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Sample records for linear ethanol inhibition

  1. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  2. Central reinforcing effects of ethanol are blocked by catalase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhnikov, Michael E; Molina, Juan C; Spear, Norman E

    2007-11-01

    Recent studies have systematically indicated that newborn rats are highly sensitive to ethanol's positive reinforcing effects. Central administrations of ethanol (25-200mg %) associated with an olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) promote subsequent conditioned approach to the CS as evaluated through the newborn's response to a surrogate nipple scented with the CS. It has been shown that ethanol's first metabolite, acetaldehyde, exerts significant reinforcing effects in the central nervous system. A significant amount of acetaldehyde is derived from ethanol metabolism via the catalase system. In newborn rats, catalase levels are particularly high in several brain structures. The present study tested the effect of catalase inhibition on central ethanol reinforcement. In the first experiment, pups experienced lemon odor either paired or unpaired with intracisternal (IC) administrations of 100mg% ethanol. Half of the animals corresponding to each learning condition were pretreated with IC administrations of either physiological saline or a catalase inhibitor (sodium-azide). Catalase inhibition completely suppressed ethanol reinforcement in paired groups without affecting responsiveness to the CS during conditioning or responding by unpaired control groups. A second experiment tested whether these effects were specific to ethanol reinforcement or due instead to general impairment in learning and expression capabilities. Central administration of an endogenous kappa opioid receptor agonist (dynorphin A-13) was used as an alternative source of reinforcement. Inhibition of the catalase system had no effect on the reinforcing properties of dynorphin. The present results support the hypothesis that ethanol metabolism regulated by the catalase system plays a critical role in determination of ethanol reinforcement in newborn rats.

  3. Mechanism of ethanol inhibition of fermentation in Zymomonas mobilis CP4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Y.A.; Ingram, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    Accumulation of alcohol during fermentation is accompanied by a progressive decrease in the rate of sugar conversion to ethanol. In this study, the authors provided evidence that inhibition of fermentation by ethanol can be attributed to an indirect effect of ethanol on the enzymes of glycolysis involving the plasma membrane. Ethanol decreased the effectiveness of the plasma membrane as a semipermeable barrier, allowing leakage of essential cofactors and coenzymes. This leakage of cofactors and coenzymes, coupled with possible additional leakage of intermediary metabolites en route to ethanol formation, is sufficient to explain the inhibitory effects of ethanol on fermentation in Zymomonas mobilis

  4. Inhibition of potassium currents is involved in antiarrhythmic effect of moderate ethanol on atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Baode; Li, Chenxing; Sun, Junyi; Wang, Xinghui; Liu, Xinling; Yang, Chun; Chen, Lina; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Excessive consumption of alcohol is a well-established risk factor of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the effects of moderate alcohol drinking remain to be elucidated. This study was designed to determine the effects of moderate ethanol ingestion on atrial fibrillation and the electrophysiological mechanisms. In acetylcholine-induced canine and mouse AF models, the moderate ethanol prevented the generation and persistence of AF through prolonging the latent period of AF and shortening the duration of AF. The action potential duration (APD) was remarkably prolonged under the concentration range of 12.5–50.0 mM ethanol in guinea pig atrial myocytes. Ultra-rapid delayed rectified potassium currents (I Kv1.5 ) were markedly inhibited by 12.5–50.0 mM ethanol in a concentration-dependent manner. Ethanol with 50.0 mM could inhibit rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents (I hERG ). Ethanol under 6.25–50.0 mM did not affect on inward rectifier potassium currents (I Kir2.1 ). Collectively, the present study provided an evidence that moderate ethanol intake can prolong the APD of atrial myocytes by inhibition of I Kv1.5 and I hERG , which contributed to preventing the development and duration of AF. - Highlights: • Moderate ethanol prevented the development of AF in animal models. • Moderate ethanol prolonged APD in guinea pig atrial myocytes. • Moderate ethanol inhibited Kv1.5 currents.

  5. Ethanol inhibits B16-BL6 melanoma metastasis and cell phenotypes associated with metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushiro, Kyoko; Núñez, Nomelí P

    2012-01-01

    Every year, approximately 68,000 new cases of malignant melanoma are diagnosed in the US. Ethanol consumption inhibits metastasis of melanoma in mice, but the mechanism is not well understood. C57BL/6J ob/+ mice, given either water or 20% ethanol, were injected intravenously with B16-BL6 melanoma cells to determine pulmonary metastasis. The effects of ethanol on cell phenotypes and markers of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition were determined in cell culture. In mice, ethanol consumption inhibited experimental pulmonary metastasis. This inhibition was associated with decreased body weight, and levels of systemic leptin, and insulin. In cell culture, ethanol inhibited B16-BL6 cell motility, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. Additionally, ethanol reduced Snai1 expression and increased E-cadherin expression. Lastly, ethanol increased the expression of Kiss1 metastasis-suppressor and the metastasis suppressor Nm23/nucleoside diphosphate kinase. In both animal and in cell culture conditions, ethanol inhibited the metastatic ability of B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

  6. Inhibitive and Synergistic Properties of Ethanolic Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also noted that only KCl was synergistic to the ethanol extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus, while other halides tested were antagonistic. All the data acquired reveal that the ethanolic extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus act as an inhibitor in the acid environment due to the phytochemicals: saponin, tannins, flavonoid, ...

  7. Ethanol exposure can inhibit red spruce ( Picea rubens ) seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Brittany M. Verrico; Victor Vankus; Stephen R. Keller

    2018-01-01

    Flotation of seeds in solvents is a common means of separating unfilled and filled seeds. While a few protocols for processing red spruce (Picea rubens) seeds recommend ethanol flotation, delayed and reduced germination have been reported. We conducted an ethanol bioassay on seeds previously stored at -20°C to quantify the concentration required to separate red spruce...

  8. Inhibition of potassium currents is involved in antiarrhythmic effect of moderate ethanol on atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Baode; Li, Chenxing [Department of Pharmacology, Health Science Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Sun, Junyi [Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Province for Craniofacial Precision Medicine Research, College of Stomatology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Department of Periodontology, College of Stomatology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Wang, Xinghui; Liu, Xinling [Basic Medical Experiment Teaching Center, Health Science Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Yang, Chun [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Chen, Lina; Zhou, Jun [Department of Pharmacology, Health Science Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Ministry of Education of China, Xi' an (China); Hu, Hao, E-mail: huhao@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Health Science Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Ministry of Education of China, Xi' an (China)

    2017-05-01

    Excessive consumption of alcohol is a well-established risk factor of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the effects of moderate alcohol drinking remain to be elucidated. This study was designed to determine the effects of moderate ethanol ingestion on atrial fibrillation and the electrophysiological mechanisms. In acetylcholine-induced canine and mouse AF models, the moderate ethanol prevented the generation and persistence of AF through prolonging the latent period of AF and shortening the duration of AF. The action potential duration (APD) was remarkably prolonged under the concentration range of 12.5–50.0 mM ethanol in guinea pig atrial myocytes. Ultra-rapid delayed rectified potassium currents (I{sub Kv1.5}) were markedly inhibited by 12.5–50.0 mM ethanol in a concentration-dependent manner. Ethanol with 50.0 mM could inhibit rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents (I{sub hERG}). Ethanol under 6.25–50.0 mM did not affect on inward rectifier potassium currents (I{sub Kir2.1}). Collectively, the present study provided an evidence that moderate ethanol intake can prolong the APD of atrial myocytes by inhibition of I{sub Kv1.5} and I{sub hERG}, which contributed to preventing the development and duration of AF. - Highlights: • Moderate ethanol prevented the development of AF in animal models. • Moderate ethanol prolonged APD in guinea pig atrial myocytes. • Moderate ethanol inhibited Kv1.5 currents.

  9. Blockade of store-operated calcium entry alleviates ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ruibing [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yan, Lihui [Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Luo, Zheng; Guo, Xiaolan [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yan, Ming, E-mail: ymylh@163.com [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx has been suggested to play a role in ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis. Previous studies indicated that store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) was involved in liver injury induced by ethanol in HepG2 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by SOCE remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of SOCE inhibition on liver injury induced by ethanol in BRL cells and Sprague–Dawley rats. Our data demonstrated that ethanol (0–400 mM) dose-dependently increased hepatocyte injury and 100 mM ethanol significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of SOC for at least 72 h in BRL cells. Blockade of SOCE by pharmacological inhibitors and sh-RNA knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 attenuated intracellular Ca{sup 2+} overload, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. STIM1 and Orai1 expression was greater in ethanol-treated than control rats, and the SOCE inhibitor corosolic acid ameliorated the histopathological findings and alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity as well as decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited alcohol-induced cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that SOCE blockade could alleviate alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis. SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases. - Highlights: • Blockade of SOCE alleviated overload of Ca{sup 2+} and hepatotoxicity after ethanol application. • Blockade of SOCE inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis after ethanol application. • SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases.

  10. Biofilm formation and ethanol inhibition by bacterial contaminants of biofuel fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Joseph O; Leathers, Timothy D; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Anderson, Amber M; Nunnally, Melinda S

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial contaminants can inhibit ethanol production in biofuel fermentations, and even result in stuck fermentations. Contaminants may persist in production facilities by forming recalcitrant biofilms. A two-year longitudinal study was conducted of bacterial contaminants from a Midwestern dry grind corn fuel ethanol facility. Among eight sites sampled in the facility, the combined liquefaction stream and yeast propagation tank were consistently contaminated, leading to contamination of early fermentation tanks. Among 768 contaminants isolated, 92% were identified as Lactobacillus sp., with the most abundant species being Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus mucosae, and Lactobacillus fermentum. Seven percent of total isolates showed the ability to form biofilms in pure cultures, and 22% showed the capacity to significantly inhibit ethanol production. However, these traits were not correlated. Ethanol inhibition appeared to be related to acetic acid production by contaminants, particularly by obligately heterofermentative species such as L. fermentum and L. mucosae. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Chronic ethanol exposure inhibits distraction osteogenesis in a mouse model: Role of the TNF signaling axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, Elizabeth C.; Aronson, James; Liu, Lichu; Liu, Zhendong; Perrien, Daniel S.; Skinner, Robert A.; Badger, Thomas M.; Ronis, Martin J.J.; Lumpkin, Charles K.

    2007-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an inflammatory cytokine that modulates osteoblastogenesis. In addition, the demonstrated inhibitory effects of chronic ethanol exposure on direct bone formation in rats are hypothetically mediated by TNF-α signaling. The effects in mice are unreported. Therefore, we hypothesized that in mice (1) administration of a soluble TNF receptor 1 derivative (sTNF-R1) would protect direct bone formation during chronic ethanol exposure, and (2) administration of recombinant mouse TNF-α (rmTNF-α) to ethanol naive mice would inhibit direct bone formation. We utilized a unique model of limb lengthening (distraction osteogenesis, DO) combined with liquid diets to measure chronic ethanol's effects on direct bone formation. Chronic ethanol exposure resulted in increased marrow TNF, IL-1, and CYP 2E1 RNA levels in ethanol-treated vs. control mice, while no significant weight differences were noted. Systemic administration of sTNF-R1 during DO (8.0 mg/kg/2 days) to chronic ethanol-exposed mice resulted in enhanced direct bone formation as measured radiologically and histologically. Systemic rmTNF-α (10 μg/kg/day) administration decreased direct bone formation measures, while no significant weight differences were noted. We conclude that chronic ethanol-associated inhibition of direct bone formation is mediated to a significant extent by the TNF signaling axis in a mouse model

  12. A Single Pair of Serotonergic Neurons Counteracts Serotonergic Inhibition of Ethanol Attraction in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; He, Jianzheng; Kaiser, Andrea; Gräber, Nikolas; Schläger, Laura; Ritze, Yvonne; Scholz, Henrike

    2016-01-01

    Attraction to ethanol is common in both flies and humans, but the neuromodulatory mechanisms underlying this innate attraction are not well understood. Here, we dissect the function of the key regulator of serotonin signaling-the serotonin transporter-in innate olfactory attraction to ethanol in Drosophila melanogaster. We generated a mutated version of the serotonin transporter that prolongs serotonin signaling in the synaptic cleft and is targeted via the Gal4 system to different sets of serotonergic neurons. We identified four serotonergic neurons that inhibit the olfactory attraction to ethanol and two additional neurons that counteract this inhibition by strengthening olfactory information. Our results reveal that compensation can occur on the circuit level and that serotonin has a bidirectional function in modulating the innate attraction to ethanol. Given the evolutionarily conserved nature of the serotonin transporter and serotonin, the bidirectional serotonergic mechanisms delineate a basic principle for how random behavior is switched into targeted approach behavior.

  13. CENTRAL REINFORCING EFFECTS OF ETHANOL ARE BLOCKED BY CATALASE INHIBITION

    OpenAIRE

    Nizhnikov, Michael Edward; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have systematically indicated that newborn rats are highly sensitive to ethanol’s positive reinforcing effects. Central administrations of ethanol (25–200 mg %) associated with an olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) promote subsequent conditioned approach to the CS as evaluated through the newborn’s response to a surrogate nipple scented with the CS. It has been shown that ethanol’s first metabolite, acetaldehyde, exerts significant reinforcing effects in the central nervous sy...

  14. Simulated Analysis of Linear Reversible Enzyme Inhibition with SCILAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuch, Manuel; Ramos, Yaquelin; Álvarez, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    SCILAB is a lesser-known program (than MATLAB) for numeric simulations and has the advantage of being free software. A challenging software-based activity to analyze the most common linear reversible inhibition types with SCILAB is described. Students establish typical values for the concentration of enzyme, substrate, and inhibitor to simulate…

  15. Chronic ethanol consumption in rats produces opioid antinociceptive tolerance through inhibition of mu opioid receptor endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li He

    Full Text Available It is well known that the mu-opioid receptor (MOR plays an important role in the rewarding properties of ethanol. However, it is less clear how chronic ethanol consumption affects MOR signaling. Here, we demonstrate that rats with prolonged voluntary ethanol consumption develop antinociceptive tolerance to opioids. Signaling through the MOR is controlled at many levels, including via the process of endocytosis. Importantly, agonists at the MOR that promote receptor endocytosis, such as the endogenous peptides enkephalin and β-endorphin, show a reduced propensity to promote antinociceptive tolerance than do agonists, like morphine, which do not promote receptor endocytosis. These observations led us to examine whether chronic ethanol consumption produced opioid tolerance by interfering with MOR endocytosis. Indeed, here we show that chronic ethanol consumption inhibits the endocytosis of MOR in response to opioid peptide. This loss of endocytosis was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 protein levels after chronic drinking, suggesting that loss of this component of the trafficking machinery could be a mechanism by which endocytosis is lost. We also found that MOR coupling to G-protein was decreased in ethanol-drinking rats, providing a functional explanation for loss of opioid antinociception. Together, these results suggest that chronic ethanol drinking alters the ability of MOR to endocytose in response to opioid peptides, and consequently, promotes tolerance to the effects of opioids.

  16. Linear ubiquitin chain induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhoushuai; Jiang, Wandong; Wang, Guifen; Sun, Ying; Xiao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an important role in DNA damage response. Ectopic expression of PCNA fused at either terminus with ubiquitin (Ub) lacking two C-terminal glycine residues induces translesion DNA synthesis which resembles synthesis mediated by PCNA monoubiquitination. PCNA fused with Ub containing the C-terminal Gly residues at the C-terminus can be further polyubiquitinated in a Gly-dependent manner, which inhibits cell proliferation and induces ATR-dependent replication checkpoint. In this study, we surprisingly found that PCNA fused to a head-to-tail linear Ub chain induces apoptosis in a Ub chain length-dependent manner. Further investigation revealed that the apoptotic effect is actually induced by the linear Ub chain independently from PCNA, as the Ub chain fused to GFP or an epitope tag still efficiently induces apoptosis. It is revealed that the artificial linear Ub chain differs from endogenously encoded linear Ub chains in that its Ubs contain a Ub-G76S substitution, making the Ub chain resistant to cleavage by deubiquitination enzymes. We demonstrated in this study that ectopic expression of the artificial Ub chain alone in cultured human cancer cells is sufficient to inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model, making the linear Ub chain a putative anti-cancer agent.

  17. Competitive inhibition can linearize dose-response and generate a linear rectifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savir, Yonatan; Tu, Benjamin P; Springer, Michael

    2015-09-23

    Many biological responses require a dynamic range that is larger than standard bi-molecular interactions allow, yet the also ability to remain off at low input. Here we mathematically show that an enzyme reaction system involving a combination of competitive inhibition, conservation of the total level of substrate and inhibitor, and positive feedback can behave like a linear rectifier-that is, a network motif with an input-output relationship that is linearly sensitive to substrate above a threshold but unresponsive below the threshold. We propose that the evolutionarily conserved yeast SAGA histone acetylation complex may possess the proper physiological response characteristics and molecular interactions needed to perform as a linear rectifier, and we suggest potential experiments to test this hypothesis. One implication of this work is that linear responses and linear rectifiers might be easier to evolve or synthetically construct than is currently appreciated.

  18. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 reduces ethanol intake and preference in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri A. Blednov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Some anti-inflammatory medications reduce alcohol consumption in rodent models. Inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDE increases cAMP and reduces inflammatory signaling. Rolipram, an inhibitor of PDE4, markedly reduced ethanol intake and preference in mice and reduced ethanol seeking and consumption in alcohol-preferring fawn-hooded rats (Hu et al., 2011;Wen et al., 2012. To determine if these effects were specific for PDE4, we compared nine PDE inhibitors with different subtype selectivity: propentofylline (nonspecific, vinpocetine (PDE1, olprinone, milrinone (PDE3, zaprinast (PDE5, rolipram, mesopram, piclamilast, and CDP840 (PDE4. Alcohol intake was measured in C57BL/6J male mice using 24-hour two-bottle choice and two-bottle choice with limited (three-hour access to alcohol. Only the selective PDE4 inhibitors reduced ethanol intake and preference in the 24-hour two-bottle choice test. For rolipram, piclamilast, and CDP840, this effect was observed after the first 6 hours but not after the next 18 hours. Mesopram, however, produced a long-lasting reduction of ethanol intake and preference. In the limited access test, rolipram, piclamilast, and mesopram reduced ethanol consumption and total fluid intake and did not change preference for ethanol, whereas CDP840 reduced both consumption and preference without altering total fluid intake. Our results provide novel evidence for a selective role of PDE4 in regulating ethanol drinking in mice. We suggest that inhibition of PDE4 may be an unexplored target for medication development to reduce excessive alcohol consumption.

  19. Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore it is impor......Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore...... it is important to investigate the effect of these xenobiotic compounds on an anaerobic environment. The inhibitory effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) on the acetogenic and methanogenic step of the anaerobic digestion process was studied. LAS inhibit both acetogenesis from propionate...

  20. Inhibition of rat mammary microsomal oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde by plant polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, María Eugenia; Castro, José Alberto; Castro, Gerardo Daniel

    2011-07-01

    We previously reported that the microsomal fraction from rat mammary tissue is able to oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, a mutagenic-carcinogenic metabolite, depending on the presence of NADPH and oxygen but not inhibited by carbon monoxide or other cytochrome P450 inhibitors. The process was strongly inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium, a known inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, and by nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of lipoxygenases. This led us to suggest that both enzymes could be involved. With the purpose of identifying natural compounds present in food with the ability to decrease the production of acetaldehyde in mammary tissue, in the present studies, several plant polyphenols having inhibitory effects on lipoxygenases and of antioxidant nature were tested as potential inhibitors of the rat mammary tissue microsomal pathway of ethanol oxidation. We included in the present screening study 32 polyphenols having ready availability and that were also tested against the rat mammary tissue cytosolic metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Several polyphenols were also able to inhibit the microsomal ethanol oxidation at concentrations as low was 10-50 μM. The results of these screening experiments suggest the potential of several plant polyphenols to prevent in vivo production and accumulation of acetaldehyde in mammary tissue.

  1. The ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde inhibits the induction of long-term potentiation in the rat dentate gyrus in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kazuho; Yamaguchi, Shinichi; Sugiura, Minoru; Saito, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Ethanol has been reported to inhibit the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. However, the correlation between the effects of ethanol in vivo and in vitro remained unclear. In addition, previous works have little considered the possibility that the effect of ethanol is mediated by its metabolites. To solve these problems, we investigated the effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde, the first metabolite in the metabolism of ethanol, on the induction of LTP at medial perforant path-granule cell synapses in the dentate gyrus of anaesthetized rats in vivo.Oral administration of 1 g kg−1 ethanol significantly inhibited the induction of LTP, confirming the effectiveness of ethanol in vivo.A lower dose of ethanol (0.5 g kg−1) failed to inhibit the induction of LTP in intact rats, but significantly inhibited LTP in rats treated with disulfiram, an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase, demonstrating that LTP is inhibited by acetaldehyde accumulation following ethanol administration.Intravenous injection of acetaldehyde (0.06 g kg−1) significantly inhibited the induction of LTP.The inhibitory effect of acetaldehyde on LTP induction was also observed when it was injected into the cerebroventricules, suggesting that acetaldehyde has a direct effect on the brain. The intracerebroventricular dose of acetaldehyde effective in inhibiting LTP induction (0.1–0.15 mg brain−1) was approximately 10 fold lower than that of ethanol (1.0–1.5 mg brain−1).It is possible that acetaldehyde is partly responsible for memory impairments induced by ethanol intoxication. PMID:10482910

  2. Acute ethanol exposure inhibits silencing of cerebellar Golgi cell firing induced by granule cell axon input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eBotta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Golgi cells (GoCs are specialized interneurons that provide inhibitory input to granule cells in the cerebellar cortex. GoCs are pacemaker neurons that spontaneously fire action potentials, triggering spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in granule cells and also contributing to the generation tonic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in granule cells. In turn, granule cell axons provide feedback glutamatergic input to GoCs. It has been shown that high frequency stimulation of granule cell axons induces a transient pause in GoC firing in a type 2-metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2-dependent manner. Here, we investigated the effect ethanol on the pause of GoC firing induced by high frequency stimulation of granule cell axons. GoC electrophysiological recordings were performed in parasagittal cerebellar vermis slices from postnatal day 23 to 26 rats. Loose-patch cell-attached recordings revealed that ethanol (40 mM reversibly decreases the pause duration. An antagonist of mGluR2 reduced the pause duration but did not affect the effect of ethanol. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed that currents evoked by an mGluR2 agonist were not significantly affected by ethanol. Perforated-patch experiments in which hyperpolarizing and depolarizing currents were injected into GoCs demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between spontaneous firing and pause duration. Slight inhibition of the Na+/K+ pump mimicked the effect of ethanol on pause duration. In conclusion, ethanol reduces the granule cell axon-mediated feedback mechanism by reducing the input responsiveness of GoCs. This would result in a transient increase of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition of granule cells, limiting information flow at the input stage of the cerebellar cortex.

  3. Inhibition of IKKβ Reduces Ethanol Consumption in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truitt, Jay M; Blednov, Yuri A; Benavidez, Jillian M; Black, Mendy; Ponomareva, Olga; Law, Jade; Merriman, Morgan; Horani, Sami; Jameson, Kelly; Lasek, Amy W; Harris, R Adron; Mayfield, R Dayne

    2016-01-01

    Proinflammatory pathways in neuronal and non-neuronal cells are implicated in the acute and chronic effects of alcohol exposure in animal models and humans. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family of DNA transcription factors plays important roles in inflammatory diseases. The kinase IKKβ mediates the phosphorylation and subsequent proteasomal degradation of cytosolic protein inhibitors of NF-κB, leading to activation of NF-κB. The role of IKKβ as a potential regulator of excessive alcohol drinking had not previously been investigated. Based on previous findings that the overactivation of innate immune/inflammatory signaling promotes ethanol consumption, we hypothesized that inhibiting IKKβ would limit/decrease drinking by preventing the activation of NF-κB. We studied the systemic effects of two pharmacological inhibitors of IKKβ, TPCA-1 and sulfasalazine, on ethanol intake using continuous- and limited-access, two-bottle choice drinking tests in C57BL/6J mice. In both tests, TPCA-1 and sulfasalazine reduced ethanol intake and preference without changing total fluid intake or sweet taste preference. A virus expressing Cre recombinase was injected into the nucleus accumbens and central amygdala to selectively knock down IKKβ in mice genetically engineered with a conditional Ikkb deletion ( Ikkb F/F ). Although IKKβ was inhibited to some extent in astrocytes and microglia, neurons were a primary cellular target. Deletion of IKKβ in either brain region reduced ethanol intake and preference in the continuous access two-bottle choice test without altering the preference for sucrose. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of IKKβ decreased voluntary ethanol consumption, providing initial support for IKKβ as a potential therapeutic target for alcohol abuse.

  4. Inhibition of ethanol-producing yeast and bacteria by degradation products produced during pre-treatment of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, H.B.; Thomsen, A.B.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    for ethanol fermentation. The resulting hydrolyzsates contain substances inhibitory to fermentation-depending on both the raw material (biomass) and the pre-treatment applied. An overview of the inhibitory effect on ethanol production by yeast and bacteria is presented. Apart from furans formed by sugar......An overview of the different inhibitors formed by pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials and their inhibition of ethanol production in yeast and bacteria is given. Different high temperature physical pre-treatment methods are available to render the carbohydrates in lignocellulose accessible...... degradation, phenol monomers from lignin degradation are important co-factors in hydrolysate inhibition, and inhibitory effects of these aromatic compounds on different ethanol producing microorganisms is reviewed. The furans and phenols generally inhibited growth and ethanol production rate (Q...

  5. Growth of linear Ni-filled carbon nanotubes by local arc discharge in liquid ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagara, Takuya [Department of Electric Engineering, Graduated School of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Surugadai Kanda, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Kurumi, Satoshi [Department of Electric Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Surugadai Kanda, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Suzuki, Kaoru, E-mail: kaoru@ele.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Electric Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Surugadai Kanda, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    The cylindrical geometry of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) allows them to be filled with metal catalysts; the resulting metal-filled CNTs possess different properties depending on the filler metal. Here we report the synthesis of Ni-filled CNTs in which Ni is situated linearly and homogeneously by local arc discharge in liquid ethanol. The structural characteristics of synthesized Ni-filled CNTs were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the relationship between pyrolysis conditions and the length and diameter of Ni-filled CNTs was examined. The encapsulated Ni was identified by a TEM-equipped energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope and found to have a single-crystal fcc structure by nano-beam diffraction. The features of linear Ni-filled CNT are expected to be applicable to probes for magnetic force microscopy.

  6. Corrosion Inhibition and Adsorption Properties of Ethanolic Extract of Calotropis for Corrosion of Aluminium in Acidic Media

    OpenAIRE

    Sudesh Kumar; Suraj Prakash Mathur

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of aluminium in sulfuric acid solution in the presence of different plant parts, namely, leaves, latex, and fruit was studied using weight loss method and thermometric method. The ethanolic extracts of Calotropis procera and Calotropis gigantea act as an inhibitor in the acid environment. The inhibition efficiency increases with increase in inhibitor concentration. The plant parts inhibit aluminium, and inhibition is attributed, due to the adsorption of the plant part...

  7. Brain catalase activity inhibition as well as opioid receptor antagonism increases ethanol-induced HPA axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Raúl; Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2004-12-01

    Growing evidence indicates that brain catalase activity is involved in the psychopharmacological actions of ethanol. Recent data suggest that participation of this enzymatic system in some ethanol effects could be mediated by the endogenous opioid system. The present study assessed whether brain catalase has a role in ethanol-induced activation of the HPA axis, a neuroendocrine system modulated by the endogenous opioid neurotransmission. Swiss male mice received an intraperitoneal injection of the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT; 0-1 g/kg), and 0 to 20 hr after this administration, animals received an ethanol (0-4 g/kg; intraperitoneally) challenge. Thirty, 60, or 120 min after ethanol administration, plasma corticosterone levels were determined immunoenzymatically. In addition, we tested the effects of 45 mg/kg of cyanamide (another catalase inhibitor) and 0 to 2 mg/kg of naltrexone (nonselective opioid receptor antagonist) on ethanol-induced enhancement in plasma corticosterone values. The present study revealed that AT boosts ethanol-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, it did not affect corticosterone values when measured after administration of saline, cocaine (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), or morphine (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). The catalase inhibitor cyanamide (45 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) also increased ethanol-related plasma corticosterone levels. These effects of AT and cyanamide on ethanol-induced corticosterone values were observed under treatment conditions that decreased significantly brain catalase activity. Indeed, a significant correlation between effects of catalase manipulations on both variables was found. Finally, we found that the administration of naltrexone enhanced the levels of plasma corticosterone after the administration of saline or ethanol. This study shows that the inhibition of brain catalase increases ethanol-induced plasma corticosterone levels. Results are

  8. The effect of ethanol on reversal learning in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica): Response inhibition in a social insect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur; Varnon, Christopher A; Wells, Harrington

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effects of ethanol on reversal learning in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica). The rationale behind the present experiment was to determine the species generality of the effect of ethanol on response inhibition. Subjects were originally trained to associate either a cinnamon or lavender odor with a sucrose feeding before a reversal of the conditioned stimuli. We administered 15 μL of ethanol at varying doses (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, or 20%) according to group assignment. Ethanol was either administered 5 min before original discrimination training or 5 min before the stimuli reversal. We analyzed the effects of these three manipulations via a recently developed individual analysis that eschews aggregate assessments in favor of a model that conceptualizes learning as occurring in individual organisms. We measured responding in the presence of conditioned stimuli associated with a sucrose feeding, responding in the presence of conditioned stimuli associated with distilled water, and responding in the presence of the unconditioned stimulus (sucrose). Our analyses revealed the ethanol dose manipulation lowered responding for all three measures at increasingly higher doses, which suggests ethanol served as a general behavioral suppressor. Consistent with previous ethanol reversal literature, we found administering ethanol before the original discrimination phase or before the reversal produced inconsistent patterns of responding at varying ethanol doses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pt/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator as self-powered active gas sensor with linear ethanol sensing at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yayu; Lai, Xuan; Deng, Ping; Nie, Yuxin; Zhang, Yan; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2014-03-21

    A self-powered gas sensor that can actively detect ethanol at room temperature has been realized from a Pt/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator. Pt nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the whole surface of ZnO nanowires. The piezoelectric output of Pt/ZnO nanoarrays can act not only as a power source, but also as a response signal to ethanol at room temperature. Upon exposure to dry air and 1500 ppm ethanol at room temperature, the piezoelectric output of the device under the same compressive strain is 0.672 and 0.419 V, respectively. Moreover, a linear dependence of the sensitivity on the ethanol concentration is observed. Such a linear ethanol sensing at room temperature can be attributed to the atmosphere-dependent variety of the screen effect on the piezoelectric output of ZnO nanowires, the catalytic properties of Pt nanoparticles, and the Schottky barriers at Pt/ZnO interfaces. The present results can stimulate research in the direction of designing new material systems for self-powered room-temperature gas sensing.

  10. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling facilitates liver repair from acute ethanol-induced injury in zebrafish

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    Changwen Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease (ALD results from alcohol overconsumption and is among the leading causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its receptors has been observed in ALD, but how it contributes to ALD pathophysiology is unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of VEGF signaling inhibition on an established zebrafish model of acute alcoholic liver injury. Kdrl activity was blocked by chemical inhibitor treatment or by genetic mutation. Exposing 4-day-old zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol for 24 h induced hepatic steatosis, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis. The liver started self-repair once ethanol was removed. Although inhibiting Kdrl did not block the initial activation of hepatic stellate cells during ethanol treatment, it suppressed their proliferation, extracellular matrix protein deposition and fibrogenic gene expression after ethanol exposure, thus enhancing the liver repair. It also ameliorated hepatic steatosis and attenuated hepatic angiogenesis that accelerated after the ethanol treatment. qPCR showed that hepatic stellate cells are the first liver cell type to increase the expression of VEGF ligand and receptor genes in response to ethanol exposure. Both hepatic stellate cells and endothelial cells, but not hepatic parenchymal cells, expressed kdrl upon ethanol exposure and were likely the direct targets of Kdrl inhibition. Ethanol-induced steatosis and fibrogenesis still occurred in cloche mutants that have hepatic stellate cells but lack hepatic endothelial cells, and Kdrl inhibition suppressed both phenotypes in the mutants. These results suggest that VEGF signaling mediates interactions between activated hepatic stellate cells and hepatocytes that lead to steatosis. Our study demonstrates the involvement of VEGF signaling in regulating sustained liver injuries after acute alcohol exposure. It also provides a proof of principle of using the

  11. Ethanol negatively regulates hepatic differentiation of hESC by inhibition of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in vitro.

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    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available Alcohol insult triggers complex events in the liver, promoting fibrogenic/inflammatory signals and in more advanced cases, aberrant matrix deposition. It is well accepted that the regenerative capacity of the adult liver is impaired during alcohol injury. The liver progenitor/stem cells have been shown to play an important role in liver regeneration -in response to various chronic injuries; however, the effects of alcohol on stem cell differentiation in the liver are not well understood.We employed hepatic progenitor cells derived from hESCs to study the impact of ethanol on hepatocyte differentiation by exposure of these progenitor cells to ethanol during hepatocyte differentiation.We found that ethanol negatively regulated hepatic differentiation of hESC-derived hepatic progenitor cells in a dose-dependent manner. There was also a moderate cell cycle arrest at G1/S checkpoint in the ethanol treated cells, which is associated with a reduced level of cyclin D1 in these cells. Ethanol treatment specifically inhibited the activation of the ERK but not JNK nor the p38 MAP signaling pathway. At the same time, the WNT signaling pathway was also reduced in the cells exposed to ethanol. Upon evaluating the effects of the inhibitors of these two signaling pathways, we determined that the Erk inhibitor replicated the effects of ethanol on the hepatocyte differentiation and attenuated the WNT/β-catenin signaling, however, inhibitors of WNT only partially replicated the effects of ethanol on the hepatocyte differentiation.Our results demonstrated that ethanol negatively regulated hepatic differentiation of hESC-derived hepatic progenitors through inhibiting the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, and subsequently attenuating the WNT signaling pathway. Thus, our finding provides a novel insight into the mechanism by which alcohol regulates cell fate selection of hESC-derived hepatic progenitor cells, and the identified pathways may provide therapeutic targets

  12. Effects of acute or chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency in a modified water maze task.

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    Shawn K Acheson

    Full Text Available Ethanol is well known to adversely affect frontal executive functioning, which continues to develop throughout adolescence and into young adulthood. This is also a developmental window in which ethanol is misused by a significant number of adolescents. We examined the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency using a modified water maze task. During acquisition, rats were trained to find a stable visible platform onto which they could escape. During the test phase, the stable platform was converted to a visible floating platform (providing no escape and a new hidden platform was added in the opposite quadrant. The hidden platform was the only means of escape during the test phase. In experiment 1, adolescent animals received ethanol (1.0 g/kg 30 min before each session during the test phase. In experiment 2, adolescent animals received chronic intermittent ethanol (5.0 g/kg for 16 days (PND30 To PND46 prior to any training in the maze. At PND72, training was initiated in the same modified water maze task. Results from experiment 1 indicated that acute ethanol promoted behavioral disinhibition and inefficiency. Experiment 2 showed that chronic intermittent ethanol during adolescence appeared to have no lasting effect on behavioral disinhibition or new spatial learning during adulthood. However, chronic ethanol did promote behavioral inefficiency. In summary, results indicate that ethanol-induced promotion of perseverative behavior may contribute to the many adverse behavioral sequelae of alcohol intoxication in adolescents and young adults. Moreover, the long-term effect of adolescent chronic ethanol exposure on behavioral efficiency is similar to that observed after chronic exposure in humans.

  13. Ascorbic acid supplementation enhances recovery from ethanol induced inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenesis than abstention in male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnakartha, Harikrishnan; Appu, Abhilash Puthuvelvippel; Indira, Madambath

    2014-01-15

    The impact of ascorbic acid supplementation against ethanol induced Leydig cell toxicity was studied in guinea pigs. Male guinea pigs were exposed to ethanol (4g/kgb.wt.) for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was completely stopped and animals in the ethanol group were divided into abstention group and ascorbic acid supplemented group (25mg/100gb.wt.) and those in control group were maintained as control and control+ascorbic acid group. Ethanol administration reduced the serum testosterone and LH (luteinising hormone) levels and elevated estradiol levels. Cholesterol levels in Leydig cell were increased whereas the mRNA and protein expressions of StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory) protein, cytochrome P450scc (cytochrome p450side chain cleavage enzyme), 3β-HSD (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), 17β-HSD (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) and LH receptor were drastically reduced. Administration of ascorbic acid resulted in alteration of all these parameters indicating enhanced recovery from ethanol induced inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Although abstention could also reduce the inhibition of steroidogenesis, this was lesser in comparison with ascorbic acid supplemented group. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Ethanol Extract of Atractylodes macrocephala Protects Bone Loss by Inhibiting Osteoclast Differentiation

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    Youn-Hwan Hwang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala has been used mainly in Traditional Chinese Medicine for invigorating the functions of the stomach and spleen. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala (AMEE on osteoclast differentiation. We found that AMEE inhibits osteoclast differentiation from its precursors induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, an essential cytokine required for osteoclast differentiation. AMEE attenuated RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, subsequently inhibiting the induction of osteoclastogenic transcription factors, c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1. Consistent with the in vitro results, administration of AMEE protected RANKL-induced bone loss in mice. We also identified atractylenolide I and II as active constituents contributing to the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of AMEE. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AMEE has a protective effect on bone loss via inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and suggest that AMEE may be useful in preventing and treating various bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption.

  15. Ethanol and Other Short-Chain Alcohols Inhibit NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation through Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Laura R.; Ather, Jennifer L.; Randall, Matthew J.; DePuccio, Daniel P.; Landry, Christopher C.; Wewers, Mark D.; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.; Poynter, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression is a major complication of alcoholism that contributes to increased rates of opportunistic infections and sepsis in alcoholics. The NLRP3 inflammasome, a multi-protein intracellular pattern recognition receptor complex that facilitates the cleavage and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, can be inhibited by ethanol and we sought to better understand the mechanism through which this occurs and whether chemically similar molecules exert comparable effects. We show that ethanol can specifically inhibit activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, resulting in attenuated IL-1β and caspase-1 cleavage and secretion, as well as diminished ASC speck formation, without affecting potassium efflux, in a mouse macrophage cell line (J774), mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells, mouse neutrophils, and human PBMCs. The inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome were independent of GABAA receptor activation or NMDA receptor inhibition, but was associated with decreased oxidant production. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased cellular tyrosine phosphorylation, while administration of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate prior to ethanol restored tyrosine phosphorylation and IL-1β secretion subsequent to ATP stimulation. Furthermore, sodium orthovanadate-induced phosphorylation of ASC Y144, necessary and sufficient for Nlrp3 inflammasome activation, and secretion of phosphorylated ASC, were inhibited by ethanol. Finally, multiple alcohol-containing organic compounds exerted inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome, whereas 2-methylbutane (isopentane), the analogous alkane of the potent inhibitor isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), did not. Our results demonstrate that ethanol antagonizes the NLRP3 inflammasome at an apical event in its activation through the stimulation of protein tyrosine phosphatases, an effect shared by other short-chain alcohols. PMID:27421477

  16. Ethanol and anaerobic conditions reversibly inhibit commercial cellulase activity in thermophilic simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (tSSF

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    Podkaminer Kara K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previously developed mathematical model of low solids thermophilic simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (tSSF with Avicel was unable to predict performance at high solids using a commercial cellulase preparation (Spezyme CP and the high ethanol yield Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum strain ALK2. The observed hydrolysis proceeded more slowly than predicted at solids concentrations greater than 50 g/L Avicel. Factors responsible for this inaccuracy were investigated in this study. Results Ethanol dramatically reduced cellulase activity in tSSF. At an Avicel concentration of 20 g/L, the addition of ethanol decreased conversion at 96 hours, from 75% in the absence of added ethanol down to 32% with the addition of 34 g/L initial ethanol. This decrease is much greater than expected based on hydrolysis inhibition results in the absence of a fermenting organism. The enhanced effects of ethanol were attributed to the reduced, anaerobic conditions of tSSF, which were shown to inhibit cellulase activity relative to hydrolysis under aerobic conditions. Cellulose hydrolysis in anaerobic conditions was roughly 30% slower than in the presence of air. However, this anaerobic inhibition was reversed by exposing the cellulase enzymes to air. Conclusion This work demonstrates a previously unrecognized incompatibility of enzymes secreted by an aerobic fungus with the fermentation conditions of an anaerobic bacterium and suggests that enzymes better suited to industrially relevant fermentation conditions would be valuable. The effects observed may be due to inactivation or starvation of oxygen dependent GH61 activity, and manipulation or replacement of this activity may provide an opportunity to improve biomass to fuel process efficiency.

  17. Increasing kynurenine brain levels reduces ethanol consumption in mice by inhibiting dopamine release in nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Pérez-Hernández, Mercedes; Gutiérrez-López, María Dolores; Vidal, Rebeca; Abuin-Martínez, Cristina; O'Shea, Esther; Colado, María Isabel

    2018-06-01

    Recent research suggests that ethanol (EtOH) consumption behaviour can be regulated by modifying the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, although the mechanisms involved have not yet been well elucidated. To further explore the implication of the kynurenine pathway in EtOH consumption we inhibited kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) activity with Ro 61-8048 (100 mg/kg, i.p.), which shifts the KYN metabolic pathway towards kynurenic acid (KYNA) production. KMO inhibition decreases voluntary binge EtOH consumption and EtOH preference in mice subjected to "drinking in the dark" (DID) and "two-bottle choice" paradigms, respectively. This effect seems to be a consequence of increased KYN concentration, since systemic KYN administration (100 mg/kg, i.p.) similarly deters binge EtOH consumption in the DID model. Despite KYN and KYNA being well-established ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), administration of AhR antagonists (TMF 5 mg/kg and CH-223191 20 mg/kg, i.p.) and of an agonist (TCDD 50 μg/kg, intragastric) demonstrates that signalling through this receptor is not involved in EtOH consumption behaviour. Ro 61-8048 did not alter plasma acetaldehyde concentration, but prevented EtOH-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell. These results point to a critical involvement of the reward circuitry in the reduction of EtOH consumption induced by KYN and KYNA increments. PNU-120596 (3 mg/kg, i.p.), a positive allosteric modulator of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, partially prevented the Ro 61-8048-induced decrease in EtOH consumption. Overall, our results highlight the usefulness of manipulating the KYN pathway as a pharmacological tool for modifying EtOH consumption and point to a possible modulator of alcohol drinking behaviour. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel linear polymers able to inhibit bacterial quorum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro, Eliana; Duarte, Ana Sofia; Esteves, Ana Cristina; Correia, António; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletska, Elena V; Piletsky, Sergey A; Chianella, Iva

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial phenotypes, such as biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance and virulence expression, are associated with quorum sensing. Quorum sensing is a density-dependent regulatory system of gene expression controlled by specific signal molecules, such as N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), produced and released by bacteria. This study reports the development of linear polymers capable to attenuate quorum sensing by adsorption of AHLs. Linear polymers were synthesized using MMA as backbone monomer and methacrylic acid and itaconic acid as functional monomers. Two different quorum sensing-controlled phenotypes, Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence and Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formation, were evaluated to test the polymers' efficiency. Results showed that both phenotypes were significantly affected by the polymers, with the itaconic acid-containing material being more effective than the methacrylic acid one. The polymer inhibitory effects were reverted by the addition of lactones, confirming attenuation of quorum sensing through sequestration of signal molecules. The polymers also showed no cytotoxicity when tested using a mammalian cell line. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Inhibition of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth by Ethanolic Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Punarnava Root

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    Rakhi Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol : chloroform fraction (BDF 5 had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48 h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200 μg mL−1 significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant.

  20. Catalase inhibition in the Arcuate nucleus blocks ethanol effects on the locomotor activity of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Correa, Mercé; Miquel, Marta; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2005-03-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that there is a bidirectional modulation of ethanol-induced locomotion produced by drugs that regulate brain catalase activity. In the present study we have assessed the effect in rats of intraperitoneal, intraventricular or intracraneal administration of the catalase inhibitor sodium azide in the locomotor changes observed after ethanol (1 g/kg) administration. Our results show that sodium azide prevents the effects of ethanol in rats locomotion not only when sodium azide was systemically administered but also when it was intraventricularly injected, then confirming that the interaction between catalase and ethanol takes place in Central Nervous System (CNS). Even more interestingly, the same results were observed when sodium azide administration was restricted to the hypothalamic Arcuate nucleus (ARC), a brain region which has one of the highest levels of expression of catalase. Therefore, the results of the present study not only confirm a role for brain catalase in the mediation of ethanol-induced locomotor changes in rodents but also point to the ARC as a major neuroanatomical location for this interaction. These results are in agreement with our reports showing that ethanol-induced locomotor changes are clearly dependent of the ARC integrity and, especially of the POMc-synthesising neurons of this nucleus. According to these data we propose a model in which ethanol oxidation via catalase could produce acetaldehyde into the ARC and to promote a release of beta-endorphins that would activate opioid receptors to produce locomotion and other ethanol-induced neurobehavioural changes.

  1. Short-term and long-term ethanol administration inhibits the placental uptake and transport of valine in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patwardhan, R.V.; Schenker, S.; Henderson, G.I.; Abou-Mourad, N.N.; Hoyumpa, A.M. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Ethanol ingestion during pregnancy causes a pattern of fetal/neonatal dysfunction called the FAS. The effects of short- and long-term ethanol ingestion on the placental uptake and maternal-fetal transfer of valine were studied in rats. The in vivo placental uptake and fetal uptake were estimated after injection of 0.04 micromol of /sub 14/C-valine intravenously on day 20 of gestation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Short-term ethanol ingestion (4 gm/kg) caused a significant reduction in the placental uptake of /sub 14/C-valine by 33%, 60%, and 30%, and 31% at 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 min after valine administration, respectively (p less than 0.01), and a similar significant reduction occurred in the fetal uptake of /sub 14/C-valine (p less than 0.01). Long-term ethanol ingestion prior to and throughout gestation resulted in a 47% reduction in placental valine uptake (p less than 0.01) and a 46% reduction in fetal valine uptake (p less than 0.01). Long-term ethanol feeding from day 4 to day 20 of gestation caused a 32% reduction in placental valine uptake (p less than 0.01) and a 26% reduction in fetal valine uptake (p less than 0.01). We conclude that both short- and long-term ingestion of ethanol inhibit the placental uptake and maternal-fetal transfer of an essential amino acid--valine. An alteration of placental function may contribute to the pathogenesis of the FAS

  2. Comparative analysis of adsorption and corrosion inhibitive properties of ethanol extract of Dialium Guineense leaves for mild steel in 0.5 M HCl

    OpenAIRE

    Shola Elijah Adeniji; Bamigbola Abiola Akindehinde

    2018-01-01

    Adsorption and corrosion inhibitive properties of ethanol extract of Dialium guineense leaves for mild steel in 0.5M HCl was studied using the gravimetric method. The results showed that the ethanol extract of Dialium guineense leaves is a good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 0.5 M HCl. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increase in the concentration of ethanol extract of Dialium guineense leaves up to the maximum of 92 %, but at the same time it decreased as the tempe...

  3. Study of the inhibition effect of ethanolic extract of mangosteen pericarp on atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic rat

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    Titin Andri Wihastuti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of mangosteen pericarp (EEMP through lipid profile, H2O2, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS measurement in hypercholesterolemic rat. Methods: A total of 20 rats were used in true laboratory experiment which were divided into 5 groups (n = 4 using posttest-only design. There were a normal diet group, a hypercholesterol diet (HCD group, a group that was given HCD with EEMP 200 mg/kg body weight, a group that was given HCD with 400 mg/kg body weight and a group that was given HCD with 800 mg/kg body weight. The lipid profile was measured using Cobas Mira. On the other hand, H2O2 was analysed using colorimetric hydrogen peroxide kit. Double staining immunofluorescence was given to observe NF-κB, iNOS and eNOS by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The result was analyzed quantitatively using Olymphus Fluoview software (version 1.7a. Results: Lipid profile was significantly worsened in HCD and H2O2 level and expressions of NF-κB, iNOS and eNOS were also increased in HCD. EEMP 200 mg/kg body weight generally did not show significant results. However, high density lipoprotein level was affected by EEMP 400 mg/kg body weight, but not for other lipid profiles which reduced H2O2 level and NF-κB, iNOS and eNOS expressions significantly. EEMP 800 mg/kg body weight had been shown to be the most effective dose to improve lipid profile, decrease level of H2O2 and the expression of NF-κB and iNOS and maintain expression of eNOS. Conclusions: EEMP is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent to inhibit atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic rat.

  4. Chronic ethanol consumption inhibits repair of dimethylnitrosamine-induced DNA alkylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mufti, S.I.; Salvagnini, M.; Lieber, C.S.; Garro, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption causes a DNA repair deficiency. This was demonstrated in Sprague-Dawley rats injected with 14 C-labeled dimethylnitrosamine after being pair-fed isocaloric, ethanol, or carbohydrate control diets for 4 weeks. Hepatic DNA was isolated from rats killed at intervals over a 36 hour period after administration of the nitrosamine and concentrations of alkylated guanine derivatives were measured. While N7-methylguanine was lost at equivalent rates from the DNA of both diet groups, 06methylguanine, a promutagenic lesion, persisted at higher levels for longer periods of time in the DNA from the alcohol-fed animals

  5. Antibacterial activity of cinnamon ethanol extract (cinnamomum burmannii) and its application as a mouthwash to inhibit streptococcus growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waty, Syahdiana; Suryanto, Dwi; Yurnaliza

    2018-03-01

    Cinnamon bark has been commonly used as spicy and traditional medicine. It contains several antibacterial compounds such as flavonoids, saponins, and cinnamaldehyde. Several studies have been done to know the antibacterial effect on bacteria such as Streptococcus in vitro. This study aimed to examine the antibacterial activity of cinnamon ethanol extract against Streptococcus and its application as mouthwash to inhibit the bacteria. The cinnamon bark was macerated followed by extracted in 80% ethanol. Bacterial samples were isolated from dental plaque of patients visiting dental clinic drg. Syahdiana Waty in Medan, North Sumatra. The isolates were identified using Vitek 2 compact. Secondary metabolites were detected using previously described method. Antibacterial assay was done at extract concentration of 6.25%, 12.5%, and 25%. The result showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and glycoside were detected in the extract. Nine bacterial species were identified as Streptococcus mitis, S. sanguinis, S. salivarius, S. pluranimalium, S. pneumoniae, S. alactolyticus, Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae, and Spingomonas paucimolis. It showed that the extract of Cinnamon bark significantly inhibited Streptococcus growth, and it was effective as mouthwash.

  6. Inhibition of telomerase by linear-chain fatty acids: a structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Masako; Ueno, Takamasa; Kasai, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hirotada; Yoshida, Hiromi; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakaguchi, Kengo; Hayashi, Hideya; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we have found that mono-unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids in the cis configuration with C(18) hydrocarbon chains (i.e. oleic acid) strongly inhibited the activity of human telomerase in a cell-free enzymic assay, with an IC(50) value of 8.6 microM. Interestingly, fatty acids with hydrocarbon chain lengths below 16 or above 20 carbons substantially decreased the potency of inhibition of telomerase. Moreover, the cis-mono-unsaturated C(18) linear-chain fatty acid oleic acid was the strongest inhibitor of all the fatty acids tested. A kinetic study revealed that oleic acid competitively inhibited the activity of telomerase ( K (i)=3.06 microM) with respect to the telomerase substrate primer. The energy-minimized three-dimensional structure of the linear-chain fatty acid was calculated and modelled. A molecule width of 11.53-14.26 A (where 1 A=0.1 nm) in the C(16) to C(20) fatty acid structure was suggested to be important for telomerase inhibition. The three-dimensional structure of the telomerase active site (i.e. the substrate primer-binding site) appears to have a pocket that could bind oleic acid, with the pocket being 8.50 A long and 12.80 A wide. PMID:12121150

  7. Nicotinamide Inhibits Ethanol-Induced Caspase-3 and PARP-1 Over-activation and Subsequent Neurodegeneration in the Developing Mouse Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieraci, Alessandro; Herrera, Daniel G

    2018-06-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the principal preventable cause of mental retardation in the western countries resulting from alcohol exposure during pregnancy. Ethanol-induced massive neuronal cell death occurs mainly in immature neurons during the brain growth spurt period. The cerebellum is one of the brain areas that are most sensitive to ethanol neurotoxicity. Currently, there is no effective treatment that targets the causes of these disorders and efficient treatments to counteract or reverse FASD are desirable. In this study, we investigated the effects of nicotinamide on ethanol-induced neuronal cell death in the developing cerebellum. Subcutaneous administration of ethanol in postnatal 4-day-old mice induced an over-activation of caspase-3 and PARP-1 followed by a massive neurodegeneration in the developing cerebellum. Interestingly, treatment with nicotinamide, immediately or 2 h after ethanol exposure, diminished caspase-3 and PARP-1 over-activation and reduced ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. Conversely, treatment with 3-aminobenzadine, a specific PARP-1 inhibitor, was able to completely block PARP-1 activation, but not caspase-3 activation or ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the developing cerebellum. Our results showed that nicotinamide reduces ethanol-induced neuronal cell death and inhibits both caspase-3 and PARP-1 alcohol-induced activation in the developing cerebellum, suggesting that nicotinamide might be a promising and safe neuroprotective agent for treating FASD and other neurodegenerative disorders in the developing brain that shares similar cell death pathways.

  8. Nitrate addition to groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuel accelerates ethanol removal and mitigates the associated metabolic flux dilution and inhibition of BTEX biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corseuil, Henry Xavier; Gomez, Diego E.; Schambeck, Cássio Moraes; Ramos, Débora Toledo; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.

    2015-03-01

    A comparison of two controlled ethanol-blended fuel releases under monitored natural attenuation (MNA) versus nitrate biostimulation (NB) illustrates the potential benefits of augmenting the electron acceptor pool with nitrate to accelerate ethanol removal and thus mitigate its inhibitory effects on BTEX biodegradation. Groundwater concentrations of ethanol and BTEX were measured 2 m downgradient of the source zones. In both field experiments, initial source-zone BTEX concentrations represented less than 5% of the dissolved total organic carbon (TOC) associated with the release, and measurable BTEX degradation occurred only after the ethanol fraction in the multicomponent substrate mixture decreased sharply. However, ethanol removal was faster in the nitrate amended plot (1.4 years) than under natural attenuation conditions (3.0 years), which led to faster BTEX degradation. This reflects, in part, that an abundant substrate (ethanol) can dilute the metabolic flux of target pollutants (BTEX) whose biodegradation rate eventually increases with its relative abundance after ethanol is preferentially consumed. The fate and transport of ethanol and benzene were accurately simulated in both releases using RT3D with our general substrate interaction module (GSIM) that considers metabolic flux dilution. Since source zone benzene concentrations are relatively low compared to those of ethanol (or its degradation byproduct, acetate), our simulations imply that the initial focus of cleanup efforts (after free-product recovery) should be to stimulate the degradation of ethanol (e.g., by nitrate addition) to decrease its fraction in the mixture and speed up BTEX biodegradation.

  9. Inhibition of retinol oxidation by ethanol in the rat liver and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Menzl, Ina; Feuchter, Anette

    2000-01-01

    the efficiency in the small intestine was negligible (0.20). In the presence of increasing ethanol concentrations (9, 17, and 34 mM), V(max)/K(m) for retinol oxidation decreased in a dose dependent manner to 7.8% of the initial value in the large intestine and to 12% in the liver. The V(max)/K(m) of retinoic...

  10. The Ethanolic Extracts The Gorgonian Isis hippuris Inhibited the Induced Mammary Carcinoma Growth In C3H Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, Agus; Andriyas, Yogi; Ridlo, Ali; Sedjati, Sri; Susilaningsih, Neni; Murwani, Retno

    2018-02-01

    The gorgonian Isis hippuris contains secondary metabolites gorgosterol and hippuristanol which are capable of inhibiting cancer cells. However, in vivo test of the gorgonian Isis hippuris extract as the anticancer drug has not been conducted. The research to study of the effect of ethanolic extract of the gorgonian on the induced tumor growth in C3H mice. The I. hippuris was obtained from Karimunjawa water in Jepara. The extract was prepared by maceration using ethanol. A total 20, 8-10 moths old of C3H mice with an initial weight of 20-25 gram were assigned into control, Ih-1, Ih-2, and Ih-3 groups. Control, Ih-1, Ih-2, and Ih-3 groups each received 0, 0.15, 1.5, and 15 mg extract per mouse per day respectively for two weeks. Cancer cells were introduced to all groups from a donor cancer mouse by injection via left or right axilla and allowed to grow. The cancer mass was removed and processed for histological examination, and cancer growth was determined according to Elston and Ellis criteria. The result showed that histological grade of cancer mass from the control group was in grade 2 or differentiated moderately. The histological grade of cancer mass from Ih-1, Ih-2, and Ih-3 groups were in grade 1 (low grade) or similar to a normal cell. Statistical analysis by Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant difference (ptest found no significant differences among Ih-1, Ih-2, and Ih-3 treated mice. The results indicated the potential of active substances in the ethanol extract of I. hippuris as an anti-cancer drug.

  11. Kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition in carob pulp fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, Maria Emília; Tavares, Catarina; Raposo, Sara; Rodrigues, Brígida; Peinado, José M

    2012-05-01

    The waste materials from the carob processing industry are a potential resource for second-generation bioethanol production. These by-products are small carob kibbles with a high content of soluble sugars (45-50%). Batch and fed-batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations of high density sugar from carob pods were analyzed in terms of the kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition. In all the batch runs, 90-95% of the total sugar was consumed and transformed into ethanol with a yield close to the theoretical maximum (0.47-0.50 g/g), and a final ethanol concentration of 100-110 g/l. In fed-batch runs, fresh carob extract was added when glucose had been consumed. This addition and the subsequent decrease of ethanol concentrations by dilution increased the final ethanol production up to 130 g/l. It seems that invertase activity and yeast tolerance to ethanol are the main factors to be controlled in carob fermentations. The efficiency of highly concentrated carob fermentation makes it a very promising process for use in a second-generation ethanol biorefinery.

  12. CaCO3 supplementation alleviates the inhibition of formic acid on acetone/butanol/ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Gaoxiang; Xiong, Lian; Lin, Xiaoqing; Huang, Chao; Li, Hailong; Chen, Xuefang; Chen, Xinde

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the inhibiting effect of formic acid on acetone/butanol/ethanol (ABE) fermentation and explain the mechanism of the alleviation in the inhibiting effect under CaCO 3 supplementation condition. From the medium containing 50 g sugars l -1 and 0.5 g formic acid l -1 , only 0.75 g ABE l -1 was produced when pH was adjusted by KOH and fermentation ended prematurely before the transformation from acidogenesis to solventogenesis. In contrast, 11.4 g ABE l -1 was produced when pH was adjusted by 4 g CaCO 3 l -1 . The beneficial effect can be ascribed to the buffering capacity of CaCO 3 . Comparative analysis results showed that the undissociated formic acid concentration and acid production coupled with ATP and NADH was affected by the pH buffering capacity of CaCO 3 . Four millimole undissociated formic acid was the threshold at which the transformation to solventogenesis occurred. The inhibiting effect of formic acid on ABE fermentation can be alleviated by CaCO 3 supplementation due to its buffering capacity.

  13. Synergisms in Alpha-glucosidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. Ethanolic Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Juliana; Vizzotto, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Camellia sinensis, the most consumed and popular beverages worldwide, and Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian native species, have been already confirmed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, their potential acting together against an enzyme linked to this pathology has never been exploited. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of individual and combined ethanolic extracts of the leaves of C. sinensis and E. uniflora over alpha-glucosidase, a key digestive enzyme used on the Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) control. In addition, their inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) and peroxyl radicals was also assayed. Materials and Methods: Enzyme inhibition and antioxidant potential were assessed based on in vitro assays. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls A and B were achieved using spectrophotometric methods. Results: E. uniflora was almost 40 times more active on alpha-glucosidase than C. sinensis and combined extracts showed a significant synergistic effect with an obtained IC50 value almost 5 times lower than the theoretical value. C. sinensis extract was twice more active than E. uniflora concerning DPPH•, in contrast, E. uniflora was almost 10 times more effective than C. sinensis on inhibition of peroxyl radicals with a significant synergistic effect for combined extracts. The extracts activities may be related with their phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, and chlorophylls. Conclusion: Combined C. sinensis and E. uniflora ethanolic extracts showed synergistic effect against alpha-glucosidase and lipid peroxidation. These herbal combinations can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia and can also provide antioxidant defenses to patients with T2DM. SUMMARY Alfa-glucosidase and antioxidant Interaction between Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. ethanolic extracts was investigated.Extracts showed

  14. Synergisms in Alpha-glucosidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. Ethanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Juliana; Vizzotto, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Camellia sinensis , the most consumed and popular beverages worldwide, and Eugenia uniflora , a Brazilian native species, have been already confirmed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, their potential acting together against an enzyme linked to this pathology has never been exploited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of individual and combined ethanolic extracts of the leaves of C. sinensis and E. uniflora over alpha-glucosidase, a key digestive enzyme used on the Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) control. In addition, their inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH • ) and peroxyl radicals was also assayed. Enzyme inhibition and antioxidant potential were assessed based on in vitro assays. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls A and B were achieved using spectrophotometric methods. E. uniflora was almost 40 times more active on alpha-glucosidase than C. sinensis and combined extracts showed a significant synergistic effect with an obtained IC 50 value almost 5 times lower than the theoretical value. C. sinensis extract was twice more active than E. uniflora concerning DPPH • , in contrast, E. uniflora was almost 10 times more effective than C. sinensis on inhibition of peroxyl radicals with a significant synergistic effect for combined extracts. The extracts activities may be related with their phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, and chlorophylls. Combined C. sinensis and E. uniflora ethanolic extracts showed synergistic effect against alpha-glucosidase and lipid peroxidation. These herbal combinations can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia and can also provide antioxidant defenses to patients with T2DM. Alfa-glucosidase and antioxidant Interaction between Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. ethanolic extracts was investigated.Extracts showed synergistic effect over alpha-glucosidase and peroxyl radicals

  15. Statin therapy exacerbates alcohol-induced constriction of cerebral arteries via modulation of ethanol-induced BK channel inhibition in vascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakova, Maria N; Bisen, Shivantika; Dopico, Alex M; Bukiya, Anna N

    2017-12-01

    Statins constitute the most commonly prescribed drugs to decrease cholesterol (CLR). CLR is an important modulator of alcohol-induced cerebral artery constriction (AICAC). Using rats on a high CLR diet (2% CLR) we set to determine whether atorvastatin administration (10mg/kg daily for 18-23weeks) modified AICAC. Middle cerebral arteries were pressurized in vitro at 60mmHg and AICAC was evoked by 50mM ethanol, that is within the range of blood alcohol detected in humans following moderate-to-heavy drinking. AICAC was evident in high CLR+atorvastatin group but not in high CLR diet+placebo. Statin exacerbation of AICAC persisted in de-endothelialized arteries, and was blunted by CLR enrichment in vitro. Fluorescence imaging of filipin-stained arteries showed that atorvastatin decreased vascular smooth muscle (VSM) CLR when compared to placebo, this difference being reduced by CLR enrichment in vitro. Voltage- and calcium-gated potassium channels of large conductance (BK) are known VSM targets of ethanol, with their beta1 subunit being necessary for ethanol-induced channel inhibition and resulting AICAC. Ethanol-induced BK inhibition in excised membrane patches from freshly isolated myocytes was exacerbated in the high CLR diet+atorvastatin group when compared to high CLR diet+placebo. Unexpectedly, atorvastatin decreased the amount and function of BK beta1 subunit as documented by immunofluorescence imaging and functional patch-clamp studies. Atorvastatin exacerbation of ethanol-induced BK inhibition disappeared upon artery CLR enrichment in vitro. Our study demonstrates for the first time statin's ability to exacerbate the vascular effect of a widely consumed drug of abuse, this exacerbation being driven by statin modulation of ethanol-induced BK channel inhibition in the VSM via CLR-mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethanol extracts of Cassia grandis and Tabernaemontana cymosa inhibit the in vitro replication of dengue virus serotype 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Hernández-Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antiviral activity of ethanol extracts derived from Cassia grandis leaves and Tabernaemontana cymosa bark against two dengue virus (DENV serotype 2 strains DENV-2/NG and DENV-2/1 6681 in two cell lines susceptible to infection, VERO and U937. Methods: The cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50 was assessed using the MTT method, and the effective concentration 50 (EC50 was determined using the technique of inhibiting the production of infectious viral particles by the plating method. Further testing of dose-response inhibition was performed, and three experimental approaches were evaluated (pre-, trans- and posttreatment to determine the effect of the extracts according to the time of administration. Finally, a preliminary phytochemical analysis for both extracts was performed. Results: The cytotoxicity of the extracts was low (CC50>300 µg/mL, and the U937 cell line was more sensitive to the antiproliferative effect of both extracts. When the virus strain-dependent selectivities of the extracts were compared, it was found that both extracts were more selective in cultures infected with the DENV-2/NG strain than in those infected with the DENV-2/16681 strain. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect of the extracts was not observed in any of the evaluations. Finally, the highest inhibition was detected with the post-treatment approach with the Tabernaemontana cymosa extract (99.9% in both cell lines. Conclusions: A therapy with compounds derived from these extracts would inhibit viral replication and affect steps after viral internalization.

  17. Corrosion inhibition efficiency of linear alkyl benzene derivatives for carbon steel pipelines in 1M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid (L and three of its ester derivatives (L1, L2, L3 were prepared, followed by quaternization of these esters (L1Q, L2Q, L3Q. The corrosion inhibition effect on carbon steel in 1 M HCl was studied using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The adsorption of the inhibitors on carbon steel surface obeyed the Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The associated activation energy of corrosion and other thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH∗, entropy (ΔS∗ of activation, adsorption–desorption equilibrium constant (Kads, standard free energy of adsorption (ΔGoads, heat (ΔHoads, and entropy of adsorption (ΔSoads were calculated to elaborate the corrosion inhibition mechanism.

  18. Prevention of secretory diarrhea by ethanol extract of Bistortae rhizoma through inhibition of chloride channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and Ca2+-activated Cl- channel (CaCC represents an attractive approach for the treatment of secretory diarrhea. The aim of the study is to investigate the molecular basis of the anti-diarrheal effect of traditional Chinese herbal anti-diarrheal medicine Bistortae rhizoma. Fluorescence quenching assay indicated that the 40% methanol /water fraction (D5 dose-dependently inhibited both CFTR and CaCC function in transfected Fischer rat thyroid (FRT cells. Ex vivo studies indicated that D5 inhibited both forskolin (FSK-activated CFTR current and CCh-induced CaCC current in rat colonic mucosa. In the mouse closed-loop model, intraluminal application of D5 (200 µg/mL significantly reduced cholera toxin-stimulated fluid secretion. In the intestinal motility model, D5 significantly delayed intestinal peristalsis in mice. Our research suggests that CFTR and CaCC-mediated intestinal epithelial Cl- secretion inhibiting and gastrointestinal motility delaying may account for the anti-diarrheal activity of B. rhizoma.

  19. Inhibition mechanism of compound ethanol extracts from wuweizi (fructus schisandrae chinensis) on renal interstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Daning; Zhang, Mianzhi

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate inhibition effect and mechanism of compound ethanol extracts from Wuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Chuanxiong) and Muli (Cocha Ostreae) (FRC) on glomerular and tubular interstitial fibrosis in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (ND) model mice. Twenty-seven male C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into 3 groups: nondibetic (ND), STZ-induced diabetic (D), and STZ-induced diabetic that were treated with 5 g x kg(-1) x day(-1) of FRC by oral gavage (D(FRC)), with 9 in each group. The protein expressions of E-cadherin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAL-1) in renal tissues were investigated by Western blotting. The expressions of fibronectin (FN) and alpha-SMA were detected by immunohistochemical method. The morphological changes of renal tissues were observed under a microscope. Renal tissues in the D(FRC) group showed a lessened degree of fibrosis. Meanwhile, the expressions of FN, alpha-SMA and PAI-1 were significantly lower in the D(FRC) group than those in the D group (all P < 0.05). FRC can ameliorate the DN in the C57BL/6 mice, and its mechanism may relate to inhibition on the epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation, endothelial-myofibroblast transition and PAL-1 expression.

  20. Frontline Science: ATF3 is responsible for the inhibition of TNF-α release and the impaired migration of acute ethanol-exposed monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chaojie; Meng, Xiaoming; Huang, Cheng; Shen, Chenlin; Li, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking represses host innate immunity and leads to a high risk of infection. Acute EtOH-pretreated macrophages exhibit a decreased production of proinflammatory mediators in response to LPS. ATF3 is induced and counter-regulates the LPS/TLR4 inflammatory cascade. Here, we investigated the potential role of ATF3 in LPS tolerance in acute ethanol-pretreated macrophages. We found that there was an inverse correlation between ATF3 and LPS-induced TNF-α production in acute ethanol-pretreated murine monocytes and macrophages. The knockdown of ATF3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of acute ethanol treatment on LPS-induced TNF-α production. Furthermore, ChIP assays and co-IP demonstrated that ATF3, together with HDAC1, negatively modulated the transcription of TNF-α. In binge-drinking mice challenged with LPS, an up-regulation of ATF3 and HDAC1 and a concomitant decrease in TNF-α were observed. Given that HDAC1 was concomitantly induced in acute ethanol-exposed monocytes and macrophages, we used the HDACi TSA or silenced HDAC1 to explore the role of HDAC1 in acute ethanol-treated macrophages. Our results revealed that TSA treatment and HDAC1 knockdown prevented acute ethanol-induced ATF3 expression and the inhibition of TNF-α transcription. These data indicated a dual role for HDAC1 in acute ethanol-induced LPS tolerance. Furthermore, we showed that the induction of ATF3 led to the impaired migration of BM monocytes and macrophages. Overall, we present a novel role for ATF3 in the inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α and in the impairment of monocyte and macrophage migration. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  1. Inhibition of urokinase plasminogen activator “uPA” activity alters ethanol consumption and conditioned place preference in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Maamari E

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Elyazia Al Maamari,* Mouza Al Ameri, Shamma Al Mansouri, Amine Bahi*Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Urokinase plasminogen activator, uPA, is a serine protease implicated in addiction to drugs of abuse. Using its specific inhibitor, B428, we and others have characterized the role of uPA in the rewarding properties of psychostimulants, including cocaine and amphetamine, but none have examined the role of uPA in ethanol use disorders. Therefore, in the current study, we extended our observations to the role of uPA in ethanol consumption and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference. The general aim of the present series of experiments was to investigate the effects of the administration of the B428 on voluntary alcohol intake and ethanol conditioned reward. A two-bottle choice, unlimited-access paradigm was used to compare ethanol intake between vehicle- and 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg B428-administered mice. For this purpose, the mice were presented with an ethanol solution (2.5%–20% and water, at each concentration for 4 days, and their consumption was measured daily. Consumption of saccharin and quinine solutions was also measured. Systemic administration of B428 dose-dependently decreased ethanol intake and preference. Additionally, B428 mice did not differ from vehicle mice in their intake of graded solutions of tastants, suggesting that the uPA inhibition did not alter taste function. Also, ethanol metabolism was not affected following B428 injection. More importantly, 1.5 g/kg ethanol-induced conditioned place preference acquisition was blocked following B428 administration. Taken together, our results are the first to implicate uPA inhibition in the regulation of ethanol consumption and preference, and suggest that uPA may be considered as a possible therapeutic drug target for alcoholism and

  2. Comparative analysis of adsorption and corrosion inhibitive properties of ethanol extract of Dialium Guineense leaves for mild steel in 0.5 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shola Elijah Adeniji

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption and corrosion inhibitive properties of ethanol extract of Dialium guineense leaves for mild steel in 0.5M HCl was studied using the gravimetric method. The results showed that the ethanol extract of Dialium guineense leaves is a good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 0.5 M HCl. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increase in the concentration of ethanol extract of Dialium guineense leaves up to the maximum of 92 %, but at the same time it decreased as the temperature was increased. Corrosion inhibition by the extract of Dialium guineense leaves is carried out by adsorption mechanism with the kinetics of corrosion following the pseudo first order reaction with high correlation. Thermodynamic consideration revealed that adsorption of the ethanol extract of Dialium guineense leaves on mild steel surface is an exothermic and spontaneous process that fitted the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of activation energy and Gibb’s free energy were found within the range of limits expected for the mechanism of physical adsorption.

  3. Ethanol injected into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus induces behavioral stimulation in rats: an effect prevented by catalase inhibition and naltrexone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Raúl; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2008-10-01

    It is suggested that some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including its psychomotor properties, are mediated by beta-endorphin and opioid receptors. Ethanol-induced increases in the release of hypothalamic beta-endorphin depend on the catalasemic conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Here, we evaluated the locomotor activity in rats microinjected with ethanol directly into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ArcN), the main site of beta-endorphin synthesis in the brain and a region with high levels of catalase expression. Intra-ArcN ethanol-induced changes in motor activity were also investigated in rats pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0-2 mg/kg) or the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT; 0-1 g/kg). We found that ethanol microinjections of 64 or 128, but not 256 microg, produced locomotor stimulation. Intra-ArcN ethanol (128 microg)-induced activation was prevented by naltrexone and AT, whereas these compounds did not affect spontaneous activity. The present results support earlier evidence indicating that the ArcN and the beta-endorphinic neurons of this nucleus are necessary for ethanol to induce stimulation. In addition, our data suggest that brain structures that, as the ArcN, are rich in catalase may support the formation of ethanol-derived pharmacologically relevant concentrations of acetaldehyde and, thus be of particular importance for the behavioral effects of ethanol.

  4. Potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract, SPET-085, for inhibition of 5alpha-reductase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Pilar

    2010-08-01

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent membrane protein 5alpha-reductase irreversibly catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In humans, two 5alpha-reductase isoenyzmes are expressed: type I and type II. Type II is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The mechanisms of the pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, among other actions. Clinical studies of SPE have been equivocal, with some showing significant results and others not. These inconsistent results may be due, in part, to varying bioactivities of the SPE used in the studies. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract (SPET-085), an inhibitor of the 5alpha-reductase isoenzyme type II, in a cell-free test system. On the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5alpha-reduced product 5alpha-androstanedione, the inhibitory potency was measured and compared to those of finasteride, an approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor. SPET-085 concentration-dependently inhibited 5alpha-reductase type II in vitro (IC(50)=2.88+/-0.45 microg/mL). The approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, tested as positive control, led to 61% inhibition of 5alpha-reductase type II. SPET-085 effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is very low compared to data reported for other extracts. It can be concluded from data in the literature that SPET-085 is as effective as a hexane extract of saw palmetto that exhibited the highest levels of bioactivity, and is more effective than other SPEs tested. This study confirmed that SPET-085 has prostate health-promoting bioactivity that also corresponds favorably to

  5. Ethanol Extract of Mylabris phalerata Inhibits M2 Polarization Induced by Recombinant IL-4 and IL-13 in Murine Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan-Suck Chung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mylabris phalerata (MP is an insect used in oriental herbal treatments for tumor, tinea infections, and stroke. Recent studies have shown that tumor-associated macrophages (TAM have detrimental roles such as tumor progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Although TAM has phenotypes and characteristics in common with M2-polarized macrophages, M1 macrophages have tumor suppression and immune stimulation effects. Medicines polarizing macrophages to M1 have been suggested to have anticancer effects via the modulation of the tumor microenvironment. In this line, we screened oriental medicines to find M1 polarizing medicines in M2-polarized macrophages. Among approximately 400 types of oriental medicine, the ethanol extract of M. phalerata (EMP was the most proficient in increasing TNF-α secretion in M2-polarized macrophages and TAM. Although EMP enhanced the levels of an M1 cytokine (TNF-α and a marker (CD86, it significantly reduced the levels of an M2 marker (arginase-1 in M2-polarized macrophages. In addition, EMP-treated macrophages increased the levels of M1 markers (Inos and Tnf-α and reduced those of the enhanced M2 markers (Fizz-1, Ym-1, and arginase-1. EMP-treated macrophages significantly reduced Lewis lung carcinoma cell migration in a transwell migration assay and inhibited EL4-luc2 lymphoma proliferation. In our mechanism study, EMP was found to inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation in M2-polarized macrophages. These results suggest that EMP is effective in treating TAM-mediated tumor progression and metastasis.

  6. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication with linear DNA sequences expressing antiviral micro-RNA shuttles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Saket; Ely, Abdullah; Bloom, Kristie; Weinberg, Marc S.; Arbuthnot, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) may be harnessed to inhibit viral gene expression and this approach is being developed to counter chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Compared to synthetic RNAi activators, DNA expression cassettes that generate silencing sequences have advantages of sustained efficacy and ease of propagation in plasmid DNA (pDNA). However, the large size of pDNAs and inclusion of sequences conferring antibiotic resistance and immunostimulation limit delivery efficiency and safety. To develop use of alternative DNA templates that may be applied for therapeutic gene silencing, we assessed the usefulness of PCR-generated linear expression cassettes that produce anti-HBV micro-RNA (miR) shuttles. We found that silencing of HBV markers of replication was efficient (>75%) in cell culture and in vivo. miR shuttles were processed to form anti-HBV guide strands and there was no evidence of induction of the interferon response. Modification of terminal sequences to include flanking human adenoviral type-5 inverted terminal repeats was easily achieved and did not compromise silencing efficacy. These linear DNA sequences should have utility in the development of gene silencing applications where modifications of terminal elements with elimination of potentially harmful and non-essential sequences are required.

  7. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication with linear DNA sequences expressing antiviral micro-RNA shuttles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Saket; Ely, Abdullah; Bloom, Kristie; Weinberg, Marc S. [Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa); Arbuthnot, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Arbuthnot@wits.ac.za [Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

    2009-11-20

    RNA interference (RNAi) may be harnessed to inhibit viral gene expression and this approach is being developed to counter chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Compared to synthetic RNAi activators, DNA expression cassettes that generate silencing sequences have advantages of sustained efficacy and ease of propagation in plasmid DNA (pDNA). However, the large size of pDNAs and inclusion of sequences conferring antibiotic resistance and immunostimulation limit delivery efficiency and safety. To develop use of alternative DNA templates that may be applied for therapeutic gene silencing, we assessed the usefulness of PCR-generated linear expression cassettes that produce anti-HBV micro-RNA (miR) shuttles. We found that silencing of HBV markers of replication was efficient (>75%) in cell culture and in vivo. miR shuttles were processed to form anti-HBV guide strands and there was no evidence of induction of the interferon response. Modification of terminal sequences to include flanking human adenoviral type-5 inverted terminal repeats was easily achieved and did not compromise silencing efficacy. These linear DNA sequences should have utility in the development of gene silencing applications where modifications of terminal elements with elimination of potentially harmful and non-essential sequences are required.

  8. β-Adrenergic induction of lipolysis in hepatocytes is inhibited by ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Micah B; Rasineni, Karuna; Weller, Shaun G; Schulze, Ryan J; Sletten, Arthur C; Casey, Carol A; McNiven, Mark A

    2017-07-14

    In liver steatosis ( i.e. fatty liver), hepatocytes accumulate many large neutral lipid storage organelles known as lipid droplets (LDs). LDs are important in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, but the signaling mechanisms that stimulate LD metabolism in hepatocytes are poorly defined. In adipocytes, catecholamines target the β-adrenergic (β-AR)/cAMP pathway to activate cytosolic lipases and induce their recruitment to the LD surface. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether hepatocytes, like adipocytes, also undergo cAMP-mediated lipolysis in response to β-AR stimulation. Using primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cells, we found that treatment with the β-AR agent isoproterenol caused substantial LD loss via activation of cytosolic lipases adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). β-Adrenergic stimulation rapidly activated PKA, which led to the phosphorylation of ATGL and HSL and their recruitment to the LD surface. To test whether this β-AR-dependent lipolysis pathway was altered in a model of alcoholic fatty liver, primary hepatocytes from rats fed a 6-week EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli diet were treated with cAMP agonists. Compared with controls, EtOH-exposed hepatocytes showed a drastic inhibition in β-AR/cAMP-induced LD breakdown and the phosphorylation of PKA substrates, including HSL. This observation was supported in VA-13 cells, an EtOH-metabolizing human hepatoma cell line, which displayed marked defects in both PKA activation and isoproterenol-induced ATGL translocation to the LD periphery. In summary, these findings suggest that β-AR stimulation mobilizes cytosolic lipases for LD breakdown in hepatocytes, and perturbation of this pathway could be a major consequence of chronic EtOH insult leading to fatty liver.

  9. Ethanol Decreases Inflammatory Response in Human Lung Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting the Canonical NF-kB-Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Mörs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Alcohol (ethanol, EtOH as significant contributor to traumatic injury is linked to suppressed inflammatory response, thereby influencing clinical outcomes. Alcohol-induced immune-suppression during acute inflammation (trauma was linked to nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-ĸB. Here, we analyzed alcohol`s effects and mechanisms underlying its influence on NF-ĸB-signaling during acute inflammation in human lung epithelial cells. Methods: A549-cells were stimulated with interleukin (IL-1β, or sera from trauma patients (TP or healthy volunteers, with positive/negative blood alcohol concentrations (BAC, and subsequently exposed to EtOH (170 Mm, 1h. IL-6-release and neutrophil adhesion to A549 were analyzed. Specific siRNA-NIK mediated downregulation of non-canonical, and IKK-NBD-inhibition of canonical NF-ĸB signaling were performed. Nuclear levels of activated p50 and p52 NF-ĸB-subunits were detected using TransAm ELISA. Results: Both stimuli significantly induced IL-6-release (39.79±4.70 vs. 0.58±0.8 pg/ml and neutrophil adhesion (132.30±8.80 vs. 100% control, p<0.05 to A549-cells. EtOH significantly decreased IL-6-release (22.90±5.40, p<0.05 and neutrophil adherence vs. controls (105.40±14.5%, p<0.05. IL-1β-induced significant activation of canonical/p50 and non-canonical/p52 pathways. EtOH significantly reduced p50 (34.90±23.70 vs. 197.70±36.43, p<0.05 not p52 activation. Inhibition of canonical pathway was further increased by EtOH (less p50-activation, while p52 remained unaltered. Inhibition of non-canonical pathway was unchanged by EtOH. Conclusion: Here, alcohol`s anti-inflammatory effects are mediated via decreasing nuclear levels of activated p50-subunit and canonical NF-ĸB signaling pathway.

  10. Ethanol Decreases Inflammatory Response in Human Lung Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting the Canonical NF-kB-Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörs, Katharina; Hörauf, Jason-Alexander; Kany, Shinwan; Wagner, Nils; Sturm, Ramona; Woschek, Mathias; Perl, Mario; Marzi, Ingo; Relja, Borna

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) as significant contributor to traumatic injury is linked to suppressed inflammatory response, thereby influencing clinical outcomes. Alcohol-induced immune-suppression during acute inflammation (trauma) was linked to nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-ĸB). Here, we analyzed alcohol`s effects and mechanisms underlying its influence on NF-ĸB-signaling during acute inflammation in human lung epithelial cells. A549-cells were stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β, or sera from trauma patients (TP) or healthy volunteers, with positive/negative blood alcohol concentrations (BAC), and subsequently exposed to EtOH (170 Mm, 1h). IL-6-release and neutrophil adhesion to A549 were analyzed. Specific siRNA-NIK mediated downregulation of non-canonical, and IKK-NBD-inhibition of canonical NF-ĸB signaling were performed. Nuclear levels of activated p50 and p52 NF-ĸB-subunits were detected using TransAm ELISA. Both stimuli significantly induced IL-6-release (39.79±4.70 vs. 0.58±0.8 pg/ml) and neutrophil adhesion (132.30±8.80 vs. 100% control, p<0.05) to A549-cells. EtOH significantly decreased IL-6-release (22.90±5.40, p<0.05) and neutrophil adherence vs. controls (105.40±14.5%, p<0.05). IL-1β-induced significant activation of canonical/p50 and non-canonical/p52 pathways. EtOH significantly reduced p50 (34.90±23.70 vs. 197.70±36.43, p<0.05) not p52 activation. Inhibition of canonical pathway was further increased by EtOH (less p50-activation), while p52 remained unaltered. Inhibition of non-canonical pathway was unchanged by EtOH. Here, alcohol`s anti-inflammatory effects are mediated via decreasing nuclear levels of activated p50-subunit and canonical NF-ĸB signaling pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Inhibition of Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 and its Inflammatory Reactions in Mice by Ethanolic Extract of Andrographis paniculata, a Well-known Medicinal Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, V.; Yarla, N. S.; Zameer, F.; Nagendra Prasad, M. N.; Santosh, M. S.; More, S. S.; Rao, D. G.; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is an important medicinal plant found in the tropical regions of the world, which has been traditionally used in Indian and Chinese medicinal systems. It is also used as medicinal food. A. paniculata is found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities; however, its inhibitory potential on inflammatory Group IIA phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and its associated inflammatory reactions are not clearly understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory/neutralizing potential of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata on the isolated inflammatory PLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) from Daboii rusellii pulchella (belonging to Group IIA inflammatory secretory PLA2 [sPLA2]) and its associated edema-induced activities in Swiss albino mice. A. paniculata extract dose dependently inhibited the Group IIA sPLA2 enzymatic activity with an IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml. Further, the extract dose dependently inhibited the edema formation, when co-injected with enzyme indicating that a strong correlation exists between lipolytic and pro-inflammatory activities of the enzyme. In conclusion, results of this study shows that the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata effectively inhibits Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate its anti-inflammatory properties. The results of the present study warranted further studies to develop bioactive compound (s) in ethanolic extract of A. paniculata as potent therapeutic agent (s) for inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY This study emphasis the anti-inflammatory effect of A. paniculata by inhibiting the inflammatory Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities such as edema. It was found that there is a strong correlation between lipolytic activity and pro-inflammatory activity inhibition. Therefore, the study suggests that the extract processes potent anti-inflammatory agents, which could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammatory and related diseases

  12. Beyond the "First Hit": Marked Inhibition by N-Acetyl Cysteine of Chronic Ethanol Intake But Not of Early Ethanol Intake. Parallel Effects on Ethanol-Induced Saccharin Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, María Elena; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Berríos-Cárcamo, Pablo; Salinas-Luypaert, Catalina; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Israel, Yedy

    2016-05-01

    A number of studies have shown that acetaldehyde synthesized in the brain is necessary to induce ethanol (EtOH) reinforcement in naïve animals (acquisition phase). However, after chronic intake is achieved (maintenance phase), EtOH intake becomes independent of acetaldehyde generation or its levels. Glutamate has been reported to be associated with the maintenance of chronic EtOH intake. The levels of brain extracellular glutamate are modulated by 2 glial processes: glutamate reabsorption via an Na(+) -glutamate transporter (GLT1) and a cystine-glutamate exchanger. Chronic EtOH intake lowers GLT1 levels and increases extracellular glutamate. The administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a precursor of cystine, has been shown to reduce the relapse of several drugs of abuse, while NAC has not been tested on chronic EtOH intake or on EtOH's influence on the motivation for another drug. These were investigated in the present study. (i) Rats bred for their high EtOH intake were allowed access to 10% EtOH and water up to 87 days. NAC was administered (30 and 60 mg/kg daily, intraperitoneally) for 14 consecutive days, either during the acquisition phase or the maintenance phase of EtOH drinking. (ii) In additional experiments, rats were allowed EtOH (10%) and water access for 61 days, after which EtOH was replaced by saccharin (0.3%) to determine both if chronic EtOH consumption influences saccharin intake and whether NAC modifies the post chronic EtOH saccharin intake. NAC did not influence the acquisition ("first hit") of chronic EtOH intake, but greatly inhibited (60 to 70%; p intake when NAC was administered to animals that were consuming EtOH chronically. NAC did not influence saccharin intake in naïve animals. In animals that had consumed EtOH chronically and were thereafter offered a saccharin solution (0.3%), saccharin intake increased over 100% versus that of EtOH-untreated animals, an effect that was fully suppressed by NAC. N-acetyl cysteine, a drug

  13. PARP Inhibition Prevents Ethanol-Induced Neuroinflammatory Signaling and Neurodegeneration in Rat Adult-Age Brain Slice Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Nuzhath; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2018-01-01

    Using rat adult-age hippocampal-entorhinal cortical (HEC) slice cultures, we examined the role of poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP) in binge ethanol’s brain inflammatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms. Activated by DNA strand breaks, PARP (principally PARP1 in the brain) promotes DNA repair via poly [ADP-ribose] (PAR) products, but PARP overactivation triggers regulated neuronal necrosis (e.g., parthanatos). Previously, we found that brain PARP1 levels were upregulated by neurotoxic ethanol binges in adult rats and HEC slices, and PARP inhibitor PJ34 abrogated slice neurodegeneration. Binged HEC slices also exhibited increased Ca+2-dependent phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoenzymes (cPLA2 IVA and sPLA2 IIA) that mobilize proinflammatory ω6 arachidonic acid (ARA). We now find in 4-day–binged HEC slice cultures (100 mM ethanol) that PARP1 elevations after two overnight binges precede PAR, cPLA2, and sPLA2 enhancements by 1 day and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), an ethanol-responsive alarmin that augments proinflammatory cytokines via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), by 2 days. After verifying that PJ34 effectively blocks PARP activity (↑PAR), we demonstrated that, like PJ34, three other PARP inhibitors—olaparib, veliparib, and 4-aminobenzamide—provided neuroprotection from ethanol. Importantly, PJ34 and olaparib also prevented ethanol’s amplification of the PLA2 isoenzymes, and two PLA2 inhibitors were neuroprotective—thus coupling PARP to PLA2, with PLA2 activity promoting neurodegeneration. Also, PJ34 and olaparib blocked ethanol-induced HMGB1 elevations, linking brain PARP induction to TLR4 activation. The results provide evidence in adult brains that induction of PARP1 may mediate dual neuroinflammatory pathways (PLA2→phospholipid→ARA and HMGB1→TLR4→proinflammatory cytokines) that are complicit in binge ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:29339456

  14. Water-insoluble fractions of botanical foods lower blood ethanol levels in rats by physically maintaining the ethanol solution after ethanol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Oshima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have analyzed the functions of foods and dietary constituents in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. However, few studies have reported the function of dietary fibers in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. Objective: We assessed the effects of botanical foods that contain dietary fibers on alcohol metabolism. Methods: The ability of the water-insoluble fraction (WIF of 18 kinds of botanical foods to maintain 15% (v/v ethanol solution was examined using easily handled filtration. A simple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC in F344 rats 4 h after the ingestion of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol following dosage of 2.5% (w/v WIF of the experimental botanical foods. Furthermore, the supernatant (6.3 Brix; water-soluble fraction and precipitate (WIF of tomato, with a strong ethanol-maintaining ability, were obtained and BEC and the residual gastric ethanol in rats were determined 2 h after the administration of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol and the individuals fractions. Results: The filtered volumes of dropped ethanol solutions containing all the botanical foods tested except green peas were decreased compared with the ethanol solution without WIF (control. There was a significant correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC. There was no significant difference in the residual gastric ethanol between controls and the supernatant group; however, it was increased significantly in the WIF group than in controls or the supernatant group. Consistent with this, BEC reached a similar level in controls and the supernatant group but significantly decreased in the WIF group compared with controls or the supernatant group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that WIFs of botanical foods, which are mostly water-insoluble dietary fibers, possess the ability to absorb ethanol-containing solutions, and this ability correlates

  15. Lateral/Basolateral Amygdala Serotonin Type-2 Receptors Modulate Operant Self-administration of a Sweetened Ethanol Solution via Inhibition of Principal Neuron Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eMccool

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lateral/basolateral amygdala (BLA forms an integral part of the neural circuitry controlling innate anxiety and learned fear. More recently, BLA dependent modulation of self-administration behaviors suggests a much broader role in the regulation of reward evaluation. To test this, we employed a self-administration paradigm that procedurally segregates ‘seeking’ (exemplified as lever-press behaviors from consumption (drinking directed at a sweetened ethanol solution. Microinjection of the nonselective serotonin type-2 receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (-m5HT into the BLA reduced lever pressing behaviors in a dose-dependent fashion. This was associated with a significant reduction in the number of response-bouts expressed during non-reinforced sessions without altering the size of a bout or the rate of responding. Conversely, intra-BLA -m5HT only modestly effected consumption-related behaviors; the highest dose reduced the total time spent consuming a sweetened ethanol solution but did not inhibit the total number of licks, number of lick bouts, or amount of solution consumed during a session. In vitro neurophysiological characterization of BLA synaptic responses showed that -m5HT significantly reduced extracellular field potentials. This was blocked by the 5-HT2A/C antagonist ketanserin suggesting that 5-HT2-like receptors mediate the behavioral effect of -m5HT. During whole-cell patch current-clamp recordings, we subsequently found that -m5HT increased action potential threshold and hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential of BLA pyramidal neurons. Together, our findings show that the activation of BLA 5-HT2A/C receptors inhibits behaviors related to reward-seeking by suppressing BLA principal neuron activity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the BLA modulates reward-related behaviors and provides specific insight into BLA contributions during operant self-administration of a

  16. Comparison Of Metal Corrosion Inhibition By Gravimetric And Linear Polarization Resistance Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Banerji, Shankha

    1992-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various dosages of the selected silicate and phosphate compounds applied for corrosion inhibition of cast iron, copper, lead, and galvanized steel specimens. The compounds selected for study were zinc polyphosphate (Calgon C-39), zinc orthophosphate (Virchem V-931), sodium metasilicate and glassy silicate. The effectiveness of these compounds for corrosion inhibition were studied under differing water quality conditions using gravimetric...

  17. Ethanol inhibits cold-menthol receptor TRPM8 by modulating its interaction with membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benedikt, Jan; Teisinger, Jan; Vyklický st., Ladislav; Vlachová, Viktorie

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 1 (2007), s. 211-224 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/0319; GA ČR GA309/04/0496; GA MŠk 1M0517; GA MŠk LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Cold /menthol receptor * ethanol * phosphatidylinositol Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.451, year: 2007

  18. Ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolleurp, F; Daugulis, A J

    1985-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce the effect of end-product inhibition through the use of a water-immiscible phase which removes fermentation products in situ. This has the beneficial effect of not only removing inhibitory products as they are formed (thus keeping reaction rates high) but also has the potential for reducing product recovery costs. We have chosen to examine the ethanol fermentation as a model system for end product inhibition and extractive fermentation, and have developed a computer model predicting the productivity enhancement possible with this technique. The model predicts an ethanol productivity of 82.6 g/L-h if a glucose feed of 750 g/L is fermented with a solvent having a distribution coefficient of 0.5 at a dilution rate of 5.0 h . This is more than 10 times higher than for a conventional chemostat fermentation of a 250 g/L glucose feed. In light of this, a systematic approach to extractive fermentation has been undertaken involving the screening of more than 1,000 solvents for their extractive properties. UNIFAC and UNIQUAC estimates of distribution coefficients and selectivities were compiled and ranked in a database, together with other important physical properties, such as density, surface tension and viscosity. Preliminary shake-flask and chemostat biocompatibility studies on the most promising solvents have been undertaken. The previous predictive, data base and experimental results are discussed.

  19. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hye Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanguisorbae Radix (SR is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease. We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB- induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs, we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker. ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms.

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Bioactive Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids in Ethanolic Extract of Seven Rauvolfia Species using UHPLC with Hybrid Triple Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Awantika; Bajpai, Vikas; Srivastava, Mukesh; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Ojha, Sanjeev; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-09-01

    Rauvolfia serpentina is an endangered plant species due to its over-exploitation. It has highly commercial and economic importance due to the presence of bioactive monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) such as ajmaline, yohimbine, ajmalicine, serpentine and reserpine. To develop a validated, rapid, sensitive and selective ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQLIT -MS/MS) method in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for simultaneous determination of bioactive MIAs in ethanolic extract of seven Rauvolfia species and herbal formulations. The separation of MIAs was achieved on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH™ C18 column (1.7 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm) using a gradient mobile phase (0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile) at flow rate 0.3 μL/min in 7 min. The validated method showed good linearity (r(2)  ≥ 0.9999), limit of detection (LOD) (0.06-0.15 ng/mL), limit of quantitation (LOQ) (0.18-0.44 ng/mL), precisions [intraday: relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 2.24%, interday: RSD ≤ 2.74%], stability (RSD ≤ 1.53%) and overall recovery (RSD ≤ 2.23%). The validated method was applied to quantitate MIAs. Root of Rauvolfia vomitoria showed a high content of ajmaline (48.43 mg/g), serpentine (87.77 mg/g) whereas high quantities of yohimbine (100.21 mg/g) and ajmalicine (120.51 mg/g) were detected in R. tetraphylla. High content of reserpine was detected in R. micrantha (35.18 mg/g) and R. serpentina (32.38 mg/g). The encouraging results of this study may lead to easy selection of suitable Rauvolfia species according to the abundance of MIAs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A role for ethanol-induced oxidative stress in controlling lineage commitment of mesenchymal stromal cells through inhibition of wnt/beta-catenin signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms by which chronic ethanol intake induces bone loss remain unclear. In females, the skeletal response to ethanol varies depending on physiologic status (viz. cycling, pregnancy, lactation). Ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to be a key event leading to skeletal toxicity. In the c...

  2. Ethanolic Extract of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Gamboge Inhibits Colon Cancer via the Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Pathway in an Orthotopic Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Youran; Chen, Yiqi; Chen, Hongjin; Zhu, Ping; Xu, Minmin; Wang, Hao; Wu, Minna; Yang, Zhijian; Hoffman, Robert M; Gu, Yunfei

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of an ethanolic extract of gamboge (EEG), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), both in vitro on colon cancer cells and in vivo in an orthotopic mouse model of human colon cancer. The in vitro cytotoxicity of EEG on colon cancer cells was determined with the CCK8 proliferation assay and the Annexin V-PE/7-AAD apoptosis assay. Efficacy of EEG in vivo was evaluated in an orthotopic mouse model of human colon cancer implated with the green fluorescent protein-expressing human colon cancer cell line SW480-GFP. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with vehicle (0.2 ml/dose normal saline, po, daily), irinotecan (50 mg/kg/dose, ip, twice a week), 5-FU (15 mg/kg/dose, ip, every other day) as positive controls or EEG at doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg/dose, po, daily. Real-time fluorescence imaging was performed to determine tumor inhibition in each treated group compared to the untreated controls. The protein expression of β-catenin, MMP-7, cyclin D1 and E-cadherin in the tumors was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. EEG significantly induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of SW480 colon cancer cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Tumor growth in the colon-cancer orthotopic model was significantly inhibited by irinotecan, 5-FU and all three doses of EEG. The efficacy of EEG was comparable to irinotecan and 5-FU. Irinotecan, 5-FU and 50 mg/kg EEG significantly decreased the protein expression of β-catenin and MMP-7. Cyclin D1 expression was decreased and E-cadherin expression was increased by irinotecan, 5-FU and all three doses of EEG. The present study demonstrates anti-tumor efficacy of EEG on colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo through inducing proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of SW480 colon cancer cells and inhibiting tumor growth, respectively. EEG exerts anti-tumor activity at least partly via down-regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Copyright© 2018, International

  3. Ethanolic extract of Aconiti Brachypodi Radix attenuates nociceptive pain probably via inhibition of voltage-dependent Na⁺ channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Yuan, Lin; Li, Jun; Huang, Xian-Ju; Chen, Su; Zou, Da-Jiang; Liu, Xiangming; Yang, Xin-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Aconiti Brachypodi Radix, belonging to the genus of Aconitum (Family Ranunculaceae), are used clinically as anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive in traditional medicine of China. However, its mechanism and influence on nociceptive threshold are unknown and need further investigation. The analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Aconiti Brachypodi Radix (EABR) were thus studied in vivo and in vitro. Three pain models in mice were used to assess the effect of EABR on nociceptive threshold. In vitro study was conducted to clarify the modulation of the extract on the tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium currents in rat's dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results showed that EABR (5-20 mg/kg, i.g.) could produce dose-dependent analgesic effect on hot-plate tests as well as writhing response induced by acetic acid. In addition, administration of 2.5-10 mg/kg EABR (i.g.) caused significant decrease in pain responses in the first and second phases of formalin test without altering the PGE₂ production in the hind paw of the mice. Moreover, EABR (10 µg/ml -1 mg/ml) could suppress TTX-S voltage-gated sodium currents in a dose-dependent way, indicating the underlying electrophysiological mechanism of the analgesic effect of the folk plant medicine. Collectively, our results indicated that EABR has analgesic property in three pain models and useful influence on TTX-S sodium currents in DRG neurons, suggesting that the interference with pain messages caused by the modulation of EABR on TTX-S sodium currents in DRG neurones may explain some of its analgesic effect.

  4. Inhibition linearizes firing rate responses in human motor units: implications for the role of persistent inward currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, Ann L; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons are the output neurons of the central nervous system and are responsible for controlling muscle contraction. When initially activated during voluntary contraction, firing rates of motor neurons increase steeply but then level out at modest rates. Activation of an intrinsic source of excitatory current at recruitment onset may underlie the initial steep increase in firing rate in motor neurons. We attempted to disable this intrinsic excitatory current by artificially activating an inhibitory reflex. When motor neuron activity was recorded while the inhibitory reflex was engaged, firing rates no longer increased steeply, suggesting that the intrinsic excitatory current was probably responsible for the initial sharp rise in motor neuron firing rate. During graded isometric contractions, motor unit (MU) firing rates increase steeply upon recruitment but then level off at modest rates even though muscle force continues to increase. The mechanisms underlying such firing behaviour are not known although activation of persistent inward currents (PICs) might be involved. PICs are intrinsic, voltage-dependent currents that activate strongly when motor neurons (MNs) are first recruited. Such activation might cause a sharp escalation in depolarizing current and underlie the steep initial rise in MU firing rate. Because PICs can be disabled with synaptic inhibition, we hypothesized that artificial activation of an inhibitory pathway might curb this initial steep rise in firing rate. To test this, human subjects performed slow triangular ramp contractions of the ankle dorsiflexors in the absence and presence of tonic synaptic inhibition delivered to tibialis anterior (TA) MNs by sural nerve stimulation. Firing rate profiles (expressed as a function of contraction force) of TA MUs recorded during these tasks were compared for control and stimulation conditions. Under control conditions, during the ascending phase of the triangular contractions, 93% of the firing

  5. Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition partially mimics the ethanol-induced increase of the Golgi cell-dependent component of the tonic GABAergic current in rat cerebellar granule cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin R Diaz

    Full Text Available Cerebellar granule cells (CGNs are one of many neurons that express phasic and tonic GABAergic conductances. Although it is well established that Golgi cells (GoCs mediate phasic GABAergic currents in CGNs, their role in mediating tonic currents in CGNs (CGN-I(tonic is controversial. Earlier studies suggested that GoCs mediate a component of CGN-I(tonic that is present only in preparations from immature rodents. However, more recent studies have detected a GoC-dependent component of CGN-I(tonic in preparations of mature rodents. In addition, acute exposure to ethanol was shown to potentiate the GoC component of CGN-I(tonic and to induce a parallel increase in spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current frequency at CGNs. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these effects of ethanol on GABAergic transmission in CGNs are mediated by inhibition of the Na(+/K(+-ATPase. We used whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology techniques in cerebellar slices of male rats (postnatal day 23-30. Under these conditions, we reliably detected a GoC-dependent component of CGN-I(tonic that could be blocked with tetrodotoxin. Further analysis revealed a positive correlation between basal sIPSC frequency and the magnitude of the GoC-dependent component of CGN-I(tonic. Inhibition of the Na(+/K(+-ATPase with a submaximal concentration of ouabain partially mimicked the ethanol-induced potentiation of both phasic and tonic GABAergic currents in CGNs. Modeling studies suggest that selective inhibition of the Na(+/K(+-ATPase in GoCs can, in part, explain these effects of ethanol. These findings establish a novel mechanism of action of ethanol on GABAergic transmission in the central nervous system.

  6. Ethanol extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. attenuated ischemia/reperfusion induced rat neural injury through inhibition of HMGB1 induced inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenggang; Liu, Chen; Wang, Wanyin; Tang, Gusheng; Dong, Liwei; Zhou, Juan; Zhong, Zhengrong

    2016-01-01

    It is well demonstrated that the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mediated inflammation has been implicated as one of the important causes for brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). In the present study, we assessed the neuro-protective and anti-inflammation effects of the ethanol extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. (EEPO) against cerebral I/R injury in the rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model. Rats were administrated with their respective treatment for 7 days before the MCA occlusion. After that, rats were intraperitoneal injection with chloral hydrate and sacrificed by decapitation, then the serum and brain tissue were collected. The neurological deficit score, infarct size and brain edema were tested. The levels of serum cytokine as TNF-α, IL-1β, INF-γ, IL-6, and HMGB1 and LDH were detected. The protein level of tissue or nucleus HMGB1, IκB and p-p65 were tested, too. The results showed that pretreatment with EEPO significantly decreased the neurological deficit score, infarct size and brain edema. Moreover, EEPO decreased rat serum cytokine level and rat right cortices p-p65 and IκB protein level. In conclusion all these results suggested that pretreatment with EEFPO provided significant protection against cerebral I/R injury in rats might by virtue of its anti-inflammation property through inhibition of increase of neuleus HMGB1. PMID:27904702

  7. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  8. Stress Sensitization of Ethanol Withdrawal-Induced Reduction in Social Interaction: Inhibition by CRF-1 and Benzodiazepine Receptor Antagonists and a 5-HT1A-Receptor Agonist

    OpenAIRE

    Breese, George R; Knapp, Darin J; Overstreet, David H

    2004-01-01

    Repeated withdrawals from chronic ethanol sensitize the withdrawal-induced reduction in social interaction behaviors. This study determined whether stress might substitute for repeated withdrawals to facilitate withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior. When two 1-h periods of restraint stress were applied at 1-week intervals to rats fed control diet, social interaction was reduced upon withdrawal from a subsequent 5-day exposure to ethanol diet. Neither this ethanol exposure alone nor exposur...

  9. A crucial role for ethanol-induced oxidative stress in controlling lineage commitment of mesenchymal stromal cells through inhibition of wnt/beta-catenin signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female skeletal responses to ethanol may vary depending on the physiologic status (viz. cycling, pregnancy, lactation). Nonetheless, ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to be the key event leading to skeletal toxicity. In the current study, we chronically infused EtOH-containing liquid diets ...

  10. Deficits in response inhibition in male rats prenatally exposed to vapor condensates made from gasoline containing ethanol at 0% and 15%, but not 85%

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. We previously reported that rats whose mothers inhaled ethanol (21,000 ppm) during pregnancy had increased levels of anticipatory responding on a choice reaction tim...

  11. High ethanol tolerance of the thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producer Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The low ethanol tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, generally less than 2% (v/v) ethanol, is one of the main limiting factors for their potential use for second generation fuel ethanol production. In this work, the tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG 1L1...... to exogenously added ethanol was studied in a continuous immobilized reactor system at a growth temperature of 70 degrees C. Ethanol tolerance was evaluated based on inhibition of fermentative performance e.g.. inhibition of substrate conversion. At the highest ethanol concentration tested (8.3% v/v), the strain...... was able to convert 42% of the xylose initially present, indicating that this ethanol concentration is not the upper limit tolerated by the strain. Long-term strain adaptation to high ethanol concentrations (6 - 8.3%) resulted in an improvement of xylose conversion by 25% at an ethanol concentration of 5...

  12. Enhanced sensitivity to ethanol-induced inhibition of LTP in CA1 pyramidal neurons of socially isolated C57BL/6J mice: role of neurosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eTalani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol (EtOH–induced impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP in the rat hippocampus is prevented by the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride, suggesting that this effect of EtOH is dependent on the increased local release of neurosteroids such as 3α,5α-THP that promote GABA–mediated transmission. Given that social isolation (SI in rodents is associated with altered plasma and brain levels of such neurosteroids as well as with an enhanced neurosteroidogenic action of EtOH, we examined whether the inhibitory effect of EtOH on LTP at CA3-CA1 hippocampal excitatory synapses is altered in C57BL/6J mice subjected to SI for 6 weeks in comparison with group-housed (GH animals. Extracellular recording of fEPSPs as well as patch-clamp analysis were performed in hippocampal slices prepared from both SI and GH mice. Consistent with previous observations, recording of fEPSPs revealed that the extent of LTP induced in the CA1 region of SI mice was significantly reduced compared with that in GH animals. EtOH (40 mM inhibited LTP in slices from SI mice but not in those from GH mice, and this effect of EtOH was abolished by co-application of 1 µM finasteride. Current-clamp analysis of CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed a decrease in action potential frequency and an increase in the intensity of injected current required to evoke the first action potential in SI mice compared with GH mice, indicative of a decrease in neuronal excitability associated with SI. Together, our data suggest that SI results in reduced levels of neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the increased sensitivity to the neurosteroidogenic effect of EtOH associated with SI likely accounts for the greater inhibitory effect of EtOH on LTP in SI mice. The increase in EtOH sensitivity induced by SI may be important for the changes in the effects of EtOH on anxiety and on learning and memory associated with the prolonged stress attributable to social

  13. A hot water extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa) suppresses acute ethanol-induced liver injury in mice by inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchio, Ryusei; Higashi, Yohei; Kohama, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Kengo; Hirao, Takashi; Muroyama, Koutarou; Murosaki, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) is a widely used spice that has various biological effects, and aqueous extracts of turmeric exhibit potent antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Bisacurone, a component of turmeric extract, is known to have similar effects. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines play an important role in ethanol-induced liver injury. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of a hot water extract of C. longa (WEC) or bisacurone on acute ethanol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6 mice were orally administered WEC (20 mg/kg body weight; BW) or bisacurone (60 µg/kg BW) at 30 min before a single dose of ethanol was given by oral administration (3·0 g/kg BW). Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased in ethanol-treated mice, while the increase of these enzymes was significantly suppressed by prior administration of WEC. The increase of alanine aminotransferase was also significantly suppressed by pretreatment with bisacurone. Compared with control mice, animals given WEC had higher hepatic tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, as well as lower hepatic tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TNF-α protein and IL-6 mRNA. These results suggest that oral administration of WEC may have a protective effect against ethanol-induced liver injury by suppressing hepatic oxidation and inflammation, at least partly through the effects of bisacurone.

  14. Characterization of wine yeasts for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Benitez, T.

    1986-11-01

    Selected wine yeasts were tested for their ethanol and sugar tolerance, and for their fermentative capacity. Growth (..mu..) and fermentation rates (..nu..) were increasingly inhibited by increasing ethanol and glucose concentrations, ''flor'' yeasts being the least inhibited. Except in the latter strains, the ethanol production rate was accelerated by adding the glucose stepwise. The best fermenting strains selected in laboratory medium were also the best at fermenting molasses. Invertase activity was not a limiting step in ethanol production, ..nu.. being accelerated by supplementing molasses with ammonia and biotine, and by cell recycle.

  15. Ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis Sims leaves inhibits protein glycation and restores the oxidative burst in diabetic rat macrophages after Candida albicans exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fernandes Ribas Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis leaves on blood glucose, protein glycation, NADPH oxidase activity and macrophage phagocytic capacity after Candida albicans exposure in diabetic rats. The Passiflora edulis Sims leaves were dried to 40°C, powdered, extracted by maceration in 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and lyophilised. The biochemical tests performed were total phenolic content (TP as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, trapping potential DPPH assay and total iron-reducing potential. Diabetes was induced by alloxan injection. Protein glycation was determined by AGE and fructosamine serum concentrations. Extract-treated diabetic animals demonstrated lower fructosamine concentrations compared with the diabetic group. Our results suggest that ethanolic Passiflora edulis Sims leaf extraction may have beneficial effects on diabetes and may improve glycaemic control in diabetic rats.

  16. Dendrobium chrysanthum ethanolic extract induces apoptosis via p53 up-regulation in HeLa cells and inhibits tumor progression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ritika; Rana, Nishant Kumar; Koch, Biplob

    2017-06-01

    Background Dendrobium is one of the diverse genus of orchid plants. It possesses a number of pharmacological activities and has long been used in traditional system of medicine. The goal of this study was to investigate the apoptosis inducing property of the ethanolic extract from the leaves of Dendrobium chrysanthum, a species of Dendrobium whose anticancer role has not been ascertained yet. Methods To evaluate the anticancer activity of the ethanolic extract of D. chrysanthum in vitro in HeLa (human cervical cancer) cells, cytotoxic activity, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction of apoptosis and effect on cell cycle were determined. The in vivo study was carried out in Dalton's lymphoma (DL) bearing mice to assess the tumor growth delay. Results Our study demonstrated that the ethanolic extract showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity against HeLa cells. The extract exhibited dose-dependent increase in ROS production as well as apoptotic cell death which was further confirmed through presence of DNA fragmentation. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry suggests that the ethanolic extract perturbed cell cycle progression and leads to the delay of the cells in S phase. Further, the real-time PCR studies also showed up-regulation of apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. The in vivo antitumor activity exhibited significant increase in the life span of DL bearing mice as compared to control with significant decrease in abdominal size along with reduced tumor ascites. Conclusions These observations demonstrate the anticancer potential of the D. chrysanthum ethanolic extract mediated through p53-dependent apoptosis.

  17. The corrosion inhibition of aluminum and its copper alloys in 1.0 M H2SO4 solution using linear-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Rehim, Sayed S.; Amin, Mohammed A.; Moussa, S.O.; Ellithy, Abdallah S.

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of Al and its two copper alloys are the subject of tremendous technological importance due to the increased industrial applications of these materials. This paper reports the results of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements on the corrosion inhibition of Al (Al-2.5% Cu and Al-7.0% Cu) alloys in 1.0 M H 2 SO 4 solution carried out in different concentrations of linear-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as an anionic surfactant (LAS) and temperature range from 10 to 60 deg. C. The data revealed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing surfactant concentration and time of immersion, and decreases with solution temperature. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) observations of the electrode surface confirmed the existence of LAS adsorbed film on the electrode surface. The surfactant acted mainly as cathodic inhibitor. Maximum inhibition efficiency of the surfactant is observed at concentration around its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The inhibition occurs through adsorption of the surfactant on the metal surface without modifying the mechanism of the corrosion process, which tested by UV-spectroscopy. The potential of zero charge (PZC) of aluminum and Al-7.0% Cu was studied by ac-impedance, and the mechanism of adsorption is discussed. The adsorption isotherm is described by Temkin adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic functions for activation and adsorption process were determined

  18. Citrus tachibana Leaves Ethanol Extract Alleviates Airway Inflammation by the Modulation of Th1/Th2 Imbalance via Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling and Histamine Secretion in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Tho; Piao, Chun Hua; Kim, Soo Mi; Song, Chang Ho; Shin, Hee Soon; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Chai, Ok Hee

    2017-07-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of bronchial airway, which is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway edema, goblet cell hyperplasia, the aberrant production of the Th2 cytokines, and eosinophil infiltration in the lungs. In this study, the therapeutic effect and the underlying mechanism of Citrus tachibana leaves ethanol extract (CTLE) in the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and compound 48/80-induced anaphylaxis were investigated. Oral administration of CTLE inhibited OVA-induced asthmatic response by reducing airway inflammation, OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels, and increasing OVA-specific IgG2a levels. CTLE restored Th1/Th2 balance through an increase in Th2 cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-6 and decreases in Th1 cytokines interferon-γ and IL-12. Furthermore, CTLE inhibited the total level of NF-κB and the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB by OVA. In addition, CTLE dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced anaphylaxis via blocking histamine secretion from mast cells. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of CTLE may involve the modulation of Th1/Th2 imbalance via inhibiting the NF-κB signaling and histamine secretion. Taken together, we suggest that CTLE could be used as a therapeutic agent for patients with Th2-mediated or histamine-mediated allergic asthma.

  19. Ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, and ameliorates diabetes related biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2015-12-01

    Peel is a major by-product during processing of mango fruit into pulp. Recent report indicates that the whole peel powder ameliorated diabetes. In the present study, ethanolic extract of mango peel was analysed for its bioactive compounds, evaluated for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties, oral glucose tolerance test, antioxidant properties, plasma insulin level and biochemical parameters related to diabetes. In addition to gallic and protocatechuic acids, the extract also had chlorogenic and ferulic acids, which were not reported earlier in mango peel extracts. The peel extract inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, with IC50 values of 4.0 and 3.5 μg/ml. Ethanolic extract of peel showed better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with the extract decreased fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin levels, and increased plasma insulin level. Peel extract treatment decreased malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes significantly in liver and kidney compared to diabetic rats. These beneficial effects were comparable to metformin, but better than gallic acid treated diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of peel extract may be through different mechanism like increased plasma insulin levels, decreased oxidative stress and inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activities by its bioactive compounds. Thus, results suggest that the peel extract can be a potential source of nutraceutical or can be used in functional foods and this is the first report on antidiabetic properties of mango peel extract.

  20. Ethanol dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Uyazán; Iván Dario Gil; J L Aguilar; Gerardo Rodríguez Niño; Luis Alfonso Caicedo

    2004-01-01

    This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the op...

  1. Ethanol dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the operational, energy consumption and industrial services points of view.

  2. Cellular and molecular insight into the inhibition of primary root growth of Arabidopsis induced by peptaibols, a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Ling; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wang, Li-Xia; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Shuyu; Li, Chun-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Mei; Li, Chuanyou; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well known biocontrol agents that produce a variety of antibiotics. Peptaibols are a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma Alamethicin, the most studied peptaibol, is reported as toxic to plants at certain concentrations, while the mechanisms involved are unclear. We illustrated the toxic mechanisms of peptaibols by studying the growth-inhibitory effect of Trichokonin VI (TK VI), a peptaibol from Trichoderma longibrachiatum SMF2, on Arabidopsis primary roots. TK VI inhibited root growth by suppressing cell division and cell elongation, and disrupting root stem cell niche maintenance. TK VI increased auxin content and disrupted auxin response gradients in root tips. Further, we screened the Arabidopsis TK VI-resistant mutant tkr1. tkr1 harbors a point mutation in GORK, which encodes gated outwardly rectifying K(+)channel proteins. This mutation alleviated TK VI-induced suppression of K(+)efflux in roots, thereby stabilizing the auxin gradient. The tkr1 mutant also resisted the phytotoxicity of alamethicin. Our results indicate that GORK channels play a key role in peptaibol-plant interaction and that there is an inter-relationship between GORK channels and maintenance of auxin homeostasis. The cellular and molecular insight into the peptaibol-induced inhibition of plant root growth advances our understanding of Trichoderma-plant interactions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Ganoderma lucidum ethanol extract inhibits the inflammatory response by suppressing the NF-κB and toll-like receptor pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun-Min; Jang, Kyung-Jun; Han, Min Seok; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gi Young; Lee, Jai-Heon; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional Oriental medicine that has been widely used as a tonic to promote longevity and health in Korea and other Asian countries. Although a great deal of work has been carried out on the therapeutic potential of this mushroom, the pharmacological mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory actions remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of G. lucidum ethanol extract (EGL) on the production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV2 microglia. We also investigated the effects of EGL on the LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and pro-inflammatory cytokine production were detected in BV2 microglia following LPS stimulation. We identifed that EGL significantly inhibits the excessive production of NO, PGE(2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in a concentration-dependent manner without causing cytotoxicity. In addition, EGL suppressed NF-κB translocation and transcriptional activity by blocking IκB degradation and inhibiting TLR4 and MyD88 expression in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Our results indicate that the inhibitory effects of EGL on LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in BV2 microglia are associated with the suppression of the NF-κB and TLR signaling pathways. Therefore, EGL may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by inhibiting inflammatory mediator responses in activated microglia.

  4. Oral Conditioned Cues Can Enhance or Inhibit Ethanol (EtOH)-Seeking and EtOH-Relapse Drinking by Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Christopher P; Hauser, Sheketha R; Deehan, Gerald A; Toalston, Jamie E; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2016-04-01

    Conditioned cues can elicit drug-seeking in both humans and rodents. The majority of preclinical research has employed excitatory conditioned cues (stimuli present throughout the availability of a reinforcer), but oral consumption of alcohol is similar to a conditional stimuli (presence of stimuli is paired with the delivery of the reinforcer) approach. The current experiments attempted to determine the effects of conditional stimuli (both excitatory and inhibitory) on the expression of context-induced ethanol (EtOH)-seeking. Alcohol-preferring (P) rats self-administered EtOH and water in standard 2-lever operant chambers. A flavor was added to the EtOH solution (CS+) during the EtOH self-administration sessions. After 10 weeks, rats underwent extinction training (7 sessions), followed by a 2-week home cage period. Another flavor was present during extinction (CS-). Rats were exposed to a third flavor in a non-drug-paired environment (CS(0)). EtOH-seeking was assessed in the presence of no cue, CS+, CS-, or CS(0) in the dipper previously associated with EtOH self-administration (no EtOH available). Rats were maintained a week in their home cage before being returned to the operant chambers with access to EtOH (flavored with no cue, CS+, CS-, or CS(0)). The results indicated that the presence of the CS+ enhanced EtOH-seeking, while the presence of the CS- suppressed EtOH-seeking. Similarly, adding the CS- flavor to 15% EtOH reduced responding for EtOH while the CS+ enhanced responding for EtOH during relapse testing. Overall, the data indicate that conditional stimuli are effective at altering both EtOH-seeking behavior and EtOH-relapse drinking. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Cellulosic ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Bruun, Sander; Jørgensen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield) from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.......5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw) and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could...... be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher...

  6. Studies of linear Gramicidin synthesis in Bacillus brevis ATCC 8185

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kou; Kagawa, Kenichi

    1976-01-01

    Bacillus brevis ATCC 8185 was grown in polypepton and Ehrlich's meat extract medium, and this strain produced two kinds of peptide antibiotics, Tyrocidine and linear Gramicidin. A simple chromatographic method was developed for the isolation of linear Gramicidin from mixture Tyrothricin, applied on the column. Trimethoprim, an inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, inhibits the synthesis of both peptides in the growing culture with slight inhibition to cell growth. Serine- 14 C is incorporated in the Gramicidin, and recovered as ethanol amine and glycine by the hydrolysis of 14 C-labeled Gramicidin, but deoxypyridoxine-HCl, B 6 antagonist, has no effect on the production of antibiotics in the culture. Linear Gramicidin gives two spots on the thin layer chromatogram (TLC) developed by ethyl acetate-pyridine-water system of 16:4:2, and by chloroform-methanol-water system of 17:3:0.3. The incorporations of constitutive 14 C-labeled amino acids, ethanol amine, and sodium formate into linear Gramicidin were studied by growing cells. These labeled specimens were identified to correspond to authentic specimens which migrated on TLC. Cells were hydrolysed with Lysozyme, and the crude extract was prepared between 0.33 and 0.45 saturation of ammonium sulfate. It activated constituent amino acids including D-leucine by ATP- 32 PPi exchange reaction, but hardly activated L-serine, D-valine, and formyl L-valine. (Kobatake, H.)

  7. Ethanol disrupts chondrification of the neurocranial cartilages in medaka embryos without affecting aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A2 (Aldh1A2) promoter methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuhui; Willett, Kristine L.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Scheffler, Brian E.; Dasmahapatra, Asok K.

    2009-01-01

    Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos at different developmental stages were exposed to ethanol for 48 h, then allowed to hatch. Teratogenic effects were evaluated in hatchlings after examining chondrocranial cartilage deformities. Ethanol disrupted cartilage development in medaka in a dose and developmental stage-specific manner. Compared to controls, the linear length of the neurocranium and other cartilages were reduced in ethanol-treated groups. Moreover, the chondrification in cartilages, specifically trabeculae and polar cartilages, were inhibited by ethanol. To understand the mechanism of ethanol teratogenesis, NAD+: NADH status during embryogenesis and the methylation pattern of Aldh1A2 promoter in whole embryos and adult tissues (brain, eye, heart and liver) were analyzed. Embryos 6 dpf had higher NAD+ than embryos 0 or 2 dpf. Ethanol (200 or 400 mM) was able to reduce NAD+ content in 2 and 6 dpf embryos. However, in both cases reductions were not significantly different from the controls. Moreover, no significant difference in either NADH content or in NAD+: NADH status of the ethanol-treated embryos, with regard to controls, was observed. The promoter of Aldh1A2 contains 31 CpG dinucleotides (-705 to +154, ATG = +1); none of which were methylated. Compared to controls, embryonic ethanol exposure (100 and 400 mM) was unable to alter Aldh1A2 promoter methylation in embryos or in the tissues of adults (breeding) developmentally exposed to ethanol (300 mM, 48 hpf). From these data we conclude that ethanol teratogenesis in medaka does not induce alteration in the methylation pattern of Aldh1A2 promoter, but does change cartilage development. PMID:19651241

  8. Korean red ginseng and its primary ginsenosides inhibit ethanol-induced oxidative injury by suppression of the MAPK pathway in TIB-73 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Min; Kim, Shang-Jin; Mun, A-Reum; Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Kim, Gi-Beum; Kim, Sung-Zoo; Jang, Seon-Il; Lee, Sei-Jin; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2012-06-14

    Panax ginseng (P. ginseng) is one of the most widely used medicinal plants due to its wide spectrum of medicinal effects. Among the currently available Panax ginseng products, Korea red ginseng (KRG) has been shown to exhibit a variety of antioxidative and hepatoprotective action. Our aim was to investigate the effects of KRG and its primary ginsenosides (Rg3 and Rh2) on EtOH-induced injury to mouse hepatocytes (TIB-73). We investigated the effects of KRG and its primary ginsenoside on EtOH-induced injury to TIB-73 cells and evaluated MAPKs signals as a possible mechanism of action. Hepatocytic injury was evaluated by biochemical assays as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ROS and mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) level in TIB-73 cells. The levels of MAPK activation were analyzed by Western blots. The results showed that exposure of EtOH to TIB-73 cells led to cell death and membrane damage, accompanied by a decrease in cell viability, MMP, and Mg(2+) concentrations, but an increase in LDH, AST, ROS and MAPK activation. KRG and its primary ginsenosides reduced EtOH-induced generation of ROS and the activation of ERK and JNK, and increased Mg(2+) concentrations. These results suggest that KRG and its primary ginsenosides inhibit EtOH-induced oxidative injury by suppression of the MAPK pathway in TIB-73 cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  10. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  11. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Yang Xianlin; Yao Weiguo; Lee Weihua

    2006-01-01

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3β, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3β (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3β inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits

  12. Optimization of the octane response of gasoline/ethanol blends

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2017-07-04

    The octane responses of gasoline/ethanol mixtures are not well understood because of the unidentified intermolecular interactions in such blends. In general, when ethanol is blended with gasoline, the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON) non-linearly increase or decrease, and the non-linearity is determined by the composition of the base gasoline and the amount of added ethanol. The complexity of commercial gasolines, comprising of hundreds of different components, makes it challenging to understand ethanol-gasoline synergistic/antagonistic blending effects. Understanding ethanol blending effects with simpler gasoline surrogates is critical to acquire knowledge about ethanol blending with complex multi-component gasoline fuels. In this study, the octane numbers (ON) of ethanol blends with five relevant gasoline surrogate molecules were measured. The molecules investigated in this study include: n-pentane, iso-pentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, cyclopentane and 1-hexene. These new measurements along with the available data of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, various primary reference fuels (PRF) and toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF) with ethanol are used to develop a blending rule for the octane response (RON and MON) of multi-component blends with ethanol. In addition, new ON data are collected for six Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine (FACE) with ethanol. The relatively simple volume based model successfully predicts the octane numbers (ON) of the various ethanol/PRF and ethanol/TPRF blends with the majority of predictions being within the ASTM D2699 (RON) and D2700 (MON) reproducibility limits. The model is also successfully validated against the ON of the FACE gasolines blended with ethanol with the majority of predictions being within the reproducibility limits. Finally, insights into the possible causes of the synergistic and antagonistic effects of different molecules with ethanol are provided.

  13. Optimization of the octane response of gasoline/ethanol blends

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; AlRamadan, Abdullah S.; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    The octane responses of gasoline/ethanol mixtures are not well understood because of the unidentified intermolecular interactions in such blends. In general, when ethanol is blended with gasoline, the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON) non-linearly increase or decrease, and the non-linearity is determined by the composition of the base gasoline and the amount of added ethanol. The complexity of commercial gasolines, comprising of hundreds of different components, makes it challenging to understand ethanol-gasoline synergistic/antagonistic blending effects. Understanding ethanol blending effects with simpler gasoline surrogates is critical to acquire knowledge about ethanol blending with complex multi-component gasoline fuels. In this study, the octane numbers (ON) of ethanol blends with five relevant gasoline surrogate molecules were measured. The molecules investigated in this study include: n-pentane, iso-pentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, cyclopentane and 1-hexene. These new measurements along with the available data of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, various primary reference fuels (PRF) and toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF) with ethanol are used to develop a blending rule for the octane response (RON and MON) of multi-component blends with ethanol. In addition, new ON data are collected for six Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine (FACE) with ethanol. The relatively simple volume based model successfully predicts the octane numbers (ON) of the various ethanol/PRF and ethanol/TPRF blends with the majority of predictions being within the ASTM D2699 (RON) and D2700 (MON) reproducibility limits. The model is also successfully validated against the ON of the FACE gasolines blended with ethanol with the majority of predictions being within the reproducibility limits. Finally, insights into the possible causes of the synergistic and antagonistic effects of different molecules with ethanol are provided.

  14. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  15. Recurring ethanol exposure induces disinhibited courtship in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Gwan Lee

    Full Text Available Alcohol has a strong causal relationship with sexual arousal and disinhibited sexual behavior in humans; however, the physiological support for this notion is largely lacking and thus a suitable animal model to address this issue is instrumental. We investigated the effect of ethanol on sexual behavior in Drosophila. Wild-type males typically court females but not males; however, upon daily administration of ethanol, they exhibited active intermale courtship, which represents a novel type of behavioral disinhibition. The ethanol-treated males also developed behavioral sensitization, a form of plasticity associated with addiction, since their intermale courtship activity was progressively increased with additional ethanol experience. We identified three components crucial for the ethanol-induced courtship disinhibition: the transcription factor regulating male sex behavior Fruitless, the ABC guanine/tryptophan transporter White and the neuromodulator dopamine. fruitless mutant males normally display conspicuous intermale courtship; however, their courtship activity was not enhanced under ethanol. Likewise, white males showed negligible ethanol-induced intermale courtship, which was not only reinstated but also augmented by transgenic White expression. Moreover, inhibition of dopamine neurotransmission during ethanol exposure dramatically decreased ethanol-induced intermale courtship. Chronic ethanol exposure also affected a male's sexual behavior toward females: it enhanced sexual arousal but reduced sexual performance. These findings provide novel insights into the physiological effects of ethanol on sexual behavior and behavioral plasticity.

  16. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence: effects on social behavior and ethanol sensitivity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric; Spear, Linda P

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed long-lasting consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during two different periods of adolescence on 1) baseline levels of social investigation, play fighting, and social preference and 2) sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol challenge. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were tested 25 days after repeated exposure to ethanol (3.5 g/kg intragastrically [i.g.], every other day for a total of 11 exposures) in a modified social interaction test. Early-mid adolescent intermittent exposure (e-AIE) occurred between postnatal days (P) 25 and 45, whereas late adolescent intermittent exposure (l-AIE) was conducted between P45 and P65. Significant decreases in social investigation and social preference were evident in adult male rats, but not their female counterparts following e-AIE, whereas neither males nor females demonstrated these alterations following l-AIE. In contrast, both e-AIE and l-AIE produced alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge in males tested 25 days after adolescent exposure. Ethanol-induced facilitation of social investigation and play fighting, reminiscent of that normally seen during adolescence, was evident in adult males after e-AIE, whereas control males showed an age-typical inhibition of social behavior. Males after l-AIE were found to be insensitive to the socially suppressing effects of acute ethanol challenge, suggesting the development of chronic tolerance in these animals. In contrast, females showed little evidence for alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge following either early or late AIE. The results of the present study demonstrate a particular vulnerability of young adolescent males to long-lasting detrimental effects of repeated ethanol. Retention of adolescent-typical sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol could potentially make ethanol especially appealing to these males, therefore promoting relatively high levels of ethanol intake later

  17. Nanocrystalline Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films: A selective ethanol gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R.V.; Bhagwat, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Pd:NiFe 2 O 4 thin films were investigated for the detection of reducing gases. These films were fabricated using spray pyrolysis technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the crystal structure. The surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetization measurements were carried out using SQUID VSM, which shows ferrimagnetic behavior of the samples. These thin film sensors were tested against methanol, ethanol, hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas, where they were found to be more selective to ethanol. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited linear response signal for all the gases with concentrations up to 5 w/o Pd. Reduction in optimum operating temperature and enhancement in response was also observed. Pd:NiFe 2 O 4 thin films exhibited faster response and recovery characteristic. These sensors have potential for industrial applications because of their long-term stability, low power requirement and low production cost. - Highlights: • Ethanol gas sensors based on Pd:NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticle thin film were fabricated. • Pd incorporation in NiFe 2 O 4 matrix inhibits grain growth. • The sensors were more selective to ethanol gas. • Sensors exhibited fast response and recovery when doped with palladium. • Pd:NiFe 2 O 4 thin film sensor displays excellent long–term stability.

  18. Ethanol production using nuclear petite yeast mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, A.; Oliver, S.G. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Two respiratory-deficient nuclear petites, FY23{Delta}pet191 and FY23{Delta}cox5a, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were generated using polymerase-chain-reaction-mediated gene disruption, and their respective ethanol tolerance and productivity assessed and compared to those of the parental grande, FY23WT, and a mitochondrial petite, FY23{rho}{sup 0}. Batch culture studies demonstrated that the parental strain was the most tolerant to exogenously added ethanol with an inhibition constant. K{sub i}, of 2.3% (w/v) and a specific rate of ethanol production, q{sub p}, of 0.90 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. FY23{rho}{sup 0} was the most sensitive to ethanol, exhibiting a K{sub i} of 1.71% (w/v) and q{sub p} of 0.87 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Analyses of the ethanol tolerance of the nuclear petites demonstrate that functional mitochondria are essential for maintaining tolerance to the toxin with the 100% respiratory-deficient nuclear petite, FY23{Delta}pet191, having a K{sub i} of 2.14% (w/v) and the 85% respiratory-deficient FY23{Delta}cox5a, having a K{sub i} of 1.94% (w/v). The retention of ethanol tolerance in the nuclear petites as compared to that of FY23{rho}{sup 0} is mirrored by the ethanol productivities of these nuclear mutants, being respectively 43% and 30% higher than that of the respiratory-sufficient parent strain. This demonstrates that, because of their respiratory deficiency, the nuclear petites are not subject of the Pasteur effect and so exhibit higher rates of fermentation. (orig.)

  19. Responsive gelation of hydrophobized linear polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Greve; Toeth, Joachim; Jørgensen, Lene

    In this study we present the rheological properties of a physically linked polymer network, composed of linear hydrophilic chains, modified with hydrophobic moieties in each end. Solutions of the polymer in ethanol-water mixtures showed Newtonian behaviour up to about 99 % ethanol, with the highest...

  20. Wood blocks as a carrier for Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells used in the production of fructose and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenette, Maryse

    1993-10-01

    The selective conversion of glucose to a product more easily separated from fructose would reduce the fructose separation problem and reduce costs of fructose purification. The production of a valuable byproduct would make the process even more profitable. Accordingly, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 39859 was immobilized onto small cubes of wood in order to produce highly enriched fructose syrup from synthetic glucose/fructose mixtures, through the selective fermentation of glucose. The kinetics of growth and byproduct ethanol production rates were measured. Tests were conducted to assess the influence of substrate and product concentration on production rates, and appropriate rate equations were proposed as a design basis for continuous immobilized reactors. The growth and ethanol production rates were found to be inhibited linearly by both substrate and product concentrations. A maximum ethanol productivity of 21.9 g/l/h was attained from a feed containing 10 wt % glucose and 10 wt % fructose. The ethanol concentration was 29.6 g/l, glucose conversion was 78%, and fructose yield was 99%, resulting in a fructose to glucose ratio of 2.7. At lower ethanol productivity levels, the fructose/glucose ratio increases, as does the ethanol concentration in the effluent. Addition of oleic acid, a known anaerobic growth factor, increased the productivity by 13%. Ethanol productivity peaked at 32.6[degree]C and approached 0 near 44[degree]C. Batch fermentation productivity was not high due to low biomass concentration leaving the reactor. Addition of yeast extract or active biomass increased productivity substantially. The immobilized cell bioreactor was also used to produce sorbitol continuously from fructose. 124 refs., 28 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynd, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

  2. Power-law approach to modeling biological systems. II. Application to ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voit, E O; Savageau, M A

    1982-01-01

    The use of the power-law formalism is illustrated by modeling yeast ethanol production in batch culture at high cell densities. Parameter values are estimated from experimental data. The results suggest that ethanol killing of viable cells and lysis of nonviable cells are major determinants of system behavior, whereas catabolism of ethanol and inhibition of cell growth by ethanol appear to be insignificant under these experimental conditions.

  3. Direct ethanol conversion of pretreated straw by Fusarium oxysporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakopoulos, P.; Koullas, D.P.; Kekos, D.; Koukios, E.G.; Macris, B.J. (National Technical Univ., Athens (GR). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Factors affecting the direct conversion of alkali pretreated straw to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum F3 were investigated and the alkali level used for pretreatment and the degree of delignification of straw were found to be the most important. A linear correlation between ethanol yield and both the degree of straw delignification and the alkali level was observed. At optimum delignified straw concentration (4% w/v), a maximum ethanol yield of 0.275 g ethanol g{sup -1} of straw was obtained corresponding to 67.8% of the theoretical yield. (author).

  4. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G.; Cuna, D.

    2001-01-01

    In this report are presented results achieved on the process optimisation of bioethanol production from wheat straw, carried out within the ENEA's project of biomass exploitation for renewable energy. The process consists of three main steps: 1) biomass pretreatment by means of steam explosion; 2) enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction; 3) fermentation of glucose. To perform the hydrolysis step, two commercial enzymatic mixtures have been employed, mainly composed by β-glucosidase (cellobiase), endo-glucanase and exo-glucanase. The ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to ferment the glucose in he hydrolyzates. Hydrolysis yield of 97% has been obtained with steam exploded wheat straw treated at 220 0 C for 3 minutes and an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4%. It has been pointed out the necessity of washing with water the pretreated what straw, in order to remove the biomass degradation products, which have shown an inhibition effect on the yeast. At the best process conditions, a fermentation yield of 95% has been achieved. In the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, a global conversion of 92% has been obtained, which corresponds to the production of about 170 grams of ethanol per kilogram of exploded straw [it

  5. Enhancing Ethanol Production by Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cereviseae under Vacuum Condition in Batch Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abdullah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is one of renewable energy, which considered being an excellent alternativeclean-burning fuel to replaced gasoline. In fact, the application of ethanol as fuel still blended withgasoline. The advantages of using ethanol as fuel are that the raw material mostly from renewableresources and the product has low emission which means environmental friendly. Ethanol can beproduced by fermentation of sugars (glucose/fructose. The constraint in the ethanol fermentationbatch or continuous process is the ethanol product inhibition. Inhibition in ethanol productivityand cell growth can be overcome by taking the product continuously from the fermentor. Theprocess can be done by using a vacuum fermentation. The objective of this research is toinvestigate the effect of pressure and glucose concentration in ethanol fermentation. The researchwas conducted in laboratory scale and batch process. Equipment consists of fermentor withvacuum system. The observed responses were dried cells of yeast, concentration of glucose, andconcentration of ethanol. Observations were made every 4 hours during a day of experiment. Theresults show that the formation of ethanol has a growth-associated product characteristic undervacuum operation. Vacuum condition can increase the cell formation productivity and the ethanolformation, as it is compared with fermentation under atmospheric condition. The maximum cellsproductivity and ethanol formation in batch operation under vacuum condition was reached at166.6 mmHg of pressure. The maximum numbers of cells and ethanol formation was reached at141.2 mm Hg of pressure. High initial glucose concentration significantly can affect the productivityand the yield of ethanol.

  6. Ethanol Transportation Backgrounder

    OpenAIRE

    Denicoff, Marina R.

    2007-01-01

    For the first 6 months of 2007, U.S. ethanol production totaled nearly 3 billion gallons—32 percent higher than the same period last year. As of August 29, there were 128 ethanol plants with annual production capacity totaling 6.78 billion gallons, and an additional 85 plants were under construction. U.S. ethanol production capacity is expanding rapidly and is currently expected to exceed 13 billion gallons per year by early 2009, if not sooner. Ethanol demand has increased corn prices and le...

  7. Direct conversion of straw to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum: effect of cellulose crystallinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakopoulos, P.; Koullas, D.P.; Kekos, D.; Koukios, E.G.; Macris, B.J. (Ethnikon Metsovion Polytechneion, Athens (Greece))

    1991-03-01

    Wheat straw was successfully fermented to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum F3 in a one-step process. Cellulose crystallinity was found to be a major factor in the bioconversion process. Ethanol yields increased linearly with decreasing crystallinity index. Approximately 80% of straw carbohydrates were converted directly to ethanol with a yield of 0.28 g ethanol/g{sup -1} of straw when the crystallinity index was reduced to 23.6%. (author).

  8. Mutation of the inhibitory ethanol site in GABAA ρ1 receptors promotes tolerance to ethanol-induced motor incoordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Yuri A; Borghese, Cecilia M; Ruiz, Carlos I; Cullins, Madeline A; Da Costa, Adriana; Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth A; Homanics, Gregg E; Harris, R Adron

    2017-09-01

    Genes encoding the ρ1/2 subunits of GABA A receptors have been associated with alcohol (ethanol) dependence in humans, and ρ1 was also shown to regulate some of the behavioral effects of ethanol in animal models. Ethanol inhibits GABA-mediated responses in wild-type (WT) ρ1, but not ρ1(T6'Y) mutant receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, indicating the presence of an inhibitory site for ethanol in the second transmembrane helix. In this study, we found that ρ1(T6'Y) receptors expressed in oocytes display overall normal responses to GABA, the endogenous GABA modulator (zinc), and partial agonists (β-alanine and taurine). We generated ρ1 (T6'Y) knockin (KI) mice using CRISPR/Cas9 to test the behavioral importance of the inhibitory actions of ethanol on this receptor. Both ρ1 KI and knockout (KO) mice showed faster recovery from acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination compared to WT mice. Both KI and KO mutant strains also showed increased tolerance to motor impairment produced by ethanol. The KI mice did not differ from WT mice in other behavioral actions, including ethanol intake and preference, conditioned taste aversion to ethanol, and duration of ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex. WT and KI mice did not differ in levels of ρ1 or ρ2 mRNA in cerebellum or in ethanol clearance. Our findings indicate that the inhibitory site for ethanol in GABA A ρ1 receptors regulates acute functional tolerance to moderate ethanol intoxication. We note that low sensitivity to alcohol intoxication has been linked to risk for development of alcohol dependence in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  10. Antifungal activity of Piper aduncum and Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract against Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, Utami Sri; Ummah, Yunita Putri Irsadul; Khasanah, Henny Nurul

    2017-05-01

    This research was done to 1) examine the effect of Piper aduncum leaf ethanol extract at certain concentrations against Candida albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 2) examine the effect of Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract at certain concentrations toward Candida albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; and 3) determine the most effective concentration of P. aduncum and P. pellucida leaves ethanol extract against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro. These plant extracts were prepared by the maceration technique using 95% ethanol, and then sterile filtered and evaporated to obtain the filtrate. The filtrate was diluted with sterile distilled water at certain concentrations, i.e.: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 405, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%. The antifungal effect of each leaf extract concentration was examined by the agar diffusion method on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. The research results are: 1) the P.aduncum leaf ethanol extract at some concentrations has an effect against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 2) the P.pellucida leaf ethanol extract at some concentrations has an effect against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 3) the P. aduncum leaf ethanol extract at 80% is the most effective for C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; and 4) the P. pellucida leaf ethanol extract at 70% is the most effective for C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro.

  11. Utilization of exogenous ethanol by pea seedlings in an oxygen-free environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, B.F.; Zemlyanukhin, A.A.; Salam, A.M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigated the metabolism of exogenous [2- 14 C]-ethanol in pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.) exposed to different gaseous media, viz.,air, helium, or CO 2 . The 14 C label from ethanol most actively entered amino acids (glutamic and aspartic acids, alanine, glycine, and serine) and organic acids (citrate, malate, succinate, and malonate). Conversion of ethanol to organic acids and separate amino acids (gamma-aminobutyric acid and valine) was intensified under conditions of oxygen stress. A high concentration of CO 2 stimulated transformations of ethanol into these two amino acids, but sharply inhibited overall entry of the label from exogenous ethanol into metabolites of the seedlings. Lengthening the time of exposure lowered this inhibition. Exogenous ethanol did not take part in stress accumulation of alanine in seedlings deprived of oxygen. It is concluded that ethanol participates actively in the metabolic response of pea plants to oxygen stress, and that CO 2 exerts strong modifying action on this response

  12. Canadian ethanol retailers' directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This listing is a directory of all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listing includes the name and address of the retailer. Bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels are also included, but in a separate listing

  13. Canada's ethanol retail directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A directory was published listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer. A list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels is also included

  14. Acute effects of ethanol and acetate on glucose kinetics in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yki-Jaervinen, H.; Koivisto, V.A.; Ylikahri, R.; Taskinen, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors compared the effects of two ethanol doses on glucose kinetics and assessed the role of acetate as a mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance. Ten normal males were studied on four occasions, during which either a low or moderate ethanol, acetate, or saline dose was administered. Both ethanol doses similarly inhibited basal glucose production. The decrease in R a was matched by a comparable decrease in glucose utilization (R d ), resulting in maintenance of normoglycemia. During hyperinsulinemia glucose disposal was lower in the moderate than the low-dose ethanol or saline studies. During acetate infusion, the blood acetate level was comparable with those in the ethanol studies. Acetate had no effect on glucose kinetics. In conclusion, (1) in overnight fasted subjects, ethanol does not cause hypoglycemia because its inhibitory effect on R a is counterbalanced by equal inhibition of R d ; (2) basal R a and R d are maximally inhibited already by small ethanol doses, whereas inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal requires a moderate ethanol dose; and (3) acetate is not the mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance

  15. Biological caproate production by Clostridium kluyveri from ethanol and acetate as carbon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Yanan; Zhang, Yifeng; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2017-01-01

    Caproate is a valuable industrial product and chemical precursor. In this study, batch tests were conducted to investigate the fermentative caproate production through chain elongation from acetate and ethanol. The effect of acetate/ethanol ratio and initial ethanol concentration on caproate...... production was examined. When substrate concentration was controlled at 100 mM total carbon, hydrogen was used as an additional electron donor. The highest caproate concentration of 3.11 g/L was obtained at an ethanol/acetate ratio of 7:3. No additional electron donor was needed upon an ethanol/acetate ratio...... ≥7:3. Caproate production increased with the increase of carbon source until ethanol concentration over 700 mM, which inhibited the fermentation process. The highest caproate concentration of 8.42 g/L was achieved from high ethanol strength wastewater with an ethanol/acetate ratio of 10:1 (550 m...

  16. Opioid system of the brain and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogichadze, M; Mgaloblishvili-Nemsadze, M; Oniani, N; Emukhvary, N; Basishvili, T

    2009-04-01

    Influence of blocking of opioid receptors with concomitant intraperitoneal injections of Naloxone (20 mg/kg) (non-selective antagonist of opioid system) on the outcomes of anesthetic dose of ethanol (4,25 ml /kg 25% solution) was investigated in the rats. The sleep-wakefulness cycle (SWC) was used as a model for identification of the effects. Alterations of the SWC structure adequately reflect the neuro-chemical changes, which may develop during pharmacological and non-pharmacological impact. Administration of anesthetic dose of ethanol evoked considerable modification of spontaneous EEG activity of the neocortex. The EEG activity was depressed and full inhibition of spinal reflexes and somatic muscular relaxation did occur. During EEG depression regular SWC did not develop. All phases of SWC were reduced. The disturbances of SWC, such as decrease of slow wave sleep and paradoxical sleep duration and increase of wakefulness, remained for several days. At concomitant administration of Naloxone and ethanol, duration of EEG depression decreased significantly. Generation of normal SWC was observed on the same experimental day. However, it should be noted that complete abolishment of ethanol effects by Naloxone was not observed. The results obtained suggest that Naloxone partially blocks ethanol depressogenic effects and duration of this effect is mediated by GABA-ergic system of the brain.

  17. Nanocrystalline Pd:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films: A selective ethanol gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R.V.; Bhagwat, Sunita, E-mail: smb.agc@gmail.com

    2016-10-15

    In this work, Pd:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were investigated for the detection of reducing gases. These films were fabricated using spray pyrolysis technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the crystal structure. The surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetization measurements were carried out using SQUID VSM, which shows ferrimagnetic behavior of the samples. These thin film sensors were tested against methanol, ethanol, hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas, where they were found to be more selective to ethanol. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited linear response signal for all the gases with concentrations up to 5 w/o Pd. Reduction in optimum operating temperature and enhancement in response was also observed. Pd:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films exhibited faster response and recovery characteristic. These sensors have potential for industrial applications because of their long-term stability, low power requirement and low production cost. - Highlights: • Ethanol gas sensors based on Pd:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticle thin film were fabricated. • Pd incorporation in NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} matrix inhibits grain growth. • The sensors were more selective to ethanol gas. • Sensors exhibited fast response and recovery when doped with palladium. • Pd:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film sensor displays excellent long–term stability.

  18. ATF3 mediates inhibitory effects of ethanol on hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Wei; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Liu, Weiyi; Phillips, Naomi G; Sonntag, Tim; Hao, Ergeng; Lee, Soon; Hai, Tsonwin; Montminy, Marc

    2015-03-03

    Increases in circulating glucagon during fasting maintain glucose balance by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute ethanol intoxication promotes fasting hypoglycemia through an increase in hepatic NADH, which inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis by reducing the conversion of lactate to pyruvate. Here we show that acute ethanol exposure also lowers fasting blood glucose concentrations by inhibiting the CREB-mediated activation of the gluconeogenic program in response to glucagon. Ethanol exposure blocked the recruitment of CREB and its coactivator CRTC2 to gluconeogenic promoters by up-regulating ATF3, a transcriptional repressor that also binds to cAMP-responsive elements and thereby down-regulates gluconeogenic genes. Targeted disruption of ATF3 decreased the effects of ethanol in fasted mice and in cultured hepatocytes. These results illustrate how the induction of transcription factors with overlapping specificity can lead to cross-coupling between stress and hormone-sensitive pathways.

  19. Metabolic changes after prior treatment with ethanol. Evidence against in involvement of the Na+ + K+-activated ATPase in the increase in ethanol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, T; Thurman, R G; Schwabe, U; Scholz, R

    1980-01-01

    In perfused rat liver, the inhibition of ethanol uptake by ouabain does not follow the rapid inhibition of the Na+ K+- activated ATPase as assessed by changes in perfusate [K+] (half-time, t 1/2 = 2--3 min), but correlated rather with the slow inhibition of oxygen uptake (maximal inhibition = 40% in 20 min). The data indicate that ouabain exerts its effect on ethanol metabolism via the following sequence of events; inhibition of the sodium pump is followed gradually by a perturbation of the intracellular cation milieu; this leads to an inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in diminished rate of NADH oxidation, which in turn causes in inhibition of ethanol metabolism. PMID:6249265

  20. Inhibitory effects of ethanol on phosphatidylinositol breakdown in pancreatic acini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towner, S.J.; Peppin, J.F.; Tsukamoto, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently the physiological relationship between the phospholipid effect and secretagogue-induced cellular function has begun to be understood. In this study, the authors investigated acute and chronic effects of ethanol on phosphatidylinositol (PI) synthesis and breakdown in pancreatic acini. Five pairs of male Wistar rats were intragastrically infused for 30 days with high fat diet (25% total calories) plus ethanol or isocaloric dextrose. After intoxication, isolated in HEPES media, followed by 30 min incubation with CCK-8 (0, 100, 300 or 600 pM) and ethanol (0 or 100 mM). Acinar lipids were extracted and counted for labeled PI. Incorporation of 3 H-inositol into alcoholic acinar PI was reduced to 38.2% of that in controls. A percent maximal PI break down by CCK-8 was similar in the two groups (13-24% of basal). However, the magnitude of PI breakdown was markedly lower in alcoholic acini (482 vs 1081 dpm) due to the decreased PI synthesis rate. The presence of 100 mM ethanol in the media further inhibited the breakdown by 50% in this group. These results strongly indicate that chronic ethanol intoxication inhibits PI synthesis and breakdown in pancreatic acini, and that this inhibition can be potentiated by acute ethanol administration

  1. Speichim cuts ethanol energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-08

    France's Speichim has reported low-pressure steam consumption of only 0.7kg/l in the production of industrial-grade ethanol. Mechanical compression of distillation vapours can reduce this energy demand even more.

  2. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with ethanol (alcohol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Anderson, Gail D

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol (alcohol) is one of the most widely used legal drugs in the world. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 drug-metabolizing enzyme that is also responsible for the biotransformation of xenobiotics and fatty acids. Drugs that inhibit ADH or CYP2E1 are the most likely theoretical compounds that would lead to a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction with ethanol, which include only a limited number of drugs. Acute ethanol primarily alters the pharmacokinetics of other drugs by changing the rate and extent of absorption, with more limited effects on clearance. Both acute and chronic ethanol use can cause transient changes to many physiologic responses in different organ systems such as hypotension and impairment of motor and cognitive functions, resulting in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Evaluating drug interactions with long-term use of ethanol is uniquely challenging. Specifically, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of long-term ethanol use on liver pathology and chronic malnutrition. Ethanol-induced liver disease results in decreased activity of hepatic metabolic enzymes and changes in protein binding. Clinical studies that include patients with chronic alcohol use may be evaluating the effects of mild cirrhosis on liver metabolism, and not just ethanol itself. The definition of chronic alcohol use is very inconsistent, which greatly affects the quality of the data and clinical application of the results. Our study of the literature has shown that a significantly higher volume of clinical studies have focused on the pharmacokinetic interactions of ethanol and other drugs. The data on pharmacodynamic interactions are more limited and future research addressing pharmacodynamic interactions with ethanol, especially regarding the non-central nervous system effects, is much needed.

  3. Bioelectrochemical ethanol production through mediated acetate reduction by mixed cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbusch, Kirsten J J; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Schaap, Joris D; Kampman, Christel; Buisman, Cees J N

    2010-01-01

    Biological acetate reduction with hydrogen is a potential method to convert wet biomass waste into ethanol. Since the ethanol concentration and reaction rates are low, this research studies the feasibility of using an electrode, in stead of hydrogen, as an electron donor for biological acetate reduction in conjunction of an electron mediator. Initially, the effect of three selected mediators on metabolic flows during acetate reduction with hydrogen was explored; subsequently, the best performing mediator was used in a bioelectrochemical system to stimulate acetate reduction at the cathode with mixed cultures at an applied cathode potential of -550 mV. In the batch test, methyl viologen (MV) was found to accelerate ethanol production 6-fold and increased ethanol concentration 2-fold to 13.5 +/- 0.7 mM compared to the control. Additionally, MV inhibited n-butyrate and methane formation, resulting in high ethanol production efficiency (74.6 +/- 6%). In the bioelectrochemical system, MV addition to an inoculated cathode led directly to ethanol production (1.82 mM). Hydrogen was coproduced at the cathode (0.0035 Nm(3) hydrogen m(-2) d(-1)), so it remained unclear whether acetate was reduced to ethanol by electrons supplied by the mediator or by hydrogen. As MV reacted irreversibly at the cathode, ethanol production stopped after 5 days.

  4. Interaction of biogenic amines with ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A A

    1975-01-01

    Ethanol through its primary catabolite, acetaldehyde, competitively inhibits oxidation of aldehyde dehydrogenase substrates. As a consequence biogenic amines form increased quantities of alcohols rather than the corresponding acids. During this biotransformation, condensation reactions between deaminated and intact amines may occur which can yield tetrahydropapaverolines. These compounds are closely related to precursors of opioids which is cause to link ethanol abuse to morphine addiction. There is, however, no pharmacological or clinical evidence suggesting similarities between ethanol dependence or opiod addiction. Acetaldehyde plays an additional role in alkaloidal formation in vitro. Biogenic amines may react with acetaldehyde to form isoquinoline or carboline compounds. Some of these substances have significant pharmacological activity. Furthermore, they may enter neural stores and displace the natural neurotransmitter. Thus, they can act as false neurotransmitters. Some investigators believe that chronic ethanol ingestion leads to significant formation of such aberrant compounds which may then upset autonomic nervous system balance. This disturbance may explain the abnormal sympathetic activity seen in withdrawal. While these ideas about the etiology of alcohol abuse have a definite appeal, they are naturally based on in vitro preliminary work. Much study of the quantitative pharmacology of these compounds in animals is required before judgement can be made as to the merits of the proposed hypotheses. In the meantime, pharmacological studies on the ability of ethanol to depress respiration in the mouse has revealed that unlike opioids or barbituates, respiratory depression induced by ethanol requires the presence in brain of serotonin. This neurotransmitter also mediates the respiratory effects of several other alcohols but curiously, not chloral hydrate, yet this compound is purported to alter biogenic amine metabolism much like ethanol. Thus, the response

  5. Environmental benefits of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The environmental benefits of ethanol blended fuels in helping to reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is one way of addressing air pollution concerns such as ozone formation. The state of California has legislated stringent automobile emissions standards in an effort to reduce emissions that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. Several Canadian cities also record similar hazardous exposures to carbon monoxide, particularly in fall and winter. Using oxygenated fuels such as ethanol, is one way of addressing the issue of air pollution. The net effect of ethanol use is an overall decrease in ozone formation. For example, use of a 10 per cent ethanol blend results in a 25-30 per cent reduction in carbon monoxide emissions by promoting a more complete combustion of the fuel. It also results in a 6-10 per cent reduction of carbon dioxide, and a seven per cent overall decrease in exhaust VOCs (volatile organic compounds). The environmental implications of feedstock production associated with the production of ethanol for fuel was also discussed. One of the Canadian government's initiatives to address the climate change challenge is its FleetWise initiative, in which it has agreed to a phased-in acquisition of alternative fuel vehicles by the year 2005. 9 refs

  6. Effect of Water on Ethanol Conversion over ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Muhammad Mahfuzur; Davidson, Stephen D.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    This work focuses on understanding the role of water on ethanol conversion over zinc oxide (ZnO). It was found that a competitive adsorption between ethanol and water occurs on ZnO, which leads to the blockage of the strong Lewis acid site by water on ZnO. As a result, both dehydration and dehydrogenation reactions are inhibited. However, the extent of inhibition for dehydration is orders of magnitude higher than that for dehydrogenation, leading to the shift of reaction pathway from ethanol dehydration to dehydrogenation. In the secondary reactions for acetaldehyde conversion, water inhibits the acetaldehyde aldol-condensation to crotonaldehyde, favoring the oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid, and then to acetone via ketonization at high temperature (i.e., 400 °C).

  7. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Christine L.; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO 2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  8. Inhibition of lignin-derived phenolic compounds to cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Li, Wen-Chao; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Li, Xia; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Lignin-derived phenolic compounds are universal in the hydrolysate of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. The phenolics reduce the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and increase the cost of ethanol production. We investigated inhibition of phenolics on cellulase during enzymatic hydrolysis using vanillin as one of the typical lignin-derived phenolics and Avicel as cellulose substrate. As vanillin concentration increased from 0 to 10 mg/mL, cellulose conversion after 72-h enzymatic hydrolysis decreased from 53 to 26 %. Enzyme deactivation and precipitation were detected with the vanillin addition. The enzyme concentration and activity consecutively decreased during hydrolysis, but the inhibition degree, expressed as the ratio of the cellulose conversion without vanillin to the conversion with vanillin (A 0 /A), was almost independent on hydrolysis time. Inhibition can be mitigated by increasing cellulose loading or cellulase concentration. The inhibition degree showed linear relationship with the vanillin concentration and exponential relationship with the cellulose loading and the cellulase concentration. The addition of calcium chloride, BSA, and Tween 80 did not release the inhibition of vanillin significantly. pH and temperature for hydrolysis also showed no significant impact on inhibition degree. The presence of hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, and methoxy group in phenolics affected the inhibition degree. Besides phenolics concentration, other factors such as cellulose loading, enzyme concentration, and phenolic structure also affect the inhibition of cellulose conversion. Lignin-blocking agents have little effect on the inhibition effect of soluble phenolics, indicating that the inhibition mechanism of phenolics to enzyme is likely different from insoluble lignin. The inhibition of soluble phenolics can hardly be entirely removed by increasing enzyme concentration or adding blocking proteins due to the dispersity and multiple binding sites of phenolics

  9. Inhibition of MMPs by alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Hoshika, Tomohiro; Uchiyama, Toshikazu; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Thompson, Jeremy M.; McCracken, Courtney E.; Looney, Stephen W.; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives While screening the activity of potential inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), due to the limited water solubility of some of the compounds, they had to be solubilized in ethanol. When ethanol solvent controls were run, they were found to partially inhibit MMPs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the MMP-inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols. Methods The possible inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols was measured against soluble rhMMP-9 and insoluble matrix-bound endogenous MMPs of dentin in completely demineralized dentin. Increasing concentrations (0.17, 0.86, 1.71 and 4.28 moles/L) of a homologous series of alcohols (i.e. methanol, ethanol, propanols, butanols, pentanols, hexanols, the ethanol ester of methacrylic acid, heptanols and octanol) were compared to ethanediol, and propanediol by regression analysis to calculate the molar concentration required to inhibit MMPs by 50% (i.e. the IC50). Results Using two different MMP models, alcohols were shown to inhibit rhMMP-9 and the endogenous proteases of dentin matrix in a dose-dependent manner. The degree of MMP inhibition by alcohols increased with chain length up to 4 methylene groups. Based on the molar concentration required to inhibit rhMMP-9 fifty percent, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), 3-hexanol, 3-heptanol and 1-octanol gave the strongest inhibition. Significance The results indicate that alcohols with 4 methylene groups inhibit MMPs more effectively than methanol or ethanol. MMP inhibition was inversely related to the Hoy's solubility parameter for hydrogen bonding forces of the alcohols (i.e. to their hydrophilicity). PMID:21676453

  10. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  11. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  12. Enhancing Ethanol Production by Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cereviseae under Vacuum Condition in Batch Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abdullah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is one of renewable energy, which considered being an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to replaced gasoline. In fact, the application of ethanol as fuel still blended with gasoline. The advantages of using ethanol as fuel are that the raw material mostly from renewable resources and the product has low emission which means environmental friendly. Ethanol can be produced by fermentation of sugars (glucose/fructose. The constraint in the ethanol fermentation batch or continuous process is the ethanol product inhibition. Inhibition in ethanol productivity and cell growth can be overcome by taking the product continuously from the fermentor. The process can be done by using a vacuum fermentation. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of pressure and glucose concentration in ethanol fermentation. The research was conducted in laboratory scale and batch process. Equipment consists of fermentor with vacuum system. The observed responses were dried cells of yeast, concentration of glucose, and concentration of ethanol. Observations were made every 4 hours during a day of experiment. The results show that the formation of ethanol has a growth-associated product characteristic under vacuum operation. Vacuum condition can increase the cell formation productivity and the ethanol formation, as it is compared with fermentation under atmospheric condition. The maximum cells productivity and ethanol formation in batch operation under vacuum condition was reached at 166.6 mmHg of pressure. The maximum numbers of cells and ethanol formation was reached at 141.2 mm Hg of pressure. High initial glucose concentration significantly can affect the productivity and the yield of ethanol.

  13. Effects of ethanol and NAP on cerebellar expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon M Fitzgerald

    Full Text Available The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is critical for brain development and plays a role in learning and memory in the adult. Ethanol inhibits L1-mediated cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs, and these actions might underlie the cerebellar dysmorphology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The peptide NAP potently blocks ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion and prevents ethanol teratogenesis. We used quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting of extracts of cerebellar slices, CGNs, and astrocytes from postnatal day 7 (PD7 rats to investigate whether ethanol and NAP act in part by regulating the expression of L1. Treatment of cerebellar slices with 20 mM ethanol, 10(-12 M NAP, or both for 4 hours, 24 hours, and 10 days did not significantly affect L1 mRNA and protein levels. Similar treatment for 4 or 24 hours did not regulate L1 expression in primary cultures of CGNs and astrocytes, the predominant cerebellar cell types. Because ethanol also damages the adult cerebellum, we studied the effects of chronic ethanol exposure in adult rats. One year of binge drinking did not alter L1 gene and protein expression in extracts from whole cerebellum. Thus, ethanol does not alter L1 expression in the developing or adult cerebellum; more likely, ethanol disrupts L1 function by modifying its conformation and signaling. Likewise, NAP antagonizes the actions of ethanol without altering L1 expression.

  14. 黄芩乙醇提取物通过下调NAD特异的谷氨酸脱氢酶抑制哈维氏弧菌生长%Ethanol-extracts from Scutellaria Inhibit the Growth of Vibrio harveyi by Downregulating NAD +-dependent Glutamate Dehydrogenase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽玲; 朱琳; 王爱霞; 朱炎坤; 黎家杰; 周亮; 毕潇

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is one of common pathogenic bacteria,which is seriously imperilling human health and aquatic industry.Because of antibiotics abuse,drug residues and drug-resistance are becoming more serious.It is urgent to look for new alternatives with low toxicity and susceptiblihy to drug-resistance.In this study,we reveal the antibacterial effects of the ethanol extracts from Scutellaria on V.harveyi.The results showed that the ethanol extracts of Scutellaria had a strong inhibitory effect on V.harvey,the diameter of inhibition zone was 18.33 ± 0.58 mm.The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were 7.92 mg/mL and 15.84 mg/mL,respectively.By observation with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and concentration determination of intracellular and extracellular proteins,we found that although there were many little pores on the surface of V.harveyi,it remained smooth and integrated.After treated with ethanol extracts of Scutellaria,a band of protein disappeared in SDS-PAGE which was identified as NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS.Furthermore,the real-time PCR results showed that the mRNA levels of this gene were affected by ethanol extracts of Scutellaria.These results are in good agreement with Scutellaria application in aqueous infection,and indicate that ethanol extracts of Scutellaria inhibit V.harveyi growth effectively through downregulating the expression of NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase,which provides new evidence for the application of traditional Chinese medicine in the fields of aquaculture.%哈维氏弧菌(Vibrio harveyi)是水产动物的常见致病菌,对人类健康和水产经济带来巨大威 胁.抗生素的滥用使得药物残留和耐药性问题变得日益严重.因此,迫切需要寻找新型、不易产生耐药性和低毒的抗菌物质.本文研究黄芩醇提物对哈维氏弧菌的抑制作用及抑菌机制.实验结果表明,黄芩醇提物对

  15. Control of Biofilm Formation in Fungi Using Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sebaey, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of fungi in biotechnology requires that no cell loss takes place; a maximal level of cell-nutrient interaction is required to achieve efficient performance and avoid cell loss. The main aim of the present study is to use ethanol to control cell-cell and cell-surface adhesion through manipulating cell surface properties. A Fungal isolate with a phenol oxidase activity (43.2 U/ml) was chosen out of twelve isolates belonging to two main genera: Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. The fungus isolate, assigned as the highest phenol oxidase producer, was morphologically identified as Penicillium purpurogenum. Penicillium purpurogenum formed a ring around the bottle in static and shaking conditions, therefore, a number of different stress conditions, such as ph, temperature, different nitrogen sources, gamma radiation and ethanol, were employed separately to control biofilm formation in the fungus under study. The fungus was tested for its morphology, mycelia weight, stress response (catalase, lipid peroxidation and red pigment synthesis) and extracellular and surface bound protein and exo polysaccharides. The obtained results correlate the biofilm formation to stress response and surface bound protein. Combining all types of stress did not result in more biofilm formation control; on the contrary, it posed more stress on the fungus and affected the biomass. Ethanol on its own was successively used to control biofilm, which was inhibited in the presence of 2.5% v/v ethanol without affecting the growth. The addition of ethanol also increased the intracellular phenol oxidase activity from 43.2 to 228.43 U/ml. scanning electron microscopy showed that the addition of ethanol resulted in the formation of loose mycelia network as compared to a tight mycelia network in ethanol free cultures. The presence of Yap1p gene, the detection of an oxidized form of glutathione (GSSG) and catalase after ethanol addition all suggest that a stress response might be involved in the

  16. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  17. Involvement of brain catalase activity in the acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Laura; Miquel, Marta; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2008-03-18

    It has been suggested that some of the behavioral effects produced by ethanol are mediated by its first metabolite, acetaldehyde. The present research addressed the hypothesis that catalase-dependent metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde in the brain is an important step in the production of ethanol-related affective properties. Firstly, we investigated the contribution of brain catalase in the acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Secondly, the specificity of the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT) was evaluated with morphine- and cocaine-induced CPP. Finally, to investigate the role of catalase in the process of relapse to ethanol seeking caused by re-exposure to ethanol, after an initial conditioning and extinction, mice were primed with saline and ethanol or AT and ethanol and tested for reinstatement of CPP. Conditioned place preference was blocked in animals treated with AT and ethanol. Morphine and cocaine CPP were unaffected by AT treatment. However, the reinstatement of place preference was not modified by catalase inhibition. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that the brain catalase-H(2)O(2) system contributes to the acquisition of affective-dependent learning induced by ethanol, and support the involvement of centrally-formed acetaldehyde in the formation of positive affective memories produced by ethanol.

  18. Deficient PKR in RAX/PKR Association Ameliorates Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Developing Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Chen, Jian; Qi, Yuanlin; Dai, Lu; Zhang, Mingfang; Frank, Jacqueline A; Handshoe, Jonathan W; Cui, Jiajun; Xu, Wenhua; Chen, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Ethanol-induced neuronal loss is closely related to the pathogenesis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The cerebellum is one of the brain areas that are most sensitive to ethanol. The mechanism underlying ethanol neurotoxicity remains unclear. Our previous in vitro studies have shown that the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) regulates neuronal apoptosis upon ethanol exposure and ethanol activates PKR through association with its intracellular activator RAX. However, the role of PKR and its interaction with RAX in vivo have not been investigated. In the current study, by utilizing N-PKR-/- mice, C57BL/6J mice with a deficient RAX-binding domain in PKR, we determined the critical role of RAX/PKR association in PKR-regulated ethanol neurotoxicity in the developing cerebellum. Our data indicate that while N-PKR-/- mice have a similar BAC profile as wild-type mice, ethanol induces less brain/body mass reduction as well as cerebellar neuronal loss. In addition, ethanol promotes interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion, and IL-1β is a master cytokine regulating inflammatory response. Importantly, ethanol-promoted IL-1β secretion is inhibited in the developing cerebellum of N-PKR-/- mice. Thus, RAX/PKR interaction and PKR activation regulate ethanol neurotoxicity in the developing cerebellum, which may involve ethanol-induced neuroinflammation. Further, PKR could be a possible target for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).

  19. Bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B; Mandenius, C F; Mattiasson, B; Nilsson, B; Axelsson, J P; Hagander, P

    1985-06-20

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam pretreated sallow gives highest yields of soluble sugars when hemicellulose is degraded already in the pretreatment step. The steam pretreatment equipment is rebuilt so that 75 g (dry matter) material instead of 7 g can be treated each time. The cellulose production has been increased 123% by the utilization of aqueous two-phase systems as compared to regular growth medium. The cellulase activity per gram of cellulose has been increased from 42 FPU in regular growth medium to 156 FPU in aqueous two-phase systems. Crude dextran can be used for enzyme production. Enzyme recovery up to 75% has been achieved by combining aqueous two-phase technique with membrane technique. Using the enzyme glucose isomerase in combination with S. cerevisiae theoretical yields in pentose fermentations have been achieved, with a product concentration of 60 g/L and a productivity of 2 g/L x h. Yeast and enzyme can be recirculated using membrane technique. Computer simulation shows that the rate equation for enzymatic hydrolysis with respect to inhibiting sugar concentrations can be used to interpolate with respect to sugar concentrations. Computer simulations show that hydrolysis experiments should focus on high substrate concentrations (>10%) using fed-batch technique and enzyme concentrations in the range of 2-8% in relation to substrate dry matter. The combined 'flow injection analysis', FIA, and enzyme reactor probe has been adapted to enzymatic saccarifications of sodium hydroxide pretreated sallow. The gas membrane sensor for ethanol has been utilized in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide pretreated sallow. A literature study concerning pervaporation for ethanol up-grading has been made.(Author).

  20. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...

  1. Ethanol Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Van Dyke, Priscilla

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure. Because of individual variability in ethanol pharmacology and toxicology, careful extrapolation and interpretation of the BAC is needed, to justify an arrest and assignment of criminal liability. This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol and the clinical effects of acute intoxication as they relate to common forensic questions. Concerns regarding the extrapolation of BAC and the implications of impaired memory caused by alcohol-induced blackouts are discussed. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  2. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , there is not enough biomass for 'everyone', not physically and not in terms of money to promote its use. This leads to the conclusion that any use of biomass for energy purposes will have to compare to the lost opportunity of using it for something else. In this perspective, the choice to use biomass for bio......-ethanol production will not lead to reduction but to increase in CO2 emission and fossil fuel dependency. Both first and second generation bio-ethanol suffer from a biomass-to-ethanol energy conversion efficiency as low as 30-40 %, and moreover external fossil fuels are used to run the conversion. There is only......, but they do not improve the energy balance enough for bio-ethanol to compete with alternative uses of the biomass. When using biomass to substitute fossil fuels in heat & power production, a close to 100% substitution efficiency is achieved. The best alternative for CO2 reduction and oil saving is, therefore...

  3. Fuel consumption of gasoline ethanol blends at different engine rotational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Barakat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuel consumption (mf kg/h was estimated for two hydrocarbon gasolines (BG1-OE and BG2-OE and their ethanol blends which contain from 4 to 20 vol.% of ethanol. Fuel consumption experiments for sixteen fuel samples (5 L each, were conducted on a four cylinder, four stroke spark ignition test vehicle Sahin car, Type 1.45, model 2001. The engine has a swept volume of 1400 c.c., a compression ratio of 8.3:1 and a maximum power of 78 HP at 5500 rpm. The obtained data reveal that the relation between fuel consumption and ethanol concentration is linear. Six linear equations for BG1-ethanol blends and BG2-ethanol ones at the investigated rotational speeds, were developed. Fuel consumption values of the first set of gasoline-ethanol blends are lower than that of the second set. This may be attributed to the difference in the chemical composition of base gasolines BG1 in the first set which is enriched in the less volatile reformate if compared with the second set which is more enriched in isomerate, the more volatile refinery stream.

  4. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  5. Phytochemical Screening and antimicrobial activity of ethanol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts was evaluated. Bioactive compounds from all the parts were found to contain tannin, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides and alkaloids in addition to certain other minor compounds. Maximum zone of inhibition was found with the ethanolic root extract against S.

  6. Linear gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  7. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  8. Ethanol Extracts of Fruiting Bodies of Antrodia cinnamomea Suppress CL1-5 Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells Migration by Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/9 through ERK, JNK, p38, and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis is a primary cause of cancer death. Antrodia cinnamomea (A. cinnamomea, a medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, has shown antioxidant and anticancer activities. In this study, we first observed that ethanol extract of fruiting bodies of A. cinnamomea (EEAC exerted a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on migration and motility of the highly metastatic CL1-5 cells in the absence of cytotoxicity. The results of a gelatin zymography assay showed that A. cinnamomea suppressed the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-(MMP- 2 and MMP-9 in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blot results demonstrated that treatment with A. cinnamomea decreased the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-2; while the expression of the endogenous inhibitors of these proteins, that is, tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 increased. Further investigation revealed that A. cinnamomea suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK1/2. A. cinnamomea also suppressed the expressions of PI3K and phosphorylation of Akt. Furthermore, treatment of CL1-5 cells with inhibitors specific for PI3K (LY 294002, ERK1/2 (PD98059, JNK (SP600125, and p38 MAPK (SB203580 decreased the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. This is the first paper confirming the antimigration activity of this potentially beneficial mushroom against human lung adenocarcinoma CL1-5 cancer cells.

  9. Effect of ethanol and methanol on growth of ruminal bacteria Selenomonas ruminantium and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J A; Ricke, S C

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ethanol and methanol on growth of several ruminal bacterial strains was examined. Ethanol concentrations as low as 0.2% had a significant, but moderate, inhibitory effect on lag time or growth over time and 3.3% ethanol significantly inhibited maximum optical density obtained by both Selenomonas ruminantium and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. Little growth of either strain occurred at 10% ethanol concentrations. Methanol concentrations below 0.5% had little effect on either growth or maximum optical density of Selenomonas ruminantium whereas methanol concentrations below 3.3% had little effect on growth or maximum optical density of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. Higher methanol concentrations increasingly inhibited growth of both strains and no growth occurred at a 10% methanol concentration. Concentrations of ethanol or methanol used to add hydrophobic compounds to culture media should be kept below 1%.

  10. Preliminary study of ethanol electrooxidation in the presence of sulfate on polycrystalline platinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, R.S. Jr.; Oliveira, V.R.; Reis, R.G.C.S.; Maia, G.; Camara, G.A. [Departamento de Quimica/UFMS, C.P. 549, 79070-900, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2008-12-01

    The electrooxidation of ethanol and its inhibition by the presence of adsorbed sulfate have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry using several concentrations of sulfuric acid on smooth polycrystalline platinum. The results show that the concentration of sulfuric acid influences the current in both potentiostatic and potentiodynamic experiments. The results are interpreted in terms of the competitive adsorption of sulfate and ethanol on the same Pt sites and suggest that, when the sulfuric acid concentration is increased, there is a reduction of Pt free sites able to adsorb and oxidize ethanol. The voltammetric data reveal that the peak currents observed during ethanol oxidation are not affected in the same way by the presence of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, which, based on previously obtained FTIR results, suggests that the sulfate adsorption is able to inhibit the oxidation of ethanol in a selective way. (author)

  11. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  12. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina R den Hartog

    Full Text Available Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs. In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p. increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg. In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  13. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Carolina R; Beckley, Jacob T; Smothers, Thetford C; Lench, Daniel H; Holseberg, Zack L; Fedarovich, Hleb; Gilstrap, Meghin J; Homanics, Gregg E; Woodward, John J

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A) that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl) significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p.) increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg) reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg). In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg) as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  14. Effects of chronic ethanol ingestion on arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in rat macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanmugam, P.; Boudreau, M.; Hymel, G.; Jeffers, G.; Hwang, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous report, preincubation of rat platelets with ethanol resulted in dose dependent inhibition of AA metabolites whereas chronic ingestion of ethanol enhanced the synthesis of AA metabolites. Thus, the authors studied whether chronic ethanol ingestion also affects AA metabolism in MACS. Two groups of rats (10 each) were fed DeCarli/Lieber liquid diet containing 36 caloric % ethanol for 3 weeks. The control group was pair fed the same diet made isocaloric with dextrin-maltose. Resident MACS were collected by peritoneal lavage. The monolayers of MACS were incubated for 20 min with calcium ionophore (5μg/ml), and the incubation stopped with 4 vol. of ethanol. PGE 2 , LTB 4 and 5-HETE were assayed by radioimmunoassay. The results indicated that chronic ethanol ingestion did not affect the capacity of MACS to synthesize AA metabolites. There was also no difference in the levels of AA metabolites in heart and lung homogenates between the two groups

  15. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  16. Operant ethanol self-administration in ethanol dependent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2014-05-01

    While rats have been predominantly used to study operant ethanol self-administration behavior in the context of dependence, several studies have employed operant conditioning procedures to examine changes in ethanol self-administration behavior as a function of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal experience in mice. This review highlights some of the advantages of using operant conditioning procedures for examining the motivational effects of ethanol in animals with a history of dependence. As reported in rats, studies using various operant conditioning procedures in mice have demonstrated significant escalation of ethanol self-administration behavior in mice rendered dependent via forced chronic ethanol exposure in comparison to nondependent mice. This paper also presents a summary of these findings, as well as suggestions for future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-10

    Ethanol is produced by fermentation with a photohardening resin-immobilized yeast preparation. The ethanol producing yeast may be selected from Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, or Schizosaccharomyces. The photohardening resin for yeast immobilization is a hydrophilic unsaturated compound, especially polyurethane acrylate, with an average molecular weight of 300-80,000 and containing at least 2 photopolymerizable ethylene groups. The immobilized yeast preparation is prepared by irradiating an aqueous suspension of yeast and a photohardening resin with UV light; the average size of the immobilized yeast is 0.1-3.0 mm and with various shapes. Thus, an aqueous suspension containing Saccharomyces formosensis cells (5 parts), a poly(ethylene glycol)isopharone diisocyanate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer (50 parts), and benzoin ethyl ether (0.5 parts) was homogenized, spread on a polypropylene tray (1.0 mm depth), and irradiated with a 3600 A Hg lamp for 5-10 minutes to form a yeast-containing polyurethane acrylate sheet (1.0 mm thickness), which was then sliced into bits of approximately 1.0 mm. When a molasses substrate solution (pH 4.5-5.0) was passed through a column (200 x 20 mm) packed with the polyurethane acrylate-immobilized yeast preparation, eluates containing 7% (weight/volume) ethanol were produced for >3000 hours.

  18. Innovative inexpensive ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackek, S.

    1991-01-01

    New Energy Company of Indiana which produces 70 million gallons of ethanol per year, avoids the headaches often associated with organic by-products by creating an efficient and profitable sideline business. This paper reports that stretching across 55 acres in South Bend, Ind., New Energy's plant is the largest in the U.S. built specifically for fuel alcohol. The $186-million complex is a dramatic advance in the art of producing ethanol and its co-products. As the demand grows in the coming years for fuel alcohol-proven as an octane booster and a clean-burning alternative fuel. New Energy looks forward to increase production and profits. At the company's six-year-old plant, fuel alcohol is made from 26 million bushels a year of No. 2 yellow dent corn. Left at the bottom of the first column, after the alcohol has been boiled off, is stillage that contains more than 90% of the corn's protein and fat content, and virtually all of its vitamins and minerals, along with the yeast used to make the ethanol. While technically a waste product of the fuel alcohol process, this material's quantity and organic content not only make it difficult and costly to dispose, but its nutritional quality makes it an excellent candidate to be further processed into animal feed

  19. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  20. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  1. Effect of ethanol on galactose tolerance in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, C.T.; Rudnick, J.; McInteer, B.B.; Whaley, T.W.; Shreeve, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    Galactose-/sup 13/C was given to 18 subjects; /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ excretion in respiratory air was followed for 3 hours. Each subject was given galactose-/sup 13/C/sub 6/ (10 g/m/sup 2/), then retested some days later with the same amount of labeled sugar and a low level (3.5 g/m/sup 2/) of ethanol. On the basis of the /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ excretion curves in the presence and absence of ethanol, the subjects were divided into four groups (i.e., subjects considered as normal, probably normal, probable liver damage, and liver damage). Ethanol strongly inhibited galactose metabolism in normal subjects. This effect of ethanol progressively declined in the four groups until, in the last group (liver damage), ethanol had no further effect on the already severely depressed oxidation of galactose. Comparison of the galactose tolerance data with other clinical tests and with the results of a drinking history suggests that the ethanol-primed galactose tolerance test may give good discrimination between groups of people with varying degrees of liver damage short of frank cirrhosis, although alcohol-priming is not necessary to distinguish between normal and cirrhotic subjects.

  2. Ethanol fermentation with a flocculating yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Admassu, W; Korus, R A; Heimsch, R C

    1985-08-01

    A 100 cm x 5.7 cm internal diameter tower fermentor was fabricated and operated continuously for 11 months using the floc-forming yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (American Type Culture Collection 4097). Steady state operation of the system was characterized at 32/sup 0/C and pH 4.0 for glucose concentrations ranging from 105 to 215 g l/sup -1/. The height of the yeast bed in the tower was maintained at 80 cm. The high yeast density, ethanol concentration and low pH prevented bacterial contamination in the reactor. The concentration profiles of glucose and ethanol within the bed were described by a dispersion model. Modeling parameters were determined for the yeast by batch kinetics and tracer experiments. The kinetic model included ethanol inhibition and substrate limitation. A tracer study with step input of D-xylose (a non-metabolizable sugar for S. cerevisiae) determined the dispersion number (D/uL=0.16) and liquid voidage (epsilonsub(L)=0.25). Measurements taken after 6 months of continuous operation indicated that there was no significant change in fermentor performance.

  3. Is there a role for leukotrienes as mediators of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, J.L.; Beck, P.L.; Morris, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    The role of leukotriene (LT) C 4 as a mediator of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage was investigated. Rats were pretreated with a number of compounds, including inhibitors of leukotriene biosynthesis and agents that have previously been shown to reduce ethanol-induced damage prior to oral administration of absolute ethanol. Ethanol administration resulted in a fourfold increase in LTC 4 synthesis. LTC 4 synthesis could be reduced significantly by pretreatment with L651,392 or dexamethosone without altering the susceptibility of the gastric mucosa to ethanol-induced damage. Furthermore, changes in LBT 4 synthesis paralleled the changes in LTC 4 synthesis observed after ethanol administration. The effects of ethanol on gastric eicosanoid synthesis were further examined using an ex vivo gastric chamber preparation that allowed for application of ethanol to only one side of the stomach. These studies confirm that ethanol can stimulate gastric leukotriene synthesis independent of the production of hemorrhagic damage. Inhibition of LTC 4 synthesis does not confer protection to the mucosa, suggesting that LTC 4 does not play an important role in the etiology of ethanol-induced gastric damage

  4. [Process development for continuous ethanol fermentation by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Lihan; Liu, Chenguang; Bai, Fengwu

    2014-02-01

    Propionic acid, a major inhibitor to yeast cells, was accumulated during continuous ethanol fermentation from corn meal hydrolysate by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions. Based on its inhibition mechanism in yeast cells, strategies were developed for alleviating this effect. Firstly, high temperature processes such as medium sterilization generated more propionic acid, which should be avoided. Propionic acid was reduced significantly during ethanol fermentation without medium sterilization, and concentrations of biomass and ethanol increased by 59.3% and 7.4%, respectively. Secondly, the running time of stillage backset should be controlled so that propionic acid accumulated would be lower than its half inhibition concentration IC50 (40 mmol/L). Finally, because low pH augmented propionic acid inhibition in yeast cells, a higher pH of 5.5 was validated to be suitable for ethanol fermentation under the stillage backset condition.

  5. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  6. IMPROVEMENT OF BIOFUEL ETHANOL RECOVERY USING THE PERVAPORATION SEPARATION TECHNIQUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilufer Durmaz Hilmioglu [Kocaeli University Chemical Engineering Department Veziroglu Campus, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-09-30

    The climatic impact of carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have become a major problem. The production of renewable biofuels from biomass has received increasing attention. Because of the economic and environmental benefits of fuel ethanol's use it is considered one of the most important renewable fuels. In ethanol fermentations inhibition of the microorganism by ethanol limits the amount of substrate in the feed that can be converted. In a process high feed concentrations are desirable to minimize the flows. Such high feed concentrations can be realized in integrated processes in which ethanol is recovered by pervaporation from the fermentation broth as it is formed. The hybrid process is an attractive process to increase ethanol production economics and to decrease environmental pollution. The separaiton of alcohol from mixtures with ethanol produced by fermentation is usually carried out by distillation and the energy consumption is very high when azeotropic concentration is reached, which corresponds to 5% water in ethanol/water mixture. The pervaporation process provides an economical alternative to the existing distillation technique. A continous recovery of alcohol could be achieved by using the pervaporation process during fermentation, making the process more energy efficient. In this work, for the purposes of membrane material development for pervaporation; zeolite filled and unfilled cellulose acetate membranes were prepared. Zeolite types were 4A, 13X. The effect of incorporation of nano-sized zeolites prepared in a colloidal form in membranes was also investigated. From the sorption tests it is concluded that, ethanol/water azeotropy can be breaked by pervaporation.

  7. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Ethanolic Leaf Extract Reduces Amyloid-β (1-42) Aggregation and Paralysis Prevalence in Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans Independently of Free Radical Scavenging and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, Rafael Vincent; Silvestre, Maries Ann; Barbosa, Aza Lea Anne; Medina, Paul Mark

    2017-04-21

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been the subject of several studies which have aimed to alleviate Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, focusing on in vitro antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. Here, we studied an underutilized and lesser-valued part of the coconut tree, specifically the leaves, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Coconut leaf extract (CLE) was screened for antioxidant and AChE inhibitory properties in vitro and therapeutic effects in two strains of transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans expressing amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ 1-42 ) in muscle cells. CLE demonstrated free radical scavenging activity with an EC 50 that is 79-fold less compared to ascorbic acid, and an AChE inhibitory activity that is 131-fold less compared to Rivastigmine. Surprisingly, in spite of its low antioxidant activity and AChE inhibition, CLE reduced Aβ deposits by 30.31% in CL2006 in a dose-independent manner, and reduced the percentage of paralyzed nematodes at the lowest concentration of CLE (159.38 μg/mL), compared to dH₂O/vehicle (control). Phytochemical analysis detected glycosides, anthocyanins, and hydrolyzable tannins in CLE, some of which are known to be anti-amyloidogenic. Taken together, these findings suggest that CLE metabolites alternatively decrease AB 1-42 aggregation and paralysis prevalence independently of free radical scavenging and AChE inhibition, and this warrants further investigation on the bioactive compounds of CLE.

  8. Canada's directory of ethanol retailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This document is a directory listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer by province from west to east. Appendices providing a list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels was also included, as well as a list of ethanol-blended gasoline retailers

  9. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  10. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  11. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  12. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  13. Theoretical and experimental studies of an ethanol basin solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namprakai, P.; Hirunlabh, J.

    2007-01-01

    A transient-state mathematical model for an ethanol basin solar still based on Spalding's work was developed. Driving force B was defined based on the mass balance between the evaporating (S) and condensing (G) surfaces. Mass transfer conductance (g) was obtained from an indoor experiment. Then productivity could be calculated. In order to validate the model an ethanol basin solar still was tested under outdoor conditions. The model had RMSEs of 4% and 23% of the measured mean temperature and productivity. The mean productivity was 0.33 kg/h when the mean solar radiation input was 1.95 MJ/m 2 /h. The simulated distillate concentrations were 74, 59 and 24%v/v for ethanol solution concentrations of 50, 30 and 10%v/v. The monthly means of the simulated daily productivity and total daily solar radiation were linearly correlated. An indoor experimental equipment of the same type as that used for the outdoor experiments was constructed. Ethanol solutions with concentrations of 10-100%v/v were distilled. The ethanol solution temperature varied between 40 and 70 deg. C. The experimental data from the still was then used to find the g used for the above mathematical model. The still height had a slight effect on the productivity. Increasing the ethanol solution concentration by not more than around 80% v/v could improve the still productivity

  14. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  15. A blending rule for octane numbers of PRFs and TPRFs with ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    AlRamadan, Abdullah S.

    2016-04-12

    Ethanol is widely used as an octane booster in commercial gasoline fuels. Its oxygenated nature aids in reducing harmful emissions such as nitric oxides (NOx), soot and unburned hydrocarbons (HC). However, the non-linear octane response of ethanol blending with gasoline fuels is not completely understood because of the unknown intermolecular interactions in such blends. In general, when ethanol is blended with gasoline, the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON) non-linearly increase (synergistic) or decrease (antagonistic), and the non-linearity depends on the composition of the base gasoline. The complexity of commercial gasoline, comprising of hundreds of different components, makes it challenging to understand ethanol-gasoline synergistic/antagonistic blending effects. Understanding ethanol blending effects with simpler gasoline surrogates blends may enable a better understanding of ethanol blending with complex multi-component gasoline fuels. This study presents a blending rule to predict the octane numbers (ON) of ethanol/primary reference fuel (PRF; mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane) and ethanol/toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF; mixtures of toluene, iso-octane and n-heptane) mixtures using the data available in literature and new data. The ON of ethanol blends with PRF-40, -50, and -60 were measured and compared with those from literature. Additional experimental data were collected to validate the developed model for ethanol blends of three different TPRFs having the same RON but different MON (i.e., different toluene contents). The three tested TPRF mixtures have octane ratings of RON 60.0/MON 58.0 (toluene 10.2 vol%), RON 60.0/MON 56.3 (toluene 19.8 vol%), and RON 60.0/MON 53.2 (toluene 40.2 vol%). The octane prediction model consists of linear and non-linear by mole regions. The transition point between the linear and non-linear regions is a function of the RON and MON of the base PRF and TPRF mixture. The non-linear by

  16. The effect of ethanol on 35-S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljequist, S.; Culp, S.; Tabakoff, B.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of 35 S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate ( 35 S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl (100 mM) containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal 35 S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action (stimulation followed by inhibition) on 35 S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of 35 S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. 35 S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl - channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol (≤ 100 mM ethanol). Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on 35 S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of 35 S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit 35 S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal 35 S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of 35 S-TBPS binding by diazepam. (author)

  17. Acute but not chronic ethanol exposure impairs retinol oxidation in the small and large intestine of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Ellendt, K.; Lindros, K.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ethanol has been shown to inhibit retinol oxidation at the level of alcohol dehydrogenase in liver and colon but not previously in the small intestine. In the present study we investigated how chronic alcohol feeding and acute ethanol exposure affects retinol dehydrogenase...... higher, respectively). While chronic alcohol feeding did not affect these parameters, acute ethanol exposure reduced V(max) and V(max)/K(m) dose-dependently (p

  18. Inhibition of Bio corrosion of steel coupon by sulphate reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Inhibition of Bio corrosion of steel coupon by sulphate reducing bacteria and Iron oxidizing bacteria using .... Ethanol for 24 h. The extract was ... with distilled water to get a zero reading from the meter before .... Ethanol extract of musa species peels as a green corrosion ... Eco friendly extract of banana peel as corrosion ...

  19. Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weifeng; Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng; Fan, Ting; Mu, Qingli; Li, Huani

    2013-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to examine the protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine (THC) in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 75% (0.5 ml/100 g) were pre-treated with THC (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip), cimetidine (100 mg/kg, ip) or saline in different experimental sets for a period of 3 days, and animals were euthanized 4 h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving nitric oxide (NO) level, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the ethanol group. Pretreatment of THC at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg bodyweight significantly attenuated the gastric lesions as compared to the ethanol group. These results suggest that the gastroprotective activity of THC is attributed to reducing NO production and adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and NF-κB expression. - Highlights: • THC decreased ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. • THC inhibited the production of NO in serum and gastric tissue. • THC reduced NF-κB expression and MPO accumulation in ethanol-induced gastric tissue

  20. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  1. Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liwf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng, E-mail: niuxf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Fan, Ting; Mu, Qingli; Li, Huani

    2013-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to examine the protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine (THC) in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 75% (0.5 ml/100 g) were pre-treated with THC (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip), cimetidine (100 mg/kg, ip) or saline in different experimental sets for a period of 3 days, and animals were euthanized 4 h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving nitric oxide (NO) level, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the ethanol group. Pretreatment of THC at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg bodyweight significantly attenuated the gastric lesions as compared to the ethanol group. These results suggest that the gastroprotective activity of THC is attributed to reducing NO production and adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and NF-κB expression. - Highlights: • THC decreased ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. • THC inhibited the production of NO in serum and gastric tissue. • THC reduced NF-κB expression and MPO accumulation in ethanol-induced gastric tissue.

  2. Estradiol increases the sensitivity of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons to dopamine and ethanol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha J Vandegrift

    Full Text Available Gender differences in psychiatric disorders such as addiction may be modulated by the steroid hormone estrogen. For instance, 17β-estradiol (E2, the predominant form of circulating estrogen in pre-menopausal females, increases ethanol consumption, suggesting that E2 may affect the rewarding properties of ethanol and thus the development of alcohol use disorder in females. The ventral tegmental area (VTA is critically involved in the rewarding and reinforcing effects of ethanol. In order to determine the role of E2 in VTA physiology, gonadally intact female mice were sacrificed during diestrus II (high E2 or estrus (low E2 for electrophysiology recordings. We measured the excitation by ethanol and inhibition by dopamine (DA of VTA DA neurons and found that both excitation by ethanol and inhibition by dopamine were greater in diestrus II compared with estrus. Treatment of VTA slices from mice in diestrus II with an estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780 reduced ethanol-stimulated neuronal firing, but had no effect on ethanol-stimulated firing of neurons in slices from mice in estrus. Surprisingly, ICI 182,780 did not affect the inhibition by DA, indicating different mechanisms of action of estrogen receptors in altering ethanol and DA responses. We also examined the responses of VTA DA neurons to ethanol and DA in ovariectomized mice treated with E2 and found that E2 treatment enhanced the responses to ethanol and DA in a manner similar to what we observed in mice in diestrus II. Our data indicate that E2 modulates VTA neuron physiology, which may contribute to both the enhanced reinforcing and rewarding effects of alcohol and the development of other psychiatric disorders in females that involve alterations in DA neurotransmission.

  3. alpha7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout selectively enhances ethanol-, but not beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2005-01-03

    The alpha7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been implicated as a potential site of action for two neurotoxins, ethanol and the Alzheimer's disease related peptide, beta-amyloid. Here, we utilized primary neuronal cultures of cerebral cortex from alpha7 nAChR null mutant mice to examine the role of this receptor in modulating the neurotoxic properties of subchronic, "binge" ethanol and beta-amyloid. Knockout of the alpha7 nAChR gene selectively enhanced ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in a gene dosage-related fashion. Susceptibility of cultures to beta-amyloid induced toxicity, however, was unaffected by alpha7 nAChR gene null mutation. Further, beta-amyloid did not inhibit the binding of the highly alpha7-selective radioligand, [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin. On the other hand, in studies in Xenopus oocytes ethanol efficaciously inhibited alpha7 nAChR function. These data suggest that alpha7 nAChRs modulate the neurotoxic effects of binge ethanol, but not the neurotoxicity produced by beta-amyloid. It is hypothesized that inhibition of alpha7 nAChRs by ethanol provides partial protection against the neurotoxic properties of subchronic ethanol.

  4. Bio-Ethanol Production from Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known as bio-ethanol, since it is produced from plant materials by biological processes. Bioethanol is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar containing crops like corn, maize, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, potatoes, ...

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure fueling stations by location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about ethanol fueling infrastructure; codes, standards, and safety; and ethanol equipment options. Maps & Data E85 Fueling Station

  6. Ethanol and ethyl glucuronide urine concentrations after ethanol-based hand antisepsis with and without permitted alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Stephan; Below, Elke; Diedrich, Stephan; Wegner, Christian; Gessner, Wiebke; Kohlmann, Thomas; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Bockholdt, Britta; Kramer, Axel; Assadian, Ojan; Below, Harald

    2016-09-01

    During hand antisepsis, health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to alcohol by dermal contact and by inhalation. Concerns have been raised that high alcohol absorptions may adversely affect HCWs, particularly certain vulnerable individuals such as pregnant women or individuals with genetic deficiencies of aldehyde dehydrogenase. We investigated the kinetics of HCWs' urinary concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) during clinical work with and without previous consumption of alcoholic beverages by HCWs. The median ethanol concentration was 0.7 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR], 0.5-1.9 mg/L; maximum, 9.2 mg/L) during abstinence and 12.2 mg/L (IQR, 1.5-139.6 mg/L; maximum, 1,020.1 mg/L) during alcohol consumption. During abstinence, EtG reached concentrations of up to 958 ng/mL. When alcohol consumption was permitted, the median EtG concentration of all samples was 2,593 ng/mL (IQR, 890.8-3,576 ng/mL; maximum, 5,043 ng/mL). Although alcohol consumption was strongly correlated with both EtG and ethanol in urine, no significant correlation for the frequency of alcoholic hand antisepsis was observed in the linear mixed models. The use of ethanol-based handrub induces measurable ethanol and EtG concentrations in urine. Compared with consumption of alcoholic beverages or use of consumer products containing ethanol, the amount of ethanol absorption resulting from handrub applications is negligible. In practice, there is no evidence of any harmful effect of using ethanol-based handrubs as much as it is clinically necessary. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Autophagy Protects against CYP2E1/Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongke Lu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an intracellular pathway by which lysosomes degrade and recycle long-lived proteins and cellular organelles. The effects of ethanol on autophagy are complex but recent studies have shown that autophagy serves a protective function against ethanol-induced liver injury. Autophagy was found to also be protective against CYP2E1-dependent toxicity in vitro in HepG2 cells which express CYP2E1 and in vivo in an acute alcohol/CYPE1-dependent liver injury model. The goal of the current report was to extend the previous in vitro and acute in vivo experiments to a chronic ethanol model to evaluate whether autophagy is also protective against CYP2E1-dependent liver injury in a chronic ethanol-fed mouse model. Wild type (WT, CYP2E1 knockout (KO or CYP2E1 humanized transgenic knockin (KI, mice were fed an ethanol liquid diet or control dextrose diet for four weeks. In the last week, some mice received either saline or 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, or rapamycin, which stimulates autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA potentiated the ethanol-induced increases in serum transaminase and triglyceride levels in the WT and KI mice but not KO mice, while rapamycin prevented the ethanol liver injury. Treatment with 3-MA enhanced the ethanol-induced fat accumulation in WT mice and caused necrosis in the KI mice; little or no effect was found in the ethanol-fed KO mice or any of the dextrose-fed mice. 3-MA treatment further lowered the ethanol-decrease in hepatic GSH levels and further increased formation of TBARS in WT and KI mice, whereas rapamycin blunted these effects of ethanol. Neither 3-MA nor rapamycin treatment affected CYP2E1 catalytic activity or content or the induction CYP2E1 by ethanol. The 3-MA treatment decreased levels of Beclin-1 and Atg 7 but increased levels of p62 in the ethanol-fed WT and KI mice whereas rapamycin had the opposite effects, validating inhibition and stimulation of autophagy, respectively. These

  8. Linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  9. Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  10. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  11. Solution Thermodynamics of Lysine Clonixinate in Some Ethanol + Water Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Daniel R.; Martínez, Fleming; Gutiérrez, Rahumir A.

    2012-01-01

    The solubility of lysine clonixinate (LysClon) in several ethanol + water mixtures was determined at 293.15 to 313.15 K. The thermodynamic functions, Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution and of mixing were obtained from these solubility data by using the van’t Hoff and Gibbs equations. In general this drug exhibit good solubility and the greatest value was obtained in the mixture 0.60 in mass fraction of ethanol. A non-linear enthalpy–entropy relationship was observed from ...

  12. Brazilian third world ethanol pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P

    1981-01-01

    A financial cost model has been developed in Brazil, under contract from th United Nations Industrial Development Organization, for fermentation ethanol production based on sugar cane molasses, sugar cane juice and cassava. The model is designed to help in analysing the feasibility and implementation of ethanol programs in developing countries.

  13. Ethanol from mixed waste paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstetter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    The technology, markets, and economics for converting mixed waste paper to ethanol in Washington were assessed. The status of enzymatic and acid hydrolysis projects were reviewed. The market for ethanol blended fuels in Washington shows room for expansion. The economics for a hypothetical plant using enzymatic hydrolysis were shown to be profitable

  14. Reactions of ethanol on Ru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Liu, Feng; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption and reactions of ethanol on Ru(0001) were studied with temperatureprogrammed desorption (TPD) and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Ethanol was found to adsorb intact onto Ru(0001) below 100 K. Heating to 250 K resulted in formation of ethoxy groups, which undergo

  15. Ethanolic extracts of babandotan leaves (Ageratum conyzoides L.) prevents inflammation and proteoglycan degradation by inhibiting TNF-α andMMP-9 on osteoarthritis rats induced by monosodium iodoacetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anton Bahtiar; Mutiara Nurazizah; Tirza Roselina; Anita Paulina Tambunan; Ade Arsianti

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effects of Ageratum conyzoides L. on the monosodium iodoacetate induced osteoarthritis rats. Methods: Thin layer chromatography was performed to analyze the constituents of the babandotan extract leaves. White male Sprague-Dawley rats used in this study were divided into 6 groups: normal control and negative control groups, both given 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose; the positive control group that was given glucosamine and chondroitin suspension (486 mg/200 g B.W.); the 3 dose variation extract groups including dose 1, 2, and 3 that were given 40, 80, and 160 mg/200 g B.W. respectively on day 29 until 50. All the groups were induced with 0.05 mL monosodium iodoacetate (20 mg/mL) on day 1, except normal control induced by saline. Measurement of edema volume of rat knees was performed on day 0, 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, and 50. Hematology data was measured at day 1, 29 and 50. Serum was collected at day 50 to evaluate TNF-α and MMP-9 by ELISA. Cartilagehistopathology was evaluated by staining with H&E and Safranin-o-fast green staining on day 50. Results: The babandotan leaves extract dose 2 (80 mg/200 g B.W.) and dose 3 (160 mg/200 g B.W.) could decrease the edema volume, increase the area and thickness of articular cartilage, and increase proteoglycan level. Particularly, dose 3 (160 mg/200 g B.W.) of extract babandotan leaves were able to significantly decrease the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes and udem volume, and decrease TNF alpha and MMP-9 levels. Conclusions: Babandotan leaves extract can recover inflammation and cartilages degradation by inhibiting TNF-α ininflammation processes and MMP-9 in the collagenase reaction in the cartilages.

  16. Mechanisms of yeast stress tolerance and its manipulation for efficient fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Q; Bai, F W

    2009-10-12

    Yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been extensively studied in recent years for fuel ethanol production, in which yeast cells are exposed to various stresses such as high temperature, ethanol inhibition, and osmotic pressure from product and substrate sugars as well as the inhibitory substances released from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. An in-depth understanding of the mechanism of yeast stress tolerance contributes to breeding more robust strains for ethanol production, especially under very high gravity conditions. Taking advantage of the "omics" technology, the stress response and defense mechanism of yeast cells during ethanol fermentation were further explored, and the newly emerged tools such as genome shuffling and global transcription machinery engineering have been applied to breed stress resistant yeast strains for ethanol production. In this review, the latest development of stress tolerance mechanisms was focused, and improvement of yeast stress tolerance by both random and rational tools was presented.

  17. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  18. Response of rat brain protein synthesis to ethanol and sodium barbital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, S.; Greenberg, S.A.; Do, K.; Grey, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) depressants such as ethanol and barbiturates under acute or chronic conditions can induce changes in rat brain protein synthesis. While these data demonstrate the individual effects of drugs on protein synthesis, the response of brain protein synthesis to alcohol-drug interactions is not known. The goal of the present study was to determine the individual and combined effects of ethanol and sodium barbital on brain protein synthesis and gain an understanding of the mechanisms by which these alterations in protein synthesis are produced. Specifically, the in vivo and in vitro effects of sodium barbital (one class of barbiturates which is not metabolized by the hepatic tissue) were examined on brain protein synthesis in rats made physically dependent upon ethanol. Using cell free brain polysomal systems isolated from Control, Ethanol and 24 h Ethanol Withdrawn rats, data show that sodium barbital, when intubated intragastrically, inhibited the time dependent incorporation of 14 C) leucine into protein by all three groups of ribosomes. Under these conditions, the Ethanol Withdrawn group displayed the largest inhibition of the 14 C) leucine incorporation into protein when compared to the Control and Ethanol groups. In addition, sodium barbital when added at various concentrations in vitro to the incubation medium inhibited the incorporation of 14 C) leucine into protein by Control and Ethanol polysomes. The inhibitory effects were also obtained following preincubation of ribosomes in the presence of barbital but not cycloheximide. Data suggest that brain protein synthesis, specifically brain polysomes, through interaction with ethanol or barbital are involved in the functional development of tolerance. These interactions may occur through proteins or polypeptide chains or alterations in messenger RNA components associated with the ribosomal units

  19. Mitochondrial ROS induced by chronic ethanol exposure promote hyper-activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Hoyt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders are common both in the United States and globally, and are associated with a variety of co-morbid, inflammation-linked diseases. The pathogenesis of many of these ailments are driven by the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, a multi-protein intracellular pattern recognition receptor complex that facilitates the cleavage and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. We hypothesized that protracted exposure of leukocytes to ethanol would amplify inflammasome activation, which would help to implicate mechanisms involved in diseases associated with both alcoholism and aberrant NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Here we show that long-term ethanol exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and a mouse macrophage cell line (J774 amplifies IL-1β secretion following stimulation with NLRP3 agonists, but not with AIM2 or NLRP1b agonists. The augmented NRLP3 activation was mediated by increases in iNOS expression and NO production, in conjunction with increases in mitochondrial membrane depolarization, oxygen consumption rate, and ROS generation in J774 cells chronically exposed to ethanol (CE cells, effects that could be inhibited by the iNOS inhibitor SEITU, the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO, and the mitochondrial ROS scavenger MitoQ. Chronic ethanol exposure did not alter K+ efflux or Zn2+ homeostasis in CE cells, although it did result in a lower intracellular concentration of NAD+. Prolonged administration of acetaldehyde, the product of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH mediated metabolism of ethanol, mimicked chronic ethanol exposure, whereas ADH inhibition prevented ethanol-induced IL-1β hypersecretion. Together, these results indicate that increases in iNOS and mitochondrial ROS production are critical for chronic ethanol-induced IL-1β hypersecretion, and that protracted exposure to the products of ethanol metabolism are probable mediators of NLRP3 inflammasome hyperactivation. Keywords: Inflammasome, IL

  20. In situ FTIRS study of ethanol electro-oxidation on anode catalysts in direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.; Sun, G.; Jiang, L.; Zhu, M.; Yan, S.; Wang, G.; Xin, Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian (China). Dalian Inst. of Chemical Physics; Chen, Q.; Li, J.; Jiang, Y.; Sun, S. [Xiamen Univ., Xiamen (China). State Key Lab. for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces

    2006-07-01

    The low activation of ethanol oxidation at lower temperatures is an obstacle to the development of cost-effective direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). This study used a modified polyol method to prepare carbon-supported platinum (Pt) based catalysts. Carbon supported Pt-based catalysts were fabricated by a modified polyol method and characterized through transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results of the study showed that the particles in the Pt/C and PtRu/C and PtSn/C catalysts were distributed on the carbon support uniformly. Diffraction peaks of the Pt shifted positively in the PtRu/C catalysts and negatively in the PtSn/C catalysts. In situ Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to investigate the adsorption and oxidation process of ethanol on the catalysts. Results showed that the electrocatalytic activity of ethanol oxidation on the materials was enhanced. Linear bonded carbon monoxide (CO) was the most strongly absorbed species, and the main products produced by the catalysts were carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), acetaldehyde, and acetic acid. Results showed that the PtRu/C catalyst broke the C-C bond more easily than the Pt/C and PtSn/C compounds. However, the results of a linear sweep voltammogram analysis showed that ethanol oxidation of the PtSn/C was enhanced. Bands observed on the compound indicated the formation of acetic acid and acetaldehyde. It was concluded that the enhancement of PtSn/C for ethanol oxidation was due to the formation of acetic acid and acetaldehyde at lower potentials. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Antimicrobial activities of pomelo (Citrus maxima) seed and pulp ethanolic extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlan, Muhamad; Damayanti, Vina; Tristantini, Dewi; Hermansyah, Heri; Wijanarko, Anondho; Olivia, Yuko

    2018-02-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) seed extract is generally used as naturopathic medications, supplements, antiseptic and disinfecting agents and also as preservatives in food and cosmetics products. In vitro studies have demonstrated that grapefruit seed extract has anti bacterial properties against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Indonesian grapefruit, known as pomelo (C. maxima), has similar characteristics, contents and is under the same genus (Citrus) as grapefruit; however it has not been completely utilized as a preservative. In this work we analyze the antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Indonesian pomelo (C. maxima) seeds and pulp compared to the grapefruit (C. paradisi) seeds and pulp ethanolic extract. Ethanolic extracts of pomelo and grapefruit seeds and pulp are investigated for activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The level of antimicrobial effects is established using agar diffusion method. Both of the ethanolic do not show any antimicrobial activities against C. albicans. The ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp used in this research give positive results with growth inhibition effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli. The zones of inhibition ranges from 22 - 30 mm in diameter, which is higher to grapefruit seeds and pulp ethanolic extract (17 - 25 mm). Ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp has an antimicrobial effect, which makes it a natural preparation for use as an alternative preservative for food and cosmetic.

  2. The relation of age to the acute effects of ethanol on acetanilide disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, H A; Mutch, E; Williams, F M; James, O F; Rawlins, M D; Woodhouse, K W

    1989-03-01

    The activity of the major drug-metabolizing enzymes, the mono-oxygenases, can be inhibited by an acute dose of ethanol. We set out to determine whether age has any relation to the degree of inhibition produced by ethanol, using acetanilide as a model substrate. Eight healthy young subjects (mean age 26 years) and eight healthy elderly subjects (mean age 72 years) were studied on two occasions, once receiving acetanilide alone and once acetanilide with 75 ml vodka (30 g ethanol). The clearance of acetanilide was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) in the elderly subjects at 27 +/- 3 l/h compared to 38 +/- 2 l/h in young subjects. No age-related differences in peak blood ethanol concentrations or ethanol elimination rates were noted. After ethanol, acetanilide clearance fell 18% to 31 +/- 3 l/h in young subjects (p = 0.05) and by 15% to 23 +/- 2 l/h in elderly subjects (p = 0.08). This suggests that the elderly do not suffer greater impairment of drug oxidation after acute ethanol ingestion than do the young.

  3. GABAA Receptors Containing ρ1 Subunits Contribute to In Vivo Effects of Ethanol in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Yuri A.; Benavidez, Jillian M.; Black, Mendy; Leiter, Courtney R.; Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth; Johnson, David; Borghese, Cecilia M.; Hanrahan, Jane R.; Johnston, Graham A. R.; Chebib, Mary; Harris, R. Adron

    2014-01-01

    GABAA receptors consisting of ρ1, ρ2, or ρ3 subunits in homo- or hetero-pentamers have been studied mainly in retina but are detected in many brain regions. Receptors formed from ρ1 are inhibited by low ethanol concentrations, and family-based association analyses have linked ρ subunit genes with alcohol dependence. We determined if genetic deletion of ρ1 in mice altered in vivo ethanol effects. Null mutant male mice showed reduced ethanol consumption and preference in a two-bottle choice test with no differences in preference for saccharin or quinine. Null mutant mice of both sexes demonstrated longer duration of ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR), and males were more sensitive to ethanol-induced motor sedation. In contrast, ρ1 null mice showed faster recovery from acute motor incoordination produced by ethanol. Null mutant females were less sensitive to ethanol-induced development of conditioned taste aversion. Measurement of mRNA levels in cerebellum showed that deletion of ρ1 did not change expression of ρ2, α2, or α6 GABAA receptor subunits. (S)-4-amino-cyclopent-1-enyl butylphosphinic acid (“ρ1” antagonist), when administered to wild type mice, mimicked the changes that ethanol induced in ρ1 null mice (LORR and rotarod tests), but the ρ1 antagonist did not produce these effects in ρ1 null mice. In contrast, (R)-4-amino-cyclopent-1-enyl butylphosphinic acid (“ρ2” antagonist) did not change ethanol actions in wild type but produced effects in mice lacking ρ1 that were opposite of the effects of deleting (or inhibiting) ρ1. These results suggest that ρ1 has a predominant role in two in vivo effects of ethanol, and a role for ρ2 may be revealed when ρ1 is deleted. We also found that ethanol produces similar inhibition of function of recombinant ρ1 and ρ2 receptors. These data indicate that ethanol action on GABAA receptors containing ρ1/ρ2 subunits may be important for specific effects of ethanol in vivo. PMID:24454882

  4. GABAA receptors containing ρ1 subunits contribute to in vivo effects of ethanol in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri A Blednov

    Full Text Available GABAA receptors consisting of ρ1, ρ2, or ρ3 subunits in homo- or hetero-pentamers have been studied mainly in retina but are detected in many brain regions. Receptors formed from ρ1 are inhibited by low ethanol concentrations, and family-based association analyses have linked ρ subunit genes with alcohol dependence. We determined if genetic deletion of ρ1 in mice altered in vivo ethanol effects. Null mutant male mice showed reduced ethanol consumption and preference in a two-bottle choice test with no differences in preference for saccharin or quinine. Null mutant mice of both sexes demonstrated longer duration of ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR, and males were more sensitive to ethanol-induced motor sedation. In contrast, ρ1 null mice showed faster recovery from acute motor incoordination produced by ethanol. Null mutant females were less sensitive to ethanol-induced development of conditioned taste aversion. Measurement of mRNA levels in cerebellum showed that deletion of ρ1 did not change expression of ρ2, α2, or α6 GABAA receptor subunits. (S-4-amino-cyclopent-1-enyl butylphosphinic acid ("ρ1" antagonist, when administered to wild type mice, mimicked the changes that ethanol induced in ρ1 null mice (LORR and rotarod tests, but the ρ1 antagonist did not produce these effects in ρ1 null mice. In contrast, (R-4-amino-cyclopent-1-enyl butylphosphinic acid ("ρ2" antagonist did not change ethanol actions in wild type but produced effects in mice lacking ρ1 that were opposite of the effects of deleting (or inhibiting ρ1. These results suggest that ρ1 has a predominant role in two in vivo effects of ethanol, and a role for ρ2 may be revealed when ρ1 is deleted. We also found that ethanol produces similar inhibition of function of recombinant ρ1 and ρ2 receptors. These data indicate that ethanol action on GABAA receptors containing ρ1/ρ2 subunits may be important for specific effects of ethanol in vivo.

  5. Supersensitive Kappa Opioid Receptors Promotes Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Behaviors and Reduce Dopamine Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jamie H; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Chen, Rong; Gioia, Dominic; Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C; McCool, Brian A; Jones, Sara R

    2016-05-01

    Chronic ethanol exposure reduces dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens, which may contribute to the negative affective symptoms associated with ethanol withdrawal. Kappa opioid receptors have been implicated in withdrawal-induced excessive drinking and anxiety-like behaviors and are known to inhibit dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. The effects of chronic ethanol exposure on kappa opioid receptor-mediated changes in dopamine transmission at the level of the dopamine terminal and withdrawal-related behaviors were examined. Five weeks of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in male C57BL/6 mice were used to examine the role of kappa opioid receptors in chronic ethanol-induced increases in ethanol intake and marble burying, a measure of anxiety/compulsive-like behavior. Drinking and marble burying were evaluated before and after chronic intermittent ethanol exposure, with and without kappa opioid receptor blockade by nor-binaltorphimine (10mg/kg i.p.). Functional alterations in kappa opioid receptors were assessed using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens. Chronic intermittent ethanol-exposed mice showed increased ethanol drinking and marble burying compared with controls, which was attenuated with kappa opioid receptor blockade. Chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increases in behavior were replicated with kappa opioid receptor activation in naïve mice. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry revealed that chronic intermittent ethanol reduced accumbal dopamine release and increased uptake rates, promoting a hypodopaminergic state of this region. Kappa opioid receptor activation with U50,488H concentration-dependently decreased dopamine release in both groups; however, this effect was greater in chronic intermittent ethanol-treated mice, indicating kappa opioid receptor supersensitivity in this group. These data suggest that the chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increase in ethanol intake and anxiety

  6. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  7. ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL CHARACTERISTICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL-DIESEL MIX FOR AUTOMOTIVE. DIESEL ... diesel engine and the engine speed, torque, power and specific fuel consumption (sfc) were determine .... heated on an electric stove and stirred continuously.

  8. Establishing an ethanol production business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Many Saskatchewan communities are interested in the potential benefits of establishing an ethanol production facility. A guide is presented to outline areas that communities should consider when contemplating the development of an ethanol production facility. Political issues affecting the ethanol industry are discussed including environmental impacts, United States legislation, Canadian legislation, and government incentives. Key success factors in starting a business, project management, marketing, financing, production, physical requirements, and licensing and regulation are considered. Factors which must be taken into consideration by the project manager and team include markets for ethanol and co-products, competent business management staff, equity partners for financing, production and co-product utilization technologies, integration with another facility such as a feedlot or gluten plant, use of outside consultants, and feedstock, water, energy, labour, environmental and site size requirements. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds of rice straw formed by saccharification during ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiahui; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Li, Yuhao; Ma, Xiubing; Cui, Shouqing; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Hu, Jiajun; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-11-01

    In this study, it was found that the type of phenolic acids derived from rice straw was the major factor affecting ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic acids on ethanol fermentation with rice straw. Different cellulases produced different ratios of free phenolic acids to soluble conjugated phenolic acids, resulting in different fermentation efficiencies. Free phenolic acids exhibited much higher inhibitory effect than conjugated phenolic acids. The flow cytometry results indicated that the damage to cell membranes was the primary mechanism of inhibition of ethanol fermentation by phenolic acids. The removal of free phenolic acids from the hydrolysates increased ethanol productivity by 2.0-fold, indicating that the free phenolic acids would be the major inhibitors formed during saccharification. The integrated process for ethanol and phenolic acids may constitute a new strategy for the production of low-cost ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Excitation of lateral habenula neurons as a neural mechanism underlying ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Shashank; Keefe, Kristen A; Taha, Sharif A

    2017-02-15

    The lateral habenula (LHb) has been implicated in regulation of drug-seeking behaviours through aversion-mediated learning. In this study, we recorded neuronal activity in the LHb of rats during an operant task before and after ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin. Ethanol-induced CTA caused significantly higher baseline firing rates in LHb neurons, as well as elevated firing rates in response to cue presentation, lever press and saccharin taste. In a separate cohort of rats, we found that bilateral LHb lesions blocked ethanol-induced CTA. Our results strongly suggest that excitation of LHb neurons is required for ethanol-induced CTA, and point towards a mechanism through which LHb firing may regulate voluntary ethanol consumption. Ethanol, like other drugs of abuse, has both rewarding and aversive properties. Previous work suggests that sensitivity to ethanol's aversive effects negatively modulates voluntary alcohol intake and thus may be important in vulnerability to developing alcohol use disorders. We previously found that rats with lesions of the lateral habenula (LHb), which is implicated in aversion-mediated learning, show accelerated escalation of voluntary ethanol consumption. To understand neural encoding in the LHb contributing to ethanol-induced aversion, we recorded neural firing in the LHb of freely behaving, water-deprived rats before and after an ethanol-induced (1.5 g kg -1 20% ethanol, i.p.) conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin taste. Ethanol-induced CTA strongly decreased motivation for saccharin in an operant task to obtain the tastant. Comparison of LHb neural firing before and after CTA induction revealed four main differences in firing properties. First, baseline firing after CTA induction was significantly higher. Second, firing evoked by cues signalling saccharin availability shifted from a pattern of primarily inhibition before CTA to primarily excitation after CTA induction. Third, CTA induction reduced

  11. Production of ethanol from cellulose (sawdust)

    OpenAIRE

    Otulugbu, Kingsley

    2012-01-01

    The production of ethanol from food such as corn, cassava etc. is the most predominate way of producing ethanol. This has led to a shortage in food, inbalance in food chain, increased food price and indirect land use. This thesis thus explores using another feed for the production of ethanol- hence ethanol from cellulose. Sawdust was used to carry out the experiment from the production of ethanol and two methods were considered: SHF (Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation) and SSF (Simultaneous...

  12. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  13. Effects of chronic ethanol administration on hepatic glycoprotein secretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, M.F.; Nauss, J.M.; Donohue, T.M. Jr.; Tuma, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion were studied in rat liver slices. Liver slices from rats fed ethanol for 4-5 wk showed a decreased ability to incorporate [ 14 C]glucosamine into medium trichloracetic acid-precipitable proteins when compared to the pair-fed controls; however, the labeling of hepatocellular glycoproteins was unaffected by chronic ethanol treatment. Immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled secretory (serum) glycoproteins with antiserum against rat serum proteins showed a similar marked inhibition in the appearance of glucosamine-labeled proteins in the medium of slices from ethanol-fed rats. Minimal effects, however, were noted in the labeling of intracellular secretory glycoproteins. Protein synthesis, as determined by measuring [ 14 C]leucine incorporation into medium and liver proteins, was decreased in liver slices from ethanol-fed rats as compared to the pair-fed controls. This was the case for both total proteins as well as immunoprecipitable secretory proteins, although the labeling of secretory proteins retained in the liver slices was reduced to a lesser extent than total radiolabeled hepatic proteins. When the terminal sugar, [ 14 C]fucose, was employed as a precursor in order to more closely focus on the final steps of hepatic glycoprotein secretion, liver slices obtained from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibited impaired secretion of fucose-labeled proteins into the medium. When ethanol (5 or 10 mM) was added to the incubation medium containing liver slices from the ethanol-fed rats, the alterations in protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion caused by the chronic ethanol treatment were further potentiated. The results of this study indicate that liver slices prepared from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibit both impaired synthesis and secretion of proteins and glycoproteins, and these defects are further potentiated by acute ethanol administration

  14. Ethanol Influences on Bax Associations with Mitochondrial Membrane Proteins in Neonatal Rat Cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Marieta Barrow; Siler-Marsiglio, Kendra; Paiva, Michael; Kotler, Alexandra; Rogozinski, Jonathan; Kubovec, Stacey; Coursen, Mary; Madorsky, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    These studies investigated interactions taking place at the mitochondrial membrane in neonatal rat cerebellum following ethanol exposure, and focused on interactions between pro-apoptotic Bax and proteins of the permeability transition pore (PTP), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), of the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, respectively. Cultured cerebellar granule cells were used to assess the role of these interactions in ethanol neurotoxicity. Analyses were made at the age of maximal cerebellar ethanol vulnerability (P4), compared to the later age of relative resistance (P7), to determine whether differential ethanol sensitivity was mirrored by differences in these molecular interactions. We found that following ethanol exposure, Bax pro-apoptotic associations with both VDAC and ANT were increased, particularly at the age of greater ethanol sensitivity, and these interactions were sustained at this age for at least two hours post-exposure. Since Bax:VDAC interactions disrupt protective VDAC interactions with mitochondrial hexokinase (HXK), we also assessed VDAC:HXK associations following ethanol treatment, and found such interactions were altered by ethanol treatment, but only at two-hours post-exposure, and only in the P4, ethanol-sensitive cerebellum. Ethanol neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal preparations was abolished by pharmacological inhibition of both VDAC and ANT interactions with Bax, but not by a Bax channel blocker. Therefore, we conclude that at this age, within the constraints of our experimental model, a primary mode of Bax-induced initiation of the apoptosis cascade following ethanol insult involves interactions with proteins of the PTP complex, and not channel formation independent of PTP constituents. PMID:22767450

  15. Ethanol effect on metabolic activity of the ethalogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschos, Thomas; Xiros, Charilaos; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2015-03-12

    Fusarium oxysporum is a filamentous fungus which has attracted a lot of scientific interest not only due to its ability to produce a variety of lignocellulolytic enzymes, but also because it is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses to ethanol. Although this fungus has been studied a lot as a cell factory, regarding applications for the production of bioethanol and other high added value products, no systematic study has been performed concerning its ethanol tolerance levels. In aerobic conditions it was shown that both the biomass production and the specific growth rate were affected by the presence of ethanol. The maximum allowable ethanol concentration, above which cells could not grow, was predicted to be 72 g/L. Under limited aeration conditions the ethanol-producing capability of the cells was completely inhibited at 50 g/L ethanol. The lignocellulolytic enzymatic activities were affected to a lesser extent by the presence of ethanol, while the ethanol inhibitory effect appears to be more severe at elevated temperatures. Moreover, when the produced ethanol was partially removed from the broth, it led to an increase in fermenting ability of the fungus up to 22.5%. The addition of F. oxysporum's system was shown to increase the fermentation of pretreated wheat straw by 11%, in co-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assessment of ethanol tolerance levels of F. oxysporum on aerobic growth, on lignocellulolytic activities and on fermentative performance confirmed its biotechnological potential for the production of bioethanol. The cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes of this fungus could be exploited within the biorefinery concept as their ethanol resistance is similar to that of the commercial enzymes broadly used in large scale fermentations and therefore, may substantially contribute to a rational design of a bioconversion process involving F. oxysporum. The SSCF experiments on liquefied wheat straw rich in hemicellulose indicated that the

  16. The H2O2 scavenger ebselen decreases ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Font, Laura; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2012-07-01

    In the brain, the enzyme catalase by reacting with H(2)O(2) forms Compound I (catalase-H(2)O(2) system), which is the main system of central ethanol metabolism to acetaldehyde. Previous research has demonstrated that acetaldehyde derived from central-ethanol metabolism mediates some of the psychopharmacological effects produced by ethanol. Manipulations that modulate central catalase activity or sequester acetaldehyde after ethanol administration modify the stimulant effects induced by ethanol in mice. However, the role of H(2)O(2) in the behavioral effects caused by ethanol has not been clearly addressed. The present study investigated the effects of ebselen, an H(2)O(2) scavenger, on ethanol-induced locomotion. Swiss RjOrl mice were pre-treated with ebselen (0-50mg/kg) intraperitoneally (IP) prior to administration of ethanol (0-3.75g/kg; IP). In another experiment, animals were pre-treated with ebselen (0 or 25mg/kg; IP) before caffeine (15mg/kg; IP), amphetamine (2mg/kg; IP) or cocaine (10mg/kg; IP) administration. Following these treatments, animals were placed in an open field to measure their locomotor activity. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of ebselen on the H(2)O(2)-mediated inactivation of brain catalase activity by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT). Ebselen selectively prevented ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation without altering the baseline activity or the locomotor stimulating effects caused by caffeine, amphetamine and cocaine. Ebselen reduced the ability of AT to inhibit brain catalase activity. Taken together, these data suggest that a decline in H(2)O(2) levels might result in a reduction of the ethanol locomotor-stimulating effects, indicating a possible role for H(2)O(2) in some of the psychopharmacological effects produced by ethanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaserstein, Leonid N.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.

  18. Ethanol exposure affects cell movement during gastrulation and induces split axes in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Shao, Ming; Wang, Lifeng; Liu, Zhongzhen; Gao, Ming; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hongwei

    2010-06-01

    To explore the toxic effects of ethanol on axis formation during embryogenesis, zebrafish embryos at different developmental stages were treated with 3% ethanol for 3h. The effects of ethanol exposure appeared to be stage-dependent. The dome stage embryo was most sensible to form posterior split axes upon ethanol exposure. Morphological and histological observations and whole-mount in situ hybridization results showed that ethanol exposure at this stage caused a general gastrulation delay, and induced double notochords, double neural tubes and two sets of somites in the posterior trunk. Mechanistically, no ectopic organizer was found by examining the expression patterns of dorsoventral markers including goosecoid, chordin and eve1 at the onset of gastrulation. However, radial intercalation, epiboly and convergence extension were inhibited by ethanol exposure as revealed by cell labeling, phenotypic observation and the expression patterns of axial or paraxial markers. Further investigation showed that the cell aggregation might be affected by ethanol exposure, as indicated by the much more scattered expression pattern of chordin, eve1 and wnt11 at the early gastrula stage, and the discontinuous gsc positive cells during migration. These results imply that ethanol might affect cell movement before and during gastrulation and as a consequence, induces a split axes phenotype. Copyright 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phospholipase D mediated transphosphatidylation as a possible new pathway of ethanol metabolism in isolated rat pancreatic acini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydzewska, G.; Jurkowska, G.; Gabryelewicz, A.

    1996-01-01

    Activation of pancreatic phospholipase D (PLD) has been previously observed in response to caerulein (Cae), phorbol myristate acetate and growth factors. Although PLD involvement has been postulated in pancreatic cell proliferation and differentiation, the physiological role of this enzyme in pancreatic cells still remains unclear. In the presence of ethanol, PLD catalysed transphosphatidylation reaction, forming phosphatidylethanol (PEt). This study was thus undertaken to determine the involvement of PLD in ethanol metabolism in isolated pancreatic acini and to show the potential physiological consequences of transphosphatidylation. Dispersed pancreatic acini prelabelled with 3H myristic acid were incubated with 500 pM Cae in the presence or absence of different concentrations of ethanol, and labelled phosphatidylethanol (3H PEt) production or phosphatidic acid (3H PA) accumulation were measured. The production of PEt after Cae stimulation in pancreatic acini was significant from 0.5% up to 4% of ethanol in the medium and was not dependent on increasing concentration of ethanol. Prolonged up to 2 h stimulation with Cae in the presence of 1% ethanol did not increase PEt production which was almost stable since 5 min of stimulation. In the presence of different concentrations of ethanol (1-4%), the significant inhibition of PA accumulation was obtained after Cae stimulation, similar to inhibition with a specific PLD inhibitor-wortmannin. These data indicate that Cae activated PLD in the presence of ethanol caused PEt production in pancreatic acini. During formation of PEt in pancreatic acinar cells significant and parallel inhibition of PA accumulation was observed. This indicates the relation of PLD activation in isolated pancreatic acini to ethanol metabolism. Ethanol can act as an inhibitor of PLD activity. Since PA, a product of PLD, is known as a second messenger probably involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, this may suggest a potentially new

  20. Phospholipase D mediated transphosphatidylation as a possible new pathway of ethanol metabolism in isolated rat pancreatic acini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydzewska, G.; Jurkowska, G.; Gabryelewicz, A. [Akademia Medyczna, Bialystok (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Activation of pancreatic phospholipase D (PLD) has been previously observed in response to caerulein (Cae), phorbol myristate acetate and growth factors. The physiological role of PLD in pancreatic cells still remains unclear. In the presence of ethanol, PLD catalysed transphosphatidylation reaction, forming phosphatidylethanol (PEt). This study was thus undertaken to determine the involvement of PLD in ethanol metabolism in isolated pancreatic acini and to show the potential physiological consequences of transphosphatidylation. Dispersed pancreatic acini prelabelled with 3H myristic acid were incubated with 500 pM Cae in the presence or absence of different concentrations of ethanol, and labelled phosphatidylethanol (3H PEt) production or phosphatidic acid (3H PA) accumulation were measured. The production of PEt after Cae stimulation in pancreatic acini was significant from 0.5% up to 4% of ethanol in the medium and was not dependent on increasing concentration of ethanol. Prolonged up to 2 h stimulation with Cae in the presence of 1% ethanol did not increase PEt production which was almost stable since 5 min of stimulation. In the presence of different concentrations of ethanol (1-4%), the significant inhibition of PA accumulation was obtained after Cae stimulation, similar to inhibition with a specific PLD inhibitor-wortmannin. These data indicate that Cae activated PLD in the presence of ethanol caused PEt production in pancreatic acini. During formation of PEt in pancreatic acinar cells significant and parallel inhibition of PA accumulation was observed. This indicates the relation of PLD activation in isolated pancreatic acini to ethanol metabolism. Ethanol can act as an inhibitor of PLD activity. Since PA, a product of PLD, is known as a second messenger probably involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, this may suggest a potentially new mechanism for pancreatic tissue injury after ethanol ingestion. (author). 32 refs, 5 figs.

  1. miR-217 regulates ethanol-induced hepatic inflammation by disrupting sirtuin 1-lipin-1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huquan; Liang, Xiaomei; Jogasuria, Alvin; Davidson, Nicholas O; You, Min

    2015-05-01

    Ethanol-mediated injury, combined with gut-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), provokes generation of proinflammatory cytokines in Kupffer cells, causing hepatic inflammation. Among the mediators of these effects, miR-217 aggravates ethanol-induced steatosis in hepatocytes. However, the role of miR-217 in ethanol-induced liver inflammation process is unknown. Here, we examined the role of miR-217 in the responses to ethanol, LPS, or a combination of ethanol and LPS in RAW 264.7 macrophages and in primary Kupffer cells. In macrophages, ethanol substantially exacerbated LPS-mediated induction of miR-217 and production of proinflammatory cytokines compared with LPS or ethanol alone. Consistently, ethanol administration to mice led to increases in miR-217 abundance and increased production of inflammatory cytokines in isolated primary Kupffer cells exposed to the combination of ethanol and LPS. miR-217 promoted combined ethanol and LPS-mediated inhibition of sirtuin 1 expression and activity in macrophages. Moreover, miR-217-mediated sirtuin 1 inhibition was accompanied by increased activities of two vital inflammatory regulators, NF-κB and the nuclear factor of activated T cells c4. Finally, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of miR-217 led to steatosis and inflammation in mice. These findings suggest that miR-217 is a pivotal regulator involved in ethanol-induced hepatic inflammation. Strategies to inhibit hepatic miR-217 could be a viable approach in attenuating alcoholic hepatitis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of ethanol on sup 35 -S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljequist, S.; Culp, S.; Tabakoff, B. (Laboratory for Studies of Neuroadaptive Processes, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of {sup 35}S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate ({sup 35}S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. {sup 35}S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl{sup -} channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol. Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding by diazepam.

  3. Promotion effect of H2 on ethanol oxidation and NOx reduction with ethanol over Ag/Al2O3 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunbo; Li, Yi; Zhang, Xiuli; Deng, Hua; He, Hong; Li, Yuyang

    2015-01-06

    The catalytic partial oxidation of ethanol and selective catalytic reduction of NOx with ethanol (ethanol-SCR) over Ag/Al2O3 were studied using synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS). The intermediates were identified by PIMS and their photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectra. The results indicate that H2 promotes the partial oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde over Ag/Al2O3, while the simultaneously occurring processes of dehydration and dehydrogenation were inhibited. H2 addition favors the formation of ammonia during ethanol-SCR over Ag/Al2O3, the occurrence of which creates an effective pathway for NOx reduction by direct reaction with NH3. Simultaneously, the enhancement of the formation of ammonia benefits its reaction with surface enolic species, resulting in producing -NCO species again, leading to enhancement of ethanol-SCR over Ag/Al2O3 by H2. Using VUV-PIMS, the reactive vinyloxy radical was observed in the gas phase during the NOx reduction by ethanol for the first time, particularly in the presence of H2. Identification of such a reaction occurring in the gas phase may be crucial for understanding the reaction pathway of HC-SCR over Ag/Al2O3.

  4. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    from P. stipitis and the endogenous XKS1 gene under control of the PGKI promoter, into the HIS3 locus of S. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7A. The strain was stable for more than forty generations in continuous fermentation. The metabolic fluxes during xylose metabolism were quantitatively analysed and anaerobic ethanol formation from xylose in recombinant S. cerevisiae was demonstrated for the first time. The xylose uptake rate increased with increasing xylose concentration in the feed. However, with a feed of 15 g/l xylose and 5 g/l glucose, the xylose flux was 2.2 times lower than the glucose flux, indicating that transport limits the xylose flux. The role of mitochondria in ethanol formation from xylose was investigated using cells of recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae with two different respiratory capacities and cells from P. stipitis grown under conditions of optimal ethanol formation. Different inhibitors were used either to inhibit the electron transport chain and simulate oxygen limitation, or to inhibit the tricarboxylic acid cycle while not disturbing the electron transport chain. The response to the inhibitors differed significantly for glucose and xylose and the effect was more pronounced for S. cerevisiae. The results indicate that mitochondria play a significant role in the maintenance of the cytoplasmic redox balance during xylose fermentation, through the action of cytoplasmically directed NADH dehydrogenase activity. Thus, more carbon was directed towards ethanol in chemostat cultivations of xylose/glucose mixtures by S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, in the presence of low amounts of oxygen. P. stipitis possesses a second, cyanide-insensitive terminal oxidase, the alternative oxidase, which seems to be of particular importance for efficient ethanol formation from xylose. The highest activity of cyanide-insensitive respiration (CIR), the highest ethanol productivity and lowest xylitol formation were all observed with cells grown under oxygen-limited conditions

  5. Cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of the marine sponge Aaptos suberitoides against T47D cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Awik Puji Dyah; Prastiwi, Rarastoeti; Sukardiman, Wahyuningsih, Tri

    2018-04-01

    Aaptos suberitoides marine sponge produce many kinds of secondary metabolites. The purpose of this study were to examine the cytotoxic, proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction of marine sponge A.suberitoides. The sponge was extracted with 96 % ethanol. Ethanol extract cytotoxicity assay were performed with MTT method (Microculture Tetrazolium) against to cell line of T47D. The proliferation inhibition were done by doubling time. The apoptosis induction by observing the treated cell morphology after staining with acrydine orange. The results show that cytotoxic activity of the ethanol extract was 153.109 µg/mL, inhibits cell proliferation cell lines of T47D at 24 hours of incubation and apoptosis induction.

  6. From Ethanol to Salsolinol: Role of Ethanol Metabolites in the Effects of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra T. Peana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the global reputation of ethanol as the psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, the neurobiological basis of the central effects of ethanol still presents some dark sides due to a number of unanswered questions related to both its precise mechanism of action and its metabolism. Accordingly, ethanol represents the interesting example of a compound whose actions cannot be explained as simply due to the involvement of a single receptor/neurotransmitter, a scenario further complicated by the robust evidence that two main metabolites, acetaldehyde and salsolinol, exert many effects similar to those of their parent compound. The present review recapitulates, in a perspective manner, the major and most recent advances that in the last decades boosted a significant growth in the understanding on the role of ethanol metabolism, in particular, in the neurobiological basis of its central effects.

  7. Lignocellulosic ethanol: Technology design and its impact on process efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulova, Leona; Patakova, Petra; Branska, Barbora; Rychtera, Mojmir; Melzoch, Karel

    2015-11-01

    This review provides current information on the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, with the main focus on relationships between process design and efficiency, expressed as ethanol concentration, yield and productivity. In spite of unquestionable advantages of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for ethanol production (availability, price, non-competitiveness with food, waste material), many technological bottlenecks hinder its wide industrial application and competitiveness with 1st generation ethanol production. Among the main technological challenges are the recalcitrant structure of the material, and thus the need for extensive pretreatment (usually physico-chemical followed by enzymatic hydrolysis) to yield fermentable sugars, and a relatively low concentration of monosaccharides in the medium that hinder the achievement of ethanol concentrations comparable with those obtained using 1st generation feedstocks (e.g. corn or molasses). The presence of both pentose and hexose sugars in the fermentation broth, the price of cellulolytic enzymes, and the presence of toxic compounds that can inhibit cellulolytic enzymes and microbial producers of ethanol are major issues. In this review, different process configurations of the main technological steps (enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation of hexose/and or pentose sugars) are discussed and their efficiencies are compared. The main features, benefits and drawbacks of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with delayed inoculation (dSSF), consolidated bioprocesses (CBP) combining production of cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of biomass and fermentation into one step, together with an approach combining utilization of both pentose and hexose sugars are discussed and compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) processes. The impact of individual technological steps on final process efficiency is emphasized and the potential for use

  8. Social opportunity and ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Burger, Kelly M; Di Poce, Jason; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-11-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of pairings of ethanol sipper conditioned stimulus (CS) with social opportunity unconditioned stimulus (US) on ethanol sipper CS-directed drinking in rats. In both experiments, rats were deprived of neither food nor water, and initiation of drinking of unsweetened 3% ethanol was evaluated, as were the effects of increasing the concentration of unsweetened ethanol (3-10%) across sessions. In Experiment 1, Group Paired (n=8) received 35 trials per session wherein the ethanol sipper CS was presented for 10 s immediately prior to 15 s of social opportunity US. All rats initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol. Increasing the concentration of ethanol in the sipper CS [(3%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% (vol./vol.)] across sessions induced escalation of daily g/kg ethanol intake. To evaluate the hypothesis that the drinking in Group Paired was due to autoshaping, Experiment 2 included a pseudoconditioning control that received sipper CS and social opportunity US randomly with respect to one another. All rats in Group Paired (n=6) and in Group Random (n=6) initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol and daily mean g/kg ethanol intake in the two groups was comparable. Also comparable was daily g/kg ethanol intake, which increased for both groups with the availability of higher concentrations of ethanol in the sipper CS, up to a maximum of approximately 0.8 g/kg ethanol intake of 10% ethanol. Results indicate that random presentations of ethanol sipper CS and social opportunity US induced reliable initiation and escalation of ethanol intake, and close temporally contiguous presentations of CS and US did not induce still additional ethanol intake. This may indicate that autoshaping CR performance is not induced by these procedures, or that high levels of ethanol intake induced by factors related to pseudoconditioning produces a ceiling effect. Implications for ethanol drinking in humans are discussed.

  9. Very high gravity ethanol fermentation by flocculating yeast under redox potential-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chen-Guang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very high gravity (VHG fermentation using medium in excess of 250 g/L sugars for more than 15% (v ethanol can save energy consumption, not only for ethanol distillation, but also for distillage treatment; however, stuck fermentation with prolonged fermentation time and more sugars unfermented is the biggest challenge. Controlling redox potential (ORP during VHG fermentation benefits biomass accumulation and improvement of yeast cell viability that is affected by osmotic pressure and ethanol inhibition, enhancing ethanol productivity and yield, the most important techno-economic aspect of fuel ethanol production. Results Batch fermentation was performed under different ORP conditions using the flocculating yeast and media containing glucose of 201 ± 3.1, 252 ± 2.9 and 298 ± 3.8 g/L. Compared with ethanol fermentation by non-flocculating yeast, different ORP profiles were observed with the flocculating yeast due to the morphological change associated with the flocculation of yeast cells. When ORP was controlled at −100 mV, ethanol fermentation with the high gravity (HG media containing glucose of 201 ± 3.1 and 252 ± 2.9 g/L was completed at 32 and 56 h, respectively, producing 93.0 ± 1.3 and 120.0 ± 1.8 g/L ethanol, correspondingly. In contrast, there were 24.0 ± 0.4 and 17.0 ± 0.3 g/L glucose remained unfermented without ORP control. As high as 131.0 ± 1.8 g/L ethanol was produced at 72 h when ORP was controlled at −150 mV for the VHG fermentation with medium containing 298 ± 3.8 g/L glucose, since yeast cell viability was improved more significantly. Conclusions No lag phase was observed during ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast, and the implementation of ORP control improved ethanol productivity and yield. When ORP was controlled at −150 mV, more reducing power was available for yeast cells to survive, which in turn improved their viability and VHG

  10. Acute effects of ethanol in the control of protein synthesis in isolated rat liver cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girbes, T.; Susin, A.; Ayuso, M.S.; Parrilla, R.

    1983-01-01

    The acute effect of ethanol on hepatic protein synthesis is a rather controversial issue. In view of the conflicting reports on this subject, the effect of ethanol on protein labeling from L-[ 3 H]valine in isolated liver cells was studied under a variety of experimental conditions. When tracer doses of the isotope were utilized, ethanol consistently decreased the rate of protein labeling, regardless of the metabolic conditions of the cells. This inhibition was not prevented by doses of 4-methylpyrazole large enough to abolish all the characteristic metabolic effects of ethanol, and it was not related to perturbations on the rates of L-valine transport and/or proteolysis. When ethanol was tested in the presence of saturating doses of L-[ 3 H]valine no effect on protein labeling was observed. These observations suggest that the ethanol effect in decreasing protein labeling from tracer doses of the radioactive precursor does not reflect variations in the rate of protein synthesis but reflects changes in the specific activity of the precursor. These changes probably are secondary to variations in the dimensions of the amino acid pool utilized for protein synthesis. Even though it showed a lack of effect when tested alone, in the presence of saturating doses of the radioactive precursor ethanol inhibited the stimulatory effects on protein synthesis mediated by glucose and several gluconeogenic substrates. This effect of ethanol was not prevented by inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase, indicating that a shift of the NAD system to a more reduced state is not the mediator of its action. It is suggested that ethanol probably acted by changing the steady-state levels of some common effector(s) generated from the metabolism of all these fuels or else by preventing the inactivation of a translational repressor

  11. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  12. Ethanolic leaf extract of Langenaria breviflora (bitter gourd) inhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-01-30

    Jan 30, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: Gastrointestinal toxicity remains a barrier to applications of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in ... acetaminophen, ibuprofen, aspirin and indomethacin ..... Hepatic and Renal Function of Rats. IOSR.

  13. The role of stress mediators in modulation of cytokine production by ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, Mitzi; Cheng Bing; Fan Ruping; Pruett, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Acute ethanol exposure in humans and in animal models activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS); the resultant increases in concentration of neuroendocrine mediators contribute to some of the immunosuppressive effects of ethanol. However, the role of these mediators in the ethanol-induced inhibition of inflammatory responses is not clear. This is complicated by the fact that most inflammatory stimuli also activate the HPA axis and SNS, and it has not been determined if ethanol plus an inflammatory stimulus increases these stress responses. Addressing this issue is the major focus of the study described herein. Complementary approaches were used, including quantitative assessment of the stress response in mice treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C, as an inflammatory stimulus) and inhibition of the production or action of key HPA axis and SNS mediators. Treatment of mice with ethanol shortly before treatment with poly I:C yielded a significant increase in the corticosterone response as compared to the response to poly I:C alone, but the increase was small and not likely sufficient to account for the anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol. Inhibition of catecholamine and glucocorticoid production by adrenalectomy, and inhibition of catecholamine action with a sustained release antagonist (nadalol) supported this conclusion and revealed that 'excess' stress responses associated with ethanol treatment is not the mechanism of suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, but stress-induced corticosterone does regulate production of several of these cytokines, which has not previously been reported.

  14. The role of stress mediators in modulation of cytokine production by ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, Mitzi; Bing, Cheng; Ruping, Fan [LSU Health Sciences Center, Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Shreveport, LA 71130 (United States); Pruett, Stephen [LSU Health Sciences Center, Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Shreveport, LA 71130 (United States); Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 6100, Mississippi State, MS 39762-6100 (United States)], E-mail: pruett@cvm.msstate.edu

    2009-08-15

    Acute ethanol exposure in humans and in animal models activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS); the resultant increases in concentration of neuroendocrine mediators contribute to some of the immunosuppressive effects of ethanol. However, the role of these mediators in the ethanol-induced inhibition of inflammatory responses is not clear. This is complicated by the fact that most inflammatory stimuli also activate the HPA axis and SNS, and it has not been determined if ethanol plus an inflammatory stimulus increases these stress responses. Addressing this issue is the major focus of the study described herein. Complementary approaches were used, including quantitative assessment of the stress response in mice treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C, as an inflammatory stimulus) and inhibition of the production or action of key HPA axis and SNS mediators. Treatment of mice with ethanol shortly before treatment with poly I:C yielded a significant increase in the corticosterone response as compared to the response to poly I:C alone, but the increase was small and not likely sufficient to account for the anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol. Inhibition of catecholamine and glucocorticoid production by adrenalectomy, and inhibition of catecholamine action with a sustained release antagonist (nadalol) supported this conclusion and revealed that 'excess' stress responses associated with ethanol treatment is not the mechanism of suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, but stress-induced corticosterone does regulate production of several of these cytokines, which has not previously been reported.

  15. Process development and modeling of fluidized-bed reactor with coimmobilized biocatalyst for fuel ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, May Yongmei

    This research focuses on two steps of commercial fuel ethanol production processes: the hydrolysis starch process and the fermentation process. The goal of this research is to evaluate the performance of co-immobilized biocatalysts in a fluidized bed reactor with emphasis on economic and engineering aspects and to develop a predictive mathematical model for this system. The productivity of an FBR is higher than productivity of a traditional batch reactor or CSTR. Fluidized beds offer great advantages over packed beds for immobilized cells when small particles are used or when the reactant feed contains suspended solids. Plugging problems, excessive pressure drops (and thus attrition), or crushing risks may be avoided. No mechanical stirring is required as mixing occurs due to the natural turbulence in the fluidized process. Both enzyme and microorganism are immobilized in one catalyst bead which is called co-immobilization. Inside this biocatalyst matrix, starch is hydrolyzed by the enzyme glucoamylase to form glucose and then converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide by microorganisms. Two biocatalysts were evaluated: (1) co-immobilized yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and glucoamylase. (2) co-immobilized Zymomonas mobilis and glucoamylase. A co-immobilized biocatalyst accomplishes the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process). When compared to a two-step process involving separate saccharification and fermentation stages, the SSF process has productivity values twice that given by the pre-saccharified process when the time required for pre-saccharification (15--25 h) was taken into account. The SSF process should also save capital cost. The information about productivity, fermentation yield, concentration profiles along the bed, ethanol inhibition, et al., was obtained from the experimental data. For the yeast system, experimental results showed that: no apparent decrease of productivity occurred after two and half months, the productivity

  16. Supply chain optimization of sugarcane first generation and eucalyptus second generation ethanol production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, J.G.G.; Junginger, H.M.; Verstegen, J.A.; Lin, T.; Rodríguez, L.F.; Ting, K.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Hilst, F. van der

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal location & scale of ethanol plants for expansion in Goiás until 2030. • Ethanol costs from sugarcane vary between 710 and 752 US$/m"3 in 2030. • For eucalyptus-based ethanol production costs vary between 543 and 560 US$/m"3 in 2030. • System-wide optimization has a marginal impact on overall production costs. • The overall GHG emission intensity is mainly impacted by former land use. - Abstract: The expansion of the ethanol industry in Brazil faces two important challenges: to reduce total ethanol production costs and to limit the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity of the ethanol produced. The objective of this study is to economically optimize the scale and location of ethanol production plants given the expected expansion of biomass supply regions. A linear optimization model is utilized to determine the optimal location and scale of sugarcane and eucalyptus industrial processing plants given the projected spatial distribution of the expansion of biomass production in the state of Goiás between 2012 and 2030. Three expansion approaches evaluated the impact on ethanol production costs of expanding an existing industry in one time step (one-step), or multiple time steps (multi-step), or constructing a newly emerging ethanol industry in Goiás (greenfield). In addition, the GHG emission intensity of the optimized ethanol supply chains are calculated. Under the three expansion approaches, the total ethanol production costs of sugarcane ethanol decrease from 894 US$/m"3 ethanol in 2015 to 752, 715, and 710 US$/m"3 ethanol in 2030 for the multi-step, one step and greenfield expansion respectively. For eucalyptus, ethanol production costs decrease from 635 US$/m"3 in 2015 to 560 and 543 US$/m"3 in 2030 for the multi-step and one-step approach. A general trend is the use of large scale industrial processing plants, especially towards 2030 due to increased biomass supply. We conclude that a system-wide optimization as a marginal

  17. Insights on the mechanism of thioredoxin reductase inhibition by gold N-heterocyclic carbene compounds using the synthetic linear selenocysteine containing C-terminal peptide hTrxR(488-499): an ESI-MS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesi, Alessandro; Gabbiani, Chiara; Michelucci, Elena; Ginanneschi, Mauro; Papini, Anna Maria; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Ott, Ingo; Messori, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    Gold-based drugs typically behave as strong inhibitors of the enzyme thioredoxin reductase (hTrxR), possibly as the consequence of direct Gold(I) coordination to its active site selenocysteine. To gain a deeper insight into the molecular basis of enzyme inhibition and prove gold-selenocysteine coordination, the reactions of three parent Gold(I) NHC compounds with the synthetic C-terminal dodecapeptide of hTrxR containing Selenocysteine at position 498, were investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Formation of 1:1 Gold-peptide adducts, though in highly different amounts, was demonstrated in all cases. In these adducts the same [Au-NHC](+) moiety is always associated to the intact peptide. Afterward, tandem MS experiments, conducted on a specific Gold-peptide complex, pointed out that Gold is coordinated to the selenolate group. The relatively large strength of the Gold-selenolate coordinative bond well accounts for potent enzyme inhibition typically afforded by these Gold(I) compounds. In a selected case, the time course of enzyme inhibition was explored. Interestingly, enzyme inhibition turned out to show up very quickly and reached its maximum just few minutes after mixing. Overall, the present results offer some clear insight into the process of thioredoxin reductase inhibition by Gold-based compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium by Capparis deciduas in Acidic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of ethanolic extract of different parts of Capparis deciduas (Ker in acidic medium has been evaluated by mass loss and thermometric methods. Values of inhibition efficiency obtained from the two methods are in good agreement and are dependent upon the concentration of inhibitor and acid.

  19. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium by Capparis deciduas in Acidic Media

    OpenAIRE

    P. Arora; S. Kumar; M. K. Sharma; S. P. Mathur

    2007-01-01

    The inhibition efficiency of ethanolic extract of different parts of Capparis deciduas (Ker) in acidic medium has been evaluated by mass loss and thermometric methods. Values of inhibition efficiency obtained from the two methods are in good agreement and are dependent upon the concentration of inhibitor and acid.

  20. Acupuncture Attenuates Anxiety-Like Behavior by Normalizing Amygdaloid Catecholamines during Ethanol Withdrawal in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lin Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated acupuncture at acupoint HT7 (Shen-Men attenuated ethanol withdrawal syndrome by normalizing the dopamine release in nucleus accumbens shell. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acupuncture on anxiety-like behavior in rats and its relevant mechanism by studying neuro-endocrine parameters during ethanol withdrawal. Rats were treated with 3 g kg−1day−1 of ethanol (20%, w/v or saline by intraperitoneal injections for 28 days. The rats undergoing ethanol withdrawal exhibited anxiety-like behavior 72 h after the last dose of ethanol characterized by the decrease of time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared with the saline-treated rats (P < .05. Radioimmunoassay exhibited there were notably increased concentrations of plasma corticosterone in ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with saline-treated rats (P < .05. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography analysis also showed the levels of norepinephrine and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol were markedly increased while the levels of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were significantly decreased in the central nucleus of the amygdala of ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with saline-treated rats (P < .01. Acupuncture groups were treated with acupuncture at acupoint HT7 or PC6 (Nei-Guan. Acupuncture at HT7 but not PC6 greatly attenuated the anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal as evidenced by significant increases in the percentage of time spent in open arms (P < .05. In the meantime, acupuncture at HT7 also markedly inhibited the alterations of neuro-endocrine parameters induced by ethanol withdrawal (P < .05. These results suggest that acupuncture may attenuate anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal through regulation of neuro-endocrine system.

  1. Strategic design and investment capacity planning of the ethanol supply chain under price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal-Mas, Matteo; Giarola, Sara; Zamboni, Andrea; Bezzo, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuel depletion and the increase of greenhouse gases emissions has been pushing the search for alternative fuels for automotive transport. The European Union has identified biofuel technology as one option for reducing its dependence on imported energy. Ethanol is a promising biofuel, but great uncertainty on the business profitability has recently determined a slowdown in the industry expansion. In particular, geographical plant location, biomass price fluctuation and fuel demand variability severely constrain the economic viability of new ethanol facilities. In this work a dynamic, spatially explicit and multi-echelon Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) modeling framework is presented to help decision-makers and potential investors assessing economic performances and risk on investment of the entire biomass-based ethanol supply chain. A case study concerning the corn-to-ethanol production supply chain in Northern Italy is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modeling approach. The mathematical pattern addresses the issue of optimizing the ethanol supply network over a ten years' time period under uncertainty on biomass production cost and product selling price. The model allows optimizing economic performances and minimize financial risk on investment by identifying the best network topology in terms of biomass cultivation site locations, ethanol production plant capacities, location and transport logistics. -- Highlights: →A dynamic spatially explicit Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) of the entire corn-based ethanol supply chain is proposed. →Uncertainty on corn price and ethanol selling price is taken into account. →The model allows assessing and optimizing the supply chain economic performance and risk on investment. →A case study concerning the corn-to-ethanol production in Northern Italy demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  2. Evaluation of Macerating Pectinase Enzyme Activity under Various Temperature, pH and Ethanol Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Reynolds

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The polygalacturonase (PGU, hemicellulase (mannanase and protease enzyme activities in commercial macerating, pectinase-enzyme preparations commonly used by wineries in Ontario (Scottzyme Color X and Color Pro were measured under various simulated process conditions (temperature, pH, and ethanol concentration. Treatments included three temperatures (15, 20 and 30 °C; pH = 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 5.0; ethanol = 0%, four pH levels (3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 5.0; temperature = 15, 20, 30 and 50 °C; ethanol = 0%, and four ethanol concentrations ((2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%; temperature = 20 °C and pH = 3.5. Polygalacturonase enzyme activity in Color X increased linearly with temperature at all pH levels, and increased with pH at all temperature regimes. Polygalacturonase activity decreased with increasing ethanol. Color X mannanase activity increased with temperatures between 15 and 40 °C, and decreased with increased pH between 3.0 and 5.0. Response of mannanase to ethanol was cubic with a sharp decrease between 8 and 10% ethanol. Protease activity increased linearly with temperatures between 20 and 40 °C. These data suggest that the PGU, mannanase and protease components in these enzyme products provide sufficient activities within the ranges of pH, temperature, and ethanol common during the initial stages of red wine fermentations, although low must temperatures (<20 °C and presence of ethanol would likely lead to sub-optimal enzyme activities.

  3. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  4. Fermentation of hexoses to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Chemical Reaction Engineering

    2000-06-01

    The Goals of the project has been: to increase the ethanol yield by reducing the by-product formation, primarily biomass and glycerol, and to prevent stuck fermentations, i.e. to maintain a high ethanol production rate simultaneously with a high ethanol yield. The studies have been performed both in defined laboratory media and in a mixture of wood- and wheat hydrolysates. The yeast strains used have been both industrial strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and haploid laboratory strains. The Relevance of these studies with respect to production of ethanol to be used as fuel is explained by: With the traditional process design used today, it is very difficult to reach a yield of more than 90 % of the theoretical maximal value of ethanol based on fermented hexose. During 'normal' growth and fermentation conditions in either anaerobic batch or chemostat cultures, substrate is lost as biomass and glycerol in the range of 8 to 11 % and 6 to 11 % of the substrate consumed (kg/kg). It is essential to reduce these by-products. Traditional processes are mostly batch processes, in which there is a risk that the biocatalyst, i.e. the yeast, may become inactivated. If for example yeast biomass production is avoided by use of non-growing systems, the ethanol production rate is instantaneously reduced by at least 50%. Unfortunately, even if yeast biomass production is not avoided on purpose, it is well known that stuck fermentations caused by cell death is a problem in large scale yeast processes. The main reason for stuck fermentations is nutrient imbalances. For a good process economy, it is necessary to ensure process accessibility, i.e. to maintain a high and reproducible production rate. This will both considerably reduce the necessary total volume of the fermentors (and thereby the investment costs), and moreover minimize undesirable product fall-out.

  5. Grain sorghum is a viable feedstock for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Bean, S; McLaren, J; Seib, P; Madl, R; Tuinstra, M; Shi, Y; Lenz, M; Wu, X; Zhao, R

    2008-05-01

    Sorghum is a major cereal crop in the USA. However, sorghum has been underutilized as a renewable feedstock for bioenergy. The goal of this research was to improve the bioconversion efficiency for biofuels and biobased products from processed sorghum. The main focus was to understand the relationship among "genetics-structure-function-conversion" and the key factors impacting ethanol production, as well as to develop an energy life cycle analysis model (ELCAM) to quantify and prioritize the saving potential from factors identified in this research. Genetic lines with extremely high and low ethanol fermentation efficiency and some specific attributes that may be manipulated to improve the bioconversion rate of sorghum were identified. In general, ethanol yield increased as starch content increased. However, no linear relationship between starch content and fermentation efficiency was found. Key factors affecting the ethanol fermentation efficiency of sorghum include protein digestibility, level of extractable proteins, protein and starch interaction, mash viscosity, amount of phenolic compounds, ratio of amylose to amylopectin, and formation of amylose-lipid complexes in the mash. A platform ELCAM with a base case showed a positive net energy value (NEV) = 25,500 Btu/gal EtOH. ELCAM cases were used to identify factors that most impact sorghum use. For example, a yield increase of 40 bu/ac resulted in NEV increasing from 7 million to 12 million Btu/ac. An 8% increase in starch provided an incremental 1.2 million Btu/ac.

  6. Ethanol fuel gets the hangover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Corn, wheat, sugar cane.. The multiplication of biofuel refineries has led to a rise of the prices of agriculture products. The question is: do we need ethanol? The US situation gives an answer: the offer exceeds the demand and ethanol prices have dropped down. Other environmental and socio-economical consequences of biofuels development are put forward by the UNO, the IMF and by non-governmental organizations who foresee a dramatic rise of food products prices and an aggravation of starvation in developing countries. (J.S.)

  7. A Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Ethanol Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions. Background information, procedures, and typical results are included. Accuracy and precision of results are both on the order of two percent. (JN)

  8. Lithium blocks ethanol-induced modulation of protein kinases in the developing brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Goutam; Saito, Mitsuo; Mao, Rui-Fen; Wang, Ray; Vadasz, Csaba; Saito, Mariko

    2008-01-01

    Lithium has been shown to be neuroprotective against various insults including ethanol exposure. We previously reported that ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the postnatal day 7 (P7) mice is associated with decreases in phosphorylation levels of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and alteration in lipid profiles in the brain. Here, P7 mice were injected with ethanol and lithium, and the effects of lithium on ethanol-induced alterations in phosphorylation levels of protein kinases and lipid profiles in the brain were examined. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses showed that lithium significantly blocked ethanol-induced caspase-3 activation and reduction in phosphorylation levels of Akt, GSK-3β, and AMPK. Further, lithium inhibited accumulation of cholesterol ester (ChE) and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) triggered by ethanol in the brain. These results suggest that Akt, GSK-3β, and AMPK are involved in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration and the neuroprotective effects of lithium by modulating both apoptotic and survival pathways

  9. Ecklonia cava Polyphenol Has a Protective Effect against Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in a Cyclic AMP-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Yamashita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we showed that Ecklonia cava polyphenol (ECP treatment suppressed ethanol-induced increases in hepatocyte death by scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and maintaining intracellular glutathione levels. Here, we examined the effects of ECP on the activities of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and their regulating mechanisms in ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Isolated hepatocytes were incubated with or without 100 mM ethanol. ECP was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide. ECP was added to cultured cells that had been incubated with or without ethanol. The cells were incubated for 0–24 h. In cultured hepatocytes, the ECP treatment with ethanol inhibited cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1 expression and activity, which is related to the production of ROS when large quantities of ethanol are oxidized. On the other hand, ECP treatment with ethanol increased the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These changes in activities of CYP2E1 and ADH were suppressed by treatment with H89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A. ECP treatment with ethanol enhanced cyclic AMP concentrations compared with those of control cells. ECP may be a candidate for preventing ethanol-induced liver injury via regulating alcohol metabolic enzymes in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner.

  10. Protective influence of hyaluronic acid on focal adhesion kinase activity in human skin fibroblasts exposed to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donejko, Magdalena; Rysiak, Edyta; Galicka, Elżbieta; Terlikowski, Robert; Głażewska, Edyta Katarzyna; Przylipiak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and hyaluronic acid (HA) on cell survival and apoptosis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Regarding the mechanism of ethanol action on human skin fibroblasts, we investigated cell viability and apoptosis, expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and the influence of HA on those processes. Studies were conducted in confluent human skin fibroblast cultures that were treated with 25 mM, 50 mM, and 100 mM ethanol or with ethanol and 500 µg/mL HA. Cell viability was examined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and NC-300 Nucleo-Counter. Imaging of the cells using a fluorescence microscope Pathway 855 was performed to measure FAK expression. Depending on the dosage, ethanol decreased cell viability and activated the process of apoptosis in human skin fibroblasts. HA prevented the negative influence of ethanol on cell viability and prevented apoptosis. The analysis of fluorescence imaging using BD Pathway 855 High-Content Bioimager showed the inhibition of FAK migration to the cell nucleus, depending on the increasing concentration of ethanol. This study proves that downregulation of signaling pathway of FAK is involved in ethanol-induced apoptosis in human skin fibroblasts. The work also indicates a protective influence of HA on FAK activity in human skin fibroblasts exposed to ethanol.

  11. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  12. Competing dopamine neurons drive oviposition choice for ethanol in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanchi, Reza; Kaun, Karla R; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2013-12-24

    The neural circuits that mediate behavioral choice evaluate and integrate information from the environment with internal demands and then initiate a behavioral response. Even circuits that support simple decisions remain poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, oviposition on a substrate containing ethanol enhances fitness; however, little is known about the neural mechanisms mediating this important choice behavior. Here, we characterize the neural modulation of this simple choice and show that distinct subsets of dopaminergic neurons compete to either enhance or inhibit egg-laying preference for ethanol-containing food. Moreover, activity in α'β' neurons of the mushroom body and a subset of ellipsoid body ring neurons (R2) is required for this choice. We propose a model where competing dopaminergic systems modulate oviposition preference to adjust to changes in natural oviposition substrates.

  13. DAYA HAMBAT EKSTRAK BUAH MAHKOTA DEWA (Phaleria macrocarpa L. DENGAN PELARUT ETHANOL DAN AQUADES TERHADAP BAKTERI STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS PENYEBAB MASTITIS PADA SAPI PERAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wina Astriyani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was determined effect of inhibitory the Phaleria macrocarpa  L. fruits extract with ethanol and aquades solvents againts Staphylococcus aureus. Materials used was Staphylococcus aureus which isolated from mastitis milk. Phaleria macrocarpa  L. fruits powder were extracted using ethanol and aquades with concentration were 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Iodips was used as control. Inhibitory of bacteria effect test was done by well diffusion methods. Variable was inhibition zone of each concentration, both of ethanol and aquades solvent. Data was analyzed by using two way nested ANOVA and continued by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Result showed that highly significantly (P<0.01 on inhibition zone of Staphylococcus aures. Diameters of inhibitory was the optimum inhibition with ethanol solvent (17.46±0.67mm and aquades solvent (11.14±0.30 mm. The best of  treatment of  Phaleria macrocarpa  L. fruits extract againts Staphylococcus aureus with ethanol and aquades solvent was 40%. The conclusion of this research is that mahkota dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa  L. fruits extract with ethanol and aquades solvent in concentration 40% had a high ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Phaleria macrocarpa  L. fruits extract with ethanol higher in inhibiting capability the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria compared to aquades solvent.

  14. Induction of brain CYP2E1 by chronic ethanol treatment and related oxidative stress in hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Yanjun; Dong, Guicheng; Luo, Haiguang; Cao, Jie; Wang, Chang; Wu, Jianyuan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Yue, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol is one of the most commonly abused substances, and oxidative stress is an important causative factor in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is involved in ethanol metabolism in the brain. This study investigates the role of brain CYP2E1 in the susceptibility of certain brain regions to ethanol neurotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were intragastrically treated with ethanol (3.0 g/kg, 30 days). CYP2E1 protein, mRNA expression, and catalytic activity in various brain regions were respectively assessed by immunoblotting, quantitative quantum dot immunohistochemistry, real-time RT-PCR, and LC–MS. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was analyzed using a laser confocal scanning microscope. The hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem were selectively damaged after ethanol treatment, indicated by both lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and histopathological analysis. Ethanol markedly increased the levels of CYP2E1 protein, mRNA expression, and activity in the hippocampus and cerebellum. CYP2E1 protein and activity were significantly increased by ethanol in the brainstem, with no change in mRNA expression. ROS levels induced by ethanol paralleled the enhanced CYP2E1 proteins in the hippocampus, granular layer and white matter of cerebellum as well as brainstem. Brain CYP2E1 activity was positively correlated with the damage to the hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem. These results suggest that the selective sensitivity of brain regions to ethanol neurodegeneration may be attributed to the regional and cellular-specific induction of CYP2E1 by ethanol. The inhibition of CYP2E1 levels may attenuate ethanol-induced oxidative stress via ROS generation.

  15. Optimization of a corn steep medium for production of ethanol from synthesis gas fermentation by Clostridium ragsdalei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Jyotisna; Tanner, Ralph S

    2012-04-01

    Fermentation of biomass derived synthesis gas to ethanol is a sustainable approach that can provide more usable energy and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. The effects of various medium components on ethanol production by Clostridium ragsdalei utilizing syngas components (CO:CO(2)) were investigated, and corn steep liquor (CSL) was used as an inexpensive nutrient source for ethanol production by C. ragsdalei. Elimination of Mg(2+), NH(4) (+) and PO(4) (3-) decreased ethanol production from 38 to 3.7, 23 and 5.93 mM, respectively. Eliminating Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+) or increasing Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), NH(4) (+) and PO(4) (3-) concentrations had no effect on ethanol production. However, increased Na(+) concentration (171 mM) inhibited growth and ethanol production. Yeast extract (0.5 g l(-1)) and trace metals were necessary for growth of C. ragsdalei. CSL alone did not support growth and ethanol production. Nutrients limiting in CSL were trace metals, NH(4) (+) and reducing agent (Cys: cysteine sulfide). Supplementation of trace metals, NH(4) (+) and CyS to CSL (20 g l(-1), wet weight basis) yielded better growth and similar ethanol production as compared to control medium. Using 10 g l(-1), the nutritional limitation led to reduced ethanol production. Higher concentrations of CSL (50 and 100 g l(-1)) were inhibitory for cell growth and ethanol production. The CSL could replace yeast extract, vitamins and minerals (excluding NH(4) (+)). The optimized CSL medium produced 120 and 50 mM of ethanol and acetate, respectively. The CSL could provide as an inexpensive source of most of the nutrients required for the syngas fermentation, and thus could improve the economics of ethanol production from biomass derived synthesis gas by C. ragsdalei.

  16. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mecawi, André S. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C. [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina H. [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Touyz, Rhian M. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: crtirapelli@eerp.usp.br [Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation.

  17. Big increase in US ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-10

    US ethanol capacity is expected to reach 600 million US gal/year by the end of 1982, according to a report from the AIChE. Although this is a six-fold increase over capacity installed in 1979 it is still less than 1% of US domestic motor fuel supply.

  18. Philippines sugar cane ethanol plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-06

    The Philippines' National Alcohol Commission has called for international tenders for the construction of ethanol from sugar cane plants. Interested companies have been asked to quote for capacities of 60,000, 120,000 and 180,000 litre per day. The initial tender calls for three plants but the figure could rise to ten which would then be worth about $20 million.

  19. Heat integrated ethanol dehydration flowsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutahaean, L.S.; Shen, W.H.; Brunt, V. Van [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-04-01

    zA theoretical evaluation of heat-integrated heterogeneous-azeotropic ethanol-water distillation flowsheets is presented. Simulations of two column flowsheets using several different hydrocarbon entrainers reveal a region of potential heat integration and substantial reduction in operating energy. In this paper, methods for comparing hydrocarbon entrainers are shown. Two aspects of entrainers are related to operating and capital costs. The binary azeotropic composition of the entrainer-ethanol mixture is related to the energy requirements of the flowsheet. A temperature difference in the azeotrophic column is related to the size of the column and overall process staging requirements. Although the hydrophobicity of an entrainer is essential for specification of staging in the dehydration column, no substantial increase in operating energy results from an entrainer that has a higher water content. Likewise, liquid-liquid equilibria between several entrainer-ethanol-water mixtures have no substantial effect on either staging or operation. Rather, increasing the alcohol content of the entrainer-ethanol azeotrope limits its recovery in the dehydration column, and increases the recycle and reflux streams. These effects both contribute to increasing the separation energy requirements and reducing the region of potential heat integration. A cost comparison with a multieffect extractive distillation flowsheet reveals that the costs are comparable; however, the extractive distillation flowsheet is more cost effective as operating costs increase.

  20. The ontogeny of ethanol aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2016-03-15

    Recent work has suggested separate developmental periods within the broader framework of adolescence, with data suggesting distinct alterations and vulnerabilities within these intervals. While previous research has suggested reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol in adolescence relative to adults, a more detailed ontogeny of this effect has yet to be conducted. The adolescent brain undergoes significant transitions throughout adolescence, including in regions linked with drug reward and aversion. The current study aimed to determine the ontogeny of ethanol aversion by utilizing a conditioned taste aversion procedure at six different ages to test the hypothesis that the transitions into, through, and out of adolescence are associated with ontogenetic alterations in sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol. Non-deprived animals given Boost® as the conditioned stimulus (CS) were used in Experiment 1, whereas Experiment 2 used water-restricted animals provided with a saccharin/sucrose solution as the CS. In both experiments, an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol was evident in adolescents compared to adults, although more age differences were apparent in water deprived animals than when a highly palatable CS was given to ad libitum animals. Overall, the data suggest an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol that is most pronounced during pre- and early adolescence, declining thereafter to reach the enhanced aversive sensitivity of adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Involvement of opioid and other systems in ethanol abstinence audiogenic seizures in the rat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlińska, J; Langwiński, R

    1985-01-01

    The action of opiate receptor agonists: (D-Ala2)-methionine enkephalinamide (D-MEA), morphine, heroin, etorphine, and antagonists: naloxone and diprenorphine on audiogenic seizures was tested during ethanol abstinence. The action of diazepam and clonidine was also tested Morphine (5 and 20 mg/kg), but not heroin and etorphine, given intraperitoneally inhibited the seizures, similarly as intraventricularly administered D-MEA did. However, morphine given by this route was ineffective. Diazepam and clonidine inhibited audiogenic seizures: the action of clonidine was counteracted by yohimbine, but not by prazosin. The results may be considered as supporting the hypothesis on the participation of opioid system in ethanol abstinence. However, the participation of gabergic and noradrenergic systems cannot be ruled out: these systems may possibly interact with the opioid system in evoking the symptoms of ethanol abstinence.

  2. [Spectroscopic analysis of the interaction of ethanol and acid phosphatase from wheat germ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-mei; Liu, Guang-shen; Wang, Li-ming; Liu, Wei-ping

    2004-11-01

    Conformational and activity changes of acid phosphatase from wheat germ in ethanol solutions of different concentrations were measured by fluorescence spectra and differential UV-absorption spectra. The effect of ethanol on kinetics of acid phosphatase was determined by using the double reciprocal plot. The results indicate the ethanol has a significant effect on the activity and conformation of acid phosphatase. The activity of acid phosphatase decreased linearly with increasing the concentration of ethanol. Differential UV-absorption spectra of the enzyme denatured in ethanol solutions showed two positive peaks at 213 and 234 nm, respectively. The peaks on the differential UV-absorption spectra suggested that the conformation of enzyme molecule changed from orderly structure to out-of-order crispation. The fluorescence emission peak intensity of the enzyme gradually strengthened with increasing ethanol concentration, which is in concordance with the conformational change of the microenvironments of tyrosine and tryptophan residues. The results indicate that the expression of the enzyme activity correlates with the stability and integrity of the enzyme conformation to a great degree. Ethanol is uncompetitive inhibitor of acid phosphatase.

  3. Bifurcation analysis of a product inhibition model of a continuous fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenbury, Y; Chiaranai, C

    1987-03-01

    A product inhibition model of a continuous fermentation process is considered. If the yield term is a variable function of ethanol concentration, oscillation in the cell and ethanol concentrations is shown to be a Hopf bifurcation in the underlying system of nonlinear, ordinary differential equations which comprises the model.

  4. Neuroprotection with metformin and thymoquinone against ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in prenatal rat cortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah Ikram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to ethanol during early development triggers severe neuronal death by activating multiple stress pathways and causes neurological disorders, such as fetal alcohol effects or fetal alcohol syndrome. This study investigated the effect of ethanol on intracellular events that predispose developing neurons for apoptosis via calcium-mediated signaling. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity are not completely determined, mitochondrial dysfunction, altered calcium homeostasis and apoptosis-related proteins have been implicated in ethanol neurotoxicity. The present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective mechanisms of metformin (Met and thymoquinone (TQ during ethanol toxicity in rat prenatal cortical neurons at gestational day (GD 17.5. Results We found that Met and TQ, separately and synergistically, increased cell viability after ethanol (100 mM exposure for 12 hours and attenuated the elevation of cytosolic free calcium [Ca2+]c. Furthermore, Met and TQ maintained normal physiological mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔψM, which is typically lowered by ethanol exposure. Increased cytosolic free [Ca2+]c and lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential after ethanol exposure significantly decreased the expression of a key anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2, increased expression of Bax, and stimulated the release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria. Met and TQ treatment inhibited the apoptotic cascade by increasing Bcl-2 expression. These compounds also repressed the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and reduced the cleavage of PARP-1. Morphological conformation of cell death was assessed by TUNEL, Fluoro-Jade-B, and PI staining. These staining methods demonstrated more cell death after ethanol treatment, while Met, TQ or Met plus TQ prevented ethanol-induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion These findings suggested that Met and TQ are strong protective agents against ethanol

  5. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...

  6. Effects of toluene on protein synthesis and the interaction with ethanol in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Kielland, A.; Ripel, Aa.; Gadeholt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of three different concentrations (about 20, 100 and 1000 μM) of toluene on protein synthesis were studied in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats after 60 and 120 min. of incubation. The interaction between ethanol (60 mM) and the low and high toluene concentrations were also tested. To measure protein synthesis, 14 C-valine was used as the precursor amino acid. Total valine concentration was 2 mM to ensure near-constant specific radioactivity of precursor. Toluene concentrations were measured by head-space gas chromatography. Protein synthesis was unchanged in the presence of low toluene concentrations. Intermediate toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 20% and high toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 60%. Protein synthesis was similar in cells from fed and fasted rats. Ethanol alone inhibited protein synthesis by 20-30%, more in fasted than in fed rats. Toluene and ethanol in combination inhibited protein synthesis additively. The high toluene concentration with or without ethanol appeared to inhibit synthesis/secretion of export proteins in hepatocytes from fasted rats. In conclusion, our study indicates that toluene in relatively high concentrations inhibits general protein synthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toluene and ethanol seems to inhibit protein synthesis additively. (author)

  7. Effects of toluene on protein synthesis and the interaction with ethanol in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Kielland, A.; Ripel, Aa.; Gadeholt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of three different concentrations (about 20, 100 and 1000 ..mu..M) of toluene on protein synthesis were studied in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats after 60 and 120 min. of incubation. The interaction between ethanol (60 mM) and the low and high toluene concentrations were also tested. To measure protein synthesis, /sup 14/C-valine was used as the precursor amino acid. Total valine concentration was 2 mM to ensure near-constant specific radioactivity of precursor. Toluene concentrations were measured by head-space gas chromatography. Protein synthesis was unchanged in the presence of low toluene concentrations. Intermediate toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 20% and high toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 60%. Protein synthesis was similar in cells from fed and fasted rats. Ethanol alone inhibited protein synthesis by 20-30%, more in fasted than in fed rats. Toluene and ethanol in combination inhibited protein synthesis additively. The high toluene concentration with or without ethanol appeared to inhibit synthesis/secretion of export proteins in hepatocytes from fasted rats. In conclusion, our study indicates that toluene in relatively high concentrations inhibits general protein synthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toluene and ethanol seems to inhibit protein synthesis additively.

  8. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Liang, Yu-Chih; Chao, Jane CJ; Tsai, Li-Hsueh; Chang, Chun-Chao; Wang, Chia-Chi; Pan, Shiann

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preventive effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. METHODS: Female Wistar albino rats were used for the studies. We randomly divided the rats for each study into five subgroups: normal control, experimental control, and three experimental groups. The gastric ulcers were induced by instilling 1 mL 50% ethanol into the stomach. We gave GbE 8.75, 17.5, 26.25 mg/kg intravenously to the experimental groups respectively 30 min prior to the ulcerative challenge. We removed the stomachs 45 min later. The gastric ulcers, gastric mucus and the content of non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malondialdehyde (MDA), c-Jun kinase (JNK) activity in gastric mucosa were evaluated. The amount of gastric juice and its acidity were also measured. RESULTS: The findings of our study are as follows: (1) GbE pretreatment was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats; (2) the GbE pretreatment afforded a dose-dependent inhibition of ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, NP-SH contents and increase in the lipid peroxidation (increase MDA) in gastric tissue; (3) gastric ulcer induced by ethanol produced an increase in JNK activity in gastric mucosa which also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with GbE; and (4) GbE alone had no inhibitory effect on gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. CONCLUSION: The finding of this study showed that GbE significantly inhibited the ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. We suggest that the preventive effect of GbE may be mediated through: (1) inhibition of lipid peroxidation; (2) preservation of gastric mucus and NP-SH; and (3) blockade of cell apoptosis. PMID:15968732

  9. Potassium sorbate reduces production of ethanol and 2 esters in corn silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafner, Sasha; Franco, Roberta B; Kung, Limin

    2014-01-01

    concentrations within silage were measured after ensiling and sample storage using a headspace gas chromatography method. The high dose of potassium sorbate was the only treatment that inhibited the production of multiple VOC. Compared with the control response, it reduced ethanol by 58%, ethyl acetate by 46...

  10. The effects of furfural on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, L.J.; Vega, J.L.; Klasson, K.T.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L. (Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, AR (US). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Browning reaction products such as furfural and 5-hydroxy-methyl-furfural (HMF) have been shown to inhibit microbial growth and metabolism in ethanol fermentations using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This paper quantifies the extent of furfural inhibition and yeast growth, glucose utilization, and ethanol production as a function of inoculum size (0.1-9 gl{sup -1}). Batch culture experiments were conducted using furfural concentrations in the range of 0 to 2.0 gl{sup -1} and mathematical correlations were proposed and tested. The results indicate that the specific growth rate decreased with increasing furfural concentration and inoculum size, while the maintenance coefficients were unaffected. The apparent and true cell yield coefficients on glucose were depressed with the addition of furfural. Specific production rates were unaffected at the furfural levels used but ethanol inhibition was apparent. The specific production rate was less inhibited by ethanol at higher inoculum sizes. Global specific productivities were not affected by the presence of furfural. At a 0.1 gl{sup -1} inoculum size, furfural depletion was complete within 15-20 h, depending upon the furfural concentration employed. At higher incoculum levels (2-9 gl{sup -1}), all furfural was depleted in less than 5 h. (author).

  11. Ethanol induction of laccase depends on nitrogen conditions of Pycnoporus sanguineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Hernández

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: We suggest that laccase in P. sanguineus is regulated by a catabolic nitrogen repression mechanism; laccase activity is strongly inhibited by urea used as nitrogen source and it decreases when the amount of urea increases; contrarily, a synergic positive effect was observed between yeast extract and ethanol on laccase production.

  12. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE LEADS TO GREATER ETHANOL-INDUCED APPETITIVE REINFORCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol’s aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30–45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance. PMID:22698870

  13. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  14. Renewable corn-ethanol and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaves, James

    2007-01-01

    Though corn-ethanol is promoted as renewable, models of the production process assume fossil fuel inputs. Moreover, ethanol is promoted as a means of increasing energy security, but there is little discussion of the dependability of its supply. This study investigates the sensibility of promoting corn-ethanol as an automobile fuel, assuming a fully renewable production process. We then use historical data to estimate the supply risk of ethanol relative to imported petroleum. We find that devoting 100% of US corn to ethanol would displace 3.5% of gasoline consumption and the annual supply of the ethanol would be inherently more risky than that of imported oil. Finally, because large temperature increases can simultaneously increase fuel demand and the cost of growing corn, the supply responses of ethanol producers to temperature-induced demand shocks would likely be weaker than those of gasoline producers. (author)

  15. Agmatine attenuates acquisition but not the expression of ethanol conditioned place preference in mice: a role for imidazoline receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameer, Shaikh M; Chakraborty, Suwarna S; Ugale, Rajesh R

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of agmatine on acquisition and expression of ethanol conditioned place preference (CPP) and its modulation by imidazoline agents. Swiss albino mice were treated intraperitoneally with saline or agmatine (20-40 mg/kg) before injection of ethanol (1.25 mg/kg) during conditioning days or on a test day (20-120 mg/kg), to observe the effect on acquisition or expression of CPP, respectively. Agmatine inhibited the acquisition but not the expression of ethanol CPP. Furthermore, both the I₁ receptor antagonist, efaroxan (9 mg/kg) and the I₂ receptor antagonist, BU224 (5 mg/kg) attenuated the agmatine-induced inhibition of the ethanol CPP acquisition. In contrast, the I₂ receptor agonist, 2-BFI (5 mg/kg) and I₁ receptor agonist, moxonidine (0.4 mg/kg) alone, or a combination of their subeffective doses, significantly attenuated the effect of agmatine (20 mg/kg) on acquisition of ethanol CPP. Agmatine or imidazoline agents alone produced neither place preference nor aversion, and at the doses used in the present study did not affect locomotor activity. Thus, agmatine attenuates the acquisition of ethanol CPP at least in part by imidazoline (I₁ or I₂) receptors. In future studies, agmatine or agents acting at the imidazoline receptors could be explored for their therapeutic potential in ethanol dependence.

  16. Interfacial tensions of binary mixtures of ethanol with octane, decane, dodecane, and tetradecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Andres; Cartes, Marcela; Segura, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Experimental interfacial tensions in binary mixtures with aneotropic behavior. → Experimental interfacial tensions for ethanol + hydrocarbon mixtures. → Aneotropic displacement in ethanol mixtures. - Abstract: This contribution is devoted to the experimental characterization of interfacial tensions of a representative group of binary mixtures pertaining to the (ethanol + linear hydrocarbon) series (i.e. octane, decane, dodecane, and tetradecane). Experimental measurements were isothermically performed using a maximum differential bubble pressure technique, which was applied over the whole mole fraction range and over the temperature range 298.15 K < T/K < 318.15 K. Experimental results show that the interfacial tensions of (ethanol + octane or decane) negatively deviate from the linear behavior and that sharp minimum points on concentration, or aneotropes, are observed for each isotherm. The interfacial tensions of (ethanol + dodecane or tetradecane), in turn, are characterized by combined deviations from the linear behavior, and inflecting behavior observed on concentration for each isotherm. The experimental evidence also shows that these latter mixtures are close to exhibit aneotropy. For the case of (ethanol + octane or decane) mixtures, aneotropy was clearly induced by the similarity of the interfacial tension values of the constituents. The inflecting behavior of the interfacial tensions of (ethanol + dodecane or tetradecane), in turn, was observed in the vicinity of the coordinates of the critical point of these mixtures, thus pointing to the fact that the quasi-aneotropic singularity that affects these mixtures was provoked by the proximity of an immiscibility gap of the liquid phase. Finally, the experimental data of interfacial tensions were smoothed with the Scott-Myers expansion, from which it is possible to conclude that the observed aneotropic concentrations weakly depend on temperature for all the analyzed mixtures.

  17. Delta receptor antagonism, ethanol taste reactivity, and ethanol consumption in outbred male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Amanda E; Kiefer, Stephen W

    2006-11-01

    Naltrexone, a nonspecific opioid antagonist, produces significant changes in ethanol responsivity in rats by rendering the taste of ethanol aversive as well as producing a decrease in voluntary ethanol consumption. The present study investigated the effect of naltrindole, a specific antagonist of delta opioid receptors, on ethanol taste reactivity and ethanol consumption in outbred rats. In the first experiment, rats received acute treatment of naltrexone, naltrindole, or saline followed by the measurement of ethanol consumption in a short-term access period. The second experiment involved the same treatments and investigated ethanol palatability (using the taste-reactivity test) as well as ethanol consumption. Results indicated that treatment with 3 mg/kg naltrexone significantly affected palatability (rendered ethanol more aversive, Experiment 2) and decreased voluntary ethanol consumption (Experiments 1 and 2). The effects of naltrindole were inconsistent. In Experiment 1, 8 mg/kg naltrindole significantly decreased voluntary ethanol consumption but this was not replicated in Experiment 2. The 8 mg/kg dose produced a significant increase in aversive responding (Experiment 2) but did not affect ingestive responding. Lower doses of naltrindole (2 and 4 mg/kg) were ineffective in altering rats' taste-reactivity response to and consumption of ethanol. While these data suggest that delta receptors are involved in rats' taste-reactivity response to ethanol and rats' ethanol consumption, it is likely that multiple opioid receptors mediate both behavioral responses.

  18. Microbial characterization and degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an anaerobic reactor treating wastewater containing soap powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosia, Mariana Fronja; Okada, Dagoberto Yukio; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) treating wastewater containing soap powder as LAS source. At Stage I, the AFBR was fed with a synthetic substrate containing yeast extract and ethanol as carbon sources, and without LAS; at Stage II, soap powder was added to this synthetic substrate obtaining an LAS concentration of 14 ± 3 mg L(-1). The compounds of soap powder probably inhibited some groups of microorganisms, increasing the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from 91 to 143 mg HAc L(-1). Consequently, the LAS removal rate was 48 ± 10% after the 156 days of operation. By sequencing, 16S rRNA clones belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria and Synergistetes were identified in the samples taken at the end of the experiment, with a remarkable presence of Dechloromonas sp. and Geobacter sp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early life ethanol exposure causes long-lasting disturbances in rat mesenchymal stem cells via epigenetic modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leu, Yu-Wei; Chu, Pei-Yi; Chen, Chien-Min; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Liu, Yu Ming; Lee, Yen-Hui; Kuo, Shan-Tsu; Hsiao, Shu-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethanol exposure alters proliferation and differentiation of MSCs. • Ethanol exposure suppresses osteogenesis and adipogenesis of MSCs. • H3K27me3-associated genes/pathways are affected in ethanol-exposed MSCs. • Expression of lineage-specific genes is dysregulated in ethanol-exposed MSCs. - Abstract: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a birth defect due to maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the main somatic stem cells in adults and may contribute to tissue homeostasis and repair in adulthood, we investigated whether early life ethanol exposure affects MSCs and contributes to the propensity for disease onset in later life. Using a rodent model of FAS, we found that ethanol exposure (5.25 g/kg/day) from postnatal days 4 to 9 in rat pups (mimic of human third trimester) caused long-term anomalies in bone marrow-derived MSCs. MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed animals were prone to neural induction but resistant to osteogenic and adipogenic inductions compared to their age-matched controls. The altered differentiation may contribute to the severe trabecular bone loss seen in ethanol-exposed animals at 3 months of age as well as overt growth retardation. Expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, aP2, and PPARγ were substantially inhibited, but BDNF was up-regulated in MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed 3 month-old animals. Several signaling pathways were distorted in ethanol-exposed MSCs via altered trimethylation at histone 3 lysine 27. These results demonstrate that early life ethanol exposure can have long-term impacts in rat MSCs by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms

  20. Early life ethanol exposure causes long-lasting disturbances in rat mesenchymal stem cells via epigenetic modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, Yu-Wei [Department of Life Science and Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Chu, Pei-Yi [Department of Pathology, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Min [Division of Neurosurgery, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Kun-Tu [Department of Pathology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yu Ming; Lee, Yen-Hui; Kuo, Shan-Tsu [Department of Life Science and Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, Shu-Huei, E-mail: bioshh@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Life Science and Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Ethanol exposure alters proliferation and differentiation of MSCs. • Ethanol exposure suppresses osteogenesis and adipogenesis of MSCs. • H3K27me3-associated genes/pathways are affected in ethanol-exposed MSCs. • Expression of lineage-specific genes is dysregulated in ethanol-exposed MSCs. - Abstract: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a birth defect due to maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the main somatic stem cells in adults and may contribute to tissue homeostasis and repair in adulthood, we investigated whether early life ethanol exposure affects MSCs and contributes to the propensity for disease onset in later life. Using a rodent model of FAS, we found that ethanol exposure (5.25 g/kg/day) from postnatal days 4 to 9 in rat pups (mimic of human third trimester) caused long-term anomalies in bone marrow-derived MSCs. MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed animals were prone to neural induction but resistant to osteogenic and adipogenic inductions compared to their age-matched controls. The altered differentiation may contribute to the severe trabecular bone loss seen in ethanol-exposed animals at 3 months of age as well as overt growth retardation. Expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, aP2, and PPARγ were substantially inhibited, but BDNF was up-regulated in MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed 3 month-old animals. Several signaling pathways were distorted in ethanol-exposed MSCs via altered trimethylation at histone 3 lysine 27. These results demonstrate that early life ethanol exposure can have long-term impacts in rat MSCs by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.

  1. Modifications in adrenal hormones response to ethanol by prior ethanol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaza, C; Borrell, S

    1985-03-01

    Ethanol was administered to rats by means of a liquid diet for 16 days; after an ethanol-free interval of four weeks, animals received a test (IP) dose of ethanol (2 g/kg), and the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary responses were evaluated. Chronically ethanol-exposed animals showed tolerance to the stimulatory effect of ethanol in the pituitary-adrenal axis. Likewise, previously dependent rats showed tolerance to the increase in the activity of the adrenomedullary function induced by acute administration of the drug. Our results indicate that chronic ethanol ingestion can induce persistent changes after complete alcohol abstinence.

  2. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

  4. Direction of glucose fermentation towards hydrogen or ethanol production through on-line pH control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadag, Dogan; Puhakka, Jaakko A. [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    2010-10-15

    The present study investigated the production of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ethanol from glucose in an Anaerobic Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (ACSTR). Effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and pH on the preference of producing H{sub 2} and/or ethanol and other soluble metabolic products in an open anaerobic enriched culture were studied. Production rates of H{sub 2} and ethanol increased with the increase of biomass concentration. Open anaerobic fermentation was directed and managed through on-line pH control for the production of H{sub 2} or ethanol. Hydrogen was produced by ethanol and acetate-butyrate type fermentations. pH has strong effect on the H{sub 2} or ethanol production by changing fermentation pathways. ACSTR produced mainly ethanol at over pH 5.5 whereas highest H{sub 2} production was obtained at pH 5.0. pH 4.9 favored the lactate production and accumulation of lactate inhibited the biomass concentration in the reactor and the production of H{sub 2} and ethanol. The microbial community structure quickly responded to pH changes and the Clostridia dominated in ACSTR during the study. H{sub 2} production was maintained mainly by Clostridium butyricum whereas in the presence of Bacillus coagulans glucose oxidation was directed to lactate production. (author)

  5. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of alkaline-pretreated corn stover to ethanol using a recombinant yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jing; Xia, Liming [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Bio-ethanol converted from cheap and abundant lignocellulosic materials is a potential renewable resource to replace depleting fossil fuels. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of alkaline-pretreated corn stover for the production of ethanol was investigated using a recombinant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZU-10. Low cellobiase activity in Trichoderma reesei cellulase resulted in cellobiose accumulation. Supplementing the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation system with cellobiase greatly reduced feedback inhibition caused by cellobiose to the cellulase reaction, thereby increased the ethanol yield. 12 h of enzymatic prehydrolysis at 50 C prior to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was found to have a negative effect on the overall ethanol yield. Glucose and xylose produced from alkaline-pretreated corn stover could be co-fermented to ethanol effectively by S. cerevisiae ZU-10. An ethanol concentration of 27.8 g/L and the corresponding ethanol yield on carbohydrate in substrate of 0.350 g/g were achieved within 72 h at 33 C with 80 g/L of substrate and enzyme loadings of 20 filter paper activity units (FPU)/g substrate and 10 cellobiase units (CBU)/g substrate. The results are meaningful in co-conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose fraction of lignocellulosic materials to fuel ethanol. (author)

  6. Ethanol-induced effects on sting extension response and punishment learning in the western honey bee (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Giannoni-Guzmán

    Full Text Available Acute ethanol administration is associated with sedation and analgesia as well as behavioral disinhibition and memory loss but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. During the past decade, insects have emerged as important model systems to understand the neural and genetic bases of alcohol effects. However, novel assays to assess ethanol's effects on complex behaviors in social or isolated contexts are necessary. Here we used the honey bee as an especially relevant model system since bees are typically exposed to ethanol in nature when collecting standing nectar crop of flowers, and there is recent evidence for independent biological significance of this exposure for social behavior. Bee's inhibitory control of the sting extension response (SER and a conditioned-place aversion assay were used to study ethanol effects on analgesia, behavioral disinhibition, and associative learning. Our findings indicate that although ethanol, in a dose-dependent manner, increases SER thresholds (analgesic effects, it disrupts the ability of honey bees to inhibit SER and to associate aversive stimuli with their environment. These results suggest that ethanol's effects on analgesia, behavioral disinhibition and associative learning are common across vertebrates and invertebrates. These results add to the use of honey bees as an ethanol model to understand ethanol's effects on complex, socially relevant behaviors.

  7. The Anti-Periodontitis Effects of Ethanol Extract Prepared Using Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Hua Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor oral health and related diseases, including caries, periodontal disease, and oral cancer, are highly prevalent across the world, particularly in the elderly. This study aimed to investigate the anti-periodontitis activity of fermented skim milk produced using the promising probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (NTU101FM. An initial analysis found that an ethanol extract of NTU101FM displayed anti-oxidative activities. Further investigation of pathogen growth inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs revealed that the NTU101FM ethanol extract also had anti-periodontal pathogen activities. In addition, the NTU101FM ethanol extract significantly decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Finally, the NTU101FM ethanol extract was found to inhibit receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by reducing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity and the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts. In summary, our study demonstrated that ethanol extract prepared from NTU101FM has potential use as an anti-periodontitis agent.

  8. Multivariate calibration on NIR data: development of a model for the rapid evaluation of ethanol content in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Alessandra; Bianchi, Federica; Careri, Maria; Giannetto, Marco; Mori, Giovanni; Musci, Marilena

    2007-11-05

    A new NIR method based on multivariate calibration for determination of ethanol in industrially packed wholemeal bread was developed and validated. GC-FID was used as reference method for the determination of actual ethanol concentration of different samples of wholemeal bread with proper content of added ethanol, ranging from 0 to 3.5% (w/w). Stepwise discriminant analysis was carried out on the NIR dataset, in order to reduce the number of original variables by selecting those that were able to discriminate between the samples of different ethanol concentrations. With the so selected variables a multivariate calibration model was then obtained by multiple linear regression. The prediction power of the linear model was optimized by a new "leave one out" method, so that the number of original variables resulted further reduced.

  9. Anhydrous ethanol: A renewable source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Neetu; Prasad, Ram [Department of Chemical Engineering, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Anhydrous ethanol is one of the biofuels produced today and it is a subset of renewable energy. It is considered to be an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to gasoline. Anhydrous ethanol is commercially produced by either catalytic hydration of ethylene or fermentation of biomass. Any biological material that has sugar, starch or cellulose can be used as biomass for producing anhydrous ethanol. Since ethanol-water solution forms a minimum-boiling azeotrope of composition of 89.4 mol% ethanol and 10.6 mol% water at 78.2 C and standard atmospheric pressure, the dilute ethanol-water solutions produced by fermentation process can be continuously rectified to give at best solutions containing 89.4 mol% ethanol at standard atmospheric pressure. Therefore, special process for removal of the remaining water is required for manufacture of anhydrous ethanol. Various processes for producing anhydrous ethanol have been used/suggested. These include: (i) chemical dehydration process, (ii) dehydration by vacuum distillation process, (iii) azeotropic distillation process, (iv) extractive distillation processes, (v) membrane processes, (vi) adsorption processes and (vii) diffusion distillation process. These processes of manufacturing anhydrous ethanol have been improved continuously due to the increasingly strict requirements for quantity and quality of this product. The literature available on these processes is reviewed. These processes are also compared on the basis of energy requirements. (author)

  10. Dynamic modeling and controllability analysis of an ethanol reformer for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanesa M.; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Eduardo [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (CONICET-UNS), Camino de la Carrindanga km7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Llorca, Jordi [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This work presents a controllability analysis of a low temperature ethanol reformer based on a cobalt catalyst for fuel cell application. The study is based on a non-linear dynamic model of a reformer which operates in three separate stages: ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and hydrogen, acetaldehyde steam reforming, and water-gas-shift reaction. The controllability analysis is focused on the rapid dynamics due to mass balances and is based on a linearization of the complex non-linear model of the reformer. RGA, CN and MRI analysis tools are applied to the linear model suggesting that a good performance can be obtained with decentralized control for frequencies up to 0.1 rad s{sup -1}. (author)

  11. Clostridium thermocellum ATCC27405 transcriptomic, metabolomic and proteomic profiles after ethanol stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shihui

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate consolidated bioprocessing biocatalyst, which is a microorganism that expresses enzymes for both cellulose hydrolysis and its fermentation to produce fuels such as lignocellulosic ethanol. However, C. thermocellum is relatively sensitive to ethanol compared to ethanologenic microorganisms such as yeast and Zymomonas mobilis that are used in industrial fermentations but do not possess native enzymes for industrial cellulose hydrolysis. Results In this study, C. thermocellum was grown to mid-exponential phase and then treated with ethanol to a final concentration of 3.9 g/L to investigate its physiological and regulatory responses to ethanol stress. Samples were taken pre-shock and 2, 12, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min post-shock, and from untreated control fermentations for systems biology analyses. Cell growth was arrested by ethanol supplementation with intracellular accumulation of carbon sources such as cellobiose, and sugar phosphates, including fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate. The largest response of C. thermocellum to ethanol shock treatment was in genes and proteins related to nitrogen uptake and metabolism, which is likely important for redirecting the cells physiology to overcome inhibition and allow growth to resume. Conclusion This study suggests possible avenues for metabolic engineering and provides comprehensive, integrated systems biology datasets that will be useful for future metabolic modeling and strain development endeavors.

  12. Hepatoprotective effects of pecan nut shells on ethanol-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Liz Girardi; Pase, Camila Simonetti; Reckziegel, Patrícia; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Boufleur, Nardeli; Prado, Ana Cristina P; Fett, Roseane; Block, Jane Mara; Pavanato, Maria Amália; Bauermann, Liliane F; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Burger, Marilise Escobar

    2013-01-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the shells of pecan nut was investigated against ethanol-induced liver damage. This by-product of the food industry is popularly used to treat toxicological diseases. We evaluated the phytochemical properties of pecan shell aqueous extract (AE) and its in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant activity. The AE was found to have a high content of total polyphenols (192.4±1.9 mg GAE/g), condensed tannins (58.4±2.2 mg CE/g), and antioxidant capacity, and it inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation (LP) in vitro. Rats chronically treated with ethanol (Et) had increased plasmatic transaminases (ALT, AST) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels (96%, 59.13% and 465.9%, respectively), which were effectively prevented (87; 41 and 383%) by the extract (1:40, w/v). In liver, ethanol consumption increased the LP (121%) and decreased such antioxidant defenses as glutathione (GSH) (33%) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (47%) levels, causing genotoxicity in erythrocytes. Treatment with pecan shell AE prevented the development of LP (43%), GSH and SOD depletion (33% and 109%, respectively) and ethanol-induced erythrocyte genotoxicity. Catalase activity in the liver was unchanged by ethanol but was increased by the extract (47% and 73% in AE and AE+Et, respectively). Therefore, pecan shells may be an economic agent to treat liver diseases related to ethanol consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Xylose fermentation to biofuels (hydrogen and ethanol) by extreme thermophilic (70 C) mixed culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenxi, Zhao; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Lu, W.

    2010-01-01

    -xylose corresponding to 55% of the theoretical hydrogen yield based on acetate metabolic pathway. An empirical model was established to reveal the quantitative effect of factors significant for biohydrogen (quadratic model) production and for bioethanol (linear model) production. Changes in hydrogen/ethanol yields...

  14. Blending Behavior of Ethanol with PRF 84 and FACE A Gasoline in HCCI Combustion Mmode

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer; Atef, Nour; Singh, Eshan; Masurier, Jean-Baptiste; Sarathy, Mani; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    but the chemical effect responsible for the non-linear blending behavior of ethanol with PRF 84 and FACE A was not understood. Hence, in this study the experimental measurements were simulated using zero-dimensional HCCI engine model with detailed chemistry

  15. Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzens, J.E.

    1997-11-19

    The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

  16. Blending Octane Number of Ethanol on a Volume and Molar Basis in SI and HCCI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer; Morganti, Kai; Masurier, Jean-Baptiste; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    The blending behavior of ethanol in five different hydrocarbon base fuels with octane numbers of approximately 70 and 84 was examined under Spark-Ignited (SI) and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) operating conditions. The Blending octane number (BON) was used to characterize the blending behavior on both a volume and molar basis. Previous studies have shown that the blending behavior of ethanol generally follows several well-established rules. In particular, non-linear blending effects are generally observed on a volume basis (i.e. BON > RON or MON of pure ethanol; 108 and 89, respectively), while linear blending effects are generally observed on a molar basis (i.e. BON = RON or MON of pure ethanol). This work firstly demonstrates that the non-linear volumetric blending effects traditionally observed under SI operating conditions are also observed under HCCI operating conditions. In keeping with previous studies, the degree of this non-linearity is shown to be a function of the base fuel composition and octane number. By contrast, the molar blending approach is shown to behave differently depending on the chosen combustion mode, with some non-linearity observed under HCCI operating conditions (i.e. BON RON or MON of pure ethanol). This suggests that the well-established blending rules for SI operating conditions may not always be relevant to other combustion modes that operate with globally lean or diluted air-fuel mixtures. This has implications for the design of future fuel specifications.

  17. Blending Octane Number of Ethanol on a Volume and Molar Basis in SI and HCCI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer

    2017-10-08

    The blending behavior of ethanol in five different hydrocarbon base fuels with octane numbers of approximately 70 and 84 was examined under Spark-Ignited (SI) and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) operating conditions. The Blending octane number (BON) was used to characterize the blending behavior on both a volume and molar basis. Previous studies have shown that the blending behavior of ethanol generally follows several well-established rules. In particular, non-linear blending effects are generally observed on a volume basis (i.e. BON > RON or MON of pure ethanol; 108 and 89, respectively), while linear blending effects are generally observed on a molar basis (i.e. BON = RON or MON of pure ethanol). This work firstly demonstrates that the non-linear volumetric blending effects traditionally observed under SI operating conditions are also observed under HCCI operating conditions. In keeping with previous studies, the degree of this non-linearity is shown to be a function of the base fuel composition and octane number. By contrast, the molar blending approach is shown to behave differently depending on the chosen combustion mode, with some non-linearity observed under HCCI operating conditions (i.e. BON RON or MON of pure ethanol). This suggests that the well-established blending rules for SI operating conditions may not always be relevant to other combustion modes that operate with globally lean or diluted air-fuel mixtures. This has implications for the design of future fuel specifications.

  18. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  19. The Role of Cellulosic Ethanol in Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson, Jr.

    2007-10-01

    Petroleum provides essentially all of the energy used today in the transportation sector. To reduce this dependence on fossil energy, other fuels are beginning to be used, notably ethanol and biodiesel. Almost all fuel ethanol is produced by the conversion of corn grain to starch with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. In 2006, almost 5 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced, which used 17% of domestic corn production. The DOE has a goal to displace 30% of motor gasoline demand or 60 billion gallons per year by 2030. To achieve this goal, production of ethanol from lignocellulosic sources (e.g., agricultural residues, forest residues, and dedicated energy crops) is needed. This paper will describe the production of cellulosic ethanol as well as the issues and benefits associated with its production.

  20. Improved ethanol yield and reduced Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 1 Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaowen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, acid pretreatment technology for the production of bio-ethanol from corn stover has required severe conditions to overcome biomass recalcitrance. However, the high usage of acid and steam at severe pretreatment conditions hinders the economic feasibility of the ethanol production from biomass. In addition, the amount of acetate and furfural produced during harsh pretreatment is in the range that strongly inhibits cell growth and impedes ethanol fermentation. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment with lower acid concentrations and temperatures incorporated with deacetylation and mechanical refining. Results The results showed that deacetylation with 0.1 M NaOH before acid pretreatment improved the monomeric xylose yield in pretreatment by up to 20% while keeping the furfural yield under 2%. Deacetylation also improved the glucose yield by 10% and the xylose yield by 20% during low solids enzymatic hydrolysis. Mechanical refining using a PFI mill further improved sugar yields during both low- and high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis. Mechanical refining also allowed enzyme loadings to be reduced while maintaining high yields. Deacetylation and mechanical refining are shown to assist in achieving 90% cellulose yield in high-solids (20% enzymatic hydrolysis. When fermentations were performed under pH control to evaluate the effect of deacetylation and mechanical refining on the ethanol yields, glucose and xylose utilizations over 90% and ethanol yields over 90% were achieved. Overall ethanol yields were calculated based on experimental results for the base case and modified cases. One modified case that integrated deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing was estimated to produce 88 gallons of ethanol per ton of biomass. Conclusion The current work developed a novel bio-ethanol process that features pretreatment with lower acid concentrations and temperatures incorporated with deacetylation

  1. HYPOTENSIVE AND CARDIOINHIBOTORY EFFECTS OF THE AQUEOUS AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF CELERY (APIUM GRAVEOLENS, APIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Pavlović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery (Apium graveolens L., Apiaceae investigated on the mean blood pressure of anaesthetized rabbits and contractility of isolated atria of the rats. In our experiments were used rabbits and Wistar albino rats. The effects of extracts (0.5-15 mg/kg on blood pressure were recorded directly from the carotid artery. Rat isolated atria was mounted in 10 ml tissue bath. An equilibrium period of 30 min was given before the application of the extracts (0.02-0.75 mg/ml. In anesthetized rabbit, intravenous administration of aqueous extracts induced least hypotensive effects (14.35±2.94%, while the ethanol extract caused the greatest fall in the blood pressure (45.79±10.86%. Hypotensive effects of the extracts were partially blocked by atropine (0.3 mg/kg, an unselective muscarinic receptor antagonist. In isolated rat atria both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of celery, exhibit a negative chronotropic and an inotropic action. Aqueous extract decreased rate of contractions for 12.88±2.74% and amplitude for 8.73±0.89%. Ethanol extract inhibited rate of the atria contractions for 34.26±5.69%, and amplitude for 25.40±3.61%. Pretreatment of the atria with atropine (1μM partially blocked inhibitory response of aqueous and ethanol extracts. Ethanol extract of celery exhibited significantly greater hypotensive and cardio-depressant activities then aqueous extract (p<0.05. These data suggest that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery caused the hypotensive, negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, which could partially be mediated possibly via stimulation of muscarinic receptors. Inhibitory effect of ethanol extract was significant comparing to aqueous extract of celery.

  2. Ameliorative effect of Opuntia ficus indica juice on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis fruit juice (OFIj) on reversing oxidative damages induced by chronic ethanol intake in rat erythrocytes. OFIj was firstly analyzed with HPLC for phenolic and flavonoids content. Secondly, 40 adult male Wistar rats were equally divided into five groups and treated for 90 days as follows: control (C), ethanol-only 3 g/kg body weight (b.w) (E), low dose of OFIj 2 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Ldj+E), high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Hdj+E), and only a high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100g b.w (Hdj). HPLC analysis indicated high concentrations of phenolic acids and flavonoids in OFIj. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased the activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Changes in the erythrocyte's antioxidant ability were accompanied by enhanced oxidative modification of lipids (increase of malondialdeyde level) and proteins (increase in carbonyl groups). Interestingly, pre-administration of either 2 ml/100 g b.w or 4 ml/100 g b.w of OFIj to ethanol-intoxicated rats significantly reversed decreases in enzymatic as well as non enzymatic antioxidants parameters in erythrocytes. Also, the administration of OFIj significantly protected lipids and proteins against ethanol-induced oxidative modifications in rat erythrocytes. The beneficial effect of OFIj can result from the inhibition of ethanol-induced free radicals chain reactions in rat erythrocytes or from the enhancement of the endogenous antioxidants activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between ethanol and oxidative stress in laboratory and brewing yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleoanca, Iulia; Silva, Ana Rita Courelas; Pimentel, Catarina; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Menezes, Regina de Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Ethanol is a chemical stress factor that inhibits cellular growth and determines metabolic changes leading to reduction of cell viability during fermentation and yeast storage. To determine the effect of time, temperature and ethanol during storage of brewing yeasts we have monitored viability of cells stored for 72 h, at 6 °C or 12 °C, in the presence of various ethanol concentrations. Under the conditions tested, 6 °C is the most favourable temperature to store brewing yeast creams emphasizing the importance of a tight temperature control in the storage vessels. Because W210 is less resistant to storage in the presence of ethanol than W34/70, the optimal storage parameters obtained under our laboratory conditions vary significantly. The ale strain is sensitive to storage under ethanol concentrations higher than 5% (v/v) for more than 48 h at 6 °C whereas at the same temperature the lager strain tolerates ethanol up to 7.5% (v/v) for 72 h. Also, the viability assays indicate that the antioxidant protein Yap1 is an important factor to storage resistance of BY4741 laboratory strain. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance of brewing yeast strains to ethanol, we have performed phenotypic analysis, localization studies and have monitored the activation of antioxidant and protection genes as well as the intracellular contents of glycogen and trehalose. Overall, our data suggest that the ale strain W210 has a defective antioxidant defence system and that ethanol may induce the antioxidant defences as well as glycogen and trehalose protection mechanisms in laboratory and brewing yeast strains. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impacts of an ethanol-blended fuel release on groundwater and fate of produced methane: Simulation of field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasa, Ehsan; Bekins, Barbara A.; Mackay, Douglas M.; de Sieyes, Nicholas R.; Wilson, John T.; Feris, Kevin P.; Wood, Isaac A.; Scow, Kate M.

    2013-08-01

    In a field experiment at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) designed to mimic the impact of a small-volume release of E10 (10% ethanol and 90% conventional gasoline), two plumes were created by injecting extracted groundwater spiked with benzene, toluene, and o-xylene, abbreviated BToX (no-ethanol lane) and BToX plus ethanol (with-ethanol lane) for 283 days. We developed a reactive transport model to understand processes controlling the fate of ethanol and BToX. The model was calibrated to the extensive field data set and accounted for concentrations of sulfate, iron, acetate, and methane along with iron-reducing bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, fermentative bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. The benzene plume was about 4.5 times longer in the with-ethanol lane than in the no-ethanol lane. Matching this different behavior in the two lanes required inhibiting benzene degradation in the presence of ethanol. Inclusion of iron reduction with negligible growth of iron reducers was required to reproduce the observed constant degradation rate of benzene. Modeling suggested that vertical dispersion and diffusion of sulfate from an adjacent aquitard were important sources of sulfate in the aquifer. Matching of methane data required incorporating initial fermentation of ethanol to acetate, methane loss by outgassing, and methane oxidation coupled to sulfate and iron reduction. Simulation of microbial growth using dual Monod kinetics, and including inhibition by more favorable electron acceptors, generally resulted in reasonable yields for microbial growth of 0.01-0.05.

  5. Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Mohammad Abdul Motalib; Bellah, Sm Faysal; Rahman, Sarder Mohammad Raussel; Rahman, Ahmed Ayedur; Murshid, Gazi Mohammad Monjur; Emran, Talha Bin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia). Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 μg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms. The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasevich, M. R.; Korchagin, O. V.; Kuzov, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    The results of fundamental and applied studies in the field of electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol in fuel cells are considered. Features of the mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation are discussed as well as the structure and electrochemical properties of the most widely used catalysts of this process. The prospects of further studies of direct ethanol fuel cells with alkaline and acidic electrolytes are outlined. The bibliography includes 166 references.

  7. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de; Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  8. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasevich, M R; Korchagin, O V; Kuzov, A V

    2013-01-01

    The results of fundamental and applied studies in the field of electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol in fuel cells are considered. Features of the mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation are discussed as well as the structure and electrochemical properties of the most widely used catalysts of this process. The prospects of further studies of direct ethanol fuel cells with alkaline and acidic electrolytes are outlined. The bibliography includes 166 references

  9. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de, E-mail: lucianofreitas@hiroshima-u.ac.j [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan); Kaneko, Shinji [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: {yields} Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. {yields} It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. {yields} Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. {yields} Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  10. Transdermal therapeutic system of narcotic analgesics using nonporous membrane (I) : Effect of the ethanol permeability on vinylacetate content of EVA membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H.; Song, H.Y. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea); Khang, G.S. [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea); Lee, H.B. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    The fundamental properties of transdermal therapeutic patch as narcotic analgesics agent has been investigated. From the study of drug and ethanol release patterns from the fentanyl base (FB) patches through diffusion cell and hairless mouse skin, it was observed that the FB release patterns were largely affected by the content of vinyl acetate (VA) of ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) membrane, and volume fraction of ethanolic solution. Additionally, a variety of control membrane as a function of VA content were examined for swelling following equilibration with ethanolic solutions. Generally, ethanol was incorporated into a transdermal therapeutic device to enable the controlled delivery of enhancer and drug to the skin surface. In vitro skin permeation analysis of the control membrane showed that ethanol flux was linearly related to the ethanol volume fraction. This result was shown that drug permeability increased with increasing as the content of VA. But, the FB flux from saturated aqueous ethanol solutions increases until 80% ethanol volume fraction. Over 80% ethanol volume fraction, the FB flux through skin samples is independent of ethanol volume. These results showed that the decrease in skin permeation due to dehydration nis the dominant effect. 26 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Autoshaping of ethanol drinking in rats: effects of ethanol concentration and trial spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Wong, Karlvin; Apor, Khristine; Patterson-Buckendahl, Patricia; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2003-11-01

    In two studies, we evaluated the effects of ethanol concentration and trial spacing on Pavlovian autoshaping of ethanol drinking in rats. In these studies, the brief insertion of an ethanol sipper conditioned stimulus (CS) was followed by the response-independent presentation of food unconditioned stimulus (US), inducing sipper CS-directed drinking conditioned responses (CRs) in all rats. In Experiment 1, the ethanol concentration in the sipper CS [0%-16% volume/volume (vol./vol.), in increments of 1%] was systematically increased within subjects across autoshaping sessions. Groups of rats received sipper CS-food US pairings (Paired/Ethanol), a CS-US random procedure (Random/Ethanol), or water sipper CS paired with food US (Paired/Water). In Experiment 2, saccharin-fading procedures were used to initiate, in the Ethanol group, drinking of 6% (vol./vol.) ethanol in 0.1% saccharin or, in the Water group, drinking of tap water in 0.1% saccharin. After elimination of saccharin, and across days, the duration of access to the sipper CS during each autoshaping trial was increased (5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 s), and subsequently, across days, the duration of the mean intertrial interval (ITI) was increased (60, 90, 120, and 150 s). In Experiment 1, Paired/Ethanol and Random/Ethanol groups showed higher intake of ethanol, in terms of grams per kilogram of body weight, at higher ethanol concentrations, with more ethanol intake recorded in the Paired/Ethanol group. In Experiment 2, the Ethanol group drank more than was consumed by the Water group, and, for both groups, fluid intake increased with longer ITIs. Results support the suggestion that autoshaping contributes to sipper CS-directed ethanol drinking.

  12. Ethanol-Induced Upregulation of 10-Formyltetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase Helps Relieve Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Tsun-Hsien; Lin, Chia-Jen; Chung, Yi-Shao; Lee, Gang-Hui; Kao, Tseng-Ting; Chang, Wen-Ni; Chen, Bing-Hung; Hung, Jan-Jong; Fu, Tzu-Fun

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism induces folate deficiency and increases the risk for embryonic anomalies. However, the interplay between ethanol exposure and embryonic folate status remains unclear. To investigate how ethanol exposure affects embryonic folate status and one-carbon homeostasis, we incubated zebrafish embryos in ethanol and analyzed embryonic folate content and folate enzyme expression. Exposure to 2% ethanol did not change embryonic total folate content but increased the tetrahydrofolate level app...

  13. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  14. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  15. Compound list: ethanol [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethanol ETN 00137 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_v...itro/ethanol.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/et...hanol.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single.../ethanol.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/ethanol.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  16. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  17. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  18. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some moss species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiński Tomasz M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For centuries, mosses have been used in traditional medicine due to their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from 12 moss species: Brachythecium albicans, Bryum argenteum, Ceratodon purpureus, Dicranum scoparium, Dryptodon pulvinatus, Orthotrichum anomalum, Oxyrrhynchium hians, Plagiomnium undulatum, Polytrichum juniperinum, P. piliferum, Schistidium crassipilum, and Syntrichia ruralis. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of extracts was investigated against three Gram(+ bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes and two Gram(- bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, using the agar disc-diffusion method. Results: The high activity against all investigated bacteria was determined for extracts of D. pulvinatus, P. undulatum, B. argenteum, S. crassipilum, O. anomalum (mean inhibition zone: 11.3-13.1 mm and to a lesser extent in the case of D. scoparium (8.3 mm. Extracts from P. juniperinum and P. piliferum showed activity only against Gram-positive bacteria, with an inhibition zone from 7.3 to 9.7 mm. Four species: B. albicans, C. purpureus, O. hians, and S. ruralis had not antibacterial properties. Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that mosses could be a significant source of antibacterial agents. For the first time, we presented antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts from S. crassipilum and O. anomalum.

  19. Simulating HCCI Blending Octane Number of Primary Reference Fuel with Ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Eshan

    2017-03-28

    The blending of ethanol with primary reference fuel (PRF) mixtures comprising n-heptane and iso-octane is known to exhibit a non-linear octane response; however, the underlying chemistry and intermolecular interactions are poorly understood. Well-designed experiments and numerical simulations are required to understand these blending effects and the chemical kinetic phenomenon responsible for them. To this end, HCCI engine experiments were previously performed at four different conditions of intake temperature and engine speed for various PRF/ethanol mixtures. Transfer functions were developed in the HCCI engine to relate PRF mixture composition to autoignition tendency at various compression ratios. The HCCI blending octane number (BON) was determined for mixtures of 2-20 vol % ethanol with PRF70. In the present work, the experimental conditions were considered to perform zero-dimensional HCCI engine simulations with detailed chemical kinetics for ethanol/PRF blends. The simulations used the actual engine geometry and estimated intake valve closure conditions to replicate the experimentally measured start of combustion (SOC) for various PRF mixtures. The simulated HCCI heat release profiles were shown to reproduce the experimentally observed trends, specifically on the effectiveness of ethanol as a low temperature chemistry inhibitor at various concentrations. Detailed analysis of simulated heat release profiles and the evolution of important radical intermediates (e.g., OH and HO) were used to show the effect of ethanol blending on controlling reactivity. A strong coupling between the low temperature oxidation reactions of ethanol and those of n-heptane and iso-octane is shown to be responsible for the observed blending effects of ethanol/PRF mixtures.

  20. Simulating HCCI Blending Octane Number of Primary Reference Fuel with Ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Eshan; Waqas, Muhammad; Johansson, Bengt; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    The blending of ethanol with primary reference fuel (PRF) mixtures comprising n-heptane and iso-octane is known to exhibit a non-linear octane response; however, the underlying chemistry and intermolecular interactions are poorly understood. Well-designed experiments and numerical simulations are required to understand these blending effects and the chemical kinetic phenomenon responsible for them. To this end, HCCI engine experiments were previously performed at four different conditions of intake temperature and engine speed for various PRF/ethanol mixtures. Transfer functions were developed in the HCCI engine to relate PRF mixture composition to autoignition tendency at various compression ratios. The HCCI blending octane number (BON) was determined for mixtures of 2-20 vol % ethanol with PRF70. In the present work, the experimental conditions were considered to perform zero-dimensional HCCI engine simulations with detailed chemical kinetics for ethanol/PRF blends. The simulations used the actual engine geometry and estimated intake valve closure conditions to replicate the experimentally measured start of combustion (SOC) for various PRF mixtures. The simulated HCCI heat release profiles were shown to reproduce the experimentally observed trends, specifically on the effectiveness of ethanol as a low temperature chemistry inhibitor at various concentrations. Detailed analysis of simulated heat release profiles and the evolution of important radical intermediates (e.g., OH and HO) were used to show the effect of ethanol blending on controlling reactivity. A strong coupling between the low temperature oxidation reactions of ethanol and those of n-heptane and iso-octane is shown to be responsible for the observed blending effects of ethanol/PRF mixtures.

  1. Biofilm reactors for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, J L; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-07-01

    Whole cell immobilization has been studied in the laboratory during the last few years as a method to improve the performance and economics of most fermentation processes. Among the various techniques available for cell immobilization, methods that provide generation of a biofilm offer reduced diffusional resistance, high productivities, and simple operation. This paper reviews some of the important aspects of biofilm reactors for ethanol production, including reactor start-up, steady state behavior, process stability, and mathematical modeling. Special emphasis is placed on covalently bonded Saccharomyces cerevisiae in packed bed reactors.

  2. Optoelectronic sensor device for monitoring ethanol concentration in winemaking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Márquez, F.; Vázquez, J.; Úbeda, J.; Rodríguez-Rey, J.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    The supervision of key variables such as sugar, alcohol, released CO2 and microbiological evolution in fermenting grape must is of great importance in the winemaking industry. However, the fermentation kinetics is assessed by monitoring the evolution of the density as it varies during a fermentation, since density is an indicator of the total amount of sugars, ethanol and glycerol. Even so, supervising the fermentation process is an awkward and non-comprehensive task, especially in wine cellars where production rates are massive, and enologists usually measure the density of the extracted samples from each fermentation tank manually twice a day. This work aims at the design of a fast, low-cost, portable and reliable optoelectronic sensor for measuring ethanol concentration in fermenting grape must samples. Different sets of model solutions, which contain ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol dissolved in water and emulate the grape must composition at different stages of the fermentation, were prepared both for calibration and validation. The absorption characteristics of these model solutions were analyzed by a commercial spectrophotometer in the NIR region, in order to identify key wavelengths from which valuable information regarding the sample composition can be extracted. Finally, a customized optoelectronic prototype based on absorbance measurements at two wavelengths belonging to the NIR region was designed, fabricated and successfully tested. The system, whose optoelectronics is reduced after a thorough analysis to only two LED lamps and their corresponding paired photodiodes operating at 1.2 and 1.3 μm respectively, calculates the ethanol content by a multiple linear regression.

  3. Investigating wound healing, tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extracts of Salvia cryptantha and Salvia cyanescens using in vivo and in vitro experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süntar, Ipek; Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Senol, Fatma Sezer; Keles, Hikmet; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

    2011-04-26

    Salvia L. species are widely used against wounds and skin infections in Turkish folk medicine. The aim of the present study is to evaluate wound healing activity of the ethanol (EtOH) extracts of Salvia cryptantha and Salvia cyanescens. For the assessment of wound healing activity linear incision and circular excision wound models were employed on rats and mice. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with the standard skin ointment Madecassol(®). Inhibition of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in skin aging, was achieved using ELISA microplate reader. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenger effect, ferrous ion-chelating ability, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tests. The EtOH extract of Salvia cryptantha treated groups of animals showed 56.5% contraction, whereas the reference drug Madecassol(®) showed 100% contraction. On the other hand, the same extract on linear incision wound model demonstrated a significant increase (33.2%) in wound tensile strength as compared to other groups. The results of histopathological examination maintained the upshot of linear incision and circular excision wound models as well. These findings specify that Salvia cryptantha for wound healing activity can be appealed further phytochemical estimation for spotting its active components. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of High-Productivity Continuous Ethanol Production using PVA-Immobilized Zymomonas mobilis in an Immobilized-Cells Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol as one of renewable energy was being considered an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to replace gasoline. Continuous ethanol fermentation systems had offered important economic advantages compared to traditional systems. Fermentation rates were significantly improved, especially when continuous fermentation was integrated with cell immobilization techniques to enrich the cells concentration in fermentor. Growing cells of Zymomonas mobilis immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA gel beads were employed in an immobilized-cells fermentor for continuous ethanol fermentation from glucose. The glucose loading, dilution rate, and cells loading were varied in order to determine which best condition employed in obtaining both high ethanol production and low residual glucose with high dilution rate. In this study, 20 g/L, 100 g/L, 125 g/L and 150 g/L of glucose concentration and 20% (w/v, 40% (w/v and 50% (w/v of cells loading were employed with range of dilution rate at 0.25 to 1 h-1. The most stable production was obtained for 25 days by employing 100 g/L of glucose loading. Meanwhile, the results also exhibited that 125 g/L of glucose loading as well as 40% (w/v of cells loading yielded high ethanol concentration, high ethanol productivity, and acceptable residual glucose at 62.97 g/L, 15.74 g/L/h and 0.16 g/L, respectively. Furthermore, the dilution rate of 4 hour with 100 g/L and 40% (w/v of glucose and cells loading was considered as the optimum condition with ethanol production, ethanol productivity and residual glucose obtained were 49.89 g/L, 12.47 g/L/h, and 2.04 g/L, respectively. This recent study investigated ethanol inhibition as well. The present research had proved that high sugar concentration was successfully converted to ethanol. These achieved results were promising for further study.

  5. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  6. Modified SPEEK membranes for direct ethanol fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2010-01-01

    /PI homogeneous blends. The membranes were characterized concerning their water and ethanol solution uptake, water and ethanol permeability in pervaporation experiments and their performance in DEFC tests. The ethanol permeabilities for the CMS-coated (180 nm

  7. Determination of ethanol using permanganate-CdS quantum dot chemiluminescence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Hassanzadeh, Javad

    2015-08-01

    A novel and highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of ethanol was developed based on the CdS quantum dots (QDs)-permanganate system. It was found that KMnO4 could directly oxidize CdS QDs in acidic media resulting in relatively high CL emission. A possible mechanism was proposed for this reaction based on UV/Vis absorption, fluorescence and the generated CL emission spectra. However, it was observed that ethanol had a remarkable inhibition effect on this system. This effect was exploited in the determination of ethanol within the concentration range 12-300 µg/L, with detection at 4.3 µg/L. In order to evaluate the capability of presented method, it was satisfactorily utilized in the determination of alcohol in real samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Corrosion inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, A O

    1965-12-29

    An acid corrosion-inhibiting composition consists essentially of a sugar, and an alkali metal salt selected from the group consisting of iodides and bromides. The weight ratio of the sugar to the alkali metal salt is between 2:1 and about 20,000:1. Also, a corrosion- inhibited phosphoric acid composition comprising at least about 20 wt% of phosphoric acid and between about 0.1 wt% and about 10 wt% of molasses, and between about 0.0005 wt% and about 1 wt% of potassium iodide. The weight ratio of molasses to iodide is greater than about 2:1. (11 claims)

  9. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  10. Water-induced ethanol dewetting transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiuping; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Chunlei

    2012-07-14

    The dewetting transitions of two hydrophobic plates immersed in pure water, aqueous ethanol solutions with concentrations from 25% to 90%, and pure ethanol were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations, where the dewetting transition was analogous to a first-order phase transition from liquid to vapor. It was found that the dewetting transitions occurred except that in the pure ethanol system. Although the ethanol molecules prefer to locate in the vicinity of the two plates, the inter-plate region is unfavorable for water molecules, due to losing more than one hydrogen bond. Moreover, each inter-plate water molecule forms hydrogen bonds on average with about two ethanol molecules. These intermolecular hydrogen bonds cause water and ethanol to cooperatively fill or exit the inter-plate region. Thus, water molecules play a more important role in the inter-plate filling/empty process, and induce the ethanol dewetting transition. Our results provide insight into the effect of water on the ethanol dewetting phenomena.

  11. Characterization of ethanol concentrations at ultraviolet wavelength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the measurement of optical absorption spectrum for different concentrations of ethanol at ultraviolet wavelength. Ethanol absorption spectrum was measured using portable spectroscopy setup from Avantes. It consists of Balanced Deuterium Halogen light source and spectrometer. The light source can ...

  12. Beyond commonplace biofuels: Social aspects of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Barbara Esteves

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels policies and projects may lead to environmental, economic and social impacts. A number of studies point out the need to deliver comprehensive sustainability assessments regarding biofuels, with some presenting analytical frameworks that claim to be exhaustive. However, what is often found in the literature is an overexploitation of environmental and economic concerns, by contrast to a limited appraisal of the social aspects of biofuels. Building on a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, this paper discusses the social constraints and strengths of ethanol, with regard to the product's lifecycle stages and the actors involved. Its objective is to contribute to the development of social frameworks to be used in assessing the impact of ethanol. Main findings indicate that ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability, although there is little evidence in the literature regarding the positive and negative social impacts of 1st-generation ethanol and potential impacts of cellulosic ethanol. Further work is needed on the formulation of social criteria and indicators for a comprehensive sustainability assessment of this biofuel. Policy makers need to internalise the social dimension of ethanol in decision-making to prevent public opposition and irreversible social costs in the future. - Highlights: ► The literature lacks evidence on the social impacts of ethanol. ► Further work is needed on social criteria and indicators for assessment. ► Ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability. ► Decision-making should internalise the social dimension of biofuels sustainability

  13. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15% ethanol tolerance. High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application in ethanologenic fermentations. Data presented in this study revealed that Orc 6 yeast isolate tolerated osmotic stress above 12% (w/v) sorbitol and 15% (w/v) sucrose equivalent of osmotic pressure ...

  14. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juliana

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... The use of vegetable biomass as substrate for ethanol production could reduce the ... Fermentation was performed in a laboratory scale using the J10 and FT858 ... Key words: Hydrolysis of sugarcane straw and pointers, sugarcane juice, ..... Ethanol: An Overview about Composition, Pretreatment Methods,.

  15. Pavlovian conditioning with ethanol: sign-tracking (autoshaping), conditioned incentive, and ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krank, Marvin D

    2003-10-01

    Conditioned incentive theories of addictive behavior propose that cues signaling a drug's reinforcing effects activate a central motivational state. Incentive motivation enhances drug-taking and drug-seeking behavior. We investigated the behavioral response to cues associated with ethanol and their interaction with operant self-administration of ethanol. In two experiments, rats received operant training to press a lever for a sweetened ethanol solution. After operant training, the animals were given Pavlovian pairings of a brief and localized cue light with the sweetened ethanol solution (no lever present). Lever pressing for ethanol was then re-established, and the behavioral effects of the cue light were tested during an ethanol self-administration session. The conditioned responses resulting from pairing cue lights with the opportunity to ingest ethanol had three main effects: (1) induction of operant behavior reinforced by ethanol, (2) stimulation of ethanol-seeking behavior (magazine entries), and (3) signal-directed behavior (i.e., autoshaping, or sign-tracking). Signal-directed behavior interacted with the other two effects in a manner predicted by the location of the cue light. These conditioned responses interact with operant responding for ethanol reinforcement. These findings demonstrate the importance of Pavlovian conditioning effects on ethanol self-administration and are consistent with conditioned incentive theories of addictive behavior.

  16. Ethanol Production by Soy Fiber Treatment and Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation in an Integrated Corn-Soy Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasreen K. Sekhon

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Insoluble fiber (IF recovered from the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP of soybeans is a fraction rich in carbohydrates and proteins. It can be used to enhance ethanol production in an integrated corn-soy biorefinery, which combines EAEP with traditional corn-based ethanol processing. The present study evaluated IF as a substrate for ethanol production. The effects of treatment of IF (soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA, liquid hot water (LHW, and enzymatic hydrolysis, primarily simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF, as well as scaling up (250 mL to 60 L on ethanol production from IF alone or a corn and IF slurry were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis (pectinase, cellulase, and xylanase, each added at 5% soy solids during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation/SSCF was the best treatment to maximize ethanol production from IF. Ethanol yield almost doubled when SSCF of IF was performed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli KO11. Addition of IF in dry-grind corn fermentation increased the ethanol production rate (~31%, but low ethanol tolerance of E. coli KO11 was a limiting factor for employing SSCF in combination corn and IF fermentation. Nonlinear Monod modeling accurately predicted the effect of ethanol concentration on E. coli KO11 growth kinetics by Hanes-Woolf linearization. Collectively, the results from this study suggest a potential of IF as a substrate, alone or in dry-grind corn fermentation, where it enhances the ethanol production rate. IF can be incorporated in the current bioethanol industry with no added capital investment, except enzymes.

  17. Acute effects of ethanol and ethanol plus furosemide on pancreatic capillary blood flow in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, J A; Cooper-Vastola, S A; Meirelles, R F; Bagchi, S; Caboclo, J L; Holm, C; Eisenberg, M M

    1993-07-01

    The effects of intravenous ethanol and ethanol plus furosemide on pancreatic capillary blood flow (PCBF) were investigated using a laser-Doppler flowmeter. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: (1) control, (2) 80% ethanol, (3) 80% ethanol plus furosemide, and (4) furosemide. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored. Levels of serum amylase, calcium, electrolytes, ethanol, and furosemide (groups 3 and 4) were measured, and samples of pancreatic tissue were obtained. The ethanol and furosemide levels were statistically different (p 0.05) between groups 1 and 4. Histopathologic analysis revealed swollen acini in group 2 and sparse focal necrosis without acinar swelling in group 3. The depressant effect of ethanol on PCBF may be the result of its direct action on pancreatic cells causing edema and capillary compression rather than on primary vascular control mechanisms that adjust blood flow. Furosemide counters this effect.

  18. The ethanol pathway from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum improves ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Shuen; Olson, Daniel G; Holwerda, Evert K; Lanahan, Anthony A; Murphy, Sean J L; Maloney, Marybeth I; Zheng, Tianyong; Papanek, Beth; Guss, Adam M; Lynd, Lee R

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ferments cellulose, is a promising candidate for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass, and has been the focus of studies aimed at improving ethanol yield. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum ferments hemicellulose, but not cellulose, and has been engineered to produce ethanol at high yield and titer. Recent research has led to the identification of four genes in T. saccharolyticum involved in ethanol production: adhE, nfnA, nfnB and adhA. We introduced these genes into C. thermocellum and observed significant improvements to ethanol yield, titer, and productivity. The four genes alone, however, were insufficient to achieve in C. thermocellum the ethanol yields and titers observed in engineered T. saccharolyticum strains, even when combined with gene deletions targeting hydrogen production. This suggests that other parts of T. saccharolyticum metabolism may also be necessary to reproduce the high ethanol yield and titer phenotype in C. thermocellum. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre-treatment step with Leuconostoc mesenteroides or L. pseudomesenteroides strains removes furfural from Zymomonas mobilis ethanolic fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William J; Manter, Daniel K

    2014-10-01

    Furfural is an inhibitor of growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis. This study used a naturally occurring (not GMO) biological pre-treatment to reduce that amount of furfural in a model fermentation broth. Pre-treatment involved inoculating and incubating the fermentation broth with strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides or Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The Leuconostoc strains converted furfural to furfuryl alcohol without consuming large amounts of dextrose in the process. Coupling this pre-treatment to ethanolic fermentation reduced furfural in the broth and improved growth, dextrose uptake and ethanol formation. Pre-treatment permitted ethanol formation in the presence of 5.2 g L(-1) furfural, which was otherwise inhibitive. The pre-treatment and presence of the Leuconostoc strains in the fermentation broth did not interfere with Z. mobilis ethanolic fermentation or the amounts of ethanol produced. The method suggests a possible technique for reducing the effect that furfural has on the production of ethanol for use as a biofuel. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Selective dehydration of bio-ethanol to ethylene catalyzed by lanthanum-phosphorous-modified HZSM-5: influence of the fusel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaochi; Zhan, Nina; Dou, Chang; Huang, He; Han, Yuwang; Yu, Dinghua; Hu, Yi

    2010-11-01

    Bio-ethanol dehydration to ethylene is an attractive alternative to oil-based ethylene. The influence of fusel, main byproducts in the fermentation process of bio-ethanol production, on the bio-ethanol dehydration should not be ignored. We studied the catalytic dehydration of bio-ethanol to ethylene over parent and modified HZSM-5 at 250°C, with weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) equal to 2.0/h. The influences of a series of fusel, such as isopropanol, isobutanol and isopentanol, on the ethanol dehydration over the catalysts were investigated. The 0.5%La-2%PHZSM-5 catalyst exhibited higher ethanol conversion (100%), ethylene selectivity (99%), and especially enhanced stability (more than 70 h) than the parent and other modified HZSM-5. We demonstrated that the introduction of lanthanum and phosphorous to HZSM-5 could weaken the negative influence of fusel on the formation of ethylene. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by ammonia temperature-programmed desorption (NH(3)-TPD), nitrogen adsorption and thermogravimetry (TG)/differential thermogravimetry (DTG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA) (TG/DTG/DTA) techniques. The results indicated that the introduction of lanthanum and phosphorous to HZSM-5 could inhibit the formation of coking during the ethanol dehydration to ethylene in the presence of fusel. The development of an efficient catalyst is one of the key technologies for the industrialization of bio-ethylene.

  1. Effect of Ethanol Stress on Fermentation Performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells Immobilized on Nypa fruticans Leaf Sheath Pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Phong Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on Nypa fruticans leaf sheath pieces were tested for ethanol tolerance (0, 23.7, 47.4, 71.0 and 94.7 g/L. Increase in the initial ethanol concentration from 23.7 to 94.7 g/L decreased the average growth rate and concentration of ethanol produced by the immobilized yeast by 5.2 and 4.1 times, respectively. However, in the medium with initial ethanol concentration of 94.7 g/L, the average growth rate, glucose uptake rate and ethanol formation rate of the immobilized yeast were 3.7, 2.5 and 3.5 times, respectively, higher than those of the free yeast. The ethanol stress inhibited ethanol formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and the yeast responded to the stress by changing the fatty acid composition of cellular membrane. The adsorption of yeast cells on Nypa fruticans leaf sheath pieces of the growth medium increased the saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0 mass fraction in the cellular membrane and that improved alcoholic fermentation performance of the immobilized yeast.

  2. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Robert E. [Downstream Alternatives, Inc., South Bend, IN (United States)

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  3. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  4. African perspective on cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Kemausuor, Francis; Miezah, Kodwo

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge to commercial production of cellulosic ethanol pertains to the cost-effective breakdown of the complex and recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose into its components via pretreatment, the cost of enzymes for hydrolysis and fermentation, and the conversion rate of C5 sugars...... to ethanol, among others. While the industrialized and some emerging countries are gradually breaking grounds in cellulosic ethanol, most African countries have made little effort in research and development even though the continent is rich in lignocellulosic biomass. The paper estimates residues from...... widely available crops and municipal waste and determines their respective theoretical ethanol potential (around 22 billion litres annually). It further reviews stages involved in the production of cellulosic ethanol, focussing on processing methods that can be adapted to current situation in most...

  5. Rewiring Lactococcus lactis for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Dehli, Tore Ibsen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2013-01-01

    to redirect the metabolism of LAB model organism Lactococcus lactis toward ethanol production. Codon-optimized Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) was introduced and expressed from synthetic promoters in different strain backgrounds. In the wild-type L. lactis strain MG1363 growing on glucose, only...... small amounts of ethanol were obtained after introducing PDC, probably due to a low native alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When the same strains were grown on maltose, ethanol was the major product and lesser amounts of lactate, formate, and acetate were formed. Inactivating the lactate dehydrogenase...... genes ldhX, ldhB, and ldh and introducing codon-optimized Z. mobilis alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHB) in addition to PDC resulted in high-yield ethanol formation when strains were grown on glucose, with only minor amounts of by-products formed. Finally, a strain with ethanol as the sole observed...

  6. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-30

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. Policy Uncertainty and the US Ethanol Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. H. Jones

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2, as implemented, has introduced uncertainty into US ethanol producers and the supporting commodity market. First, the fixed mandate for what is mainly cornstarch-based ethanol has increased feedstock price volatility and exerts a general effect across the agricultural sector. Second, the large discrepancy between the original Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA intentions and the actual RFS2 implementation for some fuel classes has increased the investment uncertainty facing investors in biofuel production, distribution, and consumption. Here we discuss and analyze the sources of uncertainty and evaluate the effect of potential RFS2 adjustments as they influence these uncertainties. This includes the use of a flexible, production dependent mandate on corn starch ethanol. We find that a flexible mandate on cornstarch ethanol relaxed during drought could significantly reduce commodity price spikes and alleviate the decline of livestock production in cases of feedstock production shortfalls, but it would increase the risk for ethanol investors.

  8. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs

  9. Perspectives on fuel ethanol consumption and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Arnaldo; Dolzan, Paulo; Piacente, Erik; Borges da Cunha, Kamyla; Rosillo-Calle, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Since the year 2000 or so there has been a rapid growth on fuel ethanol production and consumption, particularly in US and Brazil. Ethanol trade represented about 10% of world consumption in 2005, Brazil being the main exporter. The most important consumer markets - US and European Union (EU) - have trade regimes that constrained the comparative advantages of the most efficient producers, such as Brazil. This paper evaluates the fuel ethanol market up to 2030 together with the potential for international biotrade. Based on forecasts of gasoline consumption and on targets and mandates of fuel ethanol use, it is estimated that demand could reach 272 Gl in 2030, displacing 10% of the estimated demand of gasoline (Scenario 1), or even 566 Gl in the same year, displacing about 20% of the gasoline demand (Scenario 2). The analysis considers fuel ethanol consumption and production in US, EU-25, Japan, China, Brazil and the rest of the world (ROW-BR). Without significant production of ethanol from cellulosic materials in this period, displacing 10% of the gasoline demand in 2030, at reasonable cost, can only be accomplished by fostering fuel ethanol production in developing countries and enhancing ethanol trade. If the US and EU-25 reach their full production potential (based on conventional routes), the minimum amount that could be traded in 2030 would be about 34 Gl. Displacing 20% of the gasoline demand by 2030 will require the combined development of second-generation technologies and large-scale international trade in ethanol fuel. Without second-generation technologies, Scenario 2 could become a reality only with large-scale production of ethanol from sugarcane in developing countries, e.g., Brazil and ROW-BR could be able to export at least 14.5 Gl in 2010, 73.9 Gl in 2020 and 71.8 Gl in 2030. (author)

  10. Inhibition of growth and mycotoxins formation in moulds by marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... extracts (chloroform, hexane and methanol) had no activity on the microbial growth. Mycotoxins formation in Aspergillus flavus was inhibited by the ethanolic extracts at the concentration of 5%. Key Words: Algae, antimicrobial, minimal inhibitory concentration, moulds. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(1) 2004: 71-75 ...

  11. The Inhibition of aflatoxin production from Aspergillus parasiticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibition of Aflatoxin production from Aspergillus parasiticus strain NRRL 2999 was investigated using ethanol extracts of Aframommon danielli flower at concentrations of 250ìg/g, 500ìg/g, 750ìg/g and 1000ìg/g with whole wheat bread as a substrate. Aspergillus parasiticus grew abundantly on whole wheat bread; ...

  12. Autoshaping induces ethanol drinking in nondeprived rats: evidence of long-term retention but no induction of ethanol preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Kuo, Teresa; Apor, Khristine R; Salomon, Kimberly E; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-04-01

    The effects of autoshaping procedures (paired vs. random) and sipper fluid (ethanol vs. water) on sipper-directed drinking were evaluated in male Long-Evans rats maintained with free access to food and water. For the paired/ethanol group (n=16), autoshaping procedures consisted of presenting the ethanol sipper (containing 0% to 28% unsweetened ethanol) conditioned stimulus (CS) followed by the response-independent presentation of food unconditioned stimulus (US). The random/ethanol group (n=8) received the sipper CS and food US randomly with respect to one another. The paired/water group (n=8) received only water in the sipper CS. The paired/ethanol group showed higher grams per kilogram ethanol intake than the random/ethanol group did at ethanol concentrations of 8% to 28%. The paired/ethanol group showed higher sipper CS-directed milliliter fluid consumption than the paired/water group did at ethanol concentrations of 1% to 6%, and 15%, 16%, 18%, and 20%. Following a 42-day retention interval, the paired/ethanol group showed superior retention of CS-directed drinking of 18% ethanol, relative to the random/ethanol group, and superior retention of CS-directed milliliter fluid drinking relative to the paired/water group. When tested for home cage ethanol preference using limited access two-bottle (28% ethanol vs. water) procedures, the paired/ethanol and random/ethanol groups did not differ on any drinking measures.

  13. Solanum nigrum Protects against Hepatic Fibrosis via Suppression of Hyperglycemia in High-Fat/Ethanol Diet-Induced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jeng Tai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs signal through the receptor for AGE (RAGE, which can lead to hepatic fibrosis in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. We investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts from Solanum nigrum (AESN on AGEs-induced RAGE signaling and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs and hyperglycemia induced by high-fat diet with ethanol. Methods: An animal model was used to evaluate the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of AESN in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 30% with ethanol (10%. Male Wistar rats (4 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6: (1 control (basal diet; (2 HFD (30% + ethanol (10% (HFD/ethanol; (3 HFD/ethanol + AESN (100 mg/kg, oral administration; and (4 HFD/ethanol + pioglitazone (10 mg/kg, oral administration and treated with HFD for 6 months in the presence or absence of 10% ethanol in dietary water. Results: We found that AESN improved insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and downregulated lipogenesis via regulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, PPARγ co-activator (PGC-1α, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, and fatty acid synthase (FAS mRNA levels in the liver of HFD/ethanol-treated rats. In turn, AESN may delay and inhibit the progression of hepatic fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA inhibition and MMP-2 production. Conclusions: These results suggest that AESN may be further explored as a novel anti-fibrotic strategy for the prevention of liver disease.

  14. Ethanol modulation of mammalian BK channels in excitable tissues: molecular targets and their possible contribution to alcohol-induced altered behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Dopico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In most tissues, the function of calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK channels is modified in response to ethanol concentrations reached in human blood during alcohol intoxication. In general, modification of BK current from ethanol-naïve preparations in response to brief ethanol exposure results from changes in channel open probability without modification of unitary conductance or change in BK protein levels in the membrane. Protracted and/or repeated ethanol exposure, however, may evoke changes in BK expression. The final ethanol effect on BK open probability leading to either BK current potentiation or BK current reduction is determined by an orchestration of molecular factors, including levels of activating ligand (cytosolic calcium, BK subunit composition and posttranslational modifications, and the channel’s lipid microenvironment. These factors seem to allosterically regulate a direct interaction between ethanol and a recognition pocket of discrete dimensions recently mapped to the channel-forming (slo1 subunit. Type of ethanol exposure also plays a role in the final BK response to the drug: in several central nervous system regions (e.g., striatum, primary sensory neurons, and supraoptic nucleus, acute exposure to ethanol reduces neuronal excitability by enhancing BK activity. In contrast, protracted or repetitive ethanol administration may alter BK subunit composition and membrane expression, rendering the BK complex insensitive to further ethanol exposure. In neurohypophysial axon terminals, ethanol potentiation of BK channel activity leads to a reduction in neuropeptide release. In vascular smooth muscle, however, ethanol inhibition of BK current leads to cell contraction and vascular constriction.

  15. Screening and characterization of ethanol-tolerant and thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria from Chinese vinegar Pei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Bai, Ye; Li, Dongsheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Ning; Hu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important microorganisms in the vinegar industry. However, AAB have to tolerate the presence of ethanol and high temperatures, especially in submerged fermentation (SF), which inhibits AAB growth and acid yield. In this study, seven AAB that are tolerant to temperatures above 40 °C and ethanol concentrations above 10% (v/v) were isolated from Chinese vinegar Pei. All the isolated AAB belong to Acetobacter pasteurianus according to 16S rDNA analysis. Among all AAB, AAB4 produced the highest acid yield under high temperature and ethanol test conditions. At 4% ethanol and 30-40 °C temperatures, AAB4 maintained an alcohol-acid transform ratio of more than 90.5 %. High alcohol-acid transform ratio was still maintained even at higher temperatures, namely, 87.2, 77.1, 14.5 and 2.9% at 41, 42, 43 and 44 °C, respectively. At 30 °C and different initial ethanol concentrations (4-10%), the acid yield by AAB4 increased gradually, although the alcohol-acid transform ratio decreased to some extent. However, 46.5, 8.7 and 0.9% ratios were retained at ethanol concentrations of 11, 12 and 13%, respectively. When compared with AS1.41 (an AAB widely used in China) using a 10 L fermentor, AAB4 produced 42.0 g/L acetic acid at 37 °C with 10% ethanol, whereas AS1.41 almost stopped producing acetic acid. In conclusion, these traits suggest that AAB4 is a valuable strain for vinegar production in SF.

  16. Low Doses of Ethanol Enhance LTD-like Plasticity in Human Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhl, Anna; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Lücke, Caroline; Toennes, Stefan W; Ziemann, Ulf

    2015-12-01

    Humans liberally use ethanol for its facilitating effects on social interactions but its effects on central nervous system function remain underexplored. We have recently described that very low doses of ethanol abolish long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in human cortex, most likely through enhancement of tonic inhibition [Lücke et al, 2014, Neuropsychopharmacology 39:1508-18]. Here, we studied the effects of low-dose ethanol on long-term depression (LTD)-like plasticity. LTD-like plasticity was induced in human motor cortex by paired associative transcranial magnetic stimulation (PASLTD), and measured as decreases of motor evoked potential input-output curve (IO-curve). In addition, sedation was measured by decreases in saccade peak velocity (SPV). Ethanol in two low doses (EtOH<10mM, EtOH<20mM) was compared to single oral doses of alprazolam (APZ, 1mg) a classical benzodiazepine, and zolpidem (ZLP, 10 mg), a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic, in a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled crossover design in ten healthy human subjects. EtOH<10mM and EtOH<20mM but not APZ or ZLP enhanced the PASLTD-induced LTD-like plasticity, while APZ and ZLP but not EtOH<10mM or EtOH<20mM decreased SPV. Non-sedating low doses of ethanol, easily reached during social drinking, enhance LTD-like plasticity in human cortex. This effect is most likely explained by the activation of extrasynaptic α4-subunit containing gamma-aminobutyric type A receptors by low-dose EtOH, resulting in increased tonic inhibition. Findings may stimulate cellular research on the role of tonic inhibition in regulating excitability and plasticity of cortical neuronal networks.

  17. Fetal guinea pig brain 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase: Ontogeny and effect of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treissman, D.; Brien, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the ontogeny of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-OH-PGDH) activity in the brain of the fetal guinea pig and to test the hypothesis that acute in vitro ethanol exposure produces concentration-dependent inhibition of fetal brain 15-OH-PGDH activity. Enzyme activity was determined in vitro by measuring the rate of oxidation of PGE2 to 15-keto-PGE2 using an optimized radiometric procedure. The study was conducted utilizing the whole brain of the fetal guinea pig at mean gestational ages of 34, 43 and 62 days (term, about 66 days) and the brain stem (pons and medulla) of the fetal guinea pig at mean gestational ages of 43 and 62 days. The direct effect of acute in vitro exposure to ethanol was assessed by incubating 15-OH-PGDH with ethanol in the concentration range of 10 to 80 mM. 15-OH-PGDH was measurable in the whole brain and brain stem, and the enzyme activity was similar for the gestational ages examined. There was no significant ethanol-induced inhibition of 15-OH-PGDH activity in the whole brain or brain stem. The data demonstrate that the whole brain and brain stem of the fetal guinea pig have the capacity to metabolize PGE2 to 15-keto-PGE2, an inactive metabolite, during the second half of gestation. The data apparently are not consistent with the hypothesis that acute in vitro exposure to ethanol directly inhibits 15-OH-PGDH activity in fetal brain

  18. Impact of Furfural on Rapid Ethanol Production Using a Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A membrane bioreactor was developed to counteract the inhibition effect of furfural in ethanol production. Furfural, a major inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolyzates, is a highly toxic substance which is formed from pentose sugars released during the acidic degradation of lignocellulosic materials. Continuous cultivations with complete cell retention were performed at a high dilution rate of 0.5 h−1. Furfural was added directly into the bioreactor by pulse injection or by addition into the feed medium to obtain furfural concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 21.8 g L−1. At all pulse injections of furfural, the yeast was able to convert the furfural very rapidly by in situ detoxification. When injecting 21.8 g L−1 furfural to the cultivation, the yeast converted it by a specific conversion rate of 0.35 g g−1 h−1. At high cell density, Saccharomyces cerevisiae could tolerate very high furfural levels without major changes in the ethanol production. During the continuous cultures when up to 17.0 g L−1 furfural was added to the inlet medium, the yeast successfully produced ethanol, whereas an increase of furfural to 18.6 and 20.6 g L−1 resulted in a rapidly decreasing ethanol production and accumulation of sugars in the permeate. This study show that continuous ethanol fermentations by total cell retention in a membrane bioreactor has a high furfural tolerance and can conduct rapid in situ detoxification of medium containing high furfural concentrations.

  19. Pie waste - A component of food waste and a renewable substrate for producing ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Margaret; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jayanthi, Singaram; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-04-01

    Sugar-rich food waste is a sustainable feedstock that can be converted into ethanol without an expensive thermochemical pretreatment that is commonly used in first and second generation processes. In this manuscript we have outlined the pie waste conversion to ethanol through a two-step process, namely, enzyme hydrolysis using commercial enzyme products mixtures and microbial fermentation using yeast. Optimized enzyme cocktail was found to be 45% alpha amylase, 45% gamma amylase, and 10% pectinase at 2.5mg enzyme protein/g glucan produced a hydrolysate with high glucose concentration. All three solid loadings (20%, 30%, and 40%) produced sugar-rich hydrolysates and ethanol with little to no enzyme or yeast inhibition. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process mass balance was carried out using pie waste on a 1000g dry weight basis that produced 329g ethanol at 20% solids loading. This process clearly demonstrate how food waste could be efficiently converted to ethanol that could be used for making biodiesel by reacting with waste cooking oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Separation, hydrolysis and fermentation of pyrolytic sugars to produce ethanol and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jieni; Chen, Shulin; Zhou, Shuai; Wang, Zhouhong; O'Fallon, James; Li, Chun-Zhu; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a new scheme to convert anhydrosugars found in pyrolysis oils into ethanol and lipids. Pyrolytic sugars were separated from phenols by solvent extraction and were hydrolyzed into glucose using sulfuric acid as a catalyst. Toxicological studies showed that phenols and acids were the main species inhibiting growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sulfuric acids, and carboxylic acids from the bio-oils, were neutralized with Ba(OH)(2). The phase rich in sugar was further detoxified with activated carbon. The resulting aqueous phase rich in glucose was fermented with three different yeasts: S. cerevisiae to produce ethanol, and Cryptococcus curvatus and Rhodotorula glutinis to produce lipids. Yields as high as 0.473 g ethanol/g glucose and 0.167 g lipids/g sugar (0.266 g ethanol equivalent/g sugar), were obtained. These results confirm that pyrolytic sugar fermentation to produce ethanol is more efficient than for lipid production. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents.

  2. Shampoo of kesum (Polygonum minus) leaves ethanol extract as an anti-dandruff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiarti, Dini

    2017-03-01

    Formulation of shampoo has done as anti dandruff extracts from ethanol leaf kesum (Polygonum minus) the most effective way of inhibiting the growth of Pityrosporum ovale. The community of West Kalimantan utilizing kesum as medicine anti dandruff but there has been no clinical research against such activities. Kesum have been cleaned, dried and crushed, then extracted by using maceration method of ethanol 50%. Furthermore, kesum leaves were divided into four of shampoo formula by varying concentrations of kesum leaves ethanol extract 0% (negative control), 5 % (the fisrt formula), 10 % (the second formula), and 15 % (the third formula). In the next step, each formula shampoo anti dandruff will betested by setting up the media in the form of SDB (Sabouraud Dextrose Broth) and SDA (Sabouraud Dextrose Agar) as well as the microbiological tests include: culture Pityrosporum ovale, calculation of yeast Pityrosporum ovale, and test of inhibition and release of active substances. Shampoo formula of kesum leaves ethanol extract showed that is has antifungal activity towards of the fungi caused by dandruff. The best inhibitor activity has been obtained from the third formula with diameter of clear zone at 2,61 cm.

  3. Neurogranin in the nucleus accumbens regulates NMDA receptor tolerance and motivation for ethanol seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, Ashlie N; Oliveros, Alfredo; Sullivan, John M; Nahar, Lailun; Hinton, David J; Kim, Taehyun; Bruner, Robert C; Choi, Doo-Sup; Goeders, Nicholas E; Nam, Hyung W

    2018-03-15

    Dysfunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Neurogranin (Ng), a calmodulin-binding protein, is exclusively expressed in the post-synapse, and mediates NMDAR driven synaptic plasticity by regulating the calcium-calmodulin (Ca 2+ -CaM) pathway. To study the functional role of Ng in AUD, we administrated behavior tests including Pavlovian instrument transfer (PIT), operant conditioning, and rotarod test using Ng null mice (Ng -/- mice). We used adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Ng expression and pharmacological manipulation to validate behavioral responses in Ng -/- mice. The results from our multidisciplinary approaches demonstrated that deficit of Ng increases tolerance to NMDAR inhibition and elicit faster cue reactivity during PIT without changes in ethanol reward. Operant conditioning results demonstrated that Ng -/- mice self-administered significantly more ethanol and displayed reduced sensitivity to aversive motivation. We identified that ethanol exposure decreases mGluR5 (metabotropic glutamate receptor 5) expression in the NAc of Ng -/- mice and pharmacological inhibition of mGluR5 reverses NMDAR desensitization in Ng -/- mice. Together these findings specifically suggest that accumbal Ng plays an essential role in the counterbalance between NMDAR and mGluR5 signaling; which alters NMDAR resistance, and thereby altering aversive motivation for ethanol and may ultimately contribute to susceptibility for alcohol addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cellulosic ethanol: status and innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynd, Lee R.; Liang, Xiaoyu; Biddy, Mary J.; Allee, Andrew; Cai, Hao; Foust, Thomas; Himmel, Michael E.; Laser, Mark S.; Wang, Michael; Wyman, Charles E.

    2017-06-01

    Although the purchase price of cellulosic feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the cost of lignocellulose conversion to ethanol using today’s technology is high. Cost reductions can be pursued via either in-paradigm or new-paradigm innovation. As an example of new-paradigm innovation, consolidated bioprocessing using thermophilic bacteria combined with milling during fermentation (cotreatment) is analyzed. Acknowledging the nascent state of this approach, our analysis indicates potential for radically improved cost competitiveness and feasibility at smaller scale compared to current technology, arising from (a) R&D-driven advances (consolidated bioprocessing with cotreatment in lieu of thermochemical pretreatment and added fungal cellulase), and (b) configurational changes (fuel pellet coproduction instead of electricity, gas boiler(s) in lieu of a solid fuel boiler).

  5. Comparing cell viability and ethanol fermentation of the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on steam-exploded biomass treated with laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Ballesteros, Ignacio; González, Alberto; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus CECT 10875 was compared to the industrial strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethanol Red for lignocellulosic ethanol production. For it, whole slurry from steam-exploded wheat straw was used as raw material, and two process configurations, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF), were evaluated. Compared to S. cerevisiae, which was able to produce ethanol in both process configurations, K. marxianus was inhibited, and neither growth nor ethanol production occurred during the processes. However, laccase treatment of the whole slurry removed specifically lignin phenols from the overall inhibitory compounds present in the slurry and triggered the fermentation by K. marxianus, attaining final ethanol concentrations and yields comparable to those obtained by S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Repeated episodes of chronic intermittent ethanol promote insensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing effect of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Chandler, L J

    2014-11-01

    Studies in animal models have shown that repeated episodes of alcohol dependence and withdrawal promote escalation of drinking that is presumably associated with alterations in the addiction neurocircuitry. Using a lithium chloride-ethanol pairing procedure to devalue the reinforcing properties of ethanol, the present study determined whether multiple cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor inhalation also alters the sensitivity of drinking behavior to the devaluation of ethanol's reinforcing effects. The effect of devaluation on operant ethanol self-administration and extinction was examined in mice prior to initiation of CIE (short drinking history) and after repeated cycles of CIE or air control exposure (long drinking history). Devaluation significantly attenuated the recovery of baseline ethanol self-administration when tested either prior to CIE or in the air-exposed controls that had experienced repeated bouts of drinking but no CIE. In contrast, in mice that had undergone repeated cycles of CIE exposure that promoted escalation of ethanol drinking, self-administration was completely resistant to the effect of devaluation. Devaluation had no effect on the time course of extinction training in either pre-CIE or post-CIE mice. Taken together, these results are consistent with the suggestion that repeated cycles of ethanol dependence and withdrawal produce escalation of ethanol self-administration that is associated with a change in sensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sustainably produced ethanol. A premium fuel component; Nachhaltig produziertes Ethanol. Eine Premium Kraftstoffkomponente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Joerg [Suedzucker AG, Obrigheim/Pfalz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Ethanol is the most used biofuel in the world. It is part of the European biofuel strategy, which is intended to preserve finite fossil resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and strengthen European agriculture. In addition to its traditional use in E5 fuel, ethanol most recently features in new fuels for petrol engines in Europe: as E10 as an expansion of the already existing concept of ethanol blends, such as in E5, or as ethanol fuel E85, a blend made up primarily of ethanol. There is already extensive international experience for both types of fuel for example in the USA or Brazil. The use of ethanol as a biofuel is linked to sustainability criteria in Europe which must be proven through a certification scheme. In addition to ethanol, the integrated production process also provides vegetable protein which is used in food as well as in animal feed and therefore provides the quality products of processed plants used for sustainable energy and in animal and human food. Ethanol has an effect on the vapour pressure, boiling behaviour and octane number of the fuel blend. Adjusting the blend stock petrol to fulfil the quality requirements of the final fuel is therefore necessary. Increasing the antiknock properties, increasing the heat of evaporation of the fuel using ethanol and the positive effects this has on the combustion efficiency of the petrol engine are particularly important. Investigations on cars or engines that were specifically designed for fuel with a higher ethanol content show significant improvements in using the energy from the fuel and the potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions if fuels containing ethanol are used. The perspective based purely on an energy equivalent replacement of fossil fuels with ethanol is therefore misleading. Ethanol can also contribute to increasing the energy efficiency of petrol engines as well as being a replacement source of energy. (orig.)

  8. Amperometric sensor for ethanol based on one-step electropolymerization of thionine-carbon nanofiber nanocomposite containing alcohol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lina; McIntosh, Mike; Zhang, Xueji; Ju, Huangxian

    2007-12-15

    Thionine had strong interaction with carbon nanofiber (CNF) and was used in the non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanofiber for the preparation of stable thionine-CNF nanocomposite with good dispersion. With a simple one-step electrochemical polymerization of thionine-CNF nanocomposite and alcohol oxidase (AOD), a stable poly(thionine)-CNF/AOD biocomposite film was formed on electrode surface. Based on the excellent catalytic activity of the biocomposite film toward reduction of dissolved oxygen, a sensitive ethanol biosensor was proposed. The ethanol biosensor could monitor ethanol ranging from 2.0 to 252 microM with a detection limit of 1.7 microM. It displayed a rapid response, an expanded linear response range as well as excellent reproducibility and stability. The combination of catalytic activity of CNF and the promising feature of the biocomposite with one-step non-manual technique favored the sensitive determination of ethanol with improved analytical capabilities.

  9. Thermodynamic assessment of hydrogen production and cobalt oxidation susceptibility under ethanol reforming conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, C.N. de; Hori, C.E.; Assis, A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    A comparative thermodynamic analysis of ethanol reforming reactions was conducted using an in-house code. Equilibrium compositions were estimated using the Lagrange multipliers method, which generated systems of non-linear algebraic equations, solved numerically. Effects of temperature, pressure and steam to ethanol, O 2 to ethanol and CO 2 to ethanol ratios on the equilibrium compositions were evaluated. The validation was done by comparing these data with experimental literature. The results of this work proved to be useful to foresee whether the experimental results follow the stoichiometry of the reactions involved in each process. Mole fractions of H 2 and CO 2 proved to be the most reliable variables to make this type of validation. Maximization of H 2 mole fraction was attained between 773 and 873 K, but maximum net mole production of H 2 was only achieved at higher temperatures (>1123 K). This work also advances in the thermodynamics of solid-gas phase interactions. A solid phase thermodynamic analysis was performed to confirm that Co 0 formation from CoO is spontaneous under steam reforming conditions. The results showed that this reduction process occurs only for temperatures higher than 430 K. It was also found that once reduced, Co based catalysts will never oxidize back to Co 3 O 4 . -- Highlights: → Thermodynamic analysis of ethanol reforming reactions using an in-house code. → Analysis performed by solving systems of non-linear algebraic equations. → H 2 and CO 2 equilibrium data are useful to validate catalytic tests. → Maximization of H 2 mole fraction achieved between 773 and 873 K → CoO reduction is spontaneous under steam reforming of ethanol conditions.

  10. Determination of Ethanol in Kombucha, Juices, and Alcohol-Free Beer by EnzytecTMLiquid Ethanol: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2017.07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacorn, Markus; Hektor, Thomas

    2018-04-04

    Enzytec TM Liquid Ethanol is an enzymatic test for the determinationof ethanol in kombucha, juices, and alcohol-free beer. The kit contains two components in a ready-to-use format. Quantification is based on the catalytic activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, which oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde and converts NAD + to NADH. Measurement is performed in 3 mL cuvettes at 340 nm within 20 min. Samples with alcohol contents around 0.5% alcohol by volume need to be diluted 1:20 or 1:50 with water before measurement. Acetaldehyde interferes at concentrations higher than 3000 mg/L, whereas sulfite interferes at concentrations higher than 300 mg/L. The linear measurement range is from 0.03 up to 0.5 g/L ethanol, whereas LOD and LOQ are 1.9 and 3.3 mg/L ethanol, respectively. Kombucha with concentrations between 2.85 and 5.82 g/L showed relative repeatability standard deviation around 1%, whereas juices were below 2%. Results from a reproducibility experiment revealed that at a concentration of 0.1 g/L, the RSD R was at 2.5%, whereas at higher concentrations between 0.2 and 0.3 g/L, coefficients around 1% were obtained. Trueness was checked by using Cerilliant aqueous ethanol solutions and beer with concentration of 0.4 and 4 g/L (BCR-651 and BCR-652). Spiking of kombucha and juice samples resulted in recoveries between 95% and 104%. Acceptable stability was found for the whole test kit under accelerated conditions at 37°C for 2 weeks. The kit is also not susceptible to short freezing-thawing cycles and harsh transport conditions.

  11. Antitumor and antimicrobial activities and inhibition of in-vitro lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antitumor activity was measured in DLA cell line induced mice. Inhibition of in vitro lipid peroxidation activity of the D. nobile in both liver homogenate and RBC ghosts was also carried out. The aqueous extracts of stem and flower of D. nobile showed better zone of bacterial inhibition than that of ethanol and chloroform

  12. Substituent effect of phenolic aldehyde inhibition on alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui Xie; Maobing Tu; Thomas Elder

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds significantly inhibit microbial fermentation of biomass hydrolysates. To understand thequantitative structure-inhibition relationship of phenolic aldehydes on alcoholic fermentation, the effect of 11 differentsubstituted benzaldehydes on the final ethanol yield was examined. The results showed that the degree of phenolic...

  13. Molecular pathways underpinning ethanol-induced neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eGoldowitz*

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While genetics impacts the type and severity of damage following developmental ethanol exposure, little is currently known about the molecular pathways that mediate these effects. Traditionally, research in this area has used a candidate gene approach and evaluated effects on a gene-by-gene basis. Recent studies, however, have begun to use unbiased approaches and genetic reference populations to evaluate the roles of genotype and epigenetic modifications in phenotypic changes following developmental ethanol exposure, similar to studies that evaluated numerous alcohol-related phenotypes in adults. Here, we present work assessing the role of genetics and chromatin-based alterations in mediating ethanol-induced apoptosis in the developing nervous system. Utilizing the expanded family of BXD recombinant inbred mice, animals were exposed to ethanol at postnatal day 7 via subcutaneous injection (5.0 g/kg in 2 doses. Tissue was collected 7 hours after the initial ethanol treatment and analyzed by activated caspase-3 immunostaining to visualize dying cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In parallel, the levels of two histone modifications relevant to apoptosis, γH2AX and H3K14 acetylation, were examined in the cerebral cortex using protein blot analysis. Activated caspase-3 staining identified marked differences in cell death across brain regions between different mouse strains. Genetic analysis of ethanol susceptibility in the hippocampus led to the identification of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 12, which mediates, at least in part, strain-specific differential vulnerability to ethanol-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, analysis of chromatin modifications in the cerebral cortex revealed a global increase in γH2AX levels following ethanol exposure, but did not show any change in H3K14 acetylation levels. Together, these findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms and genetic contributions underlying ethanol

  14. The role of ethanol in heroin deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B; Green, D; Smialek, J E

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of ethanol in deaths due to heroin intoxication. Over a 12 month period, all cases investigated by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland where a blood screen by Roche Abuscreen radioimmunoassay (RIA) was positive at a cutoff of 100 ng/mL were included in the study. Free morphine was quantitated using the Coat-A-Count RIA and ethanol was quantitated by head space gas chromatography. All presumptive morphine positive cases were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Seventy of the 119 cases where death was attributed to narcotic or alcohol and narcotic intoxication had blood ethanol concentrations (BAC) greater than or equal to 0.02 g/dL; 48 had BAC > or = 0.10 g/dL. Only 3 of 45 cases where morphine was identified but was unrelated to death had BAC > or = 0.02 g/dL. At all ranges of free morphine concentrations, there was a greater percentage of narcotic deaths when ethanol was present. From the data, we conclude that 1) the use of even small amounts of ethanol with heroin is clearly a risk factor in deaths due to heroin, 2) there are some heroin deaths where no free morphine is identified in the blood. In these deaths, ethanol is unlikely to be present, 3) at blood ethanol concentrations between 0.20 and 0.29 g/dL, the morphine concentrations in heroin deaths increased significantly, 4) at blood ethanol concentrations greater than 0.30 g/dL, morphine became less of a factor than the ethanol in causing death.

  15. Greenprint on ethanol production in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Investment in Saskatchewan's ethanol industry is being actively promoted by the provincial government. This document represents the provincial strategy in support of the ethanol industry, which will result in significant environmental benefits for the province and the residents through the increased use of ethanol as an additive to conventional gasoline. The big advantage offered by ethanol is a more complete fuel combustion, thereby reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by as much as 30 per cent. The production costs of ethanol have decreased in the last twenty years by 50 per cent. The competitiveness of ethanol should increase due to ongoing research and development progress being made. The agricultural sector should benefit through the creation of meaningful jobs in the sector, as well as offering new marketing opportunities to the grain producers of the province and the wood-product companies. A renewable resource, ethanol reduces carbon dioxide exhaust emissions bu up to 20 per cent, reduces the smog-creating compounds up to 15 per cent, and achieves a net reduction of up to 10 per cent in carbon dioxide emissions. The abundance of raw materials and resources required for the production of ethanol, Saskatchewan possesses an obvious advantage for becoming a world leader in the field. The government of Saskatchewan has developed its strategy, outlined in this document. It calls for tax incentives, the mandating of ethanol blend, opening up markets, working with communities. The industry size, economic impact, export potential, and future opportunities were briefly discussed in the last section of the document. 1 tab., 3 figs

  16. A mathematical model for ethanol fermentation from oil palm trunk sap using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, S.; Jamil, Norazaliza Mohd; Saleh, E. A. M.; Yousuf, A.; Faizal, Che Ku M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model and solution strategy of ethanol fermentation for oil palm trunk (OPT) sap by considering the effect of substrate limitation, substrate inhibition product inhibition and cell death. To investigate the effect of cell death rate on the fermentation process we extended and improved the current mathematical model. The kinetic parameters of the model were determined by nonlinear regression using maximum likelihood function. The temporal profiles of sugar, cell and ethanol concentrations were modelled by a set of ordinary differential equations, which were solved numerically by the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The model was validated by the experimental data and the agreement between the model and experimental results demonstrates that the model is reasonable for prediction of the dynamic behaviour of the fermentation process.

  17. A linear programming manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  18. Sweet future? Brazil's ethanol fuel programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle, F.R.

    1999-01-01

    This article traces the history of Brazil's ethanol fuel programme from 1975 to the present, and considers Brazil's energy policy, and the implications of price liberalisation and privatisation aimed at reducing prices to control inflation. The achievements of ProAlcool which was established in 1975 with the aim of replacing petrol with ethanol, costs and investment in ProAlcool, environmental implications, and policy initiatives to boost ProAlcool are examined. Details of typical emissions from a 6-year old car in Brazil are tabulated illustrating the reduced emissions due to ethanol fuels

  19. Ethanol dehydration on doped cadmium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Salaam, K.M.

    1975-01-01

    The vapour phase catalytic dehydration of ethanol over Fe impregnated cadmium oxide was investigated between 200-450 0 C in atmospheric pressure. Electron transfer mechanisms involved in adsorption and catalytic dehydration reaction were investigated. The change in electrical conductivity of the catalyst resulting from calcination, adsorption and surface reaction processes were studied. Adsorption conductivity at low temperature ( 0 C) indicates that ethanol adsorbs as an electron donor. A mechanism of creation of interstitial Cd atoms responsible for the catalytic dehydration of ethanol on the catalyst surface was suggested. (orig.) [de

  20. Ethanol as radon storage: applications for measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, I.; Philipsborn, H. von

    1997-01-01

    Ethanol as Radon Storage: Applications for Measurement Ethanol has a solubility for radon of 6 Bq/l per kBq/m 3 air, 24 times higher than water. On filtration of ethanol, radon decay products are completely adsorbed on glass fiber filters, as previously reported for water. Hence: 1. A new simple method for measuring radon in soil air, without expensive equipment. 2. The production of mailable radon calibration sources ('radonol') with 50-100 kBq/l in PET-bottles with 3.8 days half-life, using uraniferous rocks as primary source. (orig.) [de

  1. Blending Behavior of Ethanol with PRF 84 and FACE A Gasoline in HCCI Combustion Mmode

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer

    2017-09-04

    The blending of ethanol with PRF (Primary reference fuel) 84 was investigated and compared with FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) A gasoline surrogate which has a RON of 83.9. Previously, experiments were performed at four HCCI conditions but the chemical effect responsible for the non-linear blending behavior of ethanol with PRF 84 and FACE A was not understood. Hence, in this study the experimental measurements were simulated using zero-dimensional HCCI engine model with detailed chemistry in CHEMKIN PRO. Ethanol was used as an octane booster for the above two base fuels in volume concentration of 0%, 2%, 5% and 10%. The geometrical data and the intake valve closure conditions were used to match the simulated combustion phasing with the experiments. Low temperature heat release (LTHR) was detected by performing heat release analysis. LTHR formation depended on the base fuel type and the engine operating conditions suggesting that the base fuel composition has an important role in the formation of LTHR. The effect of ethanol on LTHR was explained by low temperature chemistry reactions and OH/HO evolution. A strong correlation of low temperature oxidation reactions of base fuels with ethanol was found to be responsible for the observed blending effects.

  2. Vapor permeation-stepwise injection simultaneous determination of methanol and ethanol in biodiesel with voltammetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishov, Andrey; Penkova, Anastasia; Zabrodin, Andrey; Nikolaev, Konstantin; Dmitrenko, Maria; Ermakov, Sergey; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    A novel vapor permeation-stepwise injection (VP-SWI) method for the determination of methanol and ethanol in biodiesel samples is discussed. In the current study, stepwise injection analysis was successfully combined with voltammetric detection and vapor permeation. This method is based on the separation of methanol and ethanol from a sample using a vapor permeation module (VPM) with a selective polymer membrane based on poly(phenylene isophtalamide) (PA) containing high amounts of a residual solvent. After the evaporation into the headspace of the VPM, methanol and ethanol were transported, by gas bubbling, through a PA membrane to a mixing chamber equipped with a voltammetric detector. Ethanol was selectively detected at +0.19 V, and both compounds were detected at +1.20 V. Current subtractions (using a correction factor) were used for the selective determination of methanol. A linear range between 0.05 and 0.5% (m/m) was established for each analyte. The limits of detection were estimated at 0.02% (m/m) for ethanol and methanol. The sample throughput was 5 samples h(-1). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of biodiesel samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Further In-vitro Characterization of an Implantable Biosensor for Ethanol Monitoring in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Rocchitta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl alcohol may be considered one of the most widespread central nervous system (CNS depressants in Western countries. Because of its toxicological and neurobiological implications, the detection of ethanol in brain extracellular fluid (ECF is of great importance. In a previous study, we described the development and characterization of an implantable biosensor successfully used for the real-time detection of ethanol in the brain of freely-moving rats. The implanted biosensor, integrated in a low-cost telemetry system, was demonstrated to be a reliable device for the short-time monitoring of exogenous ethanol in brain ECF. In this paper we describe a further in-vitro characterization of the above-mentioned biosensor in terms of oxygen, pH and temperature dependence in order to complete its validation. With the aim of enhancing ethanol biosensor performance, different enzyme loadings were investigated in terms of apparent ethanol Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters, viz. IMAX, KM and linear region slope, as well as ascorbic acid interference shielding. The responses of biosensors were studied over a period of 28 days. The overall findings of the present study confirm the original biosensor configuration to be the best of those investigated for in-vivo applications up to one week after implantation.

  4. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  5. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  6. Ethanol production from cellulose, lactose and xylose using yeasts and enzymes. Gewinnung von Ethanol aus Cellulose, Lactose, und Xylose mit Hilfe von Hefen und Enzymen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwank, U

    1986-07-03

    Experiments with mixtures of whey and corn showed that more than 85% of the lactose was degraded into ethanol. The applicability of cellulose was investigated by means of potatoes. Cellulase is inhibited by glucose, which is a fermentation intermediate, as well as by the end product ethanol. A cellulase inhibitor in potatoes was detected and stabilized; this inhibitor could be degraded into neutral components by a suitable enzyme. Saccharification and fermentation experiments showed that the cellulose fraction of potatoes can be reduced efficiently. The effects of non-enzymatic pretreatment on enzymatic degradation of cellulose, combined with fermentation of the degradation products, are illustrated by the example of cellulose treated with acid and alkaline substances. A continuous fermentation system was developed from which the ethanol is withdrawn in vapour form. The system made better use of the cellulase activity and increased the efficiency of a xylose-fermenting yeast. The new method is compared with batch experiments in order to assess its efficiency. The advantages of the continuous process are proved for two yeasts of the species Pachysolu and Pichia. Specific fermentation rates up to 0.08 g/(g x h) and fermentation yields up to 0.42 g ethanol/g xylose were achieved with Pichia stipitis.

  7. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  8. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON PHASE STABILITY OF ETHANOL-GASOLINE MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian Cerempei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures depending on their composition, water concentration in ethanol and ethanol-gasoline mixture and temperature. There have been determined the perfect functioning conditions of spark ignition engines fueled with ethanol-gasoline mixtures.

  9. Membrane fluidity adjustments in ethanol-stressed Oenococcus oeni cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silveira, da M.G.; Golovina, E.A.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on the cytoplasmic membrane of Oenococcus oeni cells and the role of membrane changes in the acquired tolerance to ethanol were investigated. Membrane tolerance to ethanol was defined as the resistance to ethanol-induced leakage of preloaded carboxyfluorescein (cF) from cells.

  10. CYTOTOXICITY, ANTIMICROBIAL AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PISTIA STRATIOTES L.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Md. Ahad Ali; Prasanta Paul; Islam Md. Torequl; Biswas Nripendra Nath; Sadhu Shamir

    2011-01-01

    In phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract of Pistia stratiotes L. aerial part anthraquinone glycosides, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenetic glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, carbohydrates were found to be present. The LC50 and LC90 were 1.8µg/ml & 2.07µg/ml respectively in brine shrimp lethality assay. It was to have produced significant zones of inhibition against gram positive Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, gram negative Escherichia coli, Salmonella typ...

  11. On the Use of Potential Denaturing Agents for Ethanol in Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Domnik Bayer; Florina Jung; Birgit Kintzel; Martin Joos; Carsten Cremers; Dierk Martin; Jörg Bernard; Jens Tübke

    2011-01-01

    Acidic or alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) can be a sustainable alternative for power generation if they are fuelled with bio-ethanol. However, in order to keep the fuel cheap, ethanol has to be exempted from tax on spirits by denaturing. In this investigation the potential denaturing agents fusel oil, tert-butyl ethyl ether, and Bitrex were tested with regard to their compatibility with fuel cells. Experiments were carried out both in sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide solution...

  12. Examination of Ethanol Marketing and Input Procurement Practices of the U.S. Ethanol Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Spaulding, Aslihan D.; Schmidgall, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Growing concerns about the dependence on foreign oil and high prices of gasoline have led to rapid growth in ethanol production in the past decade. Unlike earlier development of the ethanol industry which was highly concentrated in a few large corporations, recent ownership of the ethanol plants has been by farmer-owned cooperatives. Not much is known about the marketing and purchasing practices and plants’ flexibility with respect to adapting new technologies. The purpose of this research is...

  13. Effect of petroleum ether and ethanol fractions of seeds of Abrus precatorius on androgenic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukirti Upadhyay

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Abrus precatorius L., Fabaceae, are commonly used as purgative, emetic, aphrodisiac and in nervous disorder in traditional and folk medicines. In present study petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of A. precatorius seeds are evaluated for reversal of androgen (testosterone by i.m route induced alopecia in male albino wistar rats and compared to topical administration of standard antiandrogenic drug finasteride for 21 days. The results were reflected from visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as anagen to telogen ratio and follicle density/mm area of skin surface. The animal of group 1 who were treated with only testosterone became alopecic on visual observation. Animals of Group 2, 3 and 4 who were treated with finasteride, petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of seed respectively topically along with testosterone (i.m did not developed alopecia. To investigate the mechanism of observed activity, in vitro experiments were performed. Inhibition of 5α-reductase activity by extracts and finasteride suggest that they reversed androgen induced alopecia by inhibiting conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (potent androgen responsible for androgenic alopecia. So it may be concluded that petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of A. precatorius seed posses anti androgenic alopecia activity due to inhibition of 5α-reductase enzyme.

  14. Effect of petroleum ether and ethanol fractions of seeds of Abrus precatorius on androgenic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukirti Upadhyay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Abrus precatorius L., Fabaceae, are commonly used as purgative, emetic, aphrodisiac and in nervous disorder in traditional and folk medicines. In present study petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of A. precatorius seeds are evaluated for reversal of androgen (testosterone by i.m route induced alopecia in male albino wistar rats and compared to topical administration of standard antiandrogenic drug finasteride for 21 days. The results were reflected from visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as anagen to telogen ratio and follicle density/mm area of skin surface. The animal of group 1 who were treated with only testosterone became alopecic on visual observation. Animals of Group 2, 3 and 4 who were treated with finasteride, petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of seed respectively topically along with testosterone (i.m did not developed alopecia. To investigate the mechanism of observed activity, in vitro experiments were performed. Inhibition of 5α-reductase activity by extracts and finasteride suggest that they reversed androgen induced alopecia by inhibiting conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (potent androgen responsible for androgenic alopecia. So it may be concluded that petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of A. precatorius seed posses anti androgenic alopecia activity due to inhibition of 5α-reductase enzyme.

  15. Overliming detoxification of pyrolytic sugar syrup for direct fermentation of levoglucosan to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhanyou; Rover, Marjorie; Jun, Erin; Deaton, Mark; Johnston, Patrick; Brown, Robert C; Wen, Zhiyou; Jarboe, Laura R

    2013-12-01

    The application of pyrolytic sugars for biofuel production through fermentation is challenged by inhibitory contaminant compounds. Inhibition is so severe that only 0.25% sugar syrup can be used. In this study, overliming was tested as a simple detoxification method, using the Escherichia coli KO11+ lgk to directly convert levoglucosan into ethanol. After treatment with at least 14.8 g/L of Ca(OH)2, fermentation with 2% (w/v) pyrolytic sugar syrup was observed with no inhibition of ethanol production. Further investigation of treatment time and temperature showed that 8-16 h of treatment at 20°C, and 1-4 h of treatment at 60°C are necessary to obtain consistent ethanol production. The samples treated with 18.5 g/L Ca(OH)2 at 60°C for 4 h showed no inhibition at 2.5%. Multiple contaminants removed by the overliming treatment were identified. This study demonstrates that overliming is a promising method for detoxification of pyrolytic sugars for fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  17. Derived thermodynamic properties for the (ethanol + decane) and (carbon dioxide + ethanol + decane) systems at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora-López, Héctor S.; Galicia-Luna, Luis A.; Elizalde-Solis, Octavio; Hernández-Rosales, Irma P.; Méndez-Lango, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental density data are reported for (ethanol + decane) and (ethanol + decane + CO 2 ) mixtures. ► Compressed liquid densities were measured in a vibrating tube densimeter from (313 to 363) K. ► Excess molar volumes for (ethanol + decane) mixtures are positive. ► The presence of carbon dioxide in the (ethanol + decane) mixture causes negative excess molar volumes. - Abstract: Volumetric properties for the binary (ethanol + decane) and ternary (ethanol + decane + carbon dioxide) systems are reported from (313 to 363) K and pressures up to 20 MPa. Compressed liquid densities of both systems were measured in a vibrating tube densimeter at different compositions. Binary mixtures {x 1 ethanol + (1-x 1 ) decane} were prepared at x 1 = 0.0937, 0.1011, 0.2507, 0.4963, 0.7526, 0.9014. Compositions for the ternary system were prepared by varying the ethanol/decane relation and trying to keep constant the presence of carbon dioxide at about 0.2 mole fraction. These were {x 1 ethanol + x 2 decane + (1-x 1 -x 2 ) carbon dioxide} x 1 = 0.0657, 0.1986, 0.4087, 0.6042, 0.7109. Density results were correlated using an empirical model with five parameters. Deviations between experimental and calculated values agree and are within the experimental uncertainty. Isobaric expansivity, isothermal compressibility, thermal pressure coefficient, and internal pressure have been calculated for both binary and ternary systems using the empirical model.

  18. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  19. Chronic ethanol consumption impairs learning and memory after cessation of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Susan A; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Banks, William A; Flood, James F; Morley, John E

    2005-06-01

    Acute consumption of ethanol results in reversible changes in learning and memory whereas chronic ethanol consumption of six or more months produces permanent deficits and neural damage in rodents. The goal of the current paper was determine whether shorter durations of chronic ethanol ingestion in mice would produce long-term deficits in learning and memory after the cessation of ethanol. We first examined the effects of four and eight weeks of 20% ethanol followed by a three week withdrawal period on learning and memory in mice. We determined that three weeks after eight, but not four, weeks of 20% ethanol consumption resulted in deficits in learning and long-term memory (seven days) in T-maze footshock avoidance and Greek Cross brightness discrimination, step-down passive avoidance and shuttlebox active avoidance. Short-term memory (1 hr) was not affected. The deficit was not related to changes in thiamine status, caloric intake, or nonmnemonic factors, such as, activity or footshock sensitivity. Lastly, we examined if the mice recovered after longer durations of withdrawal. After eight weeks of ethanol, we compared mice after three and 12 weeks of withdrawal. Mice that had been off ethanol for both three and 12 weeks were impaired in T-maze footshock avoidance compared to the controls. The current results indicate that a duration of ethanol consumption as short as eight weeks produces deficits in learning and memory that are present 12 weeks after withdrawal.

  20. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T [Evergreen, CO; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie [Avondale, PA

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  1. Radiolytic decomposition of water-ethanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquey, Charles

    1968-07-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the behaviour of binary mixtures submitted to ionizing radiations, and notably aims, by studying the case of water-ethanol mixtures, at verifying solutions proposed by previously published works on the origin of hydrogen atoms and of molecular hydrogen, on the intervention of excited atoms, and on the origin of products appearing under radiolysis. The experimental part of this work consists in the dosing of products formed in water-ethanol mixtures irradiated in presence or absence of nitrate, hydrogen, hydrocarbon, acetaldehyde, 2-3 butanediol and nitrite. Results are discussed and interpreted in terms of acetaldehyde efficiency, 2-3 butanediol efficiencies, and hydrocarbon efficiencies in pure ethanol, and in water-ethanol mixtures. The influence of the presence of nitrate ions in mixtures is also discussed

  2. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application ... sources include cashew, apple juice (Osho, 2005), palm ... choice for fermentation (Chandra and Panchal, 2003). Yeasts ...

  3. Northeastern California Ethanol Manufacturing Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-11-01

    This report is a compilation of work by several different organizations and includes the NREL researched report, 'Biomass to Ethanol, Facility Design, Cost Estimate, and Financial Evaluation' Volumes I and II.

  4. Aqueous ethanolic extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. ABU

    2012-07-03

    Jul 3, 2012 ... This study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous ethanolic ... Key words: Cochlospermum planchonii, sperm characteristics, reproduction, Wistar rats. ... extract was stored in air-tight container at 4°C until needed.

  5. Remetabolism of transpired ethanol by Populus deltoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.C.; Kimmerer, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ethanol is present in the transpiration stream of flooded and unflooded trees in concentrations up to 0.5mM. Transpired ethanol does not evaporate but is remetabolized by foliage and upper stems in Populus deltoides. 14 C-ethanol was supplied in the transpiration stream to excised leaves and shoots; more than 98% was incorporated. Less than 1% was respired as CO 2 . Organic and amino acids were labelled initially, with eventual accumulations in water- and chloroform-soluble fractions and into protein. Much of the label was incorporated into stem tissue, with little reaching the lamina. These experiments suggest that ethanol is not lost transpirationally through the leaves, but is efficiently recycled in a manner resembling lactate recycling in mammals

  6. Membrane bioreactors' potential for ethanol and biogas production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylitervo, Päivi; Akinbomia, Julius; Taherzadeha, Mohammad J

    2013-01-01

    Companies developing and producing membranes for different separation purposes, as well as the market for these, have markedly increased in numbers over the last decade. Membrane and separation technology might well contribute to making fuel ethanol and biogas production from lignocellulosic materials more economically viable and productive. Combining biological processes with membrane separation techniques in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) increases cell concentrations extensively in the bioreactor. Such a combination furthermore reduces product inhibition during the biological process, increases product concentration and productivity, and simplifies the separation of product and/or cells. Various MBRs have been studied over the years, where the membrane is either submerged inside the liquid to be filtered, or placed in an external loop outside the bioreactor. All configurations have advantages and drawbacks, as reviewed in this paper. The current review presents an account of the membrane separation technologies, and the research performed on MBRs, focusing on ethanol and biogas production. The advantages and potentials of the technology are elucidated.

  7. Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, γ-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-supported behaviors. VGB dose-dependently reduced operant responding for ethanol as well as ethanol consumption for long periods of time. Importantly, a low dose (200 mg/kg) of VGB was selective for reducing ethanol responding without altering intake of food or water reinforcement. Higher VGB doses (>200 mg/kg) still reduced ethanol intake, but also significantly increased water consumption and, more modestly, increased food consumption. While not affecting locomotor activity on its own, VGB interacted with ethanol to reduce the stimulatory effects of ethanol on locomotion. Finally, VGB (200 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol as evidenced by significant left-ward and up-ward shifts in ethanol generalization curves. Interestingly, VGB treatment was associated with slight increases in blood ethanol concentrations. The reduction in ethanol intake by VGB appears to be related to the ability of VGB to potentiate the pharmacological effects of ethanol. PMID:22336593

  8. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  9. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  10. Glycyl-glutamine in nucleus accumbens reduces ethanol intake in alcohol preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Garth E; Shridharani, Shyam; Millington, William R; Garris, David R; Simpson, C Wayne

    2005-10-05

    Opioid peptides and glycyl-glutamine (Gly-Gln) have been implicated in the control of ethanol consumption. A recognized beta-endorphin cleavage product, Gly-Gln, inhibits voluntary alcohol consumption when microinjected into the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) of P rats. To evaluate the site-specific efficacy of Gly-Gln on ethanol consumption following AcbSh application, ethanol preferring (P) rats were allowed to establish individual baseline ethanol/water consumption utilizing a voluntary self-administration paradigm. Subsequent to baseline ethanol consumption being established, bilateral guide cannulae were stereotaxically implanted +1 mm dorsal to the AcbSh for subsequent Gly-Gln (100 nmol/microl) or saline vehicle (1 microl) injections. Alcohol intake, body weight, and water intake were measured at 24 h post-injection intervals. Unilateral Gly-Gln injections reduced ethanol consumption 35.6% (P < 0.05) from pre-established baseline consumption (6.24 +/- 0.64 g/kg to 4.06 +/- 0.28 g/kg). Bilateral Gly-Gln injections further reduced consumption to 51.9% (6.4 +/- 1.0 g/kg to 3.08 +/- 0.65 g/kg at 24 h (P < 0.01) below established baseline values within 24 h without significant changes in body weight or water consumption. Also, the amino acid constituents of the dipeptide had no influence on ethanol consumption behavior; however, Gly-Gln efficacy was shown to be comparable to central beta-endorphin-(1-27) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) naltrexone-induced suppression of ethanol intake. These data indicate that the AcbSh exhibits a site-specific sensitivity to the suppressive actions of Gly-Gln or beta-endorphin-(1-27) injections that modulate voluntary ethanol consumption in P rats. These findings support the broader concept that select forebrain opioid-responsive neural sites may influence the development or expression of alcohol abuse syndromes in animal models or humans.

  11. Cholesterol tuning of BK ethanol response is enantioselective, and is a function of accompanying lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunbo Yuan

    Full Text Available In the search to uncover ethanol's molecular mechanisms, the calcium and voltage activated, large conductance potassium channel (BK has emerged as an important molecule. We examine how cholesterol content in bilayers of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE/sphingomyelin (SPM and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (POPS affect the function and ethanol sensitivity of BK. In addition, we examine how manipulation of cholesterol in biological membranes modulates ethanol's actions on BK. We report that cholesterol levels regulate the change in BK channel open probability elicited by 50 mM ethanol. Low levels of cholesterol (<20%, molar ratio supports ethanol activation, while high levels of cholesterol leads to ethanol inhibition of BK. To determine if cholesterol affects BK and its sensitivity to ethanol through a direct cholesterol-protein interaction or via an indirect action on the lipid bilayer, we used the synthetic enantiomer of cholesterol (ent-CHS. We found that 20% and 40% ent-CHS had little effect on the ethanol sensitivity of BK, when compared with the same concentration of nat-CHS. We accessed the effects of ent-CHS and nat-CHS on the molecular organization of DOPE/SPM monolayers at the air/water interface. The isotherm data showed that ent-CHS condensed DOPE/SPM monolayer equivalently to nat-CHS at a 20% concentration, but slightly less at a 40% concentration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM images of DOPE/SPM membranes in the presence of ent-CHS or nat-CHS prepared with LB technique or vesicle deposition showed no significant difference in topographies, supporting the interpretation that the differences in actions of nat-CHS and ent-CHS on BK channel are not likely from a generalized action on bilayers. We conclude that membrane cholesterol influences ethanol's modulation of BK in a complex manner, including an interaction with the channel protein

  12. Characterization of an alcoholic hepatic steatosis model induced by ethanol and high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Alves de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of liver damage, which increases when ethanol is associated with high-fat diets (HFD. This work aimed to establish a model of alcoholic hepatic steatosis (AHS by using a combination of 10% ethanol and sunflower seeds as the source of HFD. Male rats received water or 10% ethanol and regular chow diet and/or HFD, which consisted of sunflower seeds. The food consumption, liquid intake and body weight of the rats were monitored for 30 days. After this period, blood was collected for biochemical evaluation, and liver samples were collected for histological, mitochondrial enzyme activity and oxidative stress analyses. Our results indicated that the combination of 10% ethanol and HFD induced micro- and macrosteatosis and hepatocyte tumefaction, decreased the levels of reduced glutathione and glutathione S-transferase activity and increased the level of lipoperoxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. The mitochondrial oxidation of NADH and succinate were partially inhibited. Complexes I and II were the main inhibition sites. Hepatic steatosis was successfully induced after 4 weeks of the diet, and the liver function was modified. The combination of 10% ethanol and sunflower seeds as an HFD produced an inexpensive model to study AHS in rats.

  13. Production of 16% ethanol from 35% sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breisha, Gaber Z.

    2010-01-01

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which showed marked fermentation activity, ethanol and temperature tolerance and good flocculation ability, was selected for ethanol production. A stuck fermentation occurred at sucrose concentration of 25%. Increasing the yeast inoculum volume from 3% to 6% showed positive effects on fermentation from 25% sucrose. The ratio of added nitrogen to sucrose, which gave the best results (for the selected yeast strain), was determined. It was concluded that this ratio (nitrogen as ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5 mg g -1 of consumed sucrose) is constant at various sugar concentrations. Addition of nitrogen at this ratio produced 11.55% ethanol with complete consumption of 25% sucrose after 48 h of fermentation. However fermentation of 30% sucrose at the above optimum conditions was not complete. Addition of yeast extract at a level of 6 g l -1 together with thiamine at a level of 0.2 g l -1 led to complete utilization of 30% sucrose with resultant 14% ethanol production. However the selected yeast strain was not able to ferment 35% sucrose at the same optimum conditions. Addition of air at a rate of 150 dm 3 min -1 m 3 of reactor volume during the first 12 h of fermentation led to complete consumption of 35% sucrose and 16% ethanol was produced. This was approximately the theoretical maximum for ethanol production.

  14. The expanding U. S. ethanol industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, B

    1991-01-01

    American experience in the ethanol industry is discussed. Archer Daniel Midlands Co. (ADM) is a large agri-processing company that is the largest processor of grains and oilseeds, and processes ca 400,000 bushels of corn per day at its Decateur facility. Waste water and heat from the plant is used to grow vegetables hydroponically, with carbon dioxide from distillation used to speed growing at night. About 40,000 heads of lettuce per day are harvested, with cucumbers and tomatoes grown as premium crops. The plant includes a state-of-the-art fluidized bed power plant that burns high sulfur coal without sulfur emission. Approval has recently been granted by the Environmental Protection Agency to burn used tires, and payback for the process is expected to take 3-4 years. Ethanol is produced by steeping corn and separating germ and starch, with the starch used to make corn sweeteners. As well as ethanol, byproducts include animal feed, hydroponics, oils and margarines. ADM is the largest barging company in the U.S., with 14,000 rail cars, 1,200 dedicated to fuel ethanol. The Clean Air Act will mandate a 2.7% oxygen gasoline, and 10% ethanol additive gives 3.3% oxygen. The high octane rating of ethanol-blend gasoline is a strong selling point, and is a good deal for refiners, especially at octane-poor refineries.

  15. Modeling bacterial contamination of fuel ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Kenneth M; Liu, Siqing; Leathers, Timothy D; Worthington, Ronald E; Rich, Joseph O

    2009-05-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria may limit the effectiveness of antibiotics to treat bacterial contamination in fuel ethanol plants, and therefore, new antibacterial intervention methods and tools to test their application are needed. Using shake-flask cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on saccharified corn mash and strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a dry-grind ethanol facility, a simple model to simulate bacterial contamination and infection was developed. Challenging the model with 10(8) CFU/mL Lactobacillus fermentum decreased ethanol yield by 27% and increased residual glucose from 6.2 to 45.5 g/L. The magnitude of the effect was proportional to the initial bacterial load, with 10(5) CFU/mL L. fermentum still producing an 8% decrease in ethanol and a 3.2-fold increase in residual glucose. Infection was also dependent on the bacterial species used to challenge the fermentation, as neither L. delbrueckii ATCC 4797 nor L. amylovorus 0315-7B produced a significant decrease in ethanol when inoculated at a density of 10(8) CFU/mL. In the shake-flask model, treatment with 2 microg/mL virginiamycin mitigated the infection when challenged with a susceptible strain of L. fermentum (MIC for virginiamycin model may find application in developing new antibacterial agents and management practices for use in controlling contamination in the fuel ethanol industry. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Production of 16% ethanol from 35% sucrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breisha, Gaber Z. [Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Minia (Egypt)

    2010-08-15

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which showed marked fermentation activity, ethanol and temperature tolerance and good flocculation ability, was selected for ethanol production. A stuck fermentation occurred at sucrose concentration of 25%. Increasing the yeast inoculum volume from 3% to 6% showed positive effects on fermentation from 25% sucrose. The ratio of added nitrogen to sucrose, which gave the best results (for the selected yeast strain), was determined. It was concluded that this ratio (nitrogen as ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5 mg g{sup -1} of consumed sucrose) is constant at various sugar concentrations. Addition of nitrogen at this ratio produced 11.55% ethanol with complete consumption of 25% sucrose after 48 h of fermentation. However fermentation of 30% sucrose at the above optimum conditions was not complete. Addition of yeast extract at a level of 6 g l{sup -1} together with thiamine at a level of 0.2 g l{sup -1} led to complete utilization of 30% sucrose with resultant 14% ethanol production. However the selected yeast strain was not able to ferment 35% sucrose at the same optimum conditions. Addition of air at a rate of 150 dm{sup 3} min{sup -1} m{sup 3} of reactor volume during the first 12 h of fermentation led to complete consumption of 35% sucrose and 16% ethanol was produced. This was approximately the theoretical maximum for ethanol production. (author)

  17. Carbon nanotube-based ethanol sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahim, Sean; Colbern, Steve; Gump, Robert; Moser, Alex; Grigorian, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    Sensors containing metal-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid materials as the active sensing layer were demonstrated for ethanol vapor detection at room temperature. The metal-CNT hybrid materials were synthesized by infiltrating single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with the transition metals Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Pd or Pt. Each sensor was prepared by drop-casting dilute dispersions of a metal-CNT hybrid onto quartz substrate electrodes and the impedimetric responses to varying ethanol concentration were recorded. Upon exposure to ethanol vapor, the ac impedance (Z') of the sensors was found to decrease to different extents. The sensor containing pristine CNT material was virtually non-responsive at low ethanol concentrations (<50 ppm). In contrast, all metal-CNT hybrid sensors showed extremely high sensitivity to trace ethanol levels with 100-fold or more gains in sensitivity relative to the starting SWNT sensor. All hybrid sensors, with the exception of Ni filled CNT, exhibited significantly larger sensor responses to ethanol vapor up to 250 ppm compared to the starting SWNT sensor.

  18. [Insights into engineering of cellulosic ethanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Guojun; Wu, Guoqing; Lin, Xin

    2014-06-01

    For energy security, air pollution concerns, coupled with the desire to sustain the agricultural sector and revitalize the rural economy, many countries have applied ethanol as oxygenate or fuel to supplement or replace gasoline in transportation sector. Because of abundant feedstock resources and effective reduction of green-house-gas emissions, the cellulosic ethanol has attracted great attention. With a couple of pioneers beginning to produce this biofuel from biomass in commercial quantities around the world, it is necessary to solve engineering problems and complete the economic assessment in 2015-2016, gradually enter the commercialization stage. To avoid "competing for food with humans and competing for land with food", the 1st generation fuel ethanol will gradually transit to the 2nd generation cellulosic ethanol. Based on the overview of cellulosic ethanol industrialization from domestic and abroad in recent years, the main engineering application problems encountered in pretreatment, enzymes and enzymatic hydrolysis, pentose/hexose co-fermentation strains and processes, equipment were discussed from chemical engineering and biotechnology perspective. The development direction of cellulosic ethanol technology in China was addressed.

  19. Sorption equilibria of ethanol on cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-05

    We report here for the first time a thermodynamic study of gaseous ethanol sorption on raw cork powder and plate. Our study aims at a better understanding of the reactivity of this material when used as a stopper under enological conditions, thus in close contact with a hydroethanolic solution, wine. Sorption−desorption isotherms were accurately measured by thermogravimetry at 298 K in a large range of relative pressures. Sorption enthalpies were determined by calorimetry as a function of loading. Sorption−desorption isotherms exhibit a hysteresis loop probably due to the swelling of the material and the absorption of ethanol. Surprisingly, the sorption enthalpy of ethanol becomes lower than the liquefaction enthalpy as the filling increases. This result could be attributed to the swelling of the material, which would generate endothermic effects. Sorption of SO₂ on cork containing ethanol was also studied. When the ethanol content in cork is 2 wt %, the amount of SO₂ sorbed is divided by 2. Thus, ethanol does not enhance the sorption rate for SO₂ but, on the contrary, decreases the SO₂ sorption activity onto cork, probably because of competitive sorption mechanisms.

  20. Vacuolar H+-ATPase Protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells against Ethanol-Induced Oxidative and Cell Wall Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenbhakdi, Sirikarn; Dokpikul, Thanittra; Burphan, Thanawat; Techo, Todsapol; Auesukaree, Choowong

    2016-05-15

    During fermentation, increased ethanol concentration is a major stress for yeast cells. Vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase), which plays an important role in the maintenance of intracellular pH homeostasis through vacuolar acidification, has been shown to be required for tolerance to straight-chain alcohols, including ethanol. Since ethanol is known to increase membrane permeability to protons, which then promotes intracellular acidification, it is possible that the V-ATPase is required for recovery from alcohol-induced intracellular acidification. In this study, we show that the effects of straight-chain alcohols on membrane permeabilization and acidification of the cytosol and vacuole are strongly dependent on their lipophilicity. These findings suggest that the membrane-permeabilizing effect of straight-chain alcohols induces cytosolic and vacuolar acidification in a lipophilicity-dependent manner. Surprisingly, after ethanol challenge, the cytosolic pH in Δvma2 and Δvma3 mutants lacking V-ATPase activity was similar to that of the wild-type strain. It is therefore unlikely that the ethanol-sensitive phenotype of vma mutants resulted from severe cytosolic acidification. Interestingly, the vma mutants exposed to ethanol exhibited a delay in cell wall remodeling and a significant increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings suggest a role for V-ATPase in the regulation of the cell wall stress response and the prevention of endogenous oxidative stress in response to ethanol. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used in the alcoholic fermentation industry. Among the environmental stresses that yeast cells encounter during the process of alcoholic fermentation, ethanol is a major stress factor that inhibits yeast growth and viability, eventually leading to fermentation arrest. This study provides evidence for the molecular mechanisms of ethanol tolerance, which is a desirable characteristic for yeast strains used in alcoholic

  1. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  2. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  3. Modelling and simulation of a direct ethanol fuel cell considering multistep electrochemical reactions, transport processes and mixed potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Marco; Melke, Julia; Gerteisen, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A DEFC model considering the mixed potential formation at cathode and anode. → The low cell voltage at open circuit is due to the parasitic reaction of ethanol and oxygen. → Under load, only the parasitic oxidation of ethanol is significant. → Inhibiting the parasitic reactions can approximately double the current density. - Abstract: In this work a one-dimensional mathematical model of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) is presented. The electrochemical oxidation of ethanol in the catalyst layers is described by several reaction steps leading to surface coverage with adsorbed intermediates (CH 3 CO, CO, CH 3 and OH) and to the final products acetaldehyde, acetic acid and CO 2 . A bifunctional reaction mechanism is assumed for the activation of water on a binary catalyst favouring the further oxidation of adsorbates blocking active catalyst sites. The chemical reactions are highly coupled with the charge and reactant transport. The model accounts for crossover of the reactants through the membrane leading to the phenomenon of cathode and anode mixed potentials due to the parasitic oxidation and reduction of ethanol and oxygen, respectively. Polarisation curves of a DEFC were recorded for various ethanol feed concentrations and were used as reference data for the simulation. Based on one set of model parameters the characteristic of electronic and protonic potential, the relative surface coverage and the parasitic current densities in the catalyst layers were studied.

  4. Application of acetate buffer in pH adjustment of sorghum mash and its influence on fuel ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Renyong; Bean, Scott R; Crozier-Dodson, Beth Ann; Fung, Daniel Y C; Wang, Donghai

    2009-01-01

    A 2 M sodium acetate buffer at pH 4.2 was tried to simplify the step of pH adjustment in a laboratory dry-grind procedure. Ethanol yields or conversion efficiencies of 18 sorghum hybrids improved significantly with 2.0-5.9% (3.9% on average) of relative increases when the method of pH adjustment changed from traditional HCl to the acetate buffer. Ethanol yields obtained using the two methods were highly correlated (R (2) = 0.96, P ethanol production were inhibited during exponential phase but promoted during stationary phase. The maximum growth rate constants (mu(max)) were 0.42 and 0.32 h(-1) for cells grown in mashes with pH adjusted by HCl and the acetate buffer, respectively. Viable cell counts of yeast in mashes with pH adjusted by the acetate buffer were 36% lower than those in mashes adjusted by HCl during stationary phase. Coupled to a 5.3% relative increase in ethanol, a 43.6% relative decrease in glycerol was observed, when the acetate buffer was substituted for HCl. Acetate helped to transfer glucose to ethanol more efficiently. The strain tested did not use acetic acid as carbon source. It was suggested that decreased levels of ATP under acetate stress stimulate glycolysis to ethanol formation, increasing its yield at the expense of biomass and glycerol production.

  5. The modeling of ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus using whey as substrate in continuous A-Stat bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardo, Sabrina; Pereira, Gabriela Feix; Rech, Rosane; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the kinetics of whey bioconversion into ethanol by Kluyveromyces marxianus in continuous bioreactors using the "accelerostat technique" (A-stat). Cultivations using free and Ca-alginate immobilized cells were evaluated using two different acceleration rates (a). The kinetic profiles of these systems were modeled using four different unstructured models, differing in the expressions for the specific growth (μ) and substrate consumption rates (r s), taking into account substrate limitation and product inhibition. Experimental data showed that the dilution rate (D) directly affected cell physiology and metabolism. The specific growth rate followed the dilution rate (μ≈D) for the lowest acceleration rate (a = 0.0015 h(-2)), condition in which the highest ethanol yield (0.52 g g(-1)) was obtained. The highest acceleration rate (a = 0.00667 h(-2)) led to a lower ethanol yield (0.40 g g(-1)) in the system where free cells were used, whereas with immobilized cells ethanol yields increased by 23 % (0.49 g g(-1)). Among the evaluated models, Monod and Levenspiel combined with Ghose and Tyagi models were found to be more appropriate for describing the kinetics of whey bioconversion into ethanol. These results may be useful in scaling up the process for ethanol production from whey.

  6. Determination of microquantities of methanol and ethanol in toluene by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. M.

    1970-01-01

    A study is made of the detection of methanol and ethanol in toluene by means of gas chromatography, using Porapak Q columns, 1 m long at 189 degree centigree, employing a flame ionization detector, with propanol as an internal standard. The variation od the detector absolute and relative response was found to be linear within the range of concentration studied, that is, from 5 to 1000 ppm. The limit of sensitivity for the detection of ethanol in a column of 2% Ucon, over Chromosorob G deactivated with 0,1% Carbowax 400, was 20 ppm, which was four times higher than the limit of sensitivity of the Porapak Q column. Also in this case, the absolute and relative response of the detector was linear. (Author) 3 refs

  7. Ethanol research with representatives of provincial/territorial governments and ethanol retailers : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This paper provided the results of a survey conducted to obtain feedback from retailers and provincial and territorial governments concerning the promotion of ethanol use. A key objective of the research was to determine whether local and provincial governments and retailers are interested in cooperating with the federal government in promoting ethanol use. Thirteen government representatives were interviewed as well as 11 retailers. Results of the study suggested that approaches to collaboration with the diverse stakeholders involved in the promotion of ethanol will require a tailored approach. The needs and interests of jurisdictions and provinces varied widely. Outlets selling ethanol-blended gasoline were concentrated in Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. Retailers who embraced the alternative fuel tended to be well-established in the ethanol market, and did not require assistance from the Government of Canada. Retailers who were reluctant to embrace ethanol stated that they were only likely to enter the market when required to do so by law. Many stakeholders felt that consumers entertained common misperceptions concerning ethanol, and that consumers were unsure of the effect of ethanol on their vehicles. Many retailers had taken steps to communicate with consumers about the relative benefits of ethanol-blended gasoline. Results indicated that the federal government can assist provinces and retailers by providing promotional tools such as flyers, pamphlets and brochures. Interest among retailers in collaborating with the government was only moderate. It was recommended that retailers be provided with accurate information on ethanol. It was concluded that strategies should be developed by the federal government to increase public awareness of ethanol use.

  8. Ligno-ethanol in competition with food-based ethanol in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poganietz, Witold-Roger

    2012-01-01

    First-generation biofuels are often challenged over their potentially adverse impact on food prices. Biofuels that use nonfood biomass such as lignocellulose are being promoted to ease the conflict between fuels and food. However, their complex processes mean that the total costs of lignocellulosic ethanol may be high in comparison. This might undermine the economic soundness of plans for its use. Another potential advantage of lignocellulosic ethanol is seen in an enhanced contribution to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Yet the increasing attractiveness of lignocellulosic biofuels may also lead to changes in land use that induce additional carbon emissions. For this reason, the environmental impacts of such plans are not straightforward and depend on the affected category of land. The objective of this paper is to compare the economic perspectives and environmental impact of lignocellulosic ethanol with food-based ethanol taking into account market constraints and policy measures. The analysis of the environmental impact focuses on carbon dioxide emissions. In the medium run, i.e., by 2020, lignocellulosic ethanol could enter the gasoline market, crowding out inter alia food-based ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, lignocellulosic ethanol seems to be environmentally desirable in each of the analyzed cases. The findings depend crucially on the market conditions, which are influenced inter alia by crude oil, the exchange rate, and technology conditions. -- Highlights: ► Competition of ligno-ethanol with competing energy carriers is analyzed. ► In medium-term ligno-ethanol could crowd out food-based ethanol. ► In terms of CO 2 ligno-ethanol seems to be environmentally desirable. ► The environmental impacts include by land use change induced CO 2 emissions. ► The findings depend crucially on market conditions.

  9. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    G. Morais-Silva; J. Fernandes-Santos; D. Moreira-Silva; M.T. Marin

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex int...

  10. Effect of ethanol on human osteosarcoma cell proliferatation, differentiation and mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignesh, R.C.; Sitta Djody, S.; Jayasudha, E.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Ilangovan, R.; Balaganesh, M.; Veni, S.; Sridhar, M.; Srinivasan, N.

    2006-01-01

    The habitual consumption of even moderate quantities of alcoholic beverages is clearly associated with reduced bone mass, increased prevalence of skeletal fracture and also it is the major risk factor for the development of secondary osteoporosis. The present in vitro study was designed to determine the dose response effects of ethanol on osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma cells (SaOS-2) proliferation, differentiation, mineralization and cyto-toxicity. SaOS-2 cells were plated in 48 and 6 well culture plates and exposed to different concentrations of ethanol (1, 10, 100, 200 and 300 mM) for 24, 48 and 72 h. At the end of incubation, proliferation of cells was studied using crystal violet Bioassay. The cell lysate was utilized to determine ALP activity and conditioned media were used to measure LDH activity. Histochemical localization of ALP and mineralized nodules were studied from cells treated with ethanol (10 and 100 mM) for 21 days. At higher doses, there was a significant reduction in cell number, whereas at lower doses there were variable effects. In 24 h treatment, the higher doses showed a significant increase in ALP activity, whereas 48 and 72 h treatments showed an opposite trend. Ethanol treatment caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in LDH activity. Ethanol treatment altered the quality of mineralization at 10 mM dose whereas completely inhibited mineralization at 100 mM dose, despite the presence of serum. In conclusion, the toxic effect of ethanol is reflected on cell proliferation, differentiation and mineralization even at low doses and at extended treatment duration

  11. Lead Intoxication Synergies of the Ethanol-Induced Toxic Responses in Neuronal Cells--PC12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Tripathi, V K; Jahan, S; Agrawal, M; Pandey, A; Khanna, V K; Pant, A B

    2015-12-01

    Lead (Pb)-induced neurodegeneration and its link with widespread neurobehavioral changes are well documented. Experimental evidences suggest that ethanol could enhance the absorption of metals in the body, and alcohol consumption may increase the susceptibility to metal intoxication in the brain. However, the underlying mechanism of ethanol action in affecting metal toxicity in brain cells is poorly understood. Thus, an attempt was made to investigate the modulatory effect of ethanol on Pb intoxication in PC12 cells, a rat pheochromocytoma. Cells were co-exposed to biological safe doses of Pb (10 μM) and ethanol (200 mM), and data were compared to the response of cells which received independent exposure to these chemicals at similar doses. Ethanol (200 mM) exposure significantly aggravated the Pb-induced alterations in the end points associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. The finding confirms the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress, and impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential, which subsequently facilitate the translocation of triggering proteins between cytoplasm and mitochondria. We further confirmed the apoptotic changes due to induction of mitochondria-mediated caspase cascade. These cellular changes were found to recover significantly, if the cells are exposed to N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a known antioxidant. Our data suggest that ethanol may potentiate Pb-induced cellular damage in brain cells, but such damaging effects could be recovered by inhibition of ROS generation. These results open up further possibilities for the design of new therapeutics based on antioxidants to prevent neurodegeneration and associated health problems.

  12. Protective effect of pyruvate against ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Najeeb; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Ullah, Ikram; Lee, Hae Young; Koh, Phil Ok; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to alcohol during the early stages of brain development can lead to neurological disorders in the CNS. Apoptotic neurodegeneration due to ethanol exposure is a main feature of alcoholism. Exposure of developing animals to alcohol (during the growth spurt period in particular) elicits apoptotic neuronal death and causes fetal alcohol effects (FAE) or fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). A single episode of ethanol intoxication (at 5 g/kg) in a seven-day-old developing rat can activate the apoptotic cascade, leading to widespread neuronal death in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the potential protective effect of pyruvate against ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. After 4h, a single dose of ethanol induced upregulation of Bax, release of mitochondrial cytochrome-c into the cytosol, activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1), all of which promote apoptosis. These effects were all reversed by co-treatment with pyruvate at a well-tolerated dosage (1000 mg/kg). Histopathology performed at 24 and 48 h with Fluoro-Jade-B and cresyl violet stains showed that pyruvate significantly reduced the number of dead cells in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and thalamus. Immunohistochemical analysis at 24h confirmed that ethanol-induced cell death is both apoptotic and inhibited by pyruvate. These findings suggest that pyruvate treatment attenuates ethanol-induced neuronal cell loss in the developing rat brain and holds promise as a safe therapeutic and neuroprotective agent in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders in newborns and infants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethanol and methanol can improve huperzine A production from endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Mei; Wang, Zhang-Qian; Shu, Shao-Hua; Wang, Wen-Juan; Xu, Hai-Jie; Ahn, Young-Joon; Wang, Mo; Hu, Xuebo

    2013-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a plant alkaloid that is of great interest as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, the current production of HupA from plants in large quantity is unsustainable because the plant resource is scarce and the content of HupA in plants is extremely low. Surprisingly, this compound was recently found to be produced by various endophytic fungi, which are much more controllable than the plants due to simpler genetics and ease of manipulation. However, it might be due to the innate properties of endophytic symbiosis, that production of this chemical in large quantity from endophytes has not yet been put into practice. Endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 was previously isolated from a HupA producing plant and the fungi also proved to produce HupA. In this study, various fermentation conditions were tried to optimize the production of HupA from C. gloeosporioides ES026. Optimization of these parameters resulted in a 25.58% increase in HupA yield. Potato extracts supplemented with glucose or sucrose but not maltose facilitated HupA producing from the fungi. A final concentration of 0.5-2% ethanol stimulated the growth of fungi while methanol with the same treatment slightly inhibited the growth. However, both methanol and ethanol greatly increased the HupA production with the highest yield of HupA (51.89% increment) coming from ethanol treatment. Further analysis showed that both ethanol and methanol were strong inducers of HupA production, while ethanol was partially used as a carbon source during fermentation. It was noticed that the color of that ethanol treated mycelia gradually became dark while methanol treated ones stayed grey during fermentation. The present study sheds light on the importance of optimizing the fermentation process, which, combined with effective inducers, maximizes production of chemicals of important economic interest from endophytic fungi.

  14. Ethanol and methanol can improve huperzine A production from endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Mei Zhao

    Full Text Available Huperzine A (HupA is a plant alkaloid that is of great interest as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, the current production of HupA from plants in large quantity is unsustainable because the plant resource is scarce and the content of HupA in plants is extremely low. Surprisingly, this compound was recently found to be produced by various endophytic fungi, which are much more controllable than the plants due to simpler genetics and ease of manipulation. However, it might be due to the innate properties of endophytic symbiosis, that production of this chemical in large quantity from endophytes has not yet been put into practice. Endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 was previously isolated from a HupA producing plant and the fungi also proved to produce HupA. In this study, various fermentation conditions were tried to optimize the production of HupA from C. gloeosporioides ES026. Optimization of these parameters resulted in a 25.58% increase in HupA yield. Potato extracts supplemented with glucose or sucrose but not maltose facilitated HupA producing from the fungi. A final concentration of 0.5-2% ethanol stimulated the growth of fungi while methanol with the same treatment slightly inhibited the growth. However, both methanol and ethanol greatly increased the HupA production with the highest yield of HupA (51.89% increment coming from ethanol treatment. Further analysis showed that both ethanol and methanol were strong inducers of HupA production, while ethanol was partially used as a carbon source during fermentation. It was noticed that the color of that ethanol treated mycelia gradually became dark while methanol treated ones stayed grey during fermentation. The present study sheds light on the importance of optimizing the fermentation process, which, combined with effective inducers, maximizes production of chemicals of important economic interest from endophytic fungi.

  15. Impact of carbon monoxide partial pressures on methanogenesis and medium chain fatty acids production during ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Elizondo, Sofia; Miceli, Joseph; Torres, Cesar I; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are important biofuel precursors. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a sustainable electron and carbon donor for fatty acid elongation, since it is metabolized to MCFA precursors, it is toxic to most methanogens, and it is a waste product generated in the gasification of waste biomass. The main objective of this work was to determine if the inhibition of methanogenesis through the continuous addition of CO would lead to increased acetate or MCFA production during fermentation of ethanol. The effects of CO partial pressures (P CO ; 0.08-0.3 atm) on methanogenesis, fatty acids production, and the associated microbial communities were studied in batch cultures fed with CO and ethanol. Methanogenesis was partially inhibited at P CO  ≥ 0.11 atm. This inhibition led to increased acetate production during the first phase of fermentation (0-19 days). However, a second addition of ethanol (day 19) triggered MCFA production only at P CO  ≥ 0.11 atm, which probably occurred through the elongation of acetate with CO-derived ethanol and H 2 :CO 2 . Accordingly, during the second phase of fermentation (days 20-36), the distribution of electrons to acetate decreased at higher P CO , while electrons channeled to MCFA increased. Most probably, Acetobacterium, Clostridium, Pleomorphomonas, Oscillospira, and Blautia metabolized CO to H 2 :CO 2 , ethanol and/or fatty acids, while Peptostreptococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and other Clostridiales utilized these metabolites, along with the provided ethanol, for MCFA production. These results are important for biotechnological systems where fatty acids production are preferred over methanogenesis, such as in chain elongation systems and microbial fuel cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Linear collider: a preview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  17. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  18. Linear collider: a preview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  19. Thermodynamics of mixing of sodium naproxen and procaine hydrochloride in ethanol + water cosolvent mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Guerrero, Carolina Del Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamic functions Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of mixing of sodium naproxen and procaine hydrochloride were evaluated. Mixing quantities were calculated based on fusion calorimetric values obtained from differential scanning calorimetry measurements and equilibrium solubility values reported in the literature for both drugs in ethanol + water mixtures. By means of enthalpy-entropy compensation analysis, non-linear ΔH°mix vs. ΔG°mix plots were obtained which indicates different me...

  20. Total electron scattering cross sections for methanol and ethanol at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D G M; Tejo, T; Lopes, M C A; Muse, J; Romero, D; Khakoo, M A

    2010-01-01

    Absolute total cross section (TCS) measurements of electron scattering from gaseous methanol and ethanol molecules are reported for impact energies from 60 to 500 eV, using the linear transmission method. The attenuation of intensity of a collimated electron beam through the target volume is used to determine the absolute TCS for a given impact energy, using the Beer-Lambert law to first approximation. Besides these experimental measurements, we have also determined TCS using the additivity rule.

  1. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  2. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  3. Linear models with R

    CERN Document Server

    Faraway, Julian J

    2014-01-01

    A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz

  4. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  5. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  6. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  7. Maximizing cellulosic ethanol potentials by minimizing wastewater generation and energy consumption: Competing with corn ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Bao, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Energy consumption and wastewater generation in cellulosic ethanol production are among the determinant factors on overall cost and technology penetration into fuel ethanol industry. This study analyzed the energy consumption and wastewater generation by the new biorefining process technology, dry acid pretreatment and biodetoxification (DryPB), as well as by the current mainstream technologies. DryPB minimizes the steam consumption to 8.63GJ and wastewater generation to 7.71tons in the core steps of biorefining process for production of one metric ton of ethanol, close to 7.83GJ and 8.33tons in corn ethanol production, respectively. The relatively higher electricity consumption is compensated by large electricity surplus from lignin residue combustion. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by DryPB is below $2/gal and falls into the range of corn ethanol production cost. The work indicates that the technical and economical gap between cellulosic ethanol and corn ethanol has been almost filled up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Solubility of the Proteinogenic α-Amino Acids in Water, Ethanol, and Ethanol-Water Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowden, Nathan A.; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2018-01-01

    The addition of organic solvents to α-amino acids in aqueous solution could be an effective method in crystallization. We reviewed the available data on the solubility of α-amino acids in water, water-ethanol mixtures, and ethanol at 298.15 K and 0.1 MPa. The solubility of l-alanine, l-proline,

  9. Developmental lead exposure induces opposite effects on ethanol intake and locomotion in response to central vs. systemic cyanamide administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattalloni, Mara Soledad; Deza-Ponzio, Romina; Albrecht, Paula Alejandra; Cancela, Liliana Marina; Virgolini, Miriam Beatriz

    2017-02-01

    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant that elicits differential responses to drugs of abuse. Particularly, ethanol consumption has been demonstrated to be increased as a consequence of environmental Pb exposure, with catalase (CAT) and brain acetaldehyde (ACD, the first metabolite of ethanol) playing a role. The present study sought to interfere with ethanol metabolism by inhibiting ALDH2 (mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase) activity in both liver and brain from control and Pb-exposed rats as a strategy to accumulate ACD, a substance that plays a major role in the drug's reinforcing and/or aversive effects. To evaluate the impact on a 2-h chronic voluntary ethanol intake test, developmentally Pb-exposed and control rats were administered with cyanamide (CY, an ALDH inhibitor) either systemically or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) on the last 4 sessions of the experiment. Furthermore, on the last session and after locomotor activity was assessed, all animals were sacrificed to obtain brain and liver samples for ALDH2 and CAT activity determination. Systemic CY administration reduced the elevated ethanol intake already reported in the Pb-exposed animals (but not in the controls) accompanied by liver (but not brain) ALDH2 inactivation. On the other hand, a 0.3 mg i.c.v. CY administration enhanced both ethanol intake and locomotor activity accompanied by brain ALDH2 inactivation in control animals, while an increase in ethanol consumption was also observed in the Pb-exposed group, although in the absence of brain ALDH2 blockade. No changes were observed in CAT activity as a consequence of CY administration. These results support the participation of liver and brain ACD in ethanol intake and locomotor activity, responses that are modulated by developmental Pb exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethanol production from a biomass mixture of furfural residues with green liquor-peroxide saccarified cassava liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li; Zheng, Tianran; Zhao, Pengxiang; Zhang, Weiming; Jiang, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    As the most abundant renewable resources, lignocellulosic materials are ideal candidates as alternative feedstock for bioethanol production. Cassava residues (CR) are byproducts of the cassava starch industry which can be mixed with lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production. The presence of lignin in lignocellulosic substrates can inhibit saccharification by reducing the cellulase activity. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of furfural residues (FR) pretreated with green liquor and hydrogen peroxide (GL-H2O2) with CR saccharification liquid was investigated. The final ethanol concentration, yield, initial rate, number of live yeast cells, and the dead yeast ratio were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of combining delignificated lignocellulosic substrates and starchy substrates for ethanol production. Our results indicate that 42.0 % of FR lignin removal was achieved on FR using of 0.06 g H2O2/g-substrate and 9 mL GL/g-substrate at 80 °C. The highest overall ethanol yield was 93.6 % of the theoretical. When the ratio of 0.06 g/g-H2O2-GL-pretreated FR to CR was 5:1, the ethanol concentration was the same with that ratio of untreated FR to CR of 1:1. Using 0.06 g/g-H2O2-GL-pretreated FR with CR at a ratio of 2:1 resulted in 51.9 g/L ethanol concentration. Moreover, FR pretreated with GL-H2O2 decreased the concentration of byproducts in SSF compared with that obtained in the previous study. The lignin in FR would inhibit enzyme activity and GL-H2O2 is an advantageous pretreatment method to treat FR and high intensity of FR pretreatment increased the final ethanol concentration. The efficiency of ethanol fermentation of was improved when delignification increased. GL-H2O2 is an advantageous pretreatment method to treat FR. As the pretreatment dosage of GL-H2O2 on FR increased, the proportion of lignocellulosic substrates was enhanced in the SSF of the substrate mixture of CR and FR as compared with untreated FR. Moreover, the

  11. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated cellulosic wastes by the cellulase complex of Myceliophthora thermophila D-14 to produce ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, S K; Sadhukhan, R; Raha, S K; Chakrabarty, S L [Bose Institute, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Microbiology

    1991-06-01

    Pretreatment of different cellulosic wastes and their subsequent saccharification by thermostable cellulase from a thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila D-14 was investigated. Alkali treatment was found to be most effective. Carboxymethyl cellulose and untreated materials were used as controls. Significant inhibition of the cellulase activity was observed in the presence of glucose, but with ethanol no such effect was detected. The conversion of sugar to ethanol varied from 21-50% depending on the nature of substrate used. 14 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  13. Presentation to the Manitoba ethanol advisory panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Manitoba Chambers of Commerce, representing the entire spectrum of businesses from all regions of Manitoba, has long advocated for alternative fuels based on agricultural products. Some of the major questions that must be answered in this debate on the ethanol industry in Manitoba are: (1) What are the benefits of a vibrant ethanol industry? (2) What are the facts about ethanol, and are those facts getting out to the public? (3) and How do we foster a vibrant ethanol industry in Manitoba? This document places the emphasis on the third issue raised. The Manitoba Chambers of Commerce endorses the idea of a mandated blend of ethanol. It also believes that Manitoba should maintain its gasoline tax-gasohol preference. The Manitoba Chambers of Commerce recommends against the government controlling the size and number of ethanol facilities in the province. It also recommends that funding not be afforded to the creation of new programs designed for the specific purpose of providing financial assistance to the ethanol industry. Government awareness campaigns should be limited to issues within the public interest, dealing with environmental and consumer issues and benefits. The government should commit to the enhancement of the vitality of new generation cooperatives (NGCs) in Manitoba. Emphasis by the government should be placed on ensuring that the required infrastructure and partnerships are in place to foster the development and commercialization of innovations in this field. The Manitoba Chambers of Commerce recommended that the provincial government facilitate partnerships through the sponsoring of provincial conferences, while pursuing its partnership efforts with the federal and other provincial governments

  14. Ethanol: the promise and the peril : Should Manitoba expand ethanol subsidies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopuck, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Ethanol is produced through the fermentation of wheat. Blending ethanol with gasoline results in an ethanol-blended gasoline (EBG). Manitoba has already established an ethanol industry in the province and the government of the province is studying the feasibility of expansion. Every year in Manitoba, approximately 90 million litres of EBG are consumed, and the province's ethanol facility also produces a high protein cattle feed called distillers dry grain. Controversies surround the ethanol industry over both the economics and the environmental benefits and impacts. At issue is the economic efficiency of the production of ethanol, where opponents claim that the final product contains less energy than that required to produce it. A small gain is obtained, as revealed by a recent study. It is difficult to quantify the environmental effects of the ethanol industry, whether they be negative or positive. The author indicates that no matter what happens, the gasoline market in Manitoba is so small when compared to the rest of the world that the effect will not be significant. The three methods for the production of ethanol are: (1) the most risky and expensive method is the stand alone ethanol production facility, (2) integrated facilities where other products are produced, such as wet mash or nutraceuticals, and (3) integrated facilities where dry mash can be exported as a high protein feed. The production of a wide range of products is clearly the best option to be considered during the design of an ethanol facility. Price collapse and the capitalizing of subsidies into prices are the main risks facing the expansion of ethanol production in Manitoba. The author states that direct subsidies and price supports should be avoided, since subsidies would encourage the conversion of more feed grain into ethanol. The feed shortage would worsen especially as Manitoba does not currently produce enough feed to support its growing livestock industry. The author concludes that

  15. An automatic flow injection analysis procedure for photometric determination of ethanol in red wine without using a chromogenic reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Sivanildo S; Frizzarin, Rejane M; Reis, Boaventura F

    2006-05-01

    An automatic reagentless photometric procedure for the determination of ethanol in red wine is described. The procedure was based on a falling drop system that was implemented by employing a flow injection analysis manifold. The detection system comprised an infrared LED and a phototransistor. The experimental arrangement was designed to ensure that the wine drop grew between these devices, thus causing a decrease in the intensity of the radiation beam coming from the LED. Since ethanol content affected the size of the wine drop this feature was exploited to develop an analytical procedure for the photometric determination of ethanol in red wine without using a chromogenic reagent. In an attempt to prove the usefulness of the proposed procedure, a set of red wines were analysed. No significant difference between our results and those obtained with a reference method was observed at the 95% confidence level. Other advantages of our method were a linear response ranging from 0.17 up to 5.14 mol L(-1) (1.0 up to 30.0%) ethanol (R = 0.999); a limit of detection of 0.05 mol L(-1) (0.3%) ethanol; a relative standard deviation of 2.5% (n = 10) using typical wine sample containing 2.14 mol L(-1) (12.5%) ethanol; and a sampling rate of 50 determinations per hour.

  16. Simple optical readout for ethanol-chlorobenzene dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.; Razem, D.

    1999-01-01

    Optical readout of the ethanol-chlorobenzene (ECB) or Dvornik dosimetry system is based on the development of the coloured secondary complex of ferric thiocyanate which has a maximum absorption at 485 nm. The applicability of a rugged, hand-held, battery powered filter colorimeter operating at 480 nm has been investigated as a reader for this purpose. This simple reader performs very well within absorbance one displaying an excellent linearity of absorbance with the concentration of Cl - ions. It is shown that by choosing the appropriate dilution factor when preparing the secondary complex solution the entire useful dose range of the dosimeter up to 2 MGy can be covered. The applicability of this reader to some other liquid chemical dosimeters is also discussed. (author)

  17. Simple optical readout for ethanol - chlorobenzene dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.; Razem, D.

    1999-01-01

    Optical readout of the ethanol-chlorobenzene (ECB or Dvornik dosimetry system) is based on the development of coloured secondary complex of ferric thiocyanate which has a maximum absorption at 485 nm. The applicability of a rugged, hand-held, battery powered filter colorimeter operating at 480 nm has been investigated as a reader for this purpose. This simple reader performs very well within absorbance displaying an excellent linearity of absorbance with the concentration of Cl - ions. It was shown, by choosing the appropriate dilution factor when preparing the secondary complex solution, the entire useful dose range of the dosimeter up to 2 MGy can be covered. The applicability of the same reader to some other liquid chemical dosimeters is also discussed. (author)

  18. Linearity enigmas in ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, B.C.

    1983-04-01

    Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.

  19. Linear colliders - prospects 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1985-06-01

    We discuss the scaling laws of linear colliders and their consequences for accelerator design. We then report on the SLAC Linear Collider project and comment on experience gained on that project and its application to future colliders. 9 refs., 2 figs

  20. The SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-01-01

    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built

  1. Linear Programming (LP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The submitted sections on linear programming are extracted from 'Theorie und Technik der Planung' (1978) by W. Blaas and P. Henseler and reformulated for presentation at the Workshop. They consider a brief introduction to the theory of linear programming and to some essential aspects of the SIMPLEX solution algorithm for the purposes of economic planning processes. 1 fig

  2. Racetrack linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.

    1979-01-01

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  3. Spillover effect induced Pt-TiO2/C as ethanol tolerant oxygen reduction reaction catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshi, S.; Nishanth, K.G.; Sridhar, P.; Pitchumani, S.

    2014-01-01

    Hypo-hyper-d-electronic interactive nature is used to develop a new carbon supported HT-Pt-TiO 2 composite catalyst comprising Pt and Ti in varying atomic ratio, namely 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. The electro-catalysts are characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM-EDAX, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) techniques. HT-Pt-TiO 2 /C catalysts exhibit significant improvement in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) over Pt/C. The effect of composition towards ORR with and without ethanol has been studied. The direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) with HT-Pt-TiO 2 /C cathode catalyst exhibits an enhanced peak power density of 41 mW cm −2 , whereas 21 mW cm −2 is obtained for the DEFCs with carbon-supported Pt catalyst operating under identical conditions

  4. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, U.

    1978-04-01

    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  5. Linear algebra done right

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...

  6. Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood glow: Role of adenosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrego, H.; Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Giles, H.G.; Sandrin, S.; Israel, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism by which ethanol induces an increase in portal vein blood flow was studied in rats using radiolabeled microspheres. Ethanol by gavage resulted in an increase of 50-70% in portal vein blood flow. The ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker 8-phenyltheophylline. By itself, 8-phenyltheophylline was without effect on cardiac output or portal blood flow. Adenosine infusion resulted in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This adenosine-induced increase in portal blood flow was inhibited by 8-phenyltheophylline in a dose-dependent manner. Both alcohol and adenosine significantly reduced preportal vascular resistance by 40% and 60%, respectively. These effects were fully suppressed by 8-phenyltheophylline. It is concluded that adenosine is a likely candidate to mediate the ethanol-induced increase in portal vein blood flow. It is suggested that an increase in circulating acetate and liver hypoxia may mediate the effects of alcohol by increasing tissue and interstitial adenosine levels

  7. Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible