WorldWideScience

Sample records for linear electric motors

  1. Reciprocating Linear Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Features include structural simplicity and good force/displacement characteristics. Reciprocating motor has simple, rugged construction, relatively low reciprocating weight, improved power delivery, and improved force control. Wear reduced by use of magnetic bearings. Intended to provide drivers for long-lived Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, concept has less exotic applications, such as fuel pumps.

  2. International program on linear electric motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, G.E.; Eastham, A.R.; Parker, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    The International Program on Linear Electric Motors (LEM) was initiated for the purposes of commumication and coordination between various centers of expertise in LEM technology in Germany, Japan and Canada. Furthermore, it was intended to provide assessment and support of the planning of technological developments and for dissemination of information to researchers, service operators and policy makers, and to ensure that full advantage can be taken if opportunities for technology transfer occur. In the process, the program was able to provide closer contacts between researchers, to enhance and encourage collaborative research and development, and to facilitate joint ventures in advanced transportation technologies. Work done under the program is documented, and seminar materials presented by Canadian researchers in Italy, and by Italian researchers at Queen's University in Canada are presented. Five separate abstracts have been prepared for the main body of the report and the seminar materials.

  3. The linear electric motor: Instability at 1,000 g's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.

    1997-01-01

    When fluid of high density is supported against gravity by a less dense liquid, the system is unstable, and microscopic perturbations grow at the interface between the fluids. This phenomenon, called the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, also occurs when a bottle of oil-and-vinegar salad dressing is turned upside down. The instability causes spikes of the dense fluid to penetrate the light fluid, while bubbles of the lighter fluid rise into the dense fluid. The same phenomenon occurs when a light fluid is used to accelerate a dense fluid, causing the two fluids to mix at a very high rate. For example, during the implosion of an ICF capsule, this instability can cause enough mixing to contaminate, cool, and degrade the yield of the thermonuclear fuel. The LEM is an excellent tool for studying this instability, but what is it? Think of a miniature high-speed electric train (the container) hurtling down a track (the electrodes) while diagnostic equipment (optical and laser) photographs it. The LEM, consists of four linear electrodes, or rails, that carry an electrical current to a pair of sliding armatures on the container. A magnetic field is produced that works in concert with the rail-armature current to accelerate the container--just as in an electric motor, but in a linear fashion rather than in rotation. The magnetic field is augmented with elongated coils just as in a conventional electric motor. This configuration also helps hold the armatures against the electrodes to prevent arcing. The electrical energy (0.6 megajoules) is provided by 16 capacitor banks that can be triggered independently to produce different acceleration profiles (i.e., how the acceleration varies with time)

  4. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  5. International program on linear electric motors. CIGGT report No. 92-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, G.E.; Eastham, A.R.; Parker, J.H.

    1992-12-31

    The International Program for Linear Electric Motors (LEM) was begun in April 1989 to communicate and coordinate activities with centers of expertise in Germany, Canada, and Japan; to provide for the assessment and support of the planning of technological developments and for dissemination of information to researchers, service operators, and policy makers; and to ensure that full advantage can be taken if opportunities for technology transfer occur. This report documents the work done under the program, including standardizing linear induction motor (LIM) design characteristics; test procedures and measurement methods; rating; database for design data; criteria for evaluation of designs; computer programs for modelling performance; and a design study for an agreed application.

  6. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Linear magnetic motor/generator. [to generate electric energy using magnetic flux for spacecraft power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first magnetic flux path which passes through a first end portion of the actuator mechanism. Another permament magnet mechanism defines a second magnetic flux path which passes through a second end portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil defines a third magnetic flux path passing through a third central portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil selectively adds magnetic flux to and subtracts magnetic flux from magnetic flux flowing in the first and second magnetic flux path.

  8. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  9. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  10. Linear Motor With Air Slide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Fenn, Ralph C.

    1993-01-01

    Improved linear actuator comprises air slide and linear electric motor. Unit exhibits low friction, low backlash, and more nearly even acceleration. Used in machinery in which positions, velocities, and accelerations must be carefully controlled and/or vibrations must be suppressed.

  11. The development and testing of a linear induction motor being fed from the source with limited electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiunov, V. V.

    2018-02-01

    The report provides results of the research related to the tubular linear induction motors’ application. The motors’ design features, a calculation model, a description of test specimens for mining and electric power industry are introduced. The most attention is given to the single-phase motors for high voltage switches drives with the usage of inexpensive standard single-phase transformers for motors’ power supply. The method of the motor’s parameters determination, when the motor is being fed from the transformer, working in the overload mode, was described, and the results of it practical usage were good enough for the engineering practice.

  12. Linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  13. Electrodynamic linear motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munehiro, H

    1980-05-29

    When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.

  14. Comparisons between designs for single-sided linear electric motors: Homopolar synchronous and induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondahl, T. A.; Richter, E.

    1980-09-01

    A design study of two types of single sided (with a passive rail) linear electric machine designs, namely homopolar linear synchronous machines (LSM's) and linear induction machines (LIM's), is described. It is assumed the machines provide tractive effort for several types of light rail vehicles and locomotives. These vehicles are wheel supported and require tractive powers ranging from 200 kW to 3735 kW and top speeds ranging from 112 km/hr to 400 km/hr. All designs are made according to specified magnetic and thermal criteria. The LSM advantages are a higher power factor, much greater restoring forces for track misalignments, and less track heating. The LIM advantages are no need to synchronize the excitation frequency precisely to vehicle speed, simpler machine construction, and a more easily anchored track structure. The relative weights of the two machine types vary with excitation frequency and speed; low frequencies and low speeds favor the LSM.

  15. Reciprocating linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  16. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  17. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krasl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  18. Dynamic modeling and simulation of an induction motor with adaptive backstepping design of an input-output feedback linearization controller in series hybrid electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalalifar Mehran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper using adaptive backstepping approach an adaptive rotor flux observer which provides stator and rotor resistances estimation simultaneously for induction motor used in series hybrid electric vehicle is proposed. The controller of induction motor (IM is designed based on input-output feedback linearization technique. Combining this controller with adaptive backstepping observer the system is robust against rotor and stator resistances uncertainties. In additional, mechanical components of a hybrid electric vehicle are called from the Advanced Vehicle Simulator Software Library and then linked with the electric motor. Finally, a typical series hybrid electric vehicle is modeled and investigated. Various tests, such as acceleration traversing ramp, and fuel consumption and emission are performed on the proposed model of a series hybrid vehicle. Computer simulation results obtained, confirm the validity and performance of the proposed IM control approach using for series hybrid electric vehicle.

  19. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  20. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  1. A seismic vertical vibrator driven by linear synchronous motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorlandt, R.P.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Dams, J.; Jenneskens, R.

    2015-01-01

    A linear synchronous motor (LSM) is an electric motor that can produce large controllable forces and is therefore suitable as a driving engine for a seismic vibrator. This motor consists of two independent elements, a magnet track and a coil track, allowing practically unlimited motor displacements.

  2. Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility

  3. Agricultural Electricity. Electric Motors. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert T.

    Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…

  4. Mechanical design of electric motors

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Rapid increases in energy consumption and emphasis on environmental protection have posed challenges for the motor industry, as has the design and manufacture of highly efficient, reliable, cost-effective, energy-saving, quiet, precisely controlled, and long-lasting electric motors.Suitable for motor designers, engineers, and manufacturers, as well as maintenance personnel, undergraduate and graduate students, and academic researchers, Mechanical Design of Electric Motors provides in-depth knowledge of state-of-the-art design methods and developments of electric motors. From motor classificati

  5. Ultrasonic Linear Motor with Two Independent Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneishi, Takeshi; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    2004-09-01

    We propose a new structure of an ultrasonic linear motor in order to solve the problems of high-power ultrasonic linear motors that drive the XY-stage for electron beam equipment and to expand the application fields of the motor. We pay special attention to the following three points: (1) the vibration in two directions of the ultrasonic linear motor should not influence mutually each other, (2) the vibration in two directions should be divided into the stage traveling direction and the pressing direction of the ultrasonic linear motor, and (3) the rigidity of the stage traveling direction of the ultrasonic linear motor should be increased. As a result, the supporting method of ultrasonic linear motors is simplified. The efficiency of the motor is improved and temperature rise is reduced. The stage position drift is also improved.

  6. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  7. 76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 3... Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... motors and small electric motors, clarify the scope of energy conservation standards for electric motors...

  8. 77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Final Rules #0;#0;Federal... Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... electric motors and small electric motors. That supplemental proposal, along with an earlier proposal from...

  9. Torque control for electric motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

  10. Open-Ended Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Mauri

    1975-01-01

    Presents complete instructions for assembling an electric motor which does not require large amounts of power to operate and which is inexpensive as well as reliable. Several open-ended experiments with the motor are included as well as information for obtaining a kit of parts and instructions. (BR)

  11. Simulation of linear Switched Reluctance Motor drives

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Amoros, Jordi; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Andrada Gascón, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of linear switched reluctance motor drives. A Matlab-Simulink environment coupled with finite element analysis is used to perform the simulations. Experimental and simulation results for a double sided linear switched motor drive prototype are reported and compared to verify the simulation model.

  12. A linear motor as seismic horizontal vibrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijkoningen, G.; Veltman, A.; Hendrix, W.H.A.; Brouwer, J.; Hemstede, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use the concept of linear synchronous motors to act as a seismic shear-wave vibratory source. We show that a linear motor, even with a design that is not focussed on application of seismic surveying, gives seismic records that are convincing and comparable with an

  13. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  14. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2017-10-10

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for performing a laser operation. A system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam having a wavelength less than 1060 nm through the electrical motor.

  15. Dynamically Timed Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Ann M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A brushless DC motor including a housing having an end cap secured thereto. The housing encloses a rotor. a stator and a rotationally displaceable commutation board having sensors secured thereon and spaced around the periphery of the rotor. An external rotational force is applied to the commutation board for displacement of the sensors to various positions whereby varying feedback signals are generated by the positioning of the sensors relative to the rotating rotor. The commutation board is secured in a fixed position in response to feedback signals indicative of optimum sensor position being determined. The rotation of the commutation board and the securing of the sensors in the desired fixed position is accomplished without requiring the removal of the end cap and with the DC motor operating.

  16. Comparison of linear synchronous and induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    A propulsion prade study was conducted as part of the Colorado Maglev Project of FTA's Urban Maglev Technology Development Program to identify and evaluate prospective linear motor designs that could potentially meet the system performance requiremen...

  17. Linear motor with contactless energy transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    An integrated electromagnetic energy conversions device is provided that includes a synchronous or brushless linear (SoBL) motor, and a transformer, where the transformer is integrated electromagnetically and topologically with the SoBL motor, where an electromagnetic field orientation of the

  18. Electromagnetic Energy Converters - Rotating Motors and Linear Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekergaard, Boel

    2011-07-01

    This licentiate thesis presents a study of the electromagnetic properties of linear synchronous permanent magnet generators, utilized in wave energy converters, and a two pole permanent magnet motor for an electrical vehicle. Both machine topologies are presented, designed with a numerical simulation tool, based on a model derived from Maxwell's equations. Full scale prototypes of both the machines are under construction. A continued study about the impact on the magnetic circuit caused by the longitudinal ends of a linear generator is performed. The results present significant core losses in the translator and an increased cogging force caused by the longitudinal ends. Further, a new electric conversion circuit based on the electric resonance phenomena is presented. Experimental results indicate that a successful electric resonance between the generator and external circuit has been achieved. Finally, detailed analytical and numerical methods are utilized to investigate the losses in the two pole permanent magnet motor over a wide frequency interval. The results indicate that the efficiency of electrical motors in electrical vehicle system can be increased relative existing designs and argue for limiting of the gearbox. The system total efficiency and mechanical stability can thereby be increased. The work concerning the wave energy converter is a part of a larger project, the so called Lysekil Wave Power Project, whereas the work concerning the electric motor so far has been carried out as an individual project. However, a future goal is to integrate the research on the electric motor for electrical vehicle with closely related ongoing research regarding a flywheel based electric driveline for an All Electric Propulsion System

  19. Position sensor for linear synchronous motors employing halbach arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard Freeman

    2014-12-23

    A position sensor suitable for use in linear synchronous motor (LSM) drive systems employing Halbach arrays to create their magnetic fields is described. The system has several advantages over previously employed ones, especially in its simplicity and its freedom from being affected by weather conditions, accumulated dirt, or electrical interference from the LSM system itself.

  20. ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR FARM USE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    BETWEEN 2 AND 8 HOURS ARE REQUIRED FOR USE OF THIS TEXTUAL OR REFERENCE MATERIAL ON ELECTRIC MOTORS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION-AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING SPECIALIST ON THE BASIS OF CONFERENCES WITH SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS. THE OBJECTIVES AND SUBJECT MATTER CENTER AROUND THE…

  1. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  2. Electric motors for use in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, T.U.D.; Mahmood, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements of electric motors for a nuclear plant and the effect of nuclear radiations on different parts of the motors are discussed. Feasibility of using locally-fabricated motors is also considered. (author)

  3. Applications of superconductors to electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews previous experience in applying superconductors to electric motors and examines the difficulties encountered. While motors and generators have a common basis, several significant differences exist. The application of high temperature superconductors to the major electric motor types is discussed and expected difficulties are presented. The limitations imposed by various motor designs are reflected in a statement of the desired material properties for high temperature superconductor electric motor applications

  4. A linear magnetic motor and generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    In linear magnetic motor and generator suitable for remote and hostile environments, magnetic forces drive reciprocating shaft along its axis. Actuator shaft is located in center of cylindrical body and may be supported by either contacting or noncontacting bearings. When device operates as bidirectional motor, drive coil selectively adds and subtracts magnetic flux to and from flux paths, producing forces that drive actuator along axis. When actuator is driven by external reciprocating engine, device becomes ac generator.

  5. Linear ultrasonic motor for absolute gravimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-05-01

    Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high dynamic performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for absolute gravimeters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...

  7. AC Application of HTS Conductors in Highly Dynamic Electric Motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, B; Best, K-J; Setzer, M; Duffner, E; Soell, M; Gawalek, W; Kovalev, L K

    2006-01-01

    Based on recent investigations we design highly dynamic electric motors up to 400 kW and linear motors up to 120 kN linear force using HTS bulk material and HTS tapes. The introduction of HTS tapes into AC applications in electric motors needs fundamental studies on double pancake coils under transversal magnetic fields. First theoretical and experimental results on AC field distributions in double-pancake-coils and corresponding AC losses will be presented. Based on these results the simulation of the motor performance confirms extremely high power density and efficiency of both types of electric motors. Improved characteristics of rare earth permanent magnets used in our motors at low temperatures give an additional technological benefit

  8. Induction Motors by Electric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej M. Trzynadlowski

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the issues and means of detection of mechanical abnormalities in induction motors by electric measurements. If undetected and untreated, the worn or damaged bearings, rotor imbalance and eccentricity, broken bars of the rotor cage, and torsional and lateral vibration lead to roughly a half of all failures of induction motor drives. The detection of abnormalities is based on the fact that they cause periodic disturbance of motor variables, such as the speed, torque, current, and magnetic flux. Thus, spectral analysis of those or related quantities may yield a warning about an incipient failure of the drive system. Although the traditional non-invasive diagnostics has mostly been based on the signature analysis of the stator current, other media can also be employed. In particular, the partial instantaneous input power is shown, theoretically and experimentally, to offer distinct advantages under noisy operating conditions. Use of torque and flux estimates is also discussed.

  9. A beam scraper using a linear motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beadle, E.R.; Rodger, E.S.; Thern, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    A beam scraper using a linear motor drive has been developed for use in the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The device is used to measure beam size by moving a target to a predetermined location and measuring the intercepted beam with nearby loss monitors or by noting the decrease in the circulating beam current. This device has excellent vacuum characteristics, as the motor and sensor coils are outside the vacuum, coupled magnetically to the moving parts which, are inside. There are no bellows or dynamic seals required. The position-time profile is controlled by a closed-loop servo system which uses position feedback. 2 refs., 4 figs

  10. Magnetic Signature of Brushless Electric Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, David

    2006-01-01

    Brushless electric motors are used in a number of underwater vehicles. When these underwater vehicles are used for mine clearance operations the magnetic signature of the brushless motors is important...

  11. Comparison of Linear Induction Motor Theories for the LIMRV and TLRV Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Oberretl, Yamamura, and Mosebach theories of the linear induction motor are described and also applied to predict performance characteristics of the TLRV & LIMRV linear induction motors. The effect of finite motor width and length on performance ...

  12. Spectral element model for 2-D electrostatic fields in a linear synchronous motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, T.A.; Curti, M.; Jansen, J.W.; Gysen, B.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a fast and accurate 2-D spectral element model for analyzing electric field distributions in linear synchronous motors. The electric field distribution is derived using the electric scalar potential for static cases. The spatial potential and electric field distributions obtained

  13. Advanced electric motor technology flux mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, George B., III; Campbell, Warren; Dean, Garvin

    1993-01-01

    Design of electric motors which fulfill the needs of Thrust Vector Control (TVC) actuators used in large rocket propelled launch vehicles is covered. To accomplish this end the methodology of design is laid out in some detail. In addition a point design of a motor to fulfill the requirements of a certain actuator specified by MSFC is accomplished and reported upon. In the course of this design great stress has been placed on ridding the actuator of internally generated heat. To conduct the heat out of the motor use is made of the unique properties of the in house MSFC designed driving electronics. This property is that as along as they are operated in a quasi-linear mode the electronics nullify the effects of armature inductance as far as the phase of the armature current versus the rotor position is concerned. Actually the additional inductance due to the extended end turns in this design is of benefit because in the shorted armature failure mode the armature current in the fault (caused by the rotor flux sweeping past the armature) is diminished at a given rotor speed when compared to a more conventional motor with lower inductance. The magnetic circuit is analyzed using electromagnetic finite element methods.

  14. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin

    2016-06-07

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  15. Development of a linear induction motor based artificial muscle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A; Arguello, E; Silva, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a linear induction motor based on electromagnetic interactions. The engine is capable of producing a linear movement from electricity. The design consists of stators arranged in parallel, which produce a magnetic field sufficient to displace a plunger along its axial axis. Furthermore, the winding has a shell and cap of ferromagnetic material that amplifies the magnetic field. This produces a force along the length of the motor that is similar to that of skeletal muscle. In principle, the objective is to use the engine in the development of an artificial muscle system for prosthetic applications, but it could have multiple applications, not only in the medical field, but in other industries.

  16. Coreless Linear Induction Motor (LIM) for Space-borne Electro-magnetic Mass Driver Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large scale linear induction motors use ferromagnetic cores, but at high speed these cores choke the system’s ability to transform electrical energy into mechanical...

  17. Analysing Simple Electric Motors in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Jeff; MacIsaac, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic phenomena and devices such as motors are typically unfamiliar to both teachers and students. To better visualize and illustrate the abstract concepts (such as magnetic fields) underlying electricity and magnetism, we suggest that students construct and analyse the operation of a simply constructed Johnson electric motor. In this…

  18. Linear pneumatic motors – a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconescu Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the performance of single-acting cylinders, diaphragm cylinders and pneumatic muscles, and offers users information that allows the selection of an optimum technical solution. Such a study was necessary, in view of the numerous papers on pneumatic muscle applications found in literature, that assert the superiority of pneumatic muscles over other pneumatic linear motors in relation to quantities like dimensions, mass, developed force or energy-to-mass ratios, however without offering concrete data.

  19. An efficient linear power generator - Linear motor for oscillating piston machines; Effizienter Lineargenerator / Linearmotor fuer Kolbenmaschine - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2008-07-01

    When an oscillating piston interacts with an electrical generator or motor, it is obvious that the electrical machine should also have linear motion, eliminating the disadvantage of a crankshaft. This work has two parts: construction of an efficient linear generator for a Stirling engine with a free piston and a theoretical study of the efficiency of linear motors for driving compressors. The Stirling engine and the linear generator have a continuous power of 1.3 kW{sub el}. With thermal peak power the planned 1.5 kW{sub el} are attained. The Project 'Stirling Free Piston Generator' for cogeneration will continue. Smaller linear motors with permanent magnets function without electronic control from single-phase AC net. The theoretical study shows how linear motors can be led out by linking the electric vector diagram with the pressure-volume diagram of the compressor. At a power level exceeding a few kW, a three-phase system with power electronics is more suitable. The frequency of oscillation is variable and lower than 50 Hz. The efficiency of the simulated linear motors lies in the range of efficiency class EFF1 of standard motors. The very high efficiencies of rotating motors with permanent magnets are not attained. The combination of the linear motor with an optimised thermal process leads to advantages regarding the efficiency. If a heat pump with linear drive system can operate with hot lubricating oil the losses in the heat exchangers are reduced. The Competence Center for Thermal Machines at Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts shows great interest to pursue the project of a linear heat pump for small temperature differences. (author)

  20. Variable-Reluctance Motor For Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes research on variable-reluctance electric-motor drive for eventual use in electric-vehicle propulsion. Primary design and performance criteria were torque and power output per unit mass of motor, cost, and drive efficiency. For each criterion, optimized drive design developed, and designs unified to yield single electric-vehicle drive. Scaled-down motor performed as expected. Prototype of paraplegic lift operated by toggle switch and joystick. Lift plugs into household electrical outlet for recharging when not in use.

  1. Quality electric motor repair: A guidebook for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, V.; Douglass, J.

    1995-08-01

    This guidebook provides utilities with a resource for better understanding and developing their roles in relation to electric motor repair shops and the industrial and commercial utility customers that use them. The guidebook includes information and tools that utilities can use to raise the quality of electric motor repair practices in their service territories.

  2. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); hide

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  3. Actions to promote energy efficient electric motors. Motors study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.T. de [Coimbra Univ. (PT). Inst. of Systems and Robotics (ISR)

    1996-10-01

    Motor electricity consumption is influenced by many factors including: motor efficiency, motor speed controls, power supply quality, harmonics, systems oversizing, distribution network, mechanical transmission system, maintenance practices, load management and cycling, and the efficiency of the end-use device (e.g. fan, pump, etc.). Due to their importance, an overview of these factors is presented in this report. This study also describes the electricity use in the industrial and tertiary sectors and the electricity consumption associated with the different types of electric motors systems in the Member States of the European Union, as well as estimated future evolution until 2010. The studies for individual countries were carried out by the different partners of the motors study group at a previous stage. The study has found that there is a lack of accurate information about the motor electricity consumption, installed motor capacity and the motor market in almost all the European Union countries and only some general statistical sources are available. There is little field data, which is mainly available in Denmark, France, Italy and the Netherlands. Due to this lack of primary information, some common assumptions were made, based on the experience of the members of the study group. This lack of end-use characterisation data shows the need for improvement from the point of view of current knowledge. It is therefore recommended that further research is undertaken to arrive at more accurate figures. These could be the basis for a better understanding for motor use in practice and - as a consequence - for a more precise appraisal of potentials and barriers to energy efficiency. (orig.)

  4. Investigation of vibration characteristics of electric motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshis, A. K.; Tamoshyunas, Y. K.

    1973-01-01

    The vibration characteristics of electric motors were analyzed using mathematical statistics methods. The equipment used and the method of conducting the test are described. Curves are developed to show the visualization of the electric motor vibrations in the vertical direction. Additional curves are included to show the amplitude-phase frequency characteristic of dynamic rotor-housing vibrations at the first lug and the same data for the second lug of the electric motor. Mathematical models were created to show the transmission function of the dynamic rotor housing system.

  5. Motor Torque Calculations For Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chauhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is estimated that 25 of the total cars across the world will run on electricity by 2025. An important component that is an integral part of all electric vehicles is the motor. The amount of torque that the driving motor delivers is what plays a decisive role in determining the speed acceleration and performance of an electric vehicle. The following work aims at simplifying the calculations required to decide the capacity of the motor that should be used to drive a vehicle of particular specifications.

  6. Study of linear induction motor characteristics : the Mosebach model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-31

    This report covers the Mosebach theory of the double-sided linear induction motor, starting with the ideallized model and accompanying assumptions, and ending with relations for thrust, airgap power, and motor efficiency. Solutions of the magnetic in...

  7. Study of linear induction motor characteristics : the Oberretl model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-30

    The Oberretl theory of the double-sided linear induction motor (LIM) is examined, starting with the idealized model and accompanying assumptions, and ending with relations for predicted thrust, airgap power, and motor efficiency. The effect of varyin...

  8. Electric Motors for Vehicle Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This work is intended to contribute with knowledge to the area of electic motorsfor propulsion in the vehicle industry. This is done by first studying the differentelectric motors available, the motors suitable for vehicle propulsion are then dividedinto four different types to be studied separately. These four types are thedirect current, induction, permanent magnet and switched reluctance motors. Thedesign and construction are then studied to understand how the different typesdiffer from ea...

  9. Axial Field Electric Motor and Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cho, Chahee P

    2007-01-01

    .... A hybrid field, brushless, permanent magnet electric motor utilizing a rotor with two sets of permanent magnets oriented such that the flux produced by the two sets of magnets is perpendicular to each...

  10. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  11. Electric motor predictive and preventive maintenance guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Electric motor performance is vital to the reliable and efficient operation of power plants. The failure of one or more critical motors could cause lost capacity and excessive repair and maintenance cost. However, existing maintenance recommendations proposed by vendors for electric motors have sometimes encouraged many overly conservative maintenance practices. These practices have lead to excessive maintenance activities and costs which have provided no extra margin of operability. EPRI has sponsored RP2814-35 to develop a guide which provides power plants with information and guidance for establishing an effective maintenance program which will aid in preventing unexpected motor failures and assist in planning motor maintenance efforts. The guide includes a technical description which summarizes technical data relative to the four basic types of motors and their components in general use in power plants. The significant causes of motor failures are investigated and described in detail and methods to optimize service life and minimize maintenance cost through appropriate preventive maintenance and conditioning program are presented. This guide provides a foundation for an effective electric motor maintenance program and simplifies the selection of predictive and preventive maintenance tasks. Its use will enable maintenance personnel in nuclear and fossil plants to plan motor repairs during scheduled outages and avoid costly unexpected failures

  12. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    O. F. Vynakov; E. V. Savolova; A. I. Skrynnyk

    2016-01-01

    This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья) describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical ...

  13. Mathematical models of flat linear induction motors used in mining drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tall, M

    1984-01-01

    Design parameters are calculated for electric flat linear induction motors, widely employed in the coal and ore mining industries in Poland. A mathematical model of this motor with a single-layer ferromagnetic secondary part is presented. A three-dimensional electromagnetic field analysis is carried out, taking relative magnetic permeability variation, discrete winding distribution, influence of armature grooving and pulsating field influence into account. A computer calculation algorithm is proposed for determining motor characteristics. 17 refs.

  14. Quad-copter UAV BLDC Motor Control: Linear v/s non-linear control maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Parikh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some investigations and comparison of using linear versus non-linear static motor-control maps for the speed control of a BLDC (Brush Less Direct Current motors used in quad-copter UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The motor-control map considered here is the inverse of the static map relating motor-speed output to motor-voltage input for a typical out-runner type Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM.  Traditionally, quad-copter BLDC motor speed control uses simple linear motor-control map defined by the motor-constant specification. However, practical BLDC motors show non-linear characteristic, particularly when operated across wide operating speed-range as is commonly required in quad-copter UAV flight operations. In this paper, our investigations to compare performance of linear versus non-linear motor-control maps are presented. The investigations cover simulation-based and experimental study of BLDC motor speed control systems for  quad-copter vehicle available. First the non-linear map relating rotor RPM to motor voltage for quad-copter BLDC motor is obtained experimentally using an optical speed encoder. The performance of the linear versus non-linear motor-control-maps for the speed control are studied. The investigations also cover study of time-responses for various standard test input-signals e.g. step, ramp and pulse inputs, applied as the reference speed-commands. Also, simple 2-degree of freedom test-bed is developed in our laboratory to help test the open-loop and closed-loop experimental investigations. The non-linear motor-control map is found to perform better in BLDC motor speed tracking control performance and thereby helping achieve better quad-copter roll-angle attitude control.

  15. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  16. Modeling an electric motor in 1-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    Quite often the dynamicist will be faced with having an electric drive motor as a link in the elastic path of a structure such that the motor's characteristics must be taken into account to properly represent the dynamics of the primary structure. He does not want to model it so accurately that he could get detailed stress and displacements in the motor proper, but just sufficiently to represent its inertia loading and elastic behavior from its mounting bolts to its drive coupling. Described here is how the rotor and stator of such a motor can be adequately modeled as a colinear pair of beams.

  17. Electric Motor-Generator for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Odvářka, Erik; Mebarki, Abdeslam; Gerada, David; Brown, Neil; Ondrůšek, Čestmír

    2009-01-01

    Several topologies of electrical machines can be used to meet requirements for application in a hybrid electric vehicle. This paper describes process of an electric motor-generator selection, considering electromagnetic, thermal and basic control design. The requested electrical machine must develop 45 kW in continuous operation at 1300 rpm with field weakening capability up to 2500 rpm. Both radial and axial flux topologies are considered as potential candidates. A family of axial flux machi...

  18. Lithographic linear motor, lithographic apparatus, and device manufacturing method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    A linear motor having a high driving force, high efficiency and low normal force comprises two opposed magnet tracks and an armature comprising three open coil sets. The linear motor may be used to drive a stage, such as, for example, a mask or wafer stage, in a lithographic apparatus.

  19. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-23

    The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

  20. Redundancy for electric motors in spacecraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert J.; Flew, Alastair R.

    1986-01-01

    The parts of electric motors which should be duplicated in order to provide maximum reliability in spacecraft application are identified. Various common types of redundancy are described. The advantages and disadvantages of each are noted. The principal types are illustrated by reference to specific examples. For each example, constructional details, basic performance data and failure modes are described, together with a discussion of the suitability of particular redundancy techniques to motor types.

  1. Finite element based electric motor design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. Warren

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to develop a finite element code for the analysis and design of permanent magnet electric motors. These motors would drive electromechanical actuators in advanced rocket engines. The actuators would control fuel valves and thrust vector control systems. Refurbishing the hydraulic systems of the Space Shuttle after each flight is costly and time consuming. Electromechanical actuators could replace hydraulics, improve system reliability, and reduce down time.

  2. Speed and position sensors for electric motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyyjynen, M. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of speed and position measuring instruments for electric motors. The emphasis is on sensors that are designed to operate at industrial environment. In addition to that, some other, mostly magnetic sensors which are used, e.g., in automotive applications, are presented. Some of them are already applied in induction motors and some might be worth a try remembering the limitations. Automotive sensors are very cost-effective due to high production volumes. (orig.) 22 refs.

  3. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Electric Motor Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziller, T.

    This Electric Motor Repair Course is designed to provide the student with practical information for winding, repairing, and troubleshooting alternating current and direct current motors, and controllers. The course is comprised of eight units: (1) Electric Motor Fundamentals, (2) Rewinding, (3) Split-phase Induction Motors, (4) Capacitor Motors,…

  4. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    A survey conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy efficient motors, decision making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The data obtained were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. Study findings, conclusions, and recommendations are presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in appendices as well as descriptions of the methods used.

  5. 10 CFR 431.383 - Enforcement process for electric motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement process for electric motors. 431.383 Section... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.383 Enforcement process for electric motors. (a) Test... motor sold by a particular manufacturer or private labeler, which indicates that the electric motor may...

  6. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    O. Smirnov; A. Borisenko

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  7. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Smirnov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  8. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used...

  9. Recycling of electrical motors by automatic disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Björn; Järrhed, Jan-Ove

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents a robotized workstation for end-of-life treatment of electrical motors with an electrical effect of about 1 kW. These motors can, for example, be found in washing machines and in industry. There are two main steps in the work. The first step is an inspection whereby the functionality of the motor is checked and classification either for re-use or for disassembly is done. In the second step the motors classified for disassembly are disassembled in a robotized automatic station. In the initial step measurements are performed during a start-up sequence of about 1 s. By measuring the rotation speed and the current and voltage of the three phases of the motor classification for either reuse or disassembly can be done. During the disassembly work, vision data are fused in order to classify the motors according to their type. The vision system also feeds the control system of the robot with various object co-ordinates, to facilitate correct operation of the robot. Finally, tests with a vision system and eddy-current equipment are performed to decide whether all copper has been removed from the stator.

  10. Hall devices improve electric motor efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussermann, W.

    1979-01-01

    Efficiency of electric motors and generators is reduced by radial magnetic forces created by symmetric fields within device. Forces are sensed and counteracted by Hall devices on excitation or control windings. Hall generators directly measure and provide compensating control of anu asymmetry, eliminating additional measurements needed for calibration feedback control loop.

  11. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  12. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF AC ELECTRIC POINT MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. YU. Buryak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In order to ensure reliability, security, and the most important the continuity of the transportation process, it is necessary to develop, implement, and then improve the automated methods of diagnostic mechanisms, devices and rail transport systems. Only systems that operate in real time mode and transmit data on the instantaneous state of the control objects can timely detect any faults and thus provide additional time for their correction by railway employees. Turnouts are one of the most important and responsible components, and therefore require the development and implementation of such diagnostics system.Methodology. Achieving the goal of monitoring and control of railway automation objects in real time is possible only with the use of an automated process of the objects state diagnosing. For this we need to know the diagnostic features of a control object, which determine its state at any given time. The most rational way of remote diagnostics is the shape and current spectrum analysis that flows in the power circuits of railway automatics. Turnouts include electric motors, which are powered by electric circuits, and the shape of the current curve depends on both the condition of the electric motor, and the conditions of the turnout maintenance. Findings. For the research and analysis of AC electric point motor it was developed its mathematical model. The calculation of parameters and interdependencies between the main factors affecting the operation of the asynchronous machine was conducted. The results of the model operation in the form of time dependences of the waveform curves of current on the load on engine shaft were obtained. Originality. During simulation the model of AC electric point motor, which satisfies the conditions of adequacy was built. Practical value. On the basis of the constructed model we can study the AC motor in various mode of operation, record and analyze current curve, as a response to various changes

  13. Impossibility of an acyclic relativistic electric motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spavieri, G [Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Cavalleri, G [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Spinelli, G [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica Applicata

    1981-02-11

    The relativistic torque acting on a circuit carrying a current and having a uniform translatory motion in a constant and uniform electric field would seem to suggest the possibility of an acyclic relativistic electric motor. However, the net effect on the side parallel to the rotation axis is exactly balanced by the variation of the angular momentum (in the case of an insulating circuit transporting electric charges) or by the external moment due to the magnetic field (in the case of a conducting circuit) acting on the two sides perpendicular to the rotation axis.

  14. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  15. Nonlinear analysis of field distribution in electric motor with periodicity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabrowski, M M; Sikora, J

    1981-01-01

    Numerical analysis of electromagnetic field distribution in linear motion tubular electric motor has been performed with the aid of finite element method. Two Fortran programmes for the solution of DBBF and BF large linear symmetric equation systems have been developed for purposes of this analysis. A new iterative algorithm, taking into account iron nonlinearity and periodicity conditions, has been introduced. Final results of the analysis in the form of induction diagrammes and motor driving force are directly useful for motor designers.

  16. Impact self-excited vibrations of linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, V. Ph.

    2010-08-01

    Impact self-exciting vibration modes in a linear motor of a monorail car are studied. Existence and stability conditions of self-exciting vibrations are found. Ways of avoiding the vibrations are discussed.

  17. Industry agreement on efficient electrical motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnyder, G.

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive final report presents the results of a project carried out on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) and the Swiss Automation Pool (SAP) concerning the efficiency of electrical drives. The main goal of the project was to conclude a target agreement between the federal government and the Swiss electric motors/drives industry. This involves the promotion of the highest, 'eff1' energy-efficiency category of the three categories defined by the European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (CEMP). The report presents the findings of the project and recommends the banning of the use of motors in the lowest, 'eff3' category. Comparisons are made between the CEMP standards and further standards and promotion programmes in the USA and in Great Britain. Associated measures to be taken to aid the promotion of the drive standard are discussed

  18. Experimental development of an ultrasonic linear motor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    M'Boungui, G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available the stator structure. In contrast to traditional travelling wave ultrasonic motors, which require two modes to be driven 90° out of phase, only one amplifier is required to drive the proposed device. A prototype device was characterised experimentally...

  19. Linear stability analysis in a solid-propellant rocket motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.M.; Kang, K.T.; Yoon, J.K. [Agency for Defense Development, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-01

    Combustion instability in solid-propellant rocket motors depends on the balance between acoustic energy gains and losses of the system. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of the program which predicts the standard longitudinal stability using acoustic modes based on linear stability analysis and T-burner test results of propellants. Commercial ANSYS 5.0A program can be used to calculate the acoustic characteristic of a rocket motor. The linear stability prediction was compared with the static firing test results of rocket motors. (author). 11 refs., 17 figs.

  20. 76 FR 17577 - Increased Scope of Coverage for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Scope of Coverage for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... conservation standards for electric motors. Specifically, DOE seeks information to assist DOE in determining whether to develop energy conservation standards for certain types of electric motors that are currently...

  1. Modelling a linear PM motor including magnetic saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polinder, H.; Slootweg, J.G.; Compter, J.C.; Hoeijmakers, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of linear permanent-magnet (PM) actuators increases in a wide variety of applications because of the high force density, robustness and accuracy. The paper describes the modelling of a linear PM motor applied in, for example, wafer steppers, including magnetic saturation. This is important

  2. Development of an electrically driven molecular motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Colin J; Sykes, E Charles H

    2014-10-01

    For molecules to be used as components in molecular machinery, methods are required that couple individual molecules to external energy sources in order to selectively excite motion in a given direction. While significant progress has been made in the construction of synthetic molecular motors powered by light and by chemical reactions, there are few experimental examples of electrically driven molecular motors. To this end, we pioneered the use of a new, stable and tunable molecular rotor system based on surface-bound thioethers to comprehensively study many aspects of molecular rotation. As biological molecular motors often operate at interfaces, our synthetic system is especially amenable to microscopic interrogation as compared to solution-based systems. Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory, we studied the rotation of surface-bound thioethers, which can be induced either thermally or by electrons from the STM tip in a two-terminal setup. Moreover, the temperature and electron flux can be adjusted to allow each rotational event to be monitored at the molecular scale in real time. This work culminated in the first experimental demonstration of a single-molecule electric motor, where the electrically driven rotation of a butyl methyl sulfide molecule adsorbed on a copper surface could be directionally biased. The direction and rate of the rotation are related to the chirality of both the molecule and the STM tip (which serves as the electrode), illustrating the importance of the symmetry of the metal contacts in atomic-scale electrical devices. Copyright © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Magnetically levitated railway with common reaction rail for a linear motor drive and an electro dynamic side guidance arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, R

    1977-04-07

    The invention concerns a magnetically levitated railway with common reaction rail for the linear motor drive and the electrical side guidance arrangement. While the electro-dynamic hovering process requires a high electrical conductivity of the reaction rails in order to reduce eddy current losses, these should show a relatively high resistance for the asynchronous linear motor to reduce losses of propelling force. These contradictory requirements can be fulfilled for a common reaction rail made of homogeneous material of high electrical conductivity according to the invention, by providing slits at right angles to the driving axis in the part of the reaction rail allocated to the linear motor. Thus the guidance system retains a low ohmic resistance, while the part of the reaction rail allocated to the windings of the linear motor has a relatively low ohmic secondary resistance, by which the border and end effects which reduce the propelling force can be appreciably reduced.

  4. Application of static var compensator on large synchronous motors based on linear optimization control design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, J.; Fath Abadi, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the application of static var compensators, on an electrical distribution network containing two large synchronous motors, one of which is excited via a three-phase thyristor bridge rectifier. The second machine is excited via a diode bridge rectifier. Based on linear optimization control, the measurable feedback signals are applied to the control system loops of static var compensators and the excitation control loop of the first synchronous motor. The phase equations method was used to develop a computer program to model the distribution network. Computer results were obtained to demonstrate the system performance for some abnormal modes of operation. These results show that employing static var compensators based on the linear optimization control design for electrical distribution networks containing large synchronous motors is beneficial and may be considered a first stage of the system design

  5. Electric drive motors for industrial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, K.

    1985-04-01

    In robotized industrial plants it is possible to use electric motors in the technological process and also for control, assembly, transport, testing, and measurements. Particularly suitable for these applications are permanent-magnet d.c. motors. A new special series was developed for industrial robots with hinge joints in kinematic pairs. The complete drive includes thyristors or transistor controls with regulators and, if necessary, a line transformer as well as a servomotor with tachometer and odometer for speed, current, and position control. The drive is coupled to a robot tong through mechanical torque and force converters. In addition to a 0 to 4000 rpm speed regulation, without wobble at low speeds, and a high torque-to-weight ratio for repetitive short-time heavy duty, these low-inertia motors develop high starting and accelerating torques over the entire speed range. They operate from a 1 to O 220 V a.c. line through a rectifier. The motors are totally enclosed, or of open construction for better ventilation. Their windings have class F insulation for operation at ambient temperatures up to 40 C.

  6. Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Howard T.

    1993-01-01

    A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle leviation.

  7. Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, H.T.

    1993-10-19

    A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle levitation. 3 figures.

  8. Dual power, constant speed electric motor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-07-31

    A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level. 6 figs.

  9. Dual power, constant speed electric motor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S.

    1984-01-01

    A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level.

  10. Making a Simple Self-Starting Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok-In; Choi, Jung-In; Hong, Seok-Cheol

    2009-01-01

    A simple electric motor has a problem in that the current applied to the motor per se can rarely trigger its rotation. Usually such motors begin to rotate after the rotor is slightly turned by hand (i.e., manual starting). In a "self-starting" motor, the rotor starts to rotate spontaneously as soon as the current is applied. This paper describes…

  11. Comparative analysis of linear motor geometries for Stirling coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Rajesh V.; Kuzhiveli, Biju T.

    2017-12-01

    Compared to rotary motor driven Stirling coolers, linear motor coolers are characterized by small volume and long life, making them more suitable for space and military applications. The motor design and operational characteristics have a direct effect on the operation of the cooler. In this perspective, ample scope exists in understanding the behavioural description of linear motor systems. In the present work, the authors compare and analyze different moving magnet linear motor geometries to finalize the most favourable one for Stirling coolers. The required axial force in the linear motors is generated by the interaction of magnetic fields of a current carrying coil and that of a permanent magnet. The compact size, commercial availability of permanent magnets and low weight requirement of the system are quite a few constraints for the design. The finite element analysis performed using Maxwell software serves as the basic tool to analyze the magnet movement, flux distribution in the air gap and the magnetic saturation levels on the core. A number of material combinations are investigated for core before finalizing the design. The effect of varying the core geometry on the flux produced in the air gap is also analyzed. The electromagnetic analysis of the motor indicates that the permanent magnet height ought to be taken in such a way that it is under the influence of electromagnetic field of current carrying coil as well as the outer core in the balanced position. This is necessary so that sufficient amount of thrust force is developed by efficient utilisation of the air gap flux density. Also, the outer core ends need to be designed to facilitate enough room for the magnet movement under the operating conditions.

  12. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  13. Contact analysis and experimental investigation of a linear ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qibao; Yao, Zhiyuan; Li, Xiang

    2017-11-01

    The effects of surface roughness are not considered in the traditional motor model which fails to reflect the actual contact mechanism between the stator and slider. An analytical model for calculating the tangential force of linear ultrasonic motor is proposed in this article. The presented model differs from the previous spring contact model, the asperities in contact between stator and slider are considered. The influences of preload and exciting voltage on tangential force in moving direction are analyzed. An experiment is performed to verify the feasibility of this proposed model by comparing the simulation results with the measured data. Moreover, the proposed model and spring model are compared. The results reveal that the proposed model is more accurate than spring model. The discussion is helpful for designing and modeling of linear ultrasonic motors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Force analysis of linear induction motor for magnetic levitation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, A.A.; Nemlioglu, C.; Sahin, F.; Verdel, A.J.D.; Compter, J.C.; Lomonova, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the analyses of thrust and normal forces of linear induction motor (LIM) segments which are implemented in a rotating ring system. To obtain magnetic levitation in a cost effective and sustainable way, decoupled control of thrust and normal forces is required. This study includes

  15. Thermally driven molecular linear motors - A molecular dynamics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    We conduct molecular dynamics simulations of a molecular linear motor consisting of coaxial carbon nanotubes with a long outer carbon nanotube confining and guiding the motion of an inner short, capsule-like nanotube. The simulations indicate that the motion of the capsule can be controlled by th...

  16. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF LINEAR ULTRASONIC MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana CHIVU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the main modeling elements as produced by means of thefinite element method of linear ultrasonic motors. Hence, first the model is designed and then a modaland harmonic analysis are carried out in view of outlining the main outcomes

  17. Resettable binary latch mechanism for use with paraffin linear motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Daryl; Tibbitts, Scott

    1991-01-01

    A new resettable Binary Latch Mechanism was developed utilizing a paraffin actuator as the motor. This linear actuator alternately latches between extended and retracted positions, maintaining either position with zero power consumption. The design evolution and kinematics of the latch mechanism are presented, as well as the development problems and lessons that were learned.

  18. Evaluation of linear induction motor characteristics : the Yamamura model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-30

    The Yamamura theory of the double-sided linear induction motor (LIM) excited by a constant current source is discussed in some detail. The report begins with a derivation of thrust and airgap power using the method of vector potentials and theorem of...

  19. Force measurements on a shielded coreless linear permanent magnet motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluk, K.J.W.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares force measurements on a shielded coreless linear permanent magnet motor with 2-D models. A 2-D semianalytical modeling method is applied, which is based on Fourier modeling and includes force calculations. The semianalytical modeling correctly predicts the behavior found in the

  20. Bidirectional electrostatic linear shuffle motor with two degrees of freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Fujita, H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2005-01-01

    We report on an electrostatic linear inchworm micromotor with two translational degrees-of-freedom. The motor employs built-in mechanical leverage to convert normal deflection of a flexible cross-plate into a small in-plane step and four electrostatic clamps to enable bidirectional inchworm motion

  1. Magnetic shielding for coreless linear permanent magnet motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluk, K.J.W.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the local reduction of the magnetic flux density by means of magnetic shielding. Using a spatial frequency description, a 2-D semi-analytical periodic model is obtained for a coreless single-sided linear permanent magnet motor. The magnetic shield is included in the modeling

  2. Direct Torque Control With Feedback Linearization for Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lascu, Cristian; Jafarzadeh, Saeed; Fadali, Sami M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a direct-torque-controlled (DTC) induction motor (IM) drive that employs feedback linearization and sliding-mode control (SMC). A new feedback linearization approach is proposed, which yields a decoupled linear IM model with two state variables: torque and stator flux magnitude....... This intuitive linear model is used to implement a DTC-type controller that preserves all DTC advantages and eliminates its main drawback, the flux and torque ripple. Robust, fast, and ripple-free control is achieved by using SMC with proportional control in the vicinity of the sliding surface. SMC assures...... in simulations. The sliding controller is compared with a linear DTC scheme with and without feedback linearization. Extensive experimental results for a sensorless IM drive validate the proposed solution....

  3. System for Monitoring and Analysis of Vibrations at Electric Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Rață; Mihai Rață

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of vibration occurring at the electric motors is of paramount importance to ensure their optimal functioning. This paper presents a monitoring system of vibrations occurring at two different types of electric motors, using a piezoelectric accelerometer (ICP 603C11) and a data acquisition board from National Instruments (NI 6009). Vibration signals taken from different parts of electric motors are transferred to computer through the acquisition board. A virtual...

  4. Evaluation and comparison of electric propulsion motors for submarines

    OpenAIRE

    Harbour, Joel P.

    2001-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document The Navy has announced its conviction to make its warships run on electric power through the decision to make its newest line of destroyers propelled with an electric propulsion system. Several ship construction firms and electric motor manufacturers are thus striving to develop enabling technology, including high power density motors. The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate some of the proposed motor designs for use in a submarine. Permanen...

  5. Presentation of electric motor and motor control technology for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles; Denki jidosha hybrid sha yo motor oyobi motor seigyo gijutsu no shokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsudaira, N.; Masakik, R.; Tajima, F. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    The authors have developed a motor drive system for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. This system consists of a permanent magnet type synchronous motor, an inverter using insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and a controller based on a single-chip microcomputer. To achieve a compact and light weight synchronous motor, an internal permanent magnet type rotor structure was designed. This paper presents motor control technology for electric vehicles, such as an optimization method of field weakening control and a new current control method. (author)

  6. Linear electric machines, drives, and MAGLEVs handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2013-01-01

    Based on author Ion Boldea's 40 years of experience and the latest research, Linear Electric Machines, Drives, and Maglevs Handbook provides a practical and comprehensive resource on the steady improvement in this field. The book presents in-depth reviews of basic concepts and detailed explorations of complex subjects, including classifications and practical topologies, with sample results based on an up-to-date survey of the field. Packed with case studies, this state-of-the-art handbook covers topics such as modeling, steady state, and transients as well as control, design, and testing of li

  7. Linear Motor Motion Control Experiment System Design Based on LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuixian He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the needs of experimental training of electrical information industry, a linear motor motion experiment system based on LabVIEW was developed. This system is based on the STM32F103ZET6 system processor controller, a state signal when the motor moves through the grating encoder feedback controller to form a closed loop, through the RS232 serial port communication with the host computer, the host computer is designed in the LabVIEW interactive environment monitoring software. Combined with the modular design concept proposed overall program, given the detailed hardware circuit, targeted for the software function design, to achieve man-machine interface. The system control of high accuracy, good stability, meet the training requirements for laboratory equipment, but also as a reference embodiment of the linear motor monitoring system.

  8. Thrust Reduction of Magnetic Levitation Vehicle Driven by Long Stator Linear Synchronous Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Tsun Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The propulsion technology of long stator linear synchronous motors is used to drive high-speed maglev trains. The linear synchronous motor stator is divided into sections placed on guideway. The electric power supplies to stator sections in which the train just passes in change-step mode for long-distance operation. However, a thrust drop will be caused by change-step machinery for driving magnetic vehicle. According to the train speed and vehicle data, the change-step mode has three types of operation, namely premature commutation, simultaneous commutation, and late commutation. Each type of operation has a different thrust drop which can be affected by several parameters such as jerk, running speed, motor section length, and vehicle data. This paper focuses on determining the thrust drop of the change-step mode. The study results of this paper can be used to improve the operation system of high-speed maglev trains.

  9. Application of high temperature superconductivity to electric motor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, J.S.; Sharma, D.K.; Jordan, H.E.; Edick, J.D.; Schiferl, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on progress made in a joint project conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute and Reliance Electric Company to study the possible application of High Temperature Super Conductors (HTSC), materials to electric motors. Specific applications are identified which can be beneficially served by motors constructed with HTSC materials. A summary is presented of the components and design issues related to HTSC motors designed for these applications. During the course of this development program, a three tier HTSC wire performance specification has evolved. The three specifications and the rationale behind these three levels of performance are explained. A description of a test motor that has been constructed to verify the electromagnetic analytical techniques of HTSC motor design is given. Finally, a DC motor with an HTSC field coil is described. Measured data with the motor running is presented showing that the motor is operating with the field winding in the superconducting state

  10. Advanced analysis technique for the evaluation of linear alternators and linear motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Jeffrey C.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the mathematical analysis of linear alternator and linear motor devices and designs is described, and an example of its use is included. The technique seeks to surpass other methods of analysis by including more rigorous treatment of phenomena normally omitted or coarsely approximated such as eddy braking, non-linear material properties, and power losses generated within structures surrounding the device. The technique is broadly applicable to linear alternators and linear motors involving iron yoke structures and moving permanent magnets. The technique involves the application of Amperian current equivalents to the modeling of the moving permanent magnet components within a finite element formulation. The resulting steady state and transient mode field solutions can simultaneously account for the moving and static field sources within and around the device.

  11. Modeling and analysis of mover gaps in tubular moving-magnet linear oscillating motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong LUO

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A tubular moving-magnet linear oscillating motor (TMMLOM has merits of high efficiency and excellent dynamic capability. To enhance the thrust performance, quasi-Halbach permanent magnet (PM arrays are arranged on its mover in the application of a linear electro-hydrostatic actuator in more electric aircraft. The arrays are assembled by several individual segments, which lead to gaps between them inevitably. To investigate the effects of the gaps on the radial magnetic flux density and the machine thrust in this paper, an analytical model is built considering both axial and radial gaps. The model is validated by finite element simulations and experimental results. Distributions of the magnetic flux are described in condition of different sizes of radial and axial gaps. Besides, the output force is also discussed in normal and end windings. Finally, the model has demonstrated that both kinds of gaps have a negative effect on the thrust, and the linear motor is more sensitive to radial ones. Keywords: Air-gap flux density, Linear motor, Mover gaps, Quasi-Halbach array, Thrust output, Tubular moving-magnet linear oscillating motor (TMMLOM

  12. Analysis of the linear induction motor in transient operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, G; Rotondale, N; Scarano, M

    1987-05-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of a bilateral linear induction motor in transient operation. We have considered an impressed voltage one-dimensional model which takes into account end effects. The real winding distribution of the armature has been represented as a lumped parameters system. By using the space vectors methodology, the partial differential equation of the sheet is solved bythe variable separation method. Therefore it's possible to arrange a system of ordinary differential equations where the unknown quantities are the space vectors of the air-gap flux density and sheet currents. Finally, we have analyzed the characteristic quantities for a no-load starting of small power motors.

  13. A novel linear switched reluctance motor for railway transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daldaban, Ferhat; Ustkoyuncu, Nurettin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of a new linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM) structure, especially suitable for high-speed railway systems. The new model has a double active stator configuration and provides high force for many applications with low cost. The characteristics of the LSRM are obtained by using finite element analysis (FEA) and analytical calculations. The results of the FEA and analytical calculations are presented, and compared with experimental results. In addition, a classical double-sided LSRM (DSLSRM) is modeled with the same specifications of the new motor structure and the results are compared.

  14. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-01

    With the push to reduce component volumes, lower costs, and reduce weight without sacrificing performance or reliability, the challenges associated with thermal management increase for power electronics and electric motors. Thermal management for electric motors will become more important as the automotive industry continues the transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. The transition to more electrically dominant propulsion systems leads to higher-power duty cycles for electric drive systems. Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform, and as thermal management improves, there will be a direct trade-off between motor performance, efficiency, cost, and the sizing of electric motors to operate within the thermal constraints. The goal of this research project is to support broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management. Work in FY15 focused on two areas related to motor thermal management: passive thermal performance and active convective cooling. Passive thermal performance emphasized the thermal impact of materials and thermal interfaces among materials within an assembled motor. The research tasks supported the publication of test methods and data for thermal contact resistances and direction-dependent thermal conductivity within an electric motor. Active convective cooling focused on measuring convective heat-transfer coefficients using automatic transmission fluid (ATF). Data for average convective heat transfer coefficients for direct impingement of ATF jets was published. Also, experimental hardware for mapping local-scale and stator-scale convective heat transfer coefficients for ATF jet impingement were developed.

  15. Advanced electric motor technology: Flux mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, George B., III; Campbell, Warren; Brantley, Larry W.; Dean, Garvin

    1992-01-01

    This report contains the assumptions, mathematical models, design methodology, and design points involved with the design of an electromechanical actuator (EMA) suitable for directing the thrust vector of a large MSFC/NASA launch vehicle. Specifically the design of such an actuator for use on the upcoming liquid fueled National Launch System (NLS) is considered culminating in a point design of both the servo system and the electric motor needed. A major thrust of the work is in selecting spur gear and roller screw reduction ratios to achieve simultaneously wide bandwidth, maximum power transfer, and disturbance rejection while meeting specified horsepower requirements at a given stroking speed as well as a specified maximum stall force. An innovative feedback signal is utilized in meeting these diverse objectives.

  16. Linear motor driven Stirling coolers for military and commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and performance of a miniature, closed cycle, split stirling, cryogenic cooler that provides 1 watt of cooling at 80 K. The compressor uses two opposed linear motors to drive opposed pistons and the expander uses a pneumatically driven displacer. A single electronics module and compressor has been developed to drive three different expanders that have nominal cold cylinder diameters of 5, 8 and 13 mm

  17. Generate stepper motor linear speed profile in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoychitch, M. Y.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of realization of linear speed profile of stepper motors in real time. We considered the general case when changes of speed in the phases of acceleration and deceleration are different. The new and practical algorithm of the trajectory planning is given. The algorithms of the real time speed control which are suitable for realization to the microcontroller and FPGA circuits are proposed. The practical realization one of these algorithms, using Arduino platform, is given also.

  18. Wavelet Based Diagnosis and Protection of Electric Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M. Abdesh Shafiel Kafiey; Rahman, M. Azizur

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, a short review of conventional Fourier transforms and new wavelet based faults diagnostic and protection techniques for electric motors is presented. The new hybrid wavelet packet transform (WPT) and neural network (NN) based faults diagnostic algorithm is developed and implemented for electric motors. The proposed WPT and NN

  19. Alternating-Current Motor Drive for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Rippel, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    New electric drive controls speed of a polyphase as motor by varying frequency of inverter output. Closed-loop current-sensing circuit automatically adjusts frequency of voltage-controlled oscillator that controls inverter frequency, to limit starting and accelerating surges. Efficient inverter and ac motor would give electric vehicles extra miles per battery charge.

  20. Coil assembly for use with an electric motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Coil assemblies ( 2 ) of electric motors ( 1 ) produce heat that can be a disadvantage when needing the electric motor ( 1 ) for high precision positioning applications. To reduce the negative impact of the heat, the coils ( 26 a , 26 b , 26 c) are arranged in an internally cooled housing ( 21 ).

  1. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. Design and optimization of a modal- independent linear ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengli; Yao, Zhiyuan

    2014-03-01

    To simplify the design of the linear ultrasonic motor (LUSM) and improve its output performance, a method of modal decoupling for LUSMs is proposed in this paper. The specific embodiment of this method is decoupling of the traditional LUSM stator's complex vibration into two simple vibrations, with each vibration implemented by one vibrator. Because the two vibrators are designed independently, their frequencies can be tuned independently and frequency consistency is easy to achieve. Thus, the method can simplify the design of the LUSM. Based on this method, a prototype modal- independent LUSM is designed and fabricated. The motor reaches its maximum thrust force of 47 N, maximum unloaded speed of 0.43 m/s, and maximum power of 7.85 W at applied voltage of 200 Vpp. The motor's structure is then optimized by controlling the difference between the two vibrators' resonance frequencies to reach larger output speed, thrust, and power. The optimized results show that when the frequency difference is 73 Hz, the output force, speed, and power reach their maximum values. At the input voltage of 200 Vpp, the motor reaches its maximum thrust force of 64.2 N, maximum unloaded speed of 0.76 m/s, maximum power of 17.4 W, maximum thrust-weight ratio of 23.7, and maximum efficiency of 39.6%.

  3. Improvement of the thermal behavior of linear motors through insulation layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, I. U.; Lee, C. M.; Chung, W. J.; Choi, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    Linear motors can drive a linear motion without intermediate gears, screws or crank shafts. Linear motors can successfully replace ball lead screw in machine tools, because they have a high velocity, acceleration and good positioning accuracy. On the other hand, linear motors emit large amounts of heat and have low efficiency. In this paper, heat sources of a synchronous linear motor with high velocity and force are measured and analyzed. To improve the thermal stiffness of the linear motor, an insulation layer with low thermal conductivity is inserted between cooler and machine table. Some effects of the insulation layer are presented

  4. High-Tc superconducting electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiferl, R.; Stein, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the advantages and limitations of using superconductors in motors are discussed. A synchronous motor with a high temperature superconducting field winding for pump and fan drive applications is described and some of its unique design features are identified. A 10,000 horsepower superconducting motor design is presented. The critical field and current density requirements for high temperature superconducting wire in motors is discussed. Finally, recent progress in superconducting wire performance is presented

  5. Dynamic Response Analysis of Linear Pulse Motor with Closed Loop Control

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 行雄; 山田, 一

    1989-01-01

    A linear pulse motor can translate digital signals into linear positions without a gear system. It is important to predict a dynamic response in order to the motor that has the good performance. In this report the maximum pulse rate and the maximum speed on the linear pulse motor are obtained by using the sampling theory.

  6. Preliminary Design of Reluctance Motors for Light Electric Vehicles Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIFA, V.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the aspects regarding FEM analysis of a reluctant motor for direct driving of the light electric vehicles. The reluctant motor take into study is of special construction suitable for direct drive of a light electric vehicle. It is an inverse radial reluctant motor, with a fixed stator mounted on front wheel shaft and an external toothed rotor fixed on the front wheel itself. A short presentation of preliminary design is continued with the FEM analysis in order to provide the optimal geometry of the motor and adequate windings.

  7. Electric motors in the focus; Elektroantrieb im Focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, Jan

    2013-05-15

    In August 2013, the first electric series production model of Ford comes to the market: the Focus Electric. A 23-kWh lithium-ion battery supplies the 107 kilowatts (145 hp) electric motor of the Focus Electric with energy. This battery enables a range of 162 kilometers and a limited top speed of 136 kilometers per hour. However, with 40,000 Euro this electric-powered vehicles is too expensive.

  8. High Precision Piezoelectric Linear Motors for Operations at Cryogenic Temperatures and Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Carman, G.; Stam, M.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sen, A.; Henry, P.; Bearman, G.; Moacanin, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory evaluated the use of an electromechanical device for optically positioning a mirror system during the pre-project phase of the Pluto-Fast-Flyby (PFF) mission. The device under consideration was a piezoelectric driven linear motor functionally dependent upon a time varying electric field which induces displacements ranging from submicrons to millimeters with positioning accuracy within nanometers. Using a control package, the mirror system provides image motion compensation and mosaicking capabilities. While this device offers unique advantages, there were concerns pertaining to its operational capabilities for the PFF mission. The issues include irradiation effects and thermal concerns. A literature study indicated that irradiation effects will not significantly impact the linear motor's operational characteristics. On the other hand, thermal concerns necessitated an in depth study.

  9. Novel Synchronous Linear and Rotatory Micro Motors Based on Polymer Magnets with Organic and Inorganic Insulation Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas WALDSCHIK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report on the development of several synchronous motors with rotatory or linear movements. The synchronous micro motors are brushless DC motors or stepper motors with electrically controlled commutation consisting of a stator and a rotor. The rotor is mounted onto the stator and is adjusted by an integrated guidance. Inside the stator different coil systems are realized, like double layer sector coils or special nested coils. The coil systems can be controlled by three or six phases depending on the operational mode. Furthermore, inorganic insulation layers were used in order to reduce the thickness of the system. By this means four layers of electrical conductors can be realized especially for the 2D devices. The smallest diameter of the rotatory motor is 1 mm and could be successfully driven.

  10. System for Monitoring and Analysis of Vibrations at Electric Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rață

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of vibration occurring at the electric motors is of paramount importance to ensure their optimal functioning. This paper presents a monitoring system of vibrations occurring at two different types of electric motors, using a piezoelectric accelerometer (ICP 603C11 and a data acquisition board from National Instruments (NI 6009. Vibration signals taken from different parts of electric motors are transferred to computer through the acquisition board. A virtual instrument that allows real-time monitoring and Fourier analysis of signals from the vibration sensor was implemented in LabVIEW.

  11. NASTRAN buckling study of a linear induction motor reaction rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    NASTRAN was used to study problems associated with the installation of a linear induction motor reaction rail test track. Specific problems studied include determination of the critical axial compressive buckling stress and establishment of the lateral stiffness of the reaction rail under combined loads. NASTRAN results were compared with experimentally obtained values and satisfactory agreement was obtained. The reaction rail was found to buckle at an axial compressive stress of 11,400 pounds per square inch. The results of this investigation were used to select procedures for installation of the reaction rail.

  12. Cortical Contribution to Linear, Non-linear and Frequency Components of Motor Variability Control during Standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König Ignasiak, Niklas; Habermacher, Lars; Taylor, William R; Singh, Navrag B

    2017-01-01

    Motor variability is an inherent feature of all human movements and reflects the quality of functional task performance. Depending on the requirements of the motor task, the human sensory-motor system is thought to be able to flexibly govern the appropriate level of variability. However, it remains unclear which neurophysiological structures are responsible for the control of motor variability. In this study, we tested the contribution of cortical cognitive resources on the control of motor variability (in this case postural sway) using a dual-task paradigm and furthermore observed potential changes in control strategy by evaluating Ia-afferent integration (H-reflex). Twenty healthy subjects were instructed to stand relaxed on a force plate with eyes open and closed, as well as while trying to minimize sway magnitude and performing a "subtracting-sevens" cognitive task. In total 25 linear and non-linear parameters were used to evaluate postural sway, which were combined using a Principal Components procedure. Neurophysiological response of Ia-afferent reflex loop was quantified using the Hoffman reflex. In order to assess the contribution of the H-reflex on the sway outcome in the different standing conditions multiple mixed-model ANCOVAs were performed. The results suggest that subjects were unable to further minimize their sway, despite actively focusing to do so. The dual-task had a destabilizing effect on PS, which could partly (by 4%) be counter-balanced by increasing reliance on Ia-afferent information. The effect of the dual-task was larger than the protective mechanism of increasing Ia-afferent information. We, therefore, conclude that cortical structures, as compared to peripheral reflex loops, play a dominant role in the control of motor variability.

  13. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, Herbert O [Los Alamos, NM; Feldman, William C [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-06-10

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  14. Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics in Linear Compressors Driven by Linear Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangyuan

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of dynamic characteristics of the mechatronics system is of great significance for the linear motor design and control. Steady-state nonlinear response characteristics of a linear compressor are investigated theoretically based on the linearized and nonlinear models. First, the influence factors considering the nonlinear gas force load were analyzed. Then, a simple linearized model was set up to analyze the influence on the stroke and resonance frequency. Finally, the nonlinear model was set up to analyze the effects of piston mass, spring stiffness, driving force as an example of design parameter variation. The simulating results show that the stroke can be obtained by adjusting the excitation amplitude, frequency and other adjustments, the equilibrium position can be adjusted by adjusting the DC input, and to make the more efficient operation, the operating frequency must always equal to the resonance frequency.

  15. Commercializing a U.S. piezoceramic linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Rick W.

    2000-06-01

    A small low-cost piezoceramic linear motor has been developed in the US and is being commercialized by EDO Corporation, working with a leading motion control OEM and with a prominent US corporate research laboratory. First generation motor design has emphasized high displacement at up to 200mm per second velocity with 3.5 Newtons force with high resolution, short time constant and a 15 volt power supply at a cost of less than 100 dollars. Motor dimensions of 30 by 50 by 4 mm allow broad configuration choices, al hidden within the motion control slide. The EDO approach was to build on its core competence in high reliability electroceramic material engineering and production, and to use a strategy of back-integrating, or outsourcing of recent advances outside Edo in piezoceramics, while forward- integrating into specific emerging applications known intimately by the OEM in the market. The strategy provided design focus that has led to a cost-effective advance in 'solid-state actuation and control'. This is considered a classic case of successful industrial integration of an enabling technology across organizations in order to access the needed mix of technology for development of an innovative and competitive solution.

  16. Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

  17. A finite element code for electric motor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. Warren

    1994-01-01

    FEMOT is a finite element program for solving the nonlinear magnetostatic problem. This version uses nonlinear, Newton first order elements. The code can be used for electric motor design and analysis. FEMOT can be embedded within an optimization code that will vary nodal coordinates to optimize the motor design. The output from FEMOT can be used to determine motor back EMF, torque, cogging, and magnet saturation. It will run on a PC and will be available to anyone who wants to use it.

  18. Bond Graph Modelling for Fault Detection and Isolation of an Ultrasonic Linear Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabrouk KHEMLICHE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Bond Graph modeling, simulation and monitoring of ultrasonic linear motors are presented. Only the vibration of piezoelectric ceramics and stator will be taken into account. Contact problems between stator and rotor are not treated here. So, standing and travelling waves will be briefly presented since the majority of the motors use another wave type to generate the stator vibration and thus obtain the elliptic trajectory of the points on the surface of the stator in the first time. Then, electric equivalent circuit will be presented with the aim for giving a general idea of another way of graphical modelling of the vibrator introduced and developed. The simulations of an ultrasonic linear motor are then performed and experimental results on a prototype built at the laboratory are presented. Finally, validation of the Bond Graph method for modelling is carried out, comparing both simulation and experiment results. This paper describes the application of the FDI approach to an electrical system. We demonstrate the FDI effectiveness with real data collected from our automotive test. We introduce the analysis of the problem involved in the faults localization in this process. We propose a method of fault detection applied to the diagnosis and to determine the gravity of a detected fault. We show the possibilities of application of the new approaches to the complex system control.

  19. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M.

    1996-03-01

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry's large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs

  20. Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Tyler, Tony R.; Piper, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight high efficiency electric motors are needed across a wide range of space applications from - thrust vector actuator control for launch and flight applications to - general vehicle, base camp habitat and experiment control for various mechanisms to - robotics for various stationary and mobile space exploration missions. QM Power?s Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors have slowly proven themselves to be a leading motor technology in this area; winning a NASA Phase II for "Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors and Actuators for Low Temperature Mobility and Robotics Applications" a US Army Phase II SBIR for "Improved Robot Actuator Motors for Medical Applications", an NSF Phase II SBIR for "Novel Low-Cost Electric Motors for Variable Speed Applications" and a DOE SBIR Phase I for "High Efficiency Commercial Refrigeration Motors" Parallel Path Magnetic Technology obtains the benefits of using permanent magnets while minimizing the historical trade-offs/limitations found in conventional permanent magnet designs. The resulting devices are smaller, lower weight, lower cost and have higher efficiency than competitive permanent magnet and non-permanent magnet designs. QM Power?s motors have been extensively tested and successfully validated by multiple commercial and aerospace customers and partners as Boeing Research and Technology. Prototypes have been made between 0.1 and 10 HP. They are also in the process of scaling motors to over 100kW with their development partners. In this paper, Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors will be discussed; specifically addressing their higher efficiency, higher power density, lighter weight, smaller physical size, higher low end torque, wider power zone, cooler temperatures, and greater reliability with lower cost and significant environment benefit for the same peak output power compared to typically motors. A further discussion on the inherent redundancy of these motors for space applications will be provided.

  1. Visual construction of characteristic equations of linear electric circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Kostyukov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A visual identification method with application of partial circuits is developed for characteristic equation coefficients of transients in linear electric circuits. The method is based on interrelationship between the roots of algebraic polynomial and its coefficients. The method is illustrated with an example of a third-order linear electric circuit.

  2. A flight simulator control system using electric torque motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, R. O.; Wagner, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Control systems are required in flight simulators to provide representative stick and rudder pedal characteristics. A system has been developed that uses electric dc torque motors instead of the more common hydraulic actuators. The torque motor system overcomes certain disadvantages of hydraulic systems, such as high cost, high power consumption, noise, oil leaks, and safety problems. A description of the torque motor system is presented, including both electrical and mechanical design as well as performance characteristics. The system develops forces sufficiently high for most simulations, and is physically small and light enough to be used in most motion-base cockpits.

  3. Cooling of Electric Motors Used for Propulsion on SCEPTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Robert; Dubois, Authur; Derlaga, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of Electric Power: Reduced energy consumption, Lower emissions, Less noise. Traction motors: Permanent magnet, Synchronous, High torque at low rotational speeds, High power density, (High concentration of heat). Annular inlet: Very compatible with PM motors, (Provides cooling where needed, No need for complicated ducting, Leads to a larger motor diameter which is beneficial for motor torque) Effect of prop wash on heat transfer coefficients: Assumed propeller induced turbulence would increase heat transfer coefficients, Holmes, Obara Yip reported 'propeller slipstream showed little if any apparent effect of the slip stream', Derlaga @ LaRC also found little change in heat transfer in the wake of the propeller.

  4. Multipole superconducting electric motors for ship propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thullen, P.; Keim, T.A.; Minervini, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    While a great deal of attention has been paid to two-pole superconducting synchronous machines, very little analysis of low speed, multipole superconducting synchronous machines has been done. Such machines may prove desirable as drive motors in ship drive systems. Results are presented of an analysis which assumes a motor of sufficient size that the airgap may be considered to be flat. A power output expression is given which shows the effects of machine geometry and superconductor characteristics on machine size. Based on this expression, a 40,000 hp 120 rpm motor is sized, and the resulting machine is compared with a conventional ship drive motor. The comparison illustrates possible size reductions through the application of superconductivity

  5. Slot Optimization Design of Induction Motor for Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yiming; Zhu, Changqing; Wang, Xiuhe

    2018-01-01

    Slot design of induction motor has a great influence on its performance. The RMxprt module based on magnetic circuit method can be used to analyze the influence of rotor slot type on motor characteristics and optimize slot parameters. In this paper, the authors take an induction motor of electric vehicle for a typical example. The first step of the design is to optimize the rotor slot by RMxprt, and then compare the main performance of the motor before and after the optimization through Ansoft Maxwell 2D. After that, the combination of optimum slot type and the optimum parameters are obtained. The results show that the power factor and the starting torque of the optimized motor have been improved significantly. Furthermore, the electric vehicle works at a better running status after the optimization.

  6. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Nadel, S. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  7. An electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper motor fabricated by vertical trench isolation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Cordero, Mauricio; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    We present the design, microfabrication and characterization of an electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper micromotor constructed with vertical trench isolation technology. This suitable technology was used to create a monolithic stepper motor with high-aspect-ratio poles and an integrated 3-phase electrical network in the bulk of a standard single-crystal silicon wafer. The shuttle of the stepper motor is suspended by a flexure to avoid any mechanical contact during operation, enhancing the precision, repeatability and reliability of the stepping motion. The prototype is capable of a maximum travel of +/−26 µm (52 µm) at an actuation voltage of 30 V and a step size of 1.4 µm during a half-stepping sequence

  8. An electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper motor fabricated by vertical trench isolation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Cordero, Mauricio; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2009-07-01

    We present the design, microfabrication and characterization of an electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper micromotor constructed with vertical trench isolation technology. This suitable technology was used to create a monolithic stepper motor with high-aspect-ratio poles and an integrated 3-phase electrical network in the bulk of a standard single-crystal silicon wafer. The shuttle of the stepper motor is suspended by a flexure to avoid any mechanical contact during operation, enhancing the precision, repeatability and reliability of the stepping motion. The prototype is capable of a maximum travel of +/-26 µm (52 µm) at an actuation voltage of 30 V and a step size of 1.4 µm during a half-stepping sequence. This work was presented in part at the 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME), 28-30 September 2008, Aachen, Germany.

  9. MODELING OF OPERATION OF COAXIAL-LINEAR MOTORS WITH AXIAL AND RADIAL DIRECTIONS OF MAGNETIZATION OF PERMANENT MAGNETS IN DYNAMIC MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Golenkov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental investigations of the amplitude, phase and inertia-power frequency characteristics of two types of coaxial-linear electric motors of back-and-forth motion with permanent magnets, which magnetization vector is directed axially and radially relative to the axis of the runner are carried out. The comparative analysis of characteristics of these motors is presented.

  10. Apparatus for deploying and energizing submersible electric motor downhole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, S.E.; Dwiggins, J.L.; Brookbank, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for deploying and energizing a submergible electric motor downhole. It comprises a cable socket assembly and a cable connecting-and-sealing chamber assembly adapted to be arranged seriatim in the path of cable means and the motor, the assemblies having first and second housings, respectively, means for connecting a lower end of the first housing to an upper end of the second housing, a lower end of the second housing being adapted for connection to the motor, the cable socket assembly having an attachment portion including means for attaching a weight-bearing cable of the cable means to the first housing via a breakaway connection, the first housing having a passage therein adapted to pass an electrical cable of the cable means to the second housing, the second housing being divided by a body therein into first and second chambers sealed from each other, the first chamber being adapted to communicate sealingly with the passage and the second chamber being adapted to communicate sealingly with the interior of the motor, a first set of electrical conductors in the first chamber and a second set of electrical conductors in the second chamber, the body having feed-through means for electrically interconnecting conductors of the first set with corresponding conductors of the second set, the conductors of the first set having electrical connector parts adapted to connect releasably with corresponding electrical connector parts of the electrical cable, and the conductors of the second set having electrical connector parts adapted to connect with corresponding electrical connector parts of the motor, each of the chambers being adapted to be filled with fluid to exclude well fluid therefrom

  11. Electric wheel hub motor; Elektrischer Radnabenmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeninger, Michael; Kock, Alexander [IFAM Bremen (Germany); Horch, Felix [IFAM Bremen (Germany). Komponentenentwicklung; Pleteit, Hermann [IFAM Bremen (Germany). Abt. Giessereitechnologie und Komponentenentwicklung

    2012-02-15

    The bundled competences of the participating Fraunhofer Institutes have made it possible to develop a wheel hub motor that has essentially overcome currently existing technical hurdles, enabling its use in a vehicle. In addition to direct technical challenges such as sealing against external influences, high bearing stiffness requirements, necessary high torque densities and simple integration in the chassis, the safety aspects required by modern vehicles were also taken into account. A drive system that guarantees safe driving states, even in the case of malfunction, was developed through the combination of recuperative braking with a classic mechanical braking system and redundant motor design. (orig.)

  12. Power Requirements Determined for High-Power-Density Electric Motors for Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dexter; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    Future advanced aircraft fueled by hydrogen are being developed to use electric drive systems instead of gas turbine engines for propulsion. Current conventional electric motor power densities cannot match those of today s gas turbine aircraft engines. However, if significant technological advances could be made in high-power-density motor development, the benefits of an electric propulsion system, such as the reduction of harmful emissions, could be realized.

  13. THE ANALISYS OF RAILWAY MULTI MOTORS ELECTRICAL DRIVE DYNAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Khilmon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of multi motors electrical traction drive dynamic analysis is denoted by its large application in electrical driving railway vehicles. In this paper an analysis is presented for two inducton motors traction drive with frequency inverter, vector control, and speed sensors of each electrical drive. The goal of this work is the analysis of two induction motors electrical drive, taking into account parametric perturbations and also a limited moment of wheel-rail adhesion, by laboratory study and simulation. Because of difference between motor’s parameters, it is necessary for parallel work to select motors with identical resistances and inductive winding. For this purpose the parametric identification method was used for each electrical drive, and also for two parallel motors. The result of identification was used in control setting.The  slippage  of  the  traction  drives  is  difficult  to  reproduce  in  laboratory;  therefore a mathematical modeling and simulation of mechanical part with a traction force restriction, specific for railway transport, were carried out. The suggested simulation is built with account of elastic deformations in kinetic chain, transforming traction force. The model permits to study a dynamic system in various circumstances.The results of laboratory investigations and simulation of dynamic regimes for two motor electrical drives are presented in this article. The results of analysis show, that a minimal difference between any parameters of two motors, parallel connected to convertor, is important for the slippage stability.

  14. Introduction to the Control of Electric Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Frederick

    The fundamentals of electric circuits and electric machines are presented in the text, with an emphasis on the practical operation rather than on mathematical analyses of theories involved. The material contained in the text includes the fundamentals of both D.C. and A.C. circuits together with the principles of magnetism and electro-magnetic…

  15. Energy efficiency improvements in electric motors and drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, P. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate General for Energy; Ameida, A.T. de [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Electrotecnica; Falkner, H. [eds.] [AEA Technolgy, Harwell (United Kingdom). ETSU

    2000-07-01

    This book covers the state of the art of energy-efficient electric motor technologies, which can be used now and in the near future to achieve significant and cost-effective energy savings. Recent developments in advanced motor technologies by some of the largest manufacturers of motors and drives are also presented. Although energy-efficient motor technologies can save a huge amount of electricity, they still have not been widely adopted. The barriers which can hinder the adoption of those technologies are presented. Policies and programmes to promote the large scale penetration of energy-efficient technologies and the market transformation are featured in the book, describing the experiences carried out in different parts of the world. This extensive coverage includes contributions from relevant institutions in the European Union, North America, Latin America, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. (orig.)

  16. Electric Motors for Non-Cryogenic Hybrid Electric and Turboelectric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion concepts for future aircraft to reduce fuel burn, emissions, and noise. Systems studies show that the weight and efficiency of the electric system components need to be improved for this concept to be feasible. However, advances in motor component materials such as soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, conductors, thermal insulation, and structural materials are expected in the coming years, and should improve motor performance. This study investigates several motor types for a one megawatt application, and projects the motor performance benefits of new component materials that might be available in the coming decades.

  17. Electric Motor Considerations for Non-Cryogenic Hybrid Electric and Turboelectric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion concepts for future aircraft to reduce fuel burn, emissions, and noise. Systems studies show that the weight and efficiency of the electric system components need to be improved for this concept to be feasible. However, advances in motor component materials such as soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, conductors, thermal insulation, and structural materials are expected in the coming years, and should improve motor performance. This study investigates several motor types for a one megawatt application, and projects the motor performance benefits of new component materials that might be available in the coming decades.

  18. Cooling of Electric Motors Used for Propulsion on SCEPTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Robert J.; Dubois, Arthur; Derlaga, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing a suite of hybrid-electric propulsion technologies for aircraft. These technologies have the benefit of lower emissions, diminished noise, increased efficiency, and reduced fuel burn. These will provide lower operating costs for aircraft operators. Replacing internal combustion engines with distributed electric propulsion is a keystone of this technology suite, but presents many new problems to aircraft system designers. One of the problems is how to cool these electric motors without adding significant aerodynamic drag, cooling system weight or fan power. This paper discusses the options evaluated for cooling the motors on SCEPTOR (Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology and Operations Research): a project that will demonstrate Distributed Electric Propulsion technology in flight. Options for external and internal cooling, inlet and exhaust locations, ducting and adjustable cowling, and axial and centrifugal fans were evaluated. The final design was based on a trade between effectiveness, simplicity, robustness, mass and performance over a range of ground and flight operation environments.

  19. Implementation of Permanent Magnet Motors in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Elvestad, Eirik

    2008-01-01

    This thesis has studied permanent magnet motors in electric vehicles (EVs) under the assumption that they are tractable due to a low weight and high compactness. The implementation has been investigated through a case study, which resulted in an EV simulation model. The model contains a maximal torque per ampere and a closed-loop field weakening controller. Abstract Faults are a special concern in permanent magnet motors. Fault sources and faulted behavior are addressed separately. The EV mo...

  20. 78 FR 75961 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... Procedures for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... procedures for electric motors to allow currently unregulated motors to be tested by clarifying the test...

  1. Analysis of Wheel Hub Motor Drive Application in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yuechao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of the performance characteristics of centralized and distributed drive electric vehicles, we found that the wheel hub motor drive mode of the electric vehicles with distributed drive have compact structure, high utilization ratio of interior vehicle space, lower center of vehicle gravity, good driving stability, easy intelligent control and many other advantages, hence in line with the new requirements for the development of drive performance of electric vehicles, and distributed drive will be the ultimate mode of electric vehicles in the future.

  2. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin [Kenosha, WI; Habetler, Thomas G [Snellville, GA

    2011-06-07

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  3. Research on High-efficient Remanufacturing Technologies and Application of Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Yang, Xu; Wang, Gen

    2017-09-01

    The energy conservation of electric motor system is the key of industrial energy conservation. With the implementation and acceleration of electric motor energy efficiency improvement plan, more and more electric motors are knocked out. High-efficient remanufacturing of electric motor refers to improving the efficiency of electric motor and recycling the resources by replacing the winding, iron core and other components of electric motor on the basis of the low-efficient/outdated electric motors, which conforms to China’s policy of circular economy and resource recovery. The remanufacturing of electric motor not only maximizes the use of resources, but also reduces the energy consumption generated by reprocessing of cast iron, silicon steel sheet and other materials in dismantling of electric motor. However, structures and iron core materials used in design and manufacture of electric motors are different, and the degrees of wear of electric motors are also different under different operating conditions, which further result in diversified design schemes, increased remanufacturing cost and reduced remanufacturing efficiency. This paper analyzes the key process technologies for remanufacturing of electric motors are researched by analyzing the remanufacturing technologies of electric motors, and presents the feasibility to replace the cast-aluminum rotor with cast-copper rotor in high-efficient remanufacturing process of electric motor.

  4. Nano-Magnets and Additive Manufacturing for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    2014-01-01

    High power density is required for application of electric motors in hybrid electric propulsion. Potential path to achieve high power density in electric motors include advanced materials, lightweight thermal management, lightweight structural concepts, high power density power electronics, and advanced manufacturing. This presentation will focus on two key technologies for achieving high power density, advanced magnets and additive manufacturing. The maximum energy product in current magnets is reaching their theoretical limits as a result of material and process improvements. Future improvements in the maximum energy product for magnets can be achieved through development of nanocomposite magnets combining the hard magnetic phase and soft magnetic phase at the nanoscale level. The presentation will provide an overview of the current state of development for nanocomposite magnets and the future path for doubling the maximum energy product. The other part of the presentation will focus on the role of additive manufacturing in fabrication of high power density electric motors. The presentation will highlight the potential opportunities for applying additive manufacturing to fabricate electric motors.

  5. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  6. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenchang; Sun, Fuchun; Tan, Chuanqi; Liu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    The common spatial pattern (CSP) and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG) pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs) for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from "BCI Competition III Dataset IVa" and "BCI Competition IV Database 2a." The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP.

  7. Qualification of electric motors class 1E for supply of motors and its repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, E.; Gonzalez, J. J.; Fernandez, A.; Garcia, D.

    2005-01-01

    Different original suppliers of nuclear grade equipment have either disappeared or discontinued the manufacture of this kind equipment. Under this situation nuclear plants are experiencing difficulties when dealing with the substitution or maintenance of these equipment. Tecnatom and Cantarey have developed a new line of Class 1E qualified electric low voltage motors which can be used as an alternative to originally installed safety-related motors or for its repair and maintenance. (Author)

  8. CALCULATION OF A MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MOTOR OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Le Ngo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristic of an electric vehicle is the main characteristic of mechanical system that reflects its key performance indicators. Implementation of the traction characteristic is based on controlling angular speed and torque of electric traction motor in an automatic control system. The static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor in an automatic control system is the most important characteristic that determines weight, size and operating characteristics of an electric traction motor and serves as the basis for design. The most common variants of constructive implementation of a traction electric drive are analyzed, and a scheme is chosen for further design. Lagrange’s equation for electric mechanical system with one degree of freedom is written in generalized coordinates. In order to determine the generalized forces, elementary operation of all moments influencing on a moving car has been calculated. The resulting equation of motion of the electric vehicle corresponding to the design scheme, as well as the expressions for calculation of characteristic points of static mechanical characteristics of traction motor (i.e. the maximum and minimum time, minimum power are obtained. In order to determine the nominal values of the angular velocity and the power of electric traction motor, a method based on ensuring the movement of the vehicle in the standard cycle has been developed. The method makes it possible to calculate characteristic points of the mechanical characteristic with the lowest possible power rating. The algorithm for calculation of mechanical characteristics of the motor is presented. The method was applied to calculate static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor for a small urban electric truck.

  9. Modeling and experimental analysis of the linear ultrasonic motor with in-plane bending and longitudinal mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhijian; Hu, Hong

    2014-03-01

    A novel linear ultrasonic motor based on in-plane longitudinal and bending mode vibration is presented in this paper. The stator of the motor is composed of a metal plate and eight piezoelectric ceramic patches. There are four long holes in the plate, designed for consideration of the longitudinal and bending mode coupling. The corresponding model is developed to optimize the mechanical and electrical coupling of the stator, which causes an ellipse motion at the contact tip of the stator when the composite vibrations with longitudinal and bending are excited. Its harmonic and transient responses are simulated and inspected. A prototype based on the model is fabricated and used to conduct experiments. Results show that the amplitude of the stator's contact tips is significantly increased, which helps to amplify the driving force and speed of the motor. It is therefore feasible to implement effective linear movement using the developed prototype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of a piezoelectric linear motor in terms of the contact parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Hyun-Phill; Kim, Sangsig; Kang, Chong-Yun; Kim, Hyun-Jai; Yoon, Seok-Jin

    2005-01-01

    The contact kinetics of piezoelectric linear motors determines the operational characteristics like speed and torque or transmitted mechanical power and efficiency. Piezoelectric linear motors are driven by tangential stress in the interface between tip of shaking beam and slider. A good contact between the tip and slider is necessary for a reliable analysis of the motor, which is needed for the optimization of its performance. The piezoelectric linear motor was fabricated and the characteristics of the motor were investigated by external conditions such as tip shape with different curvatures and contact force between the tip and the slider. It was found in this investigation that the optimal curvature of the tip and the contact force are curvature of 1 and 10, respectively, for the high actuating speed, and curvature of 1 and 40 N, respectively, for the high actuating force. Finally, tip shape has an influence on the characteristics of linear motor

  11. 46 CFR 108.187 - Ventilation for brush type electric motors in classified spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for brush type electric motors in classified... Ventilation for brush type electric motors in classified spaces. Ventilation for brush type electric motors in... Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Locations”, except audible and visual alarms may be used if shutting down...

  12. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... basic model of an electric motor. (a) In the event that a model of an electric motor is determined non... a model of an electric motor to be in noncompliance, then the manufacturer or private labeler shall... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric...

  13. Analysis and Design of Double-sided Air core Linear Servo Motor with Trapezoidal Permanent Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuqiu; Yang, Zilong; Yu, Minghu

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce the thrust ripple of linear servo system, a double-sided air core permanent magnet linear servo motor with trapezoidal shape permanent magnets (TDAPMLSM) is proposed in this paper. An analytical model of the motor for predicting the magnetic field in the air-gap at no...

  14. Amorphous and Nanocomposite Materials for Energy-Efficient Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveyra, Josefina M.; Xu, Patricia; Keylin, Vladimir; DeGeorge, Vincent; Leary, Alex; McHenry, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    We explore amorphous soft-magnetic alloys as candidates for electric motor applications. The Co-rich system combines the benefits of low hysteretic and eddy-current losses while exhibiting negligible magnetostriction and robust mechanical properties. The amorphous precursors can be devitrified to form nanocomposite magnets. The superior characteristics of these materials offer the advantages of ease of handling in the manufacturing processing and low iron losses during motor operation. Co-rich amorphous ribbons were laser-cut to build a stator for a small demonstrator permanent-magnet machine. The motor was tested up to ~30,000 rpm. Finite-element analyses proved that the iron losses of the Co-rich amorphous stator were ~80% smaller than for a Si steel stator in the same motor, at 18,000 rpm (equivalent to an electric frequency of 2.1 kHz). These low-loss soft magnets have great potential for application in highly efficient high-speed electric machines, leading to size reduction as well as reduction or replacement of rare earths in permanent-magnet motors. More studies evaluating further processing techniques for amorphous and nanocomposite materials are needed.

  15. Electric vehicle traction motors - The development of an advanced motor concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P.

    1980-01-01

    An axial-field permanent magnet traction motor is described, similar to several advanced motors that are being developed in the United States. This type of machine has several advantages over conventional dc motors, particularly in the electric vehicle application. The rapidly changing cost of magnetic materials, particularly cobalt, makes it important to study the utilization of permanent magnet materials in such machines. The impact of different magnets on machine design is evaluated, and the advantages of using iron powder composites in the armature are assessed.

  16. IEMDC IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal

    2004-10-01

    This report contains the final project summary and deliverables required by the award for the development of an In-line Electric Motor Driven Compressor (IEMDC). Extensive work was undertaken during the course of the project to develop the motor and the compressor section of the IEMDC unit. Multiple design iterations were performed to design an electric motor for operation in a natural gas environment and to successfully integrate the motor with a compressor. During the project execution, many challenges were successfully overcome in order to achieve the project goals and to maintain the system design integrity. Some of the challenges included limiting the magnitude of the compressor aerodynamic loading for appropriate sizing of the magnetic bearings, achieving a compact motor rotor size to meet the rotor dynamic requirements of API standards, devising a motor cooling scheme using high pressure natural gas, minimizing the impact of cooling on system efficiency, and balancing the system thrust loads for the magnetic thrust bearing. Design methods that were used on the project included validated state-of-the-art techniques such as finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics along with the combined expertise of both Curtiss-Wright Electro-Mechanical Corporation and Dresser-Rand Company. One of the most significant areas of work undertaken on the project was the development of the unit configuration for the system. Determining the configuration of the unit was a significant step in achieving integration of the electric motor into a totally enclosed compression system. Product review of the IEMDC unit configuration was performed during the course of the development process; this led to an alternate design configuration. The alternate configuration is a modular design with the electric motor and compressor section each being primarily contained in its own pressure containing case. This new concept resolved the previous conflict between the aerodynamic flow

  17. Design of linear pulse motor for control element drive mechanism of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. H.; Huh, H.; Kim, J. I.; Jang, M. H.; Kang, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    49 Control Rod Drive Mechanisms(CEDMs) are densely installed on the reactor central head of SMART. The structural design should ensure the space for maintenance/repair, cable routing, and heat release from the motor. In this paper, an improved design is presented to enlarge the space between CEDMs by decreasing the diameter of linear pulse motor. The reduction of motor thrust force due to the decrease of the motor diameter is compensated by resizing the other structural components

  18. Direct torque control via feedback linearization for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lascu, Cristian; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes a direct torque controlled (DTC) permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive that employs feedback linearization and uses sliding-mode and linear controllers. We introduce a new feedback linearization approach that yields a decoupled linear PMSM model with two state...

  19. A Study on the Design of PM Exited Transverse Flux Linear Motor for Ropeless Elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Hyun; Bang, Deok Je; Kim, Jong Moo; Jeong, Yeon Ho [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea); Kim, Moon Hwan [Silla University (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The topological investigations regarding magnetic circuit geometry and winding form of the transverse flux machine have brought up a variety of constructable arrangements with different features for several types of application[1, 2]. Here with, a novel PM-exited linear motor with inner mover, based on the transverse flux configuration leads to a considerable increase in power density for moving part. In this study we designed PM-exited transverse flux linear motor for ropeless elevator, whose output power density is higher and weight is lighter than conventional linear synchronous motors, When the designed motor in this study is applied to ropeless elevator, it is possible to increase power density more than 400% comparing with PM exited linear synchronous motor. The result of this study can be utilized for ropeless elevator or gearless direct linear moving system with high output[3]. (author). 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. A square-plate ultrasonic linear motor operating in two orthogonal first bending modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Jianguo; Dong, Shuxiang

    2013-01-01

    A novel square-plate piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor operated in two orthogonal first bending vibration modes (B₁) is proposed. The piezoelectric vibrator of the linear motor is simply made of a single PZT ceramic plate (sizes: 15 x 15 x 2 mm) and poled in its thickness direction. The top surface electrode of the square ceramic plate was divided into four active areas along its two diagonal lines for exciting two orthogonal B₁ modes. The achieved driving force and speed from the linear motor are 1.8 N and 230 mm/s, respectively, under one pair orthogonal voltage drive of 150 V(p-p) at the resonance frequency of 92 kHz. The proposed linear motor has advantages over conventional ultrasonic linear motors, such as relatively larger driving force, very simple working mode and structure, and low fabrication cost.

  1. Electric Motors: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 1, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to electric motors. A brief narrative on the subject is included in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended (JB).

  2. Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Report -- 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bennion, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeVoto, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moreno, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rugh, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Waye, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the research into advanced liquid cooling, integrated power module cooling, high temperature air cooled power electronics, two-phase cooling for power electronics, and electric motor thermal management by NREL's Power Electronics group in FY13.

  3. Influence of big power motors for irrigation of electric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, M.; Gialuca, V.; Trombetta, O.R.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of rural electrification in CPFL - Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and the influence of big power motors installation for irrigation in electric system are shown. Considerations about rural market, energy consumption, planning of distribution and transmission line and some calculations are also presented. (author)

  4. Influence analysis of structural parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.; Zheng, T.Q.; Zhang, W.; Fang, J.; Liu, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    A new type high temperature superconductor linear induction motor is designed and analyzed as a prototype to ensure applicability aimed at industrial motors. Made of Bi-2223/Ag, primary windings are distributed with the double-layer concentrated structure. The motor is analyzed by 2D electromagnetic Finite Element Method to get magnetic field distribution, thrust force, vertical force and so on. The critical current of motor and the electromagnetic force are mostly decided by the leakage flux density of primary slot and by the main magnetic flux and eddy current respectively. The structural parameters of motor have a great influence on the distribution of magnetic field. Under constant currents, the properties of motor are analyzed with different slot widths, slot heights and winding turns. The properties of motor, such as the maximum slot leakage flux density, motor thrust and motor vertical force, are analyzed with different structural parameters.

  5. CEDM Controller for a Linear Pulse Motor by using Pulse Width Modulation Method in Integral Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon-Koo; Keum, Jong-Yong; Park, Heui-Youn

    2007-01-01

    Integral Reactor SMART is under development at KAERI. The design characteristics of SMART are radically different from those employed in currently operating loop type PWR in Korea. The reliability and accuracy of Control Rod Drive Mechanism are very important to the reactor safety and the design of the Plant Protection System. The SMART CEDM designed for fine-step movement consists of a linear pulse motor, reed switch type sensor with top and bottom limit switches which also act as Control Element Assembly(CEA) Position indicator, The linear pulse motor is a four phase synchronous DC electric machine with inner stator and output stator in coolant medium inside a strong housing. The objective of this paper is to introduce and to explain the CEDM controller CEDM Controller is being developed with a new design concept and digital technology to reduce the Operating Error and improve the systems' reliability and availability. And Switched Mode Power Supply is also being developed with digital hardware technology. This paper involves the test details and result

  6. Design and performance testing of an ultrasonic linear motor with dual piezoelectric actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithmaitrie, Pruittikorn; Suybangdum, Panumas; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Muensit, Nantakan

    2012-05-01

    In this work, design and performance testing of an ultrasonic linear motor with dual piezoelectric actuator patches are studied. The motor system consists of a linear stator, a pre-load weight, and two piezoelectric actuator patches. The piezoelectric actuators are bonded with the linear elastic stator at specific locations. The stator generates propagating waves when the piezoelectric actuators are subjected to harmonic excitations. Vibration characteristics of the linear stator are analyzed and compared with finite element and experimental results. The analytical, finite element, and experimental results show agreement. In the experiments, performance of the ultrasonic linear motor is tested. Relationships between velocity and pre-load weight, velocity and applied voltage, driving force and applied voltage, and velocity and driving force are reported. The design of the dual piezoelectric actuators yields a simpler structure with a smaller number of actuators and lower stator stiffness compared with a conventional design of an ultrasonic linear motor with fully laminated piezoelectric actuators.

  7. High-Temperature Switched-Reluctance Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Gerald; Brown, Gerald; Morrison, Carlos; Provenza, Andy; Kascak, Albert; Palazzolo, Alan

    2003-01-01

    An eight-pole radial magnetic bearing has been modified into a switched-reluctance electric motor capable of operating at a speed as high as 8,000 rpm at a temperature as high as 1,000 F (=540 C). The motor (see figure) is an experimental prototype of starter-motor/generator units that have been proposed to be incorporated into advanced gas turbine engines and that could operate without need for lubrication or active cooling. The unique features of this motor are its electromagnet coils and, to some extent, its control software. Heretofore, there has been no commercial-off-the-shelf wire capable of satisfying all of the requirements for fabrication of electromagnet coils capable of operation at temperatures up to 1,000 F (=540 C). The issues addressed in the development of these electromagnet coils included thermal expansion, oxidation, pliability to small bend radii, micro-fretting, dielectric breakdown, tensile strength, potting compound, thermal conduction, and packing factor. For a test, the motor was supported, along with a rotor of 18 lb (.8-kg) mass, 3-in. (.7.6-cm) diameter, 21-in. (.53-cm) length, on bearings packed with high-temperature grease. The motor was located at the mid span of the rotor and wrapped with heaters. The motor stator was instrumented with thermocouples. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the motor had undergone 14 thermal cycles between room temperature and 1,000 F (.540 C) and had accumulated operating time >27.5 hours at 1,000 F (=540 C). The motor-controller hardware includes a personal computer equipped with analog-to-digital input and digital-to-analog output cards. The controller software is a C-language code that implements a switched-reluctance motor-control principle: that is, it causes the coils to be energized in a sequence timed to generate a rotating magnetic flux that creates a torque on a scalloped rotor. The controller can operate in an open- or closed-loop mode. In addition, the software has

  8. Electrical Experiments. VT-214-12-1. Part I. Electric Motor Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Designed for high school electronics students, this first document in a series of six electrical learning activity packages focuses on electric motor control. An introductory section gives the objective for the activities, an introduction, and an outline of the content. The remainder of the activity book is comprised of information sheets and job…

  9. Experimental demonstration of a single-molecule electric motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Heather L; Murphy, Colin J; Jewell, April D; Baber, Ashleigh E; Iski, Erin V; Khodaverdian, Harout Y; McGuire, Allister F; Klebanov, Nikolai; Sykes, E Charles H

    2011-09-04

    For molecules to be used as components in molecular machines, methods that couple individual molecules to external energy sources and that selectively excite motion in a given direction are required. Significant progress has been made in the construction of molecular motors powered by light and by chemical reactions, but electrically driven motors have not yet been built, despite several theoretical proposals for such motors. Here we report that a butyl methyl sulphide molecule adsorbed on a copper surface can be operated as a single-molecule electric motor. Electrons from a scanning tunnelling microscope are used to drive the directional motion of the molecule in a two-terminal setup. Moreover, the temperature and electron flux can be adjusted to allow each rotational event to be monitored at the molecular scale in real time. The direction and rate of the rotation are related to the chiralities of both the molecule and the tip of the microscope (which serves as the electrode), illustrating the importance of the symmetry of the metal contacts in atomic-scale electrical devices.

  10. Traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor part II: experiment and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Yung; Li, Chun-Chung; Chen, Liang-Chiang; Yang, Chieh-Min

    2007-04-01

    This article continues the discussion of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. Part I of this article dealt with the design and analysis of the stator of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. In this part, the discussion focuses on the structure and modeling of the contact layer and the carriage. In addition, the performance analysis and evaluation of the linear motor also are dealt with in this study. The traveling wave is created by stator, which is constructed by a series of bimorph actuators arranged in a line and connected to form a meander-line structure. Analytical and experimental results of the performance are presented and shown to be almost in agreement. Power losses due to friction and transmission are studied and found to be significant. Compared with other types of linear motors, the motor in this study is capable of supporting heavier loads and provides a larger thrust force.

  11. 77 FR 11598 - Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... application of thermal overload protection devices that are integral with the motor starter for electric... Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001, telephone: 301-251-7455; email... Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. [FR Doc. 2012-4552 Filed 2...

  12. Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear in a Battery Electrical Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tommy; Mathe, Laszlo; Berg, Nick Ilsø

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the physical construction and test results of two new demonstrators of a Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear (MIPMG), which is a second version of an already tested demonstrator. The demonstrators will be used as traction units for a Battery Electrical Vehicle (BEV......) and the background for the specifications are elaborated. Simulated as well as measured results of rotational losses of the first and second version are compared. The efficiency of the new design is investigated and compared to three direct drive motors in a few operating points and the MIPMG v.2 seems superior when...

  13. Improvement the DTC system for electric vehicles induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor is used as a propulsion system of an electric vehicle (EV. Two different control methods have been designed. The first is based on the conventional DTC Scheme adapted for three level inverter. The second is based on the application of fuzzy logic controller to the DTC scheme. The motor is controlled at different operating conditions using a FLC based DTC technique. In the simulation the novel proposed technique reduces the torque and current ripples. The EV dynamics are taken into account.

  14. Electrical motor/generator drive apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2013-02-12

    The present disclosure includes electrical motor/generator drive systems and methods that significantly reduce inverter direct-current (DC) bus ripple currents and thus the volume and cost of a capacitor. The drive methodology is based on a segmented drive system that does not add switches or passive components but involves reconfiguring inverter switches and motor stator winding connections in a way that allows the formation of multiple, independent drive units and the use of simple alternated switching and optimized Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) schemes to eliminate or significantly reduce the capacitor ripple current.

  15. Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for self excitation. In this paper, we estimated the performance of an LIM from experimental results of a fundamental test machine and confirmed that the LIM generates an approximately constant braking force under constant current excitation. At relatively low frequencies, this braking force remains unaffected by frequency changes. The reduction ratio of rail heating is also approximately proportional to the frequency. We also confirmed that dynamic braking resulting in no electrical output can be used for drive control of the LIM. These characteristics are convenient for the realization of the LIM rail brake system.

  16. Behavior of high efficiency electric motors; Comportamiento de motores electricos de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Austin H. [IEEE, (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The energy efficiency is one of the main parameters in the design of the industrial motors of general purpose; nevertheless, it is avoided that it is at the cost of the reliability or to the global performance of the motor. Exist user groups of this equipment that consider that, in the search of a greater efficiency, the useful life period is diminished and the characteristics of operation of the motor are affected. During the past last years, the author has studied the aspects of quality and reliability, as well as the operative advantages of the high efficiency motors and written down the increasing interest for these aspects. Also he has detected that a great number of users has realized that, additionally to the obvious energy saving, the efficient motor offers a greater reliability and a longer useful life in most of the industrial applications. The objective of this article is to present the differences in the quality levels, reliability and operation parameters of high efficiency squirrel cage type electrical motors with those of the motors of standard manufacture. [Spanish] La eficiencia energetica es uno de los principales parametros en el diseno de los motores industriales de proposito general; sin embargo, se evita que sea a costa de la confiabilidad o del desempeno global del motor. Existen grupos de usuarios de estos equipos que consideran que, en la busqueda de una mayor eficiencia, se disminuye el periodo de vida util y se afectan las caracteristicas de operacion del motor. Durante los ultimos anos, el autor ha estudiado los aspectos de calidad y confiabilidad, asi como las ventajas operativas de los motores de alta eficiencia y anotado el incremento del interes por estos aspectos. Tambien ha detectado que un gran numero de usuarios se ha dado cuenta que, adicionalmente a los obvios ahorros de energia, el motor eficiente ofrece una mayor confiabilidad y una vida util mas larga en la mayoria de las aplicaciones industriales. El objetivo de este

  17. Economic analysis of Brazilian policies for energy efficient electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Cássio Tersandro de Castro; Pontes, Ricardo Silva Thé

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is leading several energy efficiency initiatives and has ambitious goals for 2030, according to the Brazilian National Energy Plan 2030. One of the main initiatives is the minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) program for energy-driven equipment and the electric motors appear as the most significant one (49% share of the total electricity consumption). The MEPS levels set new grades for efficiency, and then manufacturers and consumers have to conform to the new products and costs. Policy makers have to economically assess the effects of these MEPS in order to maintain the market stability. Since the benefits of this program come from future energy savings, this cost-effective analysis has to consider the parameters uncertainty and the results should reinforce the market players’ confidence. Thus, the goal of this work is, first, to analyze the economic viability of the MEPS transitions in Brazil considering the uncertainty of the parameters involved and then, to estimate the effects of this program on the energy savings goals for 2030. At the end, we also verify whether this investment in energy efficiency is competitive with other forms of investments in energy. - Highlights: • A cost-effectiveness method with uncertainty for efficiency program is presented. • Savings from electric motors MEPS program makes the 2030 Brazilian goals possible. • Electric motors MEPS program cost-effectiveness in Brazil is confirmed. • Saved energy cost from efficiency improvement is a competitive energy investment.

  18. Motor unit recruitment during neuromuscular electrical stimulation: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, C Scott; Gregory, Chris M; Dean, Jesse C

    2011-10-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in clinical settings to activate skeletal muscle in an effort to mimic voluntary contractions and enhance the rehabilitation of human skeletal muscles. It is also used as a tool in research to assess muscle performance and/or neuromuscular activation levels. However, there are fundamental differences between voluntary- and artificial-activation of motor units that need to be appreciated before NMES protocol design can be most effective. The unique effects of NMES have been attributed to several mechanisms, most notably, a reversal of the voluntary recruitment pattern that is known to occur during voluntary muscle contractions. This review outlines the assertion that electrical stimulation recruits motor units in a nonselective, spatially fixed, and temporally synchronous pattern. Additionally, it synthesizes the evidence that supports the contention that this recruitment pattern contributes to increased muscle fatigue when compared with voluntary actions and provides some commentary on the parameters of electrical stimulation as well as emerging technologies being developed to facilitate NMES implementation. A greater understanding of how electrical stimulation recruits motor units, as well as the benefits and limitations of its use, is highly relevant when using this tool for testing and training in rehabilitation, exercise, and/or research.

  19. 76 FR 59003 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Certification for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Conservation Program: Compliance Certification for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... provides a new means for manufacturers of electric motors and their private labelers to prepare and submit... preferred mechanism for submitting Compliance Certification information for electric motors covered under...

  20. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction AGENCY: Office of... standards for small electric motors, which was published on March 9, 2010. In that final rule, the U.S... titled ``Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors.'' 75 FR 10874. Since the publication of...

  1. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and... CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their...

  2. 78 FR 38455 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... windings, which protects them from condensation, moisture, dirt, and debris. This insulation typically... and Moisture Resistant Windings 4. Inverter-Capable Electric Motors 5. Totally Enclosed Non-Ventilated... set. [cir] Definite-purpose inverter- fed electric motor. [cir] Electric motor with moisture resistant...

  3. Linear summation of outputs in a balanced network model of motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaday, Charles; van Vreeswijk, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Given the non-linearities of the neural circuitry's elements, we would expect cortical circuits to respond non-linearly when activated. Surprisingly, when two points in the motor cortex are activated simultaneously, the EMG responses are the linear sum of the responses evoked by each of the points activated separately. Additionally, the corticospinal transfer function is close to linear, implying that the synaptic interactions in motor cortex must be effectively linear. To account for this, here we develop a model of motor cortex composed of multiple interconnected points, each comprised of reciprocally connected excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We show how non-linearities in neuronal transfer functions are eschewed by strong synaptic interactions within each point. Consequently, the simultaneous activation of multiple points results in a linear summation of their respective outputs. We also consider the effects of reduction of inhibition at a cortical point when one or more surrounding points are active. The network response in this condition is linear over an approximately two- to three-fold decrease of inhibitory feedback strength. This result supports the idea that focal disinhibition allows linear coupling of motor cortical points to generate movement related muscle activation patterns; albeit with a limitation on gain control. The model also explains why neural activity does not spread as far out as the axonal connectivity allows, whilst also explaining why distant cortical points can be, nonetheless, functionally coupled by focal disinhibition. Finally, we discuss the advantages that linear interactions at the cortical level afford to motor command synthesis.

  4. induction motor, unbalance, electrical loss, finite element method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Cortés

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the pattern of a 7.5 kW squirrel-cage induction motor’s electrical loss in balanced and unbalanced conditions, modelling the motor using the finite element method and comparing the results with experimental data obtained in the laboratory for the selected motor. Magnetic flux density variation was analysed at four places in the machine. The results so obtained sho- wed that the undervoltage unbalanced condition was the most critical from the motor’s total loss point of view. Regarding varia- tion of loss in parts of the motor, a constant iron loss pattern was found when the load was changed for each type of voltage supply and that the place where the loss had the largest rise was in the machine’s rotor.

  5. Marginal cost of electricity conservation: an application of linear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, A.M. da; Hollanda, J.B. de

    1987-01-01

    This paper is addressed ti the planning of electricity industry when the use of energetically efficient appliances (conservation) is financed by the utilities. It is based on the Linear Programming Model proposed by Masse and Boiteaux for planning of conventional energy sources, where one unity of electricity (Kw/Kw h) saved is treated as if it were a generator of equivalent size. In spite of the formal simplicity of the models it can support interesting concessions on the subject of a electrical energy conservation policy. (author)

  6. DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES RESEARCH OF AC ELECTRIC POINT MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. YU. Buryak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Considerable responsibility for safety of operation rests on signal telephone and telegraph department of railway. One of the most attackable nodes (both automation systems, and railway in whole is track switches. The aim of this investigation is developing such system for monitoring and diagnostics of track switches, which would fully meet the requirements of modern conditions of high-speed motion and heavy trains and producing diagnostics, collection and systematization of data in an automated way. Methodology. In order to achieve the desired objectives research of a structure and the operating principle description of the switch electric drive, sequence of triggering its main units were carried out. The operating characteristics and settings, operating conditions, the causes of failures in the work, andrequirements for electric drives technology and their service were considered and analyzed. Basic analysis principles of dependence of nature of the changes the current waveform, which flows in the working circuit of AC electric point motor were determined. Technical implementation of the monitoring and diagnosing system the state of AC electric point motors was carried out. Findings. Signals taken from serviceable and defective electric turnouts were researched. Originality. Identified a strong interconnectionbetween the technical condition of the track switchand curve shape that describes the current in the circuit of AC electric point motor during operation which is based on the research processes that have influence on it during operation. Practical value. Shown the principles of the technical approach to the transition from scheduled preventive maintenance to maintenance of real condition for a more objective assessment and thus more rapid response to emerging or failures when they occur gradually, damages and any other shortcomings in the work track switch AC drives.

  7. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  8. The Control of Switched Reluctance Motor in Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The control of SRM was discussed: current chopping control, angle position control. This paper presents an inverter circuit and a fuzzy sliding mode control method to minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM. Based on the experimental results, Using the inverter circuit and fuzzy sliding mode control method can effectively minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM, For the switched reluctance motor applications in electric vehicles to provide a theoretical basis.

  9. Permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-08-14

    A permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor achieves balanced operation at more than one operating point by adjusting the voltage supplied to the main and auxiliary windings and adjusting the capacitance in the auxiliary winding circuit. An intermediate voltage tap on an autotransformer supplies voltage to the main winding for low speed operation while a capacitive voltage divider is used to adjust the voltage supplied to the auxiliary winding for low speed operation. 4 figs.

  10. Electrical stimulation of transplanted motoneurons improves motor unit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Grumbles, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Motoneurons die following spinal cord trauma and with neurological disease. Intact axons reinnervate nearby muscle fibers to compensate for the death of motoneurons, but when an entire motoneuron pool dies, there is complete denervation. To reduce denervation atrophy, we have reinnervated muscles in Fisher rats from local transplants of embryonic motoneurons in peripheral nerve. Since growth of axons from embryonic neurons is activity dependent, our aim was to test whether brief electrical stimulation of the neurons immediately after transplantation altered motor unit numbers and muscle properties 10 wk later. All surgical procedures and recordings were done in anesthetized animals. The muscle consequences of motoneuron death were mimicked by unilateral sciatic nerve section. One week later, 200,000 embryonic day 14 and 15 ventral spinal cord cells, purified for motoneurons, were injected into the tibial nerve 10–15 mm from the gastrocnemii muscles as the only neuron source for muscle reinnervation. The cells were stimulated immediately after transplantation for up to 1 h using protocols designed to examine differential effects due to pulse number, stimulation frequency, pattern, and duration. Electrical stimulation that included short rests and lasted for 1 h resulted in higher motor unit counts. Muscles with higher motor unit counts had more reinnervated fibers and were stronger. Denervated muscles had to be stimulated directly to evoke contractions. These results show that brief electrical stimulation of embryonic neurons, in vivo, has long-term effects on motor unit formation and muscle force. This muscle reinnervation provides the opportunity to use patterned electrical stimulation to produce functional movements. PMID:24848463

  11. Procedure for the energy evaluation of electric motors; Procedimiento para la evaluacion energetica de motores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliz Quiroz, Marco Antonio [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    2002-06-01

    The present article is not a complete treaty about motors, here it is simply tried to show a practical procedure to evaluate electric motors, in order to determine the economics of their possible replacement by others of high efficiency. With the former in mind, the included database is sustained in the information of a representative number of motors brands commercialized in Mexico, since to include all the brands sold in our country would not be practical and it would be outside the scope of this publication. [Spanish] El presente articulo no es todo un tratado acerca de motores, sencillamente aqui se pretende mostrar un procedimiento practico para evaluar los motores electricos, a fin de determinar la rentabilidad de su eventual reemplazo por otros de alta eficiencia. Por lo anterior, la base de datos incluida se sustente en la informacion de un numero representativo de marcas de motores comercializados en Mexico, ya que abarcar todas las marcas vendidas en nuestro pais no seria practico y quedaria fuera del alcance de esta publicacion.

  12. Composite ceramic superconducting wires for electric motor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, John W.

    1990-07-01

    Several types of HTSC wire have been produced and two types of HTSC motors are being built. Hundreds of meters of Ag- clad wire were fabricated from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (Y-123) and Bi2Ca2Sr2Cu3O10 (BiSCCO). The dc homopolar motor coils are not yet completed, but multiple turns of wire have been wound on the coil bobbins to characterize the superconducting properties of coiled wire. Multifilamentary conductors were fabricated as cables and coils. The sintered polycrystalline wire has self-field critical current densities (Jc) as high as 2800 A/sq cm, but the Jc falls rapidly with magnetic field. To improve Jc, sintered YBCO wire is melt textured with a continuous process which has produced textures wire up to 0.5 meters long with 77K transport Jc above 11, 770 A/sq cm2 in self field and 2100 A/sq cm2 at 1 telsa. The Emerson Electric dc homopolar HTSC motor has been fabricated and run with conventional copper coils. A novel class of potential very powerful superconducting motors have been designed to use trapped flux in melt textures Y-123 as magnet replicas in an new type of permanent magnet motor. The stator element and part of the rotor of the first prototype machine exist, and the HTSC magnet replica segments are being fabricated.

  13. Operating experience and aging-seismic assessment of electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Burns, E.L.; Taylor, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    Objectives of this program are to identify concerns related to the aging and service wear of equipment operating in nuclear power plants, to assess their possible impact on plant safety, to identify effective inspection surveillance and monitoring methods and to recommend suitable maintenance practices for mitigating aging related concerns and diminish the rate of degradation due to aging and service wear. Motor design and materials of construction are reviewed to identify age-sensitive components. Operational and accidental stressors are determined, and their effect on promoting aging degradation is assessed. Failure modes, mechanisms, and causes have been reviewed from operating experiences and existing data banks. The study has also included consideration for the seismic correlation of age-degraded motor components. The aforementioned reviews and assessments were assimilated to characterize the dielectric, rotational, and mechanical hazards on motor performance and operational readiness. The functional indicators which can be monitored to assess motor component deterioration due to aging or other accidental stressors are identified. Conforming with the NPAR strategy as outlined in the program plan, the study also includes a preliminary discussion of current standards and guides, maintenance programs, and research activities pertaining to nuclear power plant safety-related electric motors

  14. An all-electric single-molecule motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldenthuis, Johannes S; Prins, Ferry; Thijssen, Joseph M; van der Zant, Herre S J

    2010-11-23

    Many types of molecular motors have been proposed and synthesized in recent years, displaying different kinds of motion, and fueled by different driving forces such as light, heat, or chemical reactions. We propose a new type of molecular motor based on electric field actuation and electric current detection of the rotational motion of a molecular dipole embedded in a three-terminal single-molecule device. The key aspect of this all-electronic design is the conjugated backbone of the molecule, which simultaneously provides the potential landscape of the rotor orientation and a real-time measure of that orientation through the modulation of the conductivity. Using quantum chemistry calculations, we show that this approach provides full control over the speed and continuity of motion, thereby combining electrical and mechanical control at the molecular level over a wide range of temperatures. Moreover, chemistry can be used to change all key parameters of the device, enabling a variety of new experiments on molecular motors.

  15. Effect of Frequency and Spatial-Harmonics on Rotary and Linear Induction Motor Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-03-01

    A computer analysis is made of the effect of current and MMF airgap harmonics on the output characteristics of rotary and linear induction motors. The current harmonics accompanying thyristor-control operation are evaluated by Fourier analyzing the p...

  16. A standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang

    2015-03-01

    A novel standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes was proposed in this study. The stator (or actuator) of the linear motor was made of a simple single Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramic square plate (15 × 15 × 2 mm(3)) with a circular hole (D = 6.7 mm) in the center. The geometric parameters of the stator were computed with the finite element analysis to produce in-plane bi-mode standing wave vibration. The calculated results predicted that a driving tip attached at midpoint of one edge of the stator can produce two orthogonal, approximate straight-line trajectories, which can be used to move a slider in linear motion via frictional forces in forward or reverse direction. The investigations showed that the proposed linear motor can produce a six times higher power density than that of a previously reported square plate motor.

  17. Linear estimation discriminates midline sources and motor cortex contribution to the readiness potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knosche, Thomas; Knosche, T.R.; Praamstra, Peter; Peters, M.J.; Stegeman, Dick; Stegeman, D.

    1996-01-01

    Spatiotemporal dipole modelling of the generators of the readiness potential (RP) prior to voluntary movements has yielded diverging results concerning the contributions of supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortex. We applied an alternative approach (i.e. linear estimation theory) to

  18. MAGNETIC INDUCTION DISTRIBUTION IN A LINEAR SYNCHRONUS MOTOR WITH MAGNETIC SUSPENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.I. Parkhomenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Results of computer simulation and experimental investigations of magnetic induction distribution in a coaxial linear synchronous motor with magnetic suspension are presented. The magnetic induction distribution has been studied both in the motor air gap and on the runner surface.

  19. Study on a high thrust force bi-double-sided permanent magnet linear synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A high thrust force bi-double-sided permanent magnet linear synchronous motor used in gantry-type five-axis machining center is designed and its performance was tested in this article. This motor is the subproject of Chinese National Science and Technology Major Project named as “development of domestic large thrust linear motor used in high-speed gantry-type five-axis machining center project” jointly participated by enterprises and universities. According to the requirement of the application environment and motor performance parameters, the linear motor’s basic dimensions, form of windings, and magnet arrangement are preliminarily specified through theoretical analysis and calculation. To verify the correctness of the result of the calculation, the finite element model of the motor is established. The static and dynamic characteristics of the motor are studied and analyzed through the finite element method, and the initial scheme is revised. The prototype of the motor is manufactured based on the final revised structure parameters, and the performance of the motor is fully tested using the evaluation platform for direct-drive motor component. Experimental test results meet the design requirements and show the effectiveness of design method and process.

  20. Recession in a linear stepper motor based on piezoelectric actuator and electrorheological clampers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Cuihong; Meng, Yonggang; Tian, Yu

    2012-01-01

    A linear inchworm-type stepper motor based on piezoelectric actuator and comb shape electrorheological (ER) clampers was developed and tested. A recession phenomenon in the movement of the motor was found and was significantly affected by the driving voltage of the piezoelectric actuator and ER fluids. A dynamic model to analyze the mechanism of the recession was established. The force ratio of the viscoelastic clamping force (applied high electric field) to the viscous damping force (zero field) of ER fluids is the critical factor which determines the recession. The ratio is also affected by the extension or contraction rate of the actuator during movement, which is affected by the charging and discharging processes. With a relatively large distance between the clamper electrodes and a small displacement activated by the extension of the piezoelectric actuator, the instantaneous shear rate might not be sufficiently high, preventing ER fluids from attaining a shear-thickened and high-strength state. The ratio of yield strength to the viscous strength of ER fluids during movement should be as large as possible to reduce the recession displacement. (paper)

  1. Fluid powered linear piston motor with harmonic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, David W.

    2016-09-20

    A motor is disclosed that includes a module assembly including a piston that is axially cycled. The piston axial motion is coupled to torque couplers that convert the axial motion into rotary motion. The torque couplers are coupled to a rotor to rotate the rotor.

  2. A T-shape linear piezoelectric motor with single foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Yang, Xiaohui; Liu, Junkao

    2015-02-01

    A new T-shape piezoelectric motor using the hybrid of two orthogonal longitudinal vibrations is proposed in this work. Six pieces of PZT ceramic plates are bonded on the upside and downside surfaces of a T-shape duralumin alloy base respectively to form the proposed motor. Elliptical movement can be generated on the driving tip by applying sine and cosine voltages to the PZT elements. The horizontal displacement of the driving tip will push the runner while the vertical displacement can overcome the preload. Finite element method is used to accomplish the design and analysis process. The resonance frequencies of the two vibration modes are tuned to be close by modal analysis, while the motion trajectory of the driving tip is observed by transient analysis. After the fabrication of a prototype, the vibration characteristics and mechanical output ability are measured. The no-load speed and the maximum output thrust force of the proposed motor are tested to be 718 mm/s and 3.5 N under an exciting frequency of 53.1 kHz. The proposed T-shape piezoelectric motor exhibits merits of simple structure, easy to realize miniaturization, easy to be fabricated, and high power-to-weight ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a sub-nanometer positioning device: combining a new linear motor with linear motion ball guide ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, J; Tanaka, T; Masuda, I

    2010-01-01

    A new type of linear motor described in this note has some advantages compared with conventional motors. The attractive magnetic force between the stator (permanent magnets) and mover (armature) is diminished almost to zero. The efficiency is better because the magnetic flux leakage is very small, the size of motor is smaller and detent (force ripple) is smaller than for conventional motors. Therefore, we think that this motor is greatly suitable for ultra-precision positioning as an actuator. An ultra-precision positioning device using this motor and linear motion ball guide ways is newly developed by making the device very rigid and using a suitable control method. Moreover, the positioning performance is evaluated by a positioning resolution, and deviation and dispersion errors. As a result of repeated step response tests, the positioning resolution is 0.3 nm, with the deviation error and dispersion error (3σ) being sub-nanometer. Consequently, the positioning device achieves sub-nanometer positioning. (technical design note)

  4. Principle and analysis of a linear motor driving system for HTS levitation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jian X.; Guo, You G.; Zhu, Jian G.

    2007-01-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) high levitation force density with passive and self-stabilizing features allows a number of special applications to be developed. Linear motor driving systems are commonly required for those applications such as levitated transport systems. In this paper a prototype linear motor driving system with HTS is analyzed with calculation details including its magnetic fields and driving forces presented in the paper

  5. Experience of decontaminating of the ventilation system electric motors and main circulation and waterside pump drive electric motors in conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Karataev, B.A.; Platonov, A.I.; Potekhin, V.B.; Ryumin, G.V.; Sorokin, N.M.; Fenogenov, V.A.; Cheremshin, P.I.

    1989-01-01

    The ventilation system electric motor decontamination is described. In decontaminating waterside pump rotors and stators with high level of contamination was developed a procedure, eliminating corrosion action and damage of electric isolation coatings

  6. Preliminary assessment of the tradeoffs between the electric motor and the transmission in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, E.

    1983-01-01

    The efficiency, weight, and cost of various propulsion system for 4-passenger electric vehicles are compared. These systems comprise the electric motor and the required speed reducing transmission to obtain the appropriate speed at the wheel. Three types of motors, dc synchronous, and squirrel-cage were considered at 6000 ycm and 24 000 rpm for a peak power of 40 kW. Two types of gearing selected were a single speed differential and a differential with a differential with a 4-speed gearbox. Only components that were readily realizable within present state-of-the-art were considered.

  7. Direct torque control with feedback linearization for induction motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lascu, Cristian; Jafarzadeh, Saeed; Fadali, Sami M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a Direct Torque Controlled (DTC) Induction Machine (IM) drive that employs feedback linearization and sliding-mode control. A feedback linearization approach is investigated, which yields a decoupled linear IM model with two state variables: torque and stator flux magnitude....... This intuitive linear model is used to implement a DTC type controller that preserves all DTC advantages and eliminates its main drawback, the flux and torque ripple. Robust, fast, and ripple-free control is achieved by using Variable Structure Control (VSC) with proportional control in the vicinity...... robust stability analysis are presented. The sliding controller is compared with a linear DTC scheme, and experimental results for a sensorless IM drive validate the proposed solution....

  8. A double B1-mode 4-layer laminated piezoelectric linear motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Zhijiang; Dong, Shuxiang

    2012-12-01

    We report a miniature piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor that is made of four Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic layers for low-voltage work. The 4-layer piezoelectric laminate works in two orthogonal first-bending modes for producing elliptical oscillations, which are then used to drive a contacting slider into continuous linear motion. Experimental results show that the miniature linear motor (size: 4 × 4 × 12 mm, weight: 1.7 g) can generate a large driving force of 0.48 N and a linear motion speed of up to 160 mm/s, using a 40 V(pp)/mm voltage drive at its resonance frequency of 64.5 kHz. The maximum efficiency of the linear motor is 30%.

  9. Evaluation of synthetic linear motor-molecule actuation energetics

    OpenAIRE

    Brough, Branden; Northrop, Brian H.; Schmidt, Jacob J.; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Houk, Kendall N.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2006-01-01

    By applying atomic force microscope (AFM)-based force spectroscopy together with computational modeling in the form of molecular force-field simulations, we have determined quantitatively the actuation energetics of a synthetic motor-molecule. This multidisciplinary approach was performed on specifically designed, bistable, redox-controllable [2]rotaxanes to probe the steric and electrostatic interactions that dictate their mechanical switching at the single-molecule level. The fusion of expe...

  10. Stepping motor adaptor actuator for a commercial uhv linear motion feedthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iarocci, M.; Oversluizen, T.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptor coupling has been developed that will allow the attachment of a standard stepping motor to a precision commercial (Varian) uhv linear motion feedthrough. The assembly, consisting of the motor, motor adaptor, limit switches, etc. is clamped to the feedthrough body which can be done under vacuum conditions if necessary. With a 500 step/rev. stepping motor the resolution is 1.27 μm per step. We presently use this assembly in a remote location for the precise positioning of a beam sensing monitor. 2 refs., 3 figs

  11. Vehicle Dynamics Control of In-wheel Electric Motor Drive Vehicles Based on Averaging of Tire Force Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nobuo; Iwano, Haruo; Kamada, Takayoshi; Nagai, Masao

    For in-wheel electric motor drive vehicles, a new vehicle dynamics control which is based on the tire force usage rate is proposed. The new controller adopts non-linear optimal control could manage the interference between direct yaw-moment control and the tire force usage rate. The new control is considered total longitudinal and transverse tire force. Therefore the controller can prevent tire force saturation near tire force limit during cornering. Simulations and test runs by the custom made four wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicle show that higher driving stability performance compared to the performance of the same vehicle without control.

  12. Shuffle motor: a high force, high precision linear electrostatic stepper motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Wissink, Jeroen; Sander, A.F.M.; Sander, Louis; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1997-01-01

    The shuffle motor is a electrostatic stepper motor that employs a mechanical transformation to obtain high forces and small steps. A model has been made to calculate the driving voltage, step size and maximum load to pull as well as the optimal geometry. Tests results are an effective step size of

  13. Design optimization of a linear permanent magnet synchronous motor for extra low force pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isfahani, Aarsh Hassanpour; Vaez-Zadeh, Sadegh

    2007-01-01

    Air cored linear permanent magnet synchronous motors have essentially low force pulsations due to the lack of the primary iron core and teeth. However, a motor design with much lower force pulsations is required for many precise positioning systems, as in fabrication of microelectronic chips. This paper presents the design optimization of an air cored linear permanent magnet synchronous motor with extra low force pulsations for such applications. In order to achieve the goal, an analytical layer model of the machine is developed. A very effective objective function regarding force pulsations is then proposed; while the selected motor dimensions are regarded as the design variables. A genetic algorithm is used to find the optimal motor dimensions. This results in a substantial ninety percent reduction in the force pulsations. The design optimization is verified by a finite element method

  14. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Namju; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2016-01-01

    An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed. PMID:27973431

  15. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Namju; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2016-12-12

    An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed.

  16. Drive of a rail locomotive using linear motors. Antrieb eines schienengebundenen Triebfahrzeuges mit Hilfe von Linearmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagischke, W; Steffen, U

    1977-12-08

    The purpose of the invention is to avoid the disadvantages of asynchronous linear motors, for example for need for reactive current for excitation, where driving on a normal section and driving on a branch line should be possible without losing the saving in weight on the inductor. According to the invention, the common inductor on a synchronous linear motor consists of 2 parallel packets of laminations surrounded by DC excitation windings and the secondary systems consists of unwound and spaced magnetic sections covering the two packets of laminations on the normal section. In the direction of thrust, their length extends nearly over the pole pitch of the multi-phase AC winding. According to the invetnion, this drive therefore consists of a synchronous linear motor combined into a double motor, with an external, rail shaped fixed secondary system, which has a multi-phase AC winding opposite it.

  17. Halbach array motor/generators: A novel generalized electric machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, B.T.; Post, R.F.; Dreifuerst, G.R.; Bender, D.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    For many years Klaus Halbach has been investigating novel designs for permanent magnet arrays, using advanced analytical approaches and employing a keen insight into such systems. One of his motivations for this research was to find more efficient means for the utilization of permanent magnets for use in particle accelerators and in the control of particle beams. As a result of his pioneering work, high power free-electron laser systems, such as the ones built at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, became feasible, and his arrays have been incorporated into other particle-focusing systems of various types. This paper reports another, quite different, application of Klaus` work, in the design of high power, high efficiency, electric generators and motors. When tested, these motor/generator systems display some rather remarkable properties. Their success derives from the special properties which these arrays, which the authors choose to call {open_quotes}Halbach arrays,{close_quotes} possess.

  18. ELECTRIC MOTOR DIAGNOSTICS OF SWITCHES BASED ON THE NEURAL NETWORK DATA MODELING THE SPECTRAL DECOMPOSITION OF THE CURRENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Shvets

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The method of automated diagnostics of electric motors is offered. It uses a neural network revealing the electric motor faults on the basis of analysis of frequency spectrum of current flowing through the motor.

  19. Instrument for analysis of electric motors based on slip-poles component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Casada, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    A new instrument for monitoring the condition and speed of an operating electric motor from a remote location. The slip-poles component is derived from a motor current signal. The magnitude of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor condition monitor, while the frequency of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor speed monitor. The result is a simple-to-understand motor health monitor in an easy-to-use package. Straightforward indications of motor speed, motor running current, motor condition (e.g., rotor bar condition) and synthesized motor sound (audible indication of motor condition) are provided. With the device, a relatively untrained worker can diagnose electric motors in the field without requiring the presence of a trained engineer or technician.

  20. Magnetodynamic non-linearity of electric properties of uncompensated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol', V.R.; Mazurenko, O.N.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetodynamic non-linearity of electric properties of normal metals is investigated both experimentally and analytically provided that the drift of charge carriers of high density in crossed electric and magnetic fields results in generation of a self current field. The measurements were made on high purity polycrystalline aluminium cylindrical conductors under the action of the magnetic field, coaxial the sample axis, on the radial current. The electric potential and its nonlinear correction are determined in a wide range of energy dissipation values up to the levels corresponding to the crisis of liquid helium boiling. In the approximation of contribution additivity to the resistive effect of both the external and self magnetic field agreement between the experimental data and the results calculated using the macroscopic field equations is attained. The problems of magnetic energy concentration for cylindrical conductors is discussed in the approximation of long and short solenoids

  1. Stable Operation and Electricity Generating Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Free Piston Engine Linear Generator: Simulation and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel design of a single-cylinder free piston engine linear generator (FPELG incorporating a linear motor as a rebound device. A systematic simulation model of this FPELG system was built containing a kinematic and dynamic model of the piston and mover, a magneto-electric model of the linear generator, a thermodynamic model of the single-cylinder engine, and a friction model between the piston ring and cylinder liner. Simulations were performed to understand the relationships between pre-set motor parameters and the running performance of the FPELG. From the simulation results, it was found that a motor rebound force with a parabolic profile had clear advantages over a force with a triangular profile, such as a higher running frequency and peak cylinder pressure, faster piston motion, etc. The rebound position and the amplitude of rebound force were also determined by simulations. The energy conversion characteristics of the generator were obtained from our FPELG test rig. The parameters of intake pressure, motor frequency, and load resistance were varied over certain ranges, and relationships among these three parameters were obtained. The electricity-generating characteristic parameters include output power and system efficiency, which can measure the quality of matching the controllable parameters. The output power can reach 25.9 W and the system efficiency can reach 13.7%. The results in terms of matching parameters and electricity-generating characteristics should be useful to future research in adapting these engines to various operating modes.

  2. Cloud-based shaft torque estimation for electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Guichen

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve oscillation damping control performance as well as gear shift quality of electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system, a cloud-based shaft torque estimation scheme is proposed in this paper by using measurable motor and wheel speed signals transmitted by wireless network. It can help reduce computational burden of onboard controllers and also relief network bandwidth requirement of individual vehicle. Considering possible delays during signal wireless transmission, delay-dependent full-order observer design is proposed to estimate the shaft torque in cloud server. With these random delays modeled by using homogenous Markov chain, robust H∞ performance is adopted to minimize the effect of wireless network-induced delays, signal measurement noise as well as system modeling uncertainties on shaft torque estimation error. Observer parameters are derived by solving linear matrix inequalities, and simulation results using acceleration test and tip-in, tip-out test demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed shaft torque observer design.

  3. DEVELOPING CONVENIENT MOTOR SELECTION ALGORITHM ACCORDING TO ROAD CONDITIONS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞER, EKREM; ALTUN, YUSUF

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, automotive industry is tending to electric vehicles due to reduction of fuel reserves in order to save energy, reduce air pollution and carbon emission. With the impact of technological advencements on battery and power electronics, the studies on electric vehicles have been gradually increased and many of automobile manifacturers have produced new electric vehicles. Different type of electric motors has been tried on electric vehicles until today. This motors have difference feautu...

  4. Application of Nearly Linear Solvers to Electric Power System Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lisa L.

    To meet the future needs of the electric power system, improvements need to be made in the areas of power system algorithms, simulation, and modeling, specifically to achieve a time frame that is useful to industry. If power system time-domain simulations could run in real-time, then system operators would have situational awareness to implement online control and avoid cascading failures, significantly improving power system reliability. Several power system applications rely on the solution of a very large linear system. As the demands on power systems continue to grow, there is a greater computational complexity involved in solving these large linear systems within reasonable time. This project expands on the current work in fast linear solvers, developed for solving symmetric and diagonally dominant linear systems, in order to produce power system specific methods that can be solved in nearly-linear run times. The work explores a new theoretical method that is based on ideas in graph theory and combinatorics. The technique builds a chain of progressively smaller approximate systems with preconditioners based on the system's low stretch spanning tree. The method is compared to traditional linear solvers and shown to reduce the time and iterations required for an accurate solution, especially as the system size increases. A simulation validation is performed, comparing the solution capabilities of the chain method to LU factorization, which is the standard linear solver for power flow. The chain method was successfully demonstrated to produce accurate solutions for power flow simulation on a number of IEEE test cases, and a discussion on how to further improve the method's speed and accuracy is included.

  5. Development of High-Speed Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric Power Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kumasaka, Yuya; Ichinokura, Osamu

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents design and experimental evaluation of a switched reluctance (SR) motor used for electric power tools. First, characteristics of a previous designed 6/4-pole SR motor is shown and compared to a permanent magnet (PM) motor used in present electric power tools. Next, to further improve characteristics, a 12/8-pole SR motor is designed and evaluated in experiment. It is proved that the performance of the prototype 12/8-pole SR motor is almost comparable or superior to the present PM motor.

  6. Computation of magnetic field in DC brushless linear motors built with NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, A.; Shirkoohi, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    A software package based on finite element technique has been used to compute three-dimensional magnetic fields and static forces developed in brushless d.c. linear motors. As the field flux-source two different types of permanent magnets, one of them being the high energy neodymium- iron-boron type, has been used in computer models. Motors with the same specifications as the computer models were built and experimental results obtained from them are compared with the computed results

  7. Dynamic diagnostics of moving ferromagnetic material with the linear induction motor

    OpenAIRE

    Szewczyk Krzysztof; Walasek Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the application of a three-phase induction motor as a sensor measuring the force of the electromagnetic field connection between the engine and produced sheet steel. The force interaction between the engine and the manufactured sheet metal treated as a treadmill for a linear motor may be an indicator of damage to the material. Detection of places where the sheet does not meet the quality requirements may be very useful in the production process. FEM calculations were perfor...

  8. Efficiency Improvement of a High Dynamic BLDC Linear Motor by Multiphase Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmens, Joris; Vanvlasselaer, Kris; Mulier, Kristof; Goossens, Stijn; Symens, Wim; Driesen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiphase control strategy for a high dynamic brushless DC linear motor as an alternative for conventional three-phase field-oriented control. Analysis of the magnetic field waveforms shows that three-phase control is not optimal for the 6-slot 7-pole motor topology. Therefore, a multiphase control strategy is elaborated which injects currents proportional to the electromotive force into each of the nine stator coil groups. This results in a maximal alignment force ...

  9. Linear switched reluctance motor control with PIC18F452 microcontroller

    OpenAIRE

    DURSUN, Mahir; KOÇ, Fatmagül

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation, control, and experimental results of the velocity of a double-sided, 6/4-poled, 3-phased, 8 A, 24 V, 250 W, and 250 N pull force linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM). In the simulation and experimental study, the reference velocity is constant depending on the position and time. The velocity versus the position of the translator was controlled with fuzzy logic control (FLC) and proportional-integral (PI) control techniques. The motor was control...

  10. A novel tubular linear motor equipped with radially anisotropic NdFeB ring magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hor, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the design synthesis and optimisation of a novel tubular linear motor employing radially magnetised anisotropic ring magnets. Design issues, related to optimising the dimensions for maximum acceleration capability, minimum cogging force and low harmonic distortion in the emf waveform, are discussed. The influence of inhomogeneities in the magnets on the performance of a prototype motor is discussed, and its dynamic performance is validated experimentally against a typical target specification for automated high-speed manufacturing applications. (orig.)

  11. The dynamic response of a linear brushless D.C. motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghani, J.S.; Eastham, J.F. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom). School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes the use of the Matlab Analogue Simulation Toolbox SIMULINK for the closed loop dynamic modeling of a linear brushless dc motor which is supplied from a delta-modulated inverter. The work is validated by experimental results taken from a large test rig. Linear version of all rotating machines are possible; a rotating machine can be notionally cut along a radial plane and unrolled to yield a linear version. The most popular form of linear machine, as judged by the quantities that have been produced is the linear induction motor. This has the advantage of first an inexpensive secondary that is often a simple iron backed conducting plate, and secondly the possibility of simple voltage control. The linear brushless synchronous motor is potentially more expensive to produce than its induction counterpart because of the permanent magnets which provide the excitation mmf and the necessity of an inverter supply. However the machine has a power factor efficiency product which can be double that of an induction motor together with about twice the tractive force per pole area.

  12. Sensory threshold neuromuscular electrical stimulation fosters motor imagery performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, Tiffany; Iturrate, Iñaki; Pereira, Michael; Perdikis, Serafeim; Millán, José Del R

    2018-04-21

    Motor imagery (MI) has been largely studied as a way to enhance motor learning and to restore motor functions. Although it is agreed that users should emphasize kinesthetic imagery during MI, recordings of MI brain patterns are not sufficiently reliable for many subjects. It has been suggested that the usage of somatosensory feedback would be more suitable than standardly used visual feedback to enhance MI brain patterns. However, somatosensory feed-back should not interfere with the recorded MI brain pattern. In this study we propose a novel feedback modality to guide subjects during MI based on sensory threshold neuromuscular electrical stimulation (St-NMES). St-NMES depolarizes sensory and motor axons without eliciting any muscular contraction. We hypothesize that St-NMES does not induce detectable ERD brain patterns and fosters MI performance. Twelve novice subjects were included in a cross-over design study. We recorded their EEG, comparing St-NMES with visual feed-back during MI or resting tasks. We found that St-NMES not only induced significantly larger desynchronization over sensorimotor areas (p<0.05) but also significantly enhanced MI brain connectivity patterns. Moreover, classification accuracy and stability were significantly higher with St-NMES. Importantly, St-NMES alone did not induce detectable artifacts, but rather the changes in the detected patterns were due to an increased MI performance. Our findings indicate that St-NMES is a promising feedback in order to foster MI performance and cold be used for BMI online applications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A U-shaped linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with double feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiang; Liu, Junkao; Chen, Weishan; Shi, Shengjun

    2012-05-01

    A U-shaped linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with double feet was proposed in this paper. The proposed motor contains a horizontal transducer and two vertical transducers. The horizontal transducer includes two exponential shape horns located at the leading ends, and each vertical transducer contains one exponential shape horn. The horns of the horizontal transducer and the vertical transducer intersect at the tip ends where the driving feet are located. Longitudinal vibrations are superimposed in the motor and generate elliptical motions at the driving feet. The two vibration modes of the motor are discussed, and the motion trajectories of driving feet are deduced. By adjusting the structural parameters, the resonance frequencies of two vibration modes were degenerated. A prototype motor was fabricated and measured. Typical output of the prototype is no-load speed of 854 mm/s and maximum thrust force of 40 N at a voltage of 200 V(rms).

  14. PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR BY EDDY CURRENT AND FLUX DENSITY DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. MANNA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of electromagnetic devices as machines, transformers, heating devices confronts the engineers with several problems. For the design of an optimized geometry and the prediction of the operational behaviour an accurate knowledge of the dependencies of the field quantities inside the magnetic circuits is necessary. This paper provides the eddy current and core flux density distribution analysis in linear induction motor. Magnetic flux in the air gap of the Linear Induction Motor (LIM is reduced to various losses such as end effects, fringes, effect, skin effects etc. The finite element based software package COMSOL Multiphysics Inc. USA is used to get the reliable and accurate computational results for optimization the performance of Linear Induction Motor (LIM. The geometrical characteristics of LIM are varied to find the optimal point of thrust and minimum flux leakage during static and dynamic conditions.

  15. Numerical studies on the force characteristic of superconducting linear synchronous motor with HTS bulk magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junjie; Li, Jing; Li, Xiang; Han, Le

    2018-03-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) bulks have significant potential use in linear motor application act as quasi-permanent magnet to replace traditional magnets. Force characteristic between HTS bulk magnet and traveling magnetic field was investigated with numerical simulation and experimental measurement in this paper. Influences of bulk height and number on the force characteristic were studied by the finite element model considering the nonlinear E-J relationship. Study was also made on addition of a back iron plate to the bulk magnet. Besides, force characteristic of bulk was compared with the permanent magnet results. The small initial decrease of the thrust could be explained by inside superconducting current redistribution. It was found that efficiency of linear motor did not increase by adding more bulk magnets. The bulk magnet will be remagnetized instead of erasing trapped field with the increase of the traveling magnetic field strength. The conclusions are helpful in prediction and design the linear motor with HTS bulk magnet.

  16. Improvement of motor inertia influence of electric power steering; Dendoshiki power steering no motor kansei no eikyo to hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, S; Sakamoto, K; Hanamoto, Y [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Noritsugu, T [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Motor inertia of electric power steering affects not only steering characteristics but vehicle dynamics. We have investigated the influence of motor inertia and proposed a feedback strategy to compensate it. Weight of the test vehicle is 1100Kg and the steering system is pinion type electric power steering. By using simulation model and vehicle test, we have realized natural steering maneuvering and stable vehicle dynamics. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  17. A METHOD OF AUTOMATIC DETERMINATION OF THE NUMBER OF THE ELECTRICAL MOTORS SIMULTANEOUSLY WORKING IN GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Voloshko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Propose a method of automatic determination of the number of operating high voltage electric motors in the group of the same type based on the determination and analysis of the account data of power consumption, obtained from of electric power meters installed at the connection of motors. Results. The algorithm of the automatic determination program for the number of working in the same group of electric motors, which is based on the determination of the motor power minimum value at which it is considered on, was developed. Originality. For the first time a method of automatic determination of the number of working of the same type high-voltage motors group was proposed. Practical value. Obtained results may be used for the introduction of an automated accounting run of each motor, calculating the parameters of the equivalent induction motor or a synchronous motor.

  18. Force Profiles of a Linear Switched Reluctance Motor Having Special Pole Face Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHADRESEKAR, V.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of a finite element analysis are carried out on an new stator geometry of a three phase longitudinal flux Linear Switched Reluctance Motor (LSRM. In the new geometry, pole shoes are affixed to the stator poles. Static and dynamic characteristics for the proposed structure have been highlighted. Motor performance for variable load conditions is discussed. Frequency spectrum analyses of force profile using the fast Fourier transform (FFT are described to predict the vibration frequencies. The 2-Dimensional (2-D finite element analysis (FEA and the experimental results of this paper prove that LSRMs are one of the strong candidates for linear propulsion drives.

  19. Apparatus and method to pulverize rock using a superconducting electromagnetic linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, Alex (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A rock pulverizer device based on a superconducting linear motor. The superconducting electromagnetic rock pulverizer accelerates a projectile via a superconducting linear motor and directs the projectile at high speed toward a rock structure that is to be pulverized by collision of the speeding projectile with the rock structure. The rock pulverizer is comprised of a trapped field superconducting secondary magnet mounted on a movable car following a track, a wire wound series of primary magnets mounted on the track, and the complete magnet/track system mounted on a vehicle used for movement of the pulverizer through a mine as well as for momentum transfer during launch of the rock breaking projectile.

  20. Investigation and Calculation of Magnetic Field in Tubular Linear Reluctance Motor Using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOSALLANEJAD, A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the magnetic flux density of tubular linear reluctance motor (TLRM in open type magnetic circuit is studied. Also, all magnetic flux density calculation methods in winding of tubular linear reluctance motor are described. The effect of structure parameters on magnetic flux density is also discussed. Electromagnetic finite-element analysis is used for simulation of magnetic field, and simulation results of the magnetic field analysis with DC voltage excitation are compared with results obtained from calculation methods. The comparison yields a good agreement.

  1. Force prediction in permanent magnet flat linear motors (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, J.F.; Akmese, R.

    1991-01-01

    The advent of neodymium iron boron rare-earth permanent magnet material has afforded the opportunity to construct linear machines of high force to weight ratio. The paper describes the design and construction of an axial flux machine and rotating drum test rig. The machine occupies an arc of 45 degree on a drum 1.22 m in diameter. The excitation is provided by blocks of NdFeB material which are skewed in order to minimize the force variations due to slotting. The stator carries a three-phase short-chorded double-layer winding of four poles. The machine is supplied by a PWM inverter the fundamental component of which is phase locked to the rotor position so that a ''dc brushless'' drive system is produced. Electromagnetic forces including ripple forces are measured at supply frequencies up to 100 Hz. They are compared with finite-element analysis which calculates the force variation over the time period. The paper then considers some of the causes of ripple torque. In particular, the force production due solely to the permanent magnet excitation is considered. This has two important components each acting along the line of motion of the machine, one is due to slotting and the other is due to the finite length of the primary. In the practical machine the excitation poles are skewed to minimize the slotting force and the effectiveness of this is confirmed by both results from the experiments and the finite-element analysis. The end effect force is shown to have a space period of twice that of the excitation. The amplitude of this force and its period are again confirmed by practical results

  2. A Squirrel Cage Type Electric Motor Rotor Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-05

    cage motor, but also provides efficiencies approaching those of permanent magnet motors . With the above and other objects in view, as will...and active motor life relative to known permanent magnet motors . Referring to FIG. 4, there is illustrated an alternative embodiment in which...part the.known advantages of a squirrel cage motor, and further provides improved efficiencies approaching those of permanent magnet motors . It is to

  3. An Evaluation of Electric Motors for Ship Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    AIM). Permanent magnet motors are more power dense than a comparatively sized in- duction motor. The permanent magnet motor has been chosen to...study. They include the axial flux, the ra- dial flux, and the transverse flux permanent magnet motors . Each motor has its unique advantages...to be ideal for ship propulsion, work is ongoing to develop the PMSM for ship propulsion. Permanent magnet motors are expected to have significant

  4. Generating linear regression model to predict motor functions by use of laser range finder during TUG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Daiki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Hotta, Takayuki; Tashiro, Yuto; Morino, Saori; Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nozaki, Yuma; Hirata, Hinako; Yamaguchi, Moe; Yorozu, Ayanori; Takahashi, Masaki; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate which spatial and temporal parameters of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test are associated with motor function in elderly individuals. This study included 99 community-dwelling women aged 72.9 ± 6.3 years. Step length, step width, single support time, variability of the aforementioned parameters, gait velocity, cadence, reaction time from starting signal to first step, and minimum distance between the foot and a marker placed to 3 in front of the chair were measured using our analysis system. The 10-m walk test, five times sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test, and one-leg standing (OLS) test were used to assess motor function. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was used to determine which TUG test parameters were associated with each motor function test. Finally, we calculated a predictive model for each motor function test using each regression coefficient. In stepwise linear regression analysis, step length and cadence were significantly associated with the 10-m walk test, FTSTS and OLS test. Reaction time was associated with the FTSTS test, and step width was associated with the OLS test. Each predictive model showed a strong correlation with the 10-m walk test and OLS test (P motor function test. Moreover, the TUG test time regarded as the lower extremity function and mobility has strong predictive ability in each motor function test. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Submerged electricity generation plane with marine current-driven motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlsen, James G.P.; Dehlsen, James B.; Fleming, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    An underwater apparatus for generating electric power from ocean currents and deep water tides. A submersible platform including two or more power pods, each having a rotor with fixed-pitch blades, with drivetrains housed in pressure vessels that are connected by a transverse structure providing buoyancy, which can be a wing depressor, hydrofoil, truss, or faired tube. The platform is connected to anchors on the seafloor by forward mooring lines and a vertical mooring line that restricts the depth of the device in the water column. The platform operates using passive, rather than active, depth control. The wing depressor, along with rotor drag loads, ensures the platform seeks the desired operational current velocity. The rotors are directly coupled to a hydraulic pump that drives at least one constant-speed hydraulic-motor generator set and enables hydraulic braking. A fluidic bearing decouples non-torque rotor loads to the main shaft driving the hydraulic pumps.

  6. ELECTRIC MOTORS MAINTENANCE PLANNING FROM ITS OPERATING VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco RODRIGUES

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance planning corresponds to an approach that seeks to maximize the availability of equipment and, conse-quently, increase the levels of competitiveness of companies by increasing production times. This paper presents a maintenance planning based on operating variables (number of hours worked, duty cycles, number of revolutions to maximizing the availability of operation of electrical motors. The reading of the operating variables and its sampling is done based on predetermined sampling cycles and subsequently is made the data analysis through time series algo-rithms aiming to launch work orders before reaching the variables limit values. This approach is supported by tools and technologies such as logical applications that enable a graphical user interface for access to relevant information about their Physical Asset HMI (Human Machine Interface, including the control and supervision by acquisition through SCADA (Supervisory Control And data acquisition data, also including the communication protocols among different logical applications.

  7. Electric motor drive unit, especially adjustment drive for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litterst, P

    1980-05-29

    An electric motor drive unit, particularly an adjustment drive for vehicles with at least two parallel drive shafts is described, which is compact and saves space, and whose manufacturing costs are low compared with those of well-known drive units of this type. The drive unit contains a suitable number of magnet systems, preferably permanent magnet systems, whose pole axes are spaced and run parallel. The two pole magnet systems have diametrically opposite shell-shaped segments, to which the poles are fixed. In at least one magnet system the two segments are connected by diametrically opposite flat walls parallel to the pole axes to form a single magnetic circuit pole housing. The segments of at least one other magnet system are arranged on this pole housing so that one of these flat walls is a magnetically conducting, connecting component of the magnetic circuit of the other magnet system.

  8. Method and system for operating an electric motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Hiti, Silva; Perisic, Milun

    2013-01-22

    Methods and systems for operating an electric motor having a plurality of windings with an inverter having a plurality of switches coupled to a voltage source are provided. A first plurality of switching vectors is applied to the plurality of switches. The first plurality of switching vectors includes a first ratio of first magnitude switching vectors to second magnitude switching vectors. A direct current (DC) current associated with the voltage source is monitored during the applying of the first plurality of switching vectors to the plurality of switches. A second ratio of the first magnitude switching vectors to the second magnitude switching vectors is selected based on the monitoring of the DC current associated with the voltage source. A second plurality of switching vectors is applied to the plurality of switches. The second plurality of switching vectors includes the second ratio of the first magnitude switching vectors to the second magnitude switching vectors.

  9. Electric Motors Maintenance Planning From Its Operating Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisco; Fonseca, Inácio; Farinha, José Torres; Ferreira, Luís; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The maintenance planning corresponds to an approach that seeks to maximize the availability of equipment and, consequently, increase the levels of competitiveness of companies by increasing production times. This paper presents a maintenance planning based on operating variables (number of hours worked, duty cycles, number of revolutions) to maximizing the availability of operation of electrical motors. The reading of the operating variables and its sampling is done based on predetermined sampling cycles and subsequently is made the data analysis through time series algorithms aiming to launch work orders before reaching the variables limit values. This approach is supported by tools and technologies such as logical applications that enable a graphical user interface for access to relevant information about their Physical Asset HMI (Human Machine Interface), including the control and supervision by acquisition through SCADA (Supervisory Control And data acquisition) data, also including the communication protocols among different logical applications.

  10. Dynamic linear modeling of monthly electricity demand in Japan: Time variation of electricity conservation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita; Shiraki, Hiroto; Ashina, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    After the severe nuclear disaster in Fukushima, which was triggered by the Great East Japan earthquake in March 2011, nuclear power plants in Japan were temporarily shut down for mandatory inspections. To prevent large-scale blackouts, the Japanese government requested companies and households to reduce electricity consumption in summer and winter. It is reported that the domestic electricity demand had a structural decrease because of the electricity conservation effect (ECE). However, quantitative analysis of the ECE is not sufficient, and especially time variation of the ECE remains unclear. Understanding the ECE is important because Japan's NDC (nationally determined contribution) assumes the reduction of CO2 emissions through aggressive energy conservation. In this study, we develop a time series model of monthly electricity demand in Japan and estimate time variation of the ECE. Moreover, we evaluate the impact of electricity conservation on CO2 emissions from power plants. The dynamic linear model is used to separate the ECE from the effects of other irrelevant factors (e.g. air temperature, economic production, and electricity price). Our result clearly shows that consumers' electricity conservation behavior after the earthquake was not temporary but became established as a habit. Between March 2011 and March 2016, the ECE on industrial electricity demand ranged from 3.9% to 5.4%, and the ECE on residential electricity demand ranged from 1.6% to 7.6%. The ECE on the total electricity demand was estimated at 3.2%-6.0%. We found a seasonal pattern that the residential ECE in summer is higher than that in winter. The emissions increase from the shutdown of nuclear power plants was mitigated by electricity conservation. The emissions reduction effect was estimated at 0.82 MtCO2-2.26 MtCO2 (-4.5% on average compared to the zero-ECE case). The time-varying ECE is necessary for predicting Japan's electricity demand and CO2 emissions after the earthquake.

  11. Helios Prototype on lakebed during ground check of electric motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Helios Prototype is an enlarged version of the Centurion flying wing, which flew a series of test flights at Dryden in late 1998. The craft has a wingspan of 247 feet, 41 feet greater than the Centurion, 2 1/2 times that of its solar-powered Pathfinder flying wing, and longer than either the Boeing 747 jetliner or Lockheed C-5 transport aircraft. Helios is one of several remotely-piloted aircraft-also known as uninhabited aerial vehicles or UAV's-being developed as technology demonstrators by several small airframe manufacturers under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., of Monrovia, Calif., the unique craft is intended to demonstrate two key missions: the ability to reach and sustain horizontal flight at 100,000 feet altitude on a single-day flight, and to maintain flight above 50,000 feet altitude for at least four days, both on electrical power derived from non-polluting solar energy. During later flights, AeroVironment's flight test team will evaluate new motor-control software which may allow the pitch of the aircraft-the nose-up or nose-down attitude in relation to the horizon-to be controlled entirely by the motors. If successful, productions versions of the Helios could eliminate the elevators on the wing's trailing edge now used for pitch control, saving weight and increasing the area of the wing available for installation of solar cells.

  12. Determination of the needed power of an electric motor on the basis of acceleration time of the electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapundzhiev, M.; Evtimov, I.; Ivanov, R.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an upgraded methodology for determination of the electric motor power considering the time for acceleration. The influence of the speed factor of electric motor on the value of needed power at same acceleration time is studied. Some calculations on the basis of real vehicle were made. The numeric and graphical results are given. They show a decrease of needed power with the increase of the speed factor of motor, because the high speed factor allows the use of a larger range of the characteristic with the maximum power of the motor. An experimental verification of methodology was done.

  13. A speed estimation unit for induction motors based on adaptive linear combiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marei, Mostafa I.; Shaaban, Mostafa F.; El-Sattar, Ahmed A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new induction motor speed estimation technique, which can estimate the rotor resistance as well, from the measured voltage and current signals. Moreover, the paper utilizes a novel adaptive linear combiner (ADALINE) structure for speed and rotor resistance estimations. This structure can deal with the multi-output systems and it is called MO-ADALINE. The model of the induction motor is arranged in a linear form, in the stationary reference frame, to cope with the proposed speed estimator. There are many advantages of the proposed unit such as wide speed range capability, immunity against harmonics of measured waveforms, and precise estimation of the speed and the rotor resistance at different dynamic changes. Different types of induction motor drive systems are used to evaluate the dynamic performance and to examine the accuracy of the proposed unit for speed and rotor resistance estimation.

  14. Thermal analysis of linear pulse motor for SMART control element drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, H.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. I.; Jang, K. C.; Kang, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    It is important that the temperature of the motor windings be maintained within the allowable limit of the insulation, since the linear pulse motor of CEDM is always supplied with current during the reactor operation. In this study three motor windings were fabricated with three different diameters of coil wires, and the temperatures inside the windings were measured with different current values. As the insulation of the windings is composed of teflon, glass fiber, and air, it is not an easy task to determine experimentally the thermal properties of the complex insulation. In this study, the thermal properties of the insulation were obtained by comparing the results of finite element thermal analyses and those of experiment. The thermal properties obtained here will be used as input for the optimization analysis of the motor

  15. Speed Sensorless mixed sensitivity linear parameter variant H_inf control of the induction motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toth, R.; Fodor, D.

    2004-01-01

    The paper shows the design of a robust control structure for the speed sensorless vector control of the IM, based on the mixed sensitivity (MS) linear parameter variant (LPV) H8 control theory. The controller makes possible the direct control of the flux and speed of the motor with torque adaptation

  16. Torque decomposition and control in an iron core linear permanent magnet motor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overboom, T.T.; Smeets, J.P.C.; Stassen, J.M.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract—This paper concerns the decomposition and control of the torque produced by an iron core linear permanent magnet motor. The proposed method is based on the dq0-decomposition of the three-phase currents using Park’s transformation. The torque is decomposed into a reluctance component and two

  17. Power-optimal force decoupling in a hybrid linear reluctance motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overboom, T.T.; Smeets, J.P.C.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.A.; Mavrudieva, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns the power-optimal decoupling of the propulsion and normal force created by a hybrid linear reluctance motor. The intrinsic limitations to the decoupling is addressed by the visualizing each force component with a quadric surface in the Euclidean space which is spanned by the

  18. Comparison of Thrust Characteristics in Pencil Sized Cylinder-type Linear Motors with Different Magnet Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Nakaiwa, K; Yamada, A; Tashiro, K; Wakiwaka, H

    2009-01-01

    From a strong demand on the miniaturization of a chip mounter or a semiconductor device, the thrust improvement considering the magnets arrangement is studied. We accept a core stator with a Halbach type magnet array for a current linear motor. The thrust characteristics are compared with two kinds of mover, a NS magnet array and a Halbach magnet array.

  19. Overview of analytical models for the design of linear and planar motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.W.; Smeets, J.P.C.; Overboom, T.T.; Rovers, J.M.M.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of analytical techniques for the modeling of linear and planar permanent-magnet motors is given. These models can be used complementary to finite element analyses for fast evaluations of topologies, but they are indispensable for the design of magnetically levitated planar

  20. Motor properties from persistence: a linear molecular walker lacking spatial and temporal asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckermann, Martin J; Forde, Nancy R; Angstmann, Christopher N; Schmitt, Regina; Linke, Heiner; Blab, Gerhard A; Bromley, Elizabeth HC; Curmi, Paul MG

    2015-01-01

    The stepping direction of linear molecular motors is usually defined by a spatial asymmetry of the motor, its track, or both. Here we present a model for a molecular walker that undergoes biased directional motion along a symmetric track in the presence of a temporally symmetric chemical cycle. Instead of using asymmetry, directionality is achieved by persistence. At small load force the walker can take on average thousands of steps in a given direction until it stochastically reverses direction. We discuss a specific experimental implementation of a synthetic motor based on this design and find, using Langevin and Monte Carlo simulations, that a realistic walker can work against load forces on the order of picoNewtons with an efficiency of ∼18%, comparable to that of kinesin. In principle, the walker can be turned into a permanent motor by externally monitoring the walker’s momentary direction of motion, and using feedback to adjust the direction of a load force. We calculate the thermodynamic cost of using feedback to enhance motor performance in terms of the Shannon entropy, and find that it reduces the efficiency of a realistic motor only marginally. We discuss the implications for natural protein motor performance in the context of the strong performance of this design based only on a thermal ratchet. (paper)

  1. Dynamic modeling and characteristics analysis of a modal-independent linear ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Shengli; Lv, Qibao; Liu, Zhen

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an integrated model is developed to analyze the fundamental characteristics of a modal-independent linear ultrasonic motor with double piezoelectric vibrators. The energy method is used to model the dynamics of the two piezoelectric vibrators. The interface forces are coupled into the dynamic equations of the two vibrators and the moving platform, forming a whole machine model of the motor. The behavior of the force transmission of the motor is analyzed via the resulting model to understand the drive mechanism. In particular, the relative contact length is proposed to describe the intermittent contact characteristic between the stator and the mover, and its role in evaluating motor performance is discussed. The relations between the output speed and various inputs to the motor and the start-stop transients of the motor are analyzed by numerical simulations, which are validated by experiments. Furthermore, the dead-zone behavior is predicted and clarified analytically using the proposed model, which is also observed in experiments. These results are useful for designing servo control scheme for the motor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. NRC Information No. 88-12: Overgreasing of electric motor bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    NRC personnel observed accumulations of grease on the air vent screens of electric motors used for driving such rotating equipment as fans and pumps at the Millstone and Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plants. The grease appeared to have come from overgreasing of the electric motor bearings. Grease was forced out of the bearing seals, onto the stator windings and rotor, from where it either fell or was thrown onto the inside of the motor housing. Because of these observations, the NRC began an investigation into problems that have been caused in the past, or could be caused in the future, by the overgreasing of electric motor bearings. The NRC staff has solicited technical information and operating experience on the problems caused by the overgreasing of electric motor bearings from motor and bearing manufacturers, as well as from other licensees. Their responses are summarized in this discussion

  3. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... to Subpart U of Part 431—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors Step 1. The first...

  4. T & I--Electric Motors. Kit No. 621. Instructor's Manual and Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomar, William

    This instructor's manual and student learning activity guide comprise a kit for trade and industrial education (T & I) activities on electric motors. Purpose stated for the activities is to teach the student the four basic types of electric motors, the advantages and disadvantages of each, the types of jobs each can perform, and how to disassemble…

  5. Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbrien, E. F.; Tryon, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The differences in the performance of dc motors are evaluated when operating with chopper type controllers, and when operating on direct current. The interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences are investigated. Motor-controlled tests provided some of the data the quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple free and chopper modes of operation.

  6. Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Nagy, Csaba

    This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different

  7. Current error vector based prediction control of the section winding permanent magnet linear synchronous motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Junjie, E-mail: hongjjie@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li Liyi, E-mail: liliyi@hit.edu.cn [Dept. Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000 (China); Zong Zhijian; Liu Zhongtu [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} The structure of the permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (SW-PMLSM) is new. {yields} A new current control method CEVPC is employed in this motor. {yields} The sectional power supply method is different to the others and effective. {yields} The performance gets worse with voltage and current limitations. - Abstract: To include features such as greater thrust density, higher efficiency without reducing the thrust stability, this paper proposes a section winding permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (SW-PMLSM), whose iron core is continuous, whereas winding is divided. The discrete system model of the motor is derived. With the definition of the current error vector and selection of the value function, the theory of the current error vector based prediction control (CEVPC) for the motor currents is explained clearly. According to the winding section feature, the motion region of the mover is divided into five zones, in which the implementation of the current predictive control method is proposed. Finally, the experimental platform is constructed and experiments are carried out. The results show: the current control effect has good dynamic response, and the thrust on the mover remains constant basically.

  8. Unmasking the linear behaviour of slow motor adaptation to prolonged convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkelens, Ian M; Thompson, Benjamin; Bobier, William R

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation to changing environmental demands is central to maintaining optimal motor system function. Current theories suggest that adaptation in both the skeletal-motor and oculomotor systems involves a combination of fast (reflexive) and slow (recalibration) mechanisms. Here we used the oculomotor vergence system as a model to investigate the mechanisms underlying slow motor adaptation. Unlike reaching with the upper limbs, vergence is less susceptible to changes in cognitive strategy that can affect the behaviour of motor adaptation. We tested the hypothesis that mechanisms of slow motor adaptation reflect early neural processing by assessing the linearity of adaptive responses over a large range of stimuli. Using varied disparity stimuli in conflict with accommodation, the slow adaptation of tonic vergence was found to exhibit a linear response whereby the rate (R(2)  = 0.85, P < 0.0001) and amplitude (R(2)  = 0.65, P < 0.0001) of the adaptive effects increased proportionally with stimulus amplitude. These results suggest that this slow adaptive mechanism is an early neural process, implying a fundamental physiological nature that is potentially dominated by subcortical and cerebellar substrates. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Electric motor-transformer aggregate in hermetic objects of transport vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabora, Igor

    2017-10-01

    The construction and features of operation for new electrical unit - electric motor-transformer aggregate (DTA) are considered. Induction motors are intended for operation in hermetic plants with extreme conditions surrounding gas, steam-to-gas and liquid environment at a high temperature (to several hundred of degrees). Main objective of spent researches is the substantiation of possibility reliable and effective electric power transform with electric machine means directly in hermetic objects with extreme conditions environment by means of new DTA. The principle and job analysis of new disk induction motors of block-module type are observed.

  10. Design and testing of a coaxial linear magnetic spring with integral linear motor. [for spacecraft energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    The design of a coaxial linear magnetic spring which incorporates a linear motor to control axial motion and overcome system damping is presented, and the results of static and dynamic tests are reported. The system has nominal stiffness 25,000 N/m and is designed to oscillate a 900-g component over a 4.6-mm stroke in a Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerator being developed for long-service (5-10-yr) space applications (Stolfi et al., 1983). Mosaics of 10 radially magnetized high-coercivity SmCO5 segments enclosed in Ti cans are employed, and the device is found to have quality factor 70-100, corresponding to energy-storage efficiency 91-94 percent. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs are provided.

  11. A superconducting linear motor drive for a positive displacement bellows pump for use in the g-2 cryogenics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1994-10-01

    Forced two-phase cooling of indirectly cooled magnets requires circulation of liquid helium through the magnet cooling channel. A bellows helium pump is one possible way of providing helium flow to a magnet cooling system. Since the bellows type of helium pump is immersed in liquid helium, a superconducting linear motor drive appears to be an attractive option. This report describes a linear motor drive that employs oriented permanent magnet materials such as samarium-cobalt as the stator magnet system and a superconducting loud speaker voice coil type of drive as the armature of the linear motor. This report examines drive motor requirements for a helium pump

  12. Universal Linear Motor Driven Leg Press Dynamometer and Concept of Serial Stretch Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Paper deals with backgrounds and principles of universal linear motor driven leg press dynamometer and concept of serial stretch loading. The device is based on two computer controlled linear motors mounted to the horizontal rails. As the motors can keep either constant resistance force in selected position or velocity in both directions, the system allows simulation of any mode of muscle contraction. In addition, it also can generate defined serial stretch stimuli in a form of repeated force peaks. This is achieved by short segments of reversed velocity (in concentric phase) or acceleration (in eccentric phase). Such stimuli, generated at the rate of 10 Hz, have proven to be a more efficient means for the improvement of rate of the force development. This capability not only affects performance in many sports, but also plays a substantial role in prevention of falls and their consequences. Universal linear motor driven and computer controlled dynamometer with its unique feature to generate serial stretch stimuli seems to be an efficient and useful tool for enhancing strength training effects on neuromuscular function not only in athletes, but as well as in senior population and rehabilitation patients.

  13. A study on the integration of contactless energy transfer in the end teeth of a PM synchronous linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, D.C.J.; Lomonova, E.A.; Jansen, J.W.; Paulides, J.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Linear motors find their utilization in an increasing number of industrial applications. Permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (PMLSMs) are favorable in many applications due to their servo characteristics, robustness, and high force density. The major disadvantage of moving coil type PMLSMs is

  14. Application of an imperialist competitive algorithm to the design of a linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Caro; Nasiri-Gheidari, Zahra; Tootoonchian, Farid

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a novel optimization algorithm based on imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) is used for the design of a low speed single sided linear induction motor (LIM). This type of motors is used increasingly in industrial process specially in transportation systems. In these applications having high efficiency with high power factor is very important. So in this paper the objective function of design is presented considering both efficiency and power factor. Finally the results of ICA are compared with the ones of genetic algorithm and conventional design. Comparison shows the success of ICA for design of LIMs.

  15. Development of sealed nickel-cadmium battery for linear motor car (Maglev). Linear motor car yo Ni-Cd denchi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, K; Yoshimura, H; Yufu, H [Yuasa Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1993-10-29

    Development was made of a linear motor car use battery which is strong in repetition of quick charging/discharging and characterized as follows: Its volumetric energy density is 42Wh/kg which is 1.3 times as high as the conventional one. It excels in high efficiency charging/discharging characteristics. High tension steel sheet is used for it, which is incombustible. To lighten the weight, paste type electrodes and high yield point materials were used for the positive and negative electrodes, and jar materials, respectively. To heighten the charging/discharging characteristics, used were electrodes heightened in current collecting effect. To lengthening the life, unwoven nylon cloth was used as a separator. Also to heighten the thermal discharge characteristics, the electrodes were made metallic with a fitting of cooling fins. The battery characteristics as tested gave the following result: At a capacity ratio of 100%, the discharging factor cleared its target value of development also with a high discharging voltage. The charging/discharging characteristics hardly fall in the high temperature region. The charging characteristics include quick charging made possible. As a result of cyclic simulation presuming the linear motor car, the fall in capacity per cycle was as good as 1.5%. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Inertial piezoelectric linear motor driven by a single-phase harmonic wave with automatic clamping mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liangguo; Chu, Yuheng; Hao, Sai; Zhao, Xiaoyong; Dong, Yuge; Wang, Yong

    2018-05-01

    A novel, single-phase, harmonic-driven, inertial piezoelectric linear motor using an automatic clamping mechanism was designed, fabricated, and tested to reduce the sliding friction and simplify the drive mechanism and power supply control of the inertial motor. A piezoelectric bimorph and a flexible hinge were connected in series to form the automatic clamping mechanism. The automatic clamping mechanism was used as the driving and clamping elements. A dynamic simulation by Simulink was performed to prove the feasibility of the motor. The finite element method software COMSOL was used to design the structure of the motor. An experimental setup was built to validate the working principle and evaluate the performance of the motor. The prototype motor outputted a no-load velocity of 3.178 mm/s at a voltage of 220 Vp-p and a maximum traction force of 4.25 N under a preload force of 8 N. The minimum resolution of 1.14 μm was achieved at a driving frequency of 74 Hz, a driving voltage of 50 Vp-p, and a preload force of 0 N.

  17. A rectangle-type linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with four driving feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun

    2013-04-01

    To make full use of the vibrational energy of a longitudinal transducer, a rectangle-type linear ultrasonic motor with four driving feet is proposed in this paper. This new motor consists of four longitudinal vibration transducers which are arranged in a rectangle and form an enclosed construction. Lead zirconate titanate ceramics are embedded into the middle of the transducer and fastened by a wedge-caulking mechanism. Each transducer includes an exponentially shaped horn located on each end. The horns of the vertical transducers intersect at the base of the horizontal transducers' horns; the tip ends of the horizontal transducers' horns are used as the driving feet. Longitudinal vibrations are superimposed in the motor and generate elliptical movements at the tip ends of the horns. The working principle of the proposed motor is analyzed. The resonance frequencies of two working modes are tuned to be close to each other by adjusting the structural parameters. Transient analysis is developed to gain the vibration characteristics of the motor. A prototype motor is fabricated and measured. The vibration test results verify the feasibility of the proposed design. Typical output of the prototype is a no-load speed of 928 mm/s and maximum thrust force of 60 N at a voltage of 200 Vrms.

  18. Development of an ultrasonic linear motor with ultra-positioning capability and four driving feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cong; Chu, Xiangcheng; Yuan, Songmei; Zhong, Zuojin; Zhao, Yanqiang; Gao, Shuning

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a novel linear piezoelectric motor which is suitable for rapid ultra-precision positioning. The finite element analysis (FEA) was applied for optimal design and further analysis, then experiments were conducted to investigate its performance. By changing the input signal, the proposed motor was found capable of working in the fast driving mode as well as in the precision positioning mode. When working in the fast driving mode, the motor acts as an ultrasonic motor with maximum no-load speed up to 181.2mm/s and maximum thrust of 1.7N at 200Vp-p. Also, when working in precision positioning mode, the motor can be regarded as a flexible hinge piezoelectric actuator with arbitrary motion in the range of 8μm. The measurable minimum output displacement was found to be 0.08μm, but theoretically, can be even smaller. More importantly, the motor can be quickly and accurately positioned in a large stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS AND MOTOR DRIVES: FEASIBILITY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study (part 1) of fuzzy logic motor control (FLMC). The study included: 1) reviews of existing applications of fuzzy logic, of motor operation, and of motor control; 2) a description of motor control schemes that can utilize FLMC; 3) selection of a m...

  20. Electric Motors Everywhere: Most Forms of Energy Go through Some Conversion Process to Do Useful Work for Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses electric motors and the many ways in which they are used. Selecting the most appropriate miniature DC electric motor wisely will contribute toward success and satisfaction in designing and building motorized projects and activities. Typical parts suppliers stock a variety of miniature DC motors and provide sufficient…

  1. Implementation of a Non-Metallic Barrier in an Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    M?Sadoques, George; Carra, Michael; Beringer, Woody

    2012-01-01

    Electric motors that run in pure oxygen must be sealed, or "canned," for safety reasons to prevent the oxygen from entering into the electrical portion of the motor. The current canning process involves designing a metallic barrier around the rotor to provide the separation. This metallic barrier reduces the motor efficiency as speed is increased. In higher-speed electric motors, efficiency is greatly improved if a very thin, nonmetallic barrier can be utilized. The barrier thickness needs to be approximately 0.025-in. (.0.6-mm) thick and can be made of a brittle material such as glass. The motors, however, designed for space applications are typically subject to high-vibration environments. A fragile, non-metallic barrier can be utilized in a motor assembly if held in place by a set of standard rubber O-ring seals. The O-rings provide the necessary sealing to keep oxygen away from the electrical portion of the motor and also isolate the fragile barrier from the harsh motor vibration environment. The compliance of the rubber O-rings gently constrains the fragile barrier and isolates it from the harsh external motor environment. The use of a non-metallic barrier greatly improves motor performance, especially at higher speeds, while isolating the electronics from the working fluid with an inert liner.

  2. Design elements and quantitative results of synchronous longstator linear motors for high-speed magnetic trains taking the TRANSRAPID test facility in Emsland as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerst, R [Industrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Magnetbahn-Versuchsanlage, Lathen/Ems (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In German high-speed magnetic train technology, iron-clad synchronous long-stator linear motors of levitation stator design are used to propel and brake the vehicles. This paper uses the propulsion design of the Transrapid test facility in Emsland (TVE) to illustrate in practical terms the dimensioning parameters for thrust calculations and their interdependencies. The paper is based on description conventions common for rotating electrical machines and rail technology. (orig.)

  3. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced.

  4. Method and system for early detection of incipient faults in electric motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G; Kim, Kyusung

    2003-07-08

    A method and system for early detection of incipient faults in an electric motor are disclosed. First, current and voltage values for one or more phases of the electric motor are measured during motor operations. A set of current predictions is then determined via a neural network-based current predictor based on the measured voltage values and an estimate of motor speed values of the electric motor. Next, a set of residuals is generated by combining the set of current predictions with the measured current values. A set of fault indicators is subsequently computed from the set of residuals and the measured current values. Finally, a determination is made as to whether or not there is an incipient electrical, mechanical, and/or electromechanical fault occurring based on the comparison result of the set of fault indicators and a set of predetermined baseline values.

  5. Regarding the NVH Behaviour of the more Electric Vehicles. Study Case of a Small PM Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Lazăr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The noise and vibration behaviour of electric and hybrid vehicles is dramatically different from conventional vehicles. The noise and vibration mechanisms of the individual components (combustion engine, electric motor, transmission etc. are known in principle, but an electric or hybrid powertrain features additional and different components as well as new operation modes compared to a conventional powertrain. This results in new interactions which are uncommon in this form for conventional vehicles. In the case of the electric traction, the electric motor becomes an important noise and vibrations source. Depending on the design of the motor, the electromagnetic (EM pulses and corresponding torque pulses from the motor can be very strong. These can be radiated as noise directly from the motor housing and can also be transmitted structurally to the support structure through the motor mounts. However, the EM forces are generally lower than the combustion and reciprocating mass forces of an IC engine, and significantly, they are at a much higher frequency. On the other side, the electric drives are quite numerous in cars. Lot of smaller motors are involved in X-by-wire systems or other comfort oriented systems. As a study case, the paper is focused on the NVH produced by a 0.25kW PM motor.

  6. Dynamic linear modeling of monthly electricity demand in Japan: Time variation of electricity conservation effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Honjo

    Full Text Available After the severe nuclear disaster in Fukushima, which was triggered by the Great East Japan earthquake in March 2011, nuclear power plants in Japan were temporarily shut down for mandatory inspections. To prevent large-scale blackouts, the Japanese government requested companies and households to reduce electricity consumption in summer and winter. It is reported that the domestic electricity demand had a structural decrease because of the electricity conservation effect (ECE. However, quantitative analysis of the ECE is not sufficient, and especially time variation of the ECE remains unclear. Understanding the ECE is important because Japan's NDC (nationally determined contribution assumes the reduction of CO2 emissions through aggressive energy conservation. In this study, we develop a time series model of monthly electricity demand in Japan and estimate time variation of the ECE. Moreover, we evaluate the impact of electricity conservation on CO2 emissions from power plants. The dynamic linear model is used to separate the ECE from the effects of other irrelevant factors (e.g. air temperature, economic production, and electricity price. Our result clearly shows that consumers' electricity conservation behavior after the earthquake was not temporary but became established as a habit. Between March 2011 and March 2016, the ECE on industrial electricity demand ranged from 3.9% to 5.4%, and the ECE on residential electricity demand ranged from 1.6% to 7.6%. The ECE on the total electricity demand was estimated at 3.2%-6.0%. We found a seasonal pattern that the residential ECE in summer is higher than that in winter. The emissions increase from the shutdown of nuclear power plants was mitigated by electricity conservation. The emissions reduction effect was estimated at 0.82 MtCO2-2.26 MtCO2 (-4.5% on average compared to the zero-ECE case. The time-varying ECE is necessary for predicting Japan's electricity demand and CO2 emissions after the

  7. Dynamic linear modeling of monthly electricity demand in Japan: Time variation of electricity conservation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Hiroto; Ashina, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    After the severe nuclear disaster in Fukushima, which was triggered by the Great East Japan earthquake in March 2011, nuclear power plants in Japan were temporarily shut down for mandatory inspections. To prevent large-scale blackouts, the Japanese government requested companies and households to reduce electricity consumption in summer and winter. It is reported that the domestic electricity demand had a structural decrease because of the electricity conservation effect (ECE). However, quantitative analysis of the ECE is not sufficient, and especially time variation of the ECE remains unclear. Understanding the ECE is important because Japan’s NDC (nationally determined contribution) assumes the reduction of CO2 emissions through aggressive energy conservation. In this study, we develop a time series model of monthly electricity demand in Japan and estimate time variation of the ECE. Moreover, we evaluate the impact of electricity conservation on CO2 emissions from power plants. The dynamic linear model is used to separate the ECE from the effects of other irrelevant factors (e.g. air temperature, economic production, and electricity price). Our result clearly shows that consumers’ electricity conservation behavior after the earthquake was not temporary but became established as a habit. Between March 2011 and March 2016, the ECE on industrial electricity demand ranged from 3.9% to 5.4%, and the ECE on residential electricity demand ranged from 1.6% to 7.6%. The ECE on the total electricity demand was estimated at 3.2%–6.0%. We found a seasonal pattern that the residential ECE in summer is higher than that in winter. The emissions increase from the shutdown of nuclear power plants was mitigated by electricity conservation. The emissions reduction effect was estimated at 0.82 MtCO2–2.26 MtCO2 (−4.5% on average compared to the zero-ECE case). The time-varying ECE is necessary for predicting Japan’s electricity demand and CO2 emissions after the

  8. Driving performance of a two-dimensional homopolar linear DC motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kano, Y. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    This paper presents a novel two-dimensional homopolar linear de motor (LDM) which can realize two-dimensional (2-D) motion. For position control purposes, two kinds of position detecting methods are proposed. The position in one position is detected by means of a capacitive sensor which makes the output of the sensor partially immune to the variation of the gap between electrodes. The position in the other direction is achieved by exploiting the position dependent property of the driving coil inductance, instead of using an independent sensor. The position control is implemented on the motor and 2-D tracking performance is analyzed. Experiments show that the motor demonstrates satisfactory driving performance, 2-D tracking error being within 5.5% when the angular frequency of reference signal is 3.14 rad./s. 7 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Innervation zones of fasciculating motor units: observations by a linear electrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanmiri-Nezhad, Faezeh; Barkhaus, Paul E; Rymer, William Z; Zhou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the innervation zone (IZ) in the biceps brachii muscle in healthy subjects and those with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using a 20-channel linear electromyogram (EMG) electrode array. Raster plots of individual waveform potentials were studied to estimate the motor unit IZ. While this work mainly focused on fasciculation potentials (FPs), a limited number of motor unit potentials (MUPs) from voluntary activity of 12 healthy and seven ALS subjects were also examined. Abnormal propagation of MUPs and scattered IZs were observed in fasciculating units, compared with voluntarily activated MUPs in healthy and ALS subjects. These findings can be related to muscle fiber reinnervation following motor neuron degeneration in ALS and the different origin sites of FPs compared with voluntary MUPs.

  10. Torque ripple reduction of brushless DC motor based on adaptive input-output feedback linearization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani Boroujeni, M; Markadeh, G R Arab; Soltani, J

    2017-09-01

    Torque ripple reduction of Brushless DC Motors (BLDCs) is an interesting subject in variable speed AC drives. In this paper at first, a mathematical expression for torque ripple harmonics is obtained. Then for a non-ideal BLDC motor with known harmonic contents of back-EMF, calculation of desired reference current amplitudes, which are required to eliminate some selected harmonics of torque ripple, are reviewed. In order to inject the reference harmonic currents to the motor windings, an Adaptive Input-Output Feedback Linearization (AIOFBL) control is proposed, which generates the reference voltages for three phases voltage source inverter in stationary reference frame. Experimental results are presented to show the capability and validity of the proposed control method and are compared with the vector control in Multi-Reference Frame (MRF) and Pseudo-Vector Control (P-VC) method results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt. 431... Efficiency of Electric Motors 1. Definitions. Definitions contained in §§ 431.2 and 431.12 are applicable to...

  12. Interleaved neuromuscular electrical stimulation: Motor unit recruitment overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Matheus J; Bergquist, Austin J; Schimidt, Helen L; Jones, Kelvin E; Collins, David F

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we quantified the "overlap" between motor units recruited by single pulses of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) delivered over the tibialis anterior muscle (mNMES) and the common peroneal nerve (nNMES). We then quantified the torque produced when pulses were alternated between the mNMES and nNMES sites at 40 Hz ("interleaved" NMES; iNMES). Overlap was assessed by comparing torque produced by twitches evoked by mNMES, nNMES, and both delivered together, over a range of stimulus intensities. Trains of iNMES were delivered at the intensity that produced the lowest overlap. Overlap was lowest (5%) when twitches evoked by both mNMES and nNMES produced 10% peak twitch torque. iNMES delivered at this intensity generated 25% of maximal voluntary dorsiflexion torque (11 Nm). Low intensity iNMES leads to low overlap and produces torque that is functionally relevant to evoke dorsiflexion during walking. Muscle Nerve 55: 490-499, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Azerbaijan Technical University’s Experience in Teaching Linear Electrical Circuit Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Mamedov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An experience in teaching linear electrical circuit theory at the Azerbaijan Technical University is presented in the paper. The paper describes structure of the Linear Electrical Circuit Theory course worked out by the authors that contains a section on electrical calculation of track circuits, information on electro-magnetic compatibility and typical tests for better understanding of the studied subject.

  14. Comparison the programs of energy efficiency for industrial electric motors; Comparacao de programas de eficiencia energetica para motores eletricos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto; Naturesa, Jim Silva; Santos Junior, Joubert Rodrigues dos; Demanboro, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)]. E-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br; jimnaturesa@yahoo.com; joubert@fec.unicamp.br; anto1810@fec.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to present a comparison among the existing programs of energy efficiency for industrial electric motors in Brazil, in the United States of America and in the European Community. The analysis is restricted to the action of each program, considering that the mentioned countries present distinct economical, political and social characteristics. Therefore, it is intended to discuss the main barriers existing in the Brazilian industrial context which cause difficulties to develop a program of electric motors efficiency and to indicate some ways to overcome those barriers. (author)

  15. Design and experiments of a linear piezoelectric motor driven by a single mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Yao, Zhiyuan; Li, Xiang; Fu, Qianwei

    2016-11-01

    In this contribution, we propose a novel linear piezoelectric motor with a compact stator that is driven by a single mode. The linear piezoelectric motor can realize bidirectional motion by changing the vibration modes of the stator. Finite element analysis is performed to determine the required vibration mode of the stator and obtain the optimal stator structure and dimensions. Furthermore, the trajectories of the driving foot are analyzed with and without consideration of the mechanical contact with the slider. It is shown that the trajectory of the driving foot is an oblique line when disregarding the contact, and the trajectory becomes an oblique ellipse while taking into account the contact. Finally, a prototype of the motor is fabricated based on the results of finite element analysis. The optimization results show that the motor reaches its maximum thrust force of 4.0 kg, maximum thrust-weight ratio of 33.3, maximum unloaded velocity of 385 mm/s under the excitation of Mode-B, and maximum unloaded velocity of 315 mm/s under the excitation of Mode-L.

  16. Reliable fuzzy H∞ control for active suspension of in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles with dynamic damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xinxin; Naghdy, Fazel; Du, Haiping

    2017-03-01

    A fault-tolerant fuzzy H∞ control design approach for active suspension of in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles in the presence of sprung mass variation, actuator faults and control input constraints is proposed. The controller is designed based on the quarter-car active suspension model with a dynamic-damping-in-wheel-motor-driven-system, in which the suspended motor is operated as a dynamic absorber. The Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is used to model this suspension with possible sprung mass variation. The parallel-distributed compensation (PDC) scheme is deployed to derive a fault-tolerant fuzzy controller for the T-S fuzzy suspension model. In order to reduce the motor wear caused by the dynamic force transmitted to the in-wheel motor, the dynamic force is taken as an additional controlled output besides the traditional optimization objectives such as sprung mass acceleration, suspension deflection and actuator saturation. The H∞ performance of the proposed controller is derived as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) comprising three equality constraints which are solved efficiently by means of MATLAB LMI Toolbox. The proposed controller is applied to an electric vehicle suspension and its effectiveness is demonstrated through computer simulation.

  17. Evaluation of linear DC motor actuators for control of large space structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ide, Eric Nelson

    1988-01-01

    This thesis examines the use of a linear DC motor as a proof mass actuator for the control of large space structures. A model for the actuator, including the current and force compensation used, is derived. Because of the force compensation, the actuator is unstable when placed on a structure. Relative position feedback is used for actuator stabilization. This method of compensation couples the actuator to the mast in a feedback configuration. Three compensator designs are prop...

  18. Computer-aided design studies of the homopolar linear synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, G. E.; Eastham, A. R.; Ong, R.

    1984-09-01

    The linear induction motor (LIM), as an urban transit drive, can provide good grade-climbing capabilities and propulsion/braking performance that is independent of steel wheel-rail adhesion. In view of its 10-12 mm airgap, the LIM is characterized by a low power factor-efficiency product of order 0.4. A synchronous machine offers high efficiency and controllable power factor. An assessment of the linear homopolar configuration of this machine is presented as an alternative to the LIM. Computer-aided design studies using the finite element technique have been conducted to identify a suitable machine design for urban transit propulsion.

  19. Position Control of Linear Synchronous Motor Drives with Exploitation of Forced Dynamics Control Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop position control of mechanisms directly driven by linear synchronous motors with permanent magnets is presented. The control strategy is based on forced dynamic control, which is a form of feedback linearisation, yielding a non-liner multivariable control law to obtain a prescribed linear speed dynamics together with the vector control condition of mutal orthogonality between the stator current and magnetic flux vectors (assuming perfect estimates of the plant parameters. Outer position control loop is closed via simple feedback with proportional gain. Simulations of the design control sysstem, including the drive with power electronic switching, predict the intended drive performance.

  20. Performance Analysis of Permanent Magnet Motors for Electric Vehicles (EV Traction Considering Driving Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Anh Huynh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the electromagnetic and thermal performance of several traction motors for electric vehicles (EVs. Two different driving cycles are employed for the evaluation of the motors, one for urban and the other for highway driving. The electromagnetic performance to be assessed includes maximum motor torque output for vehicle acceleration and the flux weakening capability for wide operating range under current and voltage limits. Thermal analysis is performed to evaluate the health status of the magnets and windings for the prescribed driving cycles. Two types of traction motors are investigated: two interior permanent magnet motors and one permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance motor. The analysis results demonstrate the benefits and disadvantages of these motors for EV traction and provide suggestions for traction motor design. Finally, experiments are conducted to validate the analysis.

  1. Electrohydraulic linear actuator with two stepping motors controlled by overshoot-free algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milecki, Andrzej; Ortmann, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes electrohydraulic spool valves with stepping motors used as electromechanical transducers. A new concept of a proportional valve in which two stepping motors are working differentially is introduced. Such valve changes the fluid flow proportionally to the sum or difference of the motors' steps numbers. The valve design and principle of its operation is described. Theoretical equations and simulation models are proposed for all elements of the drive, i.e., the stepping motor units, hydraulic valve and cylinder. The main features of the valve and drive operation are described; some specific problem areas covering the nature of stepping motors and their differential work in the valve are also considered. The whole servo drive non-linear model is proposed and used further for simulation investigations. The initial simulation investigations of the drive with a new valve have shown that there is a significant overshoot in the drive step response, which is not allowed in positioning process. Therefore additional effort is spent to reduce the overshoot and in consequence reduce the settling time. A special predictive algorithm is proposed to this end. Then the proposed control method is tested and further improved in simulations. Further on, the model is implemented in reality and the whole servo drive system is tested. The investigation results presented in this paper, are showing an overshoot-free positioning process which enables high positioning accuracy.

  2. Driver electronics design and control for a total artificial heart linear motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthan, Kristin; Cuenca-Navalon, Elena; Pelletier, Benedikt; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2018-01-27

    For any implantable device size and efficiency are critical properties. Thus, a linear motor for a Total Artificial Heart was optimized with focus on driver electronics and control strategies. Hardware requirements were defined from power supply and motor setup. Four full bridges were chosen for the power electronics. Shunt resistors were set up for current measurement. Unipolar and bipolar switching for power electronics control were compared regarding current ripple and power losses. Here, unipolar switching showed smaller current ripple and required less power to create the necessary motor forces. Based on calculations for minimal power losses Lorentz force was distributed to the actor's four coils. The distribution was determined as ratio of effective magnetic flux through each coil, which was captured by a force test rig. Static and dynamic measurements under physiological conditions analyzed interaction of control and hardware and all efficiencies were over 89%. In conclusion, the designed electronics, optimized control strategy and applied current distribution create the required motor force and perform optimal under physiological conditions. The developed driver electronics and control offer optimized size and efficiency for any implantable or portable device with multiple independent motor coils. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  3. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  4. The effect of thermal and radiation accelerated ageing on the A. C. electric motor parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pica, I.; Segarceanu, D.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the main aspects concerning the electric parameters variation of triphase asynchronous motors operating under specific environmental conditions determined by temperature, humidity, radiation. The testing of electric motor capability to meet and exceed the required performances all along its operating life implies the performing of thermal and radiation ageing while the motor is brought, in a relatively short time, under conditions equivalent to those at the end of its service life. The paper describes ageing and measurement techniques and the analyses of electric parameter behavior in these environmental simulated conditions. (author)

  5. Influence of a high vacuum on the precise positioning using an ultrasonic linear motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan-Soo; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the ultrasonic linear motor stage for use in a high vacuum environment. The slider table is driven by the hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor, which is excited with its different modes of natural frequencies in both lateral and longitudinal directions. In general, the friction behavior in a vacuum environment becomes different from that in an environment of atmospheric pressure and this difference significantly affects the performance of the ultrasonic linear motor. In this paper, to consistently provide stable and high power of output in a high vacuum, frequency matching was conducted. Moreover, to achieve the fine control performance in the vacuum environment, a modified nominal characteristic trajectory following control method was adopted. Finally, the stage was operated under high vacuum condition, and the operating performances were investigated compared with that of a conventional PI compensator. As a result, robustness of positioning was accomplished in a high vacuum condition with nanometer-level accuracy.

  6. Influence of a high vacuum on the precise positioning using an ultrasonic linear motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wan-Soo; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the ultrasonic linear motor stage for use in a high vacuum environment. The slider table is driven by the hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor, which is excited with its different modes of natural frequencies in both lateral and longitudinal directions. In general, the friction behavior in a vacuum environment becomes different from that in an environment of atmospheric pressure and this difference significantly affects the performance of the ultrasonic linear motor. In this paper, to consistently provide stable and high power of output in a high vacuum, frequency matching was conducted. Moreover, to achieve the fine control performance in the vacuum environment, a modified nominal characteristic trajectory following control method was adopted. Finally, the stage was operated under high vacuum condition, and the operating performances were investigated compared with that of a conventional PI compensator. As a result, robustness of positioning was accomplished in a high vacuum condition with nanometer-level accuracy.

  7. Liquid-Hydrogen-Cooled 450-hp Electric Motor Test Stand Being Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Albert F.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    With growing concerns about global warming, there is a need to develop pollution-free aircraft. One approach is to use hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbogenerators to produce electric power to drive the electric motors that turn the aircraft s propulsive fans. Hydrogen fuel would be carried as a liquid, stored at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are too heavy for aircraft propulsion. We need to develop high-power, lightweight electric motors (highpower- density motors). One approach is to increase the conductivity of the wires by cooling them with liquid hydrogen (LH2). This would allow superconducting rotors with an ironless core. In addition, the motor could use very pure aluminum or copper, substances that have low resistances at cryogenic temperatures. A preliminary design of a 450-hp LH2-cooled electric motor was completed and is being manufactured by a contractor. This motor will be tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center and will be used to test different superconducting materials such as magnesium diboride (MgB2). The motor will be able to operate at speeds of up to 6000 rpm.

  8. The operation of a single-sided linear induction motor with squirrel-cage and solid-steel reaction rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, A. R.; Katz, R. M.

    1980-09-01

    Two test programs have been conducted to evaluate the performance of a single-sided linear induction motor with a squirrel-cage reaction rail and with a solid steel reaction rail. A 1.73-m-long six-pole stator interacted with the rails mounted on the rim of a 7.6-m-diam wheel. A 64-channel data acquisition system allowed tests to be performed over a wide range of operating conditions at speeds up to 20 m/sec. Typical test results which compare and contrast the mechanical, electrical and magnetic behavior of the SLIMs are presented. The test data are being used to assess the SLIM as an integrated suspension/propulsion system and for other transportation applications.

  9. CONFIRMATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL ADEQUACY OF A LINEAR SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Novikov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.To reduce labor costs and the amount of computer time in the design of linear synchronous motors with excitation from a source of a constant magnetic field of high-speed ground transportation it is necessary to use engineering methods. The purpose of this study is to confirm the adequacy of the previously proposed mathematical model of this engine and assumptions. It is also intended to confirm the possibility of applying the method of calculation of traction that occurs in the engine in the interaction of the permanent magnetic field of the excitation system of a vehicle with a coil track structure.Methodology. As for empirical theories the positive result of the experiment is not absolute proof of the truth, for an unambiguous conclusion about the adequacy of the developed model and the effectiveness of the developed methods need to be tested for falsification. In accordance with this criterion, it is necessary to conduct an experiment, the results of which will coincide with the calculation but you also need to avoid errors caused by random coincidences. For this purpose the experiments with varying parameters are conducted. Findings. In a critical experiment configuration changes of the excitation system were held so that the shape dependence of traction from displacement is differed significantly. The comparison of the results of the calculated and experimental values of traction for different configurations showed that the differences are minor and easily explained by measurement error and uneven gaps between the poles and excitation coils of the track structure. Originality. The adequacy of the mathematical model of a linear synchronous motor without a ferromagnetic magnetic circuit and the assumptions and applicability of the calculation method of traction forces involved in it, at the interaction of a permanent magnetic field of the excitation system of a vehicle with a coil track structure were proved. This proof is built on

  10. Research on motor rotational speed measurement in regenerative braking system of electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin; Li, Zhongxing; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Rotational speed signals acquisition and processing techniques are widely used in rotational machinery. In order to realized precise and real-time control of motor drive and regenerative braking process, rotational speed measurement techniques are needed in electric vehicles. Obtaining accurate motor rotational speed signal will contribute to the regenerative braking force control steadily and realized higher energy recovery rate. This paper aims to develop a method that provides instantaneous speed information in the form of motor rotation. It addresses principles of motor rotational speed measurement in the regenerative braking systems of electric vehicle firstly. The paper then presents ideal and actual Hall position sensor signals characteristics, the relation between the motor rotational speed and the Hall position sensor signals is revealed. Finally, Hall position sensor signals conditioning and processing circuit and program for motor rotational speed measurement have been carried out based on measurement error analysis.

  11. Magnetically Suspended Linear Pulse Motor for Semiconductor Wafer Transfer in Vacuum Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Shin-Ichi; Hiraki, Naoji; Watanabe, Katsuhide; Kanemitsu, Yoichi

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a magnetically suspended linear pulse motor for a semiconductor wafer transfer robot in a vacuum chamber. The motor can drive a wafer transfer arm horizontally without mechanical contact. In the construction of the magnetic suspension system, four pairs of linear magnetic bearings for the lift control are used for the guidance control as well. This approach allows us to make the whole motor compact in size and light in weight. The tested motor consists of a double-sided stator and a transfer arm with a width of 50 mm and a total length of 700 mm. The arm, like a ladder in shape, is designed as the floating element with a tooth width of 4 mm (a tooth pitch of 8 mm). The mover mass is limited to about 1.6 kg by adopting such an arm structure, and the ratio of thrust to mover mass reaches to 3.2 N/kg under a broad air gap (1 mm) between the stator teeth and the mover teeth. The performance testing was carried out with a transfer distance less than 450 mm and a transfer speed less than 560 mm/s. The attitude of the arm was well controlled by the linear magnetic bearings with a combined use, and consequently the repeatability on the positioning of the arm reached to about 2 micron. In addition, the positioning accuracy was improved up to about 30 micron through a compensation of the 128-step wave current which was used for the micro-step drive with a step increment of 62.5 micron.

  12. Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

  13. Residual stress evaluation by Barkhausen signals with a magnetic field sensor for high efficiency electrical motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Yuji; Enokizono, Masato

    2018-04-01

    The iron loss of industrial motors increases by residual stress during manufacturing processes. It is very important to make clear the distribution of the residual stress in the motor cores to reduce the iron loss in the motors. Barkhausen signals which occur on electrical steel sheets can be used for the evaluation of the residual stress because they are very sensitive to the material properties. Generally, a B-sensor is used to measure Barkhausen signals, however, we developed a new H-sensor to measure them and applied it into the stress evaluation. It is supposed that the Barkhausen signals by using a H-sensor can be much effective to the residual stress on the electrical steel sheets by referring our results regarding to the stress evaluations. We evaluated the tensile stress of the electrical steel sheets by measuring Barkhausen signals by using our developed H-sensor for high efficiency electrical motors.

  14. Decoupling control of steering and driving system for in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Wanzhong

    2018-02-01

    To improve the maneuverability and stability of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle, a control strategy based on nonlinear decoupling control method is proposed in this paper, realizing the coordinated control of the steering and driving system. At first, the nonlinear models of the in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle and its sub-system are constructed. Then the inverse system decoupling theory is applied to decompose the nonlinear system into several independent subsystems, which makes it possible to realize the coordinated control of each subsystem. Next, the μ-Synthesis theory is applied to eliminate the influence of model uncertainty, improving the stability, robustness and tracking performance of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle. Simulation and experiment results and numerical analyses, based on the electric vehicle actuated by in-wheel-motors, prove that the proposed control method is effective to accomplish the decoupling control of the steering and driving system in both simulation and real practice.

  15. GROUNDING THE REDUCTION OF POWER OF THE HYDRAULIC DRIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR BY EQUIVALENT POWER METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hrygorov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have analyzed the power consumption by a hydraulic drive and wound rotor motor of crane mechanisms at all stages of the operational cycle: acceleration, movement at nominal or intermediate speed and deceleration. The decrease of the rated capacity of electric motors is justified.

  16. EQUATIONS OF ELECTRIC MOTOR POWER SUPPLY UNIT DISSYMMETRY UNDER PHASE SHORT-CIRCUIT FAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Y. Tchaban

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a formula is introduced for calculating electric motor supply unit voltage under feeding by a common transformer in the condition of a phase short-circuit in one of the motors. The formula is used in every time step of electromechanical state equations integration.

  17. Brushless DC electric motor application in environment CH4 sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Jakub; Duk, Mariusz; Borecki, Michał

    2016-09-01

    The work includes using a brushless direct current motor ventilator as a machine which fills a container where methane sensor is researched. The main issue is to choose the best controlling method and implement it to self-made driver of the motor.

  18. Novel permanent magnet linear motor with isolated movers: analytical, numerical and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Peng, Juanjuan; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I-Ming

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel permanent magnet linear motor possessing two movers and one stator. The two movers are isolated and can interact with the stator poles to generate independent forces and motions. Compared with conventional multiple motor driving system, it helps to increase the system compactness, and thus improve the power density and working efficiency. The magnetic field distribution is obtained by using equivalent magnetic circuit method. Following that, the formulation of force output considering armature reaction is carried out. Then inductances are analyzed with finite element method to investigate the relationships of the two movers. It is found that the mutual-inductances are nearly equal to zero, and thus the interaction between the two movers is negligible. A research prototype of the linear motor and a measurement apparatus on thrust force have been developed. Both numerical computation and experiment measurement are conducted to validate the analytical model of thrust force. Comparison shows that the analytical model matches the numerical and experimental results well.

  19. Thermal and Arc Flash Analysis of Electric Motor Drives in Distribution Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolovski, Srete; Mlakić, Dragan; Alibašić, Emir

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents thermal analysis and arc flash analysis taking care of protection relays coordination settings for electric motor drives connected to the electrical network. Power flow analysis is performed to check if there are any voltage and loading violation conditions in the system. Fault analysis is performed to check the short circuit values and compute arc flash energy dissipated at industrial busbars to eliminate damage to electrical equipment and electrical shocks and hazard to p...

  20. Optimization and Analysis of a U-Shaped Linear Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Motor Using Longitudinal Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongpeng; Quan, Qiquan; Tian, Xinqi; Li, He

    2018-03-07

    A novel U-shaped piezoelectric ultrasonic motor that mainly focused on miniaturization and high power density was proposed, fabricated, and tested in this work. The longitudinal vibrations of the transducers were excited to form the elliptical movements on the driving feet. Finite element method (FEM) was used for design and analysis. The resonance frequencies of the selected vibration modes were tuned to be very close to each other with modal analysis and the movement trajectories of the driving feet were gained with transient simulation. The vibration modes and the mechanical output abilities were tested to evaluate the proposed motor further by a prototype. The maximum output speed was tested to be 416 mm/s, the maximum thrust force was 21 N, and the maximum output power was 5.453 W under frequency of 29.52 kHz and voltage of 100 V rms . The maximum output power density of the prototype reached 7.59 W/kg, which was even greater than a previous similar motor under the exciting voltage of 200 V rms . The proposed motor showed great potential for linear driving of large thrust force and high power density.

  1. Population decoding of motor cortical activity using a generalized linear model with hidden states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhern, Vernon; Wu, Wei; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas; Paninski, Liam

    2010-06-15

    Generalized linear models (GLMs) have been developed for modeling and decoding population neuronal spiking activity in the motor cortex. These models provide reasonable characterizations between neural activity and motor behavior. However, they lack a description of movement-related terms which are not observed directly in these experiments, such as muscular activation, the subject's level of attention, and other internal or external states. Here we propose to include a multi-dimensional hidden state to address these states in a GLM framework where the spike count at each time is described as a function of the hand state (position, velocity, and acceleration), truncated spike history, and the hidden state. The model can be identified by an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We tested this new method in two datasets where spikes were simultaneously recorded using a multi-electrode array in the primary motor cortex of two monkeys. It was found that this method significantly improves the model-fitting over the classical GLM, for hidden dimensions varying from 1 to 4. This method also provides more accurate decoding of hand state (reducing the mean square error by up to 29% in some cases), while retaining real-time computational efficiency. These improvements on representation and decoding over the classical GLM model suggest that this new approach could contribute as a useful tool to motor cortical decoding and prosthetic applications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Population Decoding of Motor Cortical Activity using a Generalized Linear Model with Hidden States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhern, Vernon; Wu, Wei; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Paninski, Liam

    2010-01-01

    Generalized linear models (GLMs) have been developed for modeling and decoding population neuronal spiking activity in the motor cortex. These models provide reasonable characterizations between neural activity and motor behavior. However, they lack a description of movement-related terms which are not observed directly in these experiments, such as muscular activation, the subject's level of attention, and other internal or external states. Here we propose to include a multi-dimensional hidden state to address these states in a GLM framework where the spike count at each time is described as a function of the hand state (position, velocity, and acceleration), truncated spike history, and the hidden state. The model can be identified by an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We tested this new method in two datasets where spikes were simultaneously recorded using a multi-electrode array in the primary motor cortex of two monkeys. It was found that this method significantly improves the model-fitting over the classical GLM, for hidden dimensions varying from 1 to 4. This method also provides more accurate decoding of hand state (lowering the Mean Square Error by up to 29% in some cases), while retaining real-time computational efficiency. These improvements on representation and decoding over the classical GLM model suggest that this new approach could contribute as a useful tool to motor cortical decoding and prosthetic applications. PMID:20359500

  3. A Low Mass Translation Mechanism for Planetary FTIR Spectrometry using an Ultrasonic Piezo Linear Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heverly, Matthew; Dougherty, Sean; Toon, Geoffrey; Soto, Alejandro; Blavier, Jean-Francois

    2004-01-01

    One of the key components of a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) is the linear translation stage used to vary the optical path length between the two arms of the interferometer. This translation mechanism must produce extremely constant velocity motion across its entire range of travel to allow the instrument to attain high signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolving power. A new spectrometer is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under NASA s Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP). The goal of this project is to build upon existing spaceborne FTIR spectrometer technology to produce a new instrument prototype that has drastically superior spectral resolution and substantially lower mass, making it feasible for planetary exploration. In order to achieve these goals, Alliance Spacesystems, Inc. (ASI) has developed a linear translation mechanism using a novel ultrasonic piezo linear motor in conjunction with a fully kinematic, fault tolerant linear rail system. The piezo motor provides extremely smooth motion, is inherently redundant, and is capable of producing unlimited travel. The kinematic rail uses spherical Vespel(R). rollers and bushings, which eliminates the need for wet lubrication, while providing a fault tolerant platform for smooth linear motion that will not bind under misalignment or structural deformation. This system can produce velocities from 10 - 100 mm/s with less than 1% velocity error over the entire 100-mm length of travel for a total mechanism mass of less than 850 grams. This system has performed over half a million strokes under vacuum without excessive wear or degradation in performance. This paper covers the design, development, and testing of this linear translation mechanism as part of the Planetary Atmosphere Occultation Spectrometer (PAOS) instrument prototype development program.

  4. Dynamic parameter identification of robot arms with servo-controlled electrical motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Hui; Senda, Hiroshi

    2005-12-01

    This paper addresses the issue of dynamic parameter identification of the robot manipulator with servo-controlled electrical motors. An assumption is made that all kinematical parameters, such as link lengths, are known, and only dynamic parameters containing mass, moment of inertia, and their functions need to be identified. First, we derive dynamics of the robot arm with a linear form of the unknown dynamic parameters by taking dynamic characteristics of the motor and servo unit into consideration. Then, we implement the parameter identification approach to identify the unknown parameters with respect to individual link separately. A pseudo-inverse matrix is used for formulation of the parameter identification. The optimal solution is guaranteed in a sense of least-squares of the mean errors. A Direct Drive (DD) SCARA type industrial robot arm AdeptOne is used as an application example of the parameter identification. Simulations and experiments for both open loop and close loop controls are carried out. Comparison of the results confirms the correctness and usefulness of the parameter identification and the derived dynamic model.

  5. A novel dual motor drive system for three wheel electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panmuang, Piyapat; Thongsan, Taweesak; Suwapaet, Nuchida; Laohavanich, Juckamass; Photong, Chonlatee

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a novel dual motor drive system used for three wheel electric vehicles that have one free wheel at the front and two wheels with a drive system at the end of the vehicles. A novel dual motor drive system consists of two identical DC motors that are independently controlled by its speed-torque controller. Under light load conditions, only one of the DC motors will operate around it rated whilst under hard load conditions both of the DC motors will operate. With this drive system, the motors will operate only at its high performance at rated or else no operate to retain longer lifetime. The simulated results for the Skylab three wheel electric vehicle prototype with 8kW at full load (high torque, low speed) and around 4kW at light/normal operating loads (regular speed-torque) showed that the proposed system provides better dynamic responses with faster overshoot current/voltage recovery time, has lower investment costs, has longer lifetime of the motors and allows the motors to always operate at their high performance and thus achieve more cost effective system compared to a single motor drive system with 8kW DC motors.

  6. Direct torque and flux regulation of synchronous reluctance motor drives based on input-output feedback linearization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abootorabi Zarchi, H.; Arab Markadeh, Gh.R.; Soltani, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear speed tracking controller is introduced for three-phase synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) on the basis of input-output feedback linearization (IOFL), considering the different control strategies (maximum torque per Ampere, high efficiency and minimum KVA rating for the inverter) related to this motor. The proposed control approach is capable of decoupling control of stator flux and motor generated torque. The validity and effectiveness of the method is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  7. Pole-shape optimization of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor for reduction of thrust ripple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavana, Nariman Roshandel, E-mail: nroshandel@ee.iust.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shoulaie, Abbas, E-mail: shoulaie@iust.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, we have used magnet arc shaping technique in order to improve the performance of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM). At first, a detailed analytical modeling based on Maxwell equations is presented for the analysis and design of PMLSM with the arc-shaped magnetic poles (ASMPs). Then the accuracy of presented method is verified by finite-element method. Very close agreement between the analytical and finite-element results shows the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, a magnet shape design is carried out based on the analytical method to enhance the motor developed thrust. Pertinent evaluations on the optimal design performance demonstrate that shape optimization leads to a design with extra low thrust ripple.

  8. Dynamic diagnostics of moving ferromagnetic material with the linear induction motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szewczyk Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of a three-phase induction motor as a sensor measuring the force of the electromagnetic field connection between the engine and produced sheet steel. The force interaction between the engine and the manufactured sheet metal treated as a treadmill for a linear motor may be an indicator of damage to the material. Detection of places where the sheet does not meet the quality requirements may be very useful in the production process. FEM calculations were performed in the ANSYS MAXWELL environment. The results suggest the possibility of using this type of construction to test the quality of produced materials. The computational results and their analysis are presented in this article.

  9. Adaptive H∞ nonlinear velocity tracking using RBFNN for linear DC brushless motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Chih; Chan, Cheng-Kain; Li, Yi Yu

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an adaptive H ∞ nonlinear velocity control for a linear DC brushless motor. A simplified model of this motor with friction is briefly recalled. The friction dynamics is described by the Lu Gre model and the online tuning radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is used to parameterise the nonlinear friction function and un-modelled errors. An adaptive nonlinear H ∞ control method is then proposed to achieve velocity tracking, by assuming that the upper bounds of the ripple force, the changeable load and the nonlinear friction can be learned by the RBFNN. The closed-loop system is proven to be uniformly bounded using the Lyapunov stability theory. The feasibility and the efficacy of the proposed control are exemplified by conducting two velocity tracking experiments.

  10. A linear motor and compact cylinder-piston driver for left ventricular bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, K X

    1990-01-01

    A simple, portable, reliable and noise-free pneumatic driver has been developed. It consists of a linear motor attached to a cylinder piston, in one unit. The motor coil is directly wound on the cylinder, and the permanent magnet is fixed to the piston. As a continuous voltage square wave is applied to the coil, the cylinder reciprocates on the piston periodically, producing air pressure and vacuum alternately. In conjunction with a locally made diaphragm pump, the driver was tested in vitro and in vivo. Results demonstrated that the device could drive the diaphragm pump and so support the circulation of an experimental animal. The driver weighs 12 kg. For 200 mmHg air pressure and -80 mmHg vacuum the power consumed is 30 W. Its noise is about 30 dB, less than that of an artificial valve and pump.

  11. Pole-shape optimization of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor for reduction of thrust ripple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavana, Nariman Roshandel; Shoulaie, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have used magnet arc shaping technique in order to improve the performance of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM). At first, a detailed analytical modeling based on Maxwell equations is presented for the analysis and design of PMLSM with the arc-shaped magnetic poles (ASMPs). Then the accuracy of presented method is verified by finite-element method. Very close agreement between the analytical and finite-element results shows the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, a magnet shape design is carried out based on the analytical method to enhance the motor developed thrust. Pertinent evaluations on the optimal design performance demonstrate that shape optimization leads to a design with extra low thrust ripple.

  12. The electric motor in the hybrid vehicle. A comparison of three different types of electric motors; Der Elektromotor im Hybridfahrzeug. Vergleich von drei unterschiedlichen Elektromotorentypen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petschnik, Harald

    2009-07-01

    According to the experts, hybrid technology is the key technology in the automotive industry for the next few decades. Many of the well established automobile manufacturers are focusing their research and development activities on this upcoming technology. The big advantage of hybrid vehicles is the electrified powertrain. Due to intelligent combination of the combustion- and electric engine, the benefits of the two different powertrain configurations can be used. The following research is concerned and closely examines the role of the electric engine in the hybrid vehicle. The scope of the research is focused on the demands of an electric engine, the technical configuration, functionality and economy of three different engine types which are often used in the serial production and prototyping. In order to make a direct comparison of the performance of this different engine types, they were all tested in a go-cart. The go-carts for each engine were constructed in the same way. The interpretation of the measurement results showed that the synchronous engine with permanent magnets had the best performance when considering the level of electrical efficiency, closely followed by the switched reluctance motor. The efficiency of the electrical motor makes a high contribution to the total efficiency of the vehicle. The measurement result confirms the selection of a synchronous motor is, under consideration of the electrical efficiency, the most advantageous solution for hybrid vehicles. (orig.)

  13. Simulation of magnetic induction distribution in a coaxial linear motor with axial and radial direction of permanent magnets magnetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Golenkov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of computer simulation and experimental study of magnetic induction distribution in a coaxial linear motor air gap throughout the length of the runner active part at different heights of the air gap between the runner and the inductor magnetic core for motors with axial and radial direction of the permanent magnets magnetization.

  14. AC electric motors control advanced design techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Giri, Fouad

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of AC motor control lies in the multivariable and nonlinear nature of AC machine dynamics. Recent advancements in control theory now make it possible to deal with long-standing problems in AC motors control. This text expertly draws on these developments to apply a wide range of model-based control designmethods to a variety of AC motors. Contributions from over thirty top researchers explain how modern control design methods can be used to achieve tight speed regulation, optimal energetic efficiency, and operation reliability and safety, by considering online state var

  15. Air-gap field, induced voltage and thrust in the short-stator linear induction motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleroi, W

    1980-07-15

    The description of the magnetic field in the air-gap of a short-primary linear induction motor, and the subsequent calculation of the thrust developed and the voltages induced in the stator bars can be made by using balancing waves. These balancing waves are generated at any point where the field wave that would exist in a machine of infinite length is disturbed. In the linear motor these disturbances occur at the ends of the stator iron and at discontinuities in the distribution of the stator winding, which exist in machines having stepped windings. From the points where they are generated, free balancing waves travel in two directions and determine the performance of these machines to a large extent. The voltage they induce in a stator bar can be determined from the core flux and mapped on a phasor diagram. The resulting voltage phasor follows a logarithmic spiral. The resulting voltages induced in the three phase windings form a strongly asymmetrical system which can be split-up into positive-, negative- and zerosequence components depending on the slip. The tangential forces may be calculated as the product of the magnetic flux density in the air-gap and the linear current density in either the stator or the reaction rail. As the 'magnetic tail' outside the machine also gives rise to forces in the direction of motion, both methods yield quite different force distributions, though for the resulting force the same value is found.

  16. Design of outer-rotor type multipolar SR motor for electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Suzuki, Yosuke; Goto, Hiroki; Ichinokura, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we design an outer-rotor type multipolar switched reluctance (SR) motor, and examine an application of the SR motor to an electric vehicle (EV). The design is based on a nonlinear magnetic circuit model proposed by the authors. Using the model, we can calculate dynamic characteristics of a SR motor accurately. Furthermore, by combining the nonlinear magnetic circuit model with a motor drive circuit and motion equation of an EV, we can predict dynamic characteristics such as the maximum speed, acceleration torque, and a battery current of the EV

  17. An electric motor with magnetic bearings: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Because same magnetic flux is used to control rotor as to drive it, size, weight, and power required are minimized. Constant total current keeps motor torque invarient, and absence of mechanical bearings eliminates wear and reduces frictional power loss.

  18. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to advance the development of an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such...

  19. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to develop an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such devices. Fundamentally,...

  20. Feasibility study of electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    The potential application of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) materials to electric motors is discussed. The specific application area of motors in electric power generating stations has been selected and a feasible study has been initiated on the use of HTSC materials in the design of motors for this application. A progress report on this feasibility study is presented. Technical challenges in both the development of HTSC wire and the design of a motor to utilize this wire are discussed. Finally, the results of design calculations comparing a superconducting motor with one of conventional design are presented assuming that success can be achieved in overcoming the technical problems which must be resolved to produce a high performance HTSC wire

  1. Aging of electric motors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Taylor, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    Motor degradation due to aging and service wear decreases reliability and increases the potential for failure during nuclear plant accident and post accident conditions. The impact of motor failures on plant safety is an important concern among the nuclear utilities and the government agency regulating this industry. Economic impacts, relating to plant availability and safety, as well as corrective maintenance, have prompted utilities to improve their maintenance programs to mitigate such aging effects. 2 refs., 3 figs

  2. A High-Performance Control Method of Constant V/f-Controlled Induction Motor Drives for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase induction motor used as a propulsion system for the electric vehicle (EV is a nonlinear, multi-input multi-output, and strong coupling system. For such a complicated model system with unmeasured and unavoidable disturbances, as well as parameter variations, the conventional vector control method cannot meet the demands of high-performance control. Therefore, a novel control strategy named least squares support vector machines (LSSVM inverse control is presented in the paper. Invertibility of the induction motor in the constant V/f control mode is proved to confirm its feasibility. The LSSVM inverse is composed of an LSSVM approximating the nonlinear mapping of the induction motor and two integrators. The inverse model of the constant V/f-controlled induction motor drive is obtained by using LSSVM, and then the optimal parameters of LSSVM are determined automatically by applying a modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO. Cascading the LSSVM inverse with the induction motor drive system, the pseudolinear system can be obtained. Thus, it is easy to design the closed-loop linear regulator. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  4. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-09-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  5. A study on stable levitation of permanent magnet transportation system with coreless linear synchronous motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiwaki, H [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Watada, M [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Torii, S [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ebihara, D [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In the permanent magnet levitation system, it is impossible to stabilize the motion of the vehicle in both levitation and guidance directions only by permanent magnet. Therefore, the authors proposed the combined system of permanent magnet for levitation and coreless linear synchronous motor (coreless LSM). To design the coreless coils for LSM, the method to calculate the spring coefficient between coreless coil and permanent magnet for LSM is shown. By using this method, the spring coefficients of the three coil arrangements are compared and coreless coil is designed. Furthermore, the authors showed the possibility of stabilizing the motion of the levitation system with coreless LSM. (orig.)

  6. A new double sided linear switched reluctance motor with low cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daldaban, Ferhat; Ustkoyuncu, Nurettin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the realization and design of a new linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM) structure. The new model has double sided configuration and provides high force for many applications with low cost. The characteristics of the LSRM are obtained by using finite element analysis (FEA) and analytical calculations. The results of the FEA and analytical calculations are presented, and compared with experimental results. A high correlation between experimental and analytical results is obtained, which has been demonstrated in the form of inductance versus position versus current

  7. Experimental Analysis of Linear Induction Motor under Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit D. Wakode

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the complete analysis of Linear Induction Motor (LIM under VVVF. The complete variation of LIM air gap flux under ‘blocked Linor’ condition and starting force is analyzed and presented when LIM is given VVVF supply. The analysis of this data is important in further understanding of the equivalent circuit parameters of LIM and to study the magnetic circuit of LIM. The variation of these parameters is important to know the LIM response at different frequencies. The simulation and application of different control strategies such as vector control thus becomes quite easy to apply and understand motor’s response under such strategy of control.

  8. Decentralized control of the COFS-I Mast using linear dc motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Douglas K.; Celano, Tom; Ide, Eric

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to a decentralized control design for vibration suppression in the COFS-I Mast using linear dc motors for actuators. The decentralized control design is based results from power systems using root locus techniques that are not well known. The approach is effective because the loop gain is low due to low actuator authority. The frequency-dependent nonlinearities of the actuator are taken into account. Because of the tendency of the transients to saturate the the stroke length of the actuator, its effectiveness is limited.

  9. Incremental Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Sensorless Stroke Control of A Halbach-type Linear Oscillatory Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Meizhen; Wang, Liqiang

    2018-01-01

    The halbach-type linear oscillatory motor (HT-LOM) is multi-variable, highly coupled, nonlinear and uncertain, and difficult to get a satisfied result by conventional PID control. An incremental adaptive fuzzy controller (IAFC) for stroke tracking was presented, which combined the merits of PID control, the fuzzy inference mechanism and the adaptive algorithm. The integral-operation is added to the conventional fuzzy control algorithm. The fuzzy scale factor can be online tuned according to the load force and stroke command. The simulation results indicate that the proposed control scheme can achieve satisfied stroke tracking performance and is robust with respect to parameter variations and external disturbance.

  10. Improvement of superconducting cylindrical linear induction motor; Chodendo entokeitan ichiji rinia yudo mota no tokusei kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuma, T.; Tomita, M.; Ishiyama, A. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    For the purpose of we examining the effect of characteristics and ac loss under real machine operating environment of the alternating current superconductivity winding for a realization of the superconductive AC machine vessel, cylindrical shortness first linear guiding motor which used NbTi/CuNi superconducting cable for the primary winding was produced experimentally. The coil number was increased from 6 in 14 this time, and the optimization of the primary current was done, and the improvement on characteristics was attempted. Here, starting torque characteristics, quenching detection protection control circuit are reported. (NEDO)

  11. Particle Swarm Based Approach of a Real-Time Discrete Neural Identifier for Linear Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Y. Alanis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focusses on a discrete-time neural identifier applied to a linear induction motor (LIM model, whose model is assumed to be unknown. This neural identifier is robust in presence of external and internal uncertainties. The proposed scheme is based on a discrete-time recurrent high-order neural network (RHONN trained with a novel algorithm based on extended Kalman filter (EKF and particle swarm optimization (PSO, using an online series-parallel con…figuration. Real-time results are included in order to illustrate the applicability of the proposed scheme.

  12. Sensorless AC electric motor control robust advanced design techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Glumineau, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This monograph shows the reader how to avoid the burdens of sensor cost, reduced internal physical space, and system complexity in the control of AC motors. Many applications fields—electric vehicles, wind- and wave-energy converters and robotics, among them—will benefit. Sensorless AC Electric Motor Control describes the elimination of physical sensors and their replacement with observers, i.e., software sensors. Robustness is introduced to overcome problems associated with the unavoidable imperfection of knowledge of machine parameters—resistance, inertia, and so on—encountered in real systems. The details of a large number of speed- and/or position-sensorless ideas for different types of permanent-magnet synchronous motors and induction motors are presented along with several novel observer designs for electrical machines. Control strategies are developed using high-order, sliding-mode and quasi-continuous-sliding-mode techniques and two types of observer–controller schemes based on backstepping ...

  13. Numerical investigation of refrigeration machine compressor operation considering single-phase electric motor dynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidak, Y.; Smyk, V.

    2017-08-01

    Using as the base the differential equations system which was presented in relative units for generalized electric motor of hermetic refrigeration compressor, mathematical model of the software for dynamic performance calculation of refrigeration machine compressors drive low-power asynchronous motors was developed. Performed on its ground calculations of the basic model of two-phase electric motor drive of hermetic compressor and the proposed newly developed model of the motor with single-phase stator winding, which is an alternative to the industrial motor winding, have confirmed the benefits of the motor with innovative stator winding over the base engine. Given calculations of the dynamic characteristics of compressor drive motor have permitted to determine the value of electromagnetic torque swinging for coordinating compressor and motor mechanical characteristics, and for taking them into consideration in choosing compressor elements construction materials. Developed and used in the process of investigation of refrigeration compressor drive asynchronous single-phase motor mathematical and software can be considered as an element of computer-aided design system for design of the aggregate of refrigeration compression unit refrigerating machine.

  14. Electric Motor Thermal Management Research: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    Past work in the area of active convective cooling provided data on the average convective heat transfer coefficients of circular orifice automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets impinging on stationary targets intended to represent the wire bundle surface of the motor end-winding. Work during FY16 focused on the impact of alternative jet geometries that could lead to improved cooling over a larger surface of the motor winding. Results show that the planar jet heat transfer coefficients over a small (12.7-mm-diameter) target surface are not too much lower than for the circular orifice jet in which all of the ATF from the jet impinges on the target surface. The planar jet has the potential to achieve higher heat transfer over a larger area of the motor end winding. A new test apparatus was constructed to measure the spatial dependence of the heat transfer relative to the jet nozzle over a larger area representative of a motor end-winding. The tested planar flow geometry has the potential to provide more uniform cooling over the full end-winding surface versus the conventional jet configuration. The data will be used by motor designers to develop thermal management strategies to improve motor power density. Work on passive thermal design in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to measure the thermal conductivity of wire bundle samples representative of end-winding and slot-winding materials was completed. Multiple measurement techniques were compared to determine which was most suitable for measuring composite wire bundle samples. NREL used a steady-state thermal resistance technique to measure the direction-dependent thermal conductivity. The work supported new interactions with industry to test new materials and reduce passive-stack thermal resistance in motors, leading to motors with increased power density. NREL collaborated with Ames Laboratory in the area of material characterization. The work focused on measuring the transverse rupture strength of

  15. String and Sticky Tape Experiments: Simple Self-Lubricated Electric Motor for Elementary Physics Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrikin, Jerry; Griffiths, David

    1983-01-01

    The main problem in constructing functioning electric motors from simple parts is the mounting of the axle (which is too flimsy to maintain good electrical contacts or too tight, imposing excessive friction at the supports). This problem is solved by using a pencil sharpened at both ends as the axle. (JN)

  16. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Draft Environmental Assessment for Rulemaking To Establish Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register...-0148] RIN 2127-AK93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and...

  17. Research on motor braking-based DYC strategy for distributed electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingming; Liao, Weijie; Chen, Lei; Cui, Shumei

    2017-08-01

    In order to bring into full play the advantages of motor braking and enhance the handling stability of distributed electric vehicle, a motor braking-based direct yaw moment control (DYC) strategy was proposed. This strategy could identify whether a vehicle has under-steered or overs-steered, to calculate the direct yaw moment required for vehicle steering correction by taking the corrected yaw velocity deviation and slip-angle deviation as control variables, and exert motor braking moment on the target wheels to perform correction in the manner of differential braking. For validation of the results, a combined simulation platform was set up finally to simulate the motor braking control strategy proposed. As shown by the results, the motor braking-based DYC strategy timely adjusted the motor braking moment and hydraulic braking moment on the target wheels, and corrected the steering deviation and sideslip of the vehicle in unstable state, improving the handling stability.

  18. Software for optimal selection of places for installation of balancing devices in 0,4 kV electric power systems loaded with electric motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This publication considers the issues of development of the software program for designing of 0,4 kV power supply systems with motor-actuated load under voltage unsymmetry conditions (using the example of the Trans-Baikal Territory. Voltage unsymmetry is practically constant phenomenon in the electric power networks of different voltage types. Voltage unsymmetry effects significantly the electric power consumers, including the supply mains itself. It has especially negative impact on the electrical equipment operation process and its lifetime. The urgency of the problem is confirmed by multiple research on the same topic and by significant number of damages suffered by the electric power consumers staying in service (especially in the Trans-Baikal Territory and in the Far-East regions. Voltage unsymmetry causes economic loss and reduction of the electromagnetic interference value by the voltage unsymmetry coefficient in negative-phase sequence (K2U gives inevitable economic effect accordingly. However, the payback period for the activities aimed at reduction of electromagnetic interference, will vary from some months to several years. The more accurate value of the payback period may be obtained using the developed software program. The developed software design program is implemented by means of the programming language C# in Microsoft Visual Studio environment, using the built-in cross-platform database SQLite. The software program shall allow making quick and accurate calculation of the power losses, to determine the economic feasibility of provision special measures for removal of the voltage unsymmetry, for determination of optimal application and location of the balancing devices. The software implementation in power systems loaded with electric motors will improve reliability and efficiency of asynchronous motors. The software is of interest for developers of projects on power supply systems for regions with non-linear loads.

  19. Chapter 11 - Electrical Coupling in the Generation of Vertebrate Motor Rhythms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, W.C.; Rekling, Jens Christian

    2017-01-01

    Many forms of vertebrate motor activity like chewing, breathing, and locomotion are rhythmic. This requires synchronized discharges of motoneurons controlling different muscle groups in an orchestrated manner. We provide a brief review of the presence and role of electrical coupling in a few well...... of electrical coupling in vertebrate motor rhythms appears to be critically dependent on developmental age, with more crucial functions in the early postnatal period than in the adult.......-studied systems: the pacemaker nucleus in weakly electric fish; mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus involved in chewing rhythms; mammalian spinal motoneurons and excitatory interneurons in the Xenopus tadpole swimming circuit, brainstem circuits underlying breathing rhythm, and central respiratory chemosensitivity...

  20. INTENSITY SETTER FOR A DEVICE OF SMOOTH START OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP ELECTRIC MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Lobov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of an intensity setter, which in a rational law changes the opening thyristor the voltage regulator and effectively to changing power supply voltage stator windings of the electric pump deepening, ensuring a smooth start in a wide range. Methodology. Electric submersible pump belongs to the small inertia electric, since it is not significant total moment of inertia, not exceeding two moments of inertia of the motor and static moment on the shaft does not exceed forty percent of the nominal torque. For technical requirements that electric acceleration time should have no less than twenty seconds or more. Office starting modes of electric submersible pumps economically justified using thyristor voltage regulator by forming the dial changes the intensity of the necessary legislation in time voltage feeding the stator windings. This ensures a smooth start right rotor of the electric submersible pump. Results. A block diagram of the intensity setter that is: with control unit, two units that form the exponential voltage supply emitter follower and regulatory elements. The mathematical expressions for voltage at the stator windings of the motor, changing exponentially, opening the angle of thyristor power unit thyristor the voltage regulator, which is determined through the initial angle of opening. Provided formula for pick-up voltage and minimum voltage, time constants, which are determined from the basic equations of motion and mechanical characteristics of the electric motor. Analytical investigated by the voltage dependence violation by changing the time constant flowing and growing exhibitor supply voltage stator electric circuit deepening pump. Originality. Proposed in the initial time on the stator windings of the electric pick-up voltage is applied. Under the influence of this voltage, motor rotor begins to accelerate. At the same time, pick-up voltage decreases the minimum startup voltage varies exponentially in which

  1. Automatic Human Movement Assessment With Switching Linear Dynamic System: Motion Segmentation and Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Baptista, Roberto; Bo, Antonio P L; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Performance assessment of human movement is critical in diagnosis and motor-control rehabilitation. Recent developments in portable sensor technology enable clinicians to measure spatiotemporal aspects to aid in the neurological assessment. However, the extraction of quantitative information from such measurements is usually done manually through visual inspection. This paper presents a novel framework for automatic human movement assessment that executes segmentation and motor performance parameter extraction in time-series of measurements from a sequence of human movements. We use the elements of a Switching Linear Dynamic System model as building blocks to translate formal definitions and procedures from human movement analysis. Our approach provides a method for users with no expertise in signal processing to create models for movements using labeled dataset and later use it for automatic assessment. We validated our framework on preliminary tests involving six healthy adult subjects that executed common movements in functional tests and rehabilitation exercise sessions, such as sit-to-stand and lateral elevation of the arms and five elderly subjects, two of which with limited mobility, that executed the sit-to-stand movement. The proposed method worked on random motion sequences for the dual purpose of movement segmentation (accuracy of 72%-100%) and motor performance assessment (mean error of 0%-12%).

  2. The Experimental Study of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability using a Linear Induction Motor Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Nicholas; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2009-11-01

    The experiments to be presented utilize an incompressible system of two stratified miscible liquids of different densities that are accelerated in order to produce the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Three liquid combinations are used: isopropyl alcohol with water, a calcium nitrate solution or a lithium polytungstate solution, giving Atwood numbers of 0.11, 0.22 and 0.57, respectively. The acceleration required to drive the instability is produced by two high-speed linear induction motors mounted to an 8 m tall drop tower. The motors are mounted in parallel and have an effective acceleration length of 1.7 m and are each capable of producing 15 kN of thrust. The liquid system is contained within a square acrylic tank with inside dimensions 76 x76x184 mm. The tank is mounted to an aluminum plate, which is driven by the motors to create constant accelerations in the range of 1-20 g's, though the potential exists for higher accelerations. Also attached to the plate are a high-speed camera and an LED backlight to provide continuous video of the instability. In addition, an accelerometer is used to provide acceleration measurements during each experiment. Experimental image sequences will be presented which show the development of a random three-dimensional instability from an unforced initial perturbation. Measurements of the mixing zone width will be compared with traditional growth models.

  3. Advanced dc motor controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor generation set is connected to run from the dc source and generate a voltage in the traction motor armature circuit that normally opposes the source voltage. The functional feasibility of the concept is demonstrated with tests on a Proof of Principle System. An analog computer simulation is developed, validated with the results of the tests, applied to predict the performance of a full scale Functional Model dc Controller. The results indicate high efficiencies over wide operating ranges and exceptional recovery of regenerated energy. The new machine integrates both motor and generator on a single two bearing shaft. The control strategy produces a controlled bidirectional plus or minus 48 volts dc output from the generator permitting full control of a 96 volt dc traction motor from a 48 volt battery, was designed to control a 20 hp traction motor. The controller weighs 63.5 kg (140 lb.) and has a peak efficiency of 90% in random driving modes and 96% during the SAE J 227a/D driving cycle.

  4. Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication is the first global analysis of energy consumption and energy efficiency potential of EMDS (electric motor- driven system). The electric motors and systems they drive are the largest single electricity end use, accounting for more than 40% of global electricity consumption. Huge energy efficiency potential was found untapped in EMDS - around 25% of EMDS electricity use could be saved cost-effectively, reducing total global electricity demand by about 10%. However, the energy efficiency of EMDS has been relatively neglected in comparison with other sustainable energy opportunities. It is crucial to scale up the operations and resources committed to realizing the vast savings potential of optimized EMDS. This paper proposes a comprehensive package of policy recommendations to help governments realize the potential for energy savings in EMDS.

  5. Improving motor reliability in nuclear power plants: Volume 2, Functional indicator tests on a small electric motor subjected to accelerated aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Taylor, J.H.; Lofaro, R.; Sugarman, A.C.; Sheets, M.W.; Skreiner, K.M.

    1987-11-01

    A ten horsepower electric motor was artificially aged by plug reverse cycling for test purposes. The motor was manufactured in 1967 and was in service at a commercial nuclear power plant for twelve years. Various tests were performed on the motor throughout the aging process. The motor failed after 3.79 million reversals (3 seconds per reversal) over seven months of testing. Each test parameter was trended to assess its suitability in monitoring aging and service wear degradation in motors. Results and conclusions are discussed relative to the applicability of the tests performed to nuclear power plant motor maintenance programs. 15 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab

  6. Design and Analysis of Multi-Phase BLDC Motors for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Boztas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design and analysis of multi-phase brushless direct current (BLDC motor for electric vehicles (EV. In this work, hub-wheels having 110Nm, 900rpm rated values have been designed for the proposed EV. This EV can produce 440 Nm without using transmission, differential and other mechanical components which have very high losses due to the mechanical fraction. The motors to be used in the EV have been designed as 3-, 5- and 7-phase by Infolytica/Motor Solve Software to compare their performances at the same load conditions. The same rotor geometry has been utilized for the motors. However, slot numbers and dimensions of the stator have been determined by considering the motor phase number. Performance curves of phase-currents, output powers, torques, efficiencies and power factors have been presented for these motors at the same operating conditions. It can be possible to use lower power switches in motor drive system thanks to the phase current reduction since the phase currents decrease proportionally to motor phase number. This work shows that the multi-phase BLDC motors are a good alternative in order to obtain lower torque and lower power inverter structure than the 3-phase BLDC motors which are used as standard.

  7. A Cryogenic High-Power-Density Bearingless Motor for Future Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin; Siebert, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing a high-power-density switched-reluctance cryogenic motor for all-electric and pollution-free flight. However, cryogenic operation at higher rotational speeds markedly shortens the life of mechanical rolling element bearings. Thus, to demonstrate the practical feasibility of using this motor for future flights, a non-contact rotor-bearing system is a crucial technology to circumvent poor bearing life that ordinarily accompanies cryogenic operation. In this paper, a bearingless motor control technology for a 12-8 (12 poles in the stator and 8 poles in the rotor) switched-reluctance motor operating in liquid nitrogen (boiling point, 77 K (-196 C or -321 F)) was presented. We pushed previous disciplinary limits of electromagnetic controller technique by extending the state-of-the-art bearingless motor operating at liquid nitrogen for high-specific-power applications. The motor was levitated even in its nonlinear region of magnetic saturation, which is believed to be a world first for the motor type. Also we used only motoring coils to generate motoring torque and levitation force, which is an important feature for developing a high specific power motor.

  8. Dosage-dependent non-linear effect of L-dopa on human motor cortex plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Silva, Katia; Liebetanz, David; Grundey, Jessica; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2010-09-15

    The neuromodulator dopamine affects learning and memory formation and their likely physiological correlates, long-term depression and potentiation, in animals and humans. It is known from animal experiments that dopamine exerts a dosage-dependent, inverted U-shaped effect on these functions. However, this has not been explored in humans so far. In order to reveal a non-linear dose-dependent effect of dopamine on cortical plasticity in humans, we explored the impact of 25, 100 and 200 mg of L-dopa on transcranial direct current (tDCS)-induced plasticity in twelve healthy human subjects. The primary motor cortex served as a model system, and plasticity was monitored by motor evoked potential amplitudes elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation. As compared to placebo medication, low and high dosages of L-dopa abolished facilitatory as well as inhibitory plasticity, whereas the medium dosage prolonged inhibitory plasticity, and turned facilitatory plasticity into inhibition. Thus the results show clear non-linear, dosage-dependent effects of dopamine on both facilitatory and inhibitory plasticity, and support the assumption of the importance of a specific dosage of dopamine optimally suited to improve plasticity. This might be important for the therapeutic application of dopaminergic agents, especially for rehabilitative purposes, and explain some opposing results in former studies.

  9. Direct electrical arc ignition of hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Michael I., Jr.

    Hybrid rockets motors provide distinct safety advantages when compared to traditional liquid or solid propellant systems, due to the inherent stability and relative inertness of the propellants prior to established combustion. As a result of this inherent propellant stability, hybrid motors have historically proven difficult to ignite. State of the art hybrid igniter designs continue to require solid or liquid reactants distinct from the main propellants. These ignition methods however, reintroduce to the hybrid propulsion system the safety and complexity disadvantages associated with traditional liquid or solid propellants. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a novel direct electrostatic arc ignition method for hybrid motors. A series of small prototype stand-alone thrusters demonstrating this technology were successfully designed and tested using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic and Gaseous Oxygen (GOX) as propellants. Measurements of input voltage and current demonstrated that arc-ignition will occur using as little as 10 watts peak power and less than 5 joules total energy. The motor developed for the stand-alone small thruster was adapted as a gas generator to ignite a medium-scale hybrid rocket motor using nitrous oxide /and HTPB as propellants. Multiple consecutive ignitions were performed. A large data set as well as a collection of development `lessons learned' were compiled to guide future development and research. Since the completion of this original groundwork research, the concept has been developed into a reliable, operational igniter system for a 75mm hybrid motor using both gaseous oxygen and liquid nitrous oxide as oxidizers. A development map of the direct spark ignition concept is presented showing the flow of key lessons learned between this original work and later follow on development.

  10. Rare-earth-free propulsion motors for electric vehicles: a technology review

    OpenAIRE

    Riba Ruiz, Jordi-Roger; Lopez Torres, Carlos; Romeral Martínez, José Luis; García Espinosa, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Several factors including fossil fuels scarcity, prices volatility, greenhouse gas emissions or current pollution levels in metropolitan areas are forcing the development of greener transportation systems based on more efficient electric and hybrid vehicles. Most of the current hybrid electric vehicles use electric motors containing powerful rare-earth permanent magnets. However, both private companies and estates are aware of possible future shortages, price uncertainty and geographical conc...

  11. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor in a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Siavash Sadeghi; Mojtaba Mirsalim; Arash Hassanpour Isfahani

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic behavior analysis of electric motors is required in order to accuratelyevaluate the performance, energy consumption and pollution level of hybrid electricvehicles. Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles are divided into steady state anddynamic models. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysiswhereas tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the behavior ofsublevel components. For the accurate prediction of hybrid electric vehicl...

  12. The advancement of electric vehicles - case: Tesla Motors. Disruptive technology requiring systemic innovating

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles have existed for over 100 years as a disruptive innovation. Even though they have always been easier to use, quieter and cleaner, gasoline cars have beaten it in price, range and faster fueling. As gasoline cars have been the technological standard for the past 150 years there has been no motivation by car manufacturers to advance electric vehicles. By producing electric vehicles Tesla Motors has appropriately become the first successful startup car manufacturer in over 100 ...

  13. High-efficiency electric motors: An analysis of a feasible tariff policy for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva Delgado, M.A. de; Tolmasquim, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective is to calculate an average value for an electricity tariff which will facilitate the introduction of high-efficiency electric motors in the production sector. Two computational models will be developed for technical-economic evaluation to assess economic attractiveness by calculating feasible average electricity tariffs in order to create a market for substitution of standard motors by new high-efficiency models (Purchase Decision Model) as well as to determine if retrofitting of standard installed motors by others with high-efficiency characteristics is viable, and, if so, to specify the optimum timing for such substitution (Substitution Decision Model). It should be noted that the Purchase Decision Model takes into account power factor adjustment and the Substitution Decision Model incorporates considerations as to reduction in the electromechanical performance of operating motors. Results indicate that even where average electricity tariffs are low, as in Brazil, high-efficiency motors are economically attractive compared to standard motors. There is an obvious need for complementary instruments to assist massive market penetration

  14. An Impulse Electric Motor for Driving Recording Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, W F

    1923-01-01

    The chief purpose in undertaking the development of this synchronous motor was the creation of a very small, compact power source, capable of driving the film drums of the recording aircraft instruments designed by the staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  15. Motor integrated permanent magnet gear in a battery electrical vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tommy; Mathe, Laszlo; Berg, Nick Ilsø

    2013-01-01

    ) and the background for the specifications are elaborated. Simulated as well as measured results of rotational losses of the first and second version are compared. The efficiency of the new design is investigated and compared to the drivetrain of the Tesla Roadster and two direct drive axial flux motors in a few...

  16. Information-Measuring System to Control the Electrical and Mechanical Motor Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ermakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue of creating an information-measuring system for an asynchronous motor. The presented system allows ensuring the failure-free protection of electromotor, considerably reducing costs of its unplanned repair, and reduced economical loss from idle time of the electric motor.The developed system comprises a mathematical model and two subsystems to measure electrical and mechanical parameters of the asynchronous motor.The electrical subsystem comprises a FLUKE company recording multi-meter a signal from which passes through the block of intervals and coding and comes to PC.The mechanical subsystem uses technical tools of phase-chronometric method. This method developed at the department of Metrology and Interchangeability allows an increasing efficiency of developed informative-measuring system. Mathematical modeling is used to link information from subsystems (electrical and mechanical to electromotor construction.The work conducted mathematical modeling of some defects of electric motor, namely: rupture of rotor winding and line surge.The mathematical model in Mathcad was based on a modified formula of Kloss. It allows us to tie the average current value of the torque of the induction motor with shaft speed and take into account the effect of the frequency and voltage.The Matlab Simulink (the package for visual programming environment was used to simulate a rupture of the rotor winding. Simulation results showed how the phase currents of the electric motor changed with the winding rupture.The developed information-measuring system has a number of advantages over traditional systems used in this field (vibration-based diagnostics systems. It will allow an increasing efficiency of the system for diagnostics of electrical machines created on the basis of this information-measuring system.

  17. Data on electrical energy conservation using high efficiency motors for the confidence bounds using statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mujtaba; Memon, Abdul Jabbar; Hussain, Manzoor

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we describe details of the data used in the research paper "Confidence bounds for energy conservation in electric motors: An economical solution using statistical techniques" [1]. The data presented in this paper is intended to show benefits of high efficiency electric motors over the standard efficiency motors of similar rating in the industrial sector of Pakistan. We explain how the data was collected and then processed by means of formulas to show cost effectiveness of energy efficient motors in terms of three important parameters: annual energy saving, cost saving and payback periods. This data can be further used to construct confidence bounds for the parameters using statistical techniques as described in [1].

  18. Linear hypergeneralization of learned dynamics across movement speeds reveals anisotropic, gain-encoding primitives for motor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Wilsaan M; Ajayi, Obafunso; Sing, Gary C; Smith, Maurice A

    2011-01-01

    The ability to generalize learned motor actions to new contexts is a key feature of the motor system. For example, the ability to ride a bicycle or swing a racket is often first developed at lower speeds and later applied to faster velocities. A number of previous studies have examined the generalization of motor adaptation across movement directions and found that the learned adaptation decays in a pattern consistent with the existence of motor primitives that display narrow Gaussian tuning. However, few studies have examined the generalization of motor adaptation across movement speeds. Following adaptation to linear velocity-dependent dynamics during point-to-point reaching arm movements at one speed, we tested the ability of subjects to transfer this adaptation to short-duration higher-speed movements aimed at the same target. We found near-perfect linear extrapolation of the trained adaptation with respect to both the magnitude and the time course of the velocity profiles associated with the high-speed movements: a 69% increase in movement speed corresponded to a 74% extrapolation of the trained adaptation. The close match between the increase in movement speed and the corresponding increase in adaptation beyond what was trained indicates linear hypergeneralization. Computational modeling shows that this pattern of linear hypergeneralization across movement speeds is not compatible with previous models of adaptation in which motor primitives display isotropic Gaussian tuning of motor output around their preferred velocities. Instead, we show that this generalization pattern indicates that the primitives involved in the adaptation to viscous dynamics display anisotropic tuning in velocity space and encode the gain between motor output and motion state rather than motor output itself.

  19. High power linear electric machine - made possible by gas springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, E.; Brennvall, J.E.; Nilssen, R.; Norum, L.

    2004-07-01

    In some applications, such as compressors, free piston linear machines have several advantages compared to rotating machines. The power level of linear machines has been limited, mainly due to difficulties with the spring. A solution for this has now been found and will be described in this paper. It can open up new areas of applications, where the power level exceeds the present power limit of about 2 kW. This machine needs special regulators in order to work efficiently. Two regulator algorithms for piston phase and one for position amplitude are therefore implemented for this prototype. (author)

  20. Rotational hysteresis and eddy current losses in electrical motor stators under non-conventional supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottauscio, Oriano.; Canova, Aldo; Chiampi, Mario; Repetto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic analysis of stators of electrical motors is performed through an innovative 2D finite element formulation that takes into account the effects of eddy currents within the laminations by means of a generalized constitutive relationship also including vector hysteresis. This approach is applied to a deep estimation of magnetic flux distribution and magnetic losses in stator of induction motors supplied by high-frequency sinusoidal or six-step voltage sources

  1. Peptide assembly-driven metal-organic framework (MOF) motors for micro electric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Yasuhiro; Fang, Justin; Wasik, Tomasz L; Uemura, Takashi; Zheng, Yongtai; Kitagawa, Susumu; Matsui, Hiroshi

    2015-01-14

    Peptide-metal-organic framework (Pep-MOF) motors, whose motions are driven by anisotropic surface tension gradients created via peptide self-assembly around frameworks, can rotate microscopic rotors and magnets fast enough to generate an electric power of 0.1 μW. A new rigid Pep-MOF motor can be recycled by refilling the peptide fuel into the nanopores of the MOF. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A Minimization of Speed Ripple of Sensorless DTC for controlled Induction Motors used in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Khoucha , Farid; Marouani , Khoudir; Kheloui , Abdelaziz; Benbouzid , Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The main theme of this paper is to present different switching techniques in DTC induction motor drives for electric vehicle applications, witch insert zero-voltage vector and/or more non zero-voltage vectors to the conventional switching table associated to full adaptive flux and speed observer. Those techniques are quite effective in reducing the torque pulsation and the speed ripples of the motors, as demonstrated in experimental results.

  3. High frequency vibration characteristics of electric wheel system under in-wheel motor torque ripple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Zuo, Shuguang; Wu, Xudong; Duan, Xianglei

    2017-07-01

    With the introduction of in-wheel motor, the electric wheel system encounters new vibration problems brought by motor torque ripple excitation. In order to analyze new vibration characteristics of electric wheel system, torque ripple of in-wheel motor based on motor module and vector control system is primarily analyzed, and frequency/order features of the torque ripple are discussed. Then quarter vehicle-electric wheel system (QV-EWS) dynamics model based on the rigid ring tire assumption is established and the main parameters of the model are identified according to tire free modal test. Modal characteristics of the model are further analyzed. The analysis indicates that torque excitation of in-wheel motor is prone to arouse horizontal vibration, in which in-phase rotational, anti-phase rotational and horizontal translational modes of electric wheel system mainly participate. Based on the model, vibration responses of the QV-EWS under torque ripple are simulated. The results show that unlike vertical low frequency (lower than 20 Hz) vibration excited by road roughness, broadband torque ripple will arouse horizontal high frequency (50-100 Hz) vibration of electric wheel system due to participation of the three aforementioned modes. To verify the theoretical analysis, the bench experiment of electric wheel system is conducted and vibration responses are acquired. The experiment demonstrates the high frequency vibration phenomenon of electric wheel system and the measured order features as well as main resonant frequencies agree with simulation results. Through theoretical modeling, analysis and experiments this paper reveals and explains the high frequency vibration characteristics of electric wheel system, providing references for the dynamic analysis, optimal design of QV-EWS.

  4. Cyclic Parameter Refinement of 4S-10 Hybrid Flux-Switching Motor for Lightweight Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, J. Abd; Sulaiman, E.; Kumar, R.

    2017-08-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the reduction of lighting the vehicle because the lighter the vehicle the energy consumption is comparatively low. Hence, the lightweight electric vehicle was introduced for lower carbon footprint and the sizing of the vehicle itself. One of the components to reduce the weight of the vehicle is the propulsion system which comprised of electric motor functioning as the source of torque to drive the propulsion system of the machine. This paper presents the refinement methodology for the optimized design of the 4S-10P E-Core hybrid excitation flux switching motor. The purpose of the refinement methodology is to improve the torque production of the optimized motor. The result of the successful improvement of the torque production is justifiable for a lightweight electric vehicle to drive the propulsion system.

  5. Consideration on A.C. electric motor subjected to thermal and radiation accelerated ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doina, Segarceanu; Geambau, C.

    2001-01-01

    In the containment building of a nuclear reactor there are many types of equipment, such as motors, valve and transducers. Electric motors used in nuclear power stations operate under specific environmental conditions. These conditions are determinate by temperature, humidity, pressure, radiation and they may be normal conditions in service, or may be accident conditions occur during the postulated LOCA event. The testing of electric motors capability to meet and exceed the required performances under specific operating environmental conditions all along its operating life implies the performing of a sequence of tests in which the environmental conditions are simulated in a accelerated manner followed by accident simulation tests. Simulating the ageing position of the test sequence is more difficult because of the problem of extrapolating the results of short term accelerated laboratory experiments to the long term exposure (up to 30 years) that actually occur in a nuclear plant. Thermally induced ageing is the most frequently used ageing stress and also the most easily. The insulated system of a motor ageing under the influence of temperature and high - energy radiation can suffer important changes in its electro-insulating properties. Thus, by way of accelerated ageing motors are brought under conditions equivalent to those at the end of their service life, in a relatively short time. Accelerated ageing enables a shorting of electric motor performance evaluation time. (author)

  6. Modeling and Dynamics of HTS Motors for Aircraft Electric Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Vepa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the methodology of how a dynamic model of a conventional permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM may be modified to model the dynamics of a high-temperature superconductor (HTS machine is illustrated. Simulations of a typical PMSM operating under room temperature conditions and also at temperatures when the stator windings are superconducting are compared. Given a matching set of values for the stator resistance at superconducting temperature and flux-trapped rotor field, it is shown that the performance of the HTS PMSM is quite comparable to a PMSM under normal room temperature operating conditions, provided the parameters of the motor are appropriately related to each other. From these simulations, a number of strategies for operating the motor so as to get the propeller to deliver thrust with maximum propulsive efficiency are discussed. It is concluded that the motor–propeller system must be operated so as to deliver thrust at the maximum propulsive efficiency point. This, in turn, necessitates continuous tracking of the maximum propulsive efficiency point and consequently it is essential that the controller requires a maximum propulsive efficiency point tracking (MPEPT outer loop.

  7. Research on Control System of Three - phase Brushless DC Motor for Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Jin, Hai; Guo, Jie; Su, Jie; Wang, Miao

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the three-phase brushless motor control system of electric vehicle, Freescale9S12XS128 chip is used as the control core, and the power MOSFET is used as the inverter device. The software is compiled by Codewarrior software. The speed control link adopts open-loop control, and the control chip collects the external sensor signal voltage Change control PWM signal output control three-phase brushless DC motor speed. The whole system consists of Hall position detection module, current detection module, power drive module and voltage detection module. The basic functions of three-phase brushless DC motor drive control are realized.

  8. Design and Analysis of Multi-Phase BLDC Motors for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Boztas, Gullu; Yildirim, Merve; Aydogmus, Omur

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a design and analysis of multiphase brushless direct current (BLDC) motor for electric vehicles (EV). In this work, hub-wheels having 110Nm, 900rpm rated values have been designed for the proposed EV. This EV can produce 440 Nm without using transmission, differential and other mechanical components which have very high losses due to the mechanical fraction. The motors to be used in the EV have been designed as 3-, 5- and 7-phase by Infolytica/Motor Solve Software to compa...

  9. Electric Propellant Solid Rocket Motor Thruster Results Enabling Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Koehler, Frederick; Langhenry, Mark; Summers, Matt; Villarreal, James; Villarreal, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Raytheon Missile Systems has developed and tested true on/off/restart solid propellant thrusters which are controlled only by electrical current. This new patented class of energetic rocket propellant is safe, controllable and simple. The range of applications for this game changing technology includes attitude control systems and a safe alternative to higher impulse space satellite thrusters. Described herein are descriptions and performance data for several small electric propellant solid r...

  10. System Identification and Integration Design of an Air/Electric Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yao Huang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integration design and implementation of an air motor and a DC servo motor which utilizes a magnetic powder brake to integrate these two motors together. The dynamic model of the air/electric hybrid system will be derived and eventually leads to successful ECE-40 driving cycle tests with a FPGA-based speed controller. The testing results obtained by using the proposed experimental platform indicate that the total air consumption is about 256 L under air motor mode and the electric charge consumption is about 530 coulombs under DC servo motor mode. In a hybrid mode, the current reduction of the battery is about 18.5%, and then the service life of the battery can be improved. Furthermore, a prototype is built with a proportional-integral (PI speed controller based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA in order to facilitate the entire analysis of the velocity switch experiment. Through the modular methodology of FPGA, the hybrid power platform can successfully operate under ECE-40 driving cycle with the PI speed controller. The experimental data shows that the chattering ranges of the air motor within ±1 km/h and ±0.2 km/h under DC servo motor drive. Therefore, the PI speed controller based on FPGA is successfully actualized.

  11. Control Strategy for Power Distribution in Dual Motor Propulsion System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Daniel Urbina Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles with more than one electric motor can offer advantages in saving energy from the batteries. In order to do that, the control strategy plays an important role in distributing the required torque between the electric motors. A dual motor propulsion system with a differential transmission is simulated in this work. A rule based control strategy for this propulsion system is proposed and analyzed. Two parameters related to the output speed of the transmission and the required torque are used to switch the two modes of operation in which the propulsion system can work under acceleration. The effect of these parameters is presented over the driving cycles of NEDC, UDDS, and NYCC, which are followed using a PID controller. The produced energy losses are calculated as well as an indicator of drivability, which is related to the difference between the desired speed and the actual speed obtained. The results show that less energy losses are present when the vehicle is maintained with one electric motor most of the time, switching only when the extended speed granted by the second motor is required. The propulsion system with the proposed control strategy represents a feasible alternative in the spectrum of sustainable transportation architectures with extending range capabilities.

  12. Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor and Mechanical Structure Design for the Electric Impact Wrench System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyuan He

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical method to design an interior permanent magnet brushless DC electric motor (IPMBLDC motor for a kind of electric impact wrench used for loading and unloading car bolts. It takes into account magnet assembly gap, rotor saturation webs, and bridges. Assumed flux leakage coefficient and selected working point of a permanent magnet were used in the initial design. An advanced equivalent magnetic circuit was developed to verify the total flux leakage and the quiescent operating point based on initial design parameters. Key design method points are considered and analyzed. Thermal analysis is given to simulate the temperature rise of all parts of the motor. The new impact wrench mechanical structure is designed, and its working principle analyzed. An electromagnetic field analysis based on MATLAB and the MAXWELL 2D finite element method (FEM were used in the design to verify the equivalent magnetic circuit and optimize the IPMBLDC motor parameters. Experimental results are obtained to verify the design. The electrical and mechanical designs are combined and an analytical IPMBLDC motor design method is provided. We also show an innovative and reasonable mechanical dynamical calculation method for the impact wrench system, which can be used in whole system design of other functional electric tools.

  13. Effects of motor imagery combined with functional electrical stimulation on upper limb motor function of patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-feng LIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effects of motor imagery (MI combined with the third generation functional electrical stimulation (FES on upper limb motor function in acute ischemic stroke patients with hemiplegia.  Methods Forty acute ischemic stroke patients, within 48 h of onset, were randomly divided into FES group (N = 20 and combination group (FES combined with motor imagery, N = 20. All patients received basic routine rehabilitation training, for example, good limb positioning, accepting braces, balance training and training in the activities of daily living (ADL. FES group received the third generation FES therapy and the combination group also received motor imagery for 2 weeks. All of the patients were assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT and active range of motion (AROM of wrist dorsiflexion before and after 2 weeks of treatment.  Results After 2 weeks of treatment, the 2 groups had significantly higher FMA score, ARAT score and AROM of wrist dorsiflexion than that in pre-treatment (P = 0.000, for all. Besides, the FMA score (t = - 2.528, P = 0.016, ARAT score (t = - 2.562, P = 0.014 and AROM of wrist dorsiflexion (t = - 2.469, P = 0.018 in the combination group were significantly higher than that in the FES group. There were interactions of treatment methods with observation time points (P < 0.05, for all.  Conclusions Motor imagery combined with the third generation FES can effectively promote the recovery of upper limb motor function and motion range of wrist dorsiflexion in patients with acute ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.03.008

  14. Electricity consumption forecasting in Italy using linear regression models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, Vincenzo; Manca, Oronzio; Nardini, Sergio [DIAM, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    The influence of economic and demographic variables on the annual electricity consumption in Italy has been investigated with the intention to develop a long-term consumption forecasting model. The time period considered for the historical data is from 1970 to 2007. Different regression models were developed, using historical electricity consumption, gross domestic product (GDP), gross domestic product per capita (GDP per capita) and population. A first part of the paper considers the estimation of GDP, price and GDP per capita elasticities of domestic and non-domestic electricity consumption. The domestic and non-domestic short run price elasticities are found to be both approximately equal to -0.06, while long run elasticities are equal to -0.24 and -0.09, respectively. On the contrary, the elasticities of GDP and GDP per capita present higher values. In the second part of the paper, different regression models, based on co-integrated or stationary data, are presented. Different statistical tests are employed to check the validity of the proposed models. A comparison with national forecasts, based on complex econometric models, such as Markal-Time, was performed, showing that the developed regressions are congruent with the official projections, with deviations of {+-}1% for the best case and {+-}11% for the worst. These deviations are to be considered acceptable in relation to the time span taken into account. (author)

  15. Electricity consumption forecasting in Italy using linear regression models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, Vincenzo; Manca, Oronzio; Nardini, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    The influence of economic and demographic variables on the annual electricity consumption in Italy has been investigated with the intention to develop a long-term consumption forecasting model. The time period considered for the historical data is from 1970 to 2007. Different regression models were developed, using historical electricity consumption, gross domestic product (GDP), gross domestic product per capita (GDP per capita) and population. A first part of the paper considers the estimation of GDP, price and GDP per capita elasticities of domestic and non-domestic electricity consumption. The domestic and non-domestic short run price elasticities are found to be both approximately equal to -0.06, while long run elasticities are equal to -0.24 and -0.09, respectively. On the contrary, the elasticities of GDP and GDP per capita present higher values. In the second part of the paper, different regression models, based on co-integrated or stationary data, are presented. Different statistical tests are employed to check the validity of the proposed models. A comparison with national forecasts, based on complex econometric models, such as Markal-Time, was performed, showing that the developed regressions are congruent with the official projections, with deviations of ±1% for the best case and ±11% for the worst. These deviations are to be considered acceptable in relation to the time span taken into account. (author)

  16. Electrical energy saving in motors and frequency variators; Ahorro de energia electrica en motores y variadores de frecuencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Neri, Roger [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The necessity of saving energy is urgent and undeniable. We must already begin with the rational use of energy. Which is obtaining the maximum benefit of the consumed energy and of the necessary facilities for its generation, transmission and use. Guaranteeing at the same time an operation free of interferences or interruptions for the users. The electricity in alternating current does not allow its storage, reason why it is necessary to generate and distribute it at the precise moment when it is required. This forces to determine the proportions of the generation facilities, to be able to feed the periods of maximum demand called {sup p}eaks{sup .} It is this very point where the problem of the inappropriate use of the electrical energy starts. The energy waste is self-evident during the periods of low demand because of the low efficiency of the sub-utilized facilities. Electrical motors of the induction type use approximately more than 60% of the energy in the industry. If we use high efficiency motors instead of standard motors, a better advantage of the energy demanded from Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is obtained. [Spanish] Es impostergable e innegable la necesidad de ahorrar energia. Tenemos que empezar ya con el uso racional de la energia: Obtener el maximo beneficio de la energia consumida y de las instalaciones necesarias para su generacion, transmision y utilizacion. Garantizando a los usuarios un funcionamiento sin interferencias o interrupciones. La electricidad en corriente alterna no permite su almacenamiento, por lo que es necesario generarla y distribuirla en el momento preciso en que es requerida. Esto obliga a dimensionar las instalaciones de generacion, para poder alimentar los periodos de maxima demanda llamados pico. Desde esta parte inicia el problema de la mala utilizacion de la energia electrica. Ya que en los periodos de baja demanda, las instalaciones se encuentran subutilizadas y si su eficiencia es muy baja, el desperdicio de

  17. A criterion for heated pipe design by linear electric resistances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, M.; Cruz, J.R.B.

    1984-01-01

    A criterion for linear eletrical elements instalation on horizontal tubes is obtainned in this work. This criterion is based upon the calculation of the thermal stresses caused by the non uniform temperature distribution in the tube cross section. The finite difference method and the SAP IV computer code are both used in the calculations. The criterion is applied to the thermal circuits of the IEN which has tube diameter varying from φ 1/2 in till φ 8 in. (author) [pt

  18. FY2011 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Susan A. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-01-31

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) program within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor (EM), thermal management, and traction drive system technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  19. Design and Analysis of a Novel Speed-Changing Wheel Hub with an Integrated Electric Motor for Electric Bicycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an innovative electromechanical device which integrates a brushless DC (BLDC hub motor with a speed-changing wheel hub stored on the rear wheel of an electric bicycle. It combines a power source and a speed-changing mechanism to simultaneously provide functions of power generation and transmission for electric bicycles. As part of the proposed integrated device, the wheel hub consists of a basic planetary gear train providing three forward speeds including a low-speed gear, a direct drive, and a high-speed gear. Each gear is manually controlled by the shift control sleeve to selectively engage or disengage four pawl-and-ratchet clutches based on its clutching sequence table. The number of gear teeth of each gear element of the wheel hub is synthesized. The BLDC hub motor is an exterior-rotor-type permanent-magnet synchronous motor. Two-dimensional finite-element analysis (FEA software is employed to facilitate the motor design and performance analysis. An analysis of the power transmission path at each gear is provided to verify the validity of the proposed design. The results of this work are beneficial to the embodiment, design, and development of novel electromechanical devices for the power and transmission systems of electric bicycles.

  20. Electromagnetic Performance Calculation of HTS Linear Induction Motor for Rail Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bin; Fang, Jin; Cao, Junci; Chen, Jie; Shu, Hang; Sheng, Long

    2017-01-01

    According to a high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear induction motor (LIM) designed for rail systems, the influence of electromagnetic parameters and mechanical structure parameters on the electromagnetic horizontal thrust, vertical force of HTS LIM and the maximum vertical magnetic field of HTS windings are analyzed. Through the research on the vertical field of HTS windings, the development regularity of the HTS LIM maximum input current with different stator frequency and different thickness value of the secondary conductive plate is obtained. The theoretical results are of great significance to analyze the stability of HTS LIM. Finally, based on theory analysis, HTS LIM test platform was built and the experiment was carried out with load. The experimental results show that the theoretical analysis is correct and reasonable. (paper)

  1. Electromagnetic Performance Calculation of HTS Linear Induction Motor for Rail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Fang, Jin; Cao, Junci; Chen, Jie; Shu, Hang; Sheng, Long

    2017-07-01

    According to a high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear induction motor (LIM) designed for rail systems, the influence of electromagnetic parameters and mechanical structure parameters on the electromagnetic horizontal thrust, vertical force of HTS LIM and the maximum vertical magnetic field of HTS windings are analyzed. Through the research on the vertical field of HTS windings, the development regularity of the HTS LIM maximum input current with different stator frequency and different thickness value of the secondary conductive plate is obtained. The theoretical results are of great significance to analyze the stability of HTS LIM. Finally, based on theory analysis, HTS LIM test platform was built and the experiment was carried out with load. The experimental results show that the theoretical analysis is correct and reasonable.

  2. Analysis and measure of novel stereo-garage driven by linear induction motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Qinfen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The car access time is a key parameter, especially in a huge stereo-garage, where this one should be decreased as much as possible. This paper proposes a novel stereo-garage. Adopting the linear induction motors (LIMs, the system has a simple structure and rapid response capability. In the stereo-garage, several LIMs are installed below the crossbeam on a lifting platform, and several LIMs are fixed on the top of a moving frame. During the operation of LIMs, the moving frame moves forward and backward to reach the required parking place, whereas the crossbeam moves horizontally in order to take or store the vehicle rapidly. All these LIMs are the same and should be designed at a low frequency. The influences of key structure parameters and dynamic performances are investigated, based on FEM. The predicted results are validated by a prototype. Finally, the designed LIMs are successfully applied in two 8-layer stereo-garages.

  3. A novel L-shaped linear ultrasonic motor operating in a single resonance mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bailiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiaoniu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a large thrust linear ultrasonic motor using an L-shaped stator is described. The stator is constructed by two mutually perpendicular rectangular plate vibrators, one of which is mounted in parallel with the slider to make the motor structure to be more compact. The symmetric and antisymmetric modes of the stator based on the first order bending vibration of two vibrators are adopted, in which each resonance mode is assigned to drive the slider in one direction. The placement of piezoelectric ceramics in a stator could be determined by finite element analysis, and the influence of slots in the head block on the vibration amplitudes of driving foot was studied as well. Three types of prototypes (non-slotted, dual-slot, and single-slot) were fabricated and experimentally investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that the prototype with one slot exhibited the best mechanical output performance. The maximum loads under the excitation of symmetric mode and antisymmetric mode were 65 and 90 N, respectively.

  4. A piezoelectric linear ultrasonic motor with the structure of a circular cylindrical stator and slider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Dongming; Wang, Sheng; Sakurai, Junpei; Hata, Seiichi; Choi, Kee-Bong; Shimokohbe, Akira

    2010-01-01

    A piezoelectric linear ultrasonic motor is proposed, with a cylindrical stator and slider structure. The length and diameter of the motor are about 10 and 1.5 mm, respectively. The stator consists of two piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) tubes connected by a thin film metallic glass (TFMG) pipe. The stator is designed based on theoretical analyses and finite element method (FEM) simulation. The traveling wave propagation is obtained in the FEM simulation under the proper geometrical sizes, suitable boundary conditions and driving voltage signals. The trajectories of particles on the TFMG pipe are elliptical motion. In the experiment, a 25 µm thick TFMG pipe is fabricated using the rotating magnetron sputtering technique and the vibration characteristics of the stator are measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) system. Bidirectional motion of the slider is observed around 600 kHz, the maximum velocity is near to 40 mm s −1 at 50 Vp–p for the loose slider and the maximum output force is 6 mN at 70 Vp–p for the tight slider

  5. Straight and chopped DC performance data for a General Electric 5BY436A1 DC shunt motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Both straight and chopped dc motor performance data for a General Electric 5BY436A1 motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller is presented in tabular and graphical formats. Effects of motor temperature and operating voltage are also shown. The maximum motor efficiency is approximately 85% at low operating temperatures in the straight dc mode. Chopper efficiency can be assumed to be 95% under all operating conditions. For equal speeds, the motor operated in the chopped mode develops slightly more torque and draws more current than it does in the straight mode.

  6. Development of linear pulse motor type control element drive mechanism for smart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Je-Yong, Yu; Jong-in, Kim; Ji-ho, Kim; Hyung, Huh; Moon-Hee, Chang

    2001-01-01

    The system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART) currently under development at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is being designed with soluble boron free operation and the use of nuclear heating for reactor start-up. These design features require a Control Element Drive Mechanism(CEDM) for SMART to have fine-step movement capability as well as high reliability for fine reactivity control. In this paper, the design characteristics of a new concept CEDM driven by a Linear Pulse Motor (LPM) which meets the design requirements of the integral reactor SMART are introduced. The primary dimensions of the linear pulse motor are determined by electro-magnetic analysis and the results are also presented. In parallel with the electro-magnetic analysis, the conceptual design of the CEDM is visualized and checked for interferences among parts by assembling three dimensional (3D) models on computer. A prototype of the LPM with double air-gaps for the CEDM sub-assemblies to lift 100 kg is designed, analysed, manufactured and tested to confirm the validity of the CEDM design concept. A converter and test facility are manufactured to verify the dynamic performance of the LPM. The mover of the LPM is welded with ferromagnetic material and non-ferromagnetic material to get the magnetic flux path between the inner stator and outer stator. The thrust forces of LPM predicted by the analytic model have shown good agreement with experimental results from the prototype LPM. It is found that the LPM type CEDM has high force density and a simple drive mechanism to reduce volume and satisfy reactor operating circumstances with high pressure and temperature. (authors)

  7. Linear pulse motor type control element drive mechanism for the integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J. Y.; Choi, S.; Kim, J. H.; Huh, H.; Park, K. B.

    2007-01-01

    The integral reactor SMART currently under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is designed with soluble boron free operation and use of nuclear heating for reactor startup. These design features require the Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) for SMART to have fine-step movement capability as well as high reliability for the fine reactivity control. In this paper, design characteristics of a new concept CEDM driven by the Linear Pulse Motor (LPM) which meets the design requirements of the integral reactor SMART are introduced. The primary dimensions of the linear pulse motor are determined by the electro-magnetic analysis and the results are also presented. In parallel with the electro-magnetic analysis, the conceptual design of the CEDM is visualized and checked for interferences among parts by assembling three dimensional (3D) models on the computer. Prototype of LPM with double air-gaps for the CEDM sub-assemblies to lift 100 kg is designed, analysed, manufactured and tested to confirm the validity of the CEDM design concept. A converter and a test facility are manufactured to verify the dynamic performance of the LPM. The mover of the LPM is welded with ferromagnetic material and non-ferromagnetic material to get the magnetic flux path between inner stator and outer stator. The thrust forces of LPM predicted by analytic model have shown good agreement with experimental results from the prototype LPM. It is found that the LPM type CEDM has high force density and simple drive mechanism to reduce volume and satisfy the reactor operating circumstances with high pressure and temperature

  8. Question of the possibility of using diphenyl trichloride for cooling the electric motors of coal cutters loaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrenko, Yu I; Donets, I K; Kovalev, Ye B; Sukhanov, V V; Tsingarelli, Ye P

    1981-01-01

    Studies showed that phenyl trichloride with its dielectric and explosive and fire safety properties may be used for cooling explosion protected cutter loader electric motors used in electric machine building.

  9. Balancing Vibrations at Harmonic Frequencies by Injecting Harmonic Balancing Signals into the Armature of a Linear Motor/Alternator Coupled to a Stirling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ezekiel S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Vibrations at harmonic frequencies are reduced by injecting harmonic balancing signals into the armature of a linear motor/alternator coupled to a Stirling machine. The vibrations are sensed to provide a signal representing the mechanical vibrations. A harmonic balancing signal is generated for selected harmonics of the operating frequency by processing the sensed vibration signal with adaptive filter algorithms of adaptive filters for each harmonic. Reference inputs for each harmonic are applied to the adaptive filter algorithms at the frequency of the selected harmonic. The harmonic balancing signals for all of the harmonics are summed with a principal control signal. The harmonic balancing signals modify the principal electrical drive voltage and drive the motor/alternator with a drive voltage component in opposition to the vibration at each harmonic.

  10. Design of decoupled dual servo stage with voice coil motor and linear motor for XY long stroke ultra-precision scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Young-Man; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Hong, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Koung-Suk; Lee, Suk-Won; Lee, Moon-Gu

    2005-12-01

    A decoupled dual servo (DDS) stage for ultra-precision scanning system is introduced in this paper. The proposed DDS consists of a 3 axis fine stage for handling and carrying workpieces and a XY coarse stage. Especially, the DDS uses three voice coil motors (VCM) as a planar actuation system of the fine stage to reduce the disturbances due to any mechanical connections with its coarse stage. VCMs are governed by Lorentz law. According to the law and its structure, there are no mechanical connections between coils and magnetic circuits. Moreover, the VCM doesn't have force ripples due to imperfections of commutation components of linear motor systems - currents and flux densities. However, due to the VCM's mechanical constraints the working range of the fine is about 5mm2. To break that hurdle, the coarse stage with linear motors is used for the fine stage to move about 200mm2. Because of the above reasons, the proposed DDS can achieve higher precision scanning than other stages with only one servo. Using MATLAB's Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP), the VCMs are optimally designed for the highest force under conditions and constraints such as thermal dissipations due to its coil, its size, and so on. For linear motors, Halbach magnet linear motor is proposed and optimally designed in this paper. In addition, for their smooth movements without any frictions, guide systems of the DDS are composed of air bearings. And then, precisely to get their positions, linear scales with 0.1um resolution are used for the coarse's XY motions and plane mirror laser interferometers with 20nm for the fine's XYθz. On scanning, the two stages have same trajectories and are controlled. The control algorithm is Parallel method. The embodied ultra-precision scanning system has about 100nm tracking error and in-positioning stability.

  11. Organizational human factors as barriers to energy efficiency in electrical motors systems in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, Antonio Vanderley Herrero; Augusto de Paula, Xavier Antonio

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study accomplished in the State of Parana in Southern Brazil, aiming at verifying the correlation between organizational human factors (OHF) and the level of energy losses in organizations. The purpose is to subsidize the formularization of institutional policies in organizations to improve the energy efficiency in the productive sector. The research was carried out in ten industries of the following sectors: pulp and paper; food; wood and chemical products. The losses of electric energy were determined in motor systems with the aid of a mathematical model and the evaluation of 27 OHF identified in the literature review was made with the supervisors in the industries by means of a structurized questionnaire. Seven OHF had presented significant correlation with energy losses and six of them are inversely proportional to the losses, in accordance with linear regression analysis. The inversely proportional factors to the losses also with significant correlation are considered determinative OHF and constitute barriers for energy efficiency in organizations. These barriers are linked with the following organizational areas: management system; education of employees; strategical vision. The study recommends the implementation of the determinative OHF in organizations as a way to transpose the human barriers for energy efficiency

  12. Control allocation for for regenerative braking of electric vehicles with an electric motor at the front axle using the state-dependent Riccati equation control technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanarachos, S.A.; Alirezaei, M.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Maurice, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the systematic development of an integrated braking controller for a vehicle driven by an electric motor on the front axle is presented. The objective is to engage the electric motor only during braking, up to the point at which the vehicle reaches its manoeuvrability and stability

  13. Mathematical Model and Computational Analysis of Selected Transient States of Cylindrical Linear Induction Motor Fed via Frequency Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Rusek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of cylindrical linear induction motor (C-LIM fed via frequency converter is presented in the paper. The model was developed in order to analyze numerically the transient states. Problems concerning dynamics of ac-machines especially linear induction motor are presented in [1 – 7]. Development of C-LIM mathematical model is based on circuit method and analogy to rotary induction motor. The analogy between both: (a stator and rotor windings of rotary induction motor and (b winding of primary part of C-LIM (inductor and closed current circuits in external secondary part of C-LIM (race is taken into consideration. The equations of C-LIM mathematical model are presented as matrix together with equations expressing each vector separately. A computational analysis of selected transient states of C-LIM fed via frequency converter is presented in the paper. Two typical examples of C-LIM operation are considered for the analysis: (a starting the motor at various static loads and various synchronous velocities and (b reverse of the motor at the same operation conditions. Results of simulation are presented as transient responses including transient electromagnetic force, transient linear velocity and transient phase current.

  14. Flux modeling and analysis of a linear induction motor for steel mill non-contacting conveyance system application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-T.; Lin, S.-Y.; Yang, Y.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed mathematical approach for analyzing static/dynamic characteristics of a linear induction motor for steel mill non-contacting conveyance system application will be provided. The dependent reluctances among the motor secondary steel plate and primary poles have been systematically formulated; hence, the operational performance of the system can be derived conveniently. Results showed that not only the motor structure is suitable for the design objective, but also the proposed magnetic equivalent circuit can provide appropriate and convenient modeling for relative analytical investigations

  15. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipps, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  16. Enhancement of magnetic flux distribution in a DC superconducting electric motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, N A; Ewe, L S; Chin, K M

    2013-01-01

    Most motor designs require an air gap between the rotor and stator to enable the armature to rotate freely. The interaction of magnetic flux from rotor and stator within the air gap will provide the thrust for rotational motion. Thus, the understanding of magnetic flux in the vicinity of the air gap is very important to mathematically calculate the magnetic flux generated in the area. In this work, a finite element analysis was employed to study the behavior of the magnetic flux in view of designing a synchronous DC superconducting electric motor. The analysis provides an ideal magnetic flux distribution within the components of the motor. From the flux plot analysis, it indicates that flux losses are mainly in the forms of leakage and fringe effect. The analysis also shows that the flux density is high at the area around the air gap and the rotor. The high flux density will provide a high force area that enables the rotor to rotate. In contrast, the other parts of the motor body do not show high flux density indicating low distribution of flux. Consequently, a bench top model of a DC superconducting motor was developed where by motor with a 2-pole type winding was chosen. Each field coil was designed with a racetrack-shaped double pancake wound using DI-BSCCO Bi-2223 superconducting tapes. The performance and energy efficiency of the superconducting motor was superior when compared to the conventional motor with similar capacity.

  17. The numerical assessment of motion strategies for integrated linear motor during starting of a free-piston engine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali Hanipah, M.; Razul Razali, Akhtar

    2017-10-01

    Free-piston engine generator (FPEG) provides a novel method for electrical power generation in hybrid electric vehicle applications with scarcely reported prototype development and testing. This paper is looking into the motion control strategy for motoring the FPEG during starting. There are two motion profiles investigated namely, trapezoidal velocity and Scurve velocity. Both motion profiles were investigated numerically and the results have shown that the S-curve motion can only achieve 80% of the stroke when operated at the proposed motoring speed of 10Hz.

  18. Modal Analysis of In-Wheel Motor-Driven Electric Vehicle Based on Bond Graph Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A half-car vibration model of an electric vehicle driven by rear in-wheel motors was developed using bond graph theory and the modular modeling method. Based on the bond graph model, modal analysis was carried out to study the vibration characteristics of the electric vehicle. To verify the effectiveness of the established model, the results were compared to ones computed on the ground of modal analysis and Newton equations. The comparison shows that the vibration model of the electric vehicle based on bond graph theory not only is able to better compute the natural frequency but also can easily determine the deformation mode, momentum mode, and other isomorphism modes and describe the dynamic characteristics of an electric vehicle driven by in-wheel motors more comprehensively than other modal analysis methods.

  19. FEATURES OF ELECTRIC MOTOR CHOICE FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT TECHNOLOGICAL OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Shevchenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants remain the basic power generating enterprises for Ukraine. Execution of works on their reliability control and operating conditions optimization is therefore of current importance. Trouble-free nuclear power plant operation is a vital technical, economical, and ecological problem, a solution to which is largely specified by reliable operation of electric equipment, namely, electric motors of nuclear power plant technological process drives.

  20. MODELING OF SYMMETRIC THREE-PHASE ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC MOTOR IN ASYMMETRIC CONNECTION TO NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Lukovnikov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows how to solve the problem concerning reveal of changes in mathematical models and electric parameters of symmetric three-phase short-circuited asynchronous electric motors in case of their connection to single- or two-phase network in comparison with their connection to three-phase network. The uniform methodological approach permitting to generalize the known data and receive new results is offered in the paper.

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the technology development of energy use reduced machine tools, etc. Development of the linear motor system for realization of energy conservation and commercialization; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kosaku kiki nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shoeneka to jitsuyoka wo jitsugensuru linear motor system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In relation to the drive system of machine tools widely used as production facilities for automobiles, home electric appliances, etc., the R and D were made of a high efficiency linear motor system of which attention was paid to energy rationalization and environmental loads, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the study of the development of the system, studies were made not only on the lowering of heating, cost reduction and heightening of speed, but on the mechanism and control by which machine natural vibration can relatively be cut off, technology of damping for cutting vibration, technology to meet the deformation, etc. by cutting loads, sliding loads, and acceleration of accelerating/decelerating, technology to reduce the machine weight, etc. In the study of the basic technology of linear motor, the finite element method analysis was conducted on the typical linear motor. Concerning the control system, specs were studied which can deal with natural vibration and cutting vibration of the machine system. As to the development of the steel scale type linear encoder, scale sample for evaluation of basic characteristics was designed/trially manufactured. In the study of the detection optical system, the design/trial manufacture of photodiode array were made. (NEDO)

  2. Qualification of electric motors class 1E for supply of motors and its repair; Calificacion de motores electricos clase 1E para el suministro de motores alternativos a los orginales y su reparacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, E.; Gonzalez, J. J.; Fernandez, A.; Garcia, D.

    2005-07-01

    Different original suppliers of nuclear grade equipment have either disappeared or discontinued the manufacture of this kind equipment. Under this situation nuclear plants are experiencing difficulties when dealing with the substitution or maintenance of these equipment. Tecnatom and Cantarey have developed a new line of Class 1E qualified electric low voltage motors which can be used as an alternative to originally installed safety-related motors or for its repair and maintenance. (Author)

  3. Exploring the Basic Principles of Electric Motors and Generators with a Low-Cost Sophomore-Level Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, T. F.; Jacobitz, F. G.; Kim, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to meet changing curricular needs, an electric motor and generator laboratory experience was designed, implemented, and assessed. The experiment is unusual in its early placement in the curriculum and in that it focuses on modeling electric motors, predicting their performance, and measuring efficiency of energy conversion. While…

  4. The non-linear link between electricity consumption and temperature in Europe: A threshold panel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessec, Marie [CGEMP, Universite Paris-Dauphine, Place du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny Paris (France); Fouquau, Julien [LEO, Universite d' Orleans, Faculte de Droit, d' Economie et de Gestion, Rue de Blois, BP 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2008-09-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between electricity demand and temperature in the European Union. We address this issue by means of a panel threshold regression model on 15 European countries over the last two decades. Our results confirm the non-linearity of the link between electricity consumption and temperature found in more limited geographical areas in previous studies. By distinguishing between North and South countries, we also find that this non-linear pattern is more pronounced in the warm countries. Finally, rolling regressions show that the sensitivity of electricity consumption to temperature in summer has increased in the recent period. (author)

  5. Electric Motors. An Instructional Unit for High School Teachers of Vocational Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Delmer; Carpenter, Bruce

    Designed as a 3-week course of study in the agricultural mechanics curriculum to be taught at the junior or senior high school level, this unit on electric motors is divided into 11 major performance objectives. Each objective is subdivided into the areas of content, suggested teaching and learning activities, resources, and evaluation. Topics for…

  6. Electric Motor Systems Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 3006.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The graduate of the Electric Motor Systems Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) understand the principles of sound and safe trade practices; (2) interpret drawings, plans, and be able to layout and develop projects according to specifications; (3) use the tools of the trade in a safe and proper…

  7. Agriculture--Agricultural Mechanics, Electric Motors. Kit No. 56. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomar, William

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on agricultural mechanics (electric motors) are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings:…

  8. Improved SCR ac Motor Controller for Battery Powered Urban Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latos, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    An improved ac motor controller, which when coupled to a standard ac induction motor and a dc propulsion battery would provide a complete electric vehicle power train with the exception of the mechanical transmission and drive wheels was designed. In such a system, the motor controller converts the dc electrical power available at the battery terminals to ac electrical power for the induction motor in response to the drivers commands. The performance requirements of a hypothetical electric vehicle with an upper weight bound of 1590 kg (3500 lb) were used to determine the power rating of the controller. Vehicle acceleration capability, top speed, and gradeability requisites were contained in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Schedule 227a(d) driving cycle. The important capabilities contained in this driving cycle are a vehicle acceleration requirement of 0 to 72.4 kmph (0 to 45 mph) in 28 seconds a top speed of 88.5 kmph (55 mph), and the ability to negotiate a 10% grade at 48 kmph (30 mph). A 10% grade is defined as one foot of vertical rise per 10 feet of horizontal distance.

  9. Predictive Model Based Battery Constraints for Electric Motor Control within EV Powertrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roşca, B.; Wilkins, S.; Jacob, J.; Hoedemaekers, E.R.G.; Hoek, S.P. van den

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method of predicting the maximum power capability of a Li-Ion battery, to be used for electric motor control within automotive powertrains. As maximum power is highly dependent on battery state, the method consists of a pack level state observer coupled with a predictive

  10. COOPERATIVE MODE OF ELECTRIC MOTOR AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE OPERATION IN THE CONVERSION HYBRID CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article the authors proposed a method to control the car, which is converted into a hybrid one. The electric motor and combustion engine operate alternately in the car. They proposed a device for implementing this method and a circuit design for the device in question. They also calculated the dynamics of the vehicle under the joint acceleration.

  11. Motor unit activation order during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, CK; Nelson, G; Than, L; Zijdewind, Inge

    The activation order of motor units during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed thenar muscles was determined in seven subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. The median nerve was stimulated percutaneously with pulses of graded intensity to produce

  12. Application of the Hyper-Poisson Generalized Linear Model for Analyzing Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazraee, S Hadi; Sáez-Castillo, Antonio Jose; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Lord, Dominique

    2015-05-01

    The hyper-Poisson distribution can handle both over- and underdispersion, and its generalized linear model formulation allows the dispersion of the distribution to be observation-specific and dependent on model covariates. This study's objective is to examine the potential applicability of a newly proposed generalized linear model framework for the hyper-Poisson distribution in analyzing motor vehicle crash count data. The hyper-Poisson generalized linear model was first fitted to intersection crash data from Toronto, characterized by overdispersion, and then to crash data from railway-highway crossings in Korea, characterized by underdispersion. The results of this study are promising. When fitted to the Toronto data set, the goodness-of-fit measures indicated that the hyper-Poisson model with a variable dispersion parameter provided a statistical fit as good as the traditional negative binomial model. The hyper-Poisson model was also successful in handling the underdispersed data from Korea; the model performed as well as the gamma probability model and the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model previously developed for the same data set. The advantages of the hyper-Poisson model studied in this article are noteworthy. Unlike the negative binomial model, which has difficulties in handling underdispersed data, the hyper-Poisson model can handle both over- and underdispersed crash data. Although not a major issue for the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model, the effect of each variable on the expected mean of crashes is easily interpretable in the case of this new model. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Design of a high-torque machine with two integrated motors axes reducing the electric vehicle consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chaieb

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The motorization of electric vehicle needs to work at a constant power on a wide range of speed. In order to be able to satisfy these requirements, we describe in this paper a solution, which consists in modifying of a simple structure of a permanent magnet motor by a double rotor structure integrating two motor axes into the same machine. This article describes, then, a design methodology of a permanent magnet motor with double rotor, radial flux, and strong starting torque for electric vehicles. This work consists on the analytical dimensioning of the motor by taking into account several operation constraints followed by a modelling by the finite elements method. This study is followed by the comparison between this motor and a motor with one rotor. A global model of the motor- converter is developed for the purpose to answer several optimisation problems

  14. Straight and chopped dc performance data for a Prestolite MTC-4001 motor and a general electric EV-1 controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data on the Prestolite MTC-4001 series wound dc motor and General Electric EV-1 Chopper Controller is supplied for the electric vehicle manufacturer. Data are provided for both straight and chopped dc input to the motor, at 2 motor temperature levels. Testing was done at 6 voltage increments to the motor, and 2 voltage increments to the controller. Data results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Tabular information includes motor voltage and current input data, motor speed and torque output data, power data and temperature data. Graphical information includes torque-speed, motor power output-speed, torque-current, and efficiency-speed plots under the various operating conditions. The data resulting from this testing show the speed-torque plots to have the most variance with operating temperature. The maximum motor efficiency is between 76% and 82%, regardless of temperature or mode of operation.

  15. Virtual process of product development for electric motors; Virtueller Produktentwicklungsprozess fuer Elektromotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoening, Marc Christian

    2008-07-01

    In order to consider all relevant design aspects and their mutual interdependences, current design practice uses a selection of different software packages. The design tools as a rule specialize in a single design criterion, so that tools must be combined in order to consider the mutual interaction of electromagnetic, thermal, and acoustic effects. So far, this has been done individually and manually, with a new model of the motor under investigation generated in every single program. This means that the parameters of a motor must be managed several times. The publication presents a novel simulation tool which provides a comprehensive methodology in which all design aspects of electric motors are considered by a standardised and uniform virtual development process. Further, the virtual reality method is used for representing 3D motor models in their natural dimensions, thus providing better understanding of the numeric simulation results. (orig.)

  16. A thermal and electrical dynamic mathematical model for squirrel cage induction motors; Modelamento matematico dinamico termico e eletrico de motores de inducao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Ronaldo Martins de

    1996-01-01

    A thermal and electrical dynamic mathematical model for squirrel cage induction motors is presented. The electrical model is described by Park equation and the torque equation, while the thermal model is described by a system of four first order differential equations that represent the motor heat transfer process. The model presented can be used to determine thermal and electrical performance for any operation condition. However, it is suitable mainly for machines operating under continuously transient condition. The presented mathematical model also incorporate variation of rotor winding electrical parameters due to skin effect. (author)

  17. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  18. System Efficiency Improvement for Electric Vehicles Adopting a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Direct Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the endurance mileage of electric vehicles (EVs, it is important to decrease the energy consumption of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM drive system. This paper proposes a novel loss optimization control strategy named system efficiency improvement control which can optimize both inverter and motor losses. A nonlinear power converter loss model is built to fit the nonlinear characteristics of power devices. This paper uses double Fourier integral analysis to analytically calculate the fundamental and harmonic components of motor current by which the fundamental motor loss and harmonic motor loss can be accurately analyzed. From these loss models, a whole-frequency-domain system loss model is derived and presented. Based on the system loss model, the system efficiency improvement control method applies the genetic algorithm to adjust the motor current and PWM frequency together to optimize the inverter and motor losses by which the system efficiency can be significantly improved without seriously influence on the system stability over the whole operation range of EVs. The optimal effects of system efficiency is verified by the experimental results in both Si-IGBT-based PMSM system and SiC-MOSFET-based system.

  19. The Numerical Calculation and Experimental Measurement of the Inductance Parameters for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor in Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Qiao, Mingzhong; Zhu, Peng

    2017-12-01

    A permanent magnet synchronous motor with radial magnetic circuit and built-in permanent magnet is designed for the electric vehicle. Finite element numerical calculation and experimental measurement are adopted to obtain the direct axis and quadrature axis inductance parameters of the motor which are vital important for the motor control. The calculation method is simple, the measuring principle is clear, the results of numerical calculation and experimental measurement are mutual confirmation. A quick and effective method is provided to obtain the direct axis and quadrature axis inductance parameters of the motor, and then improve the design of motor or adjust the control parameters of the motor controller.

  20. Linear methods for reducing EMG contamination in peripheral nerve motor decodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Zachary B; Wendelken, Suzanne; Page, David M; Davis, Tyler; Hutchinson, Douglas T; Clark, Gregory A; Warren, David J

    2016-08-01

    Signals recorded from the peripheral nervous system (PNS) with high channel count penetrating microelectrode arrays, such as the Utah Slanted Electrode Array (USEA), often have electromyographic (EMG) signals contaminating the neural signal. This common-mode signal source may prevent single neural units from successfully being detected, thus hindering motor decode algorithms. Reducing this EMG contamination may lead to more accurate motor decode performance. A virtual reference (VR), created by a weighted linear combination of signals from a subset of all available channels, can be used to reduce this EMG contamination. Four methods of determining individual channel weights and six different methods of selecting subsets of channels were investigated (24 different VR types in total). The methods of determining individual channel weights were equal weighting, regression-based weighting, and two different proximity-based weightings. The subsets of channels were selected by a radius-based criteria, such that a channel was included if it was within a particular radius of inclusion from the target channel. These six radii of inclusion were 1.5, 2.9, 3.2, 5, 8.4, and 12.8 electrode-distances; the 12.8 electrode radius includes all USEA electrodes. We found that application of a VR improves the detectability of neural events via increasing the SNR, but we found no statistically meaningful difference amongst the VR types we examined. The computational complexity of implementation varies with respect to the method of determining channel weights and the number of channels in a subset, but does not correlate with VR performance. Hence, we examined the computational costs of calculating and applying the VR and based on these criteria, we recommend an equal weighting method of assigning weights with a 3.2 electrode-distance radius of inclusion. Further, we found empirically that application of the recommended VR will require less than 1 ms for 33.3 ms of data from one USEA.

  1. Thermal design of an electric motor using Particle Swarm Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandaud, P-O; Harmand, S; Fakes, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, flow inside an electric machine called starter-alternator is studied parametrically with CFD in order to be used by a thermal lumped model coupled to an optimization algorithm using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). In a first case, the geometrical parameters are symmetric allowing us to model only one side of the machine. The optimized thermal results are not conclusive. In a second case, all the parameters are independent. In this case, the flow is strongly influenced by the dissymmetry. Optimization results are this time a clear improvement compared to the original machine.

  2. Design and characterization of a microelectromechanical system electro-thermal linear motor with interlock mechanism for micro manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tengjiang; Zhao, Yulong; Li, Xiuyuan; Zhao, You; Bai, Yingwei

    2016-03-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a novel electro-thermal linear motor for micro manipulators is presented in this paper. The V-shape electro-thermal actuator arrays, micro lever, micro spring, and slider are introduced. In moving operation, the linear motor can move nearly 1 mm displacement with 100 μm each step while keeping the applied voltage as low as 17 V. In holding operation, the motor can stay in one particular position without consuming energy and no creep deformation is found. Actuation force of 12.7 mN indicates the high force generation capability of the device. Experiments of lifetime show that the device can wear over two million cycles of operation. A silicon-on-insulator wafer is introduced to fabricate a high aspect ratio structure and the chip size is 8.5 mm × 8.5 mm × 0.5 mm.

  3. A square-plate piezoelectric linear motor operating in two orthogonal and isomorphic face-diagonal-bending modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Penghong; Chen, Zhijiang; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang

    2014-01-01

    We report a piezoelectric linear motor made of a single Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 square-plate, which operates in two orthogonal and isomorphic face-diagonal-bending modes to produce precision linear motion. A 15 × 15 × 2 mm prototype was fabricated, and the motor generated a driving force of up to 1.8 N and a speed of 170 mm/s under an applied voltage of 100 Vpp at the resonance frequency of 136.5 kHz. The motor shows such advantages as large driving force under relatively low driving voltage, simple structure, and stable motion because of its isomorphic face-diagonal-bending mode.

  4. Study and review of permanent magnets for electric vehicle propulsion motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnat, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of permanent magnets (PM) was performed in support of the DOE/NASA electric and hybrid vehicle program. PM requirements for electric propulsion motors are analyzed, design principles and relevant properties of magnets are discussed. Available PM types are reviewed. For the needed high-grade magnets, design data, commercial varieties and sources are tabulated, based on a survey of vendors. Economic factors such as raw material availability, production capability and cost are analyzed, especially for cobalt and the rare earths. Extruded Mn-Al-C magnets from Japan were experimentally characterized. Dynamic magnetic data for the range -50 deg to +150 deg C and some mechanical properties are reported. The state of development of the important PM material families is reviewed. Feasible improvements or new developments of magnets for electric vehicle motors are identified.

  5. Industry agreement on efficient electrical motors; Industrievereinbarung im Effizienzbereich Motoren (eff1, eff2, eff3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, G. [Schnyder Ingenieure AG, Huenenberg (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive final report presents the results of a project carried out on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) and the Swiss Automation Pool (SAP) concerning the efficiency of electrical drives. The main goal of the project was to conclude a target agreement between the federal government and the Swiss electric motors/drives industry. This involves the promotion of the highest, 'eff1' energy-efficiency category of the three categories defined by the European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (CEMP). The report presents the findings of the project and recommends the banning of the use of motors in the lowest, 'eff3' category. Comparisons are made between the CEMP standards and further standards and promotion programmes in the USA and in Great Britain. Associated measures to be taken to aid the promotion of the drive standard are discussed.

  6. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  7. Analysis and testing of a double armature brushless dc linear motor with NdFeB permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, A.F.F.

    1998-01-01

    The use of high-energy product NdFeB permanent magnets benefits the design and features of a double armature brushless dc linear motor. As the linear motor is also slotless, its 5 mm airgap requires a source of high flux to overcome the reluctance and produce an adequate amount of force. The linear motor employs a topology that makes use of five permanent magnets to provide excitation flux. The permanent magnets are arranged in such a way that maximises the force the linear motor can deliver. The actuator produces a force up to 86.2 N at an armature current of 4.5 A. However, the topology makes the actuator prone to saturation. It affects the operation point of the permanent magnets, reduces the airgap flux density and the force, and increases flux leakage. To avoid saturation, a flux compensation scheme was conceived. The results are presented and assessed by means of finite element simulation and by experimental results that presented a good agreement. (orig.)

  8. Measurement and analysis of the electric field radiation in pulsed power system of linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qifeng; Ni Jianping; Meng Cui; Cheng Cheng; Liu Yinong; Li Jin

    2009-01-01

    The close of high voltage switch in pulsed power system of linear induction accelerator often radiates strong transient electric field, which may influence ambient sensitive electric equipment, signals and performance of other instruments, etc. By performing gridded measurement around the Marx generator, the general distribution law and basic characters of electric field radiation are summarized. The current signal of the discharge circuit is also measured, which demonstrates that the current and the radiated electric field both have a resonance frequency about 150 kHz, and contain much higher frequency components. (authors)

  9. Motor Behavior: From Telegraph Keys and Twins to Linear Slides and Stepping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    Motor behavior is a significant area of scholarship with 64 Fellows from the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education engaged in that work since 1930. This paper provides a brief overview of the history of research in motor development and motor control/learning, particularly noting the contributions to scholarship of Academy…

  10. Electromagnetic interference in electrical systems of motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubiński, M.; Drozd, A.; Adamiec, M.; Siemionek, E.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic ignition system affects the electronic equipment of the vehicle by electric and magnetic fields. The measurement of radio electromagnetic interference originating from the ignition system affecting the audiovisual test bench was carried out with a variable speed of the ignition system. The paper presents measurements of radio electromagnetic interference in automobiles. In order to determine the level of electromagnetic interference, the audiovisual test bench was equipped with a set of meters for power consumption and assessment of the level of electromagnetic interference. Measurements of the electromagnetic interference level within the audiovisual system were performed on an experimental test bench consisting of the ignition system, starting system and charging system with an alternator and regulator.

  11. The Relationship between Residential Electricity Consumption and Income: A Piecewise Linear Model with Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many uncertainties and risks in residential electricity consumption associated with economic development. Knowledge of the relationship between residential electricity consumption and its key determinant—income—is important to the sustainable development of the electric power industry. Using panel data from 30 provinces for the 1995–2012 period, this study investigates how residential electricity consumption changes as incomes increase in China. Previous studies typically used linear or quadratic double-logarithmic models imposing ex ante restrictions on the indistinct relationship between residential electricity consumption and income. Contrary to those models, we employed a reduced piecewise linear model that is self-adaptive and highly flexible and circumvents the problem of “prior restrictions”. Robust tests of different segment specifications and regression methods are performed to ensure the validity of the research. The results provide strong evidence that the income elasticity was approximately one, and it remained stable throughout the estimation period. The income threshold at which residential electricity consumption automatically remains stable or slows has not been reached. To ensure the sustainable development of the electric power industry, introducing higher energy efficiency standards for electrical appliances and improving income levels are vital. Government should also emphasize electricity conservation in the industrial sector rather than in residential sector.

  12. Optimized linear motor and digital PID controller setup used in Mössbauer spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Pavel; Kouřil, Lukáš; Navařík, Jakub; Novák, Petr; Pechoušek, Jiří

    2014-10-01

    Optimization of a linear motor and digital PID controller setup used in a Mössbauer spectrometer is presented. Velocity driving system with a digital PID feedback subsystem was developed in the LabVIEW graphical environment and deployed on the sbRIO real-time hardware device (National Instruments). The most important data acquisition processes are performed as real-time deterministic tasks on an FPGA chip. Velocity transducer of a double loudspeaker type with a power amplifier circuit is driven by the system. Series of calibration measurements were proceeded to find the optimal setup of the P, I, D parameters together with velocity error signal analysis. The shape and given signal characteristics of the velocity error signal are analyzed in details. Remote applications for controlling and monitoring the PID system from computer or smart phone, respectively, were also developed. The best setup and P, I, D parameters were set and calibration spectrum of α-Fe sample with an average nonlinearity of the velocity scale below 0.08% was collected. Furthermore, the width of the spectral line below 0.30 mm/s was observed. Powerful and complex velocity driving system was designed.

  13. Peptide Assembly-Driven Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) Motors for Micro Electric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Yasuhiro; Fang, Justin; Wasik, Tomasz L.; Uemura, Takashi; Zheng, Yongtai; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Peptide-MOF motors, whose motions are driven by anisotropic surface gradients created via peptide self-assembly around nanopores of MOFs, can rotate microscopic rotors and magnet fast enough to generate electric power of 0.1 µW. To make the peptide-MOF generator recyclable, a new MOF is applied as a host motor engine, which has a more rigid framework with higher H2O affinity so that peptide release occurs more efficiently via guest exchange without the destruction of MOF. PMID:25418936

  14. A new two-phase homopolar switched reluctance motor for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mi-Ching; Huang, Chien-Chin; Huang, Zheng-Yi

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a novel 2-phase homopolar switched reluctance motor (SRM), whose design successfully avoids dead-zone problems that afflict low cost 1- and/or 2-phase SRMs. Unlike conventional radial-winding-radial-gap motors, the proposed SRM has an interior stator that is of the pancake type with axial winding. Such a design allows for a high slot-fill factor and is suitable for implementation as a flat pancake-shaped stator. An efficient, compact prototype was produced with TMS320F240 DSP driving control unit. Experimental results indicate that the present SRM design has the potential to be used for electric bicycles and scooters.

  15. Design and Optimization of IPM Motor Considering Flux Weakening Capability and Vibration for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwu Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As motor design is key to the development of electric vehicles (EVs and hybrid EVs (HEVs, it has recently become the subject of considerable interest. Interior permanent magnet (IPM motors offer advantages such as high torque density and high efficiency, benefiting from both permanent magnet (PM torque and reluctance torque. However an obvious disadvantage of IPM motors is that operation at high speed involves difficulties in achieving the required flux-weakening capability and low vibration. This study focuses on optimizing the flux-weakening performance and reducing the vibration of an IPM motor for EVs. Firstly, flux-weakening capability, cogging torque, torque ripple, and radical vibration force are analyzed based on the mathematical model. Secondly, three kinds of motors are optimized by the genetic algorithm and analyzed, providing visible insights into the contribution of different rotor structures to the torque characteristics, efficiency, and extended speed range. Thirdly, a slotted rotor configuration is proposed to reduce the torque ripple and radical vibration force. The flux density distributions are discussed, explaining the principle that motors with slotted rotors and stator skew slots have smaller torque ripple and radical vibration force. Lastly, the design and optimization results have been validated against experiments.

  16. Design Study for Controllable Electric Motor for Three Wheel Drive, In Wheel Mounting on Professional, Electric, Lawn Mower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan

    Design of a new generation of electric drive motor for professional lawnmowers forms the basic objective of this thesis. Modern drive concepts produces a growing demand for electrical machines featuring high torque density, and suitable for direct drive applications. Much attention is presently...... focused upon the transverse flux permanent magnet machine, which attracts great interests in electric and hybrid propulsion systems. This thesis deals with modelling, performance analysis, design, test and measurement of permanent magnet transverse flux machines (PMTFM). It is important to understand...... the main aspects that influence the behaviour of a PMTFM, as this may lead to improved designs of PMTFM or may reveal the limitations of the transverse flux technology. Generally, in PMTFM, the flux has a complex 3D pattern. Finite Element Method (FEM) needs to be used to analyse the magnetic field...

  17. Linear and nonlinear causality between sectoral electricity consumption and economic growth: Evidence from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Cheng-Lang; Lin, Hung-Pin; Chang, Chih-Heng

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the linear and nonlinear causality between the total electricity consumption (TEC) and real gross domestic production (RGDP). Unlike previous literature, we solve the undetermined relation between RGDP and electricity consumption by classifying TEC into industrial sector consumption (ISC) and residential sector consumption (RSC) as well as investigating how TEC, ISC, and RSC influence Taiwan's RGDP. By using the Granger's linear causality test, it is shown that (i) there is a bidirectional causality among TEC, ISC, and RGDP, but a neutrality between RSC and RGDP with regard to the linear causality and (ii) there is still a bidirectional causality between TEC and RGDP, but a unidirectional causality between RSC and RGDP with regard to the nonlinear causality. On the basis of (i) and (ii), we suggest that the electricity policy formulators loosen the restriction on ISC and limit RSC in order to achieve the goal of economic growth.

  18. Effects of coil orientation on the electric field induced by TMS over the hand motor area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Responses elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand motor area depend on the position and orientation of the stimulating coil. In this work, we computationally investigate the induced electric field for multiple coil orientations and locations in order to determine which parts of the brain are affected and how the sensitivity of motor cortical activation depends on the direction of the electric field. The finite element method is used for calculating the electric field induced by TMS in two individual anatomical models of the head and brain. The orientation of the coil affects both the strength and depth of penetration of the electric field, and the field strongly depends on the direction of the sulcus, where the target neurons are located. The coil position that gives the strongest electric field in the target cortical region may deviate from the closest scalp location by a distance on the order of 1 cm. Together with previous experimental data, the results support the hypothesis that the cortex is most sensitive to fields oriented perpendicular to the cortical layers, while it is relatively insensitive to fields parallel to them. This has important implications for targeting of TMS. To determine the most effective coil position and orientation, it is essential to consider both biological (the direction of the targeted axons) and physical factors (the strength and direction of the electric field). (paper)

  19. A study of thermal deformation in the carriage of a permanent magnet direct drive linear motor stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, J.H.; Zhong, Z.W.; Lin, W.; Khoo, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Carriage deformation due to temperature gradients within the materials of the carriage affects the accuracy of precision machines. This is largely due to the indeterminist temperature distribution in the carriage's material caused by the non-linearity of heat transfer. The joule heat from the motor coil forms the main heat source. When coupled with the heat loss through convection and radiation, the temperature variation in the motor's carriage also increases. In this study, the Finite Element Analysis was used together with a set of boundary conditions, which was obtained empirically, to analyze the distortion of the motor's carriage. The simulated results were compared with those obtained through experiments. The study shows that it is important to know, rather than to assume, the thermal boundary conditions of the motor's carriage of a precision machine in order to accurately estimate the thermal deformation of the carriage in precision machining. - Highlights: ► Deformation occurs in carriages which are mounted with linear motor. ► The convective coefficient, which is assumed to be 10 W mm −2 , is shown to be invalid. ► The perfect contact conductance is shown to be invalid too. ► To have an accurate thermal model, boundary conditions have to be realistic. ► Boundary conditions are the heat source, convective and conductance values.

  20. Comparative analysis of energy economy among different types of electric motor driving; Analise comparativa de economia de energia entre diferentes tipos de acionamento de motores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Santos da; Oliveira, Carlos Henrique, e-mails: mcelo_sant@ig.com.br; caique1979@yahoo.com.br; Albuquerque, Carlos Jesivan Marques; Fortes, Marcio Zamboti [Universidade Severino Sombra (USS), Vassouras, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: cjesivan@uss.br; mzamboti@uss.br

    2008-07-01

    The application of controlled drives loads of small power can cause undesirable disturbances for electrical installations, but it brings some benefits when comparing the energy consumption that this application has on its regular period of operation. This study analyses using comparatives, the electrical economy using the different types of drives for three phase electric induction motors of low voltage. Running up tests on the test bench didactic, the inverter drives, soft starter and contactor switch were analyzed for different loads (motor without load, 50% and 100% load), rating in S1 and S4. (author)