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths). In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest “summer” months of April (r = 0.69, pheat (May 19–25, 2010), mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67–1.83, pheat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot temperatures prevail through much of April-June. PMID:24633076

  3. Undecidability of the Logic of Overlap Relation over Discrete Linear Orderings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    . Still, decidability is the rule for the fragments of HS with only one modal operator, based on an Allen’s relation. In this paper, we show that the logic O of the Overlap relation, when interpreted over discrete linear orderings, is an exception. The proof is based on a reduction from the undecidable...

  4. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  5. Developmental programming: effect of prenatal steroid excess on intraovarian components of insulin signaling pathway and related proteins in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo H; Rey, Florencia; Velazquez, Melisa M L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess increases ovarian follicular recruitment, follicular persistence, insulin resistance, and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Considering the importance of insulin in ovarian physiology, in this study, using prenatal T- and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen)-treated female sheep, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal androgen excess alters the intraovarian insulin signaling cascade and metabolic mediators that have an impact on insulin signaling. Changes in ovarian insulin receptor (INSRB), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG), and adiponectin proteins were determined at fetal (Days 90 and 140), postpubertal (10 mo), and adult (21 mo) ages by immunohistochemistry. Results indicated that these proteins were expressed in granulosa, theca, and stromal compartments, with INSRB, IRS1, PPARG, and adiponectin increasing in parallel with advanced follicular differentiation. Importantly, prenatal T excess induced age-specific changes in PPARG and adiponectin expression, with increased PPARG expression evident during fetal life and decreased antral follicular adiponectin expression during adult life. Comparison of developmental changes in prenatal T and DHT-treated females found that the effects on PPARG were programmed by androgenic actions of T, whereas the effects on adiponectin were likely by its estrogenic action. These results suggest a role for PPARG in the programming of ovarian disruptions by prenatal T excess, including a decrease in antral follicular adiponectin expression and a contributory role for adiponectin in follicular persistence and ovulatory failure.

  6. Reconstructing the long-term cosmic ray intensity: linear relations do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mursula

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available It was recently suggested (Lockwood, 2001 that the cosmic ray intensity in the neutron monitor energy range is linearly related to the coronal source flux, and can be reconstructed for the last 130 years using the long-term coronal flux estimated earlier. Moreover, Lockwood (2001 reconstructed the coronal flux for the last 500 years using a similar linear relation between the flux and the concentration of cosmogenic 10 Be isotopes in polar ice. Here we show that the applied linear relations are oversimplified and lead to unphysical results on long time scales. In particular, the cosmic ray intensity reconstructed by Lockwood (2001 for the last 130 years has a steep trend which is considerably larger than the trend estimated from observations during the last 65 years. Accordingly, the reconstructed cosmic ray intensity reaches or even exceeds the local interstellar cosmic ray flux around 1900. We argue that these unphysical results obtained when using linear relations are due to the oversimplified approach which does not take into account the complex and essentially nonlinear nature of long-term cosmic ray modulation in the heliosphere. We also compare the long-term cosmic ray intensity based on a linear treatment with the reconstruction based on a recent physical model which predicts a considerably lower cosmic ray intensity around 1900.Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays; heliopause and solar wind termination – Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (time variations, secular and long-term

  7. On Sequences of Numbers and Polynomials Defined by Linear Recurrence Relations of Order 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Xiao He

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a new method to construct the explicit formula of a sequence of numbers and polynomials generated by a linear recurrence relation of order 2. The applications of the method to the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, Chebyshev polynomials, the generalized Gegenbauer-Humbert polynomials are also discussed. The derived idea provides a general method to construct identities of number or polynomial sequences defined by linear recurrence relations. The applications using the method to solve some algebraic and ordinary differential equations are presented.

  8. Excess breast cancer risk in first degree relatives of CHEK2∗1100delC positive familial breast cancer cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, Muriel A.; Verhoef, Senno; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W. M.; Broeks, Annegien; Rookus, Matti; Waisfisz, Quinten; Witte, Birgit I.; Jonker, Marianne A.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    The CHEK2∗1100delC mutation confers a relative risk of two for breast cancer (BC) in the general population. This study aims to explore the excess cancer risk due to the CHEK2∗1100delC mutation within a familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer setting. Cancer incidences were compared between first degree

  9. Heat-related mortality in India: excess all-cause mortality associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad heat wave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulrez Shah Azhar

    Full Text Available In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8 °C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality.We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1-31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations.The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths. In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest "summer" months of April (r = 0.69, p<0.001, May (r = 0.77, p<0.001, and June (r = 0.39, p<0.05. During a period of more intense heat (May 19-25, 2010, mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67-1.83, p<0.001] and 2.12 [95% CI 2.03-2.21] applying reference periods (May 12-18, 2010 from various years.The May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot temperatures prevail through much of April-June.

  10. Relation between linear and nonlinear N=3,4 supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevrin, A.; Thielemans, K.; Troost, W.

    1993-01-01

    The effective actions for d=2, N=3,4 chiral supergravities with a linear and a nonlinear gauge algebra are related to each other by a quantum reduction; the latter is obtained from the former by putting quantum currents equal to zero. This implies that the renormalization factors for the quantum actions are identical

  11. A Non-linear "Inflation-Relative Prices Variability" Relationship: Evidence from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Mª Ángeles Caraballo Pou; Carlos Dabús; Diego Caramuta

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on a non-linear "inflation-relative prices variability" relationship in three Latin American countries with very high inflation experiences: Argentina, Brazil and Peru. More precisely, and in contrast to results found in previous literature for similar countries, we find a non-concave relation at higher inflation regimes, i.e. when inflation rate surpasses certain threshold. This non-concavity is mainly explained by the unexpected component of inflation, which sug...

  12. Four-Week Consumption of Malaysian Honey Reduces Excess Weight Gain and Improves Obesity-Related Parameters in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Suhana Samat; Francis Kanyan Enchang; Fuzina Nor Hussein; Wan Iryani Wan Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using h...

  13. Disposition of excess material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews briefly the means available to an enrichment customer to dispose of excess material scheduled for delivery under a fixed-commitment contract, other than through termination of the related separative work. The methods are as follows: (1) sales; (2) use in facilities covered by other DOE contracts; and (3) assignment

  14. Quantifying the linear and nonlinear relations between the urban form fragmentation and the carbon emission distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, S.; Dai, S.; Ren, Y.; Yu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Scientifically revealing the spatial heterogeneity and the relationship between the fragmentation of urban landscape and the direct carbon emissions are of great significance to land management and urban planning. In fact, the linear and nonlinear effects among the various factors resulted in the carbon emission spatial map. However, there is lack of the studies on the direct and indirect relations between the carbon emission and the city functional spatial form changes, which could not be reflected by the land use change. The linear strength and direction of the single factor could be calculated through the correlation and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) analysis, the nonlinear power of one factor and the interaction power of each two factors could be quantified by the Geodetector analysis. Therefore, we compared the landscape fragmentation metrics of the urban land cover and functional district patches to characterize the landscape form and then revealed the relations between the landscape fragmentation level and the direct the carbon emissions based on the three methods. The results showed that fragmentation decreased and the fragmented patches clustered at the coarser resolution. The direct CO2 emission density and the population density increased when the fragmentation level aggregated. The correlation analysis indicated the weak linear relation between them. The spatial variation of GWR output indicated the fragmentation indicator (MESH) had the positive influence on the carbon emission located in the relatively high emission region, and the negative effects regions accounted for the small part of the area. The Geodetector which explores the nonlinear relation identified the DIVISION and MESH as the most powerful direct factor for the land cover patches, NP and PD for the functional district patches, and the interactions between fragmentation indicator (MESH) and urban sprawl metrics (PUA and DIS) had the greatly increased explanation powers on the

  15. [Women and acute coronary syndrome with ST elevation: Excess mortality related to longer delays and spontaneous coronary dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamer, H; Motreff, P; Jessen, P; Piquet, M; Haziza, F; Chevalier, B

    2015-12-01

    The outcome of patients with ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been increasingly improving in the general population over the past few decades. However, detailed analysis of the results show that the reduction in mortality rates is higher in males compared to their female counterparts. The excess mortality rate observed in women, though sometimes questioned, has been widely reported in the literature. The higher mortality rate observed in women with ST elevation ACS can be explained by the presence of aggravating clinical factors such as older age, a higher percentage of diabetics, and a higher frequency of cardiogenic shock. Other factors pertaining to patient management seem to negatively impact the outcome. These factors include a lower use of reperfusion strategies, longer time to treatment mainly as a result of diagnostic uncertainty with respect to a disease, which is believed to affect principally the male gender. The doubts that female patients themselves and their families have about the nature of their symptoms are also present in the medical environment but cease to exist in the catheterization laboratory. This is illustrated in the first clinical case that we present here. Coronary reperfusion is the cornerstone of the therapeutic management of MI. In this context, bleeding complications associated with the implemented treatments can also result in an increased mortality rate in this more vulnerable population. When all the factors likely to influence the prognosis are taken into account, excess mortality seems to persist in women, especially in younger patients. As described in the second clinical case, a distinct physio-pathological factor, more frequent in women, could account for this higher mortality rate. Indeed, spontaneous coronary dissection and intramural hematoma are not always easy to diagnose and may not be adequately managed by reperfusion treatments. In addition, these coronary reperfusion strategies are probably not adapted

  16. Lenr and "cold Fusion" Excess Heat:. Their Relation to Other Anomalous Microphysical Energy Experiments and Emerging New Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallove, Eugene F.

    2005-12-01

    During the past 15 years, indisputable experimental evidence has built up for substantial excess heat (far beyond ordinary chemical energy) and low-energy nuclear reaction phenomena in specialized heavy hydrogen and ordinary hydrogen-containing systems.1 The primary theorists in the field that is properly designated Cold Fusion/LENR have generally assumed that the excess heat phenomena is commensurate with nuclear ash (such as helium), whether already identified or presumed to be present but not yet found. That was an excellent initial hypothesis. However, the commensurate nuclear ash hypothesis has not been proved, and appears to be approximately correct in only a few experiments. During this same period, compelling evidence although not as broadly verified as data from cold fusion/LENR has also emerged for other microphysical sources of energy that were previously unexpected by accepted physics. The exemplar of this has been the "hydrino" physics work of Dr. Randall Mills and his colleagues at Black-Light Power Corporation, which was a radical outgrowth from the cold fusion field that emerged publicly in May 1991.2 Even more far-reaching is the work in vacuum energy extraction pioneered by Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa, which first became public in 1996.3 This vacuum energy experimentation began in the early 1980s and has been reduced to prototype technological devices, such as the patented PAGDTM (pulsed abnormal glow discharge) electric power generator, as well as many published experiments that can be performed in table-top fashion to verify the Correa Aetherometry (non-luminiferous or non-electromagnetic aether measurement science).4 In an era when mainstream science and its media is all agog about dark matter and dark energy composing the vast bulk of the universe, there is a great need to reconcile, if possible, the significant bodies of evidence from these three major experimental and theoretical streams: cold fusion/LENR, hydrino physics, and

  17. Costs of war: excess health care burdens during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq (relative to the health care experience pre-war).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report estimates the health care burden related to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan by calculating the difference between the total health care delivered to U.S. military members during wartime (October 2001 to June 2012) and that which would have been delivered if pre-war (January 1998 to August 2001) rates of ambulatory visits, hospitalizations, and hospital bed days of active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces had persisted during the war. Overall, there were estimated excesses of 17,023,491 ambulatory visits, 66,768 hospitalizations, and 634,720 hospital bed days during the war period relative to that expected based on pre-war experience. Army and Marine Corps members and service members older than 30 accounted for the majority of excess medical care during the war period. The illness/injury-specific category of mental disorders was the single largest contributor to the total estimated excesses of ambulatory visits, hospitalizations, and bed days. The total health care burdens associated with the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq are undoubtedly greater than those enumerated in this report because this analysis did not address care delivered in deployment locations or at sea, care rendered by civilian providers to reserve component members in their home communities, care of veterans by the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, preventive care for the sake of force health protection, and future health care associated with wartime injuries and illnesses.

  18. Serviceability limit state related to excessive lateral deformations to account for infill walls in the structural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. S. ALVA

    Full Text Available Brazilian Codes NBR 6118 and NBR 15575 provide practical values for interstory drift limits applied to conventional modeling in order to prevent negative effects in masonry infill walls caused by excessive lateral deformability, however these codes do not account for infill walls in the structural model. The inclusion of infill walls in the proposed model allows for a quantitative evaluation of structural stresses in these walls and an assessment of cracking in these elements (sliding shear diagonal tension and diagonal compression cracking. This paper presents the results of simulations of single-story one-bay infilled R/C frames. The main objective is to show how to check the serviceability limit states under lateral loads when the infill walls are included in the modeling. The results of numerical simulations allowed for an evaluation of stresses and the probable cracking pattern in infill walls. The results also allowed an identification of some advantages and limitations of the NBR 6118 practical procedure based on interstory drift limits.

  19. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and other androgen excess-related conditions: can changes in dietary intake make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepa, George U; Sengupta, Aditi; Karsies, Danielle

    2008-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that involves the excess production of androgens. It affects up to 10% of all American women and can lead to the development of acne, hirsutism, and infertility. It has also been associated with coronary heart disease, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Over half of the women who are diagnosed with PCOS are overweight or obese. Recommendations are made for overweight/obese women to lose weight via diet and exercise. Women with PCOS should also consider maintaining a diet that is patterned after the type 2 diabetes diet. This diet includes an increase in fiber and a decrease in refined carbohydrates, as well as a decrease in trans and saturated fats and an increase in omega-3 and omega-9 fatty acids. Foods that contain anti-inflammatory compounds (fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin E, and red wine) should also be emphasized. Evidence is provided for the impact of these dietary changes on improvements in the androgen profile of PCOS patients.

  20. Enchanced total dose damage in junction field effect transistors and related linear integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, O.; Autran, J.L.; Roche, P.; Leray, J.L.; Musseau, O.

    1996-01-01

    Enhanced total dose damage of Junction Field-effect Transistors (JFETs) due to low dose rate and/or elevated temperature has been investigated for elementary p-channel structures fabricated on bulk and SOI substrates as well as for related linear integrated circuits. All these devices were fabricated with conventional junction isolation (field oxide). Large increases in damage have been revealed by performing high temperature and/or low dose rate irradiations. These results are consistent with previous studies concerning bipolar field oxides under low-field conditions. They suggest that the transport of radiation-induced holes through the oxide is the underlying mechanism. Such an enhanced degradation must be taken into account for low dose rate effects on linear integrated circuits

  1. VALIDITY OF EXCESS ENTROPY PRODUCTION CRITERION OF THERMODYNAMIC STABILITY FOR NONEQUILIBRIUM STEADY STATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金平

    1991-01-01

    The relation between the excess entropy production criterion of thermodynamic stabilityfor nonequilibrium states and kinetic linear stability principle is discussed. It is shown thatthe condition required by the excess entropy production criterion generally is sufficient, butnot necessary to judge the system stability. The condition required by the excess entropyproduction criterion is stronger than that of the linear stability principle. Only when theproduct matrix between the linearized matrix of kinetic equations and matrix of quadraticform of second-order excess entropy is symmetric, is the condition required by the excessentropy production criterion that the steady steate is asymptotically stable (δ_xP>0) necessaryand sufficient. The counterexample given by Fox to prove that the excess entropy, (δ~2S)ss,is not a Liapunov function is incorrect. Contradictory to his conclusion, the counterexampleis just a positive one that proves that the excess entropy is a Liapunov function. Moreover,the excess entropy production criterion is not limited by symmetric conditions of the linear-ized matrix of kinetic equations. The excess entropy around nonequilibrium steady states,(δ~2S)ss, is a Liapunov function of thermodynamic system.

  2. Exact asymptotic relations for the effective response of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallican, Valentin; Brenner, Renald; Suquet, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    This article addresses the asymptotic response of viscoelastic heterogeneous media in the frequency domain, at high and low frequencies, for different types of elementary linear viscoelastic constituents. By resorting to stationary principles for complex viscoelasticity and adopting a classification of the viscoelastic behaviours based on the nature of their asymptotic regimes, either elastic or viscous, four exact relations are obtained on the overall viscoelastic complex moduli in each case. Two relations are related to the asymptotic uncoupled heterogeneous problems, while the two remaining ones result from the viscoelastic coupling that manifests itself in the transient regime. These results also provide exact conditions on certain integrals in time of the effective relaxation spectrum. This general setting encompasses the results obtained in preceding studies on mixtures of Maxwell constituents [1,2]. xml:lang="fr"

  3. General formulae for polarization observables in deuteron electrodisintegration and linear relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenhoevel, H.; Leidemann, W.; Tomusiak, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    Formal expressions are derived for all possible polarization observables in deuteron electrodisintegration with longitudinally polarized incoming electrons, oriented deuteron targets and polarization analysis of outgoing nucleons. They are given in terms of general structure functions which can be determined experimentally. These structure functions are Hermitean forms of the T-matrix elements which, in principle, allow the determination of all T-matrix elements up to an arbitrary common phase. Since the set of structure functions is overcomplete, linear relations among various structure functions exist which are derived explicitly

  4. Excess molar volume along with viscosity, refractive index and relative permittivity for binary mixtures of exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene with four octane isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Lei; Qin, Xiaomei; Wu, Xi; Xu, Li; Guo, Yongsheng; Fang, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Binary mixtures of JP-10 with octane isomers are studied as model hydrocarbon fuels. • Density, viscosity, refractive index and relative permittivity are determined. • Excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations are calculated and correlated. - Abstract: The fundamental physical properties including density, viscosity, refractive index and relative permittivity, have been measured for binary mixtures of exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene (JP-10) with four octane isomers (n-octane, 3-methylheptane, 2,4-dimethylhexane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane) over the whole composition range at temperatures T = (293.15 to 313.15) K and pressure p = 0.1 MPa. The values of excess molar volume (V m E ), viscosity deviation (Δη), refractive index deviation (Δn D ) and relative permittivity deviation (Δε r ) are then calculated. All of the values of V m E and Δη are observed to be negative, while those of Δn D and Δε r are close to zero. The effects of temperature and composition on the variation of V m E values are discussed. The negative values of V m E and Δη are conductive to high-density and low-resistance of fuels, which is favorable for the design and preparation of advanced hydrocarbon fuels

  5. Properties of linear integral equations related to the six-vertex model with disorder parameter II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, Hermann; Göhmann, Frank

    2012-01-01

    We study certain functions arising in the context of the calculation of correlation functions of the XXZ spin chain and of integrable field theories related to various scaling limits of the underlying six-vertex model. We show that several of these functions that are related to linear integral equations can be obtained by acting with (deformed) difference operators on a master function Φ. The latter is defined in terms of a functional equation and of its asymptotic behavior. Concentrating on the so-called temperature case, we show that these conditions uniquely determine the high-temperature series expansions of the master function. This provides an efficient calculation scheme for the high-temperature expansions of the derived functions as well. (paper)

  6. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity (Rosenfeld,1977). Analogous relationships also exist for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

  7. Four-Week Consumption of Malaysian Honey Reduces Excess Weight Gain and Improves Obesity-Related Parameters in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhana Samat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat.

  8. Four-Week Consumption of Malaysian Honey Reduces Excess Weight Gain and Improves Obesity-Related Parameters in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, Suhana; Kanyan Enchang, Francis; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Wan Ismail, Wan Iryani

    2017-01-01

    Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD) prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat.

  9. Dose-related ethanol intake, Cx43 and Nav1.5 remodeling: Exploring insights of altered ventricular conduction and QRS fragmentation in excessive alcohol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chung-Lieh; Lai, Yu-Jun; Chi, Po-Ching; Chen, Liang-Chia; Tseng, Ya-Ming; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-I; Chen, Yao-Chang; Lin, Shing-Jong; Yeh, Hung-I

    2018-01-01

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake has been linked with various electrical instabilities, conduction disturbances, and even sudden cardiac death, but the underlying cause for the latter is insufficiently delineated. We studied surface electrocardiography (ECG) in a community-dwelling cohort with moderate-to-heavy daily alcohol intake (grouped as >90g/day, ≤90g/day, and nonintake). Compared with nonintake, heavier alcohol users showed markedly widened QRS duration and higher prevalence of QRS fragmentation (64.3%, 50.9%, and 33.7%, respectively, χ 2 12.0, both pchronically given a 4% or 6% alcohol diet and showed dose-related slower action potential upstroke, reduced resting membrane potential, and disorganized or decreased intraventricular conduction (all pChronic excessive alcohol ingestion is associated with dose-related phenotypic intraventricular conduction disturbances and QRS fragmentation that can be recapitulated in mice. The mechanisms may involve suppressed gap junction and sodium channel functions, together with enhanced cardiac fibrosis that may contribute to arrhythmogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Fall, C.H.D.; Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear.Methods:Of 5551 children with collected

  11. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Fall, C. H. D.; van Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear. Of 5551 children with collected growth and

  12. Characterization of the order relation on the set of completely n-positive linear maps between C*-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joita

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we characterize the order relation on the set of all nondegenerate completely n-positive linear maps between C*-algebras in terms of a self-dual Hilbert module induced by each completely n-positive linear map.

  13. 78 FR 21149 - Certain Linear Actuators; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2949] Certain Linear Actuators; Notice of Receipt of... received a complaint entitled Certain Linear Actuators, DN 2949; the Commission is soliciting comments on... States after importation of certain linear actuators. The complaint names as respondents Changzhou Kaidi...

  14. Tangent Orbital Rendezvous Using Linear Relative Motion with J2 Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tangent-impulse coplanar orbit rendezvous problem is studied based on the linear relative motion for J2-perturbed elliptic orbits. There are three cases: (1 only the first impulse is tangent; (2 only the second impulse is tangent; (3 both impulses are tangent. For a given initial impulse point, the first two problems can be transformed into finding all roots of a single variable function about the transfer time, which can be done by the secant method. The bitangent rendezvous problem requires the same solution for the first two problems. By considering the initial coasting time, the bitangent rendezvous solution is obtained with a difference function. A numerical example for two coplanar elliptic orbits with J2 perturbations is given to verify the efficiency of these proposed techniques.

  15. Visual acuity loss associated with excessive “dry macula” in exudative age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi H

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hidenori Takahashi,1–3 Yuji Inoue,1,2 Xue Tan,2,3 Satoru Inoda,1 Shinichi Sakamoto,1 Yusuke Arai,1 Yasuo Yanagi,4–6 Yujiro Fujino,2,3 Hidetoshi Kawashima1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, 2Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Japan Community Health Care Organization Tokyo Shinjuku Medical Center, Shinjuku, Japan; 4Medical Retina, Singapore National Eye Centre, 5Medical Retina, Singapore Eye Research Institute, 6Eye-ACP, Duke NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore, Singapore Purpose: To investigate the correlation between visual acuity and central macular thickness (CMT and choroidal thickness (CCT in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Methods: In this retrospective analysis, 14 eyes that received >10 ranibizumab injections (based on pro re nata [PRN] regimen and maintained initial visual acuity gain were analyzed. The following 5 parameters were measured at the foveal center: CMT (distance from the inner limiting membrane [ILM] to Bruch’s membrane; central retinal thickness (CRT; distance from the ILM to the inner limit of the retinal pigment epithelium or subretinal fluid [SRF]; SRF thickness (SRFT; pigment epithelium detachment thickness (PEDT; and CCT. The correlation between the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and the 5 parameters was examined with generalized estimating equations. Results: CMT, CRT, and CCT were negatively correlated with logMAR BCVA (P=0.031, 0.023, and 0.036, respectively when only CMT values less than the thickness that maximized visual acuity for each eye were used for the analysis. Each 100-µm reduction in CMT, CRT, or CCT improved logMAR BCVA by -0.1, -0.08, or -0.07, respectively. SRFT and PEDT were not correlated with BCVA. The median CMT that maximized the visual acuity was 230 µm. Conclusion: Dry macula with CMT <230 µm was

  16. Consequences of Laughter Upon Trunk Compression and Cortical Activation: Linear and Polynomial Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svebak, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Results from two studies of biological consequences of laughter are reported. A proposed inhibitory brain mechanism was tested in Study 1. It aims to protect against trunk compression that can cause health hazards during vigorous laughter. Compression may be maximal during moderate durations and, for protective reasons, moderate in enduring vigorous laughs. Twenty-five university students volunteered to see a candid camera film. Laughter responses (LR) and the superimposed ha-responses were operationally assessed by mercury-filled strain gauges strapped around the trunk. On average, the thorax compression amplitudes exceeded those of the abdomen, and greater amplitudes were seen in the males than in the females after correction for resting trunk circumference. Regression analyses supported polynomial relations because medium LR durations were associated with particularly high thorax amplitudes. In Study 2, power changes were computed in the beta and alpha EEG frequency bands of the parietal cortex from before to after exposure to the comedy “Dinner for one” in 56 university students. Highly significant linear relations were calculated between the number of laughs and post-exposure cortical activation (increase of beta, decrease of alpha) due to high activation after frequent laughter. The results from Study 1 supported the hypothesis of a protective brain mechanism that is activated during long LRs to reduce the risk of harm to vital organs in the trunk cavity. The results in Study 2 supported a linear cortical activation and, thus, provided evidence for a biological correlate to the subjective experience of mental refreshment after laughter. PMID:27547260

  17. Effects of dram shop liability and enhanced overservice law enforcement initiatives on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms: Two community guide systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Veda; Hahn, Robert A; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci L; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Zometa, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Dram shop liability holds the owner or server(s) at a bar, restaurant, or other location where a patron, adult or underage, consumed his or her last alcoholic beverage responsible for harms subsequently inflicted by the patron on others. Liability in a state can be established by case law or statute. Overservice laws prohibit the sale of alcoholic beverages to intoxicated patrons drinking in on-premises retail alcohol outlets (i.e., premises where the alcohol is consumed where purchased); enhanced enforcement of these laws is intended to ensure compliance by premises personnel. Both of these interventions are ultimately designed to promote responsible beverage service by reducing sales to intoxicated patrons, underage youth, or both. This review assesses the effectiveness of dram shop liability and the enhanced enforcement of overservice laws for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Studies assessing alcohol-related harms in states adopting dram shop laws were evaluated, as were studies assessing alcohol-related harms in regions with enhanced overservice enforcement. Methods previously developed for systematic reviews for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used. Eleven studies assessed the association of state dram shop liability with various outcomes, including all-cause motor vehicle crash deaths, alcohol-related motor vehicle crash deaths (the most common outcome assessed in the studies reviewed), alcohol consumption, and other alcohol-related harms. There was a median reduction of 6.4% (range of values 3.7% to 11.3% reduction) in alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities associated with the presence of dram shop liability in jurisdictions where premises are licensed. Other alcohol-related outcomes also showed a reduction. Only two studies assessed the effects of enhanced enforcement initiatives on alcohol-related outcomes; findings were inconsistent, some indicating benefit and others none. According to Community Guide rules

  18. Baseline Levels of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep May Protect Against Excessive Activity in Fear-Related Neural Circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Itamar; Lupkin, Shira M; Sinha, Neha; Tsai, Alan; Gluck, Mark A

    2017-11-15

    Sleep, and particularly rapid eye movement sleep (REM), has been implicated in the modulation of neural activity following fear conditioning and extinction in both human and animal studies. It has long been presumed that such effects play a role in the formation and persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder, of which sleep impairments are a core feature. However, to date, few studies have thoroughly examined the potential effects of sleep prior to conditioning on subsequent acquisition of fear learning in humans. Furthermore, these studies have been restricted to analyzing the effects of a single night of sleep-thus assuming a state-like relationship between the two. In the current study, we used long-term mobile sleep monitoring and functional neuroimaging (fMRI) to explore whether trait-like variations in sleep patterns, measured in advance in both male and female participants, predict subsequent patterns of neural activity during fear learning. Our results indicate that higher baseline levels of REM sleep predict reduced fear-related activity in, and connectivity between, the hippocampus, amygdala and ventromedial PFC during conditioning. Additionally, skin conductance responses (SCRs) were weakly correlated to the activity in the amygdala. Conversely, there was no direct correlation between REM sleep and SCRs, indicating that REM may only modulate fear acquisition indirectly. In a follow-up experiment, we show that these results are replicable, though to a lesser extent, when measuring sleep over a single night just before conditioning. As such, baseline sleep parameters may be able to serve as biomarkers for resilience, or lack thereof, to trauma. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous studies over the past two decades have established a clear role of sleep in fear-learning processes. However, previous work has focused on the effects of sleep following fear acquisition, thus neglecting the potential effects of baseline sleep levels on the acquisition itself. The

  19. Role of size on the relative importance of fluid dynamic losses in linear cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkconnell, Carl; Ghavami, Ali; Ghiaasiaan, S. Mostafa; Perrella, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Thermodynamic modeling results for a novel small satellite (SmallSat) Stirling Cryocooler, capable of delivering over 200 mW net cooling power at 80 K for less than 6 W DC input power, are used in this paper as the basis for related pulse tube computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Industry and government requirements for SmallSat infrared sensors are driving the development of ever-more miniaturized cryocooler systems. Such cryocoolers must be extremely compact and lightweight, a challenge met by this research team through operating a Stirling cryocooler at a frequency of approximately 300 Hz. The primary advantage of operating at such a high frequency is that the required compression and expansion swept volumes are reduced relative to linear coolers operating at lower frequencies, which evidently reduces the size of the motor mechanisms and the thermodynamic components. In the case of a pulse tube cryocooler, this includes a reduction in diameter of the pulse tube itself. This unfortunately leads to high boundary layer losses, as the presented results demonstrate. Using a Stirling approach with a mechanical moving expander piston eliminates this small pulse tube loss mechanism, but other challenges are introduced, such as maintaining very tight clearance gaps between moving and stationary elements. This paper focuses on CFD modelling results for a highly miniaturized pulse tube cooler.

  20. Electron-related linear and nonlinear optical responses in vertically coupled triangular quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The conduction band states of GaAs-based vertically coupled double triangular quantum dots in two dimensions are investigated within the effective mass and parabolic approximation, using a diagonalization procedure to solve the corresponding Schrödinger-like equation. The effect of an externally applied static electric field is included in the calculation, and the variation of the lowest confined energy levels as a result of the change of the field strength is reported for different geometrical setups. The linear and nonlinear optical absorptions and the relative change of the refractive index, associated with the energy transition between the ground and the first excited state in the system, are studied as a function of the incident light frequency for distinct configurations of inter-dot distance and electric field intensities. The blueshift of the resonant absorption peaks is detected as a consequence of the increment in the field intensity, whereas the opposite effect is obtained from the increase of inter-dot vertical distance. It is also shown that for large enough values of the electric field there is a quenching of the optical absorption due to field-induced change of symmetry of the first excited state wavefunction, in the case of triangular dots of equal shape and size

  1. Electron-related linear and nonlinear optical responses in vertically coupled triangular quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Académica de Física. Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060. Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-11-01

    The conduction band states of GaAs-based vertically coupled double triangular quantum dots in two dimensions are investigated within the effective mass and parabolic approximation, using a diagonalization procedure to solve the corresponding Schrödinger-like equation. The effect of an externally applied static electric field is included in the calculation, and the variation of the lowest confined energy levels as a result of the change of the field strength is reported for different geometrical setups. The linear and nonlinear optical absorptions and the relative change of the refractive index, associated with the energy transition between the ground and the first excited state in the system, are studied as a function of the incident light frequency for distinct configurations of inter-dot distance and electric field intensities. The blueshift of the resonant absorption peaks is detected as a consequence of the increment in the field intensity, whereas the opposite effect is obtained from the increase of inter-dot vertical distance. It is also shown that for large enough values of the electric field there is a quenching of the optical absorption due to field-induced change of symmetry of the first excited state wavefunction, in the case of triangular dots of equal shape and size.

  2. An investigation of excess noise in transition-edge sensors on a solid silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, S.G.; Lindeman, M.A.; Anderson, M.B.; Bandler, S.R.; Bilgri, N.; Bruijn, M.P.; Chervenak, J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F.; Germeau, A.; Hoevers, H.F.C.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelly, R.; Kilbourne, C.A.; Lai, T.; Man, J.; McCammon, D.; Nelms, K.L.; Porter, F.S.; Rocks, L.; Saab, T.; Sadleir, J.; Vidugiris, G.

    2006-01-01

    Transition-edge sensors (TESs) exhibit two major types of excess noise above the expected and unavoidable thermodynamic fluctuation noise (TFN) to the heat sink and Johnson noise. High-resistance TESs such as those made by the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON) show excess noise consistent with internal TFN (ITFN) caused by random energy transport within the TES itself while low resistance TESs show an excess voltage noise of unknown origin seemingly unrelated to temperature fluctuations. Running a high-resistance TES on a high thermal conductivity substrate should suppress ITFN and allow detection of any excess voltage noise. We tested two TESs on a solid silicon substrate fabricated by SRON of a relatively high normal state resistance of ∼200 mΩ. After determining a linear model of the TES response to noise for the devices, we found little excess TFN and little excess voltage noise for bias currents of up to ∼20 μA

  3. Statistical distributions of earthquakes and related non-linear features in seismic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, B.-F.

    2006-01-01

    A few basic facts in the science of the earthquakes are briefly reviewed. An accumulation, or growth, model is put forward for the focal mechanisms and the critical focal zone of the earthquakes, which relates the earthquake average recurrence time to the released seismic energy. The temporal statistical distribution for average recurrence time is introduced for earthquakes, and, on this basis, the Omori-type distribution in energy is derived, as well as the distribution in magnitude, by making use of the semi-empirical Gutenberg-Richter law relating seismic energy to earthquake magnitude. On geometric grounds, the accumulation model suggests the value r = 1/3 for the Omori parameter in the power-law of energy distribution, which leads to β = 1,17 for the coefficient in the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence law, in fair agreement with the statistical analysis of the empirical data. Making use of this value, the empirical Bath's law is discussed for the average magnitude of the aftershocks (which is 1.2 less than the magnitude of the main seismic shock), by assuming that the aftershocks are relaxation events of the seismic zone. The time distribution of the earthquakes with a fixed average recurrence time is also derived, the earthquake occurrence prediction is discussed by means of the average recurrence time and the seismicity rate, and application of this discussion to the seismic region Vrancea, Romania, is outlined. Finally, a special effect of non-linear behaviour of the seismic waves is discussed, by describing an exact solution derived recently for the elastic waves equation with cubic anharmonicities, its relevance, and its connection to the approximate quasi-plane waves picture. The properties of the seismic activity accompanying a main seismic shock, both like foreshocks and aftershocks, are relegated to forthcoming publications. (author)

  4. Clinical effectiveness of decongestive treatments on excess arm volume and patient-centered outcomes in women with early breast cancer-related arm lymphedema: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Eunice; Ream, Emma; Taylor, Cath; Bick, Debra

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the effect of decongestive lymphedema treatment on excess arm volume or patient-centered outcomes in women presenting within either 12 months or a mean nine months of developing arm lymphedema following breast cancer treatment. Introduction: Lymphedema is a common consequence of breast cancer treatment requiring life-long treatment to reduce symptoms and prevent complications. Currently, evidence to inform the optimal decongestive lymphedema treatment package is lacking. Inclusion criteria: The review included studies on women who received lymphedema treatment within either 12 months or a mean of nine months of developing unilateral breast cancer-related arm lymphedema. The intervention was any decongestive lymphedema treatment delivered with the purpose of reducing arm lymphedema, compared to another form of lymphedema treatment (whether self or practitioner-administered), placebo or no treatment. The clinical outcome was excess arm volume; patient-centered outcomes were health-related quality of life, arm heaviness, arm function, patient-perceived benefit and satisfaction with treatment. Experimental study designs were eligible, including randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, prospective and retrospective before and after studies were considered. Methods: A three-step search strategy was utilized to find published and unpublished studies. The search identified studies published from the inception of each database to July 6, 2016. Reference lists were scanned to identify further eligible studies. Studies were critically appraised using appropriate standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Details describing each study and treatment results regarding outcomes of interest were extracted from papers included in the review using appropriate standardized data extraction tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Due to heterogeneity in included studies, results for similar

  5. SOME STATISTICAL ISSUES RELATED TO MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION MODELING OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a fast and effective technique, the multiple linear regression (MLR) method has been widely used in modeling and prediction of beach bacteria concentrations. Among previous works on this subject, however, several issues were insufficiently or inconsistently addressed. Those is...

  6. A Maple package for computing Groebner bases for linear recurrence relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, Vladimir P.; Robertz, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    A Maple package for computing Groebner bases of linear difference ideals is described. The underlying algorithm is based on Janet and Janet-like monomial divisions associated with finite difference operators. The package can be used, for example, for automatic generation of difference schemes for linear partial differential equations and for reduction of multiloop Feynman integrals. These two possible applications are illustrated by simple examples of the Laplace equation and a one-loop scalar integral of propagator type

  7. A Maple package for computing Groebner bases for linear recurrence relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdt, Vladimir P. [Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: gerdt@jinr.ru; Robertz, Daniel [Lehrstuhl B fuer Mathematik, RWTH Aachen, Templergraben 64, D-52062 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: daniel@momo.math.rwth-aachen.de

    2006-04-01

    A Maple package for computing Groebner bases of linear difference ideals is described. The underlying algorithm is based on Janet and Janet-like monomial divisions associated with finite difference operators. The package can be used, for example, for automatic generation of difference schemes for linear partial differential equations and for reduction of multiloop Feynman integrals. These two possible applications are illustrated by simple examples of the Laplace equation and a one-loop scalar integral of propagator type.

  8. EEG sensorimotor rhythms' variation and functional connectivity measures during motor imagery: linear relations and classification approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano Filho, Carlos A; Attux, Romis; Castellano, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Hands motor imagery (MI) has been reported to alter synchronization patterns amongst neurons, yielding variations in the mu and beta bands' power spectral density (PSD) of the electroencephalography (EEG) signal. These alterations have been used in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), in an attempt to assign distinct MI tasks to commands of such a system. Recent studies have highlighted that information may be missing if knowledge about brain functional connectivity is not considered. In this work, we modeled the brain as a graph in which each EEG electrode represents a node. Our goal was to understand if there exists any linear correlation between variations in the synchronization patterns-that is, variations in the PSD of mu and beta bands-induced by MI and alterations in the corresponding functional networks. Moreover, we (1) explored the feasibility of using functional connectivity parameters as features for a classifier in the context of an MI-BCI; (2) investigated three different types of feature selection (FS) techniques; and (3) compared our approach to a more traditional method using the signal PSD as classifier inputs. Ten healthy subjects participated in this study. We observed significant correlations ( p  < 0.05) with values ranging from 0.4 to 0.9 between PSD variations and functional network alterations for some electrodes, prominently in the beta band. The PSD method performed better for data classification, with mean accuracies of (90 ± 8)% and (87 ± 7)% for the mu and beta band, respectively, versus (83 ± 8)% and (83 ± 7)% for the same bands for the graph method. Moreover, the number of features for the graph method was considerably larger. However, results for both methods were relatively close, and even overlapped when the uncertainties of the accuracy rates were considered. Further investigation regarding a careful exploration of other graph metrics may provide better alternatives.

  9. lme4qtl: linear mixed models with flexible covariance structure for genetic studies of related individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Vázquez-Santiago, Miquel; Brunel, Helena; Martinez-Perez, Angel; Aschard, Hugues; Soria, Jose Manuel

    2018-02-27

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in genetic data often involves analysis of correlated observations, which need to be accounted for to avoid false association signals. This is commonly performed by modeling such correlations as random effects in linear mixed models (LMMs). The R package lme4 is a well-established tool that implements major LMM features using sparse matrix methods; however, it is not fully adapted for QTL mapping association and linkage studies. In particular, two LMM features are lacking in the base version of lme4: the definition of random effects by custom covariance matrices; and parameter constraints, which are essential in advanced QTL models. Apart from applications in linkage studies of related individuals, such functionalities are of high interest for association studies in situations where multiple covariance matrices need to be modeled, a scenario not covered by many genome-wide association study (GWAS) software. To address the aforementioned limitations, we developed a new R package lme4qtl as an extension of lme4. First, lme4qtl contributes new models for genetic studies within a single tool integrated with lme4 and its companion packages. Second, lme4qtl offers a flexible framework for scenarios with multiple levels of relatedness and becomes efficient when covariance matrices are sparse. We showed the value of our package using real family-based data in the Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia 2 (GAIT2) project. Our software lme4qtl enables QTL mapping models with a versatile structure of random effects and efficient computation for sparse covariances. lme4qtl is available at https://github.com/variani/lme4qtl .

  10. Linear versus non-linear measures of temporal variability in finger tapping and their relation to performance on open- versus closed-loop motor tasks: comparing standard deviations to Lyapunov exponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Stephen D; Weaver, Ryan

    2008-05-01

    The nature of temporal variability during speeded finger tapping was examined using linear (standard deviation) and non-linear (Lyapunov exponent) measures. Experiment 1 found that right hand tapping was characterised by lower amounts of both linear and non-linear measures of variability than left hand tapping, and that linear and non-linear measures of variability were often negatively correlated with one another. Experiment 2 found that increased non-linear variability was associated with relatively enhanced performance on a closed-loop motor task (mirror tracing) and relatively impaired performance on an open-loop motor task (pointing in a dark room), especially for left hand performance. The potential uses and significance of measures of non-linear variability are discussed.

  11. Electroacupuncture decreases excessive alcohol consumption involving reduction of FosB/ΔFosB levels in reward-related brain regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    Full Text Available New therapies are needed for alcohol abuse, a major public health problem in the U.S. and worldwide. There are only three FDA-approved drugs for treatment of alcohol abuse (naltrexone, acamprosate and disulfuram. On average these drugs yield only moderate success in reducing long-term alcohol consumption. Electroacupuncture has been shown to alleviate various drugs of abuse, including alcohol. Although previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture reduced alcohol consumption, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. ΔFosB and FosB are members of the Fos family of transcription factors implicated in neural plasticity in drug addiction; a connection between electroacupuncture's treatment of alcohol abuse and the Fos family has not been established. In this study, we trained rats to drink large quantities of ethanol in a modified intermittent access two-bottle choice drinking procedure. When rats achieved a stable baseline of ethanol consumption, electroacupuncture (100 Hz or 2 Hz, 30 min each day was administered at Zusanli (ST36 for 6 consecutive days. The level of FosB/ΔFosB in reward-related brain regions was assessed by immunohistochemistry. We found that the intake of and preference for ethanol in rats under 100 Hz, but not 2 Hz electroacupuncture regiment were sharply reduced. The reduction was maintained for at least 72 hours after the termination of electroacupuncture treatment. Conversely, 100 Hz electroacupuncture did not alter the intake of and preference for the natural rewarding agent sucrose. Additionally, FosB/ΔFosB levels in the prefrontal cortex, striatal region and the posterior region of ventral tegmental area were increased following excessive ethanol consumption, but were reduced after six-day 100 Hz electroacupuncture. Thus, this study demonstrates that six-day 100 Hz electroacupuncture treatment effectively reduces ethanol consumption and preference in rats that chronically drink excessive amount of

  12. Assessment of the transportation route of oversize and excessive loads in relation to the load-bearing capacity of existing bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležel, Jiří; Novák, Drahomír; Petrů, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Transportation routes of oversize and excessive loads are currently planned in relation to ensure the transit of a vehicle through critical points on the road. Critical points are level-intersection of roads, bridges etc. This article presents a comprehensive procedure to determine a reliability and a load-bearing capacity level of the existing bridges on highways and roads using the advanced methods of reliability analysis based on simulation techniques of Monte Carlo type in combination with nonlinear finite element method analysis. The safety index is considered as a main criterion of the reliability level of the existing construction structures and the index is described in current structural design standards, e.g. ISO and Eurocode. An example of a single-span slab bridge made of precast prestressed concrete girders of the 60 year current time and its load bearing capacity is set for the ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state. The structure’s design load capacity was estimated by the full probability nonlinear MKP analysis using a simulation technique Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). Load-bearing capacity values based on a fully probabilistic analysis are compared with the load-bearing capacity levels which were estimated by deterministic methods of a critical section of the most loaded girders.

  13. Cognitive-motivational model of obesity. Motivational mechanisms and cognitive biases underlying the processing of food-related images by people with excess body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, Monika; Kalka, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a constantly escalating problem in all age groups. In the face of ubiquitous images of food, colourful advertisements of high-calorie meals and beverages, it is necessary to examine the role of the memory and attention mechanism in the processing of these stimuli. Knowledge regarding this subject will surely significantly contribute to the improvement of prevention and management of obesity programs designed to prevent secondary psychological difficulties, including depression. This paper presents cognitive-motivational model of obesity, according to which the description of mechanisms of eating disorders occurrence should include not only motivational factors but also the cognitive ones. The paper shows theoretical perspectives on the problem of obesity irrespective of its origin, as well as the latest empirical reports in this field. The presented survey demonstrates the lack of explicit research findings related to the processing of high and low-calorie food images by persons with excess weight. It seems that the knowledge of the basic mechanisms involved in the processing of these stimuli and the exploration of this phenomenon will allow to improve programs whose objective is to prevent obesity.

  14. The Virtual Diphoton Excess

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting the excesses around 750 GeV in the diphoton spectra to be the signal of a new heavy scalar decaying to photons, we point out the possibility of looking for correlated signals with virtual photons. In particular, we emphasize that the effective operator that generates the diphoton decay will also generate decays to two leptons and a photon, as well as to four leptons, independently of the new resonance couplings to $Z\\gamma$ and $ZZ$. Depending on the relative sizes of these effective couplings, we show that the virtual diphoton component can make up a sizable, and sometimes dominant, contribution to the total $2\\ell \\gamma$ and $4\\ell$ partial widths. We also discuss modifications to current experimental cuts in order to maximize the sensitivity to these virtual photon effects. Finally, we briefly comment on prospects for channels involving other Standard Model fermions as well as more exotic decay possibilities of the putative resonance.

  15. On the rank 1 convexity of stored energy functions of physically linear stress-strain relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav; Bertram, A.; Böhlke, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2007), s. 235-243 ISSN 0374-3535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : generalized linear elastic law s * generalized strain measures * rank 1 convexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.743, year: 2007

  16. Genome-wide gene expression array identifies novel genes related to disease severity and excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Che Chen

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify novel molecular associations between chronic intermittent hypoxia with re-oxygenation and adverse consequences in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. We analyzed gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 48 patients with sleep-disordered breathing stratified into four groups: primary snoring (PS, moderate to severe OSA (MSO, very severe OSA (VSO, and very severe OSA patients on long-term continuous positive airway pressure treatment (VSOC. Comparisons of the microarray gene expression data identified eight genes up-regulated with OSA and down-regulated with CPAP treatment, and five genes down-regulated with OSA and up-regulated with CPAP treatment. Protein expression levels of two genes related to endothelial tight junction (AMOT P130, and PLEKHH3, and three genes related to anti-or pro-apoptosis (BIRC3, ADAR1 P150, and LGALS3 were all increased in the VSO group, while AMOT P130 was further increased, and PLEKHH3, BIRC3, and ADAR1 P150 were all decreased in the VSOC group. Subgroup analyses revealed that AMOT P130 protein expression was increased in OSA patients with excessive daytime sleepiness, BIRC3 protein expression was decreased in OSA patients with hypertension, and LGALS3 protein expression was increased in OSA patients with chronic kidney disease. In vitro short-term intermittent hypoxia with re-oxygenation experiment showed immediate over-expression of ADAR1 P150. In conclusion, we identified a novel association between AMOT/PLEKHH3/BIRC3/ADAR1/LGALS3 over-expressions and high severity index in OSA patients. AMOT and GALIG may constitute an important determinant for the development of hypersomnia and kidney injury, respectively, while BIRC3 may play a protective role in the development of hypertension.

  17. Econometric testing on linear and nonlinear dynamic relation between stock prices and macroeconomy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjigin, Sumuya; Yang, Yating; Yang, Xiaoguang; Sun, Leilei

    2018-03-01

    Many researchers have realized that there is a strong correlation between stock prices and macroeconomy. In order to make this relationship clear, a lot of studies have been done. However, the causal relationship between stock prices and macroeconomy has still not been well explained. A key point is that, most of the existing research adopts linear and stable models to investigate the correlation of stock prices and macroeconomy, while the real causality of that may be nonlinear and dynamic. To fill this research gap, we investigate the nonlinear and dynamic causal relationships between stock prices and macroeconomy. Based on the case of China's stock prices and acroeconomy measures from January 1992 to March 2017, we compare the linear Granger causality test models with nonlinear ones. Results demonstrate that the nonlinear dynamic Granger causality is much stronger than linear Granger causality. From the perspective of nonlinear dynamic Granger causality, China's stock prices can be viewed as "national economic barometer". On the one hand, this study will encourage researchers to take nonlinearity and dynamics into account when they investigate the correlation of stock prices and macroeconomy; on the other hand, our research can guide regulators and investors to make better decisions.

  18. Adipokines, myokines and cytokines in endometrial cancer patients: relations to obesity phenotype of excessive body mass and features of the tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev M. Berstein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study serum content of a number of known adipokines, myokines and cytokines and compare obtained data with overweight phenotype and characteristics of tumor in untreated patients with endometrial cancer (EC Materials and methods. The study included 88 patients with a mean age 60.08±0.67 years and a mean body mass index (BMI 32.90±0.83. Patients were subjected to anthropometry and analysis of laboratory parameters, including serum level of leptin, adiponectin, omentin, prefilin (Pref-1, myostatin, irisin, IL-6 as well as insulinemia and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR. On the basis of combination of anthropometric and laboratory data patients with overweight (BMI >25.0 were subdivided into the groups with "standard" (S and conditionally "metabolically healthy" (MH phenotype. Results. Levels of leptin, insulin and adiponectin in the serum of patients with EC are associated with BMI value and demonstrate significant differences between S and MH groups. Levels of prefilin, myostatin, and IL-6 are not associated with an increase in BMI, but are also different in patients with S and MH phenotype of overweight.For levels oа irisin, omentin, and TNF-alphathere is no peculiar dependence both, the BMI, and of belonging to a group with S or MH phenotype. Omentin level in the serum is associated with less favorable tumor differentiation (MH group, while IL-6 level – with a more advanced stage of the tumor (all patients and group S. Conclusion. Adipokines, myokines and cytokines circulating in blood of EC patients vary in their connections with BMI or with "standard" or "metabolically healthy" phenotype of its excess. They vary also in relation to EC features, which in sum may have practical importance.

  19. Model linear absolute and relative risk estimates for cancer induced by ionizing radiation in Mexican cohort of occupationally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, R.J.T.; Trovar, M.V.M; González, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    From the rate of natural mortality m s cancer (t) for every 100 thousand habitants, modeled by a fourth-degree polynomial function of the age data of the Mexican population (2008), and assuming: a) a relationship 1: 5 of cancer induced radiation respect to presented spontaneously, b) a size of initial cohort No = 100 k SOPs, c) a speed of H E = (2 ± 1) mSv / received by the SOPs from 18 to 65 years, d) a latency of 8 years for cancer induction after irradiation, e) a time tracking cohort to 75 years, f) and taking the coefficients absolute and relative risk BEIRs induction of cancer models II and VII (excluding leukemia); It determined: BEIR II for a total of 125 and 400 deaths from cancer for absolute and relative linear models respectively. For BEIR VII has a number of fatal cases of 345 and 927 deaths respectively for absolute and relative linear model cancer. [es

  20. Relating Linear and Volumetric Variables Through Body Scanning to Improve Human Interfaces in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Ferrer, Mike A.; Young, Karen S.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Designing space suits and vehicles for the diverse human population present unique challenges for the methods of traditional anthropometry. Space suits are bulky and allow the operator to shift position within the suit and inhibit the ability to identify body landmarks. Limited suit sizing options also cause variability in fit and performance between similarly sized individuals. Space vehicles are restrictive in volume in both the fit and the ability to collect data. NASA's Anthropometric and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) has utilized 3D scanning to shift from traditional linear anthropometry to explore and examine volumetric capabilities to provide anthropometric solutions for design. Overall, the key goals are to improve the human-system performance and develop new processes to aid in the design and evaluation of space systems. Four case studies are presented that illustrate the shift from purely linear analyses to an augmented volumetric toolset to predict and analyze the human within the space suit and vehicle. The first case study involves the calculation of maximal head volume to estimate total free volume in the helmet for proper air exchange. Traditional linear measurements resulted in an inaccurate representation of the head shape, yet limited data exists for the determination of a large head volume. Steps were first taken to identify and classify a maximum head volume and the resulting comparisons to the estimate are presented in this paper. This study illustrates the gap between linear components of anthropometry and the need for overall volume metrics in order to provide solutions. A second case study examines the overlay of the space suit scans and components onto scanned individuals to quantify fit and clearance to aid in sizing the suit to the individual. Restrictions in space suit size availability present unique challenges to optimally fit the individual within a limited sizing range while maintaining performance. Quantification of the clearance and

  1. Fiber-wise linear Poisson structures related to W∗-algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odzijewicz, Anatol; Jakimowicz, Grzegorz; Sliżewska, Aneta

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of Banach differential geometry we investigate the fiber-wise linear Poisson structures as well as the Lie groupoid and Lie algebroid structures which are defined in the canonical way by the structure of a W∗-algebra (von Neumann algebra) M. The main role in this theory is played by the complex Banach-Lie groupoid G(M) ⇉ L(M) of partially invertible elements of M over the lattice L(M) of orthogonal projections of M. The Atiyah sequence and the predual Atiyah sequence corresponding to this groupoid are investigated from the point of view of Banach Poisson geometry. In particular we show that the predual Atiyah sequence fits in a short exact sequence of complex Banach sub-Poisson V B-groupoids with G(M) ⇉ L(M) as the side groupoid.

  2. Lactancia materna y su relación con el exceso de peso corporal en adolescentes de secundaria básica Breastfeeding and its relation to corporal excess weight in secondary school adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eumelia Ondina Terrero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el sobrepeso y la obesidad, factores de riesgo aterosclerótico, se incrementan de manera creciente en todas las edades. Las trasgresiones de la lactancia materna han sido relacionadas frecuentemente con el exceso de peso. Objetivos: contribuir al esclarecimiento de la relación entre la duración de la lactancia materna y el exceso de peso (sobrepeso y obesidad en adolescentes. Métodos: estudio observacional de casos y controles en 344 adolescentes que estudian en la Secundaria Básica Urbana "Benito Juárez" del área de salud del policlínico "Antonio Guiteras Holmes" en La Habana Vieja, realizado entre enero de 2005 y enero de 2006. A todos los estudiantes se les realizaron mediciones antropométricas de peso corporal, talla y circunferencia de cintura. El grupo control se conformó con los estudiantes normopeso. La asociación estadística entre la duración de la lactancia materna y el exceso de peso corporal se determinó mediante el cálculo de odds ratio con un nivel de significación de pIntroduction: the excess weight and obesity are atherosclerosis risks increasing in all ages. Transgressions of breastfeeding have been related frequently to excess weight. Objectives: to contribute to clearing up of relation between the length of breastfeeding and the excessive body weight (excess weight and obesity in adolescents. Methods: this is an observational study of cases and controls conducted in 344 adolescents studying in "Benito Juárez" Urban Secondary School (UBS from health area of "Antonio Guiteras Holmes" Polyclinic in Habana Vieja (January, 2005 to January, 2006. In all students we made anthropometry measurements of body weight, height and waist circumference. Control group included students with normal weight. Statistical association between breastfeeding and corporal excess weight was determined by odds ratio calculus con a 95 % accuracy. Results: it was verified the 14 % of excess weight and the 4% of obesity. The

  3. Decision-Related Activity in Macaque V2 for Fine Disparity Discrimination Is Not Compatible with Optimal Linear Readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clery, Stephane; Cumming, Bruce G; Nienborg, Hendrikje

    2017-01-18

    Fine judgments of stereoscopic depth rely mainly on relative judgments of depth (relative binocular disparity) between objects, rather than judgments of the distance to where the eyes are fixating (absolute disparity). In macaques, visual area V2 is the earliest site in the visual processing hierarchy for which neurons selective for relative disparity have been observed (Thomas et al., 2002). Here, we found that, in macaques trained to perform a fine disparity discrimination task, disparity-selective neurons in V2 were highly selective for the task, and their activity correlated with the animals' perceptual decisions (unexplained by the stimulus). This may partially explain similar correlations reported in downstream areas. Although compatible with a perceptual role of these neurons for the task, the interpretation of such decision-related activity is complicated by the effects of interneuronal "noise" correlations between sensory neurons. Recent work has developed simple predictions to differentiate decoding schemes (Pitkow et al., 2015) without needing measures of noise correlations, and found that data from early sensory areas were compatible with optimal linear readout of populations with information-limiting correlations. In contrast, our data here deviated significantly from these predictions. We additionally tested this prediction for previously reported results of decision-related activity in V2 for a related task, coarse disparity discrimination (Nienborg and Cumming, 2006), thought to rely on absolute disparity. Although these data followed the predicted pattern, they violated the prediction quantitatively. This suggests that optimal linear decoding of sensory signals is not generally a good predictor of behavior in simple perceptual tasks. Activity in sensory neurons that correlates with an animal's decision is widely believed to provide insights into how the brain uses information from sensory neurons. Recent theoretical work developed simple

  4. A Family of Symmetric Linear Multistep Methods for the Numerical Solution of the Schroedinger Equation and Related Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassi, Z. A.; Simos, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a new family of explicit symmetric linear multistep methods for the efficient numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation and related problems with oscillatory solution. The new methods are trigonometrically fitted and have improved intervals of periodicity as compared to the corresponding classical method with constant coefficients and other methods from the literature. We also apply the methods along with other known methods to real periodic problems, in order to measure their efficiency.

  5. Equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analysis for design and risk assessment of safety-related nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Mason, H. Benjamin; Almufti, Ibrahim; Willford, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performed equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analyses using industry-standard numerical programs. • Considered a wide range of sites and input ground motions. • Noted the practical issues encountered while using these programs. • Examined differences between the responses calculated from different programs. • Results of biaxial and uniaxial analyses are compared. - Abstract: Site response analysis is a precursor to soil-structure interaction analysis, which is an essential component in the seismic analysis of safety-related nuclear structures. Output from site response analysis provides input to soil-structure interaction analysis. Current practice in calculating site response for safety-related nuclear applications mainly involves the equivalent linear method in the frequency-domain. Nonlinear time-domain methods are used by some for the assessment of buildings, bridges and petrochemical facilities. Several commercial programs have been developed for site response analysis but none of them have been formally validated for large strains and high frequencies, which are crucial for the performance assessment of safety-related nuclear structures. This study sheds light on the applicability of some industry-standard equivalent linear (SHAKE) and nonlinear (DEEPSOIL and LS-DYNA) programs across a broad range of frequencies, earthquake shaking intensities, and sites ranging from stiff sand to hard rock, all with a focus on application to safety-related nuclear structures. Results show that the equivalent linear method is unable to reproduce the high frequency acceleration response, resulting in almost constant spectral accelerations in the short period range. Analysis using LS-DYNA occasionally results in some unrealistic high frequency acceleration ‘noise’, which can be removed by smoothing the piece-wise linear backbone curve. Analysis using DEEPSOIL results in abrupt variations in the peak strains of consecutive soil layers

  6. Hyperhidrosis (Excessive Sweating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have this type are otherwise healthy. In medical terminology, the word “primary” means that the cause is not another medical condition. Secondary hyperhidrosis In medical terminology, “secondary” means that the excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) has ...

  7. On the reciprocity-like relations in linear neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modak, R.S.; Sahni, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The existence of certain reciprocity-like relations in neutron transport theory was shown earlier under some quite restrictive conditions. Here, these relations are shown to be valid in more general situations by using a different approach based on individual neutron trajectories. (author)

  8. Galaxy bias and non-linear structure formation in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Seljak, Uroš; Senatore, Leonardo; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2011-01-01

    Length scales probed by the large scale structure surveys are becoming closer and closer to the horizon scale. Further, it has been recently understood that non-Gaussianity in the initial conditions could show up in a scale dependence of the bias of galaxies at the largest possible distances. It is therefore important to take General Relativistic effects into account. Here we provide a General Relativistic generalization of the bias that is valid both for Gaussian and for non-Gaussian initial conditions. The collapse of objects happens on very small scales, while long-wavelength modes are always in the quasi linear regime. Around every small collapsing region, it is therefore possible to find a reference frame that is valid for arbitrary times and where the space time is almost flat: the Fermi frame. Here the Newtonian approximation is applicable and the equations of motion are the ones of the standard N-body codes. The effects of long-wavelength modes are encoded in the mapping from the cosmological frame to the local Fermi frame. At the level of the linear bias, the effect of the long-wavelength modes on the dynamics of the short scales is all encoded in the local curvature of the Universe, which allows us to define a General Relativistic generalization of the bias in the standard Newtonian setting. We show that the bias due to this effect goes to zero as the square of the ratio between the physical wavenumber and the Hubble scale for modes longer than the horizon, confirming the intuitive picture that modes longer than the horizon do not have any dynamical effect. On the other hand, the bias due to non-Gaussianities does not need to vanish for modes longer than the Hubble scale, and for non-Gaussianities of the local kind it goes to a constant. As a further application of our setup, we show that it is not necessary to perform large N-body simulations to extract information about long-wavelength modes: N-body simulations can be done on small scales and long

  9. On the relation between flexibility analysis and robust optimization for linear systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qi

    2016-03-05

    Flexibility analysis and robust optimization are two approaches to solving optimization problems under uncertainty that share some fundamental concepts, such as the use of polyhedral uncertainty sets and the worst-case approach to guarantee feasibility. The connection between these two approaches has not been sufficiently acknowledged and examined in the literature. In this context, the contributions of this work are fourfold: (1) a comparison between flexibility analysis and robust optimization from a historical perspective is presented; (2) for linear systems, new formulations for the three classical flexibility analysis problems—flexibility test, flexibility index, and design under uncertainty—based on duality theory and the affinely adjustable robust optimization (AARO) approach are proposed; (3) the AARO approach is shown to be generally more restrictive such that it may lead to overly conservative solutions; (4) numerical examples show the improved computational performance from the proposed formulations compared to the traditional flexibility analysis models. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 62: 3109–3123, 2016

  10. FIRE: an SPSS program for variable selection in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J

    2011-03-01

    We provide an SPSS program that implements currently recommended techniques and recent developments for selecting variables in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors. The approach consists of: (1) optimally splitting the data for cross-validation, (2) selecting the final set of predictors to be retained in the equation regression, and (3) assessing the behavior of the chosen model using standard indices and procedures. The SPSS syntax, a short manual, and data files related to this article are available as supplemental materials from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  11. Linear trend and climate response of five-needle pines in the western United States related to treeline proximity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipfmueller, K.F. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Geography; Salzer, M.W. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research

    2010-01-15

    This study investigated sixty-six 5-needle pine growth chronologies from 1896 to their end years in order to identify potential patterns related to linear trends in ring width. Individual chronology responses to climate were also evaluated by comparing the chronologies with seasonal temperature and precipitation data from 1896 to the present date. Chronologies exhibiting similar patterns of climate response were grouped in order to examine the role of treeline proximity on climate-growth relationships. Ring width measurements for pine sites located in the western United States were obtained from the International Tree Ring Data Bank. Growth indices were compared among all sites in order to assess the relative strength of common signals with increasing distance. Pearson correlations were used to calculate linear trends for each chronology. A cluster analysis of climate response patterns indicated that most chronologies positively associated with temperatures were located near upper treeline and contained significant positive linear trends. The study suggested that 5-needle pine treeline chronologies may be used as predictors in temperature reconstructions. However, care must be taken to determine that collection sites have not been impacted by disturbances such as fire or insect outbreaks. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. A non-linear σ-model related to the fine structure of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Abdalla, M.C.B.; Lima Santos, A.

    1986-07-01

    It is shown that a σ-model related to the strings via Polyakov's construction is classically (but not quantum mechanically) integrable. When fermions are suitably introduced the exact on shell solution is discussed. In the locally supersymmetric case the 1/D expansion is used to integrate out the σ-model fields leaving an effective action for graviton and gravitino. (author)

  13. Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Duvenci, Sirin; Ozyurt, Emin; Ozkara, Cigdem

    2004-02-01

    Sexual behavior changes as well as depression, anxiety, and organic mood/personality disorders have been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients before and after epilepsy surgery. The authors describe a 14-year-old girl with symptoms of excessive masturbation in inappropriate places, social withdrawal, irritability, aggressive behavior, and crying spells after selective amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. Since the family members felt extremely embarrassed, they were upset and angry with the patient which, in turn, increased her depressive symptoms. Both her excessive masturbation behavior and depressive symptoms remitted within 2 months of psychoeducative intervention and treatment with citalopram 20mg/day. Excessive masturbation is proposed to be related to the psychosocial changes due to seizure-free status after surgery as well as other possible mechanisms such as Kluver-Bucy syndrome features and neurophysiologic changes associated with the cessation of epileptic discharges. This case demonstrates that psychiatric problems and sexual changes encountered after epilepsy surgery are possibly multifactorial and in adolescence hypersexuality may be manifested as excessive masturbation behavior.

  14. Association between blood cholesterol and sodium intake in hypertensive women with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Bruna Merten; Ferreira, Raphaela Costa; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; Holanda, Lidiana de Souza; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; Cabral, Poliana Coelho

    2018-04-01

    Restricted sodium intake has been recommended for more than 1 century for the treatment of hypertension. However, restriction seems to increase blood cholesterol. In women with excess weight, blood cholesterol may increase even more because of insulin resistance and the high lipolytic activity of adipose tissue.The aim of this study was to assess the association between blood cholesterol and sodium intake in hypertensive women with and without excess weight.This was a cross-sectional study with hypertensive and nondiabetic women aged 20 to 59 years, recruited at the primary healthcare units of Maceio, Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast. Excess weight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥25.0 kg/m. Sodium intake was estimated by the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium. Blood cholesterol was the primary outcome investigated by this study, and its relationship with sodium intake and other variables was assessed by Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression using a significance level of 5%.This study included 165 hypertensive women. Of these, 135 (81.8%) were with excess weight. The mean sodium intake was 3.7 g (±1.9) and 3.4 g (±2.4) in hypertensive women with and without excess weight, respectively. The multiple normal linear regression models fitted to the "blood cholesterol" in the 2 groups reveal that for the group of hypertensive women without excess weight only 1 independent variable "age" is statistically significant to explain the variability of the blood cholesterol levels. However, for the group of hypertensive women with excess weight, 2 independent variables, age and sodium intake, can statistically explain variations of the blood cholesterol levels.Blood cholesterol is statistically inversely related to sodium intake for hypertensive women with excess weight, but it is not statistically related to sodium intake for hypertensive women without excess weight.

  15. Age related neuromuscular changes in sEMG of m. Tibialis Anterior using higher order statistics (Gaussianity & linearity test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2016-08-01

    Age-associated changes in the surface electromyogram (sEMG) of Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle can be attributable to neuromuscular alterations that precede strength loss. We have used our sEMG model of the Tibialis Anterior to interpret the age-related changes and compared with the experimental sEMG. Eighteen young (20-30 years) and 18 older (60-85 years) performed isometric dorsiflexion at 6 different percentage levels of maximum voluntary contractions (MVC), and their sEMG from the TA muscle was recorded. Six different age-related changes in the neuromuscular system were simulated using the sEMG model at the same MVCs as the experiment. The maximal power of the spectrum, Gaussianity and Linearity Test Statistics were computed from the simulated and experimental sEMG. A correlation analysis at α=0.05 was performed between the simulated and experimental age-related change in the sEMG features. The results show the loss in motor units was distinguished by the Gaussianity and Linearity test statistics; while the maximal power of the PSD distinguished between the muscular factors. The simulated condition of 40% loss of motor units with halved the number of fast fibers best correlated with the age-related change observed in the experimental sEMG higher order statistical features. The simulated aging condition found by this study corresponds with the moderate motor unit remodelling and negligible strength loss reported in literature for the cohorts aged 60-70 years.

  16. Firm Size as Moderator to Non-Linear Leverage-Performance Relation: An Emerging Market Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Farooq

    2017-08-01

    such losses are more prominent for small size firms. Results also show that the leverage-performance relation is nonlinear for medium and large size firms. However, these firms are not targeting optimal level and overleveraging that ultimately decrease their profits. So, financial managers of small size firms should avoid debt financing while for large and medium size firms, managers need to adjust their debt ratio to its optimal level.

  17. Clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance in European hospitals: excess mortality and length of hospital stay related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Kraker, Marlieke E A

    2011-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is threatening the successful management of nosocomial infections worldwide. Despite the therapeutic limitations imposed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), its clinical impact is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the excess mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS) associated with MRSA bloodstream infections (BSI) in European hospitals. Between July 2007 and June 2008, a multicenter, prospective, parallel matched-cohort study was carried out in 13 tertiary care hospitals in as many European countries. Cohort I consisted of patients with MRSA BSI and cohort II of patients with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) BSI. The patients in both cohorts were matched for LOS prior to the onset of BSI with patients free of the respective BSI. Cohort I consisted of 248 MRSA patients and 453 controls and cohort II of 618 MSSA patients and 1,170 controls. Compared to the controls, MRSA patients had higher 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.4) and higher hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 3.5). Their excess LOS was 9.2 days. MSSA patients also had higher 30-day (aOR = 2.4) and hospital (aHR = 3.1) mortality and an excess LOS of 8.6 days. When the outcomes from the two cohorts were compared, an effect attributable to methicillin resistance was found for 30-day mortality (OR = 1.8; P = 0.04), but not for hospital mortality (HR = 1.1; P = 0.63) or LOS (difference = 0.6 days; P = 0.96). Irrespective of methicillin susceptibility, S. aureus BSI has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. In addition, MRSA BSI leads to a fatal outcome more frequently than MSSA BSI. Infection control efforts in hospitals should aim to contain infections caused by both resistant and susceptible S. aureus.

  18. How valid is the prenatal estrogen excess hypothesis of testicular germ cell cancer? A case control study on hormone-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, K P; Endsin, G; Pichlmeier, U

    2001-12-01

    The prenatal estrogen excess hypothesis postulates abnormally high estrogen levels during pregnancy which predispose the developing gonad to testicular germ cell cancer (GCT) in adulthood. As no direct measurements are possible to support this hypothesis, evidence must come from clinical and epidemiological observations. The present study looked to surrogate parameters that purportedly point to high estrogenic influence in utero. In a case-control study design, 418 cases with GCT were compared to 636 controls having fractures, injuries or nephrolithiasis. A second comparison was done with 120 men suffering from malignant melanoma. The following factors were investigated: maternal and paternal age at birth of proband, birth-order, distribution of brothers and sisters in sibs of patients, sibship size, status of being a twin, status of being a singleton child, handedness, and frequency of breast cancer in mothers and sisters. Status of being a twin was significantly associated with GCT risk (OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.04- 5.63) if compared to men with fractures or stones. Comparison with melanoma controls showed only a nonsignificant trend. Frequency of breast cancer was insignificantly higher in mothers of GCT patients. Maternal age above 30 years was associated with decreased risk of GCT, which is contradictory to the hypothesis. No other parameter was significantly different in cases and controls. The present investigation failed to produce evidence for the estrogen excess hypothesis. Obviously, the parameters tested are only weak indicators of estrogenic influence during embryogenesis. Thus, the sample size and statistical power of the trial might have been too low to show any significant association. But, assessing the negative results of this study in light of equally negative results in previous investigations, the estrogen excess hypothesis still remains to be hypothetic.

  19. Superconductors with excess quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elesin, V.F.; Kopaev, Y.V.

    1981-01-01

    This review presents a systematic kinetic theory of nonequilibrium phenomena in superconductors with excess quasiparticles created by electromagnetic or tunnel injection. The energy distributions of excess quasiparticles and of nonequilibrium phonons, dependence of the order parameter on the power and frequency (or intensity) of the electromagnetic field, magnetic properties of nonequilibrium superconductors, I-V curves of superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions, and other properties are described in detail. The stability of superconducting states far from thermodynamic equilibrium is investigated and it is shown that characteristic instabilities leading to the formation of nonuniform states of a new type or phase transitions of the first kind are inherent to superconductors with excess quasiparticles. The results are compared with experimental data

  20. Genomic instability related to zinc deficiency and excess in an in vitro model: is the upper estimate of the physiological requirements recommended for children safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Gisel; Ponzinibbio, María Virginia; Gambaro, Rocío Celeste; Seoane, Analía Isabel

    2017-08-01

    Micronutrients are important for the prevention of degenerative diseases due to their role in maintaining genomic stability. Therefore, there is international concern about the need to redefine the optimal mineral and vitamin requirements to prevent DNA damage. We analyzed the cytostatic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic effect of in vitro zinc supplementation to determine the effects of zinc deficiency and excess and whether the upper estimate of the physiological requirement recommended for children is safe. To achieve zinc deficiency, DMEM/Ham's F12 medium (HF12) was chelated (HF12Q). Lymphocytes were isolated from healthy female donors (age range, 5-10 yr) and cultured for 7 d as follows: negative control (HF12, 60 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ); deficient (HF12Q, 12 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ); lower level (HF12Q + 80 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ); average level (HF12Q + 180 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ); upper limit (HF12Q + 280 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ); and excess (HF12Q + 380 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ). The comet (quantitative analysis) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assays were used. Differences were evaluated with Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA (p < 0.05). Olive tail moment, tail length, micronuclei frequency, and apoptotic and necrotic percentages were significantly higher in the deficient, upper limit, and excess cultures compared with the negative control, lower, and average limit ones. In vitro zinc supplementation at the lower and average limit (80 and 180 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ) of the physiological requirement recommended for children proved to be the most beneficial in avoiding genomic instability, whereas the deficient, upper limit, and excess (12, 280, and 380 μg/dl) cultures increased DNA and chromosomal damage and apoptotic and necrotic frequencies.

  1. Excess wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    Expansion of wind power is an important element in Danish climate change abatement policy. Starting from a high penetration of approx 20% however, momentary excess production will become an important issue in the future. Through energy systems analyses using the EnergyPLAN model and economic...... analyses it is analysed how excess productions are better utilised; through conversion into hydrogen of through expansion of export connections thereby enabling sales. The results demonstrate that particularly hydrogen production is unviable under current costs but transmission expansion could...

  2. Characterization of Non-Linearized Spacecraft Relative Motion using Nonlinear Normal Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    the HCW equation (Eq. (2) expressed in terms of relative orbit elements (ROEs) [17], x(t) = −ae 2 cos(β) + xd y(t) = ae sin(β) + yd z(t) = zm cos(ψ...30) where ae, xd , zm are constant and yd(t) = yd0− 32nxdt, β(t) = β0 +nt and ψ(t) = ψ0 +nt are time dependent. It is clear that (ae, zm, xd , yd0, β0...quantities correspond to the ambiguous orbit. It is noted that if the non- drifting condition xd = 0 is satisfied, Eqs. (37-40) will vanish. In the

  3. Guaiacol hydrodeoxygenation mechanism on Pt(111): insights from density functional theory and linear free energy relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungtae; Gu, Geun Ho; Mullen, Charles A; Boateng, Akwasi A; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory is used to study the adsorption of guaiacol and its initial hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions on Pt(111). Previous Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) correlations for small open-chain molecules are inadequate in estimating the reaction barriers of phenolic compounds except for the side group (methoxy) carbon-dehydrogenation. New BEP relations are established using a select group of phenolic compounds. These relations are applied to construct a potential-energy surface of guaiacol-HDO to catechol. Analysis shows that catechol is mainly produced via dehydrogenation of the methoxy functional group followed by the CHx (x<3) removal of the functional group and hydrogenation of the ring carbon, in contrast to a hypothesis of a direct demethylation path. Dehydroxylation and demethoxylation are slow, implying that phenol is likely produced from catechol but not through its direct dehydroxylation followed by aromatic carbon-ring hydrogenation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Gyro-viscosity and linear dispersion relations in pair-ion magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, M. [Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Tokyo 192-0393 (Japan); Vranjes, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Tenerife E38205 (Spain); Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife E38205 (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    A fluid theory has been developed by taking account of gyro-viscosity to study wave propagation characteristics in a homogeneous pair-ion magnetized plasma with a cylindrical symmetry. The exact dispersion relations derived by the Hankel-Fourier transformation are shown comparable with those observed in the experiment by Oohara and co-workers. The gyro-viscosity is responsible for the change in propagation characteristics of the ion cyclotron wave from forward to backward by suppressing the effect of the thermal pressure which normally causes the forward nature of dispersion. Although the experiment has been already explained by a kinetic theory by the present authors, the kinetic derivations are so involved because of exact particle orbits in phase space, finite Lamor radius effects, and higher order ion cyclotron resonances. The present fluid theory provides a simple and transparent structure to the dispersion relations since the gyro-viscosity is renormalized into the ion cyclotron frequency which itself indicates the backward nature of dispersion. The usual disadvantage of a fluid theory, which treats only fundamental modes of eigen-waves excited in a system and is not able to describe higher harmonics that a kinetic theory does, is compensated by simple derivations and clear picture based on the renormalization of the gyro-viscosity.

  5. Relations between the efficiency, power and dissipation for linear irreversible heat engine at maximum trade-off figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyappan, I.; Ponmurugan, M.

    2018-03-01

    A trade of figure of merit (\\dotΩ ) criterion accounts the best compromise between the useful input energy and the lost input energy of the heat devices. When the heat engine is working at maximum \\dotΩ criterion its efficiency increases significantly from the efficiency at maximum power. We derive the general relations between the power, efficiency at maximum \\dotΩ criterion and minimum dissipation for the linear irreversible heat engine. The efficiency at maximum \\dotΩ criterion has the lower bound \

  6. Bateman's dual system revisited: quantization, geometric phase and relation with the ground-state energy of the linear harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Jizba, Petr

    2004-01-01

    By using the Feynman-Hibbs prescription for the evolution amplitude, we quantize the system of a damped harmonic oscillator coupled to its time-reversed image, known as Bateman's dual system. The time-dependent quantum states of such a system are constructed and discussed entirely in the framework of the classical theory. The corresponding geometric (Pancharatnam) phase is calculated and found to be directly related to the ground-state energy of the 1D linear harmonic oscillator to which the 2D system reduces under appropriate constraint

  7. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  8. Factoring vs linear modeling in rate estimation: a simulation study of relative accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, G; Greenland, S

    1998-07-01

    A common strategy for modeling dose-response in epidemiology is to transform ordered exposures and covariates into sets of dichotomous indicator variables (that is, to factor the variables). Factoring tends to increase estimation variance, but it also tends to decrease bias and thus may increase or decrease total accuracy. We conducted a simulation study to examine the impact of factoring on the accuracy of rate estimation. Factored and unfactored Poisson regression models were fit to follow-up study datasets that were randomly generated from 37,500 population model forms that ranged from subadditive to supramultiplicative. In the situations we examined, factoring sometimes substantially improved accuracy relative to fitting the corresponding unfactored model, sometimes substantially decreased accuracy, and sometimes made little difference. The difference in accuracy between factored and unfactored models depended in a complicated fashion on the difference between the true and fitted model forms, the strength of exposure and covariate effects in the population, and the study size. It may be difficult in practice to predict when factoring is increasing or decreasing accuracy. We recommend, therefore, that the strategy of factoring variables be supplemented with other strategies for modeling dose-response.

  9. Measuring system for correlations of light particles with low relative linear momentum: operation and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistretta, J.

    1988-01-01

    The EMRIC set up (Ensemble de Mesure Rapide pour l'Interferometrie et les Correlations) is devoted to the study of space and time extent of nuclear sources from the measurement of light charged particles correlations. This device, composed of an array of 16 detectors (CsI crystals coupled to phototubes) used in conjunction with a multiwire chamber, is characterised by a smart granulation, a large solid angle and very small detection dead areas. It opens new possibilities in the measurement of the correlation functions (complete determination (modulus and direction) of the relative momenta in the range 1 to 100 MeV/c). This work describes the development and performances of EMRIC. The mechanics and electronics are detailed to enlighten difficulties inherent to this type of detector. An auxiliary monitoring system has been carried out to simplify some of the experimental tasks. A simulation software code has been written (based on Monte-Carlo techniques) to simulate the effect of the detector on the experimental data. The precision and efficiency in detection place EMRIC, which can be operated in the whole intermediate energy range (10-100 MeV/u), among the most powerful existing devices. First results on the 20 Ne + 27 Al system are finally shown [fr

  10. Linear Dispersion Relation and Depth Sensitivity to Swell Parameters: Application to Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging and Bathymetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Boccia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long gravity waves or swell dominating the sea surface is known to be very useful to estimate seabed morphology in coastal areas. The paper reviews the main phenomena related to swell waves propagation that allow seabed morphology to be sensed. The linear dispersion is analysed and an error budget model is developed to assess the achievable depth accuracy when Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data are used. The relevant issues and potentials of swell-based bathymetry by SAR are identified and discussed. This technique is of particular interest for characteristic regions of the Mediterranean Sea, such as in gulfs and relatively close areas, where traditional SAR-based bathymetric techniques, relying on strong tidal currents, are of limited practical utility.

  11. Predictors of excessive use of social media and excessive online gaming in Czech teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilková, Jana; Chomynová, Pavla; Csémy, Ladislav

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Young people's involvement in online gaming and the use of social media are increasing rapidly, resulting in a high number of excessive Internet users in recent years. The objective of this paper is to analyze the situation of excessive Internet use among adolescents in the Czech Republic and to reveal determinants of excessive use of social media and excessive online gaming. Methods Data from secondary school students (N = 4,887) were collected within the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. Logistic regression models were constructed to describe the individual and familial discriminative factors and the impact of the health risk behavior of (a) excessive users of social media and (b) excessive players of online games. Results The models confirmed important gender-specific distinctions - while girls are more prone to online communication and social media use, online gaming is far more prevalent among boys. The analysis did not indicate an influence of family composition on both the excessive use of social media and on excessive online gaming, and only marginal effects for the type of school attended. We found a connection between the excessive use of social media and binge drinking and an inverse relation between excessive online gaming and daily smoking. Discussion and conclusion The non-existence of significant associations between family environment and excessive Internet use confirmed the general, widespread of this phenomenon across the social and economic strata of the teenage population, indicating a need for further studies on the topic.

  12. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments such as manipulation techniques, acupuncture, and use of the herbal supplements and behavioral interventions.

  13. ACTIVATION PARAMETERS AND EXCESS THERMODYANAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applying these data, viscosity-B-coefficients, activation parameters (Δμ10≠) and (Δμ20≠) and excess thermodynamic functions, viz., excess molar volume (VE), excess viscosity, ηE and excess molar free energy of activation of flow, (GE) were calculated. The value of interaction parameter, d, of Grunberg and Nissan ...

  14. EMG-Torque Relation in Chronic Stroke: A Novel EMG Complexity Representation With a Linear Electrode Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dongqing; Yu, Zaiyang; Chen, Xiang; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the electromyogram (EMG)-torque relation for chronic stroke survivors using a novel EMG complexity representation. Ten stroke subjects performed a series of submaximal isometric elbow flexion tasks using their affected and contralateral arms, respectively, while a 20-channel linear electrode array was used to record surface EMG from the biceps brachii muscles. The sample entropy (SampEn) of surface EMG signals was calculated with both global and local tolerance schemes. A regression analysis was performed between SampEn of each channel's surface EMG and elbow flexion torque. It was found that a linear regression can be used to well describe the relation between surface EMG SampEn and the torque. Each channel's root mean square (RMS) amplitude of surface EMG signal in the different torque level was computed to determine the channel with the highest EMG amplitude. The slope of the regression (observed from the channel with the highest EMG amplitude) was smaller on the impaired side than on the nonimpaired side in 8 of the 10 subjects, regardless of the tolerance scheme (global or local) and the range of torques (full or matched range) used for comparison. The surface EMG signals from the channels above the estimated muscle innervation zones demonstrated significantly lower levels of complexity compared with other channels between innervation zones and muscle tendons. The study provides a novel point of view of the EMG-torque relation in the complexity domain, and reveals its alterations post stroke, which are associated with complex neural and muscular changes post stroke. The slope difference between channels with regard to innervation zones also confirms the relevance of electrode position in surface EMG analysis.

  15. Non-linear models for the relation between cardiovascular risk factors and intake of wine, beer and spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Gareth; Royston, Patrick; Head, Jenny

    2003-02-15

    It is generally accepted that moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). It is not clear however whether this benefit is derived through the consumption of a specific beverage type, for example, wine. In this paper the associations between known CHD risk factors and different beverage types are investigated using a novel approach with non-linear modelling. Two types of model are proposed which are designed to detect differential effects of beverage type. These may be viewed as extensions of Box and Tidwell's power-linear model. The risk factors high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fibrinogen and systolic blood pressure are considered using data from a large longitudinal study of British civil servants (Whitehall II). The results for males suggest that gram for gram of alcohol, the effect of wine differs from that of beer and spirits, particularly for systolic blood pressure. In particular increasing wine consumption is associated with slightly more favourable levels of all three risk factors studied. For females there is evidence of a differential relationship only for systolic blood pressure. These findings are tentative but suggest that further research is required to clarify the similarities and differences between the results for males and females and to establish whether either of the models is the more appropriate. However, having clarified these issues, the apparent benefit of consuming wine instead of other alcoholic beverages may be relatively small. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Filiz; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Jubeau, Marc; Frappart, Thomas; Couade, Mathieu; Bercoff, Jeremy; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-08-01

    Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque during low-level contractions (torque over the entire range of isometric contraction and (ii) the influence of the size of the region of interest (ROI) used to average the shear modulus value. Ten healthy males performed two incremental isometric little finger abductions. The joint torque produced by Abductor Digiti Minimi was considered as an index of muscle torque and elastic modulus. A high coefficient of determination (R(2)) (range: 0.86-0.98) indicated that the relationship between elastic modulus and torque can be accurately modeled by a linear regression over the entire range (0% to 100% of MVC). The changes in shear elastic modulus as a function of torque were highly repeatable. Lower R(2) values (0.89±0.13 for 1/16 of ROI) and significantly increased absolute errors were observed when the shear elastic modulus was averaged over smaller ROI, half, 1/4 and 1/16 of the full ROI) than the full ROI (mean size: 1.18±0.24cm(2)). It suggests that the ROI should be as large as possible for accurate measurement of muscle shear modulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ABOUT THE LINEARITY OF THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith Castelli, Analia V.; Faifer, Favio R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de La Plata (CCT-La Plata, CONICET-UNLP), Paseo del Bosque s/n, B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina); Gonzalez, Nelida M. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, La Plata, B1900FWA (Argentina); Forte, Juan Carlos, E-mail: asmith@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: ngonzalez@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: favio@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: forte@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [CONICET-Planetario de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires ' ' Galileo Galilei' ' , Av. Sarmiento y B. Roldan, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-20

    We revisit the color-magnitude relation of Virgo Cluster early-type galaxies in order to explore its alleged nonlinearity. To this aim, we reanalyze the relation already published from data obtained within the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope and perform our own photometry and analysis of the images of 100 early-type galaxies observed as part of this survey. In addition, we compare our results with those reported in the literature from data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have found that when the brightest galaxies and untypical systems are excluded from the sample, a linear relation arises in agreement with what is observed in other groups and clusters. The central regions of the brightest galaxies also follow this relation. In addition, we notice that Virgo contains at least four compact elliptical galaxies besides the well-known object VCC 1297 (NGC 4486B). Their locations in the ({mu}{sub eff})-luminosity diagram define a trend different from that followed by normal early-type dwarf galaxies, setting an upper limit in effective surface brightness and a lower limit in the effective radius for their luminosities. Based on the distribution of different galaxy sub-samples in the color-magnitude and ({mu}{sub eff})-luminosity diagrams, we draw some conclusions on their formation and the history of their evolution.

  18. ABOUT THE LINEARITY OF THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Castelli, Analía V.; Faifer, Favio R.; González, Nélida M.; Forte, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the color-magnitude relation of Virgo Cluster early-type galaxies in order to explore its alleged nonlinearity. To this aim, we reanalyze the relation already published from data obtained within the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope and perform our own photometry and analysis of the images of 100 early-type galaxies observed as part of this survey. In addition, we compare our results with those reported in the literature from data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have found that when the brightest galaxies and untypical systems are excluded from the sample, a linear relation arises in agreement with what is observed in other groups and clusters. The central regions of the brightest galaxies also follow this relation. In addition, we notice that Virgo contains at least four compact elliptical galaxies besides the well-known object VCC 1297 (NGC 4486B). Their locations in the (μ eff )-luminosity diagram define a trend different from that followed by normal early-type dwarf galaxies, setting an upper limit in effective surface brightness and a lower limit in the effective radius for their luminosities. Based on the distribution of different galaxy sub-samples in the color-magnitude and (μ eff )-luminosity diagrams, we draw some conclusions on their formation and the history of their evolution

  19. Relative measurements of fast neutron contamination in 18-MV photon beams from two linear accelerators and a betatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, D.; Bukovitz, A.G.; Rosen, J.C.; Holmes, B.G.

    1979-01-01

    Fast neutron contamination in photon beams in the 20 MV range have been reported in recent years. In order to determine if the variations were due mainly to differences in measurement procedures, or inherent in the design of the accelerators, three different 18-MV (BJR) photon beams were compared using identical analytical techniques. The units studied were a Philips SL/75-20 and a Siemens Mevatron-20 linear accelerators and a Schimadzu betatron. Gamma spectroscopy of an activated aluminum foil was the method used. By comparing the relative amounts of neutron contamination, errors associated with absolute measurements such as detector efficiency and differences in activation foils were eliminated. Fast neutron contaminations per rad of x rays in a ratio of 6.7:3.7:1 were found for the Philips, Schimadzu and Siemens accelerators, respectively

  20. Material component to non-linear relation between sediment yield and drainage network development: an flume experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the experimental study on influence ofmaterial component to non linear relation between sediment yield and drainage network development completed in the Lab. The area of flume drainage system is 81.2 m2, the longitudinal gradient and cross section slope are from 0.0348 to 0.0775 and from 0.0115 to 0.038, respectively. Different model materials with a medium diameter of 0.021 mm, 0.076 mm and 0.066 mm cover three experiments each. An artificial rainfall equipment is a sprinkler-system composed of 7 downward nozzles, distributed by hexagon type and a given rainfall intensity is 35.56 mm/hr.cm2. Three experiments are designed by process-response principle at the beginning the ψ shaped small network is dug in the flume. Running time spans are 720 m, 1440 minutes and 540 minutes for Runs Ⅰ, Ⅳ and Ⅵ, respectively. Three experiments show that the sediment yield processes are characterized by delaying with a vibration. During network development the energy of a drainage system is dissipated by two ways, of which one is increasing the number of channels (rill and gully), and the other one is enlarging the channel length. The fractal dimension of a drainage network is exactly an index of energy dissipation of a drainage morphological system. Change of this index with time is an unsymmetrical concave curve. Comparison of three experiments explains that the vibration and the delaying ratio of sediment yield processes increase with material coarsening, while the number of channel decreases. The length of channel enlarges with material fining. There exists non-linear relationship between fractal dimension and sediment yield with an unsymmetrical hyperbolic curve. The bsolute value of delaying ratio of the curve reduces with time unning and material fining. It is characterized by substitution of situation to time.

  1. Impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical response in quantum-well wires with triangular cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Kasapoglu, E.; Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey); Sari, H. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sökmen, I. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey)

    2013-11-15

    The 1s-like and 2p-like donor impurity energy states are studied in a semiconductor quantum wire of equilateral triangular cross section as functions of the impurity position and the geometrical size of the structure. Linear and nonlinear coefficients for the optical absorption and relative refractive index change associated with 1s→2p transitions are calculated for both the x-polarization and y-polarization of the incident light. The results show a mixed effect of redshift and blueshift depending on the location of the donor atom. Also, strong nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient are obtained for both polarizations in the on-center impurity case. -- Highlights: • The 1s- and 2p-like impurity states in triangular quantum-well wires. • Optical absorption and relative refractive index changes are calculated. • Redshift and blueshift in the optical structures depend on the donor position. • Strong nonlinear contributions to the absorption coefficient have been obtained.

  2. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments

  3. Abundance, Excess, Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rox De Luca

    2016-02-01

    Her recent work focuses on the concepts of abundance, excess and waste. These concerns translate directly into vibrant and colourful garlands that she constructs from discarded plastics collected on Bondi Beach where she lives. The process of collecting is fastidious, as is the process of sorting and grading the plastics by colour and size. This initial gathering and sorting process is followed by threading the components onto strings of wire. When completed, these assemblages stand in stark contrast to the ease of disposability associated with the materials that arrive on the shoreline as evidence of our collective human neglect and destruction of the environment around us. The contrast is heightened by the fact that the constructed garlands embody the paradoxical beauty of our plastic waste byproducts, while also evoking the ways by which those byproducts similarly accumulate in randomly assorted patterns across the oceans and beaches of the planet.

  4. Topiramate Induced Excessive Sialorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersel Dag

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that drugs such as clozapine and lithium can cause sialorrhea. On the other hand, topiramate has not been reported to induce sialorrhea. We report a case of a patient aged 26 who was given antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs due to severe mental retardation and intractable epilepsy and developed excessive sialorrhea complaint after the addition of topiramate for the control of seizures. His complaints continued for 1,5 years and ended after giving up topiramate. We presented this case since it was a rare sialorrhea case induced by topiramate. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of sialorrhea development which causes serious hygiene and social problems when they want to give topiramate to the patients using multiple drugs.

  5. Multichannel linear descriptors analysis for event-related EEG of vascular dementia patients during visual detection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wutao; Xu, Jin; Sheng, Hengsong; Zhao, Songzhen

    2011-11-01

    Multichannel EEG recorded in a task condition could contain more information about cognition. However, that has not been widely investigated in the vascular-dementia (VaD)- related studies. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences of brain functional states between VaD patients and normal controls while performing a detection task. Three multichannel linear descriptors, i.e. spatial complexity (Ω), field strength (Σ) and frequency of field changes (Φ), were applied to analyse four frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha and beta) of multichannel event-related EEG signals for 12 VaD patients (mean age ± SD: 69.25 ± 10.56 years ; MMSE score ± SD: 22.58 ± 4.42) and 12 age-matched healthy subjects (mean age ± SD: 67.17 ± 5.97 years ; MMSE score ± SD: 29.08 ± 0.9). The correlations between the three measures and MMSE scores were also analysed. VaD patients showed a significant higher Ω value in the delta (p = 0.013) and theta (p = 0.021) frequency bands, a lower Σ value (p = 0.011) and a higher Φ (p = 0.008) value in the delta frequency band compared with normal controls. The MMSE scores were negatively correlated with the Ω (r = -0.52, p = 0.01) and Φ (r = -0.47, p = 0.02) values in the delta frequency band. The results indicated the VaD patients presented a reduction of synchronization in the slow frequency band during target detection, and suggested more neurons might be activated in VaD patients compared with normal controls. The Ω and Φ measures in the delta frequency band might be used to evaluate the degree of cognitive dysfunction. The multichannel linear descriptors are promising measures to reveal the differences in brain functions between VaD patients and normal subjects, and could potentially be used to evaluate the degree of cognitive dysfunction in VaD patients. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Excessive progression in weekly running distance and risk of running-related injuries: an association which varies according to type of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Sørensen, Henrik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2014-10-01

    An explorative, 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury varies according to injury type. It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners who started a self-structured running regimen were provided a global-positioning-system watch. After each running session during the study period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups, based on the progression of their weekly running distance: less than 10% or regression, 10% to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. A total of 202 runners sustained a running-related injury. Using Cox regression analysis, no statistically significant differences in injury rates were found across the 3 exposure groups. An increased rate of distance-related injuries (patellofemoral pain, iliotibial band syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, gluteus medius injury, greater trochanteric bursitis, injury to the tensor fascia latae, and patellar tendinopathy) existed in those who progressed their weekly running distance by more than 30% compared with those who progressed less than 10% (hazard ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 2.66; P = .07). Novice runners who progressed their running distance by more than 30% over a 2-week period seem to be more vulnerable to distance-related injuries than runners who increase their running distance by less than 10%. Owing to the exploratory nature of the present study, randomized controlled trials are needed to verify these results, and more experimental studies are needed to validate the assumptions. Still, novice runners may be well advised to progress their weekly distances by less than 30% per week over a 2-week period.

  7. COVAR: Computer Program for Multifactor Relative Risks and Tests of Hypotheses Using a Variance-Covariance Matrix from Linear and Log-Linear Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif E. Peterson

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available A computer program for multifactor relative risks, confidence limits, and tests of hypotheses using regression coefficients and a variance-covariance matrix obtained from a previous additive or multiplicative regression analysis is described in detail. Data used by the program can be stored and input from an external disk-file or entered via the keyboard. The output contains a list of the input data, point estimates of single or joint effects, confidence intervals and tests of hypotheses based on a minimum modified chi-square statistic. Availability of the program is also discussed.

  8. Some folded issues related to over-shielded and unplanned rooms for medical linear accelerators - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Wazir; Ullah, Asad; Hussain, Amjad; Ali, Nawab; Alam, Khan; Khan, Gulzar; Matiullah; Maeng, Seongjin; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2015-08-01

    A medical linear accelerator (LINAC) room must be properly shielded to limit the outside radiation exposure to an acceptable safe level defined by individual state and international regulations. However, along with this prime objective, some additional issues are also important. The current case-study was designed to unfold the issues related to over-shielded and unplanned treatment rooms for LINACs. In this connection, an apparently unplanned and over-shielded treatment room of 610 × 610 cm2 in size was compared with a properly designed treatment room of 762 × 762 cm2 in size ( i.e., by following the procedures and recommendations of the IAEA Safety Reports Series No. 47 and NCRP 151). Evaluation of the unplanned room indicated that it was over-shielded and that its size was not suitable for total body irradiation (TBI), although the license for such a treatment facility had been acquired for the installed machine. An overall 14.96% reduction in the total shielding volume ( i.e., concrete) for an optimally planned room as compared to a non-planned room was estimated. Furthermore, the inner room's dimensions were increased by 25%, in order to accommodate TBI patients. These results show that planning and design of the treatment rooms are imperative to avoid extra financial burden to the hospitals and to provide enough space for easy and safe handling of the patients. A spacious room is ideal for storing treatment accessories and facilitates TBI treatment.

  9. Linear constraint relations in biochemical reaction systems: I. Classification of the calculability and the balanceability of conversion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, R T; Heijnen, J J; Hellinga, C; Romein, B; Luyben, K C

    1994-01-05

    Measurements provide the basis for process monitoring and control as well as for model development and validation. Systematic approaches to increase the accuracy and credibility of the empirical data set are therefore of great value. In (bio)chemical conversions, linear conservation relations such as the balance equations for charge, enthalpy, and/or chemical elements, can be employed to relate conversion rates. In a pactical situation, some of these rates will be measured (in effect, be calculated directly from primary measurements of, e.g., concentrations and flow rates), as others can or cannot be calculated from the measured ones. When certain measured rates can also be calculated from other measured rates, the set of equations, the accuracy and credibility of the measured rates can indeed be improved by, respectively, balancing and gross error diagnosis. The balanced conversion rates are more accurate, and form a consistent set of data, which is more suitable for further application (e.g., to calculate nonmeasured rates) than the raw measurements. Such an approach has drawn attention in previous studies. The current study deals mainly with the problem of mathematically classifying the conversion rates into balanceable and calculable rates, given the subset of measured rates. The significance of this problem is illustrated with some examples. It is shown that a simple matrix equation can be derived that contains the vector of measured conversion rates and the redundancy matrix R. Matrix R plays a predominant role in the classification problem. In supplementary articles, significance of the redundancy matrix R for an improved gross error diagnosis approach will be shown. In addition, efficient equations have been derived to calculate the balanceable and/or calculable rates. The method is completely based on matrix algebra (principally different from the graph-theoretical approach), and it is easily implemented into a computer program. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons

  10. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  11. The associations between adult body composition and abdominal adiposity outcomes, and relative weight gain and linear growth from birth to age 22 in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Prioreschi

    Full Text Available The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity.To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa.Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females. Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, 8-18, and 18-22. Whole body composition was measured at year 22 (range 21-25 years using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Total fat free soft tissue mass (FFSTM, fat mass, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT were recorded.Birth weight was positively associated with FFSTM and fat mass at year 22 (β = 0.11, p<0.01 and β = 0.10, p<0.01 respectively. Relative weight gain from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM, fat mass, VAT, and SAT at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 2 was positively associated with VAT at year 22. Being born small for gestational age and being stunted at age 2 years were inversely associated with FFSTM at year 22.The importance of optimal birth weight and growth tempos during early life for later life body composition, and the detrimental effects of pre- and postnatal growth restriction are clear; yet contemporary weight-gain most strongly predicted adult body composition. Thus interventions should target body composition trajectories during childhood and prevent excessive weight gain in early adulthood.

  12. Limiting law excess sum rule for polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Jonathan; Lee, YongJin; Jho, YongSeok

    2013-11-01

    We revisit the mean-field limiting law screening excess sum rule that holds for rodlike polyelectrolytes. We present an efficient derivation of this law that clarifies its region of applicability: The law holds in the limit of small polymer radius, measured relative to the Debye screening length. From the limiting law, we determine the individual ion excess values for single-salt electrolytes. We also consider the mean-field excess sum away from the limiting region, and we relate this quantity to the osmotic pressure of a dilute polyelectrolyte solution. Finally, we consider numerical simulations of many-body polymer-electrolyte solutions. We conclude that the limiting law often accurately describes the screening of physical charged polymers of interest, such as extended DNA.

  13. Measurements of the relative backscatter contribution to the monitor chamber for modern medical linear accelerators; A multi-center study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibolt, Patrik; Cronholm, Rickard O.; Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg

    2015-01-01

    Conversion to absolute dose in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of MV radiotherapy beams needs correct modeling of backscatter (BS) to the linear accelerator (linac) monitor chamber. For some linacs the BS depends largely on jaw settings. The backscattered fraction (BSF) of radiation can be determined...... BSF measurements were compared with MC simulations performed using the BEAMnrc user code. For flattened beams on the Varian linacs, the measured BSF exhibited a clear linear correlation with square jaw settings (correlation coefficient r > 0.9 with p

  14. Free energy of activation. Definition, properties, and dependent variables with special reference to linear free energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The reaction rate constant is expressed as Z exp(-G/sub a//RT). Z is the binary collision frequency. G/sub a/, the free energy of activation, is shown to be the difference between the free energy of the reactive reactants and the free energy of all reactants. The results are derived from both a statistical mechanical and a collision theoretic point of view. While the later is more suitable for an ab-initio computation of the reaction rate, it is the former that lends itself to the search of systematics and of correlations and to compaction of data. Different thermodynamic-like routes to the characterization of G/sub a/ are thus explored. The two most promising ones appear to be the use of thermodynamic type cycles and the changes of dependent variables using the Legendre transform technique. The dependence of G/sub a/ on ΔG 0 , the standard free energy change in the reaction, is examined from the later point of view. It is shown that one can rigorously express this dependence as G/sub a/ = αΔG 0 + G/sub a/ 0 M(α). Here α is the Bronsted slope, α = -par. delta ln k(T)/par. delta(ΔG 0 /RT), G/sub a/ 0 is independent of ΔG 0 and M(α), the Legendre transform of G/sub a/, is a function only of α. For small changes in ΔG 0 , the general result reduces to the familiar ''linear'' free energy relation delta G/sub a/ = α delta ΔG 0 . It is concluded from general considerations that M(α) is a symmetric, convex function of α and hence that α is a monotonically increasing function of ΔG 0 . Experimental data appear to conform well to the form α = 1/[1 + exp(-ΔG 0 /G/sub s/ 0 )]. A simple interpretation of the ΔG 0 dependence of G/sub a/, based on an interpolation of the free energy from that of the reagents to that of the products, is offered. 4 figures, 69 references

  15. Patterns of Failure After Proton Therapy in Medulloblastoma; Linear Energy Transfer Distributions and Relative Biological Effectiveness Associations for Relapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Roshan V.; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Raiford, Michael; Malhi, Imran; Niemierko, Andrzej; Rapalino, Otto; Caruso, Paul; Yock, Torunn I.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Paganetti, Harald; MacDonald, Shannon M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The pattern of failure in medulloblastoma patients treated with proton radiation therapy is unknown. For this increasingly used modality, it is important to ensure that outcomes are comparable to those in modern photon series. It has been suggested this pattern may differ from photons because of variations in linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). In addition, the use of matching fields for delivery of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) may influence patterns of relapse. Here we report the patterns of failure after the use of protons, compare it to that in the available photon literature, and determine the LET and RBE values in areas of recurrence. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of patients with medulloblastoma treated with proton radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) between 2002 and 2011. We documented the locations of first relapse. Discrete failures were contoured on the original planning computed tomography scan. Monte Carlo calculation methods were used to estimate the proton LET distribution. Models were used to estimate RBE values based on the LET distributions. Results: A total of 109 patients were followed for a median of 38.8 months (range, 1.4-119.2 months). Of the patients, 16 experienced relapse. Relapse involved the supratentorial compartment (n=8), spinal compartment (n=11), and posterior fossa (n=5). Eleven failures were isolated to a single compartment; 6 failures in the spine, 4 failures in the supratentorium, and 1 failure in the posterior fossa. The remaining patients had multiple sites of disease. One isolated spinal failure occurred at the spinal junction of 2 fields. None of the 70 patients treated with an involved-field-only boost failed in the posterior fossa outside of the tumor bed. We found no correlation between Monte Carlo-calculated LET distribution and regions of recurrence. Conclusions: The most common site of failure in patients treated with protons for

  16. Comparison of x ray computed tomography number to proton relative linear stopping power conversion functions using a standard phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F

    2014-06-01

    Adequate evaluation of the results from multi-institutional trials involving light ion beam treatments requires consideration of the planning margins applied to both targets and organs at risk. A major uncertainty that affects the size of these margins is the conversion of x ray computed tomography numbers (XCTNs) to relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Various facilities engaged in multi-institutional clinical trials involving proton beams have been applying significantly different margins in their patient planning. This study was performed to determine the variance in the conversion functions used at proton facilities in the U.S.A. wishing to participate in National Cancer Institute sponsored clinical trials. A simplified method of determining the conversion function was developed using a standard phantom containing only water and aluminum. The new method was based on the premise that all scanners have their XCTNs for air and water calibrated daily to constant values but that the XCTNs for high density/high atomic number materials are variable with different scanning conditions. The standard phantom was taken to 10 different proton facilities and scanned with the local protocols resulting in 14 derived conversion functions which were compared to the conversion functions used at the local facilities. For tissues within ±300 XCTN of water, all facility functions produced converted RLSP values within ±6% of the values produced by the standard function and within 8% of the values from any other facility's function. For XCTNs corresponding to lung tissue, converted RLSP values differed by as great as ±8% from the standard and up to 16% from the values of other facilities. For XCTNs corresponding to low-density immobilization foam, the maximum to minimum values differed by as much as 40%. The new method greatly simplifies determination of the conversion function, reduces ambiguity, and in the future could promote standardization between facilities. Although it

  17. Do non-targeted effects increase or decrease low dose risk in relation to the linear-non-threshold (LNT) model?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review the evidence for departure from linearity for malignant and non-malignant disease and in the light of this assess likely mechanisms, and in particular the potential role for non-targeted effects. Excess cancer risks observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in many medically and occupationally exposed groups exposed at low or moderate doses are generally statistically compatible. For most cancer sites the dose-response in these groups is compatible with linearity over the range observed. The available data on biological mechanisms do not provide general support for the idea of a low dose threshold or hormesis. This large body of evidence does not suggest, indeed is not statistically compatible with, any very large threshold in dose for cancer, or with possible hormetic effects, and there is little evidence of the sorts of non-linearity in response implied by non-DNA-targeted effects. There are also excess risks of various types of non-malignant disease in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in other groups. In particular, elevated risks of cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and digestive disease are observed in the A-bomb data. In contrast with cancer, there is much less consistency in the patterns of risk between the various exposed groups; for example, radiation-associated respiratory and digestive diseases have not been seen in these other (non-A-bomb) groups. Cardiovascular risks have been seen in many exposed populations, particularly in medically exposed groups, but in contrast with cancer there is much less consistency in risk between studies: risks per unit dose in epidemiological studies vary over at least two orders of magnitude, possibly a result of confounding and effect modification by well known (but unobserved) risk factors. In the absence of a convincing mechanistic explanation of epidemiological evidence that is, at present, less than persuasive, a cause-and-effect interpretation of the reported

  18. An efficient synthesis of linear β-(1→6)-galactan oligosaccharides related to plant cell wall glycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Christian Franch; Arentoft, Camilla Anna Søholt; Boos, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Galactans are linear structures mainly found in arabinogalactan glycans and RG-I side chains. As a follow-up to our work on both β-(1→3)-linked and β-(1→4)-linked galactans, we herein report a convergent synthesis of β-(1→6)-galactan using our previously synthesized 4,6-benzylidene protected disa...

  19. Does excessive pronation cause pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, C G; Nielsen, Rasmus Gottschalk N; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal

    2008-01-01

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist of ...

  20. State dependent pseudo-resonances and excess noise

    OpenAIRE

    Papoff, F.; D'Alessandro, G.; Oppo, G.Luca

    2008-01-01

    We show that strong response to nonresonant modulations and excess noise are state dependent in generic nonlinear systems; i.e., they affect some output states but are absent from others. This is demonstrated in complex Swift-Hohenberg models relevant to optics, where it is caused by the non-normality of the linearized stability operators around selected output states, even though the cavity modes are orthogonal. In particular, we find the effective parameters that control excess noise and th...

  1. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. Short nocturnal sleep duration resulting in sleep debt may be a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Severity of depression (psychopathology) has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an ...

  2. Excessive Gambling and Online Gambling Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirola, Anu; Kaakinen, Markus; Oksanen, Atte

    2018-04-05

    The Internet provides an accessible context for online gambling and gambling-related online communities, such as discussion forums for gamblers. These communities may be particularly attractive to young gamblers who are active Internet users. The aim of this study was to examine the use of gambling-related online communities and their relevance to excessive gambling among 15-25-year-old Finnish Internet users (N = 1200). Excessive gambling was assessed by using the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Respondents were asked in a survey about their use of various kinds of gambling-related online communities, and sociodemographic and behavioral factors were adjusted. The results of the study revealed that over half (54.33%) of respondents who had visited gambling-related online communities were either at-risk gamblers or probable pathological gamblers. Discussion in these communities was mainly based on sharing gambling tips and experiences, and very few respondents said that they related to gambling problems and recovery. In three different regression models, visiting gambling-related online communities was a significant predictor for excessive gambling (with 95% confidence level) even after adjusting confounding factors. The association of visiting such sites was even stronger among probable pathological gamblers than among at-risk gamblers. Health professionals working with young people should be aware of the role of online communities in terms of development and persistence of excessive gambling. Monitoring the use of online gambling communities as well as utilizing recovery-oriented support both offline and online would be important in preventing further problems. Gambling platforms should also include warnings about excessive gambling and provide links to helpful sources.

  3. Relations between broad-band linear polarization and Ca II H and K emission in late-type dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovelin, Juhani; Saar, Steven H.; Tuominen, Ilkka

    1988-01-01

    Broadband UBV linear polarization data acquired for a sample of late-type dwarfs are compared with contemporaneous measurements of Ca II H and K line core emission. A weighted average of the largest values of the polarization degree is shown to be the best parameter for chromospheric activity diagnosis. The average maximum polarization in the UV is found to increase from late-F to late-G stars. It is noted that polarization in the U band is considerably more sensitive to activity variations than that in the B or V bands. The results indicate that stellar magnetic fields and the resulting saturation in the Zeeman-sensitive absorption lines are the most probably source of linear polarization in late-type main-sequence stars.

  4. Relation between nonlinear or 'not-linear' characteristics in nuclear kinetics and noise analysis of neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, H.

    1975-01-01

    The 'not-linear' or '2nd-class-nonlinear' characteristics in nuclear reactor kinetics with the feedback effect in the high-power operation and induce the increase in the amplitude of the neutron flux noise, specially in the very low frequency region. The fundamental behaviour of 'not-linear' characteristics and its effect for the reactor noise was investigated. Application of the reactor noise analysis technique to power reactors has not been successful because of unknown large disagreement between the result of the conventional theoretical analysis and the experimental facts. When the cause of this discrepancy is clear, reactor noise analysis techniques can be effectively applied to instrumentation, control, monitoring and diagnosis of power reactors. (author)

  5. The Schrödinger representation and its relation to the holomorphic representation in linear and affine field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeckl, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We establish a precise isomorphism between the Schrödinger representation and the holomorphic representation in linear and affine field theory. In the linear case, this isomorphism is induced by a one-to-one correspondence between complex structures and Schrödinger vacua. In the affine case we obtain similar results, with the role of the vacuum now taken by a whole family of coherent states. In order to establish these results we exhibit a rigorous construction of the Schrödinger representation and use a suitable generalization of the Segal-Bargmann transform. Our construction is based on geometric quantization and applies to any real polarization and its pairing with any Kähler polarization.

  6. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...... of antipronation shoes or insoles, which latest was studied by Kulce DG., et al (2007). So far there have been no randomized controlled studies showing methods that the effect of this treatment has not been documented. Therefore the authors can measure the effect of treatments with insoles. Some of the excessive...

  7. An improved method to simulate water and biological tissues in relation to linear interactions with photons and fast electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geske, G.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation physical problems in clinical dosimetry often need for their experimental solution the linear coefficients of interaction between radiation and irradiated matter. Using modified material parameters (the products of mass density and the earlier defined effective material parameters) it was possible to derive an improved method to calculate the composition of an equivalent for a material to be substituted. The method is described and its usefulness demonstrated by some examples. A geometric analogue facilitates the solution if a computer is not available. Some comparisons are made between this method and the basic data method of White. (orig.) [de

  8. On the existence of eigenmodes of linear quasi-periodic differential equations and their relation to the MHD continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salat, A.

    1981-12-01

    The existence of quasi-periodic eigensolutions of a linear second order ordinary differential equation with quasi-periodic coefficient f(ω 1 t,ω 2 t) is investigated numerically and graphically. For sufficiently incommensurate frequencies ω 1 , ω 2 a doubly indexed infinite sequence of eigenvalues and eigenmodes is obtained. The equation considered is a model for the magneto-hydrodynamic 'continuum' in general toroidal geometry. The result suggests that continuum modes exist at least on sufficiently irrational magnetic surfaces. (orig.)

  9. Accelerator Physics Challenges for Future Linear Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raubenheimer, Tor O

    1999-08-09

    At the present time, there are a number of future linear collider designs with a center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV or more with luminosities in excess of 10{sup -34}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} . Many of these designs are at an advanced state of development. However, to attain the high luminosity, the colliders require very small beam emittances, strong focusing, and very good stability. In this paper, some of the outstanding issues related to producing and maintaining the small beam sizes are discussed. Although the different designs are based on very different rf technologies, many of these problems are common.

  10. Linear gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  11. Subdwarf ultraviolet excesses and metal abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    The relation between stellar ultraviolet excesses and abundances is reexamined with the aid of new data, and an investigation is made of the accuracy of previous abundance analyses. A high-resolution echellogram of the subdwarf HD 201891 is analyzed to illustrate some of the problems. Generally, the earliest and latest analytical techniques yield consistent results for dwarfs. New UBV data yield normalized ultraviolet excesses, delta (U-B)/sub 0.6/, which are compared to abundances to produce a graphical relation that may be used to estimate [Fe/H] to +- 0.2 dex, given UBV colors accurate to +- 0.01 mag. The relation suggests a possible discontinuity between the halo and old-disk stars

  12. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  13. The Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Excess Peripheral H Atoms (H(sub n)-PAHs) and their Relation to the 3.4 and 6.9 Micrometer PAH Emission Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Materese, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    A population of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related materials are thought to be responsible for the family of infrared emission features that are seen towards a wide variety of astrophysical environments. A potentially important subclass of these materials are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons whose edges contain excess H atoms (H(sub n)-PAHs). While it has been suggested that this type of compound may be present in the interstellar population, it has been difficult to properly assess this possibility because of a lack of suitable infrared laboratory spectra to assist with analysis of the astronomical data. We present the 4000-500 cm(exp -1) (2.5-20 micrometers) infrared spectra of 23 H(sub n)-PAHs and related molecules isolated in argon matrices, under conditions suitable for use in the interpretation of astronomical data. The spectra of molecules with mixed aromatic and aliphatic domains show unique characteristics that distinguish them from their fully aromatic PAH equivalents. We discuss the changes to the spectra of these types of molecules as they transition from fully aromatic to fully aliphatic forms. The implications for the interpretation of astronomical spectra are discussed with specific emphasis on the 3.4 and 6.9 micrometer features. Laboratory data is compared with emission spectra from IRAS 21282+5050, an object with normal PAH emission features, in addition to IRAS 22272+5435 and IRAS 0496+3429, two protoplanetary nebulae with abnormally large 3.4 micrometer features. We show that 'normal' PAH emission objects contain relatively few H(sub n)-PAHs in their emitter populations, but less evolved protoplanetary nebulae may contain significant abundances of these molecules.

  14. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  15. Comparison of multiple linear regression, partial least squares and artificial neural networks for prediction of gas chromatographic relative retention times of trimethylsilylated anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, A G; Farmaki, E; Thomaidis, N; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A; Angelis, Y S; Koupparis, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2012-09-21

    The comparison among different modelling techniques, such as multiple linear regression, partial least squares and artificial neural networks, has been performed in order to construct and evaluate models for prediction of gas chromatographic relative retention times of trimethylsilylated anabolic androgenic steroids. The performance of the quantitative structure-retention relationship study, using the multiple linear regression and partial least squares techniques, has been previously conducted. In the present study, artificial neural networks models were constructed and used for the prediction of relative retention times of anabolic androgenic steroids, while their efficiency is compared with that of the models derived from the multiple linear regression and partial least squares techniques. For overall ranking of the models, a novel procedure [Trends Anal. Chem. 29 (2010) 101-109] based on sum of ranking differences was applied, which permits the best model to be selected. The suggested models are considered useful for the estimation of relative retention times of designer steroids for which no analytical data are available. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson, R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation

  17. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson , R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation.

  18. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  19. Androgen excess: Investigations and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizneva, Daria; Gavrilova-Jordan, Larisa; Walker, Walidah; Azziz, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    Androgen excess (AE) is a key feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and results in, or contributes to, the clinical phenotype of these patients. Although AE will contribute to the ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction of these patients, the most recognizable sign of AE includes hirsutism, acne, and androgenic alopecia or female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Evaluation includes not only scoring facial and body terminal hair growth using the modified Ferriman-Gallwey method but also recording and possibly scoring acne and alopecia. Moreover, assessment of biochemical hyperandrogenism is necessary, particularly in patients with unclear or absent hirsutism, and will include assessing total and free testosterone (T), and possibly dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione, although these latter contribute limitedly to the diagnosis. Assessment of T requires use of the highest quality assays available, generally radioimmunoassays with extraction and chromatography or mass spectrometry preceded by liquid or gas chromatography. Management of clinical hyperandrogenism involves primarily either androgen suppression, with a hormonal combination contraceptive, or androgen blockade, as with an androgen receptor blocker or a 5α-reductase inhibitor, or a combination of the two. Medical treatment should be combined with cosmetic treatment including topical eflornithine hydrochloride and short-term (shaving, chemical depilation, plucking, threading, waxing, and bleaching) and long-term (electrolysis, laser therapy, and intense pulse light therapy) cosmetic treatments. Generally, acne responds to therapy relatively rapidly, whereas hirsutism is slower to respond, with improvements observed as early as 3 months, but routinely only after 6 or 8 months of therapy. Finally, FPHL is the slowest to respond to therapy, if it will at all, and it may take 12 to 18 months of therapy for an observable response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Linear and nonlinear physics of the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability of fusion-born ions in relation to ion cyclotron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, L., E-mail: L.Carbajal-Gomez@warwick.ac.uk; Cook, J. W. S. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Dendy, R. O. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. C. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Tromsø, N-9037, Tromsø (Norway); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, D-01187, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    The magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MCI) probably underlies observations of ion cyclotron emission (ICE) from energetic ion populations in tokamak plasmas, including fusion-born alpha-particles in JET and TFTR [Dendy et al., Nucl. Fusion 35, 1733 (1995)]. ICE is a potential diagnostic for lost alpha-particles in ITER; furthermore, the MCI is representative of a class of collective instabilities, which may result in the partial channelling of the free energy of energetic ions into radiation, and away from collisional heating of the plasma. Deep understanding of the MCI is thus of substantial practical interest for fusion, and the hybrid approximation for the plasma, where ions are treated as particles and electrons as a neutralising massless fluid, offers an attractive way forward. The hybrid simulations presented here access MCI physics that arises on timescales longer than can be addressed by fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations and by analytical linear theory, which the present simulations largely corroborate. Our results go further than previous studies by entering into the nonlinear stage of the MCI, which shows novel features. These include stronger drive at low cyclotron harmonics, the re-energisation of the alpha-particle population, self-modulation of the phase shift between the electrostatic and electromagnetic components, and coupling between low and high frequency modes of the excited electromagnetic field.

  1. Design and evaluation of antimalarial peptides derived from prediction of short linear motifs in proteins related to erythrocyte invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bianchin

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the blood stage of the malaria causing parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, to predict potential protein interactions between the parasite merozoite and the host erythrocyte and design peptides that could interrupt these predicted interactions. We screened the P. falciparum and human proteomes for computationally predicted short linear motifs (SLiMs in cytoplasmic portions of transmembrane proteins that could play roles in the invasion of the erythrocyte by the merozoite, an essential step in malarial pathogenesis. We tested thirteen peptides predicted to contain SLiMs, twelve of them palmitoylated to enhance membrane targeting, and found three that blocked parasite growth in culture by inhibiting the initiation of new infections in erythrocytes. Scrambled peptides for two of the most promising peptides suggested that their activity may be reflective of amino acid properties, in particular, positive charge. However, one peptide showed effects which were stronger than those of scrambled peptides. This was derived from human red blood cell glycophorin-B. We concluded that proteome-wide computational screening of the intracellular regions of both host and pathogen adhesion proteins provides potential lead peptides for the development of anti-malarial compounds.

  2. Limiting excessive postoperative blood transfusion after cardiac procedures. A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraris, V A; Ferraris, S P

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of blood product use after cardiac operations reveals that a few patients ( 80%). The risk factors that predispose a minority of patients to excessive blood use include patient-related factors, transfusion practices, drug-related causes, and procedure-related factors. Multivariate studies suggest that patient age and red blood cell volume are independent patient-related variables that predict excessive blood product transfusion aft...

  3. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excess Income. 236.60 Section 236... § 236.60 Excess Income. (a) Definition. Excess Income consists of cash collected as rent from the... Rent. The unit-by-unit requirement necessitates that, if a unit has Excess Income, the Excess Income...

  4. A new approach to analyse longitudinal epidemiological data with an excess of zeros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriensma, Alette S; Hajos, Tibor R S; de Boer, Michiel R; Heymans, Martijn W; Twisk, Jos W R

    2013-02-20

    Within longitudinal epidemiological research, 'count' outcome variables with an excess of zeros frequently occur. Although these outcomes are frequently analysed with a linear mixed model, or a Poisson mixed model, a two-part mixed model would be better in analysing outcome variables with an excess of zeros. Therefore, objective of this paper was to introduce the relatively 'new' method of two-part joint regression modelling in longitudinal data analysis for outcome variables with an excess of zeros, and to compare the performance of this method to current approaches. Within an observational longitudinal dataset, we compared three techniques; two 'standard' approaches (a linear mixed model, and a Poisson mixed model), and a two-part joint mixed model (a binomial/Poisson mixed distribution model), including random intercepts and random slopes. Model fit indicators, and differences between predicted and observed values were used for comparisons. The analyses were performed with STATA using the GLLAMM procedure. Regarding the random intercept models, the two-part joint mixed model (binomial/Poisson) performed best. Adding random slopes for time to the models changed the sign of the regression coefficient for both the Poisson mixed model and the two-part joint mixed model (binomial/Poisson) and resulted into a much better fit. This paper showed that a two-part joint mixed model is a more appropriate method to analyse longitudinal data with an excess of zeros compared to a linear mixed model and a Poisson mixed model. However, in a model with random slopes for time a Poisson mixed model also performed remarkably well.

  5. Excess isentropic compressibility and speed of sound of the ternary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These excess properties of the binary mixtures were fitted to Redlich-Kister equation, while the Cibulka's equation was used to fit the values related to the values to the ternary system. These excess properties have been used to discuss the presence of significant interactions between the component molecules in the binary ...

  6. Goodwill, Excess Returns, and Determinants of Value Creation and Overpayment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lycklama a Nijeholt, M.; Grift, Y.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073586358

    2007-01-01

    In this article we have investigated whether the determinants of excess returns (especially of target excess returns) are valid for purchased goodwill as well. Among them are acquirer’s and target’s Tobin’s q, and debt assets ratio, that explain value creation of acquisitions, and relative size,

  7. Neurological manifestations of excessive alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Ballvé, Anna; Grau-López, Laia; Morillas, Rosa María; Planas, Ramón

    2017-12-01

    This article reviews the different acute and chronic neurological manifestations of excessive alcohol consumption that affect the central or peripheral nervous system. Several mechanisms can be implicated depending on the disorder, ranging from nutritional factors, alcohol-related toxicity, metabolic changes and immune-mediated mechanisms. Recognition and early treatment of these manifestations is essential given their association with high morbidity and significantly increased mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  8. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most...

  9. Linear Accelerator Stereotactic Radiosurgery of Central Nervous System Arteriovenous Malformations: A 15-Year Analysis of Outcome-Related Factors in a Single Tertiary Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenier-Villa, José Luis; Galárraga-Campoverde, Raúl Alejandro; Martínez Rolán, Rosa María; De La Lama Zaragoza, Adolfo Ramón; Martínez Cueto, Pedro; Muñoz Garzón, Víctor; Salgado Fernández, Manuel; Conde Alonso, Cesáreo

    2017-07-01

    Linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery is one of the modalities available for the treatment of central nervous system arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The aim of this study was to describe our 15-year experience with this technique in a single tertiary center and the analysis of outcome-related factors. From 1998 to 2013, 195 patients were treated with linear accelerator-based radiosurgery; we conducted a retrospective study collecting patient- and AVM-related variables. Treatment outcomes were obliteration, posttreatment hemorrhage, symptomatic radiation-induced changes, and 3-year neurologic status. We also analyzed prognostic factors of each outcome and predictability analysis of 5 scales: Spetzler-Martin grade, Lawton-Young supplementary and Lawton combined scores, radiosurgery-based AVM score, Virginia Radiosurgery AVM Scale, and Heidelberg score. Overall obliteration rate was 81%. Nidus diameter and venous drainage were predictive of obliteration (P linear accelerator-based radiosurgery is a useful, valid, effective, and safe modality for treatment of brain AVMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Parental alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol-specific attitudes, alcohol-specific communication, and adolescent excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems: An indirect path model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-specific parent-child communication has often been studied in relation to regular alcohol use of adolescents. However, it might be as important to focus on adolescent problematic alcohol use. In addition, the way parents communicate with their children about alcohol might depend on their own

  11. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  12. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... Women normally produce low levels of male hormones (androgens). If your body makes too much of this ...

  13. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  14. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  15. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  16. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  17. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  18. A comparison between linear and toroidal Extrap systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1988-09-01

    The Extrap scheme consists of a Z-pinch immersed in an octupole field generated by currents in a set of external conductors. A comparison between linear and toroidal Extrap geometry is made in this paper. As compared to toroidal systems, linear geometry has the advantages of relative simplicity and of a current drive by means of electrodes. Linear devices are convenient for basic studies of Extrap, at moderately high pinch currents and plasma temperatures. Within the parameter ranges of experiments at high pinch currents and plasma temperatures, linear systems have on the other hand some substantial disadvantages, on account of the plasma interaction with the end regions. This results in a limitation of the energy confinement time, and leads in the case of an ohmically heated plasma to excessively high plasma densities and small pinch radii which also complicate the introduction of the external conductors. (author)

  19. An expression of excess work during the transition between nonequilibrium steady states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuge, Tatsuro

    2014-01-01

    Excess work is a nondiverging part of the work during the transition between nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). It is a central quantity in steady-state thermodynamics (SST), which is a candidate for nonequilibrium thermodynamics theory. We derive an expression of excess work during quasistatic transitions between NESSs by using the macroscopic linear response relation of the NESS. This expression is a line integral of a vector potential in the space of control parameters. We show a relationship between the vector potential and the response function of the NESS, and thus obtain a relationship between the SST and a macroscopic quantity. We also connect the macroscopic formulation to microscopic physics through a microscopic expression of the nonequilibrium response function, which gives a result that is consistent with previous studies. (paper)

  20. Stochastic lumping analysis for linear kinetics and its application to the fluctuation relations between hierarchical kinetic networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, De-Ming; Chang, Cheng-Hung [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-14

    Conventional studies of biomolecular behaviors rely largely on the construction of kinetic schemes. Since the selection of these networks is not unique, a concern is raised whether and under which conditions hierarchical schemes can reveal the same experimentally measured fluctuating behaviors and unique fluctuation related physical properties. To clarify these questions, we introduce stochasticity into the traditional lumping analysis, generalize it from rate equations to chemical master equations and stochastic differential equations, and extract the fluctuation relations between kinetically and thermodynamically equivalent networks under intrinsic and extrinsic noises. The results provide a theoretical basis for the legitimate use of low-dimensional models in the studies of macromolecular fluctuations and, more generally, for exploring stochastic features in different levels of contracted networks in chemical and biological kinetic systems.

  1. Stochastic lumping analysis for linear kinetics and its application to the fluctuation relations between hierarchical kinetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, De-Ming; Chang, Cheng-Hung

    2015-05-14

    Conventional studies of biomolecular behaviors rely largely on the construction of kinetic schemes. Since the selection of these networks is not unique, a concern is raised whether and under which conditions hierarchical schemes can reveal the same experimentally measured fluctuating behaviors and unique fluctuation related physical properties. To clarify these questions, we introduce stochasticity into the traditional lumping analysis, generalize it from rate equations to chemical master equations and stochastic differential equations, and extract the fluctuation relations between kinetically and thermodynamically equivalent networks under intrinsic and extrinsic noises. The results provide a theoretical basis for the legitimate use of low-dimensional models in the studies of macromolecular fluctuations and, more generally, for exploring stochastic features in different levels of contracted networks in chemical and biological kinetic systems.

  2. Psychological detachment from work during non-work time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement?

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMAZU, Akihito; MATSUDAIRA, Ko; DE JONGE, Jan; TOSAKA, Naoya; WATANABE, Kazuhiro; TAKAHASHI, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental he...

  3. Understanding Excess Emissions from Industrial Facilities: Evidence from Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirogiannis, Nikolaos; Hollingsworth, Alex J; Konisky, David M

    2018-03-06

    We analyze excess emissions from industrial facilities in Texas using data from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Emissions are characterized as excess if they are beyond a facility's permitted levels and if they occur during startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. We provide summary data on both the pollutants most often emitted as excess emissions and the industrial sectors and facilities responsible for those emissions. Excess emissions often represent a substantial share of a facility's routine (or permitted) emissions. We find that while excess emissions events are frequent, the majority of excess emissions are emitted by the largest events. That is, the sum of emissions in the 96-100th percentile is often several orders of magnitude larger than the remaining excess emissions (i.e., the sum of emissions below the 95th percentile). Thus, the majority of events emit a small amount of pollution relative to the total amount emitted. In addition, a small group of high emitting facilities in the most polluting industrial sectors are responsible for the vast majority of excess emissions. Using an integrated assessment model, we estimate that the health damages in Texas from excess emissions are approximately $150 million annually.

  4. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified

  5. Analysis of the collagen birefringence and the relative attenuation coefficient of health and burned skin irradiated with linearly polarized He-Ne laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Daniela de Fatima Teixeira da

    2002-01-01

    Low-intensity laser therapy is characterized by its ability to induce athermic effects and nondestructive photobiological processes. Although it has been in use for more than 40 years, this phototherapy is still not an established therapeutic modality. The objectives of this study were: to quantify the collagen fibers organization by polarized light microscopy in normal and burned skin samples at day 17 post-injury considering preferential axis as the animal's spinal column and aligning the linear laser polarization in two directions of polarization, parallel or perpendicular to this axis; to determine the relative attenuation coefficient for the intensity light by the technique of imaging the light distribution in normal and burned skin during wound healing process taking only parallel direction of polarization. To reach the objectives, burns about 6 mm in diameter were created with liquid N 2 on the back of the rats and the lesions were irradiated on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 post-wounding, D= 1 J/cm 2 , to investigate the effects of low-intensity linearly polarized He-Ne laser beam on skin wounds healing. Control lesions were not irradiated. The results have demonstrated that: the skin samples irradiated with linearly parallel polarized He-Ne laser beam showed collagen fibers more organized; burned skin samples presents a higher attenuation coefficient than normal skin samples. These results are important to optimize low intensity laser therapy dosimetry on acceleration wound healing. (author)

  6. Psychological detachment from work during non-work time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Matsudaira, Ko; Jonge, Jan DE; Tosaka, Naoya; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2016-06-10

    This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental health, and work engagement as well as for job characteristics and demographic variables as potential confounders. The hypothesized model was tested with moderated structural equation modeling techniques among 2,234 respondents working in the tertiary industries with regular employment. Results showed that psychological detachment had curvilinear relations with mental health as well as with work engagement. Mental health improved when psychological detachment increased from a low to higher levels but did not benefit any further from extremely high levels of psychological detachment. Work engagement showed the highest level at an intermediate level of detachment (inverted U-shaped pattern). Although high psychological detachment may enhance employee mental health, moderate levels of psychological detachment are most beneficial for his or her work engagement.

  7. Linear collider: a preview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  8. Linear collider: a preview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  9. Relatively lower body mass index is associated with an excess of severe truncal asymmetry in healthy adolescents: Do white adipose tissue, leptin, hypothalamus and sympathetic nervous system influence truncal growth asymmetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In healthy adolescents normal back shape asymmetry, here termed truncal asymmetry (TA, is evaluated by higher and lower subsets of BMI. The study was initiated after research on girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS showed that higher and lower BMI subsets discriminated patterns of skeletal maturation and asymmetry unexplained by existing theories of pathogenesis leading to a new interpretation which has therapeutic implications (double neuro-osseous theory. Methods 5953 adolescents age 11–17 years (boys 2939, girls 3014 were examined in a school screening program in two standard positions, standing forward bending (FB and sitting FB. The sitting FB position is thought to reveal intrinsic TA free from back humps induced by any leg-length inequality. TA was measured in both positions using a Pruijs scoliometer as angle of trunk inclinations (ATIs across the back at each of three spinal regions, thoracic, thoracolumbar and lumbar. Abnormality of ATIs was defined as being outside 2 standard deviations for each age group, gender, position and spinal region, and termed severe TA. Results In the sitting FB position after correcting for age,relatively lower BMIs are statistically associated with a greater number of severe TAs than with relatively higher BMIs in both girls (thoracolumbar region and boys (thoracolumbar and lumbar regions. The relative frequency of severe TAs is significantly higher in girls than boys for each of the right thoracic (56.76% and thoracolumbar (58.82% regions (p = 0.006, 0.006, respectively. After correcting for age, smaller BMIs are associated with more severe TAs in boys and girls. Discussion BMI is a surrogate measure for body fat and circulating leptin levels. The finding that girls with relatively lower BMI have significantly later menarche, and a significant excess of TAs, suggests a relation to energy homeostasis through the hypothalamus. The hypothesis we suggest for the pathogenesis

  10. Linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  11. Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  12. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  13. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...... not have seen the same improvement in life expectancy as the general population during the past decades. Thus, the mortality gap not only persists but may actually have increased. The most urgent research agenda concerns primary candidates for modifiable risk factors contributing to this excess mortality...

  14. Severe rhabdomyolysis after excessive bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, J; Zuntner, G; Fuchs, M; Weinberger, A

    2007-12-01

    A 46-year-old male subject performed excessive physical exertion during 4-6 h in a studio for body builders during 5 days. He was not practicing sport prior to this training and denied the use of any aiding substances. Despite muscle aching already after 1 day, he continued the exercises. After the last day, he recognized tiredness and cessation of urine production. Two days after discontinuation of the training, a Herpes simplex infection occurred. Because of acute renal failure, he required hemodialysis. There were absent tendon reflexes and creatine kinase (CK) values up to 208 274 U/L (normal: <170 U/L). After 2 weeks, CK had almost normalized and, after 4 weeks, hemodialysis was discontinued. Excessive muscle training may result in severe, hemodialysis-dependent rhabdomyolysis. Triggering factors may be prior low fitness level, viral infection, or subclinical metabolic myopathy.

  15. Verification of excess defense material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.; Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has expressed an interest in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring excess materials, which include both classified and unclassified materials. Although the IAEA has suggested the need to address inspections of both types of materials, the most troublesome and potentially difficult problems involve approaches to the inspection of classified materials. The key issue for placing classified nuclear components and materials under IAEA safeguards is the conflict between these traditional IAEA materials accounting procedures and the US classification laws and nonproliferation policy designed to prevent the disclosure of critical weapon-design information. Possible verification approaches to classified excess defense materials could be based on item accountancy, attributes measurements, and containment and surveillance. Such approaches are not wholly new; in fact, they are quite well established for certain unclassified materials. Such concepts may be applicable to classified items, but the precise approaches have yet to be identified, fully tested, or evaluated for technical and political feasibility, or for their possible acceptability in an international inspection regime. Substantial work remains in these areas. This paper examines many of the challenges presented by international inspections of classified materials

  16. Excess water dynamics in hydrotalcite: QENS study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dynamics of excess water in hydrotalcite sample with varied content of excess water are reported. Translational motion of excess water can be best described by random transla- tional jump diffusion model. The observed increase in translational diffusivity with increase in the amount of excess water is attributed to the ...

  17. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.16 Excess costs. Excess costs means those costs that... for an example of how excess costs must be calculated.) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(8)) ...

  18. Climatic controls on water vapor deuterium excess in the marine boundary layer of the North Atlantic based on 500 days of in situ, continuous measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Steen-Larsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous, in situ measurements of water vapor isotopic composition have been conducted in the North Atlantic, at the Bermuda Islands (32.26° N, 64.88° W, between November 2011 and June 2013, using a cavity ring-down spectrometer water vapor isotope analyzer and an autonomous self-designed calibration system. Meticulous calibration allows us to reach an accuracy and precision on 10 min average of δ18O, δ D, and d-excess of, 0.14, 0.85, and 1.1‰, verified using two parallel instruments with independent calibration. As a result of more than 500 days with 6-hourly data the relationships between deuterium excess, relative humidity (RH, sea surface temperature (SST, wind speed, and wind direction are assessed. From the whole data set, 84 % of d-excess variance is explained by a strong linear relationship with relative humidity. The slope of this relationship (−42.6 ± 0.4‰ % (RH is similar to the theoretical prediction of Merlivat and Jouzel (1979 for SST between 20 and 30 °C. However, in contrast with theory, no effect of wind speed could be detected on the relationship between d-excess and relative humidity. Separating the data set into winter, spring, summer, and autumn seasons reveals different linear relationships between d-excess and humidity. Changes in wind directions are observed to affect the relationships between d-excess and humidity. The observed seasonal variability in the relationship between d-excess and relative humidity underlines the importance of long-term monitoring to make accurate conclusions.

  19. The influence of follow-up on DS02 low-dose ranges with a significant excess relative risk of all solid cancer in the Japanese A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Linda; Schneider, Uwe [University of Zuerich, Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-11-15

    Determinations of the lowest colon dose, D{sub min}, below which there is a statistically significant excess relative risk of all solid cancer, when analyses are restricted to the range [0, D{sub min}], are of current interest in research related to radiation protection and risk assessment. In reviewing recent cancer mortality reports on the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese A-bomb survivors, reported D{sub min} values were found to vary between different reports. The report 12 (follow-up: 1950-1990) found a D{sub min} of 50 mGy, but the most recent report 14 (follow-up: 1950-2003) found a D{sub min} of 200 mGy. There were small dosimetry changes between report 12, which used DS86, and report 14, which used DS02, but these changes are unlikely to account for a difference in D{sub min} of a factor of 4. This short communication examines the reasons for this difference in D{sub min} by presenting further investigations into D{sub min} using different trial values for D{sub min} and various follow-up time spans, all with the same DS02 dosimetry. Magnitudes of the low-dose risks in different dose ranges are also presented. It is shown here that the main influence on D{sub min} comes from the length of follow-up and a D{sub min} of 50 mGy may also be obtained with the most recent LSS mortality data and DS02, if a restricted follow-up is analyzed. A systematic trend was evident of lower D{sub min} values for earlier mortality follow-up periods, consistent with information from earlier LSS reports. Although it may seem surprising that the D{sub min} increases with longer follow-up and better statistics, this systematic trend appears to be a consequence of decreasing mortality risks with longer follow-up, even though the error bars on the risks are getting smaller with increasing follow-up. These systematic trends also persisted after accounting for differences between baseline cancer rates for two groups of survivors who were either proximal or distal to the A

  20. Excess costs of social anxiety disorder in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams, Judith; König, Hans-Helmut; Bleibler, Florian; Hoyer, Jürgen; Wiltink, Jörg; Beutel, Manfred E; Salzer, Simone; Herpertz, Stephan; Willutzki, Ulrike; Strauß, Bernhard; Leibing, Eric; Leichsenring, Falk; Konnopka, Alexander

    2017-04-15

    Social anxiety disorder is one of the most frequent mental disorders. It is often associated with mental comorbidities and causes a high economic burden. The aim of our analysis was to estimate the excess costs of patients with social anxiety disorder compared to persons without anxiety disorder in Germany. Excess costs of social anxiety disorder were determined by comparing two data sets. Patient data came from the SOPHO-NET study A1 (n=495), whereas data of persons without anxiety disorder originated from a representative phone survey (n=3213) of the general German population. Missing data were handled by "Multiple Imputation by Chained Equations". Both data sets were matched using "Entropy Balancing". Excess costs were calculated from a societal perspective for the year 2014 using general linear regression with a gamma distribution and log-link function. Analyses considered direct costs (in- and outpatient treatment, rehabilitation, and professional and informal care) and indirect costs due to absenteeism from work. Total six-month excess costs amounted to 451€ (95% CI: 199€-703€). Excess costs were mainly caused by indirect excess costs due to absenteeism from work of 317€ (95% CI: 172€-461€), whereas direct excess costs amounted to 134€ (95% CI: 110€-159€). Costs for medication, unemployment and disability pension was not evaluated. Social anxiety disorder was associated with statistically significant excess costs, in particular due to indirect costs. As patients in general are often unaware of their disorder or its severity, awareness should be strengthened. Prevention and early treatment might reduce long-term indirect costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Climate change impacts on projections of excess mortality at ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We project the change in ozone-related mortality burden attributable to changes in climate between a historical (1995-2005) and near-future (2025-2035) time period while incorporating a non-linear and synergistic effect of ozone and temperature on mortality. We simulate air quality from climate projections varying only biogenic emissions and holding anthropogenic emissions constant, thus attributing changes in ozone only to changes in climate and independent of changes in air pollutant emissions. We estimate non-linear, spatially varying, ozone-temperature risk surfaces for 94 US urban areas using observeddata. Using the risk surfaces and climate projections we estimate daily mortality attributable to ozone exceeding 40 p.p.b. (moderate level) and 75 p.p.b. (US ozone NAAQS) for each time period. The average increases in city-specific median April-October ozone and temperature between time periods are 1.02 p.p.b. and 1.94 °F; however, the results variedby region . Increases in ozone because of climate change result in an increase in ozone mortality burden. Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 40 p.p.b. increases by 7.7% (1 .6-14.2%). Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 75 p.p.b. increases by 14.2% (1.628.9%). The absolute increase in excess ozone mortality is larger for changes in moderate ozone levels, reflecting the larger number of days with moderate ozone levels. In this study we evaluate changes in ozone related mortality due to changes in biogenic f

  2. Perceived Resources as a Predictor of Satisfaction with Food-Related Life among Chilean Elderly: An Approach with Generalized Linear Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, G; Schnettler, B; Grunert, K G; Adasme, C

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to show why perceived resources are a strong predictor of satisfaction with food-related life in Chilean older adults. Design, sampling and participants: A survey was conducted in rural and urban areas in 30 communes of the Maule Region with 785 participants over 60 years of age who live in their own homes. The Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale was used. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used for the regression analysis. The results led to different considerations: First, older adults' perceived levels of resources are a good reflection of their actual levels of resources. Second, the individuals rated the sum of the perceived resources as 'highly important' to explain older adults' satisfaction with food-related life. Third, SWFL was predicted by satisfaction with economic situation, family importance, quantity of domestic household goods and a relative health indicator. Fourth, older adults who believe they have more resources compared to others are more satisfied with their food-related life. Finally, Poisson and binomial logistic models showed that the sum of perceived resources significantly increased the prediction of SWFL. The main conclusion is that perceived personal resources are a strong predictor of SWFL in Chilean older adults.

  3. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  4. Excess electron transport in cryoobjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshchenko, D.G.; Storchak, V.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Cottrell, S.P.; Cox, S.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental results on excess electron transport in solid and liquid phases of Ne, Ar, and solid N 2 -Ar mixture are presented and compared with those for He. Muon spin relaxation technique in frequently switching electric fields was used to study the phenomenon of delayed muonium formation: excess electrons liberated in the μ + ionization track converge upon the positive muons and form Mu (μ + e - ) atoms. This process is shown to be crucially dependent upon the electron's interaction with its environment (i.e., whether it occupies the conduction band or becomes localized in a bubble of tens of angstroms in radius) and upon its mobility in these states. The characteristic lengths involved are 10 -6 -10 -4 cm, the characteristic times range from nanoseconds to tens microseconds. Such a microscopic length scale sometimes enables the electron spend its entire free lifetime in a state which may not be detected by conventional macroscopic techniques. The electron transport processes are compared in: liquid and solid helium (where electron is localized in buble); liquid and solid neon (where electrons are delocalized in solid and the coexistence of localized and delocalized electrons states was found in liquid recently); liquid and solid argon (where electrons are delocalized in both phases); orientational glass systems (solid N 2 -Ar mixtures), where our results suggest that electrons are localized in orientational glass. This scaling from light to heavy rare gases enables us to reveal new features of excess electron localization on microscopic scale. Analysis of the experimental data makes it possible to formulate the following tendency of the muon end-of-track structure in condensed rare gases. The muon-self track interaction changes from the isolated pair (muon plus the nearest track electron) in helium to multi-pair (muon in the vicinity of tens track electrons and positive ions) in argon

  5. psi and excess leptons in photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.M.

    1976-03-01

    The A-dependence of psi photoproduction was measured on beryllium and tantalum. From this it is found sigma/sub psi N/ = 2.75 +- 0.90 mb. A study was made of excess leptons relative to pion production in photoproduction. A μ/π ratio of 1.40 +- 0.25 x 10 -4 was found at 20 GeV incident photon energy. The energy dependence of psi photoproduction was determined and appeared to have a ''pseudo-threshold'' at 12 GeV

  6. Calculation of relative tube/tube support plate displacements in steam generators under accident condition loads using non-linear dynamic analysis methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E.; Waisman, R.; Hu, M.H.; Frick, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    A non-linear analysis has been performed to determine relative motions between tubes and tube support plates (TSP) during a steam line break (SLB) event for steam generators. The SLB event results in blowdown of steam and water out of the steam generator. The fluid blowdown generates pressure drops across the TSPS, resulting in out-of-plane motion. The SLB induced pressure loads are calculated with a computer program that uses a drift-flux modeling of the two-phase flow. In order to determine the relative tube/TSP motions, a nonlinear dynamic time-history analysis is performed using a structural model that considers all of the significant component members relative to the tube support system. The dynamic response of the structure to the pressure loads is calculated using a special purpose computer program. This program links the various substructures at common degrees of freedom into a combined mass and stiffness matrix. The program accounts for structural non-linearities, including potential tube and TSP interaction at any given tube position. The program also accounts for structural damping as part of the dynamic response. Incorporating all of the above effects, the equations of motion are solved to give TSP displacements at the reduced set of DOF. Using the displacement results from the dynamic analysis, plate stresses are then calculated using the detailed component models. Displacements form the dynamic analysis are imposed as boundary conditions at the DOF locations, and the finite element program then solves for the overall distorted geometry. Calculations are also performed to assure that assumptions regarding elastic response of the various structural members and support points are valid

  7. LINEAR RELATION FOR WIND-BLOWN BUBBLE SIZES OF MAIN-SEQUENCE OB STARS IN A MOLECULAR ENVIRONMENT AND IMPLICATION FOR SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yang; Zhou Ping [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chu Youhua [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    We find a linear relationship between the size of a massive star's main-sequence bubble in a molecular environment and the star's initial mass: R{sub b} Almost-Equal-To 1.22 M/M{sub Sun} - 9.16 pc, assuming a constant interclump pressure. Since stars in the mass range of 8 to 25-30 M{sub Sun} will end their evolution in the red supergiant phase without launching a Wolf-Rayet wind, the main-sequence wind-blown bubbles are mainly responsible for the extent of molecular gas cavities, while the effect of the photoionization is comparatively small. This linear relation can thus be used to infer the masses of the massive star progenitors of supernova remnants (SNRs) that are discovered to evolve in molecular cavities, while few other means are available for inferring the properties of SNR progenitors. We have used this method to estimate the initial masses of the progenitors of eight SNRs: Kes 69, Kes 75, Kes 78, 3C 396, 3C 397, HC 40, Vela, and RX J1713-3946.

  8. Linearity enigmas in ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, B.C.

    1983-04-01

    Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.

  9. ON INFRARED EXCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH Li-RICH K GIANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebull, Luisa M. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center - IPAC, 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Carlberg, Joleen K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gibbs, John C.; Cashen, Sarah; Datta, Ashwin; Hodgson, Emily; Lince, Megan [Glencoe High School, 2700 NW Glencoe Rd., Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Deeb, J. Elin [Bear Creek High School, 9800 W. Dartmouth Pl., Lakewood, CO 80227 (United States); Larsen, Estefania; Altepeter, Shailyn; Bucksbee, Ethan; Clarke, Matthew [Millard South High School, 14905 Q St., Omaha, NE 68137 (United States); Black, David V., E-mail: rebull@ipac.caltech.edu [Walden School of Liberal Arts, 4230 N. University Ave., Provo, UT 84604 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Infrared (IR) excesses around K-type red giants (RGs) have previously been discovered using Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, and past studies have suggested a link between RGs with overabundant Li and IR excesses, implying the ejection of circumstellar shells or disks. We revisit the question of IR excesses around RGs using higher spatial resolution IR data, primarily from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Our goal was to elucidate the link between three unusual RG properties: fast rotation, enriched Li, and IR excess. Our sample of RGs includes those with previous IR detections, a sample with well-defined rotation and Li abundance measurements with no previous IR measurements, and a large sample of RGs asserted to be Li-rich in the literature; we have 316 targets thought to be K giants, about 40% of which we take to be Li-rich. In 24 cases with previous detections of IR excess at low spatial resolution, we believe that source confusion is playing a role, in that either (a) the source that is bright in the optical is not responsible for the IR flux, or (b) there is more than one source responsible for the IR flux as measured in IRAS. We looked for IR excesses in the remaining sources, identifying 28 that have significant IR excesses by ∼20 μm (with possible excesses for 2 additional sources). There appears to be an intriguing correlation in that the largest IR excesses are all in Li-rich K giants, though very few Li-rich K giants have IR excesses (large or small). These largest IR excesses also tend to be found in the fastest rotators. There is no correlation of IR excess with the carbon isotopic ratio, {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C. IR excesses by 20 μm, though relatively rare, are at least twice as common among our sample of Li-rich K giants. If dust shell production is a common by-product of Li enrichment mechanisms, these observations suggest that the IR excess stage is very short-lived, which is supported by theoretical calculations. Conversely, the

  10. Energetics and dynamics of excess electrons in simple fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space, B.

    1992-01-01

    Excess electronic dynamical and equilibrium properties are modeled in both polarizable and nonpolarizable noble gas fluids. Explicit dynamical calculations are carried out for excess electrons in fluid helium, where excess electronic eigenstates are localized. Energetics and dynamics are considered for fluids which span the entire range of polarizability present in the rare gases. Excess electronic eigenstates and eigenvalues are calculated for fluids of helium, argon and xenon. Both equilibrium and dynamical information is obtained from the calculation of these wavefunctions. A surface hopping trajectory method for studying nonadiabatic excess electronic relaxation in condensed systems is used to explore the nonadiabatic relaxation after photoexciting an equilibrated excess electron in dense fluid helium. The different types on nonadiabatic phenomena which are important in excess electronic relaxation are surveyed. The same surface hopping trajectory method is also used to study the rapid nonadiabatic relaxation after an excess electron is injected into unperturbed fluid helium. Several distinctively different relaxation processes, characterized by their relative importance at different times during the relaxation to a localized equilibrium state, are detailed. Though the dynamical properties of excess electrons under the conditions considered here have never been studied before, the behavior is remarkably similar to that observed in both experimental and theoretical studies of electron hydration dynamics, indicating that the processes described may be very general relaxation mechanisms for localization and trapping in fluids. Additionally, ground state energies of an excess electron, e 0 , are computed as a function of solvent density using model electron-atom pseudopotentials in fluid helium, argon, and xenon. The nonuniqueness of the pseudopotential description of electron-molecule interactions is demonstrated

  11. Excess electron transport in cryoobjects

    CERN Document Server

    Eshchenko, D G; Brewer, J H; Cottrell, S P; Cox, S F J

    2003-01-01

    Experimental results on excess electron transport in solid and liquid phases of Ne, Ar, and solid N sub 2 -Ar mixture are presented and compared with those for He. Muon spin relaxation technique in frequently switching electric fields was used to study the phenomenon of delayed muonium formation: excess electrons liberated in the mu sup + ionization track converge upon the positive muons and form Mu (mu sup + e sup -) atoms. This process is shown to be crucially dependent upon the electron's interaction with its environment (i.e., whether it occupies the conduction band or becomes localized in a bubble of tens of angstroms in radius) and upon its mobility in these states. The characteristic lengths involved are 10 sup - sup 6 -10 sup - sup 4 cm, the characteristic times range from nanoseconds to tens microseconds. Such a microscopic length scale sometimes enables the electron spend its entire free lifetime in a state which may not be detected by conventional macroscopic techniques. The electron transport proc...

  12. Matrices and linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans

    1989-01-01

    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  13. The importance of statistical modelling in clinical research : Comparing multidimensional Rasch-, structural equation and linear regression models for analyzing the depression of relatives of psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrowicz, Rainer W; Jahn, Rebecca; Friedrich, Fabian; Unger, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Various studies have shown that caregiving relatives of schizophrenic patients are at risk of suffering from depression. These studies differ with respect to the applied statistical methods, which could influence the findings. Therefore, the present study analyzes to which extent different methods may cause differing results. The present study contrasts by means of one data set the results of three different modelling approaches, Rasch Modelling (RM), Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), and Linear Regression Modelling (LRM). The results of the three models varied considerably, reflecting the different assumptions of the respective models. Latent trait models (i. e., RM and SEM) generally provide more convincing results by correcting for measurement error and the RM specifically proves superior for it treats ordered categorical data most adequately.

  14. Obtaining the intrinsic electron spectrum of linear accelerators using the relation between the current of the bending magnet and the absorbed dose in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Jose M. de la; Guirado, Damian; Vilches, Manuel; Perdices, Jose I.; Lallena, Antonio M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. To present a novel methodology to model the intrinsic electron spectra of a linear accelerator and its situation with respect to the energy window. Methods. The spectra are obtained by fitting the variation of R 50 and the maximum dose rate measured in a water phantom with the bending magnet current. The obtained spectra are verified with a realistic Monte Carlo simulation of the accelerator. Results. The intrinsic spectra and their relative position with respect to the energy window of the bending magnet have been obtained for a Siemens Mevatron KDS and an ELEKTA SL20 accelerators. Conclusions. Using this method in the commissioning and scheduled revisions of the accelerator, the tuning of the current of the bending magnet could be done in such a way that both the quality of the beam and the dose rate would reach a better long-term stability

  15. Linear morphea with secondary mucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandpur Sujay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary mucin deposition in the skin is a common feature of lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. In scleroderma, it occurs uncommonly or in small amount. We describe a 7-year-old boy with progressive, linear, bound-down plaques involving the thighs, lower abdomen and back with no systemic involvement. Histopathology showed features of scleroderma with abundant mucin deposition in the reticular dermis. This report highlights excessive mucin deposition in lesions of morphea.

  16. Nonintrusive verification attributes for excess fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, N.J.; Eccleston, G.W.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Under US initiatives, over two hundred metric tons of fissile materials have been declared to be excess to national defense needs. These excess materials are in both classified and unclassified forms. The US has expressed the intent to place these materials under international inspections as soon as practicable. To support these commitments, members of the US technical community are examining a variety of nonintrusive approaches (i.e., those that would not reveal classified or sensitive information) for verification of a range of potential declarations for these classified and unclassified materials. The most troublesome and potentially difficult issues involve approaches for international inspection of classified materials. The primary focus of the work to date has been on the measurement of signatures of relevant materials attributes (e.g., element, identification number, isotopic ratios, etc.), especially those related to classified materials and items. The authors are examining potential attributes and related measurement technologies in the context of possible verification approaches. The paper will discuss the current status of these activities, including their development, assessment, and benchmarking status

  17. Removing an intersubject variance component in a general linear model improves multiway factoring of event-related spectral perturbations in group EEG studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Jeffrey S; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Ferree, Thomas C

    2013-03-01

    Linear statistical models are used very effectively to assess task-related differences in EEG power spectral analyses. Mixed models, in particular, accommodate more than one variance component in a multisubject study, where many trials of each condition of interest are measured on each subject. Generally, intra- and intersubject variances are both important to determine correct standard errors for inference on functions of model parameters, but it is often assumed that intersubject variance is the most important consideration in a group study. In this article, we show that, under common assumptions, estimates of some functions of model parameters, including estimates of task-related differences, are properly tested relative to the intrasubject variance component only. A substantial gain in statistical power can arise from the proper separation of variance components when there is more than one source of variability. We first develop this result analytically, then show how it benefits a multiway factoring of spectral, spatial, and temporal components from EEG data acquired in a group of healthy subjects performing a well-studied response inhibition task. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaserstein, Leonid N.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.

  19. Income and health-related quality of life among prostate cancer patients over a one-year period after radical prostatectomy: a linear mixed model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jens; Lüdecke, Daniel; Hofreuter-Gätgens, Kerstin; Fisch, Margit; Graefen, Markus; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2017-09-01

    To examine income-related disparities in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over a one-year period after surgery (radical prostatectomy) and its contributory factors in a longitudinal perspective. Evidence of associations between income and HRQOL among patients with prostate cancer (PCa) is sparse and their explanations still remain unclear. 246 males of two German hospitals filled out a questionnaire at the time of acute treatment, 6 and 12 months later. Age, partnership status, baseline disease and treatment factors, physical and psychological comorbidities, as well as treatment factors and adverse effects at follow-up were additionally included in the analyses to explain potential disparities. HRQOL was assessed with the EORTC (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer) QLQ-C30 core questionnaire and the prostate-specific QLQ-PR25. A linear mixed model for repeated measures was calculated. The fixed effects showed highly significant income-related inequalities regarding the majority of HRQOL scales. Less affluent PCa patients reported lower HRQOL in terms of global quality of life, all functional scales and urinary symptoms. After introducing relevant covariates, some associations became insignificant (physical, cognitive and sexual function), while others only showed reduced estimates (global quality of life, urinary symptoms, role, emotional and social function). In particular, mental disorders/psychological comorbidity played a relevant role in the explanation of income-related disparities. One year after surgery, income-related disparities in various dimensions of HRQOL persist. With respect to economically disadvantaged PCa patients, the findings emphasize the importance of continuous psychosocial screening and tailored interventions, of patients' empowerment and improved access to supportive care.

  20. Excessive sleep duration and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Reynolds, Charles F; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Using population-based data, we document the comorbidities (medical, neurologic, and psychiatric) and consequences for daily functioning of excessive quantity of sleep (EQS), defined as a main sleep period or 24-hour sleep duration ≥ 9 hours accompanied by complaints of impaired functioning or distress due to excessive sleep, and its links to excessive sleepiness. A cross-sectional telephone study using a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals living in the United States, aged ≥ 18 years (participation rate = 83.2%). The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual II, International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th edition). Sleeping at least 9 hours per 24-hour period was reported by 8.4% (95% confidence interval = 8.0-8.8%) of participants; EQS (prolonged sleep episode with distress/impairment) was observed in 1.6% (1.4-1.8%) of the sample. The likelihood of EQS was 3 to 12× higher among individuals with a mood disorder. EQS individuals were 2 to 4× more likely to report poor quality of life than non-EQS individuals as well as interference with socioprofessional activities and relationships. Although between 33 and 66% of individuals with prolonged sleep perceived it as a major problem, only 6.3 to 27.5% of them reported having sought medical attention. EQS is widespread in the general population, co-occurring with a broad spectrum of sleep, medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, physicians must recognize EQS as a mixed clinical entity indicating careful assessment and specific treatment planning. © 2013 American Neurological Association.

  1. 34 CFR 668.166 - Excess cash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Secretary for the costs the Secretary incurred in providing that excess cash to the institution... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess cash. 668.166 Section 668.166 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.166 Excess cash. (a...

  2. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be available...

  3. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified as...

  4. [Disability attributable to excess weight in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ramiro, José Javier; Alvarez-Martín, Elena; Gil-Prieto, Ruth

    2014-08-19

    To estimate the disability attributable to higher than optimal body mass index in the Spanish population in 2006. Excess body weight prevalence data were obtained from the 2006 National Health Survey (NHS), while the prevalence of associated morbidities was extracted from the 2006 NHS and from a national hospital data base. Population attributable fractions were applied and disability attributable was expressed as years life with disability (YLD). In 2006, in the Spanish population aged 35-79 years, 791.650 YLD were lost due to higher than optimal body mass index (46.7% in males and 53.3% in females). Overweight (body mass index 25-29.9) accounted for 45.7% of total YLD. Males YLD were higher than females under 60. The 35-39 quinquennial group showed a difference for males of 16.6% while in the 74-79 group the difference was 23.8% for women. Osteoarthritis and chronic back pain accounted for 60% of YLD while hypertensive disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus were responsible of 37%. Excess body weight is a health risk related to the development of various diseases with an important associated disability burden and social and economical cost. YLD analysis is a useful monitor tool for disease control interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Excess europium content in Precambrian sedimentary rocks and continental evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, P.; Taylor, S. R.

    1974-01-01

    It is proposed that the europium excess in Precambrian sedimentary rocks, relative to those of younger age, is derived from volcanic rocks of ancient island arcs, which were the source materials for the sediments. Precambrian sedimentary rocks and present-day volcanic rocks of island arcs have similar REE patterns, total REE abundances, and excess Eu, relative to the North American shale composite. The present upper crustal REE pattern, as exemplified by that of sediments, is depleted in Eu, relative to chondrites. This depletion is considered to be a consequence of development of a granodioritic upper crust by partial melting in the lower crust, which selectively retains europium.

  6. Phytoextraction of excess soil phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Nilesh C.; Starnes, Daniel L.; Sahi, Shivendra V.

    2007-01-01

    In the search for a suitable plant to be used in P phytoremediation, several species belonging to legume, vegetable and herb crops were grown in P-enriched soils, and screened for P accumulation potentials. A large variation in P concentrations of different plant species was observed. Some vegetable species such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) were identified as potential P accumulators with >1% (dry weight) P in their shoots. These plants also displayed a satisfactory biomass accumulation while growing on a high concentration of soil P. The elevated activities of phosphomonoesterase and phytase were observed when plants were grown in P-enriched soils, this possibly contributing to high P acquisition in these species. Sunflower plants also demonstrated an increased shoot P accumulation. This study shows that the phytoextraction of phosphorus can be effective using appropriate plant species. - Crop plants such as cucumber, squash and sunflower accumulate phosphorus and thus can be used in the phytoextraction of excess phosphorus from soils

  7. Phytoextraction of excess soil phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Nilesh C. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States); Starnes, Daniel L. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States); Sahi, Shivendra V. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States)]. E-mail: shiv.sahi@wku.edu

    2007-03-15

    In the search for a suitable plant to be used in P phytoremediation, several species belonging to legume, vegetable and herb crops were grown in P-enriched soils, and screened for P accumulation potentials. A large variation in P concentrations of different plant species was observed. Some vegetable species such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) were identified as potential P accumulators with >1% (dry weight) P in their shoots. These plants also displayed a satisfactory biomass accumulation while growing on a high concentration of soil P. The elevated activities of phosphomonoesterase and phytase were observed when plants were grown in P-enriched soils, this possibly contributing to high P acquisition in these species. Sunflower plants also demonstrated an increased shoot P accumulation. This study shows that the phytoextraction of phosphorus can be effective using appropriate plant species. - Crop plants such as cucumber, squash and sunflower accumulate phosphorus and thus can be used in the phytoextraction of excess phosphorus from soils.

  8. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  9. Age-related changes in spatiotemporal characteristics of gait accompany ongoing lower limb linear growth in late childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehle, Andrew W; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Sherwood, Richard J; Duren, Dana L

    2013-05-01

    Walking gait is generally held to reach maturity, including walking at adult-like velocities, by 7-8 years of age. Lower limb length, however, is a major determinant of gait, and continues to increase until 13-15 years of age. This study used a sample from the Fels Longitudinal Study (ages 8-30 years) to test the hypothesis that walking with adult-like velocity on immature lower limbs results in the retention of immature gait characteristics during late childhood and early adolescence. There was no relationship between walking velocity and age in this sample, whereas the lower limb continued to grow, reaching maturity at 13.2 years in females and 15.6 years in males. Piecewise linear mixed models regression analysis revealed significant age-related trends in normalized cadence, initial double support time, single support time, base of support, and normalized step length in both sexes. Each trend reached its own, variable-specific age at maturity, after which the gait variables' relationships with age reached plateaus and did not differ significantly from zero. Offsets in ages at maturity occurred among the gait variables, and between the gait variables and lower limb length. The sexes also differed in their patterns of maturation. Generally, however, immature walkers of both sexes took more frequent and relatively longer steps than did mature walkers. These results support the hypothesis that maturational changes in gait accompany ongoing lower limb growth, with implications for diagnosing, preventing, and treating movement-related disorders and injuries during late childhood and early adolescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of volatile organic compound adsorption on multiwall carbon nanotubes under different levels of relative humidity using linear solvation energy relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mei-syue; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-hsin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LSER equations successfully predicted VOC sorption on MCNT at different humidity. • The five parameters in LSER could be narrowed down to three ones. • Main interaction is dispersion and partly dipolarity as well as hydrogen-bonds. • With increasing RH, it changes to cavity formation and hydrogen-bond basicity. • This approach can facilitate the VOC control design and the fate prediction. - Abstract: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been used as an adsorbent for evaluating the gas/solid partitioning of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, 15 VOCs were probed to determine their gas/solid partitioning coefficient (Log K d ) using inverse gas chromatography at different relative humidity (RH) levels. Interactions between MWCNTs and VOCs were analyzed by regressing the observed Log K d with the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). The results demonstrate that the MWCNT carbonyl and carboxyl groups provide high adsorption capacity for the VOCs (Log K d 3.72–5.24 g/kg/g/L) because of the π-/n-electron pair interactions and hydrogen-bond acidity. The increasing RH gradually decreased the Log K d and shifted the interactions to dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen-bond basicity, and cavity formation. The derived LSER equations provided adequate fits of Log K d , which is useful for VOC-removal processes and fate prediction of VOC contaminants by MWCNT adsorption in the environment.

  11. Characterization of volatile organic compound adsorption on multiwall carbon nanotubes under different levels of relative humidity using linear solvation energy relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mei-syue; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-hsin, E-mail: yhs@ntu.edu.tw

    2016-09-05

    Highlights: • LSER equations successfully predicted VOC sorption on MCNT at different humidity. • The five parameters in LSER could be narrowed down to three ones. • Main interaction is dispersion and partly dipolarity as well as hydrogen-bonds. • With increasing RH, it changes to cavity formation and hydrogen-bond basicity. • This approach can facilitate the VOC control design and the fate prediction. - Abstract: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been used as an adsorbent for evaluating the gas/solid partitioning of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, 15 VOCs were probed to determine their gas/solid partitioning coefficient (Log K{sub d}) using inverse gas chromatography at different relative humidity (RH) levels. Interactions between MWCNTs and VOCs were analyzed by regressing the observed Log K{sub d} with the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). The results demonstrate that the MWCNT carbonyl and carboxyl groups provide high adsorption capacity for the VOCs (Log K{sub d} 3.72–5.24 g/kg/g/L) because of the π-/n-electron pair interactions and hydrogen-bond acidity. The increasing RH gradually decreased the Log K{sub d} and shifted the interactions to dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen-bond basicity, and cavity formation. The derived LSER equations provided adequate fits of Log K{sub d}, which is useful for VOC-removal processes and fate prediction of VOC contaminants by MWCNT adsorption in the environment.

  12. Anti-inflammatory properties of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris might be related to its linear (1→3-β-D-glucan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fhernanda R Smiderle

    Full Text Available The Ascomycete Cordyceps militaris, an entomopathogenic fungus, is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicines. Studies related to its pharmacological properties suggest that this mushroom can exert interesting biological activities. Aqueous (CW and HW and alkaline (K5 extracts containing polysaccharides were prepared from this mushroom, and a β-D-glucan was purified. This polymer was analysed by GC-MS and NMR spectrometry, showing a linear chain composed of β-D-Glcp (1→3-linked. The six main signals in the 13C-NMR spectrum were assigned by comparison to reported data. The aqueous (CW, HW extracts stimulated the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 by THP-1 macrophages, while the alkaline (K5 extract did not show any effect. However, when the extracts were added to the cells in the presence of LPS, K5 showed the highest inhibition of the pro-inflammatory genes expression. This inhibitory effect was also observed for the purified β-(1→3-D-glucan, that seems to be the most potent anti-inflammatory compound present in the polysaccharide extracts of C. militaris. In vivo, β-(1→3-D-glucan also inhibited significantly the inflammatory phase of formalin-induced nociceptive response, and, in addition, it reduced the migration of total leukocytes but not the neutrophils induced by LPS. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the anti-inflammatory effect of β-(1→3-D-glucan.

  13. Financial Instability - a Result of Excess Liquidity or Credit Cycles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Christensen, Christian

    This paper compares the financial destabilizing effects of excess liquidity versus credit growth, in relation to house price bubbles and real economic booms. The analysis uses a cointegrated VAR model based on US data from 1987 to 2010, with a particulary focus on the period preceding the global...... financial crisis. Consistent with monetarist theory, the results suggest a stable money supply-demand relation in the period in question. However, the implied excess liquidity only resulted in financial destabilizing effect after year 2000. Meanwhile, the results also point to persistent cycles of real...... house prices and leverage, which appear to have been driven by real credit shocks, in accordance with post-Keynesian theories on financial instability. Importantly, however, these mechanisms of credit growth and excess liquidity are found to be closely related. In regards to the global financial crisis...

  14. Excessive Fragmentary Myoclonus: What Do We Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Nepožitek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fragmentary myoclonus (EFM is a polysomnographic finding registered by the surface electromyography (EMG and characterized as a result of the muscle activity consisting of sudden, isolated, arrhythmic, asynchronous and asymmetric brief twitches. The EMG potentials are defined by the exact criteria in The International Classification of the Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition and they appear with high intensity in all sleep stages. Clinical significance of EFM is unclear. It was observed in combination with other diseases and features such as obstructive and central sleep apnea, narcolepsy, periodic limb movements, insomnia, neurodegenerative disorders and peripheral nerve dysfunction. Relation to such wide range of diseases supports the opinion that EFM is nor a specific sleep disorder nor a specific polysomnographic sign. The option that EFM is a normal variant has also not been ruled out so far.

  15. Di-photon excess illuminates dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backović, Mihailo [Center for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology - CP3,Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium); Mariotti, Alberto [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Redigolo, Diego [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS UMR 7589,Universiteé Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005, Paris (France)

    2016-03-22

    We propose a simplified model of dark matter with a scalar mediator to accommodate the di-photon excess recently observed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. Decays of the resonance into dark matter can easily account for a relatively large width of the scalar resonance, while the magnitude of the total width combined with the constraint on dark matter relic density leads to sharp predictions on the parameters of the Dark Sector. Under the assumption of a rather large width, the model predicts a signal consistent with ∼300 GeV dark matter particle and ∼750 GeV scalar mediator in channels with large missing energy. This prediction is not yet severely bounded by LHC Run I searches and will be accessible at the LHC Run II in the jet plus missing energy channel with more luminosity. Our analysis also considers astro-physical constraints, pointing out that future direct detection experiments will be sensitive to this scenario.

  16. Di-photon excess illuminates dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backović, Mihailo; Mariotti, Alberto; Redigolo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simplified model of dark matter with a scalar mediator to accommodate the di-photon excess recently observed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. Decays of the resonance into dark matter can easily account for a relatively large width of the scalar resonance, while the magnitude of the total width combined with the constraint on dark matter relic density leads to sharp predictions on the parameters of the Dark Sector. Under the assumption of a rather large width, the model predicts a signal consistent with ∼300 GeV dark matter particle and ∼750 GeV scalar mediator in channels with large missing energy. This prediction is not yet severely bounded by LHC Run I searches and will be accessible at the LHC Run II in the jet plus missing energy channel with more luminosity. Our analysis also considers astro-physical constraints, pointing out that future direct detection experiments will be sensitive to this scenario.

  17. Research of Precataclysmic Variables with Radius Excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminova, N. R.; Shimansky, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Gabdeev, M. M.; Shimanskaya, N. N.

    2017-06-01

    The results of spectroscopic observations of the pre-cataclysmic variable NSVS 14256825, which is a HW Vir binary system, were analyzed. The chemical composition is determined, the radial velocities and equivalent widths of a given star are measured. The fundamental parameters of the components were determined (R1 = 0.166 R⊙ , M2 = 0.100 M⊙ , R2 = 0.122 R⊙). It is shown that the secondary component has a mass close to the mass of brown dwarfs. A comparison of two close binary systems is made: HS 2333 + 3927 and NSVS 14256825. A radius-to-mass relationship for the secondary components of the studied pre-cataclysmic variables is constructed. It is concluded that an excess of radii relative to model predictions for MS stars is observed in virtually all systems.

  18. Excess cash holdings and shareholder value

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Edward; Powell, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    We examine the determinants of corporate cash holdings in Australia and the impact on shareholder wealth of holding excess cash. Our results show that a trade-off model best explains the level of a firm’s cash holdings in Australia. We find that 'transitory' excess cash firms earn significantly higher risk-adjusted returns compared to 'persistent' excess cash firms, suggesting that the market penalises firms that hoard cash. The marginal value of cash also declines with larger cash balances, ...

  19. Syndromes associated with nutritional deficiency and excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Melinda; Yan, Albert C

    2010-01-01

    Normal functioning of the human body requires a balance between nutritional intake and metabolism, and imbalances manifest as nutritional deficiencies or excess. Nutritional deficiency states are associated with social factors (war, poverty, famine, and food fads), medical illnesses with malabsorption (such as Crohn disease, cystic fibrosis, and after bariatric surgery), psychiatric illnesses (eating disorders, autism, alcoholism), and medications. Nutritional excess states result from inadvertent or intentional excessive intake. Cutaneous manifestations of nutritional imbalance can herald other systemic manifestations. This contribution discusses nutritional deficiency and excess syndromes with cutaneous manifestations of particular interest to clinical dermatologists. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauvarque, Jean-Francois; Clauzon, Pierre Paul; Lalleve, Gerard Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    A simple calorimeter has been designed that works at constant temperature; that of boiling water. Heat Losses can be estimated accurately with an ohmic heater. As expected, losses are independent of the electric power input to the heater and the amount of evaporated water is linearly dependant on the power input. The device has been used to determine the heating power of a plasma electrolysis (the Ohmori-Mizuno experiment). We confirm that in this experiment, the heat output from electrolysis is greater than the electrical power input. The excess energy increases as the electrolysis voltage is increased from 200 up to 350 V (400 V input). The excess energy may be as high as 120 W. (author)

  1. Origin of Tungsten Excess in Komatiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H.; Brandon, A. D.; Walker, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    The limited database available for W abundances in komatiites (n=7, Newsom et al., 1996) suggests that when melting and fractional crystallization effects are filtered out, these komatiites have about 10 times higher W, compared to other mantle-derived mafic-ultramafic magmas (MORB, OIB). The excess of W in the komatiites relative to lithophile highly incompatible elements becomes obvious when compared with the low concentrations of the light REE Ce and Nd (about 1-2 ug/g in many komatiites, compared to > 10 ug/g in most MORB and OIB). In order to increase the komatiite W database, komatiite samples from Phanerozoic (Gorgona Island) and Archean terraines (Boston Creek/Canada, Belingwe/South Africa, 2.7 Ga) were dissolved and W was separated in order to obtain W concentrations by isotope dilution. Except for one sample from Gorgona Island with low W (23 ng/g), samples from all three locales show high W (516 to 2643 ng/g), with most samples containing near 700 ng/g W. Three Hawaiian picrites (H23, LO-02-04, MK-1-6) were also analyzed for comparative purposes and contain 75, 163 and 418 ng/g W, respectively. The W concentrations in the Hawaiian picrites are comparable or lower than W concentrations in Hawaiian tholeiites (Newsom et al., 1996). Mass balance considerations suggest that it is unlikely that the W excess in komatiites reflects W contributions to the mantle sources of komatiites from the outer core. The W enrichment could result from shallow-level alteration processes if primary W abundances of komatiites were low and W was added via fluids, containing W and other fluid-mobile elements derived from crustal rocks. Because most W in such samples would be of crustal origin, small contributions from the outer core may be difficult to detect using 182W systematics (Schersten et al., 2003).

  2. Further linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Most of the introductory courses on linear algebra develop the basic theory of finite­ dimensional vector spaces, and in so doing relate the notion of a linear mapping to that of a matrix. Generally speaking, such courses culminate in the diagonalisation of certain matrices and the application of this process to various situations. Such is the case, for example, in our previous SUMS volume Basic Linear Algebra. The present text is a continuation of that volume, and has the objective of introducing the reader to more advanced properties of vector spaces and linear mappings, and consequently of matrices. For readers who are not familiar with the contents of Basic Linear Algebra we provide an introductory chapter that consists of a compact summary of the prerequisites for the present volume. In order to consolidate the student's understanding we have included a large num­ ber of illustrative and worked examples, as well as many exercises that are strategi­ cally placed throughout the text. Solutions to the ex...

  3. What controls deuterium excess in global precipitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pfahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The deuterium excess (d of precipitation is widely used in the reconstruction of past climatic changes from ice cores. However, its most common interpretation as moisture source temperature cannot directly be inferred from present-day water isotope observations. Here, we use a new empirical relation between d and near-surface relative humidity (RH together with reanalysis data to globally predict d of surface evaporation from the ocean. The very good quantitative agreement of the predicted hemispherically averaged seasonal cycle with observed d in precipitation indicates that moisture source relative humidity, and not sea surface temperature, is the main driver of d variability on seasonal timescales. Furthermore, we review arguments for an interpretation of long-term palaeoclimatic d changes in terms of moisture source temperature, and we conclude that there remains no sufficient evidence that would justify to neglect the influence of RH on such palaeoclimatic d variations. Hence, we suggest that either the interpretation of d variations in palaeorecords should be adapted to reflect climatic influences on RH during evaporation, in particular atmospheric circulation changes, or new arguments for an interpretation in terms of moisture source temperature will have to be provided based on future research.

  4. Parkinson Symptoms and Health Related Quality of Life as Predictors of Costs: A Longitudinal Observational Study with Linear Mixed Model Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martinez-Martín

    Full Text Available To estimate the magnitude in which Parkinson's disease (PD symptoms and health- related quality of life (HRQoL determined PD costs over a 4-year period.Data collected during 3-month, each year, for 4 years, from the ELEP study, included sociodemographic, clinical and use of resources information. Costs were calculated yearly, as mean 3-month costs/patient and updated to Spanish €, 2012. Mixed linear models were performed to analyze total, direct and indirect costs based on symptoms and HRQoL.One-hundred and seventy four patients were included. Mean (SD age: 63 (11 years, mean (SD disease duration: 8 (6 years. Ninety-three percent were HY I, II or III (mild or moderate disease. Forty-nine percent remained in the same stage during the study period. Clinical evaluation and HRQoL scales showed relatively slight changes over time, demonstrating a stable group overall. Mean (SD PD total costs augmented 92.5%, from € 2,082.17 (€ 2,889.86 in year 1 to € 4,008.6 (€ 7,757.35 in year 4. Total, direct and indirect cost incremented 45.96%, 35.63%, and 69.69% for mild disease, respectively, whereas increased 166.52% for total, 55.68% for direct and 347.85% for indirect cost in patients with moderate PD. For severe patients, cost remained almost the same throughout the study. For each additional point in the SCOPA-Motor scale total costs increased € 75.72 (p = 0.0174; for each additional point on SCOPA-Motor and the SCOPA-COG, direct costs incremented € 49.21 (p = 0.0094 and € 44.81 (p = 0.0404, respectively; and for each extra point on the pain scale, indirect costs increased € 16.31 (p = 0.0228.PD is an expensive disease in Spain. Disease progression and severity as well as motor and cognitive dysfunctions are major drivers of costs increments. Therapeutic measures aimed at controlling progression and symptoms could help contain disease expenses.

  5. Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alwis, A C D; Senaratne, A M R D; De Silva, S M P D; Rodrigo, V S D

    2006-09-01

    Masturbation in childhood is a normal behaviour which most commonly begins at 2 months of age, and peaks at 4 years and in adolescence. However excessive masturbation causes anxiety in parents. We describe a boy with a bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

  6. Measuring excess capital capacity in agricultural production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhengfei, G.; Kumbhakar, S.C.; Myers, R.J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept "excess capital capacity" and employ a stochastic input requirement frontier to measure excess capital capacity in agricultural production. We also propose a two-step estimation method that allows endogenous regressors in stochastic frontier models. The first step uses

  7. The excessively crying infant : etiology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhnikh, S.; Engelberts, A.C.; Sleuwen, B.E. van; Hoir, M.P. L’; Benninga, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive crying, often described as infantile colic, is the cause of 10% to 20% of all early pediatrician visits of infants aged 2 weeks to 3 months. Although usually benign and selflimiting, excessive crying is associated with parental exhaustion and stress. However, and underlying organic cause

  8. Part B Excess Cost Quick Reference Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Wayne; Beridon, Virginia; Hamre, Kent; Morse, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This Quick Reference Document has been prepared by the Regional Resource Center Program ARRA/Fiscal Priority Team to aid RRCP State Liaisons and other (Technical Assistance) TA providers in understanding the general context of state questions surrounding excess cost. As a "first-stop" for TA providers in investigating excess cost…

  9. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...

  10. Excess 129Xe in terrestrial samples: A non-primordial hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffee, M.W.; Hudson, G.B.

    1987-03-01

    Excesses of 129 Xe relative to the isotopic composition in air are observed in some terrestrial samples. Traditionally these 129 Xe excesses have been thought to be related to 129 I that was present in abundance in the early solar system. We propose an alternative hypothesis to explain terrestrial 129 Xe excesses based on the production of 129 I from the spontaneous fission of 238 U

  11. Excess Gibbs Energy for Ternary Lattice Solutions of Nonrandom Mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hae Young [DukSung Womens University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    It is assumed for three components lattice solution that the number of ways of arranging particles randomly on the lattice follows a normal distribution of a linear combination of N{sub 12}, N{sub 23}, N{sub 13} which are the number of the nearest neighbor interactions between different molecules. It is shown by random number simulations that this assumption is reasonable. From this distribution, an approximate equation for the excess Gibbs energy of three components lattice solution is derived. Using this equation, several liquid-vapor equilibria are calculated and compared with the results from other equations.

  12. Using the Multiplicative Schwarz Alternating Algorithm (MSAA) for Solving the Large Linear System of Equations Related to Global Gravity Field Recovery up to Degree and Order 120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.; Sharifi, M. A.; Amjadiparvar, B.

    2010-05-01

    The GRACE mission has substantiated the low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (LL-SST) concept. The LL-SST configuration can be combined with the previously realized high-low SST concept in the CHAMP mission to provide a much higher accuracy. The line of sight (LOS) acceleration difference between the GRACE satellite pair is the mostly used observable for mapping the global gravity field of the Earth in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients. In this paper, mathematical formulae for LOS acceleration difference observations have been derived and the corresponding linear system of equations has been set up for spherical harmonic up to degree and order 120. The total number of unknowns is 14641. Such a linear equation system can be solved with iterative solvers or direct solvers. However, the runtime of direct methods or that of iterative solvers without a suitable preconditioner increases tremendously. This is the reason why we need a more sophisticated method to solve the linear system of problems with a large number of unknowns. Multiplicative variant of the Schwarz alternating algorithm is a domain decomposition method, which allows it to split the normal matrix of the system into several smaller overlaped submatrices. In each iteration step the multiplicative variant of the Schwarz alternating algorithm solves linear systems with the matrices obtained from the splitting successively. It reduces both runtime and memory requirements drastically. In this paper we propose the Multiplicative Schwarz Alternating Algorithm (MSAA) for solving the large linear system of gravity field recovery. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the International Association of Geodesy (IAG)-simulated data of the GRACE mission. The achieved results indicate the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm in solving the linear system of equations from accuracy and runtime points of view. Keywords: Gravity field recovery, Multiplicative Schwarz Alternating Algorithm, Low

  13. Stress and emotional problems during pregnancy and excessive infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Marcel F.; van Eijsden, Manon; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that stress and emotional problems during pregnancy are related to adverse health outcomes of the child at birth and in later life. The aim of this study was to determine the association between stress and emotional problems during pregnancy and excessive infant crying.

  14. Land-mobile satellite excess path loss measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, G. C.

    1980-05-01

    An experiment conducted with the ATS-6 satellite to determine the additional path loss over free-space loss experienced by land-mobile communication links is described. This excess path loss is measured as a function of 1) local environment, 2) vehicle heading, 3) link frequency, 4) satellite elevation angle, and 5) street side. A statistical description of excess loss developed from the data shows that the first two parameters dominate. Excess path loss on the order of 25 dB is typical in urban situations, but decreases to under 10 dB in suburban/rural areas. Spaced antenna selection diversity is found to provide only a slight decrease (4 dB, typically) in the urban excess path loss observed. Level crossing rates are depressed in satellite links relative to those of Rayleigh-faded terrestrial links, but increases in average fade durations tend to offset that advantage. The measurements show that the excess path loss difference between 860-MHz links and 1550-MHz links is generally negligible.

  15. Twentieth century surge of excess adult male mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Finch, Caleb E.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Using historical data from 1,763 birth cohorts from 1800 to 1935 in 13 developed countries, we show that what is now seen as normal—a large excess of female life expectancy in adulthood—is a demographic phenomenon that emerged among people born in the late 1800s. We show that excess adult male mortality is clearly rooted in specific age groups, 50–70, and that the sex asymmetry emerged in cohorts born after 1880 when male:female mortality ratios increased by as much as 50% from a baseline of about 1.1. Heart disease is the main condition associated with increased excess male mortality for those born after 1900. We further show that smoking-attributable deaths account for about 30% of excess male mortality at ages 50–70 for cohorts born in 1900–1935. However, after accounting for smoking, substantial excess male mortality at ages 50–70 remained, particularly from cardiovascular disease. The greater male vulnerability to cardiovascular conditions emerged with the reduction in infectious mortality and changes in health-related behaviors. PMID:26150507

  16. Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials using the Band transport ... For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is ... field is spatially phase shifted by /2 relative to the interference fringe pattern, which ...

  17. Linear operator inequalities for strongly stable weakly regular linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, RF

    2001-01-01

    We consider the question of the existence of solutions to certain linear operator inequalities (Lur'e equations) for strongly stable, weakly regular linear systems with generating operators A, B, C, 0. These operator inequalities are related to the spectral factorization of an associated Popov

  18. Internet Addiction and Excessive Social Networks Use: What About Facebook?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Eduardo; Sancassiani, Federica; Carta, Mauro Giovani; Campos, Carlos; Machado, Sergio; King, Anna Lucia Spear; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Facebook is notably the most widely known and used social network worldwide. It has been described as a valuable tool for leisure and communication between people all over the world. However, healthy and conscience Facebook use is contrasted by excessive use and lack of control, creating an addiction with severely impacts the everyday life of many users, mainly youths. If Facebook use seems to be related to the need to belong, affiliate with others and for self-presentation, the beginning of excessive Facebook use and addiction could be associated to reward and gratification mechanisms as well as some personality traits. Studies from several countries indicate different Facebook addiction prevalence rates, mainly due to the use of a wide-range of evaluation instruments and to the lack of a clear and valid definition of this construct. Further investigations are needed to establish if excessive Facebook use can be considered as a specific online addiction disorder or an Internet addiction subtype. PMID:27418940

  19. The excess in the hate discourse of the haters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Recuero Rebs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify and comprehend the marks of the excess present in the hate discourse of the haters. By using the power of social media’s information diffusion on the internet, the haters appropriate of such spaces to disseminate ideologies related to violence, intending to generate more hate. Among the strategies utilized by this group, there is the excess. However, it is necessary to understand the subject’s social and historical contexts and the meanings of their discourse in these environments. As the corpus, we start off the analysis from the attacks towards the actress Taís Araújo occurred on Facebook. As shown by the results, the excess is perceived on authority demonstrations, on the repetition of ideals and onto the search of values such as visibility, popularity (among participants of the networks and the media, authority and reputation (inside the hater’s group of belonging.elonging.

  20. Internet Addiction and Excessive Social Networks Use: What About Facebook?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Eduardo; Sancassiani, Federica; Carta, Mauro Giovani; Campos, Carlos; Machado, Sergio; King, Anna Lucia Spear; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Facebook is notably the most widely known and used social network worldwide. It has been described as a valuable tool for leisure and communication between people all over the world. However, healthy and conscience Facebook use is contrasted by excessive use and lack of control, creating an addiction with severely impacts the everyday life of many users, mainly youths. If Facebook use seems to be related to the need to belong, affiliate with others and for self-presentation, the beginning of excessive Facebook use and addiction could be associated to reward and gratification mechanisms as well as some personality traits. Studies from several countries indicate different Facebook addiction prevalence rates, mainly due to the use of a wide-range of evaluation instruments and to the lack of a clear and valid definition of this construct. Further investigations are needed to establish if excessive Facebook use can be considered as a specific online addiction disorder or an Internet addiction subtype.

  1. 75 FR 27572 - Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... permitted to retain Excess Income for projects under terms and conditions established by HUD. Owners must request to retain some or all of their Excess Income. The request must be submitted through http://www.pay...

  2. Mathematical algorithm to relate digital maps of distribution of biomass with algorithms of linear programming to optimize bio-energy delivery chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazquez-Marti, B.; Annevelink, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many linear programming models have been developed to model the logistics of bio-energy chains. These models help to determine the best set-up of bio-energy chains. Most of them use network structures built up from nodes with one or more depots, and arcs connecting these depots. Each depot is source

  3. On the exactness of the cavity method for weighted b-matchings on arbitrary graphs and its relation to linear programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayati, Mohsen; Borgs, Christian; Chayes, Jennifer; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    We consider the general problem of finding the minimum weight b-matching on arbitrary graphs. We prove that, whenever the linear programing relaxation of the problem has no fractional solutions, then the cavity or belief propagation equations converge to the correct solution both for synchronous and asynchronous updating. (letter)

  4. Phase relations and linear thermal expansion of cubic solid solutions in the Th1-xMxO2-x/2 (M=Eu, Gd, Dy) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, M.D.; Ambekar, B.R.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Cell parameters and linear thermal expansion studies of the Th-M oxide systems with general compositions Th 1-x M x O 2-x/2 (M=Eu 3+ , Gd 3+ and Dy 3+ , 0.0= 1.5 in the ThO 2 lattice. The upper solid solubility limits of EuO 1.5 , GdO 1.5 and DyO 1.5 in the ThO 2 lattice under conditions of slow cooling from 1673K are represented as Th 0.50 Eu 0.50 O 1.75 , Th 0.60 Gd 0.40 O 1.80 and Th 0.85 Dy 0.15 O 1.925 , respectively. The linear thermal expansion (293-1123K) of MO 1.5 and their single-phase solid solutions with thoria were investigated by dilatometery. The average linear thermal expansion coefficients (α-bar ) of the compounds decrease on going from EuO 1.5 to DyO 1.5 . The values of α-bar for EuO 1.5 , GdO 1.5 and DyO 1.5 containing solid solutions showed a downward trend as a function of the dopant concentration. The linear thermal expansion (293-1473K) of the solid solutions investigated by high-temperature XRD also showed a similar trend

  5. Linear waves and instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.

    1975-01-01

    The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)

  6. Polymeric membrane materials: new aspects of empirical approaches to prediction of gas permeability parameters in relation to permanent gases, linear lower hydrocarbons and some toxic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykh, O V; Golub, A Yu; Teplyakov, V V

    2011-05-11

    Membrane gas separation technologies (air separation, hydrogen recovery from dehydrogenation processes, etc.) use traditionally the glassy polymer membranes with dominating permeability of "small" gas molecules. For this purposes the membranes based on the low free volume glassy polymers (e.g., polysulfone, tetrabromopolycarbonate and polyimides) are used. On the other hand, an application of membrane methods for VOCs and some toxic gas recovery from air, separation of the lower hydrocarbons containing mixtures (in petrochemistry and oil refining) needs the membranes with preferable penetration of components with relatively larger molecular sizes. In general, this kind of permeability is characterized for rubbers and for the high free volume glassy polymers. Data files accumulated (more than 1500 polymeric materials) represent the region of parameters "inside" of these "boundaries." Two main approaches to the prediction of gas permeability of polymers are considered in this paper: (1) the statistical treatment of published transport parameters of polymers and (2) the prediction using model of ≪diffusion jump≫ with consideration of the key properties of the diffusing molecule and polymeric matrix. In the frames of (1) the paper presents N-dimensional methods of the gas permeability estimation of polymers using the correlations "selectivity/permeability." It is found that the optimal accuracy of prediction is provided at n=4. In the frames of the solution-diffusion mechanism (2) the key properties include the effective molecular cross-section of penetrating species to be responsible for molecular transportation in polymeric matrix and the well known force constant (ε/k)(eff i) of {6-12} potential for gas-gas interaction. Set of corrected effective molecular cross-section of penetrant including noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), permanent gases (H(2), O(2), N(2), CO), ballast and toxic gases (CO(2), NO(,) NO(2), SO(2), H(2)S) and linear lower hydrocarbons (CH(4

  7. Excessive crying in infants with regulatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Duran, M; Sauceda-Garcia, J M

    1996-01-01

    The authors point out a correlation between regulatory disorders in infants and the problem of excessive crying. The literature describes other behavioral problems involving excessive crying in very young children, but with little emphasis on this association. The recognition and diagnosis of regulatory disorders in infants who cry excessively can help practitioners design appropriate treatment interventions. Understanding these conditions can also help parents tailor their caretaking style, so that they provide appropriate soothing and stimulation to their child. In so doing, they will be better able to develop and preserve a satisfactory parent-child relationship, as well as to maintain their own sense of competence and self-esteem as parents.

  8. Excess winter mortality and cold temperatures in a subtropical city, Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Quan Ou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A significant increase in mortality was observed during cold winters in many temperate regions. However, there is a lack of evidence from tropical and subtropical regions, and the influence of ambient temperatures on seasonal variation of mortality was not well documented. METHODS: This study included 213,737 registered deaths from January 2003 to December 2011 in Guangzhou, a subtropical city in Southern China. Excess winter mortality was calculated by the excess percentage of monthly mortality in winters over that of non-winter months. A generalized linear model with a quasi-Poisson distribution was applied to analyze the association between monthly mean temperature and mortality, after controlling for other meteorological measures and air pollution. RESULTS: The mortality rate in the winter was 26% higher than the average rate in other seasons. On average, there were 1,848 excess winter deaths annually, with around half (52% from cardiovascular diseases and a quarter (24% from respiratory diseases. Excess winter mortality was higher in the elderly, females and those with low education level than the young, males and those with high education level, respectively. A much larger winter increase was observed in out-of-hospital mortality compared to in-hospital mortality (45% vs. 17%. We found a significant negative correlation of annual excess winter mortality with average winter temperature (rs=-0.738, P=0.037, but not with air pollution levels. A 1 °C decrease in monthly mean temperature was associated with an increase of 1.38% (95% CI:0.34%-2.40% and 0.88% (95% CI:0.11%-1.64% in monthly mortality at lags of 0-1 month, respectively. CONCLUSION: Similar to temperate regions, a subtropical city Guangzhou showed a clear seasonal pattern in mortality, with a sharper spike in winter. Our results highlight the role of cold temperature on the winter mortality even in warm climate. Precautionary measures should be strengthened to mitigate

  9. Family- and school-based correlates of energy balance-related behaviours in 10-12-year-old children: a systematic review within the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloigne, M.; Van Lippevelde, W.; Maes, L.; Brug, J.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify family- and school-based correlates of specific energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, breakfast consumption, soft drink consumption) among 10-12-year-olds, using the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain

  10. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Aakre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study. In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L, respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight.

  11. Can we determine what controls the spatio-temporal distribution of d-excess and 17O-excess in precipitation using the LMDZ general circulation model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Risi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Combined measurements of the H218O and HDO isotopic ratios in precipitation, leading to second-order parameter D-excess, have provided additional constraints on past climates compared to the H218O isotopic ratio alone. More recently, measurements of H217O have led to another second-order parameter: 17O-excess. Recent studies suggest that 17O-excess in polar ice may provide information on evaporative conditions at the moisture source. However, the processes controlling the spatio-temporal distribution of 17O-excess are still far from being fully understood. We use the isotopic general circulation model (GCM LMDZ to better understand what controls d-excess and 17O-excess in precipitation at present-day (PD and during the last glacial maximum (LGM. The simulation of D-excess and 17O-excess is evaluated against measurements in meteoric water, water vapor and polar ice cores. A set of sensitivity tests and diagnostics are used to quantify the relative effects of evaporative conditions (sea surface temperature and relative humidity, Rayleigh distillation, mixing between vapors from different origins, precipitation re-evaporation and supersaturation during condensation at low temperature. In LMDZ, simulations suggest that in the tropics convective processes and rain re-evaporation are important controls on precipitation D-excess and 17O-excess. In higher latitudes, the effect of distillation, mixing between vapors from different origins and supersaturation are the most important controls. For example, the lower d-excess and 17O-excess at LGM simulated at LGM are mainly due to the supersaturation effect. The effect of supersaturation is however very sensitive to a parameter whose tuning would require more measurements and laboratory experiments. Evaporative conditions had previously been suggested to be key controlling factors of d-excess and 17O-excess, but LMDZ underestimates their role. More generally, some shortcomings in the simulation of 17O-excess

  12. Excessive Neural Responses and Visual Discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L O'Hare

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatially and temporally periodic patterns can look aversive to some individuals (Wilkins et al, 1984, Brain, 107, 989-1017, especially clinical populations such as migraine (Marcus and Soso, 1989, Arch Neurol., 46(10, 1129-32 epilepsy (Wilkins, Darby and Binnie, 1979, Brain, 102, 1-25. It has been suggested that this might be due to excessive neural responses (Juricevic, Land, Wilkins and Webster, 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884-899. Spatial frequency content has been shown to affect both relative and absolute discomfort judgements for spatially periodic riloid stimuli (Clark, O'Hare and Hibbard, 2013, Perception, ECVP Supp.; O'Hare, Clark and Hibbard, 2013, Perception ECVP Supplement. The current study investigated the possibility of whether neural correlates of visual discomfort from periodic stimuli could be measured using EEG. Stimuli were first matched for perceived contrast using a self adjustment task. EEG measurements were then obtained, alongside subjective discomfort judgements. Subjective discomfort judgements support those found previously, under various circumstances, indicating that spatial frequency plays a role in the perceived discomfort of periodic images. However, trends in EEG responses do not appear to have a straightforward relationship to subjective discomfort judgements.

  13. Complementary technologies for verification of excess plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, D.G.; Nicholas, N.J.; Ensslin, N.; Fearey, B.L.; Mitchell, D.J.; Marlow, K.W.; Luke, S.J.; Gosnell, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Three complementary measurement technologies have been identified as candidates for use in the verification of excess plutonium of weapons origin. These technologies: high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, neutron multiplicity counting, and low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, are mature, robust technologies. The high-resolution gamma-ray system, Pu-600, uses the 630--670 keV region of the emitted gamma-ray spectrum to determine the ratio of 240 Pu to 239 Pu. It is useful in verifying the presence of plutonium and the presence of weapons-grade plutonium. Neutron multiplicity counting is well suited for verifying that the plutonium is of a safeguardable quantity and is weapons-quality material, as opposed to residue or waste. In addition, multiplicity counting can independently verify the presence of plutonium by virtue of a measured neutron self-multiplication and can detect the presence of non-plutonium neutron sources. The low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopic technique is a template method that can provide continuity of knowledge that an item that enters the a verification regime remains under the regime. In the initial verification of an item, multiple regions of the measured low-resolution spectrum form a unique, gamma-radiation-based template for the item that can be used for comparison in subsequent verifications. In this paper the authors discuss these technologies as they relate to the different attributes that could be used in a verification regime

  14. Explaining CMS lepton excesses with supersymmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Prof. Allanach, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    1) Kostas Theofilatos will give an introduction to CMS result 2) Ben Allanach: Several CMS analyses involving di-leptons have recently reported small 2.4-2.8 sigma local excesses: nothing to get too excited about, but worth keeping an eye on nonetheless. In particular, a search in the $lljj p_T$(miss) channel, a search for $W_R$ in the $lljj$ channel and a di-leptoquark search in the $lljj$ channel and $ljj p_T$(miss) channel have all yielded small excesses. We interpret the first excess in the MSSM, showing that the interpretation is viable in terms of other constraints, despite only having squark masses of around 1 TeV. We can explain the last three excesses with a single R-parity violating coupling that predicts a non-zero contribution to the neutrinoless double beta decay rate.

  15. Theoretical research relating to excitation spectrum of furan. Application of integral direct coupled cluster linear response (direct CCLR) method; Furan no reiki supekutoru ni kansuru ronriteki kenkyu. Integral-direct Coupled Cluster Linear Response (direct CCLR) ho no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigemitsu, Yasuhiro. [Nagasaki Industrial Technology Center, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    heoretical researches relating to excitation spectrum of furan have been carried out for many years, and they reveal the problems that should be solved in order to predict highly reliable excitation energy. In general, it is difficult to uniformly obtain highly reliable calculation results for all excitation states since different excitation states show different electronic correlative effects. Means for obtaining the electron states in ground state and excited state and calculating the energy difference thereof is the mainstream of the theoretical calculation of the excitation energy. CASSCF/CASPT 2 developed by Roos et al. is a typical method excellent in quantitative description. Recently, the comparison between direct CCLR and CASSCF/CASPT 2 as examples for calculating the excitation spectrum of furan was carried out by using the same ground function. For Rydberg excitation, CC3, CAS, CASPT 2 show good agreement with each other. (NEDO)

  16. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.

  17. Romanian welfare state between excess and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ciuraru-Andrica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely or not, our issue can bring back to life some prolific discussions, sometimes diametrical. We strike the social assistance, where, at this moment, is still uncertain if, once unleashed the excess, the failure will come inevitably or there is a “Salvation Ark”. However, the difference between the excess and the failure of the welfare state is almost intangible, the reason of his potential failure being actually the abuses made until the start of depression.

  18. Brazilian air traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; de Almeida, Cláudia Ângela Vilela; Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Alves, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Alves, Marcos José Pinheiro Cândido; Carneiro, Severino Marcos de Oliveira; Ribas, Valéria Ribeiro; de Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho; Sougey, Everton Botelho; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2011-01-01

    Excessive sleepiness (ES) is an increased tendency to initiate involuntary sleep for naps at inappropriate times. The objective of this study was to assess ES in air traffic controllers (ATCo). 45 flight protection professionals were evaluated, comprising 30 ATCo, subdivided into ATCo with ten or more years in the profession (ATCo≥10, n=15) and ATCo with less than ten years in the profession (ATCoair traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

  19. VARIABILITY OF THE INFRARED EXCESS OF EXTREME DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Huan Y. A.; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Vanzi, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Debris disks with extremely large infrared excesses (fractional luminosities >10 –2 ) are rare. Those with ages between 30 and 130 Myr are of interest because their evolution has progressed well beyond that of protoplanetary disks (which dissipate with a timescale of order 3 Myr), yet they represent a period when dynamical models suggest that terrestrial planet building may still be progressing through large, violent collisions that could yield large amounts of debris and large infrared excesses. For example, our Moon was formed through a violent collision of two large protoplanets during this age range. We report two disks around the solar-like stars ID8 and HD 23514 in this age range where the 24 μm infrared excesses vary on timescales of a few years, even though the stars are not variable in the optical. Variations this rapid are difficult to understand if the debris is produced by collisional cascades, as it is for most debris disks. It is possible that the debris in these two systems arises in part from condensates from silicate-rich vapor produced in a series of violent collisions among relatively large bodies. If their evolution is rapid, the rate of detection of extreme excesses would indicate that major collisions may be relatively common in this age range.

  20. On the concept of critical surface excess of micellization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talens-Alesson, Federico I

    2010-11-16

    The critical surface excess of micellization (CSEM) should be regarded as the critical condition for micellization of ionic surfactants instead of the critical micelle concentration (CMC). There is a correspondence between the surface excesses Γ of anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic surfactants at their CMCs, which would be the CSEM values, and the critical association distance for ionic pair association calculated using Bjerrum's correlation. Further support to this concept is given by an accurate method for the prediction of the relative binding of alkali cations onto dodecylsulfate (NaDS) micelles. This method uses a relative binding strength parameter calculated from the values of surface excess Γ at the CMC of the alkali dodecylsulfates. This links both the binding of a given cation onto micelles and the onset for micellization of its surfactant salt. The CSEM concept implies that micelles form at the air-water interface unless another surface with greater affinity for micelles exists. The process would start when surfactant monomers are close enough to each other for ionic pairing with counterions and the subsequent assembly of these pairs becomes unavoidable. This would explain why the surface excess Γ values of different surfactants are more similar than their CMCs: the latter are just the bulk phase concentrations in equilibrium with chemicals with different hydrophobicity. An intriguing implication is that CSEM values may be used to calculate the actual critical distances of ionic pair formation for different cations, replacing Bjerrum's estimates, which only discriminate by the magnitude of the charge.

  1. Quantum linear Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacchini, Bassano; Hornberger, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We review the quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation, which describes in a non-perturbative fashion, by means of scattering theory, how the quantum motion of a single test particle is affected by collisions with an ideal background gas. A heuristic derivation of this Lindblad master equation is presented, based on the requirement of translation-covariance and on the relation to the classical linear Boltzmann equation. After analyzing its general symmetry properties and the associated relaxation dynamics, we discuss a quantum Monte Carlo method for its numerical solution. We then review important limiting forms of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation, such as the case of quantum Brownian motion and pure collisional decoherence, as well as the application to matter wave optics. Finally, we point to the incorporation of quantum degeneracies and self-interactions in the gas by relating the equation to the dynamic structure factor of the ambient medium, and we provide an extension of the equation to include internal degrees of freedom.

  2. Reciprocating linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  3. Non-linear osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Jared M.

    1966-01-01

    1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water flow has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water flow was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-linear fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water flow. 3. Water flow in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water flow increased linearly with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water flow was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water flow is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-linear osmosis in other tissues, flow-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-linear osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water flow. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254

  4. Functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuba, Robert; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2018-02-13

    This invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing linear and cyclic polyolefins. More particularly, the invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins via olefin metathesis reactions. Polymer products produced via the olefin metathesis reactions of the invention may be utilized for a wide range of materials applications. The invention has utility in the fields of polymer and materials chemistry and manufacture.

  5. Thermophysical and excess properties of hydroxamic acids in DMSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Piyush Kumar; Patre, Sandhya; Pande, Rama

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Excess molar volumes (V E ) vs mole fraction (x 2 ) of (A) N-o-tolyl-2-nitrobenzo- and (B) N-o-tolyl-4-nitrobenzo-hydroxamic acids in DMSO at different temperatures: ■, 298.15 K; ▪, 303.15 K; ▪, 308.15 K; ▪, 313.15 K; and ▪, 318.15 K. Highlights: ► ρ, n of the system hydroxamic acids in DMSO are reported. ► Apparent molar volume indicates superior solute–solvent interactions. ► Limiting apparent molar expansibility and coefficient of thermal expansion. ► Behaviour of this parameter suggest to hydroxamic acids act as structure maker. ► The excess properties have interpreted in terms of molecular interactions. -- Abstract: In this work, densities (ρ) and refractive indices (n) of N-o-tolyl-2-nitrobenzo- and N-o-tolyl-4-nitrobenzo-, hydroxamic acids have been determined for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a function of their concentrations at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K. These measurements were carried out to evaluate some important parameters, viz, molar volume (V), apparent molar volume (V ϕ ), limiting apparent molar volume (V ϕ 0 ), slope (S V ∗ ), molar refraction (R M ) and polarizability (α). The related parameters determined are limiting apparent molar expansivity (ϕ E 0 ), thermal expansion coefficient (α 2 ) and the Hepler constant (∂ 2 V ϕ 0 /∂T 2 ). Excess properties such as excess molar volume (V E ), deviations from the additivity rule of refractive index (n E ), excess molar refraction (R M E ) have also been evaluated. The excess properties were fitted to the Redlich–Kister equations to estimate their coefficients and standard deviations were determined. The variations of these excess parameters with composition were discussed from the viewpoint of intermolecular interactions in these solutions. The excess properties are found to be either positive or negative depending on the molecular interactions and the nature of solutions. Further, these parameters have been interpreted

  6. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  7. Metallicity and ultraviolet excesses of late main sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchkov, A.A.; Marsakov, V.A.; Shevelev, Yu.G.

    1987-01-01

    The comparison of the characteristics of ultraviolet (UV) excesses δ(U-B) and metallicity [Fe/H] distributions of F, G, and K dwarfs reveals a number of discrepancies. It is shown that they can be eliminated if we assume that UV excesses of K and late G dwarfs, and [Fe/H] values from detailed analysis for F dwarfs are underestimated. Such an assumption enables to account for low values of for F, K and late G dwarfs, and for the difference of the free terms in the metallicity - UV-excess relation for these stars as compared to early G dwarfs. In this case the F5-F9 dwarfs turn out to be more metal-rich (by 0.1 in [Fe/H]) than G and K dwarfs, and the metallicity of the Hyades cluster turns out to be larger than the solar one, [Fe/H] Hyades =+0.1. The ''conditional'' metallicity - UV-excess calibrations are obtained for four groups of main-sequence stars: F5-F9, G0-G4, G5-G9, K0-K5

  8. Antidepressant induced excessive yawning and indifference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Palazzo Nazar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Antidepressant induced excessive yawning has been described as a possible side effect of pharmacotherapy. A syndrome of indifference has also been described as another possible side effect. The frequency of those phenomena and their physiopathology are unknown. They are both considered benign and reversible after antidepressant discontinuation but severe cases with complications as temporomandibular lesions, have been described. Methods We report two unprecedented cases in which excessive yawning and indifference occurred simultaneously as side effects of antidepressant therapy, discussing possible physiopathological mechanisms for this co-occurrence. Case 1: A male patient presented excessive yawning (approximately 80/day and apathy after venlafaxine XR treatment. Symptoms reduced after a switch to escitalopram, with a reduction to 50 yawns/day. Case 2: A female patient presented excessive yawning (approximately 25/day and inability to react to environmental stressors with desvenlafaxine. Conclusion Induction of indifference and excessive yawning may be modulated by serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms. One proposal to unify these side effects would be enhancement of serotonin in midbrain, especially paraventricular and raphe nucleus.

  9. New vector bosons and the diphoton excess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Blas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the possibility that the recently observed diphoton excess at ∼750 GeV can be explained by the decay of a scalar particle (φ to photons. If the scalar is the remnant of a symmetry-breaking sector of some new gauge symmetry, its coupling to photons can be generated by loops of the charged massive vectors of the broken symmetry. If these new W′ vector bosons carry color, they can also generate an effective coupling to gluons. In this case the diphoton excess could be entirely explained in a simplified model containing just φ and W′. On the other hand, if W′ does not carry color, we show that, provided additional colored particles exist to generate the required φ to gluon coupling, the diphoton excess could be explained by the same W′ commonly invoked to explain the diboson excess at ∼2 TeV. We also explore possible connections between the diphoton and diboson excesses with the anomalous tt¯ forward–backward asymmetry.

  10. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  11. Explaining excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Birkelund, Jesper Fels

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: This article analyses excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users compared to the general Danish population. The study provides an extensive control for confounding and investigates to what extent excess morbidity is explained by homelessness or other risk factors. METHODS: Data set...... includes administrative micro-data for 4,068,926 Danes who were 23 years or older on 1 January 2007. Nationwide data on shelter use identified 14,730 individuals as shelter users from 2002 to 2006. Somatic diseases were measured from 2007 to 2011 through diagnosis data from hospital discharges. The risk...... of somatic diseases amongst shelter users was analysed through a multivariate model that decomposed the total effect into a direct effect and indirect effects mediated by other risk factors. RESULTS: The excess morbidity associated with shelter use is substantially lower than in studies that did not include...

  12. A new approach to analyse longitudinal epidemiological data with an excess of zeros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spriensma, A.S.; Hajós, T.R.S.; de Boer, M.R.; Heijmans, M.W.; Twisk, J.W.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within longitudinal epidemiological research, count outcome variables with an excess of zeros frequently occur. Although these outcomes are frequently analysed with a linear mixed model, or a Poisson mixed model, a two-part mixed model would be better in analysing outcome variables with

  13. A new approach to analyse longitudinal epidemiological data with an excess of zeros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spriensma, Alette S.; Hajos, Tibor R. S.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within longitudinal epidemiological research, 'count' outcome variables with an excess of zeros frequently occur. Although these outcomes are frequently analysed with a linear mixed model, or a Poisson mixed model, a two-part mixed model would be better in analysing outcome variables

  14. Introduction to generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, Annette J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Background Scope Notation Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution Quadratic Forms Estimation Model Fitting Introduction Examples Some Principles of Statistical Modeling Notation and Coding for Explanatory Variables Exponential Family and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Exponential Family of Distributions Properties of Distributions in the Exponential Family Generalized Linear Models Examples Estimation Introduction Example: Failure Times for Pressure Vessels Maximum Likelihood Estimation Poisson Regression Example Inference Introduction Sampling Distribution for Score Statistics Taylor Series Approximations Sampling Distribution for MLEs Log-Likelihood Ratio Statistic Sampling Distribution for the Deviance Hypothesis Testing Normal Linear Models Introduction Basic Results Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models Binary Variables and Logistic Regression Probability Distributions ...

  15. Nitrogen Excess in North American Ecosystems: Predisposing Factors, Ecosystem Responses, and Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Mark A. Poth; John D. Aber; Jill S. Baron; Bernard T. Bormann; Dale W. Johnson; A. Dennis Lemly; Steven G. McNulty; Douglas F. Ryan; Robert Stottlemyer

    1998-01-01

    Most forests in North America remain nitrogen limited, although recent studies have identified forested areas that exhibit symptoms of N excess, analogous to overfertilization of arable land. Nitrogen excess in watersheds is detrimental because of disruptions in plant/soil nutrient relations, increased soil acidification and aluminum mobility, increased emissions of...

  16. Atmospheric influence on the deuterium excess signal in polar firn - implications for ice core interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlosser, Elisabeth; Oerter, H.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Reijmer, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal deuterium excess signal of fresh snow samples from Neumayer station, coastal Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, was studied to investigate the relationship between deuterium excess and precipitation origin. An isotope model was combined with a trajectory model to determine the relative

  17. Internet Addiction and Excessive Social Networks Use: What About Facebook?

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, Eduardo; Sancassiani, Federica; Carta, Mauro Giovani; Campos, Carlos; Machado, Sergio; King, Anna Lucia Spear; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Facebook is notably the most widely known and used social network worldwide. It has been described as a valuable tool for leisure and communication between people all over the world. However, healthy and conscience Facebook use is contrasted by excessive use and lack of control, creating an addiction with severely impacts the everyday life of many users, mainly youths. If Facebook use seems to be related to the need to belong, affiliate with others and for self-presentation, the beginning of ...

  18. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-17

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.  Created: 10/17/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 10/17/2011.

  19. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-07

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variable on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB.

  20. On the excess energy of nonequilibrium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    The energy that can be released in plasma due to the onset of instability (the excess plasma energy) is estimated. Three potentially unstable plasma states are considered, namely, plasma with an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of plasma particles, plasma with a two-beam velocity distribution, and an inhomogeneous plasma in a magnetic field with a local Maxwellian velocity distribution. The excess energy can serve as a measure of the degree to which plasma is nonequilibrium. In particular, this quantity can be used to compare plasmas in different nonequilibrium states.

  1. Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S; Fall, Caroline H D; Osmond, Clive; Stein, Aryeh D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Dahly, Darren L; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa; Hallal, Pedro; Victora, Cesar G

    2013-08-10

    Fast weight gain and linear growth in children in low-income and middle-income countries are associated with enhanced survival and improved cognitive development, but might increase risk of obesity and related adult cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated how linear growth and relative weight gain during infancy and childhood are related to health and human capital outcomes in young adults. We used data from five prospective birth cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. We investigated body-mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose concentration, height, years of attained schooling, and related categorical indicators of adverse outcomes in young adults. With linear and logistic regression models, we assessed how these outcomes relate to birthweight and to statistically independent measures representing linear growth and weight gain independent of linear growth (relative weight gain) in three age periods: 0-2 years, 2 years to mid-childhood, and mid-childhood to adulthood. We obtained data for 8362 participants who had at least one adult outcome of interest. A higher birthweight was consistently associated with an adult body-mass index of greater than 25 kg/m(2) (odds ratio 1·28, 95% CI 1·21-1·35) and a reduced likelihood of short adult stature (0·49, 0·44-0·54) and of not completing secondary school (0·82, 0·78-0·87). Faster linear growth was strongly associated with a reduced risk of short adult stature (age 2 years: 0·23, 0·20-0·52; mid-childhood: 0·39, 0·36-0·43) and of not completing secondary school (age 2 years: 0·74, 0·67-0·78; mid-childhood: 0·87, 0·83-0·92), but did raise the likelihood of overweight (age 2 years: 1·24, 1·17-1·31; mid-childhood: 1·12, 1·06-1·18) and elevated blood pressure (age 2 years: 1·12, 1·06-1·19; mid-childhood: 1·07, 1·01-1·13). Faster relative weight gain was associated with an increased risk of adult overweight (age 2 years: 1·51

  2. Excess entropy scaling for the segmental and global dynamics of polyethylene melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyiatzis, Evangelos; Müller-Plathe, Florian; Böhm, Michael C

    2014-11-28

    The range of validity of the Rosenfeld and Dzugutov excess entropy scaling laws is analyzed for unentangled linear polyethylene chains. We consider two segmental dynamical quantities, i.e. the bond and the torsional relaxation times, and two global ones, i.e. the chain diffusion coefficient and the viscosity. The excess entropy is approximated by either a series expansion of the entropy in terms of the pair correlation function or by an equation of state for polymers developed in the context of the self associating fluid theory. For the whole range of temperatures and chain lengths considered, the two estimates of the excess entropy are linearly correlated. The scaled bond and torsional relaxation times fall into a master curve irrespective of the chain length and the employed scaling scheme. Both quantities depend non-linearly on the excess entropy. For a fixed chain length, the reduced diffusion coefficient and viscosity scale linearly with the excess entropy. An empirical reduction to a chain length-independent master curve is accessible for both dynamic quantities. The Dzugutov scheme predicts an increased value of the scaled diffusion coefficient with increasing chain length which contrasts physical expectations. The origin of this trend can be traced back to the density dependence of the scaling factors. This finding has not been observed previously for Lennard-Jones chain systems (Macromolecules, 2013, 46, 8710-8723). Thus, it limits the applicability of the Dzugutov approach to polymers. In connection with diffusion coefficients and viscosities, the Rosenfeld scaling law appears to be of higher quality than the Dzugutov approach. An empirical excess entropy scaling is also proposed which leads to a chain length-independent correlation. It is expected to be valid for polymers in the Rouse regime.

  3. Steroidogenic alterations and adrenal androgen excess in PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Suhail A R; Al-Zaid, Mona; Towers, Philip A; Scott, Christopher J; Al-Shoumer, Kamal A S

    2006-09-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken to improve our understanding of the steroidogenic alterations leading to adrenal hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Two-hundred and thirty-four women with clinical and biochemical features suggestive of PCOS underwent metabolic and hormonal evaluation. We used the androstenedione/DHEAS ratio as a surrogate for the level of ovarian 3betaHSD activity. We then selected the 90th percentile for the ratio in those with elevated DHEAS (>9 micromol/l) as the cut-off level beyond which excess DHEAS production will be minimized by excess ovarian 3betaHSD activity. This cut-off level was at a ratio of 1.5 and all PCOS women were then divided into two groups, the higher (>1.5) being the group with excess ovarian 3betaHSD activity. We hypothesized that women with a high ratio would be unlikely to have DHEAS excess due to the rapid conversion of DHEA to androstenedione. Those with a low ratio (concordant ovarian and adrenal steroidogenesis) could then either have high DHEAS or normal DHEAS, depending on whether CYP17 activity was higher or lower respectively. Insulin resistance was found to be associated with decreased CYP17 activity while irregular cycles and neuroendocrine dysfunction were determined to be associated with higher ovarian 3betaHSD activity. Adrenal androgen excess in PCOS seems to be related to insulin sensitivity as well as decreased activity of 3betaHSD, the latter being preferentially present in those women with regular cycles or without neuroendocrine dysfunction.

  4. Nonresonant excess photon detachment of negative hydrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulley, M. S.; Zhao, Xin Miao; Bryant, H. C.; Strauss, Charlie E. M.; Funk, David J.; Stintz, A.; Rislove, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ingalls, W. B.; Miller, W. A.

    1999-01-01

    One-photon detachment and two-photon nonresonant excess photon detachment of electrons from the H - ion (outer-electron binding energy = 0.7542 eV) are observed with 1.165 eV laser pulses from a Nd:YAG laser (where YAG denotes yttrium aluminum garnet). A Penning ion source produces a pulsed 8 μA, 35 keV H - beam that intersects a laser beam cylindrically focused down to a 17 μm full width at half maximum waist in the ion beam direction, creating a high-intensity interaction region with peak intensities of up to 10 11 W/cm 2 . The interaction time is 7 ps. The detached electrons are detected by a time-of-flight apparatus enabling us to detect a very small two-photon signal in the presence of a very large signal from single photon detachments. By rotating the linear polarization angle, we study the angular distribution of the electrons for both one- and two-photon detachments. The spectra are modeled to determine the asymmetry parameters and one- and two-photon cross sections. We find β 2 to be 2.54+0.44/-0.60 and β 4 to be 2.29+0.07/-0.31, corresponding to a D state of 89+3/-12% of the S wave and D wave detachments for the two-photon results. The relative phase angle between the S and D amplitudes is measured to be less than 59 degree sign . The measured cross sections are found to be consistent with theoretical predictions. The one-photon photodetachment cross section is measured to be (3.6±1.7)x10 -17 cm 2 . The two-photon photodetachment generalized cross section is (1.3±0.5)x10 -48 cm 4 sec, consistent with theoretical calculations of the cross section. The three-photon generalized cross section is less than 4.4x10 -79 cm 6 sec 2 . (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  5. Excess iron: considerations related to development and early growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    What effects might arise from early life exposures to high iron? This review considers the specific effects of high iron on the brain, stem cells, and the process of erythropoiesis and identifies gaps in our knowledge of what molecular damage may be incurred by oxidative stress that is imparted by high iron status in early life. Specific areas to enhance research on this topic include the following: longitudinal behavioral studies of children to test associations between iron exposures and mood, emotion, cognition, and memory; animal studies to determine epigenetic changes that reprogram brain development and metabolic changes in early life that could be followed through the life course; and the establishment of human epigenetic markers of iron exposures and oxidative stress that could be monitored for early origins of adult chronic diseases. In addition, efforts to understand how iron exposure influences stem cell biology could be enhanced by establishing platforms to collect biological specimens, including umbilical cord blood and amniotic fluid, to be made available to the research community. At the molecular level, there is a need to better understand stress erythropoiesis and changes in iron metabolism during pregnancy and development, especially with respect to regulatory control under high iron conditions that might promote ineffective erythropoiesis and iron-loading anemia. These investigations should focus not only on factors such as hepcidin and erythroferrone but should also include newly identified interactions between transferrin receptor-2 and the erythropoietin receptor. Finally, despite our understanding that several key micronutrients (e.g., vitamin A, copper, manganese, and zinc) support iron's function in erythropoiesis, how these nutrients interact remains, to our knowledge, unknown. It is necessary to consider many factors when formulating recommendations on iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. 26 CFR 54.4981A-1T - Tax on excess distributions and excess accumulations (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Revenue Code of 1986, as added by section 1133 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (Pub. L. 99-514) (TRA '86...) Determine the value of the individual's adjusted account balance on the next valuation date by adding (or... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on excess distributions and excess...

  7. Excessive daytime sleepiness among depressed patients | Mume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has been reported among depressed patients in many populations. Many depressed patients seek medical attention partly to deal with EDS, but this sleep disorder is often overlooked in clinical practice. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the ...

  8. Can Excess Bilirubin Levels Cause Learning Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.; Becker, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined learning problems in South African sample of 7- to 14-year-olds whose mothers reported excessively high infant bilirubin shortly after the child's birth. Found that this sample had lowered verbal ability with the majority also showing impaired short-term and long-term memory. Findings suggested that impaired formation of astrocytes…

  9. Excessive daytime sleepiness among depressed patients | Mume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has been reported among depressed patients in many populations. Many depressed patients seek medical attention partly to deal with EDS, but this sleep disorder is often overlooked in clinical practice. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the ...

  10. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    NUMBER Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0497 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...suspected of alcohol abuse. Toxicol Lett, 151(1), 235-241. Graham, D. P., Cardon , A. L., & Uhl, G. R. (2008). An update on substance use and treatment

  11. Excessive infant crying: Definitions determine risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Hirasing, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed risk groups for excessive infant crying using 10 published definitions, in 3179 children aged 1-6 months (response: 96.5%). Risk groups regarding parental employment, living area, lifestyle, and obstetric history varied by definition. This may explain the existence of conflicting

  12. Excessive prices as abuse of dominance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth; Møllgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    firm abused its position by charging excessive prices. We also test whether tightening of the Danish competition act has altered the pricing behaviour on the market. We discuss our results in the light of a Danish competition case against the dominant cement producer that was abandoned by the authority...

  13. Excessive oral intake caffeine altered cerebral cortex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caffeine is commonly consumed in an effort to enhance speed in performance and wakefulness. However, little is known about the deleterious effects it can produce on the brain, this study aimed at determining the extents of effects and damage that can be caused by excessive consumption of caffeine on the cerebral cortex ...

  14. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... advertise the sale of the property in farm journals and in newspapers within the county in which the land...; (ii) A recordable contract is amended to remove excess land when the landowner's entitlement increases... eligible buyer at a price and on terms approved by Reclamation; (C) The sale from the previous landowner is...

  15. Multiscale estimation of excess mass from gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Raffaele; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    We describe a multiscale method to estimate the excess mass of gravity anomaly sources, based on the theory of source moments. Using a multipole expansion of the potential field and considering only the data along the vertical direction, a system of linear equations is obtained. The choice of inverting data along a vertical profile can help us to reduce the interference effects due to nearby anomalies and will allow a local estimate of the source parameters. A criterion is established allowing the selection of the optimal highest altitude of the vertical profile data and truncation order of the series expansion. The inversion provides an estimate of the total anomalous mass and of the depth to the centre of mass. The method has several advantages with respect to classical methods, such as the Gauss' method: (i) we need just a 1-D inversion to obtain our estimates, being the inverted data sampled along a single vertical profile; (ii) the resolution may be straightforward enhanced by using vertical derivatives; (iii) the centre of mass is also estimated, besides the excess mass; (iv) the method is very robust versus noise; (v) the profile may be chosen in such a way to minimize the effects from interfering anomalies or from side effects due to the a limited area extension. The multiscale estimation of excess mass method can be successfully used in various fields of application. Here, we analyse the gravity anomaly generated by a sulphide body in the Skelleftea ore district, North Sweden, obtaining source mass and volume estimates in agreement with the known information. We show also that these estimates are substantially improved with respect to those obtained with the classical approach.

  16. Speech intelligibility after gingivectomy of excess palatal tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Balasundaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate any enhancement in speech following gingivectomy of enlarged anterior palatal gingiva. Periodontal literature has documented various conditions, pathophysiology, and treatment modalities of gingival enlargement. Relationship between gingival maladies and speech alteration has received scant attention. This case report describes on altered speech pattern enhancement secondary to the gingivectomy procedure. A systemically healthy 24-year- female patient reported with bilateral anterior gingival enlargement who was provisionally diagnosed as "gingival abscess with inflammatory enlargement" in relation to palatal aspect of the right maxillary canine to left maxillary canine. Bilateral gingivectomy procedure was performed by external bevel incision in relation to anterior palatal gingiva and a large wedge of epithelium and connective tissue was removed. Patient and her close acquaintances noticed a great improvement in her pronunciation and enunciation of sounds like "t", "d", "n", "l", "th", following removal of excess gingival palatal tissue and was also appreciated with visual analog scale score. Exploration of linguistic research documented the significance of tongue-palate contact during speech. Any excess gingival tissue in palatal region brings about disruption in speech by altering tongue-palate contact. Periodontal surgery like gingivectomy may improve disrupted phonetics. Excess gingival palatal tissue impedes on tongue-palate contact and interferes speech. Pronunciation of consonants like "t", "d", "n", "l", "th", are altered with anterior enlarged palatal gingiva. Excision of the enlarged palatal tissue results in improvement of speech.

  17. Excessive daytime sleepiness and subsequent development of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, R D; Ross, G W; White, L R; Tanner, C M; Masaki, K H; Nelson, J S; Curb, J D; Petrovitch, H

    2005-11-08

    To determine if excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) can predate future Parkinson disease (PD). EDS was assessed in 3,078 men aged 71 to 93 years in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study from 1991 to 1993. All were free of prevalent PD and dementia. Follow-up for incident PD was based on three repeat neurologic assessments from 1994 to 2001. During the course of follow-up, 43 men developed PD (19.9/10,000 person-years). After age adjustment, there was more than a threefold excess in the risk of PD in men with EDS vs men without EDS (55.3 vs 17.0/10,000 person-years; odds ratio [OR] = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.4 to 7.0; p = 0.004). Additional adjustment for insomnia, cognitive function, depressed mood, midlife cigarette smoking and coffee drinking, and other factors failed to alter the association between EDS and PD (OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.1 to 6.4; p = 0.014). Other sleep related features such as insomnia, daytime napping, early morning grogginess, and frequent nocturnal awakening showed little relation with the risk of PD. Excessive daytime sleepiness may be associated with an increased risk of developing Parkinson disease.

  18. On the nature of the excess heat capacity of mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benisek, Artur; Dachs, Edgar

    2011-03-01

    The excess vibrational entropy (Δ S {vib/ex}) of several silicate solid solutions are found to be linearly correlated with the differences in end-member volumes (Δ V i ) and end-member bulk moduli (Δκ i ). If a substitution produces both, larger and elastically stiffer polyhedra, then the substituted ion will find itself in a strong enlarged structure. The frequency of its vibration is decreased because of the increase in bond lengths. Lowering of frequencies produces larger heat capacities, which give rise to positive excess vibrational entropies. If a substitution produces larger but elastically softer polyhedra, then increase and decrease of mean bond lengths may be similar in magnitude and their effect on the vibrational entropy tends to be compensated. The empirical relationship between Δ S {vib/ex}, Δ V i and Δκ i , as described by Δ S {vib/ex} = (Δ V i + mΔκ i ) f, was calibrated on six silicate solid solutions (analbite-sanidine, pyrope-grossular, forsterite-fayalite, analbite-anorthite, anorthite-sanidine, CaTs-diopside) yielding m = 0.0246 and f = 2.926. It allows the prediction of Δ S {vib/ex} behaviour of a solid solution based on its volume and bulk moduli end-member data.

  19. Stellar origin of the 22Ne excess in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, M.; Paul, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The 22 Ne excess at the cosmic-ray source is discussed in terms of a 22 Ne-rich component injected and accelerated by carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet stars. The overabundance of 22 Ne relative to 20 Ne predicted at the surface of these stars is estimated to a factor approx.120 with respect to solar system abundances. In order to give rise to a 22 Ne excess of about 3 at the cosmic-ray sources as inferred from observations, the carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet contribution to the primary cosmic-ray flux is to be at maximum 1/60. This component would be energized by strong stellar winds producing quasi-standing shocks around the Wolf-Rayet stars

  20. Excess Success for Psychology Articles in the Journal Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Tanzman, Jay; Matthews, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a systematic analysis of the relationship between empirical data and theoretical conclusions for a set of experimental psychology articles published in the journal Science between 2005–2012. When the success rate of a set of empirical studies is much higher than would be expected relative to the experiments' reported effects and sample sizes, it suggests that null findings have been suppressed, that the experiments or analyses were inappropriate, or that the theory does not properly follow from the data. The analyses herein indicate such excess success for 83% (15 out of 18) of the articles in Science that report four or more studies and contain sufficient information for the analysis. This result suggests a systematic pattern of excess success among psychology articles in the journal Science. PMID:25474317

  1. Testing ATLAS Z+MET excess with LHC run 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Terada, Takahiro

    2016-05-01

    The ATLAS collaboration reported a 3σ excess in the search of events containing on-Z dilepton, jets, and large missing momentum (MET) in the 8 TeV LHC run. Motivated by this excess, many models of new physics have been proposed. Recently, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations reported new results for similar Z+MET channels in the 13 TeV run. In this paper, we comprehensively discuss the consistency between the proposed models and the LHC results of Run 1 and Run 2. We find that in models with heavy gluino production, there is generically some tension between the 8 TeV and 13 TeV results. On the other hand, models with light squark production provide relatively better fitting to both results.

  2. Prosody-Syntax Integration in a Second Language: Contrasting Event-Related Potentials from German and Chinese Learners of English Using Linear Mixed Effect Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Stefanie; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    The role of prosodic information in sentence processing is not usually addressed in second language (L2) instruction, and neurocognitive studies on prosody-syntax interactions are rare. Here we compare event-related potentials (ERP) of Chinese and German learners of English L2 to those of native English speakers and show how first language (L1)…

  3. Excess mortality during the warm summer of 2015 in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Ragettli, Martina S; Schindler, Christian; Röösli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Switzerland, summer 2015 was the second warmest summer for 150 years (after summer 2003). For summer 2003, a 6.9% excess mortality was estimated for Switzerland, which corresponded to 975 extra deaths. The impact of the heat in summer 2015 in Switzerland has not so far been evaluated. Daily age group-, gender- and region-specific all-cause excess mortality during summer (June-August) 2015 was estimated, based on predictions derived from quasi-Poisson regression models fitted to the daily mortality data for the 10 previous years. Estimates of excess mortality were derived for 1 June to 31 August, at national and regional level, as well as by month and for specific heat episodes identified in summer 2015 by use of seven different definitions. 804 excess deaths (5.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0‒7.9%) were estimated for summer 2015 compared with previous summers, with the highest percentage obtained for July (11.6%, 95% CI 3.7‒19.4%). Seventy-seven percent of deaths occurred in people aged 75 years and older. Ticino (10.3%, 95% CI -1.8‒22.4%), Northwestern Switzerland (9.5%, 95% CI 2.7‒16.3%) and Espace Mittelland (8.9%, 95% CI 3.7‒14.1%) showed highest excess mortality during this three-month period, whereas fewer deaths than expected (-3.3%, 95% CI -9.2‒2.6%) were observed in Eastern Switzerland, the coldest region. The largest excess estimate of 23.7% was obtained during days when both maximum apparent and minimum night-time temperature reached extreme values (+32 and +20 °C, respectively), with 31.0% extra deaths for periods of three days or more. Heat during summer 2015 was associated with an increase in mortality in the warmer regions of Switzerland and it mainly affected older people. Estimates for 2015 were only a little lower compared to those of summer 2003, indicating that mitigation measures to prevent heat-related mortality in Switzerland have not become noticeably effective in the last 10 years.

  4. Electrodynamic linear motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munehiro, H

    1980-05-29

    When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.

  5. ILLUSION OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION AND ITS EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to explore, explain and describe this phenomenon to a better understanding of it and also the relationship between advertising and the consumer society members. This paper aims to present an analysis of excessive and unsustainable consumption, the evolution of a phenomenon, and the ability to find a way to combat. Unfortunately, studies show that this tendency to accumulate more than we need to consume excess means that almost all civilizations fined and placed dogmatic among the values that children learn early in life. This has been perpetuated since the time when the goods or products does not get so easy as today. Anti-consumerism has emerged in response to this economic system, not on the long term. We are witnessing the last two decades to establish a new phase of consumer capitalism: society hiperconsumtion.

  6. Country Fundamentals and Currency Excess Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehwan Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine whether country fundamentals help explain the cross-section of currency excess returns. For this purpose, we consider fundamental variables such as default risk, foreign exchange rate regime, capital control as well as interest rate in the multi-factor model framework. Our empirical results show that fundamental factors explain a large part of the cross-section of currency excess returns. The zero-intercept restriction of the factor model is not rejected for most currencies. They also reveal that our factor model with country fundamentals performs better than a factor model with usual investment-style factors. Our main empirical results are based on 2001-2010 balanced panel data of 19 major currencies. This paper may fill the gap between country fundamentals and practitioners' strategies on currency investment.

  7. Cyclone–anticyclone vortex asymmetry mechanism and linear Ekman friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chefranov, S. G., E-mail: schefranov@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    Allowance for the linear Ekman friction has been found to ensure a threshold (in rotation frequency) realization of the linear dissipative–centrifugal instability and the related chiral symmetry breaking in the dynamics of Lagrangian particles, which leads to the cyclone–anticyclone vortex asymmetry. An excess of the fluid rotation rate ω{sub 0} over some threshold value determined by the fluid eigenfrequency ω (i.e., ω{sub 0} > ω) is shown to be a condition for the realization of such an instability. A new generalization of the solution of the Karman problem to determine the steady-state velocity field in a viscous incompressible fluid above a rotating solid disk of large radius, in which the linear Ekman friction was additionally taken into account, has been obtained. A correspondence of this solution and the conditions for the realization of the dissipative–centrifugal instability of a chiral-symmetric vortex state and the corresponding cyclone–anticyclone vortex asymmetry has been shown. A generalization of the well-known spiral velocity distribution in an “Ekman layer” near a solid surface has been established for the case where the fluid rotation frequency far from the disk ω differs from the disk rotation frequency ω{sub 0}.

  8. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  9. [Association between hours of television watched, physical activity, sleep and excess weight among young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moyá, María; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; García de la Hera, Manuela; Giménez-Monzo, Daniel; González-Palacios, Sandra; Valera-Gran, Desirée; Sempere-Orts, María; Vioque, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    To explore the association between excess weight or body mass index (BMI) and the time spent watching television, self-reported physical activity and sleep duration in a young adult population. We analyzed cross-sectional baseline data of 1,135 participants (17-35 years old) from the project Dieta, salud y antropometría en población universitaria (Diet, Health and Anthrompmetric Variables in Univeristy Students). Information about time spent watching television, sleep duration, self-reported physical activity and self-reported height and weight was provided by a baseline questionnaire. BMI was calculated as kg/m(2) and excess of weight was defined as ≥25. We used multiple logistic regression to explore the association between excess weight (no/yes) and independent variables, and multiple linear regression for BMI. The prevalence of excess weight was 13.7% (11.2% were overweight and 2.5% were obese). A significant positive association was found between excess weight and a greater amount of time spent watching television. Participants who reported watching television >2h a day had a higher risk of excess weight than those who watched television ≤1h a day (OR=2.13; 95%CI: 1.37-3.36; p-trend: 0.002). A lower level of physical activity was associated with an increased risk of excess weight, although the association was statistically significant only in multiple linear regression (p=0.037). No association was observed with sleep duration. A greater number of hours spent watching television and lower physical activity were significantly associated with a higher BMI in young adults. Both factors are potentially modifiable with preventive strategies. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Equine goiter associated with excess dietary iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroksuz, H; Eroksuz, Y; Ozer, H; Ceribasi, A O; Yaman, I; Ilhan, N

    2004-06-01

    Naturally occurring goiter cases are described in 2 newborn Arabian foals whose mares were supplemented with excess iodine during the final 24 w of the pregnancy. Six nursing foals and 2 mares were also affected clinically with thyroid hypertrophy. At least 12 times the maximum tolerable level of iodine supplementation was given, as the daily iodine intake for each mare was 299 mg. The prevalence of goiter cases was 2 and 9% in the mares and foals, respectively.

  11. Excessive current in wide superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volotskaya, V.G.; Sivakov, A.G.; Turutanov, O.G.

    1986-01-01

    The resistive state of a wide long film due to superconductivity destruction by current is studied. The voltage-independent excess current I 0 is observed on I-V curves at high transport currents. The two-dimensional image of the current-carrying sample obtained by laser scanning technique in this current range indicates that the whole film is in the resistive state. The current I 0 is measured as a function of magnetic field and SHF power

  12. A linear programming manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  13. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raharto, Moedji, E-mail: moedji@as.itb.ac.id [Astronomy Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25μm (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m{sub 12}−m{sub 25}>0; where m{sub 12}−m{sub 25} = −2.5log(F{sub 12}/F{sub 25})+1.56, where F{sub 12} and F{sub 25} are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25μm, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars.

  14. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  15. An update on the LHC monojet excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Pouya; Buckley, Matthew R.; DiFranzo, Anthony; Monteux, Angelo; Shih, David

    2018-03-01

    In previous work, we identified an anomalous number of events in the LHC jets+MET searches characterized by low jet multiplicity and low-to-moderate transverse energy variables. Here, we update this analysis with results from a new ATLAS search in the monojet channel which also shows a consistent excess. As before, we find that this "monojet excess" is well-described by the resonant production of a heavy colored state decaying to a quark and a massive invisible particle. In the combined ATLAS and CMS data, we now find a local (global) preference of 3.3 σ (2.5 σ) for the new physics model over the Standard Model-only hypothesis. As the signal regions containing the excess are systematics-limited, we consider additional cuts to enhance the signal-to-background ratio. We show that binning finer in H T and requiring the jets to be more central can increase S/B by a factor of ˜1 .5.

  16. Internet addiction or excessive internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2010-09-01

    Problematic Internet addiction or excessive Internet use is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regarding computer use and Internet access that lead to impairment or distress. Currently, there is no recognition of internet addiction within the spectrum of addictive disorders and, therefore, no corresponding diagnosis. It has, however, been proposed for inclusion in the next version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM). To review the literature on Internet addiction over the topics of diagnosis, phenomenology, epidemiology, and treatment. Review of published literature between 2000-2009 in Medline and PubMed using the term "internet addiction. Surveys in the United States and Europe have indicated prevalence rate between 1.5% and 8.2%, although the diagnostic criteria and assessment questionnaires used for diagnosis vary between countries. Cross-sectional studies on samples of patients report high comorbidity of Internet addiction with psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders (including depression), anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Several factors are predictive of problematic Internet use, including personality traits, parenting and familial factors, alcohol use, and social anxiety. Although Internet-addicted individuals have difficulty suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for Internet addiction. Due to the lack of methodologically adequate research, it is currently impossible to recommend any evidence-based treatment of Internet addiction.

  17. Thermodynamic interrelation between excess limiting partial molar characteristics of a liquid nonelectrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeniy V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Excess limiting molar volume may be regarded as a solvation-related characteristic. ► Volumetric and enthalpic effects of dissolution are interrelated thermodynamically. ► Possibility to estimate the partial change in solute compressibility is described. - Abstract: On the basis of thermodynamic analysis, it is concluded that the excess limiting partial molar volume, like the excess limiting partial molar enthalpy, can be considered as a solvation-related characteristic of a liquid nonelectrolyte. A thermodynamically grounded interrelation between standard volumetric and enthalpic effects of solution of a liquid nonelectrolyte (or series of nonelectrolytes) is suggested.

  18. Study of the correlation between the temperature dependence of viscosity and excess quantities in glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magazu, Salvatore; Migliardo, Federica

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the behaviour of the kinematic viscosity, mean-square displacement and free volume of glycerol in order to theoretically and experimentally evaluate the fragility degree. Starting from the dependence of viscosity on temperature, the behaviour of the mean-square displacement and free volume of glycerol is analysed in order to point out the linear relationships between the logarithm of viscosity and the excess mean-square displacement and the excess free volume. As a conclusion, two fragility definitions, based on the observed links, are discussed

  19. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  20. [Quaternary prevention: An attempt to avoid the excesses of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, María

    2015-09-01

    Seduced by technology, biometrics, practical guidelines and the use of medication, medicine has been driven away from the subject of its care. Quaternary prevention is, among other voices around the world, trying to denounce the consequent excesses of medical practice given by this situation. There are visible excesses, such as the long list of studies being performed on patients without indication, and others, much more subtle, as excessive prevention and the continuous and progressive medicalization of life itself that are rooted in our culture and demanded by a society that requests certainty at almost any cost. Quaternary prevention proposes a series of actions leaning towards avoiding and diminishing the damage produced by health care activities, in order to protect the subject of overdiagnosis and overtreatment; offering also ethical and viable alternatives in which the balance of risks and benefits (based on the best evidences) respects the autonomy of the subject by properly informing and allowing him to decide among the best options he has; altogether in a process that contemplates a rational and equitable use of resources. In order to achieve this, reliable sources of information and a medical education not dependent on industries related to technology or pharmaceuticals, are vital; in conjuction with a medicine that restablishes the subject as its main and central interest.

  1. Variations with time and age of the excess cancer risk among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.A.; Vaeth, M.; Preston, D.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report has two aims: 1) to describe and analyze the age/time patterns of excess cancer risk in the atomic bomb survivor cohort followed up by RERF, and 2) to describe statistical methods which are used in RERF's analyses of data on mortality and morbidity in the cohort. In contrast to previous analyses of the cohort cancer mortality data, substantial use is made of Japanese national cancer rates for the purpose of investigation of the age/time variations in excess risk. This analysis considers mortality from all cancers except leukemia as a group. Primary attention is given to description in terms of the age-specific excess relative risk, but the importance of appropriate descriptions of the absolute excess risk is also emphasized. When models for the excess risk allow variation with age and time, both constant relative and absolute excess risk models provide very similar fits to the data. Previous reports have indicated that for a given age-at-exposure and sex, the excess age-specific relative risk is remarkably constant throughout the current follow-up period. Statistical analysis here indicates that for those less than about 35 years of age at exposure there is no departure from this pattern, beyond ordinary sampling variation. For those over about 35 years of age-at-exposure, there is modest evidence of an increasing trend in the excess relative risk, which could be plausibly attributed to effects related to minimal latent period. Some brief consideration is given to modeling the absolute excess risk as the product of an age-at-exposure and time-since-exposure effect. Interpretation of these results, particularly in regard to projections beyond the current follow-up, is discussed. (author)

  2. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  3. The Role of Androgen Excess in Metabolic Dysfunction in Women : Androgen Excess and Female Metabolic Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the association of androgen excess with chronic oligoovulation and/or polycystic ovarian morphology, yet metabolic disorders and classic and nonclassic cardiovascular risk factors cluster in these women from very early in life. This chapter focuses on the mechanisms underlying the association of PCOS with metabolic dysfunction, focusing on the role of androgen excess on the development of visceral adiposity and adipose tissue dysfunction.

  4. Excess molar enthalpies for binary mixtures of different amines with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ruilei; Chen, Jian; Mi, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Isothermal excess molar enthalpies for binary mixtures of different amines with water. • The Redlich–Kister equation and the NRTL model was used to fit the experimental data. • The excess molar enthalpies were discussed with different structures of amines. - Abstract: The isothermal excess molar enthalpies for binary mixtures of different amines with water were measured with a C-80 Setaram calorimeter. The experimental results indicate that the excess molar enthalpy is related to the molecular structure. The experimental excess molar enthalpies were satisfactorily fitted with the Redlich–Kister equation. They were also used to test the suitability of the NRTL model, and the deviations are a little larger than the R–K equation

  5. Financial costs due to excess health risks among active employees of a utility company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Louis; Schultz, Alyssa; Schnueringer, Elaine; Edington, Dee W

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the health risk-related excess costs of time away from work, medical claims, pharmacy claims, and total costs with and without considering the prevalence of health risks. A total of 2082 of 4266 employees of a Midwest utility participated in a health risk appraisal (HRA). Individuals were classified by their HRA participation status and also by 15 health risks. Total and excess costs were analyzed for all employees. There were significant excess costs due to individual risks and overall excess health risks in all cost measures. Both excess cost per risk and prevalence of the risk were important factors in determining the excess costs in the population. As compared with low-risk participants, HRA nonparticipants and the medium- and high-risk participants were 1.99, 2.22, and 3.97 times more likely to be high cost status. Approximately one third of corporate costs in medical claims, pharmacy claims, and time away from work could be defined as excess costs associated with excess health risks.

  6. Residual generation with unknown input observer for linear systems in the presence of unmatched uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagherpour, Esmaeel A.; HairiTazdi, Mohammad Reza; Mahjoob, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with residual vector generation for fault detection problems in linear systems via unknown input observer (UIO) when the so-called observer matching condition is not satisfied. Based on the relative degree between unknown input and output, a vector of the auxiliary output is introduced so that the observer matching condition is satisfied with respect to the vector. Auxiliary outputs are related to the derivatives of measured signals. However, differentiation leads to excessive amplification of measurement noise. A dynamically equivalent configuration of linear systems is developed using successive integrations to avoid differentiation. As such, auxiliary outputs are constructed without differentiation. Then, the equivalent dynamic system and its corresponding auxiliary outputs are used to generate the residual vector via an exponentially converging UIO. Fault detection in the generated residual vector is also investigated. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown via numerical simulation.

  7. The bystander effect model of Brenner and Sachs fitted to lung cancer data in 11 cohorts of underground miners, and equivalence of fit of a linear relative risk model with adjustment for attained age and age at exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M P

    2004-01-01

    Bystander effects following exposure to α-particles have been observed in many experimental systems, and imply that linearly extrapolating low dose risks from high dose data might materially underestimate risk. Brenner and Sachs (2002 Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 78 593-604; 2003 Health Phys. 85 103-8) have recently proposed a model of the bystander effect which they use to explain the inverse dose rate effect observed for lung cancer in underground miners exposed to radon daughters. In this paper we fit the model of the bystander effect proposed by Brenner and Sachs to 11 cohorts of underground miners, taking account of the covariance structure of the data and the period of latency between the development of the first pre-malignant cell and clinically overt cancer. We also fitted a simple linear relative risk model, with adjustment for age at exposure and attained age. The methods that we use for fitting both models are different from those used by Brenner and Sachs, in particular taking account of the covariance structure, which they did not, and omitting certain unjustifiable adjustments to the miner data. The fit of the original model of Brenner and Sachs (with 0 y period of latency) is generally poor, although it is much improved by assuming a 5 or 6 y period of latency from the first appearance of a pre-malignant cell to cancer. The fit of this latter model is equivalent to that of a linear relative risk model with adjustment for age at exposure and attained age. In particular, both models are capable of describing the observed inverse dose rate effect in this data set

  8. Severe excessive daytime sleepiness induced by hydroxyurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revol, Bruno; Joyeux-Faure, Marie; Albahary, Marie-Victoire; Gressin, Remy; Mallaret, Michel; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Launois, Sandrine H

    2017-06-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has been reported with many drugs, either as an extension of a hypnotic effect (e.g. central nervous system depressants) or as an idiosyncratic response of the patient. Here, we report unexpected and severe subjective and objective EDS induced by hydroxyurea therapy, with a favorable outcome after withdrawal. Clinical history, sleep log, polysomnography, and multiple sleep latency tests confirming the absence of other EDS causes are presented. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  9. Desaturation of excess intramyocellular triacylglycerol in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S B; Madsbad, S; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    , however, was increased twofold in obese women compared to obese men (Pfasting glucose (P...OBJECTIVE: Excess intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG), found especially in obese women, is slowly metabolized and, therefore, prone to longer exposure to intracellular desaturases. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that IMTG content correlates inversely with IMTG fatty acid (FA) saturation...... in sedentary subjects. In addition, it was validated if IMTG palmitic acid is associated with insulin resistance as suggested earlier. DESIGN: Cross-sectional human study. SUBJECTS: In skeletal muscle biopsies, which were obtained from sedentary subjects (34 women, age 48+/-2 years (27 obese including 7 type 2...

  10. Conservative treatment of excessive anterior pelvic tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark 3Department of Physiotherapy, University College Zealand, Denmark 4Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, Odense University Hospital, Denmark Correspondence Anders Falk Brekke E-mail: afbrekke@health.sdu.dk Mob: +45 7248 2626 Add: Sdr. Boulevard 29......Conservative treatment of excessive anterior pelvic tilt: A systematic review Anders Falk Brekke1,2,3, Søren Overgaard1,2, Asbjørn Hróbjartsson4, Anders Holsgaard-Larsen1,2 1Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital 2Department...

  11. Inland excess water mapping using hyperspectral imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csendes Bálint

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging combined with the potentials of airborne scanning is a powerful tool to monitor environmental processes. The aim of this research was to use high resolution remotely sensed data to map the spatial extent of inland excess water patches in a Hungarian study area that is known for its oil and gas production facilities. Periodic floodings show high spatial and temporal variability, nevertheless, former studies have proven that the affected soil surfaces can be accurately identified. Besides separability measurements, we performed spectral angle classification, which gave a result of 85% overall accuracy and we also compared the generated land cover map with LIDAR elevation data.

  12. Understanding the effect of an excessive cold tongue bias on projecting the tropical Pacific SST warming pattern in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jun; Huang, Ping; Lian, Tao; Tan, Hongjian

    2018-05-01

    An excessive cold tongue is a common bias among current climate models, and considered an important source of bias in projections of tropical Pacific climate change under global warming. Specifically, the excessive cold tongue bias is closely related to the tropical Pacific SST warming (TPSW) pattern. In this study, we reveal that two processes are the critical mechanisms by which the excessive cold tongue bias influences the projection of the TPSW pattern, based on 32 models from phase 5 of Coupled Model Intercomparison Projection (CMIP5). On the one hand, by assuming that the shortwave (SW) radiation to SST feedback is linearly correlated to the cold tongue SST, the excessive cold tongue bias can induce an overly weak negative SW-SST feedback in the central Pacific, which can lead to a positive SST warming bias in the central to western Pacific (around 150°E-140°W). Moreover, the overly weak local atmospheric dynamics response to SST is a key process of the overly weak SW-SST feedback, compared with the cloud response to atmospheric dynamics and the SW radiation response to cloud. On the other hand, the overly strong ocean zonal overturning circulation associated with the excessive cold tongue bias results in an overestimation of the ocean dynamical thermostat effect, with enhanced ocean stratification under global warming, leading to a negative SST warming bias in the central and eastern Pacific (around 170°W-120°W). These two processes jointly form a positive SST warming bias in the western Pacific, contributing to a La Niña-like warming bias. Therefore, we suggest a more realistic climatological cold tongue SST is needed for a more reliable projection of the TPSW pattern.

  13. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  14. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  15. Determination of regression laws: Linear and nonlinear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed mathematical determination of regression laws is presented in the article. Particular emphasis is place on determining the laws of X j on X l to account for source nuclei decay and detector errors in nuclear physics instrumentation. Both linear and nonlinear relations are presented. Linearization of 19 functions is tabulated, including graph, relation, variable substitution, obtained linear function, and remarks. 6 refs., 1 tab

  16. Linear accelerator use in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, J.-C.

    Radiography of internal conformity is performed on weldments and thick castings using linear accelerators. The basic principles relating to linear accelerators are outlined and their advantages over Co 60 sources described. Linear accelerator operation related requirements are presented as well as the use of this apparatus as a method for volumetric inspection, during fabrication of French Nuclear Steam Supply Systems (NSSS). Finally the resources needed to use this technique as an inspection method is dealt with [fr

  17. A study of excess H-alpha emission in chromospherically active M dwarf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.; Skumanich, A.; Stauffer, J.R.; Harlan, E.; Bopp, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations from three observatories are combined to study the properties of the excess H-alpha emission which characterizes the most chromospherically active subset of the M dwarf stars, known as the dMe stars. It is demonstrated that the excess H-alpha luminosity from these stars is a monotonically decreasing function of their (R-I) color, and evidence is presented which suggests that the product of the mean surface brightness and the mean filling factor of the emissive regions is essentially constant with color. Another significant result of the study is a linear correlation between the excess luminosity in H-alpha and the coronal X-ray luminosity. 39 refs

  18. Periodic linear differential stochastic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, H.

    1975-01-01

    Periodic linear differential processes are defined and their properties are analyzed. Equivalent representations are discussed, and the solutions of related optimal estimation problems are given. An extension is presented of Kailath and Geesey’s [1] results concerning the innovations representation

  19. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azziz, R; Sanchez, L A; Knochenhauer, E S; Moran, C; Lazenby, J; Stephens, K C; Taylor, K; Boots, L R

    2004-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of the different pathological conditions causing clinically evident androgen excess and to document the degree of long-term success of suppressive and/or antiandrogen hormonal therapy in a large consecutive population of patients. All patients presenting for evaluation of symptoms potentially related to androgen excess between October 1987 and June 2002 were evaluated, and the data were maintained prospectively in a computerized database. For the assessment of therapeutic response, a retrospective review of the medical chart was performed, after the exclusion of those patients seeking fertility therapy only, or with inadequate follow-up or poor compliance. A total of 1281 consecutive patients were seen during the study period. Excluded from analysis were 408 patients in whom we were unable to evaluate hormonal status, determine ovulatory status, or find any evidence of androgen excess. In the remaining population of 873 patients, the unbiased prevalence of androgen-secreting neoplasms was 0.2%, 21-hydroxylase-deficient classic adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was 0.6%, 21-hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) was 1.6%, hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIRAN) syndrome was 3.1%, idiopathic hirsutism was 4.7%, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was 82.0%. Fifty-nine (6.75%) patients had elevated androgen levels and hirsutism but normal ovulation. A total of 257 patients were included in the assessment of the response to hormonal therapy. The mean duration of follow-up was 33.5 months (range, 6-155). Hirsutism improved in 86%, menstrual dysfunction in 80%, acne in 81%, and hair loss in 33% of patients. The major side effects noted were irregular vaginal bleeding (16.1%), nausea (13.0%), and headaches (12.6%); only 36.6% of patients never complained of side effects. In this large study of consecutive patients presenting with clinically evident androgen excess

  20. Evaluation of Excess Heat Utilization in District Heating Systems by Implementing Levelized Cost of Excess Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna Doračić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available District heating plays a key role in achieving high primary energy savings and the reduction of the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This was recently recognized by the European Commission, which emphasizes the importance of these systems, especially when integrated with renewable energy sources, like solar, biomass, geothermal, etc. On the other hand, high amounts of heat are currently being wasted in the industry sector, which causes low energy efficiency of these processes. This excess heat can be utilized and transported to the final customer by a distribution network. The main goal of this research was to calculate the potential for excess heat utilization in district heating systems by implementing the levelized cost of excess heat method. Additionally, this paper proves the economic and environmental benefits of switching from individual heating solutions to a district heating system. This was done by using the QGIS software. The variation of different relevant parameters was taken into account in the sensitivity analysis. Therefore, the final result was the determination of the maximum potential distance of the excess heat source from the demand, for different available heat supplies, costs of pipes, and excess heat prices.

  1. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  2. Excess Readmission vs Excess Penalties: Maximum Readmission Penalties as a Function of Socioeconomics and Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracciolo, Chris; Parker, Devin; Marshall, Emily; Brown, Jeremiah

    2017-08-01

    The Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP) penalizes hospitals with "excess" readmissions up to 3% of Medicare reimbursement. Approximately 75% of eligible hospitals received penalties, worth an estimated $428 million, in fiscal year 2015. To identify demographic and socioeconomic disparities between matched and localized maximum-penalty and no-penalty hospitals. A case-control study in which cases included were hospitals to receive the maximum 3% penalty under the HRRP during the 2015 fiscal year. Controls were drawn from no-penalty hospitals and matched to cases by hospital characteristics (primary analysis) or geographic proximity (secondary analysis). A selectiion of 3383 US hospitals eligible for HRRP. Thirty-nine case and 39 control hospitals from the HRRP cohort. Socioeconomic status variables were collected by the American Community Survey. Hospital and health system characteristics were drawn from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, American Hospital Association, and Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care. The statistical analysis was conducted using Student t tests. Thirty-nine hospitals received a maximum penalty. Relative to controls, maximum-penalty hospitals in counties with lower SES profiles are defined by increased poverty rates (19.1% vs 15.5%, = 0.015) and lower rates of high school graduation (82.2% vs 87.5%, = 0.001). County level age, sex, and ethnicity distributions were similar between cohorts. Cases were more likely than controls to be in counties with low socioeconomic status; highlighting potential unintended consequences of national benchmarks for phenomena underpinned by environmental factors; specifically, whether maximum penalties under the HRRP are a consequence of underperforming hospitals or a manifestation of underserved communities. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine

  3. Preferential solvation: dividing surface vs excess numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2014-04-10

    How do osmolytes affect the conformation and configuration of supramolecular assembly, such as ion channel opening and actin polymerization? The key to the answer lies in the excess solvation numbers of water and osmolyte molecules; these numbers are determinable solely from experimental data, as guaranteed by the phase rule, as we show through the exact solution theory of Kirkwood and Buff (KB). The osmotic stress technique (OST), in contrast, purposes to yield alternative hydration numbers through the use of the dividing surface borrowed from the adsorption theory. However, we show (i) OST is equivalent, when it becomes exact, to the crowding effect in which the osmolyte exclusion dominates over hydration; (ii) crowding is not the universal driving force of the osmolyte effect (e.g., actin polymerization); (iii) the dividing surface for solvation is useful only for crowding, unlike in the adsorption theory which necessitates its use due to the phase rule. KB thus clarifies the true meaning and limitations of the older perspectives on preferential solvation (such as solvent binding models, crowding, and OST), and enables excess number determination without any further assumptions.

  4. Control rod excess withdrawal prevention device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Yoshihito.

    1992-01-01

    Excess withdrawal of a control rod of a BWR type reactor is prevented. That is, the device comprises (1) a speed detector for detecting the driving speed of a control rod, (2) a judging circuit for outputting an abnormal signal if the driving speed is greater than a predetermined level and (3) a direction control valve compulsory closing circuit for controlling the driving direction of inserting and withdrawing a control rod based on an abnormal signal. With such a constitution, when the with drawing speed of a control rod is greater than a predetermined level, it is detected by the speed detector and the judging circuit. Then, all of the direction control valve are closed by way of the direction control valve compulsory closing circuit. As a result, the operation of the control rod is stopped compulsorily and the withdrawing speed of the control rod can be lowered to a speed corresponding to that upon gravitational withdrawal. Accordingly, excess withdrawal can be prevented. (I.S)

  5. Total-body sodium and sodium excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Cohn, S.H.; Abesamis, C.; Babu, T.; Zanzi, I.; Ellis, K.

    1980-01-01

    Total-body levels of sodium (TBNa), chlorine (TBCI), calcium (TBCa), and potassium (TBK) were measured by neutron activation and analysis of results by whole body counting in 66 postmenopausal women. The relationship between TBNa, and TBCl, TBK, and TBCa on the one hand, and height and weight on the other, were found to compare with those previously reported. The hypothesis that TBNa and TBCl are distributed normally could not be rejected. The sodium excess (Na/sub es/) is defined as the sodium that is present in excess of that associated with the extracellular fluid (chlorine) space; the Na/sub es/ approximates nonexchangeable bone sodium. In these 66 postmenopausal women, and in patients with different endocrinopathies previously described, the values on Na/sub es/ did not differ from the normal values except in the thyrotoxicosis patients, where they were decreased. A close relationship between Na/sub es/ and TBCa was maintained in the endocrinopathies studied. This relationship was found in conditions accompanied by either an increment or a loss of skeletal mass. It appears that the NA/sub es/ value is primarily dependent upon the calcium content of bone

  6. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  7. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  8. Linear models with R

    CERN Document Server

    Faraway, Julian J

    2014-01-01

    A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz

  9. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  10. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  11. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  12. Excess body weight in children may increase the length of hospital stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Bechere Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of excess body weight in the pediatric ward of University Hospital and to test both the association between initial nutritional diagnosis and the length of stay and the in-hospital variation in nutritional status. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study based on information entered in clinical records from University Hospital. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 91 cases among children aged one to 10 years admitted to the hospital in 2009. The data that characterize the sample are presented in a descriptive manner. Additionally, we performed a multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. RESULTS: Nutritional classification at baseline showed that 87.8% of the children had a normal weight and that 8.9% had excess weight. The linear regression models showed that the average weight loss z-score of the children with excess weight compared with the group with normal weight was −0.48 (p = 0.018 and that their length of stay was 2.37 days longer on average compared with that of the normal-weight group (p = 0.047. CONCLUSIONS: The length of stay and loss of weight at the hospital may be greater among children with excess weight than among children with normal weight.

  13. Evolution Is Linear: Debunking Life's Little Joke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Ronald A

    2018-01-01

    Linear depictions of the evolutionary process are ubiquitous in popular culture, but linear evolutionary imagery is strongly rejected by scientists who argue that evolution branches. This point is frequently illustrated by saying that we didn't evolve from monkeys, but that we are related to them as collateral relatives. Yet, we did evolve from monkeys, but our monkey ancestors are extinct, not extant. Influential voices, such as the late Stephen Jay Gould, have misled audiences for decades by falsely portraying the linear and branching aspects of evolution to be in conflict, and by failing to distinguish between the legitimate linearity of evolutionary descent, and the branching relationships among collateral relatives that result when lineages of ancestors diverge. The purpose of this article is to correct the widespread misplaced rejection of linear evolutionary imagery, and to re-emphasize the basic truth that the evolutionary process is fundamentally linear. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Molecular simulation of excess isotherm and excess enthalpy change in gas-phase adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, D D; Do, H D; Nicholson, D

    2009-01-29

    We present a new approach to calculating excess isotherm and differential enthalpy of adsorption on surfaces or in confined spaces by the Monte Carlo molecular simulation method. The approach is very general and, most importantly, is unambiguous in its application to any configuration of solid structure (crystalline, graphite layer or disordered porous glass), to any type of fluid (simple or complex molecule), and to any operating conditions (subcritical or supercritical). The behavior of the adsorbed phase is studied using the partial molar energy of the simulation box. However, to characterize adsorption for comparison with experimental data, the isotherm is best described by the excess amount, and the enthalpy of adsorption is defined as the change in the total enthalpy of the simulation box with the change in the excess amount, keeping the total number (gas + adsorbed phases) constant. The excess quantities (capacity and energy) require a choice of a reference gaseous phase, which is defined as the adsorptive gas phase occupying the accessible volume and having a density equal to the bulk gas density. The accessible volume is defined as the mean volume space accessible to the center of mass of the adsorbate under consideration. With this choice, the excess isotherm passes through a maximum but always remains positive. This is in stark contrast to the literature where helium void volume is used (which is always greater than the accessible volume) and the resulting excess can be negative. Our definition of enthalpy change is equivalent to the difference between the partial molar enthalpy of the gas phase and the partial molar enthalpy of the adsorbed phase. There is no need to assume ideal gas or negligible molar volume of the adsorbed phase as is traditionally done in the literature. We illustrate this new approach with adsorption of argon, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide under subcritical and supercritical conditions.

  15. Androgen excess is associated with the increased carotid intima-media thickness observed in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Mendieta-Azcona, Covadonga; Alvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as an early marker of atherosclerosis, as well as its main determinants among androgen excess, obesity and insulin resistance, in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We selected 40 PCOS patients and 20 non-hyperandrogenic women who were similar in terms of age and grade of obesity. Complete clinical, metabolic and hormonal profiles and left common CIMT measurements were obtained. Patients with PCOS presented with increased mean CIMT values when compared with controls (F = 8.575; P = 0.005), and this was independent of obesity. Five PCOS patients but no controls had increased CIMT values. CIMT correlated directly with serum total and free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels and mean 24-h heart rate (HR), and inversely with the insulin sensitivity index (ISI), but no correlation was observed with the body mass index (BMI). Multiple stepwise linear regression models showed that in PCOS patients, the main determinants of CIMT were serum total testosterone or androstenedione concentrations, with no influence of ISI or the mean 24-h HR. Compared with control women, PCOS patients present with an increased CIMT, independent of obesity and related directly to androgen excess; this suggests that hyperandrogenism is associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk in these women.

  16. The associations between adult body composition and abdominal adiposity outcomes, and relative weight gain and linear growth from birth to age 22 in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prioreschi, Alessandra; Munthali, Richard J; Kagura, Juliana; Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-01

    The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity. To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa. Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females). Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, 8-18, and 18-22. Whole body composition was measured at year 22 (range 21-25 years) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total fat free soft tissue mass (FFSTM), fat mass, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were recorded. Birth weight was positively associated with FFSTM and fat mass at year 22 (β = 0.11, page and being stunted at age 2 years were inversely associated with FFSTM at year 22. The importance of optimal birth weight and growth tempos during early life for later life body composition, and the detrimental effects of pre- and postnatal growth restriction are clear; yet contemporary weight-gain most strongly predicted adult body composition. Thus interventions should target body composition trajectories during childhood and prevent excessive weight gain in early adulthood.

  17. Application of linear logic to simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Thomas L.

    1998-08-01

    Linear logic, since its introduction by Girard in 1987 has proven expressive and powerful. Linear logic has provided natural encodings of Turing machines, Petri nets and other computational models. Linear logic is also capable of naturally modeling resource dependent aspects of reasoning. The distinguishing characteristic of linear logic is that it accounts for resources; two instances of the same variable are considered differently from a single instance. Linear logic thus must obey a form of the linear superposition principle. A proportion can be reasoned with only once, unless a special operator is applied. Informally, linear logic distinguishes two kinds of conjunction, two kinds of disjunction, and also introduces a modal storage operator that explicitly indicates propositions that can be reused. This paper discuses the application of linear logic to simulation. A wide variety of logics have been developed; in addition to classical logic, there are fuzzy logics, affine logics, quantum logics, etc. All of these have found application in simulations of one sort or another. The special characteristics of linear logic and its benefits for simulation will be discussed. Of particular interest is a connection that can be made between linear logic and simulated dynamics by using the concept of Lie algebras and Lie groups. Lie groups provide the connection between the exponential modal storage operators of linear logic and the eigen functions of dynamic differential operators. Particularly suggestive are possible relations between complexity result for linear logic and non-computability results for dynamical systems.

  18. Otanps synapse linear relation multiplier circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chible, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a four quadrant VLSI analog multiplier will be proposed, in order to be used in the implementation of the neurons and synapses modules of the artificial neural networks. The main characteristics of this multiplier are the small silicon area and the low power consumption and the high value of the weight input voltage. (author)

  19. Parents' Excessive Expectation and Adolescent Depression : A Cross-Cultural Study among Japanese and Chinese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    孫, 逸舒

    2011-01-01

    Although the negative impact of parents’ excessive expectation on their children’s psychological well-being has long been pointed out, the quantitative research has rarely been done. This present study investigated the process of how parents’ excessive expectation related to adolescents’ depressive symptoms. The parenting practices that hurt adolescent feelings (e.g. “said that I humiliated him/her”) were put into the model as a mediator, and the effects of adolescent’s gender, parents’ warmt...

  20. Excessive bodybuilding as pathology? A first neurophysiological classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Moritz Julian; Haeussinger, Florian Benedikt; Hautzinger, Martin; Fallgatter, Andreas Jochen; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2017-11-15

    Excessive bodybuilding as a pathological syndrome has been classified based on two different theories: bodybuilding as dependency or as muscle dysmorphic disorder (MDD). This study is a first attempt to find psychophysiological data supporting one of these classifications. Twenty-four participants (bodybuilders vs healthy controls) were presented with pictures of bodies, exercise equipment or general reward stimuli in a control or experimental condition, and were measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Higher activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) while watching bodies and training equipment in the experimental condition (muscular bodies and bodybuilding-typical equipment) would be an indicator for the addiction theory. Higher activation in motion-related areas would be an indicator for the MDD theory. We found no task-related differences between the groups in the DLPFC and OFC, but a significantly higher activation in bodybuilders in the primary somatosensory cortex (PSC) and left-hemispheric supplementary motor area (SMA) while watching body pictures (across conditions) as compared to the control group. These neurophysiological results could be interpreted as a first evidence for the MDD theory of excessive bodybuilding.

  1. Linear and non-linear calculations of the hose instability in the ion-focused regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    A simple model is adopted to study the hose instability of an intense relativistic electron beam in a partially neutralized, low density ion channel (ion focused regime). Equations of motion for the beam and the channel are derived and linearized to obtain an approximate dispersion relation. The non-linear equations of motion are then solved numerically and the results compared to linearized data

  2. Linear colliders - prospects 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1985-06-01

    We discuss the scaling laws of linear colliders and their consequences for accelerator design. We then report on the SLAC Linear Collider project and comment on experience gained on that project and its application to future colliders. 9 refs., 2 figs

  3. The SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-01-01

    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built

  4. Linear Programming (LP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The submitted sections on linear programming are extracted from 'Theorie und Technik der Planung' (1978) by W. Blaas and P. Henseler and reformulated for presentation at the Workshop. They consider a brief introduction to the theory of linear programming and to some essential aspects of the SIMPLEX solution algorithm for the purposes of economic planning processes. 1 fig

  5. Racetrack linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.

    1979-01-01

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  6. 31 CFR 353.12 - Disposition of excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... necessary to adjust the excess. Instructions for adjustment of the excess can be obtained by email at [email protected] or by writing to Bureau of the Public Debt, Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328. [68 FR 24805...

  7. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Iodine excess, Goiter, Sub Saharan Africa. Iodine Excess is a ... synthesis leading to increased thyroid stimulating hormone ..... study done in Uganda revealed a similar picture ... significant association, probably due to recall bias.

  8. Production of ethanol from excess ethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadhim, Adam S.; Carlsen, Kim B.; Bisgaard, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    will focus on the synthetic method, which employs direct hydration of ethylene. A conceptual process design of an ethyl alcohol producing plant is performed in a MSc-level course on Process Design at the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at DTU. In the designed process, 190 proof ethyl...... alcohol (azeotropic mixture) is produced from excess ethylene containing propylene and methane as impurities. The design work is based on a systematic approach consisting of 12 tasks performed in a specified hierarchy. According to this 12-tasks design procedure, information about the product and process...... of the designed process. The resulting design utilizes 75 million kg/year ethylene feed in order to obtain an ethyl alcohol production of 90.5 million kg/year. The total capital investment has been estimated to 43 million USD and the total product cost without depreciation estimated to 58.5 million USD...

  9. Excess plutonium disposition using ALWR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A.; Buckner, M.R.; Radder, J.A.; Angelos, J.G.; Inhaber, H.

    1993-02-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy chartered the Plutonium Disposition Task Force in August 1992. The Task Force was created to assess the range of practicable means of disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Within the Task Force, working groups were formed to consider: (1) storage, (2) disposal,and(3) fission options for this disposition,and a separate group to evaluate nonproliferation concerns of each of the alternatives. As a member of the Fission Working Group, the Savannah River Technology Center acted as a sponsor for light water reactor (LWR) technology. The information contained in this report details the submittal that was made to the Fission Working Group of the technical assessment of LWR technology for plutonium disposition. The following aspects were considered: (1) proliferation issues, (2) technical feasibility, (3) technical availability, (4) economics, (5) regulatory issues, and (6) political acceptance

  10. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  11. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, U.

    1978-04-01

    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  12. Linear algebra done right

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...

  13. Vitamin paradox in obesity: Deficiency or excess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Chen, Na-Na; Zhou, Yiming

    2015-08-25

    Since synthetic vitamins were used to fortify food and as supplements in the late 1930s, vitamin intake has significantly increased. This has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of obesity, a condition associated with diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, asthma and cancer. Paradoxically, obesity is often associated with low levels of fasting serum vitamins, such as folate and vitamin D. Recent studies on folic acid fortification have revealed another paradoxical phenomenon: obesity exhibits low fasting serum but high erythrocyte folate concentrations, with high levels of serum folate oxidation products. High erythrocyte folate status is known to reflect long-term excess folic acid intake, while increased folate oxidation products suggest an increased folate degradation because obesity shows an increased activity of cytochrome P450 2E1, a monooxygenase enzyme that can use folic acid as a substrate. There is also evidence that obesity increases niacin degradation, manifested by increased activity/expression of niacin-degrading enzymes and high levels of niacin metabolites. Moreover, obesity most commonly occurs in those with a low excretory reserve capacity (e.g., due to low birth weight/preterm birth) and/or a low sweat gland activity (black race and physical inactivity). These lines of evidence raise the possibility that low fasting serum vitamin status in obesity may be a compensatory response to chronic excess vitamin intake, rather than vitamin deficiency, and that obesity could be one of the manifestations of chronic vitamin poisoning. In this article, we discuss vitamin paradox in obesity from the perspective of vitamin homeostasis.

  14. Excessive anticoagulation with warfarin or phenprocoumon may have multiple causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meegaard, Peter Martin; Holck, Line H V; Pottegård, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Excessive anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists is a serious condition with a substantial risk of an adverse outcome. We thus found it of interest to review a large case series to characterize the underlying causes of excessive anticoagulation.......Excessive anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists is a serious condition with a substantial risk of an adverse outcome. We thus found it of interest to review a large case series to characterize the underlying causes of excessive anticoagulation....

  15. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  16. Excessive Testing and Pupils in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the question of excessive testing in public schools, its value in the educational process, and the impact that excessive testing may have on the student and the family unit. While assessments are valuable when used properly, excessive testing may lead to problems with unforeseen consequences.

  17. Non-linear excitation of gravitational radiation antennae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanism of non-linear excitation is proposed to explain observed excess noise in gravitational radiation antennae, driven by low frequency vibration. The mechanism is analogous to the excitation of a violin string by low frequency bowing. Numerical estimates for Weber bars suspended by cables are in good agreement with observations. (Auth.)

  18. Utility of Body Mass Index in Identifying Excess Adiposity in Youth Across the Obesity Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Justin R; Kaizer, Alexander M; Rudser, Kyle D; Daniels, Stephen R; Kelly, Aaron S

    2016-10-01

    To determine the proportion of youth within a given body mass index (BMI) obesity category with excess adiposity using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Furthermore, to examine whether mean differences in cardiometabolic risk factors based upon various excess adiposity cutpoints were present. DXA data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 (n = 10 465; 8-20 years of age) were used for this analysis. Obesity categories were defined using Centers for Disease Control and prevention definitions for age and sex. Excess adiposity was defined using cohort-specific cutpoints at 75th, 85th, and 90th percentiles of DXA body fat (%) by age and sex using quantile regression models. Additionally, we examined differences in cardiometabolic risk factors among youth (BMI percentile >85th) above and below various excess adiposity cutpoints. Nearly all youth with class 3 obesity (100% male, 100% female; 97% male, 99% female; and 95% male, 96% female; using the 75th, 85th, and 90th DXA percentiles, respectively) and a high proportion of those with class 2 obesity (98% male, 99% female; 92% male, 91% female; and 76% male, 76% female) had excess adiposity. Significant discordance was observed between BMI categorization and DXA-derived excess adiposity among youth with class 1 obesity or overweight. Elevated cardiometabolic risk factors were present in youth with excess adiposity, regardless of the cutpoint used. BMI correctly identifies excess adiposity in most youth with class 2 and 3 obesity but a relatively high degree of discordance was observed in youth with obesity and overweight. Cardiometabolic risk factors are increased in the presence of excess adiposity, regardless of the cutpoint used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Excessive daytime sleepiness and metabolic syndrome in men with obstructive sleep apnea: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yiqun; Xu, Huajun; Xia, Yunyan; Qian, Yingjun; Li, Xinyi; Zou, Jianyin; Wang, Yuyu; Meng, Lili; Tang, Xulan; Zhu, Huaming; Zhou, Huiqun; Su, Kaiming; Yu, Dongzhen; Yi, Hongliang; Guan, Jian; Yin, Shankai

    2017-10-03

    Excessive daytime sleepiness is a common symptom in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Previous studies have showed that excessive daytime sleepiness is associated with some individual components of metabolic syndrome. We performed a large cross-sectional study to explore the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and metabolic syndrome in male OSA patients. A total of 2241 suspected male OSA patients were consecutively recruited from 2007 to 2013. Subjective daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth sleepiness scale. Anthropometric, metabolic, and polysomnographic parameters were measured. Metabolic score was used to evaluate the severity of metabolic syndrome. Among the male OSA patients, most metabolic parameters varied by excessive daytime sleepiness. In the severe group, male OSA patients with excessive daytime sleepiness were more obese, with higher blood pressure, more severe insulin resistance and dyslipidemia than non-sleepy patients. Patients with metabolic syndrome also had a higher prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness and scored higher on the Epworth sleepiness scale. Excessive daytime sleepiness was independently associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio =1.242, 95% confidence interval: 1.019-1.512). No substantial interaction was observed between excessive daytime sleepiness and OSA/ obesity. Excessive daytime sleepiness was related to metabolic disorders and independently associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in men with OSA. Excessive daytime sleepiness should be taken into consideration for OSA patients, as it may be a simple and useful clinical indicator for evaluating the risk of metabolic syndrome.

  20. Linear ubiquitination in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning

    2015-07-01

    Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A COMPREHENSIVE CENSUS OF NEARBY INFRARED EXCESS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotten, Tara H.; Song, Inseok, E-mail: tara@physast.uga.edu, E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The conclusion of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) mission presents an opportune time to summarize the history of using excess emission in the infrared as a tracer of circumstellar material and exploit all available data for future missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope . We have compiled a catalog of infrared excess stars from peer-reviewed articles and perform an extensive search for new infrared excess stars by cross-correlating the Tycho-2 and all-sky WISE (AllWISE) catalogs. We define a significance of excess in four spectral type divisions and select stars showing greater than either 3 σ or 5 σ significance of excess in the mid- and far-infrared. Through procedures including spectral energy distribution fitting and various image analyses, each potential excess source was rigorously vetted to eliminate false positives. The infrared excess stars from the literature and the new stars found through the Tycho-2 and AllWISE cross-correlation produced nearly 500 “Prime” infrared excess stars, of which 74 are new sources of excess, and >1200 are “Reserved” stars, of which 950 are new sources of excess. The main catalog of infrared excess stars are nearby, bright, and either demonstrate excess in more than one passband or have infrared spectroscopy confirming the infrared excess. This study identifies stars that display a spectral energy distribution suggestive of a secondary or post-protoplanetary generation of dust, and they are ideal targets for future optical and infrared imaging observations. The final catalogs of stars summarize the past work using infrared excess to detect dust disks, and with the most extensive compilation of infrared excess stars (∼1750) to date, we investigate various relationships among stellar and disk parameters.

  2. Cancers attributable to excess body weight in Canada in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Zakaria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Excess body weight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25.00 kg/m2 is an established risk factor for diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but its relationship to cancer is lesser-known. This study used population attributable fractions (PAFs to estimate the cancer burden attributable to excess body weight in Canadian adults (aged 25+ years in 2010. Methods: We estimated PAFs using relative risk (RR estimates from the World Cancer Research Fund International Continuous Update Project, BMI-based estimates of overweight (25.00 kg/m2–29.99 kg/m2 and obesity (30.00+ kg/m2 from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey, and cancer case counts from the Canadian Cancer Registry. PAFs were based on BMI corrected for the bias in self-reported height and weight. Results: In Canada in 2010, an estimated 9645 cancer cases were attributable to excess body weight, representing 5.7% of all cancer cases (males 4.9%, females 6.5%. When limiting the analysis to types of cancer associated with high BMI, the PAF increased to 14.9% (males 17.5%, females 13.3%. Types of cancer with the highest PAFs were esophageal adenocarcinoma (42.2%, kidney (25.4%, gastric cardia (20.7%, liver (20.5%, colon (20.5% and gallbladder (20.2% for males, and esophageal adenocarcinoma (36.1%, uterus (35.2%, gallbladder (23.7% and kidney (23.0% for females. Types of cancer with the greatest number of attributable cases were colon (1445, kidney (780 and advanced prostate (515 for males, and uterus (1825, postmenopausal breast (1765 and colon (675 for females. Irrespective of sex or type of cancer, PAFs were highest in the Prairies (except Alberta and the Atlantic region and lowest in British Columbia and Quebec. Conclusion: The cancer burden attributable to excess body weight is substantial and will continue to rise in the near future because of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canada.

  3. Linearizing W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivonos, S.O.; Sorin, A.S.

    1994-06-01

    We show that the Zamolodchikov's and Polyakov-Bershadsky nonlinear algebras W 3 and W (2) 3 can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear algebras with finite set of currents. Using these linear algebras we find new field realizations of W (2) 3 and W 3 which could be a starting point for constructing new versions of W-string theories. We also reveal a number of hidden relationships between W 3 and W (2) 3 . We conjecture that similar linear algebras can exist for other W-algebra as well. (author). 10 refs

  4. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  5. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  6. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  7. On the observed excess of retrograde orbits among long-period comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of orbital inclinations of the observed long-period comets is analysed. An excess of retrograde orbits is found which increases with the perihelion distance, except for the range 1.1 10 3 A U) has the same behaviour as the total sample. It is thus suggested that the excess of retrograde orbits among long-period comets is related to an already existent excess among the incoming new comets (i.e. comets driven into the planetary region by stellar perturbations). Using theoretical considerations and a numerical model it is proposed that an important fraction of the so-called new comets are actually repeating passages through the planetary region. Nearly a half of the new comets with q > 2 A U may be repeating passages. An important consequence of the presence of comets repeating passages among the new ones is the production of an excess of retrograde orbits in the whole sample. (author)

  8. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the

  9. ATLAS Z Excess in Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Terada, Takahiro

    2015-06-01

    Recently the ATLAS collaboration reported a 3 sigma excess in the search for the events containing a dilepton pair from a Z boson and large missing transverse energy. Although the excess is not sufficiently significant yet, it is quite tempting to explain this excess by a well-motivated model beyond the standard model. In this paper we study a possibility of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) for this excess. Especially, we focus on the MSSM spectrum where the sfermions are heavier than the gauginos and Higgsinos. We show that the excess can be explained by the reasonable MSSM mass spectrum.

  10. 75 FR 30846 - Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income (Correction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income (Correction) AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information.... Project owners are permitted to retain Excess Income for projects under terms and conditions established by HUD. Owners must request to retain some or all of their Excess Income. The request must be...

  11. [Estimation of the excess of lung cancer mortality risk associated to environmental tobacco smoke exposure of hospitality workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M José; Nebot, Manel; Juárez, Olga; Ariza, Carles; Salles, Joan; Serrahima, Eulàlia

    2006-01-14

    To estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with environmental tobacco (ETS) smoke exposure among hospitality workers. The estimation was done using objective measures in several hospitality settings in Barcelona. Vapour phase nicotine was measured in several hospitality settings. These measurements were used to estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure for a 40 year working life, using the formula developed by Repace and Lowrey. Excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure was higher than 145 deaths per 100,000 workers in all places studied, except for cafeterias in hospitals, where excess lung cancer mortality risk was 22 per 100,000. In discoteques, for comparison, excess lung cancer mortality risk is 1,733 deaths per 100,000 workers. Hospitality workers are exposed to ETS levels related to a very high excess lung cancer mortality risk. These data confirm that ETS control measures are needed to protect hospital workers.

  12. Excessive drinking and history of unemployment and cohabitation in Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Osler, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Background: Few studies exist on social inequality of excessive drinking in Denmark and differences seem to be less pronounced than in other European countries. The aims of this study were to investigate how history of employment and cohabitation is associated with excessive drinking and to study...... interaction between both. Methods: Birth-cohort study of 6112 Danish men born in 1953 with follow-up in 2004 on excessive drinking at age 51 years. RESULTS: Excessive drinking (between 22 and 35 units of alcohol per week) differed little depending on history of unemployment and cohabitation. Risk of very......-ranging from 6 to 9 years (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.30-2.29) to =10 years (OR 2.55, 95% CI 2.04-3.55). We found an interaction between the number of job-losses and of broken partnerships in relation to very excessive drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Very excessive drinking is related to number of job-losses, broken...

  13. Excess vitamin intake: An unrecognized risk factor for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Zhou, Yiming

    2014-02-15

    Over the past few decades, food fortification and infant formula supplementation with high levels of vitamins have led to a sharp increase in vitamin intake among infants, children and adults. This is followed by a sharp increase in the prevalence of obesity and related diseases, with significant disparities among countries and different groups within a country. It has long been known that B vitamins at doses below their toxicity threshold strongly promote body fat gain. Studies have demonstrated that formulas, which have very high levels of vitamins, significantly promote infant weight gain, especially fat mass gain, a known risk factor for children developing obesity. Furthermore, ecological studies have shown that increased B vitamin consumption is strongly correlated with the prevalence of obesity and diabetes. We therefore hypothesize that excess vitamins may play a causal role in the increased prevalence of obesity. This review will discuss: (1) the causes of increased vitamin intake; (2) the non-monotonic effect of excess vitamin intake on weight and fat gain; and (3) the role of vitamin fortification in obesity disparities among countries and different groups within a country.

  14. Metabolic acclimation to excess light intensity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Maria C; Fiehn, Oliver; Durnford, Dion G

    2013-07-01

    There are several well-described acclimation responses to excess light in green algae but the effect on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. This study examines the metabolic changes during photoacclimation to high-light (HL) stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Using principal component analysis, a clear metabolic response to HL intensity was observed on global metabolite pools, with major changes in the levels of amino acids and related nitrogen metabolites. Amino acid pools increased during short-term photoacclimation, but were especially prominent in HL-acclimated cultures. Unexpectedly, we observed an increase in mitochondrial metabolism through downstream photorespiratory pathways. The expression of two genes encoding key enzymes in the photorespiratory pathway, glycolate dehydrogenase and malate synthase, were highly responsive to the HL stress. We propose that this pathway contributes to metabolite pools involved in nitrogen assimilation and may play a direct role in photoacclimation. Our results suggest that primary and secondary metabolism is highly pliable and plays a critical role in coping with the energetic imbalance during HL exposure and a necessary adjustment to support an increased growth rate that is an effective energy sink for the excess reducing power generated during HL stress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Energy potential of the modified excess sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawieja Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the SCOD value of excess sludge it is possible to estimate an amount of energy potentially obtained during the methane fermentation process. Based on a literature review, it has been estimated that from 1 kg of SCOD it is possible to obtain 3.48 kWh of energy. Taking into account the above methane and energy ratio (i.e. 10 kWh/1Nm3 CH4, it is possible to determine the volume of methane obtained from the tested sludge. Determination of potential energy of sludge is necessary for the use of biogas as a source of power generators as cogeneration and ensure the stability of this type of system. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the energy potential of excess sludge subjected to the thermal and chemical disintegration. In the case of thermal disintegration, test was conducted in the low temperature 80°C. The reagent used for the chemical modification was a peracetic acid, which in an aqueous medium having strong oxidizing properties. The time of chemical modification was 6 hours. Applied dose of the reagent was 1.0 ml CH3COOOH/L of sludge. By subjecting the sludge disintegration by the test methods achieved an increase in the SCOD value of modified sludge, indicating the improvement of biodegradability along with a concomitant increase in their energy potential. The obtained experimental production of biogas from disintegrated sludge confirmed that it is possible to estimate potential intensity of its production. The SCOD value of 2576 mg O2/L, in the case of chemical disintegration, was obtained for a dose of 1.0 ml CH3COOH/L. For this dose the pH value was equal 6.85. In the case of thermal disintegration maximum SCOD value was 2246 mg O2/L obtained at 80°C and the time of preparation 6 h. It was estimated that in case of thermal disintegration as well as for the chemical disintegration for selected parameters, the potential energy for model digester of active volume of 5L was, respectively, 0.193 and 0,118 kWh.

  16. Energy potential of the modified excess sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawieja, Iwona

    2017-11-01

    On the basis of the SCOD value of excess sludge it is possible to estimate an amount of energy potentially obtained during the methane fermentation process. Based on a literature review, it has been estimated that from 1 kg of SCOD it is possible to obtain 3.48 kWh of energy. Taking into account the above methane and energy ratio (i.e. 10 kWh/1Nm3 CH4), it is possible to determine the volume of methane obtained from the tested sludge. Determination of potential energy of sludge is necessary for the use of biogas as a source of power generators as cogeneration and ensure the stability of this type of system. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the energy potential of excess sludge subjected to the thermal and chemical disintegration. In the case of thermal disintegration, test was conducted in the low temperature 80°C. The reagent used for the chemical modification was a peracetic acid, which in an aqueous medium having strong oxidizing properties. The time of chemical modification was 6 hours. Applied dose of the reagent was 1.0 ml CH3COOOH/L of sludge. By subjecting the sludge disintegration by the test methods achieved an increase in the SCOD value of modified sludge, indicating the improvement of biodegradability along with a concomitant increase in their energy potential. The obtained experimental production of biogas from disintegrated sludge confirmed that it is possible to estimate potential intensity of its production. The SCOD value of 2576 mg O2/L, in the case of chemical disintegration, was obtained for a dose of 1.0 ml CH3COOH/L. For this dose the pH value was equal 6.85. In the case of thermal disintegration maximum SCOD value was 2246 mg O2/L obtained at 80°C and the time of preparation 6 h. It was estimated that in case of thermal disintegration as well as for the chemical disintegration for selected parameters, the potential energy for model digester of active volume of 5L was, respectively, 0.193 and 0,118 kWh.

  17. Linear system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.

  18. Dark matter "transporting" mechanism explaining positron excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doojin; Park, Jong-Chul; Shin, Seodong

    2018-04-01

    We propose a novel mechanism to explain the positron excesses, which are observed by satellite-based telescopes including PAMELA and AMS-02, in dark matter (DM) scenarios. The novelty behind the proposal is that it makes direct use of DM around the Galactic Center where DM populates most densely, allowing us to avoid tensions from cosmological and astrophysical measurements. The key ingredients of this mechanism include DM annihilation into unstable states with a very long laboratory-frame life time and their "retarded" decay near the Earth to electron-positron pair(s) possibly with other (in)visible particles. We argue that this sort of explanation is not in conflict with relevant constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background. Regarding the resultant positron spectrum, we provide a generalized source term in the associated diffusion equation, which can be readily applicable to any type of two-"stage" DM scenarios wherein production of Standard Model particles occurs at completely different places from those of DM annihilation. We then conduct a data analysis with the recent AMS-02 data to validate our proposal.

  19. Medical Ethics and Protection from Excessive Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, I.

    1998-01-01

    Among artificial sources of ionic radiation people are most often exposed to those emanating from X-ray diagnostic equipment. However, responsible usage of X-ray diagnostic methods may considerably reduce the general exposure to radiation. A research on rational access to X-ray diagnostic methods conducted at the X-ray Cabinet of the Tresnjevka Health Center was followed by a control survey eight years later of the rational methods applied, which showed that the number of unnecessary diagnostic examining was reduced for 34 % and the diagnostic indications were 10-40 $ more precise. The results therefore proved that radiation problems were reduced accordingly. The measures applied consisted of additional training organized for health care workers and a better education of the population. The basic element was then the awareness of both health care workers and the patients that excessive radiation should be avoided. The condition for achieving this lies in the moral responsibility of protecting the patients' health. A radiologist, being the person that promotes and carries out this moral responsibility, should organize and hold continual additional training of medical doctors, as well as education for the patients, and apply modern equipment. The basis of such an approach should be established by implementing medical ethics at all medical schools and faculties, together with the promotion of a wider intellectual and moral integrity of each medical doctor. (author)

  20. Iron excess in recreational marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, S; Zimmermann, M B

    2010-05-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia may impair athletic performance, and iron supplements are commonly consumed by athletes. However, iron overload should be avoided because of the possible long-term adverse health effects. We investigated the iron status of 170 male and female recreational runners participating in the Zürich marathon. Iron deficiency was defined either as a plasma ferritin (PF) concentration or =4.5 (functional iron deficiency). After excluding subjects with elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, iron overload was defined as PF >200 microg/l. Iron depletion was found in only 2 out of 127 men (1.6% of the male study population) and in 12 out of 43 (28.0%) women. Functional iron deficiency was found in 5 (3.9%) and 11 (25.5%) male and female athletes, respectively. Body iron stores, calculated from the sTfR/PF ratio, were significantly higher (Pmarathon runners. Median PF among males was 104 microg/l, and the upper limit of the PF distribution in males was 628 microg/l. Iron overload was found in 19 out of 127 (15.0%) men but only 2 out of 43 in women (4.7%). Gender (male sex), but not age, was a predictor of higher PF (Pperformance, our findings indicate excess body iron may be common in male recreational runners and suggest supplements should only be used if tests of iron status indicate deficiency.

  1. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannotti, Maurizio [Physical Sciences, Barry University, 11300 NE 2nd Avenue, Miami Shores, FL 33161 (United States); Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza, España (Spain); Ringwald, Andreas, E-mail: mgiannotti@barry.edu, E-mail: igor.irastorza@cern.ch, E-mail: jredondo@unizar.es, E-mail: andreas.ringwald@desy.de [Theory group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  2. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  3. Excessive Additive Effect On Engine Oil Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is excessive additive (for oil filling effect on engine oil dynamic viscosity. Research is focused to commercially distribute automotive engine oil with viscosity class 15W–40 designed for vans. There were prepared blends of new and used engine oil without and with oil additive in specific ratio according manufacturer’s recommendations. Dynamic viscosity of blends with additive was compared with pure new and pure used engine oil. The temperature dependence dynamic viscosity of samples was evaluated by using rotary viscometer with standard spindle. Concern was that the oil additive can moves engine oil of several viscosity grades up. It is able to lead to failure in the engine. Mathematical models were used for fitting experimental values of dynamic viscosity. Exponential fit function was selected, which was very accurate because the coefficient of determination R2 achieved high values (0.98–0.99. These models are able to predict viscosity behaviour blends of engine oil and additive.

  4. Cryolipolysis for reduction of excess adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew A; Wasserman, Daniel; Avram, Mathew M

    2009-12-01

    Controlled cold exposure has long been reported to be a cause of panniculitis in cases such as popsicle panniculitis. Cryolipolysis is a new technology that uses cold exposure, or energy extraction, to result in localized panniculitis and modulation of fat. Presently, the Zeltiq cryolipolysis device is FDA cleared for skin cooling, as well as various other indications, but not for lipolysis. There is, however, a pending premarket notification for noninvasive fat layer reduction. Initial animal and human studies have demonstrated significant reductions in the superficial fat layer thickness, ranging from 20% to 80%, following a single cryolipolysis treatment. The decrease in fat thickness occurs gradually over the first 3 months following treatment, and is most pronounced in patients with limited, discrete fat bulges. Erythema of the skin, bruising, and temporary numbness at the treatment site are commonly observed following treatment with the device, though these effects largely resolve in approximately 1 week. To date, there have been no reports of scarring, ulceration, or alterations in blood lipid or liver function profiles. Cryolipolysis is a new, noninvasive treatment option that may be of benefit in the treatment of excess adipose tissue.

  5. Direct linear driving systems; Les entrainements lineaires directs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favre, E.; Brunner, C.; Piaget, D. [ETEL SA (France)

    1999-11-01

    The linear motor is one of the most important developments in electrical drive technology. However, it only, began to be adopted on a large scale at the beginning of the 1990's and will not be considered a mature technology until well into the next millennium. Actuators based on linear motor technology have a number of technical advantages including high speed, high positional accuracy and fine resolution. They also require fewer component parts. Some precautions are necessary when using linear motors. Care must be taken to avoid overheating and excessive vibration, and the magnetic components must be protected.

  6. The linear hypothesis and radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1981-10-01

    An assumption central to most estimations of the carcinogenic potential of low levels of ionising radiation is that the risk always increases in direct proportion to the dose received. This assumption (the linear hypothesis) has been both strongly defended and attacked on several counts. It appears unlikely that conclusive, direct evidence on the validity of the hypothesis will be forthcoming. We review the major indirect arguments used in the debate. All of them are subject to objections that can seriously weaken their case. In the present situation, retention of the linear hypothesis as the basis of extrapolations from high to low dose levels can lead to excessive fears, over-regulation and unnecessarily expensive protection measures. To offset these possibilities, support is given to suggestions urging a cut-off dose, probably some fraction of natural background, below which risks can be deemed acceptable

  7. Di-photon excess at LHC and the gamma ray excess at the Galactic Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hektor, Andi [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala pst. 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Marzola, Luca [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala pst. 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-07-25

    Motivated by the recent indications for a 750 GeV resonance in the di-photon final state at the LHC, in this work we analyse the compatibility of the excess with the broad photon excess detected at the Galactic Centre. Intriguingly, by analysing the parameter space of an effective models where a 750 GeV pseudoscalar particles mediates the interaction between the Standard Model and a scalar dark sector, we prove the compatibility of the two signals. We show, however, that the LHC mono-jet searches and the Fermi LAT measurements strongly limit the viable parameter space. We comment on the possible impact of cosmic antiproton flux measurement by the AMS-02 experiment.

  8. Microwave Radiometer Linearity Measured by Simple Means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Modern spaceborne radiometer systems feature an almost perfect on-board calibration, hence the primary calibration task to be carried out before launch is a check of radiometer linearity. This paper describes two ways of measuring linearity of microwave radiometers only requiring relatively simple...

  9. Paraconductivity and excess Hall effect of YBa2Cu3Ox thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueffaf, A.

    2001-10-01

    and a new substrate heater which can operate reliably in air, vacuum and highly oxidizing atmospheres was built. It has been used routinely and successfully to provide substrate temperature of up to 750 deg C with 200 W power input. The paraconductivity of a number of c-axis-oriented YBa 2 Cu 3 O x thin films, with a range of c-axis lattice parameters and T c -values, was determined as a function of temperature and analyzed in terms of the paraconductivity due to direct and indirect fluctuations contributions. Results are presented for the c-axis coherence length and the phase-relaxation time at 100 K obtained from the fit to the paraconductivity data. The paraconductivity results for optimum doped films were: c-axis coherence length: ξ c (0)=1.25 A; pair breaking parameter: δ=0.05; phase-relaxation time at 100 K: τ φ =0.066 ps; and two-three dimensional crossover temperature: T + =96.6 K. These values are in good agreement with those from other published work. There was considerable scatter in the coherence length and phase relaxation time for films with different critical temperatures and oxygen contents. These results were process dependent but appear to be related to the 60 K phase transition in the T c -x phase diagram. This is reported for the first time. The excess Hall effect of a number of c-axis oriented YBa 2 Cu 3 O x thin films, with a range of T c values, was determined as a function of temperature and analysed in terms of excess Hall effect theories for the direct and indirect fluctuations of the order parameter. Results are presented for the electron-hole asymmetry parameter obtained from the fit to the excess Hall effect data. For all samples studied, β is negative and has a small magnitude, as a result, the fluctuation Hall conductivity are dominated by the Maki-Thompson (MT) process rather than the Aslamazov-Lark in (Al) process. We generally observe that the Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) contribution to the excess Hall effect is negative close to T c

  10. Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics

  11. On two examples in linear topological spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyahen, S.O.

    1985-11-01

    This note first gives examples of B-complete linear topological spaces, and shows that neither the closed graph theorem nor the open mapping theorem holds for linear mappings from such a space to itself. It then looks at Hausdorff linear topological spaces for which coarser Hausdorff linear topologies can be extended from hyperplanes. For B-complete spaces, those which are barrelled necessarily have countable dimension, and conversely. The paper had been motivated by two questions arising in earlier studies related to the closed graph and open mapping theorems; answers to these questions are contained therein. (author)

  12. Insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder in nurses having less than 11 hours in-between shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fagerbakke Eldevik

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess if less than 11 hours off work between work shifts (quick returns was related to insomnia, sleepiness, fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder among nurses. METHODS: A questionnaire including established instruments measuring insomnia (Bergen Insomnia Scale, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, fatigue (Fatigue Questionnaire, anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and shift work disorder was administered. Among the 1990 Norwegian nurses who participated in the study; 264 nurses had no quick returns, 724 had 1-30 quick returns and 892 had more than 30 quick returns during the past year. 110 nurses did not report the number of quick returns during the past year. The prevalence of insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder was calculated within the three groups of nurses. Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between quick returns and such complaints. RESULTS: We found a significant positive association between quick returns and insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue and shift work disorder. Anxiety and depression were not related to working quick returns. CONCLUSIONS: There is a health hazard associated with quick returns. Further research should aim to investigate if workplace strategies aimed at reducing the number of quick returns may reduce complaints among workers.

  13. Insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder in nurses having less than 11 hours in-between shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldevik, Maria Fagerbakke; Flo, Elisabeth; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Pallesen, Ståle; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    To assess if less than 11 hours off work between work shifts (quick returns) was related to insomnia, sleepiness, fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder among nurses. A questionnaire including established instruments measuring insomnia (Bergen Insomnia Scale), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), fatigue (Fatigue Questionnaire), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and shift work disorder was administered. Among the 1990 Norwegian nurses who participated in the study; 264 nurses had no quick returns, 724 had 1-30 quick returns and 892 had more than 30 quick returns during the past year. 110 nurses did not report the number of quick returns during the past year. The prevalence of insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder was calculated within the three groups of nurses. Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between quick returns and such complaints. We found a significant positive association between quick returns and insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue and shift work disorder. Anxiety and depression were not related to working quick returns. There is a health hazard associated with quick returns. Further research should aim to investigate if workplace strategies aimed at reducing the number of quick returns may reduce complaints among workers.

  14. Dynamics of the G-excess illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, K. A.; Reschke, M.; Guedry, F. E.; Mcgrath, B. J.; Rupert, A. H.

    1992-01-01

    The G-excess illusion is increasingly recognized as a cause of aviation mishaps especially when pilots perform high-speed, steeply banked turns at low altitudes. Centrifuge studies of this illusion have examined the perception of subject orientation and/or target displacement during maintained hypergravity with the subject's head held stationary. The transient illusory perceptions produced by moving the head in hypergravity are difficult to study onboard centrifuges because the high angular velocity ensures the presence of strong Coriolis cross-coupled semicircular canal effects that mask immediate transient otolith-organ effects. The present study reports perceptions following head movements in hypergravity produced by high-speed aircraft maintaining a banked attitude with low angular velocity to minimize cross-coupled effects. Methods: Fourteen subjects flew on the NASA KC-135 and were exposed to resultant gravity forces of 1.3, 1.5, and 1.8 G for 3 minute periods. On command, seated subjects made controlled head movements in roll, pitch, and yaw at 30 second intervals both in the dark and with faint targets at a distance of 5 feet. Results: head movement produced transient perception of target displacement and velocity at levels as low as 1.3 G. Reports of target velocity without appropriate corresponding displacement were common. At 1.8 G when yaw head movements were made from a face down position, 4 subjects reported oscillatory rotational target displacement with fast and slow alternating components suggestive of torsional nystagmus. Head movements evoked symptoms of nausea in most subjects, with 2 subjects and 1 observer vomiting. Conclusions: The transient percepts present conflicting signals, which introduced confusion in target and subject orientation. Repeated head movements in hypergravity generate nausea by mechanisms distinct from cross-coupled Coriolis effects.

  15. Implication of zinc excess on soil health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Boros-Lajszner, Edyta; Borowik, Agata; Baćmaga, Małgorzata; Kucharski, Jan; Tomkiel, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate zinc's influence on the resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury (UWM) in Olsztyn, Poland. Plastic pots were filled with 3 kg of sandy loam with pHKCl - 7.0 each. The experimental variables were: zinc applied to soil at six doses: 100, 300, 600, 1,200, 2,400 and 4,800 mg of Zn(2+) kg(-1) in the form of ZnCl2 (zinc chloride), and species of plant: oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Chwat and white mustard (Sinapis alba) cv. Rota. Soil without the addition of zinc served as the control. During the growing season, soil samples were subjected to microbiological analyses on experimental days 25 and 50 to determine the abundance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces and fungi, and the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase and urease, which provided a basis for determining the soil resistance index (RS). The physicochemical properties of soil were determined after harvest. The results of this study indicate that excessive concentrations of zinc have an adverse impact on microbial growth and the activity of soil enzymes. The resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease decreased with an increase in the degree of soil contamination with zinc. Dehydrogenases were most sensitive and urease was least sensitive to soil contamination with zinc. Zinc also exerted an adverse influence on the physicochemical properties of soil and plant development. The growth of oat and white mustard plants was almost completely inhibited in response to the highest zinc doses of 2,400 and 4,800 mg Zn(2+) kg(-1).

  16. Millisecond Pulsars and the Galactic Center Excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Peter L.; Koh, Yew-Meng; Kust Harding, Alice; Ferrara, Elizabeth C.

    2017-08-01

    Various groups including the Fermi team have confirmed the spectrum of the gamma- ray excess in the Galactic Center (GCE). While some authors interpret the GCE as evidence for the annihilation of dark matter (DM), others have pointed out that the GCE spectrum is nearly identical to the average spectrum of Fermi millisecond pul- sars (MSP). Assuming the Galactic Center (GC) is populated by a yet unobserved source of MSPs that has similar properties to that of MSPs in the Galactic Disk (GD), we present results of a population synthesis of MSPs from the GC. We establish parameters of various models implemented in the simulation code by matching characteristics of 54 detected Fermi MSPs in the first point source catalog and 92 detected radio MSPs in a select group of thirteen radio surveys and targeting a birth rate of 45 MSPs per mega-year. As a check of our simulation, we find excellent agreement with the estimated numbers of MSPs in eight globular clusters. In order to reproduce the gamma-ray spectrum of the GCE, we need to populate the GC with 10,000 MSPs having a Navarro-Frenk-White distribution suggested by the halo density of DM. It may be possible for Fermi to detect some of these MSPs in the near future; the simulation also predicts that many GC MSPs have radio fluxes S1400above 10 �μJy observable by future pointed radio observations. We express our gratitude for the generous support of the National Science Foundation (RUI: AST-1009731), Fermi Guest Investigator Program and the NASA Astrophysics Theory and Fundamental Program (NNX09AQ71G).

  17. Kinetic model of excess activated sludge thermohydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbierowicz, Mirosław; Chacuk, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of excess activated sludge suspensions was carried at temperatures ranging from 423 K to 523 K and under pressure 0.2-4.0 MPa. Changes of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in a solid and liquid phase were measured during these studies. At the temperature 423 K, after 2 h of the process, TOC concentration in the reaction mixture decreased by 15-18% of the initial value. At 473 K total organic carbon removal from activated sludge suspension increased to 30%. It was also found that the solubilisation of particulate organic matter strongly depended on the process temperature. At 423 K the transfer of TOC from solid particles into liquid phase after 1 h of the process reached 25% of the initial value, however, at the temperature of 523 K the conversion degree of 'solid' TOC attained 50% just after 15 min of the process. In the article a lumped kinetic model of the process of activated sludge thermohydrolysis has been proposed. It was assumed that during heating of the activated sludge suspension to a temperature in the range of 423-523 K two parallel reactions occurred. One, connected with thermal destruction of activated sludge particles, caused solubilisation of organic carbon and an increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration in the liquid phase (hydrolysate). The parallel reaction led to a new kind of unsolvable solid phase, which was further decomposed into gaseous products (CO(2)). The collected experimental data were used to identify unknown parameters of the model, i.e. activation energies and pre-exponential factors of elementary reactions. The mathematical model of activated sludge thermohydrolysis appropriately describes the kinetics of reactions occurring in the studied system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Excessive sedentary time during in-patient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Matthew; Snow, John Charles; Kirkland, Megan C; Kelly, Liam P; Gehue, Maria; Downer, Matthew B; McCarthy, Jason; Ploughman, Michelle

    2018-04-03

    Background and Purpose Previous research suggests that patients receiving inpatient stroke rehabilitation are sedentary although there is little data to confirm this supposition within the Canadian healthcare system. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to observe two weeks of inpatient rehabilitation in a tertiary stroke center to determine patients' activity levels and sedentary time. Methods Heart rate (HR) and accelerometer data were measured using an Actiheart monitor for seven consecutive days, 24 h/day, on the second week and the last week of admission. Participants or their proxies completed a daily logbook. Metabolic equivalent (MET) values were calculated and time with MET rehabilitation, there was excessive sedentary time and therapy sessions were less frequent and of lower intensity than recommended levels. Conclusions In this sample of people attending inpatient stroke rehabilitation, institutional structure of rehabilitation rather than patient-related factors contributed to sedentary time.

  19. [Excessive computer usage in adolescents--results of a psychometric evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüsser, Sabine M; Thalemann, Ralf; Albrecht, Ulrike; Thalemann, Carolin N

    2005-03-01

    Excessive computer and video game playing among children is being critically discussed from a pedagogic and public health point of view. To date, no reliable data for this phenomenon in Germany exists. In the present study, the excessive usage of computer and video games is seen as a rewarding behavior which can, due to learning mechanisms, become a prominent and inadequate strategy for children to cope with negative emotions like frustration, uneasiness and fears. In the survey, 323 children ranging in age from 11 to 14 years were asked about their video game playing behavior. Criteria for excessive computer and video game playing were developed in accordance with the criteria for dependency and pathological gambling (DSM-IV, ICD-10). Data show that 9.3% (N = 30) of the children fulfill all criteria for excessive computer and video game playing. Furthermore, these children differ from their class mates with respect to watching television, communication patterns, the ability to concentrate in school lectures and the preferred strategies coping with negative emotions. In accordance with findings in studies about substance-related addiction, data suggest that excessive computer and video game players use their excessive rewarding behavior specifically as an inadequate stress coping strategy.

  20. [Consumption of free sugars and excess weight in infants. A longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardí, Cristina; Aranda, Núria; Bedmar, Cristina; Ribot, Blanca; Elias, Irene; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria

    2018-05-14

    The consumption of free sugars has been related to excess weight, with the WHO recommending an intake of <10% of total energy. The aim of this study is to assess the association between the consumption of free sugars at 12 months and the risk of excess weight at 30 months in healthy children. A longitudinal study was conducted on 81 children followed-up from birth to 30 months. A record was made of the clinical history and anthropometry, at birth, and at 12 and 30 months. Weight status was classified as with or without excess weight, according to WHO values. At 12 months, the intake of energy and nutrients was analysed by differentiating the intake of free and natural sugars. Multivariate analyses adjusted for the main confounding variables were performed. Free sugars were consumed by 40.4% of the 12-month-old children, being higher than that recommended, and being significantly higher in children with excess weight at 30 months (60.9%). The higher intake of free sugars at 12 months is associated with an increased risk of excess weight at 30 months (OR: 1.130, 95% CI: 1.032-1.238). The consumption of free sugars is much higher than that recommended in 12-month-old infants. This high intake could be a risk factor for excess weight, even at early ages. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.