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Sample records for linear distribution coefficients

  1. Distributing Correlation Coefficients of Linear Structure-Activity/Property Models

    Sorana D. BOLBOACA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-activity/property relationships are mathematical relationships linking chemical structure and activity/property in a quantitative manner. These in silico approaches are frequently used to reduce animal testing and risk-assessment, as well as to increase time- and cost-effectiveness in characterization and identification of active compounds. The aim of our study was to investigate the pattern of correlation coefficients distribution associated to simple linear relationships linking the compounds structure with their activities. A set of the most common ordnance compounds found at naval facilities with a limited data set with a range of toxicities on aquatic ecosystem and a set of seven properties was studied. Statistically significant models were selected and investigated. The probability density function of the correlation coefficients was investigated using a series of possible continuous distribution laws. Almost 48% of the correlation coefficients proved fit Beta distribution, 40% fit Generalized Pareto distribution, and 12% fit Pert distribution.

  2. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    of the following three components: outcome truncation, scale parameters and distributional shape of the predictor variable. These results point to limitations in using linear probability model coefficients for group comparisons. We also provide Monte Carlo simulations and real examples to illustrate......This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  3. Application of Linear Quadratic Gaussian and Coefficient Diagram Techniques to Distributed Load Frequency Control of Power Systems

    Tarek Hassan Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented both the linear quadratic Gaussian technique (LQG and the coefficient diagram method (CDM as load frequency controllers in a multi-area power system to deal with the problem of variations in system parameters and load demand change. The full states of the system including the area frequency deviation have been estimated using the Kalman filter technique. The efficiency of the proposed control method has been checked using a digital simulation. Simulation results indicated that, with the proposed CDM + LQG technique, the system is robust in the face of parameter uncertainties and load disturbances. A comparison between the proposed technique and other schemes is carried out, confirming the superiority of the proposed CDM + LQG technique.

  4. Thermal linear expansion coefficient of structural graphites

    Virgil'ev, Yu.S.

    1995-01-01

    The data now available on radiation induced changes of linear thermal expansion coefficients (CTE) for native structural carbon materials (SCM) irradiated with high fluences are summarized. For different types of native and foreign SCM dose dependences of CTE changes in the temperature range of 300...1600 K and at fluences up to (2...3)x10 22 n/cm 2 (E>0.18 meV) are compared. On the base of this comparison factors defined the CTE changes under neutron irradiation are revealed and the explanation of observed phenomena is offered. Large number of the factors revealed does not allowed to calculate CTE radiation induced changes. 39 refs.; 16 figs.; 5 tabs

  5. A parameterization scheme for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and energy absorption coefficient.

    Midgley, S M

    2004-01-21

    A novel parameterization of x-ray interaction cross-sections is developed, and employed to describe the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient for both elements and mixtures. The new parameterization scheme addresses the Z-dependence of elemental cross-sections (per electron) using a simple function of atomic number, Z. This obviates the need for a complicated mathematical formalism. Energy dependent coefficients describe the Z-direction curvature of the cross-sections. The composition dependent quantities are the electron density and statistical moments describing the elemental distribution. We show that it is possible to describe elemental cross-sections for the entire periodic table and at energies above the K-edge (from 6 keV to 125 MeV), with an accuracy of better than 2% using a parameterization containing not more than five coefficients. For the biologically important elements 1 coefficients. At higher energies, the parameterization uses fewer coefficients with only two coefficients needed at megavoltage energies.

  6. Development of database on the distribution coefficient. 1. Collection of the distribution coefficient data

    Takebe, Shinichi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The distribution coefficient is very important parameter for environmental impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste arising from research institutes. The literature survey in the country was mainly carried out for the purpose of selecting the reasonable distribution coefficient value on the utilization of this value in the safety evaluation. This report was arranged much informations on the distribution coefficient for inputting to the database for each literature, and was summarized as a literature information data on the distribution coefficient. (author)

  7. Development of a predictive model for distribution coefficient (Kd) of 13'7Cs and 60Co in marine sediments using multiple linear regression analysis

    Kumar, Ajay; Ravi, P.M.; Guneshwar, S.L.; Rout, Sabyasachi; Mishra, Manish K.; Pulhani, Vandana; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Numerous common methods (batch laboratory, the column laboratory, field-batch method, field modeling and K 0c method) are used frequently for determination of K d values. Recently, multiple regression models are considered as new best estimates for predicting the K d of radionuclides in the environment. It is also well known fact that the K d value is highly influenced by physico-chemical properties of sediment. Due to the significant variability in influencing parameters, the measured K d values can range over several orders of magnitude under different environmental conditions. The aim of this study is to develop a predictive model for K d values of 137 Cs and 60 Co based on the sediment properties using multiple linear regression analysis

  8. Measurement of linear attenuation coefficient of different materials

    Ali, M. M.

    2013-07-01

    In this research we study the linear attenuation coefficient from the materials concrete, brick, mixture concrete and iron. In the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory in Atomic Energy from different distance by use Cs-137 sours, chamber farmer 2675 A-600 cc-S/N 0511, and electrometer 2670 A-S/N 114. Found the value of linear attenuation coefficient of concert in the range 0.167 cm -1 , the brick in the range 0.063 -1 and mixture concrete and iron in the range 0.253cm -1 .(Author)

  9. Non-linear Bayesian update of PCE coefficients

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2014-01-06

    Given: a physical system modeled by a PDE or ODE with uncertain coefficient q(?), a measurement operator Y (u(q), q), where u(q, ?) uncertain solution. Aim: to identify q(?). The mapping from parameters to observations is usually not invertible, hence this inverse identification problem is generally ill-posed. To identify q(!) we derived non-linear Bayesian update from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. To reduce cost of the Bayesian update we offer a unctional approximation, e.g. polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). New: We apply Bayesian update to the PCE coefficients of the random coefficient q(?) (not to the probability density function of q).

  10. Non-linear Bayesian update of PCE coefficients

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann G.; Pojonk, Oliver; Rosic, Bojana V.; Zander, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Given: a physical system modeled by a PDE or ODE with uncertain coefficient q(?), a measurement operator Y (u(q), q), where u(q, ?) uncertain solution. Aim: to identify q(?). The mapping from parameters to observations is usually not invertible, hence this inverse identification problem is generally ill-posed. To identify q(!) we derived non-linear Bayesian update from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. To reduce cost of the Bayesian update we offer a unctional approximation, e.g. polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). New: We apply Bayesian update to the PCE coefficients of the random coefficient q(?) (not to the probability density function of q).

  11. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

  12. Overall mass-transfer coefficients in non-linear chromatography

    Mollerup, Jørgen; Hansen, Ernst

    1998-01-01

    In case of mass transfer where concentration differences in both phases must be taken into account, one may define an over-all mass-transfer coefficient basd on the apparent over-all concentration difference. If the equilibrium relationship is linear, i.e. in cases where a Henry´s law relationshi...

  13. General guidelines solution for linear programming with fuzzy coefficients

    Sergio Gerardo de los Cobos Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work introduce to the Possibilistic Programming and the Fuzzy Programming as paradigms that allow to resolve problems of linear programming when the coefficients of the model or the restrictions on the same are presented as fuzzy numbers, rather than exact numbers (crisp. This work presents some examples based on [1].

  14. The distribution coefficient concept and aspects on experimental distribution studies

    Allard, B.; Andersson, K.; Torstenfelt, B.

    1983-01-01

    Aspects on the distribution coefficient concept, sorption mechanisms and measurements of sorption phenomena are given. The distribution constant was shown to be pH-dependent. The temperature dependence of the sorption has been studied. The influence of the liquid/solid ratio has been studied for Cs and Sr. (G.B.)

  15. Invar hardening under keeping of low values of temperature coefficient of linear expansion

    Bashnin, Yu.A.; Shiryaeva, A.N.; Omel'chenko, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Complex invar alloying with chromium, zirconium and nitrogen is conducted for increasing hardness and assuring low values of the temperature coefficient of linear expansion. It is shown that alloying with nitride-forming elements-chromium, zirconium and the following high-temperature saturation under high pressure with nitrogen provides the invar hardening at assuring a low temperature coefficient of linear expansion. Saturation with nitrogen under 100 MPa pressure at 1050 deg C during 3 hours permits to prepare an invar containing up to 0.2% N 2 uniformly distributed over the whole cross section of samples with 4 mm diameter. Nitrogen in invar alloys alloyed with chromium and zirconium affects the Curie point similarly to carbon and nickel shifting it towards higher temperatures, it slightly changes the value of the temperature coefficient of linear expansion and provides linear character of thermal expansion dependence on temperature in the +100 deg C - -180 deg C range

  16. Linear thermal expansion coefficient measurement technology in hot cell

    Park, Dae Gyu; Choo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Lee, K. S.

    1998-06-01

    To establish linear thermal expansion coefficient measurement technology in hot cell, we reviewed and evaluated various measuring technology by paper and these were compared with the data produced with pre-installed dilatometer in hot cell. Detailed contents are as follows; - The theory of test. - Review of characteristics for various measurement technology and compatibility with hot cell. - Review of standard testing regulations(ASTM). - System calibration of pre-installed dilatometer. - Performance test of pre-installed dilatometer. (author). 12 refs., 15 tabs., 8 figs

  17. Local energy decay for linear wave equations with variable coefficients

    Ikehata, Ryo

    2005-06-01

    A uniform local energy decay result is derived to the linear wave equation with spatial variable coefficients. We deal with this equation in an exterior domain with a star-shaped complement. Our advantage is that we do not assume any compactness of the support on the initial data, and its proof is quite simple. This generalizes a previous famous result due to Morawetz [The decay of solutions of the exterior initial-boundary value problem for the wave equation, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 14 (1961) 561-568]. In order to prove local energy decay, we mainly apply two types of ideas due to Ikehata-Matsuyama [L2-behaviour of solutions to the linear heat and wave equations in exterior domains, Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33-42] and Todorova-Yordanov [Critical exponent for a nonlinear wave equation with damping, J. Differential Equations 174 (2001) 464-489].

  18. Soil nuclide distribution coefficients and their statistical distributions

    Sheppard, M.I.; Beals, D.I.; Thibault, D.H.; O'Connor, P.

    1984-12-01

    Environmental assessments of the disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock formations require analysis of the migration of nuclides from the disposal vault to the biosphere. Analyses of nuclide migration via groundwater through the disposal vault, the buffer and backfill, the plutonic rock, and the consolidated and unconsolidated overburden use models requiring distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)) to describe the interaction of the nuclides with the geological and man-made materials. This report presents element-specific soil distribution coefficients and their statistical distributions, based on a detailed survey of the literature. Radioactive elements considered were actinium, americium, bismuth, calcium, carbon, cerium, cesium, iodine, lead, molybdenum, neptunium, nickel, niobium, palladium, plutonium, polonium, protactinium, radium, samarium, selenium, silver, strontium, technetium, terbium, thorium, tin, uranium and zirconium. Stable elements considered were antimony, boron, cadmium, tellurium and zinc. Where sufficient data were available, distribution coefficients and their distributions are given for sand, silt, clay and organic soils. Our values are recommended for use in assessments for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

  19. Using the Coefficient of Determination "R"[superscript 2] to Test the Significance of Multiple Linear Regression

    Quinino, Roberto C.; Reis, Edna A.; Bessegato, Lupercio F.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes the use of the coefficient of determination as a statistic for hypothesis testing in multiple linear regression based on distributions acquired by beta sampling. (Contains 3 figures.)

  20. Linear and Non-Linear Piezoresistance Coefficients in Cubic Semiconductors. I. Theoretical Formulations

    Durand, S.; Tellier, C. R.

    1996-02-01

    This paper constitutes the first part of a work devoted to applications of piezoresistance effects in germanium and silicon semiconductors. In this part, emphasis is placed on a formal explanation of non-linear effects. We propose a brief phenomenological description based on the multi-valleys model of semiconductors before to adopt a macroscopic tensorial model from which general analytical expressions for primed non-linear piezoresistance coefficients are derived. Graphical representations of linear and non-linear piezoresistance coefficients allows us to characterize the influence of the two angles of cut and of directions of alignment. The second part will primarily deal with specific applications for piezoresistive sensors. Cette publication constitue la première partie d'un travail consacré aux applications des effets piézorésistifs dans les semiconducteurs germanium et silicium. Cette partie traite essentiellement de la modélisation des effets non-linéaires. Après une description phénoménologique à partir du modèle de bande des semiconducteurs nous développons un modèle tensoriel macroscopique et nous proposons des équations générales analytiques exprimant les coefficients piézorésistifs non-linéaires dans des repères tournés. Des représentations graphiques des variations des coefficients piézorésistifs linéaires et non-linéaires permettent une pré-caractérisation de l'influence des angles de coupes et des directions d'alignement avant l'étude d'applications spécifiques qui feront l'objet de la deuxième partie.

  1. An Investigation of the Sampling Distribution of the Congruence Coefficient.

    Broadbooks, Wendy J.; Elmore, Patricia B.

    This study developed and investigated an empirical sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient. The effects of sample size, number of variables, and population value of the congruence coefficient on the sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient were examined. Sample data were generated on the basis of the common factor model and…

  2. Materials analysis using x-ray linear attenuation coefficient measurements at four photon energies

    Midgley, S M

    2005-01-01

    The analytical properties of an accurate parameterization scheme for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient are examined. The parameterization utilizes an additive combination of N compositional- and energy-dependent coefficients. The former were derived from a parameterization of elemental cross-sections using a polynomial in atomic number. The compositional-dependent coefficients are referred to as the mixture parameters, representing the electron density and higher order statistical moments describing elemental distribution. Additivity is an important property of the parameterization, allowing measured x-ray linear attenuation coefficients to be written as linear simultaneous equations, and then solved for the unknown coefficients. The energy-dependent coefficients can be determined by calibration from measurements with materials of known composition. The inverse problem may be utilized for materials analysis, whereby the simultaneous equations represent multi-energy linear attenuation coefficient measurements, and are solved for the mixture parameters. For in vivo studies, the choice of measurement energies is restricted to the diagnostic region (approximately 20 keV to 150 keV), where the parameterization requires N ≥ 4 energies. We identify a mathematical pathology that must be overcome in order to solve the inverse problem in this energy regime. An iterative inversion strategy is presented for materials analysis using four or more measurements, and then tested against real data obtained at energies 32 keV to 66 keV. The results demonstrate that it is possible to recover the electron density to within ±4% and fourth mixture parameter. It is also a key finding that the second and third mixture parameters cannot be recovered, as they are of minor importance in the parameterization at diagnostic x-ray energies

  3. Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate

    Maity, Arnab; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric

  4. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  5. Radionuclides distribution coefficient of soil to soil-solution

    1990-06-01

    The present book addresses various issues related with the coefficient of radionuclides distribution between soil and soil solution. It consists of six sections and two appendices. The second section, following an introductory one, describes the definition of the coefficient and a procedures of its calculation. The third section deals with the application of the distribution coefficient to the prediction of movements of radionuclides through soil. Various methods for measuring the coefficient are described in the fourth section. The next section discusses a variety of factors (physical and chemical) that can affect the distribution coefficient. Measurements of the coefficient for different types of oils are listed in the sixth section. An appendix is attached to the book to show various models that can be helpful in applying the coefficient of distribution of radionuclides moving from soil into agricultural plants. (N.K.)

  6. A Fresh Look at Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as…

  7. A fresh look at linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. Revisiting the impulsive response method using factorization

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The approach presented here can be used in a first course on differential equations for science and engineering majors.

  8. Recovery coefficients as a test of system linearity of response in PET

    Geworski, L.; Munz, D.L.; Knoop, B.; Hofmann, M.; Knapp, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: New imaging protocols have created an increasing demand for quantitation in dedicated PET. Besides attenuation and scatter correction the recovery correction, accounting for the instrument's limited spatial resolution, has gained importance. For clinical practicability these corrections should work independent from the object, i.e. from the actual distribution of emitter and absorber. Aim of the study was to test this object independency, i.e. system linearity of response, by comparing recovery coefficients (RC) determined for different object geometries. In fact, this comparison may serve as a final test on system linearity of response, as measured on the quantitative accuracy by which the activity concentration in small lesions can be recovered. Method: For hot and cold spot imaging situations spatial distribution of activity is different. Therefore, scatter correction algorithm has to deal with different scatter distributions. If all factors disturbing system linearity, specifically scatter and attenuation, are corrected to a sufficient degree of accuracy, the system behaves linearly resulting in the theoretical relationship. CSRC = (1-HSRC). Thus, this equation, applied hot and cold spot measurements, will serve as a test on the effectiveness of the corrections and, hence, as a test of system linearity of response. Following IEC standard procedures (IEC 61675-1) measurements were done with and without interplane septa (2D/3D) on an ECAT EXACT 922 using a cylindrical phantom containing six spheres of different diameters (10 mm - 40 mm). All data were corrected for attenuation (transmission scan) and scatter (2D: deconvolution, 3D: scatter model), as implemented in the scanner's standard software. Recovery coefficients were determined for cold (CSRC) and hot (HSRC) lesions using both 2D and 3D acquisition mode. Results: CSRC directly measured versus CSRC calculated according to eq. (1) from HSRC resulted in an excellent agreement for both 2D and 3D data

  9. An Investigation of the Sampling Distributions of Equating Coefficients.

    Baker, Frank B.

    1996-01-01

    Using the characteristic curve method for dichotomously scored test items, the sampling distributions of equating coefficients were examined. Simulations indicate that for the equating conditions studied, the sampling distributions of the equating coefficients appear to have acceptable characteristics, suggesting confidence in the values obtained…

  10. Effects of calcium and magnesium on strontium distribution coefficients

    Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Liszewski, M.J.; Hemming, C.H.; Welhan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of calcium and magnesium on the distribution of strontium between a surficial sediment and simulated wastewater solutions were measured as part of an investigation to determine strontium transport properties of surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine strontium linear sorption isotherms and distribution coefficients (K(d)'s) using simulated wastewater solutions prepared at pH 8.0??0.1 with variable concentrations of calcium and magnesium. Strontium linear sorption isotherm K(d)'s ranged from 12??1 to 85??3 ml/g, increasing as the concentration of calcium and magnesium decreased. The concentration of sorbed strontium and the percentage of strontium retained by the sediment were correlated to aqueous concentrations of strontium, calcium, and magnesium. The effect of these cation concentrations on strontium sorption was quantified using multivariate least-squares regression techniques. Analysis of data from these experiments indicates that increased concentrations of calcium and magnesium in wastewater discharged to waste disposal ponds at the INEL increases the availability of strontium for transport beneath the ponds by decreasing strontium sorption to the surficial sediment.

  11. Distributional chaos for linear operators

    Bernardes Jr., N.C.; Bonilla, A.; Müller, Vladimír; Peris, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 265, č. 9 (2013), s. 2143-2163 ISSN 0022-1236 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : distributional chaos * hypercyclic operators * irregular vectors Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.152, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022123613002450

  12. Self-Consistency Method to Evaluate a Linear Expansion Thermal Coefficient of Composite with Dispersed Inclusions

    V. S. Zarubin

    2015-01-01

    . These functionals on the true distribution of strains and stresses in an inhomogeneous body matching meaningfully reach extremes (minimum and maximum respectively. On the convergence of the distribution of the minimized functional application gives an upper estimate of the desired values of the temperature coefficient of linear expansion of the composite, and maximized use - their lower bound. The difference between these estimates allows to predict the maximum possible error in calculations obtained dependences.

  13. On the Construction of Bivariate Exponential Distributions with an Arbitrary Correlation Coefficient

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2010-01-01

    coefficient (also negative). Secondly, the class satisfies that any linear combination (projection) of the marginal random variables is a phase-type distribution. The latter property is partially important for the development of hypothesis testing in linear models. Finally, it is easy to simulate...

  14. measurements of distribution coefficients and lipophilicity values

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    octanol and water, followed by measuring the distribution of the solute in ... Instrumentation and apparatus: HPLC-UV-DAD and HPLC–ESI-MS experiments .... process in the determination of KD and log P values for the HFSLM extracts. ..... Perrin, D.D.; Dempsey, B. Buffers for pH and Metal Ion Control, Chapman and Hall:.

  15. Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate

    Maity, Arnab

    2012-10-01

    We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric component and a profiling estimator of the parametric component of the model and derive their asymptotic properties. Specifically, we show the consistency of the nonparametric functional estimates and derive the asymptotic expansion of the estimates of the parametric component. We illustrate the performance of our methodology using a simulation study and a real data application.

  16. Questionnaire on the measurement condition of distribution coefficient

    Takebe, Shinichi; Kimura, Hideo; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    2001-05-01

    The distribution coefficient is used for various transport models to evaluate the migration behavior of radionuclides in the environment and is very important parameter in environmental impact assessment of nuclear facility. The questionnaire was carried out for the purpose of utilizing for the proposal of the standard measuring method of distribution coefficient. This report is summarized the result of questionnairing on the sampling methods and storage condition, the pretreatment methods, the analysis items in the physical/chemical characteristics of the sample, and the distribution coefficient measuring method and the measurement conditions in the research institutes within country. (author)

  17. Simultaneous interferometric measurement of linear coefficient of thermal expansion and temperature-dependent refractive index coefficient of optical materials.

    Corsetti, James A; Green, William E; Ellis, Jonathan D; Schmidt, Greg R; Moore, Duncan T

    2016-10-10

    Characterizing the thermal properties of optical materials is necessary for understanding how to design an optical system for changing environmental conditions. A method is presented for simultaneously measuring both the linear coefficient of thermal expansion and the temperature-dependent refractive index coefficient of a sample interferometrically in air. Both the design and fabrication of the interferometer is presented as well as a discussion of the results of measuring both a steel and a CaF2 sample.

  18. Confidence bounds for normal and lognormal distribution coefficients of variation

    Steve Verrill

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares the so-called exact approach for obtaining confidence intervals on normal distribution coefficients of variation to approximate methods. Approximate approaches were found to perform less well than the exact approach for large coefficients of variation and small sample sizes. Web-based computer programs are described for calculating confidence...

  19. Heat conduction coefficient and coefficient of linear thermal expansion of electric insulation materials for superconducting magnetic system

    Deev, V.I.; Sobolev, V.P.; Kruglov, A.B.; Pridantsev, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    Results of experimental investigation of heat conduction coefficient and coefficient of linear thermal expansion and thermal shrinkages of the STEF-1 textolite-glass widely used in superconducting magnetic systems as electric insulating and structural material are presented. Samples of two types have been died: sample axisa is perpendicular to a plae of fiberglass layers ad sample axis is parallel to a plane of fiberglass layers. Heat conduction coefficient was decreased almost a five times with temperature decrease from 300 up to 5K and was slightly dependent on a sample type. Temperature variation of linear dimensions in a sample of the first type occurs in twice as fast as compared to the sample of the second type

  20. Thermal Coefficient of Linear Expansion Modified by Dendritic Segregation in Nickel-Iron Alloys

    Ogorodnikova, O. M.; Maksimova, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents investigations of thermal properties of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-Co casting alloys affected by the heterogeneous distribution of their chemical elements. It is shown that nickel dendritic segregation has a negative effect on properties of studied invars. A mathematical model is proposed to explore the influence of nickel dendritic segregation on the thermal coefficient of linear expansion (TCLE) of the alloy. A computer simulation of TCLE of Fe-Ni-Co superinvars is performed with regard to a heterogeneous distribution of their chemical elements over the whole volume. The ProLigSol computer software application is developed for processing the data array and results of computer simulation.

  1. On the construction of bivariate exponential distributions with an arbitrary correlation coefficient

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    In this paper we use a concept of multivariate phase-type distributions to define a class of bivariate exponential distributions. This class has the following three appealing properties. Firstly, we may construct a pair of exponentially distributed random variables with any feasible correlation...... coefficient (also negative). Secondly, the class satisfies that any linear combination (projection) of the marginal random variables is a phase {type distributions, The latter property is potentially important for the development hypothesis testing in linear models. Thirdly, it is very easy to simulate...

  2. New Inference Procedures for Semiparametric Varying-Coefficient Partially Linear Cox Models

    Yunbei Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In biomedical research, one major objective is to identify risk factors and study their risk impacts, as this identification can help clinicians to both properly make a decision and increase efficiency of treatments and resource allocation. A two-step penalized-based procedure is proposed to select linear regression coefficients for linear components and to identify significant nonparametric varying-coefficient functions for semiparametric varying-coefficient partially linear Cox models. It is shown that the penalized-based resulting estimators of the linear regression coefficients are asymptotically normal and have oracle properties, and the resulting estimators of the varying-coefficient functions have optimal convergence rates. A simulation study and an empirical example are presented for illustration.

  3. Transport coefficients from SU(3) Polyakov linear-σ model

    Tawfik, A.; Diab, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the mean field approximation, the grand potential of SU(3) Polyakov linear-σ model (PLSM) is analyzed for the order parameter of the light and strange chiral phase-transitions, σ l and σ s , respectively, and for the deconfinement order parameters φ and φ*. Furthermore, the subtracted condensate Δ l,s and the chiral order-parameters M b are compared with lattice QCD calculations. By using the dynamical quasiparticle model (DQPM), which can be considered as a system of noninteracting massive quasiparticles, we have evaluated the decay width and the relaxation time of quarks and gluons. In the framework of LSM and with Polyakov loop corrections included, the interaction measure Δ/T 4 , the specific heat c v and speed of sound squared c s 2 have been determined, as well as the temperature dependence of the normalized quark number density n q /T 3 and the quark number susceptibilities χ q /T 2 at various values of the baryon chemical potential. The electric and heat conductivity, σ e and κ, and the bulk and shear viscosities normalized to the thermal entropy, ζ/s and η/s, are compared with available results of lattice QCD calculations.

  4. Linear attenuation coefficients of tissues from 1 keV to 150 keV

    Böke, Aysun

    2014-09-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients and three interaction processes have been computed for liver, kidney, muscle, fat and for a range of x-ray energies from 1 keV to 150 keV. Molecular photoelectric absorption cross sections were calculated from atomic cross section data. Total coherent (Rayleigh) and incoherent (Compton) scattering cross sections were obtained by numerical integration over combinations of F2m(x) with the Thomson formula and Sm(x) with the Klein-Nishina formula, respectively. For the coherent (Rayleigh) scattering cross section calculations, molecular form factors were obtained from recent experimental data in the literature for values of xelements involved in tissue composition is 5 for liver, 47 for kidney, 44 for muscle and 3 for fat. The results are compared with previously published experimental and theoretical linear attenuation coefficients. In general, good agreement is obtained. The molecular form factors and scattering functions and cross sections are incorporated into a Monte Carlo program. The energy distributions of x-ray photons scattered from tissues have been simulated and the results are presented.

  5. Estimation of the location parameter of distributions with known coefficient of variation by record values

    N. K. Sajeevkumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we derived the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE of the location parameter of certain distributions with known coefficient of variation by record values. Efficiency comparisons are also made on the proposed estimator with some of the usual estimators. Finally we give a real life data to explain the utility of results developed in this article.

  6. Internal friction and linear expansion coefficient in zirconium and cobalt within the range of phase transitions

    Boyarskij, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for internal friction and linear expansion coefficient at zirconium and cobalt in the temperature range from 440 K to the point of the phase transition of the first kind (1138 K for Zr and 706 for Co). Anomalous changes of the internal friction and linear expansion coefficient in the phase transition region are found. Theoretical considerations are given to explain the sharp decrease of the internal friction as temperature approaches the phase transition point

  7. Energy distribution for Coefficients of Redundant Signal Representations of Music

    Endelt, Line Ørtoft; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2005-01-01

    different time-frequency dictionaries. We have applied these methods to music to examine their ability to express music signals in a sparse manner for a number of dictionaries and window lengths. The evaluation is based on the m-term approximation needed to represent 90 %, 95 %, 99 % and 99......In this paper we investigate how the energy is distributed in the coefficients vector of various redundant signal representations of music signals. The representations are found using Basis Pursuit, Matching Pursuit, Alternating Projections, Best Orthogonal Basis and Method of Frames, with five.......9 % of the energy in the coefficients, also the time consummation for finding the representations are considered. The distribution of energy in the coefficients of the representations found using Basis Pursuit, Matching Pursuit, Alternating Projections and Best Orthogonal Basis depends mainly on the signal...

  8. Fuzzy solution of the linear programming problem with interval coefficients in the constraints

    Dorota Kuchta

    2005-01-01

    A fuzzy concept of solving the linear programming problem with interval coefficients is proposed. For each optimism level of the decision maker (where the optimism concerns the certainty that no errors have been committed in the estimation of the interval coefficients and the belief that optimistic realisations of the interval coefficients will occur) another interval solution of the problem will be generated and the decision maker will be able to choose the final solution having a complete v...

  9. Comparing Regression Coefficients between Nested Linear Models for Clustered Data with Generalized Estimating Equations

    Yan, Jun; Aseltine, Robert H., Jr.; Harel, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Comparing regression coefficients between models when one model is nested within another is of great practical interest when two explanations of a given phenomenon are specified as linear models. The statistical problem is whether the coefficients associated with a given set of covariates change significantly when other covariates are added into…

  10. An Analytical-empirical Calculation of Linear Attenuation Coefficient of Megavoltage Photon Beams.

    Seif, F; Tahmasebi-Birgani, M J; Bayatiani, M R

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a method for linear attenuation coefficient calculation was introduced. Linear attenuation coefficient was calculated with a new method that base on the physics of interaction of photon with matter, mathematical calculation and x-ray spectrum consideration. The calculation was done for Cerrobend as a common radiotherapy modifier and Mercury. The values of calculated linear attenuation coefficient with this new method are in acceptable range. Also, the linear attenuation coefficient decreases slightly as the thickness of attenuating filter (Cerrobend or mercury) increased, so the procedure of linear attenuation coefficient variation is in agreement with other documents. The results showed that the attenuation ability of mercury was about 1.44 times more than Cerrobend. The method that was introduced in this study for linear attenuation coefficient calculation is general enough to treat beam modifiers with any shape or material by using the same formalism; however, calculating was made only for mercury and Cerrobend attenuator. On the other hand, it seems that this method is suitable for high energy shields or protector designing.

  11. Distribution coefficient of plutonium between sediment and seawater

    Duursma, E.K.; Parsi, P.

    1974-01-01

    Using plutonium 237 as a tracer, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the distribution coefficient of plutonium onto sediments both under oxic and anoxic conditions, where the plutonium was added to seawater in three different valence states: III, IV and VI

  12. Estimates of the Sampling Distribution of Scalability Coefficient H

    Van Onna, Marieke J. H.

    2004-01-01

    Coefficient "H" is used as an index of scalability in nonparametric item response theory (NIRT). It indicates the degree to which a set of items rank orders examinees. Theoretical sampling distributions, however, have only been derived asymptotically and only under restrictive conditions. Bootstrap methods offer an alternative possibility to…

  13. Spin fluctuations and low temperature features of thermal coefficient of linear expansion of iron monosilicide

    Volkov, A.G.; Kortov, S.V.; Povzner, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The low temperature measurements of thermal coefficient of linear expansion of strong paramagnet FeSi are carried out. The results obtained are discussed with in the framework of spin-fluctuation theory. It is shown that electronic part of the thermal coefficient of linear expansion is negative in the range of temperatures lower that of the semiconductor-metal phase transition. In metal phase it becomes positive. This specific features of the thermal coefficient is explained by the spin-fluctuation renormalization of d-electronic states density

  14. Correlation of Cadmium Distribution Coefficients to Soil Characteristics

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Rootzen, Helle; Borggaard, Ole K.

    2003-01-01

    on whole soil samples have shown that pH is the main parameter controlling the distribution. To identify further the components that are important for Cd binding in soil we measured Cd distribution coefficients (K-d) at two fixed pH values and at low Cd loadings for 49 soils sampled in Denmark. The Kd...... values for Cd ranged from 5 to 3000 L kg(-1). The soils were described pedologically and characterized in detail (22 parameters) including determination of contents of the various minerals in the clay fraction. Correlating parameters were grouped and step-wise regression analysis revealed...... interlayered clay minerals [HIM], chlorite, quartz, microcline, plagioclase) were significant in explaining the Cd distribution coefficient....

  15. Distribution of temperature coefficient density for muons in the atmosphere

    Kuzmenko V.S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, several dozens of new muon detectors have been built. When studying cosmic-ray intensity variations with these detectors, located deep in the atmosphere, it is necessary to calculate all characteristics, including the distribution of temperature coefficient density for muons in the atmosphere, taking into account their specific geometry. For this purpose, we calculate the density of temperature coefficients of muon intensity in the atmosphere at various zenith angles of detection at sea level and at various depths underground for different absorption ranges of primary protons and pions in the atmosphere.

  16. Linear Parametric Sensitivity Analysis of the Constraint Coefficient Matrix in Linear Programs

    Zuidwijk, Rob

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSensitivity analysis is used to quantify the impact of changes in the initial data of linear programs on the optimal value. In particular, parametric sensitivity analysis involves a perturbation analysis in which the effects of small changes of some or all of the initial data on an optimal solution are investigated, and the optimal solution is studied on a so-called critical range of the initial data, in which certain properties such as the optimal basis in linear programming are ...

  17. Coefficient of linear attenuation of beer for γ rays of 662 keV

    Ortiz A, M. D.; Cano S, D.; Vega C, H. R.

    2017-10-01

    The coefficient of linear attenuation of the beer was determined by means of a transmission experiment with a source of Cs 137 and a gamma ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl) detector of 7.62 cm in diameter and 7.62 cm in height, using narrow geometry. The pulse height spectrum was accumulated for 1 minute of live time, 7 beer thicknesses (0.6 cm) were used. By means of linear regression by weighted squares we determined the linear attenuation coefficient whose value was μ = 0.0843 ± 0.0007 cm -1 . The coefficient of linear attenuation of water is 2.2% times greater than that of beer and to the geometry of the experimental arrangement. (Author)

  18. Derivation of linear attenuation coefficients from CT numbers for low-energy photons

    Watanabe, Y.

    1999-01-01

    One can estimate photon attenuation properties from the CT number. In a standard method one assumes that the linear attenuation coefficient is proportional to electron density and ignores its nonlinear dependence on atomic number. When the photon energy is lower than about 50 keV, such as for brachytherapy applications, however, photoelectric absorption and Rayleigh scattering become important. Hence the atomic number must be explicitly considered in estimating the linear attenuation coefficient. In this study we propose a method to more accurately estimate the linear attenuation coefficient of low-energy photons from CT numbers. We formulate an equation that relates the CT number to the electron density and the effective atomic number. We use a CT calibration phantom to determine unknown coefficients in the equation. The equation with a given CT number is then solved for the effective atomic number, which in turn is used to calculate the linear attenuation coefficient for low-energy photons. We use the CT phantom to test the new method. The method significantly improves the standard method in estimating the attenuation coefficient at low photon energies (20keV≤E≤40keV) for materials with high atomic numbers. (author)

  19. Measurement of the distribution coefficient between soil and Cesium-137

    Tejada V, S.; Hernandez P, M.

    1996-01-01

    The measurement of the distribution coefficient of Cs-137 is currently performed by batch method between radioisotope solution and which was collected from the Mexican Disposal Site, near the town of Maquixco, in the state of Mexico. The Kd values were obtained in activity concentration of Cs-137 of 100 Bq. The solution is shaken for seven days at 25 o C when the maximum amount of radionuclide is absorbed by the soil. The radionuclide in solution is measured by gamma spectrometry. The results obtained from batch method show that the distribution coefficients were from 144 to 660 ml/g for fine soil particles. This work is currently done as part of the site characterization studies for the disposal of low level rad-waste. (authors). 10 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Estimation of the effective distribution coefficient from the solubility constant

    Wang, Yug-Yea; Yu, C.

    1994-01-01

    An updated version of RESRAD has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy to derive site-specific soil guidelines for residual radioactive material. In this updated version, many new features have been added to the, RESRAD code. One of the options is that a user can input a solubility constant to limit the leaching of contaminants. The leaching model used in the code requires the input of an empirical distribution coefficient, K d , which represents the ratio of the solute concentration in soil to that in solution under equilibrium conditions. This paper describes the methodology developed to estimate an effective distribution coefficient, Kd, from the user-input solubility constant and the use of the effective K d for predicting the leaching of contaminants

  1. Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples

    Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges

    2004-01-01

    In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient (μ) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the μ determination. It consists of the μ determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of μ was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)

  2. Study of distribution coefficients of admixtures in tellurium

    Kuchar, L.; Drapala, J.; Kuchar, L. jr.

    1986-01-01

    Limit areas of tellurium-admixture binary systems were studied and the values determined of steady-state distribution coefficients of admixtures. A second order polynomial was used to express equations of solidus and liquidus curves for Te-Se, Te-S, Te-Hg systems; the curves are graphically represented. The most effective method for preparing high-purity tellurium is zonal melting with material removal. (M.D.). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 16 refs

  3. Linear Parametric Sensitivity Analysis of the Constraint Coefficient Matrix in Linear Programs

    R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSensitivity analysis is used to quantify the impact of changes in the initial data of linear programs on the optimal value. In particular, parametric sensitivity analysis involves a perturbation analysis in which the effects of small changes of some or all of the initial data on an

  4. Feature Genes Selection Using Supervised Locally Linear Embedding and Correlation Coefficient for Microarray Classification.

    Xu, Jiucheng; Mu, Huiyu; Wang, Yun; Huang, Fangzhou

    2018-01-01

    The selection of feature genes with high recognition ability from the gene expression profiles has gained great significance in biology. However, most of the existing methods have a high time complexity and poor classification performance. Motivated by this, an effective feature selection method, called supervised locally linear embedding and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (SLLE-SC 2 ), is proposed which is based on the concept of locally linear embedding and correlation coefficient algorithms. Supervised locally linear embedding takes into account class label information and improves the classification performance. Furthermore, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient is used to remove the coexpression genes. The experiment results obtained on four public tumor microarray datasets illustrate that our method is valid and feasible.

  5. Measurements of linear attenuation coefficients of irregular shaped samples by two media method

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficient values of regular and irregular shaped flyash materials have been measured without knowing the thickness of a sample using a new technique namely 'two media method'. These values have also been measured with a standard gamma ray transmission method and obtained theoretically with winXCOM computer code. From the comparison it is reported that the two media method has given accurate results of attenuation coefficients of flyash materials

  6. Integral linear momentum balance in combining flows for calculating the pressure drop coefficients

    Bollmann, A.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for calculating the loss coefficient in combining flows in tee functions are obtained by an integral linear momentum balance. It is a practice, when solving this type of problem, to neglect the pressure difference in the upstream location as well as the wall-fluid interaction in the lateral branch of the junction. In this work it is demonstrated the influence of the above parameters on the loss coefficient based on experimental values and by apropriate algebraic manipulation of the loss coefficient values published by previous investigators. (Author) [pt

  7. Densities, isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene

    Zhou, X; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Q M; Liu, Q; Ding, Y Y; Zhou, L; Cao, J

    2015-01-01

    We report the measurements of the densities of linear alkylbenzene at three temperatures over 4 to 23 °C with pressures up to 10 MPa. The measurements have been analysed to yield the isobaric thermal expansion coefficients and, so far for the first time, isothermal compressibilities of linear alkylbenzene. Relevance of results for current generation (i.e., Daya Bay) and next generation (i.e. JUNO) large liquid scintillator neutrino detectors are discussed. (paper)

  8. Conjugate gradient type methods for linear systems with complex symmetric coefficient matrices

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    We consider conjugate gradient type methods for the solution of large sparse linear system Ax equals b with complex symmetric coefficient matrices A equals A(T). Such linear systems arise in important applications, such as the numerical solution of the complex Helmholtz equation. Furthermore, most complex non-Hermitian linear systems which occur in practice are actually complex symmetric. We investigate conjugate gradient type iterations which are based on a variant of the nonsymmetric Lanczos algorithm for complex symmetric matrices. We propose a new approach with iterates defined by a quasi-minimal residual property. The resulting algorithm presents several advantages over the standard biconjugate gradient method. We also include some remarks on the obvious approach to general complex linear systems by solving equivalent real linear systems for the real and imaginary parts of x. Finally, numerical experiments for linear systems arising from the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  9. The coefficient of determination R2 and intra-class correlation coefficient from generalized linear mixed-effects models revisited and expanded.

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Johnson, Paul C D; Schielzeth, Holger

    2017-09-01

    The coefficient of determination R 2 quantifies the proportion of variance explained by a statistical model and is an important summary statistic of biological interest. However, estimating R 2 for generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) remains challenging. We have previously introduced a version of R 2 that we called [Formula: see text] for Poisson and binomial GLMMs, but not for other distributional families. Similarly, we earlier discussed how to estimate intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) using Poisson and binomial GLMMs. In this paper, we generalize our methods to all other non-Gaussian distributions, in particular to negative binomial and gamma distributions that are commonly used for modelling biological data. While expanding our approach, we highlight two useful concepts for biologists, Jensen's inequality and the delta method, both of which help us in understanding the properties of GLMMs. Jensen's inequality has important implications for biologically meaningful interpretation of GLMMs, whereas the delta method allows a general derivation of variance associated with non-Gaussian distributions. We also discuss some special considerations for binomial GLMMs with binary or proportion data. We illustrate the implementation of our extension by worked examples from the field of ecology and evolution in the R environment. However, our method can be used across disciplines and regardless of statistical environments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients.

    Boyko, Vyacheslav M; Popovych, Roman O; Shapoval, Nataliya M

    2013-01-01

    Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients are exhaustively described over both the complex and real fields. The exact lower and upper bounds for the dimensions of the maximal Lie invariance algebras possessed by such systems are obtained using an effective algebraic approach.

  11. Adaptive distributed parameter and input estimation in linear parabolic PDEs

    Mechhoud, Sarra

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the on-line estimation of distributed source term, diffusion, and reaction coefficients of a linear parabolic partial differential equation using both distributed and interior-point measurements. First, new sufficient identifiability conditions of the input and the parameter simultaneous estimation are stated. Then, by means of Lyapunov-based design, an adaptive estimator is derived in the infinite-dimensional framework. It consists of a state observer and gradient-based parameter and input adaptation laws. The parameter convergence depends on the plant signal richness assumption, whereas the state convergence is established using a Lyapunov approach. The results of the paper are illustrated by simulation on tokamak plasma heat transport model using simulated data.

  12. Apparent distribution coefficients of transuranium elements in UK coastal waters

    Kershaw, P.J.; Pentreath, R.J.; Harvey, B.R.; Lovett, M.B.; Boggis, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authorized inputs of low-level radioactive waste into the Irish Sea from the British Nuclear Fuels plc reprocessing plant at Sellafield may be used to advantage to study the distribution and behaviour of artificial radionuclides in the marine environment. Apparent distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)) for the transuranium elements Np, Pu, Am and Cm have been determined by the analysis of environmental samples collected from UK coastal waters. The sampling methodology for obtaining suspended sediment-seawater Ksub(d)s by filtration is described and critically evaluated. Artefacts may be introduced in the sample collection stage. Ksub(d) values have also been determined for seabed sediment-interstitial waters and the precautions taken to preserve in-situ chemical conditions are described. Variations in Ksub(d) values are discussed in relation to distance from Sellafield, suspended load, redox conditions and oxidation state changes. (author)

  13. Exact Finite-Difference Schemes for d-Dimensional Linear Stochastic Systems with Constant Coefficients

    Peng Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors attempt to construct the exact finite-difference schemes for linear stochastic differential equations with constant coefficients. The explicit solutions to Itô and Stratonovich linear stochastic differential equations with constant coefficients are adopted with the view of providing exact finite-difference schemes to solve them. In particular, the authors utilize the exact finite-difference schemes of Stratonovich type linear stochastic differential equations to solve the Kubo oscillator that is widely used in physics. Further, the authors prove that the exact finite-difference schemes can preserve the symplectic structure and first integral of the Kubo oscillator. The authors also use numerical examples to prove the validity of the numerical methods proposed in this paper.

  14. System of coefficients for charged-particle beam linear transformation by a magnetic dipole element

    Tarantin, N.I.

    1979-01-01

    A new technique for consideration of dipole magnet ion-optical effect has been developed to study the problems of commutation and monochromatization of a charged particle beam. In a new form obtained are systematized coefficients of linear transformation (CLT) of the charged particle beam for radial and axial motions in a magnetic dipole element (MDE) including a dipole magnet and two gaps without magnetic field. Given is a method of graphic determination of MDE parameters and main CLT. The new form of coefficients and conditions of the transformations feasibility considerably facilitates the choice and calculation of dipole elements

  15. Estimating a graphical intra-class correlation coefficient (GICC) using multivariate probit-linear mixed models.

    Yue, Chen; Chen, Shaojie; Sair, Haris I; Airan, Raag; Caffo, Brian S

    2015-09-01

    Data reproducibility is a critical issue in all scientific experiments. In this manuscript, the problem of quantifying the reproducibility of graphical measurements is considered. The image intra-class correlation coefficient (I2C2) is generalized and the graphical intra-class correlation coefficient (GICC) is proposed for such purpose. The concept for GICC is based on multivariate probit-linear mixed effect models. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo EM (mcm-cEM) algorithm is used for estimating the GICC. Simulation results with varied settings are demonstrated and our method is applied to the KIRBY21 test-retest dataset.

  16. Confidence bounds and hypothesis tests for normal distribution coefficients of variation

    Steve Verrill; Richard A. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    For normally distributed populations, we obtain confidence bounds on a ratio of two coefficients of variation, provide a test for the equality of k coefficients of variation, and provide confidence bounds on a coefficient of variation shared by k populations.

  17. Linear thermal expansion coefficient of MgAl2O4(s)

    Dash, A.; Samui, P.; Naik, Y.P.; Chaudhary, Z.S.

    2011-01-01

    The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (α av ) of MgAl 2 O 4 (s) has been determined using a Netzsch 402 PC dilatometer with Al 2 O 3 (s) as the push-rod. The change in length per unit length was recorded as a function of temperature between room temperature to 1273 K at a heating rate of 8 K.min /1 , in argon flowing atmosphere. The average of three measurements was quoted as the α av for MgAl 2 O 4 (s). The linear thermal expansion was measured to an accuracy of ±3%. (author)

  18. A Compensatory Approach to Multiobjective Linear Transportation Problem with Fuzzy Cost Coefficients

    Hale Gonce Kocken

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Multiobjective Linear Transportation Problem that has fuzzy cost coefficients. In the solution procedure, many objectives may conflict with each other; therefore decision-making process becomes complicated. And also due to the fuzziness in the costs, this problem has a nonlinear structure. In this paper, fuzziness in the objective functions is handled with a fuzzy programming technique in the sense of multiobjective approach. And then we present a compensatory approach to solve Multiobjective Linear Transportation Problem with fuzzy cost coefficients by using Werner's and operator. Our approach generates compromise solutions which are both compensatory and Pareto optimal. A numerical example has been provided to illustrate the problem.

  19. The linear attenuation coefficients as features of multiple energy CT image classification

    Homem, M.R.P.; Mascarenhas, N.D.A.; Cruvinel, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    We present in this paper an analysis of the linear attenuation coefficients as useful features of single and multiple energy CT images with the use of statistical pattern classification tools. We analyzed four CT images through two pointwise classifiers (the first classifier is based on the maximum-likelihood criterion and the second classifier is based on the k-means clustering algorithm) and one contextual Bayesian classifier (ICM algorithm - Iterated Conditional Modes) using an a priori Potts-Strauss model. A feature extraction procedure using the Jeffries-Matusita (J-M) distance and the Karhunen-Loeve transformation was also performed. Both the classification and the feature selection procedures were found to be in agreement with the predicted discrimination given by the separation of the linear attenuation coefficient curves for different materials

  20. Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Porous Anodic Alumina Thin Films from Atomic Force Microscopy

    Zhang, Richard X; Fisher, Timothy; Raman, Arvind; Sands, Timothy D

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a precise and convenient technique based on the atomic force microscope (AFM) is developed to measure the linear coefficient of thermal expansion of a porous anodic alumina thin film. A stage was used to heat the sample from room temperature up to 450 K. Thermal effects on AFM probes and different operation modes at elevated temperatures were also studied, and a silicon AFM probe in the tapping mode was chosen for the subsequent measurements due to its temperature insensitivi...

  1. Linear thermal expansion coefficient of cast Fe-Ni invar and Fe-Ni-Co superinvar alloys

    Ogorodnikova, O.M.; Chermenskaya, E.V.; Rabinovich, S.V.; Grachev, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    Cast invar alloys Fe-Ni (28-35 wt. % Ni) are investigated using metallography, dilatometry and X-ray methods as soon as the crystallization is completed and again after low-temperature treatment resulting in martensitic transformation in low nickel alloys. Nickel distribution in a cast superinvar Fe-32% Ni-4% Co is studied by means of X-ray spectrum microanalysis. The results obtained permit the correction of model concepts about cast invars and the estimate of a coefficient of linear expansion depending on phase composition and nickel microsegregation [ru

  2. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurement in a moving phantom simulating linear respiratory motion.

    Kwee, Thomas C; Takahara, Taro; Muro, Isao; Van Cauteren, Marc; Imai, Yutaka; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Mali, Willem P T M; Luijten, Peter R

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simulated linear respiratory motion on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. Six rectangular test tubes (14 × 92 mm) filled with either water, tomato ketchup, or mayonnaise were positioned in a box containing agarose gel. This box was connected to a double-acting pneumatic cylinder, capable of inducing periodic linear motion in the long-axis direction of the magnetic bore (23-mm stroke). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed for both the static and moving phantoms, and ADC measurements were made in the six test tubes in both situations. In the three test tubes whose long axes were parallel to the direction of motion, ADCs agreed well between the moving and static phantom situations. However, in two test tubes that were filled with fluids that had a considerably lower diffusion coefficient than the surrounding agarose gel, and whose long axes were perpendicular to the direction of motion, the ADCs agreed poorly between the moving and static phantom situations. ADC measurements of large homogeneous structures are not affected by linear respiratory motion. However, ADC measurements of inhomogeneous or small structures are affected by linear respiratory motion due to partial volume effects.

  3. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurement in a moving phantom simulating linear respiratory motion

    Kwee, T.C.; Takahara, Taro; Nievelstein, R.A.J.; Mali, W.P.T.M.; Luijten, P.R.; Muro, Isao; Imai, Yutaka; Cauteren, M. Van

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simulated linear respiratory motion on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. Six rectangular test tubes (14 x 92 mm) filled with either water, tomato ketchup, or mayonnaise were positioned in a box containing agarose gel. This box was connected to a double-acting pneumatic cylinder, capable of inducing periodic linear motion in the long-axis direction of the magnetic bore (23-mm stroke). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed for both the static and moving phantoms, and ADC measurements were made in the six test tubes in both situations. In the three test tubes whose long axes were parallel to the direction of motion, ADCs agreed well between the moving and static phantom situations. However, in two test tubes that were filled with fluids that had a considerably lower diffusion coefficient than the surrounding agarose gel, and whose long axes were perpendicular to the direction of motion, the ADCs agreed poorly between the moving and static phantom situations. ADC measurements of large homogeneous structures are not affected by linear respiratory motion. However, ADC measurements of inhomogeneous or small structures are affected by linear respiratory motion due to partial volume effects. (author)

  4. Mathematical methods linear algebra normed spaces distributions integration

    Korevaar, Jacob

    1968-01-01

    Mathematical Methods, Volume I: Linear Algebra, Normed Spaces, Distributions, Integration focuses on advanced mathematical tools used in applications and the basic concepts of algebra, normed spaces, integration, and distributions.The publication first offers information on algebraic theory of vector spaces and introduction to functional analysis. Discussions focus on linear transformations and functionals, rectangular matrices, systems of linear equations, eigenvalue problems, use of eigenvectors and generalized eigenvectors in the representation of linear operators, metric and normed vector

  5. Distribution coefficient Kd in surface soils collected in Aomori prefecture

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    Soil-solution distribution coefficients (Kds), which are the ratio of an element concentration in a soil solid phase to that in a solution phase, for 32 elements in Andosols, Wet Andosols and Gleyed Andosols collected throughout Aomori Prefecture were determined. A dried soil sample was mixed with a 10-fold amount of pure water in a PPCO centrifuge tube, and then gently shaken for 24 h. The Kd values were obtained by measurement of element concentrations in solid and solution phases (batch method). The Kd values in this work were up to three orders of magnitude higher than the IAEA reported values, and their 95% confidence intervals were within two orders of magnitude. Most Kd values of elements were decreasing with increasing electrical conductivity of the solution phase. The Kd of Ca had a good correlation with that of Sr. However, the correlation between the Kds of K and Cs was not good. The Kd values were also determined by another method. The soil solutions were separated from the fresh soil samples by means of high speed centrifuging. The Kd values were calculated from the element concentration in solid phase and soil solution (centrifugation method). The Kd values obtained by the centrifugation method agreed within one order of magnitude with those by the batch method, and both variation patterns in elements correlated well. (author)

  6. Transformation of correlation coefficients between normal and lognormal distribution and implications for nuclear applications

    Žerovnik, Gašper, E-mail: gasper.zerovnik@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Trkov, Andrej, E-mail: andrej.trkov@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Smith, Donald L., E-mail: donald.l.smith@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 1710 Avenida del Mundo, Coronado, CA 92118-3073 (United States); Capote, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.capotenoy@iaea.org [NAPC–Nuclear Data Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, PO Box 100, Vienna-A-1400 (Austria)

    2013-11-01

    Inherently positive parameters with large relative uncertainties (typically ≳30%) are often considered to be governed by the lognormal distribution. This assumption has the practical benefit of avoiding the possibility of sampling negative values in stochastic applications. Furthermore, it is typically assumed that the correlation coefficients for comparable multivariate normal and lognormal distributions are equivalent. However, this ideal situation is approached only in the linear approximation which happens to be applicable just for small uncertainties. This paper derives and discusses the proper transformation of correlation coefficients between both distributions for the most general case which is applicable for arbitrary uncertainties. It is seen that for lognormal distributions with large relative uncertainties strong anti-correlations (negative correlations) are mathematically forbidden. This is due to the asymmetry that is an inherent feature of these distributions. Some implications of these results for practical nuclear applications are discussed and they are illustrated with examples in this paper. Finally, modifications to the ENDF-6 format used for representing uncertainties in evaluated nuclear data libraries are suggested, as needed to deal with this issue.

  7. Transformation of correlation coefficients between normal and lognormal distribution and implications for nuclear applications

    Žerovnik, Gašper; Trkov, Andrej; Smith, Donald L.; Capote, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Inherently positive parameters with large relative uncertainties (typically ≳30%) are often considered to be governed by the lognormal distribution. This assumption has the practical benefit of avoiding the possibility of sampling negative values in stochastic applications. Furthermore, it is typically assumed that the correlation coefficients for comparable multivariate normal and lognormal distributions are equivalent. However, this ideal situation is approached only in the linear approximation which happens to be applicable just for small uncertainties. This paper derives and discusses the proper transformation of correlation coefficients between both distributions for the most general case which is applicable for arbitrary uncertainties. It is seen that for lognormal distributions with large relative uncertainties strong anti-correlations (negative correlations) are mathematically forbidden. This is due to the asymmetry that is an inherent feature of these distributions. Some implications of these results for practical nuclear applications are discussed and they are illustrated with examples in this paper. Finally, modifications to the ENDF-6 format used for representing uncertainties in evaluated nuclear data libraries are suggested, as needed to deal with this issue

  8. On an Optimal -Control Problem in Coefficients for Linear Elliptic Variational Inequality

    Olha P. Kupenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider optimal control problems for linear degenerate elliptic variational inequalities with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. We take the matrix-valued coefficients in the main part of the elliptic operator as controls in . Since the eigenvalues of such matrices may vanish and be unbounded in , it leads to the “noncoercivity trouble.” Using the concept of convergence in variable spaces and following the direct method in the calculus of variations, we establish the solvability of the optimal control problem in the class of the so-called -admissible solutions.

  9. Fast computation of the Maslov index for hyperbolic linear systems with periodic coefficients

    Chardard, F; Dias, F; Bridges, T J

    2006-01-01

    The Maslov index is a topological property of periodic orbits of finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems that is widely used in semiclassical quantization, quantum chaology, stability of waves and classical mechanics. The Maslov index is determined from the analysis of a linear Hamiltonian system with periodic coefficients. In this paper, a numerical scheme is devised to compute the Maslov index for hyperbolic linear systems when the phase space has a low dimension. The idea is to compute on the exterior algebra of the ambient vector space, where the Lagrangian subspace representing the unstable subspace is reduced to a line. When the exterior algebra is projectified the Lagrangian subspace always forms a closed loop. The idea is illustrated by application to Hamiltonian systems on a phase space of dimension 4. The theory is used to compute the Maslov index for the spectral problem associated with periodic solutions of the fifth-order Korteweg de Vries equation

  10. Correlation coefficient based supervised locally linear embedding for pulmonary nodule recognition.

    Wu, Panpan; Xia, Kewen; Yu, Hengyong

    2016-11-01

    Dimensionality reduction techniques are developed to suppress the negative effects of high dimensional feature space of lung CT images on classification performance in computer aided detection (CAD) systems for pulmonary nodule detection. An improved supervised locally linear embedding (SLLE) algorithm is proposed based on the concept of correlation coefficient. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient is introduced to adjust the distance metric in the SLLE algorithm to ensure that more suitable neighborhood points could be identified, and thus to enhance the discriminating power of embedded data. The proposed Spearman's rank correlation coefficient based SLLE (SC(2)SLLE) is implemented and validated in our pilot CAD system using a clinical dataset collected from the publicly available lung image database consortium and image database resource initiative (LICD-IDRI). Particularly, a representative CAD system for solitary pulmonary nodule detection is designed and implemented. After a sequential medical image processing steps, 64 nodules and 140 non-nodules are extracted, and 34 representative features are calculated. The SC(2)SLLE, as well as SLLE and LLE algorithm, are applied to reduce the dimensionality. Several quantitative measurements are also used to evaluate and compare the performances. Using a 5-fold cross-validation methodology, the proposed algorithm achieves 87.65% accuracy, 79.23% sensitivity, 91.43% specificity, and 8.57% false positive rate, on average. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the original locally linear embedding and SLLE coupled with the support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Based on the preliminary results from a limited number of nodules in our dataset, this study demonstrates the great potential to improve the performance of a CAD system for nodule detection using the proposed SC(2)SLLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Distributed coupling high efficiency linear accelerator

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Neilson, Jeffrey

    2016-07-19

    A microwave circuit for a linear accelerator includes multiple monolithic metallic cell plates stacked upon each other so that the beam axis passes vertically through a central acceleration cavity of each plate. Each plate has a directional coupler with coupling arms. A first coupling slot couples the directional coupler to an adjacent directional coupler of an adjacent cell plate, and a second coupling slot couples the directional coupler to the central acceleration cavity. Each directional coupler also has an iris protrusion spaced from corners joining the arms, a convex rounded corner at a first corner joining the arms, and a corner protrusion at a second corner joining the arms.

  12. Gradient remediability in linear distributed parabolic systems ...

    The aim of this paper is the introduction of a new concept that concerned the analysis of a large class of distributed parabolic systems. It is the general concept of gradient remediability. More precisely, we study with respect to the gradient observation, the existence of an input operator (gradient efficient actuators) ensuring ...

  13. EP-based wavelet coefficient quantization for linear distortion ECG data compression.

    Hung, King-Chu; Wu, Tsung-Ching; Lee, Hsieh-Wei; Liu, Tung-Kuan

    2014-07-01

    Reconstruction quality maintenance is of the essence for ECG data compression due to the desire for diagnosis use. Quantization schemes with non-linear distortion characteristics usually result in time-consuming quality control that blocks real-time application. In this paper, a new wavelet coefficient quantization scheme based on an evolution program (EP) is proposed for wavelet-based ECG data compression. The EP search can create a stationary relationship among the quantization scales of multi-resolution levels. The stationary property implies that multi-level quantization scales can be controlled with a single variable. This hypothesis can lead to a simple design of linear distortion control with 3-D curve fitting technology. In addition, a competitive strategy is applied for alleviating data dependency effect. By using the ECG signals saved in MIT and PTB databases, many experiments were undertaken for the evaluation of compression performance, quality control efficiency, data dependency influence. The experimental results show that the new EP-based quantization scheme can obtain high compression performance and keep linear distortion behavior efficiency. This characteristic guarantees fast quality control even for the prediction model mismatching practical distortion curve. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Different Concrete Grade on Radiation Linear Attenuation Coefficient (μ)

    Noor Azreen Masenwat; Mohammad Shahrizan Samsu; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani; Ismail Mustapha; Nasharuddin Isa; Mohamad Haniza Mahmud

    2014-01-01

    In calculating the quantity of absorption of radiation and its relationship with the thickness of a material, linear attenuation coefficient (μ) of the material is one of the parameters to be taken into account. For normal concrete, the (μ) varies depending on the type of radiation used, 0.105 cm -1 for Co-60 and 0.123 cm -1 for Cs-137. Value (μ) is used in the calculation of the radiation absorption for concrete material does not take into account factors such concrete grades. In this research, concrete with different grades (Grade 15, Grade 20, Grade 25, Grade 30, Grade 35, Grade 40) are designed and manufactured with reference to the mixing method described in British Standard. Then, the linear attenuation (μ) for each grade are measured using the radiation from the source Co-60 and Cs-137 sources. This paper describes and discusses the impact of differences in concrete grade of linear attenuation (μ) for Co-60 source/ source Cs-137 and its relationship with the compressive strength. (author)

  15. Region specific optimization of continuous linear attenuation coefficients based on UTE (RESOLUTE)

    Ladefoged, Claes N; Benoit, Didier; Law, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of PET brain data in a PET/MR hybrid scanner is challenging in the absence of transmission sources, where MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The main challenge of MR-AC is to separate bone and air, as neither have a signal in traditional MR images......-valued linear attenuation coefficients in bone that provides accurate reconstructed PET image data. A total of 164 [(18)F]FDG PET/MR patients were included in this study, of which 10 were used for training. MR-AC was based on either standard CT (reference), UTE or our method (RESOLUTE). The reconstructed PET...... on the reconstructed PET images, as well as limiting the number and extent of the outliers....

  16. Linear-fitting-based similarity coefficient map for tissue dissimilarity analysis in -w magnetic resonance imaging

    Yu Shao-De; Wu Shi-Bin; Xie Yao-Qin; Wang Hao-Yu; Wei Xin-Hua; Chen Xin; Pan Wan-Long; Hu Jiani

    2015-01-01

    Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM) aims to improve the morphological evaluation of weighted magnetic resonance imaging However, how to interpret the generated SCM map is still pending. Moreover, is it probable to extract tissue dissimilarity messages based on the theory behind SCM? The primary purpose of this paper is to address these two questions. First, the theory of SCM was interpreted from the perspective of linear fitting. Then, a term was embedded for tissue dissimilarity information. Finally, our method was validated with sixteen human brain image series from multi-echo . Generated maps were investigated from signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and perceived visual quality, and then interpreted from intra- and inter-tissue intensity. Experimental results show that both perceptibility of anatomical structures and tissue contrast are improved. More importantly, tissue similarity or dissimilarity can be quantified and cross-validated from pixel intensity analysis. This method benefits image enhancement, tissue classification, malformation detection and morphological evaluation. (paper)

  17. Analysis of infant cry through weighted linear prediction cepstral coefficients and Probabilistic Neural Network.

    Hariharan, M; Chee, Lim Sin; Yaacob, Sazali

    2012-06-01

    Acoustic analysis of infant cry signals has been proven to be an excellent tool in the area of automatic detection of pathological status of an infant. This paper investigates the application of parameter weighting for linear prediction cepstral coefficients (LPCCs) to provide the robust representation of infant cry signals. Three classes of infant cry signals were considered such as normal cry signals, cry signals from deaf babies and babies with asphyxia. A Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) is suggested to classify the infant cry signals into normal and pathological cries. PNN is trained with different spread factor or smoothing parameter to obtain better classification accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that the suggested features and classification algorithms give very promising classification accuracy of above 98% and it expounds that the suggested method can be used to help medical professionals for diagnosing pathological status of an infant from cry signals.

  18. McDonald Generalized Linear Failure Rate Distribution

    Ibrahim Elbatal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce in this paper a new six-parameters generalized version of the generalized linear failure rate (GLFR distribution which is called McDonald Generalized Linear failure rate (McGLFR distribution. The new distribution is quite flexible and can be used effectively in modeling survival data and reliability problems. It can have a constant, decreasing, increasing, and upside down bathtub-and bathtub shaped failure rate function depending on its parameters. It includes some well-known lifetime distributions as special sub-models. Some structural properties of the new distribution are studied. Moreover we discuss maximum likelihood estimation of the unknown parameters of the new model.

  19. Synthesis of linear regression coefficients by recovering the within-study covariance matrix from summary statistics.

    Yoneoka, Daisuke; Henmi, Masayuki

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the number of regression models has dramatically increased in several academic fields. However, within the context of meta-analysis, synthesis methods for such models have not been developed in a commensurate trend. One of the difficulties hindering the development is the disparity in sets of covariates among literature models. If the sets of covariates differ across models, interpretation of coefficients will differ, thereby making it difficult to synthesize them. Moreover, previous synthesis methods for regression models, such as multivariate meta-analysis, often have problems because covariance matrix of coefficients (i.e. within-study correlations) or individual patient data are not necessarily available. This study, therefore, proposes a brief explanation regarding a method to synthesize linear regression models under different covariate sets by using a generalized least squares method involving bias correction terms. Especially, we also propose an approach to recover (at most) threecorrelations of covariates, which is required for the calculation of the bias term without individual patient data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Development of database on the distribution coefficient. 2. Preparation of database

    Takebe, Shinichi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The distribution coefficient is very important parameter for environmental impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste arising from research institutes. 'Database on the Distribution Coefficient' was built up from the informations which were obtained by the literature survey in the country for these various items such as value , measuring method and measurement condition of distribution coefficient, in order to select the reasonable distribution coefficient value on the utilization of this value in the safety evaluation. This report was explained about the outline on preparation of this database and was summarized as a use guide book of database. (author)

  1. Development of database on the distribution coefficient. 2. Preparation of database

    Takebe, Shinichi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The distribution coefficient is very important parameter for environmental impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste arising from research institutes. 'Database on the Distribution Coefficient' was built up from the informations which were obtained by the literature survey in the country for these various items such as value , measuring method and measurement condition of distribution coefficient, in order to select the reasonable distribution coefficient value on the utilization of this value in the safety evaluation. This report was explained about the outline on preparation of this database and was summarized as a use guide book of database. (author)

  2. Predicting sediment sorption coefficients for linear alkylbenzenesulfonate congeners from polyacrylate-water partition coefficients at different salinities.

    Rico Rico, A.; Droge, S.T.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834017; Hermens, J.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069681384

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the molecular structure and the salinity on the sorption of the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) to marine sediment has been studied. The analysis of several individual LAS congeners in seawater and of one specific LAS congener at different dilutions of seawater

  3. Confidence bounds and hypothesis tests for normal distribution coefficients of variation

    Steve P. Verrill; Richard A. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    For normally distributed populations, we obtain confidence bounds on a ratio of two coefficients of variation, provide a test for the equality of k coefficients of variation, and provide confidence bounds on a coefficient of variation shared by k populations. To develop these confidence bounds and test, we first establish that estimators based on Newton steps from n-...

  4. Accessing the distribution of linearly polarized gluons in unpolarized hadrons

    Boer, Daniël; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian

    2011-01-01

    Gluons inside unpolarized hadrons can be linearly polarized provided they have a nonzero transverse momentum. The simplest and theoretically safest way to probe this distribution of linearly polarized gluons is through cos(2 phi) asymmetries in heavy quark pair or dijet production in electron-hadron

  5. Aerodynamic design of horizontal axis wind turbine with innovative local linearization of chord and twist distributions

    Tahani, Mojtaba; Kavari, Ghazale; Masdari, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed to aerodynamically design a 1 mega-Watt horizontal axis wind turbine in order to obtain the maximum power coefficient by linearizing the chord and twist distributions. A new linearization method has been used for chord and twist distributions by crossing tangent line through...... the geometry of the blades determines the power generated by rotor, designing the blade is a very important issue. Herein, calculations are done for different types of airfoil families namely Risø-A1-21, Risø-A1-18, S809, S814 and Du 93-W-210. Hence, the effect of selecting different airfoil families is also...

  6. Non-linear dynamo waves in an incompressible medium when the turbulence dissipative coefficients depend on temperature

    A. D. Pataraya

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear α-ω; dynamo waves existing in an incompressible medium with the turbulence dissipative coefficients depending on temperature are studied in this paper. We investigate of α-ω solar non-linear dynamo waves when only the first harmonics of magnetic induction components are included. If we ignore the second harmonics in the non-linear equation, the turbulent magnetic diffusion coefficient increases together with the temperature, the coefficient of turbulent viscosity decreases, and for an interval of time the value of dynamo number is greater than 1. In these conditions a stationary solution of the non-linear equation for the dynamo wave's amplitude exists; meaning that the magnetic field is sufficiently excited. The amplitude of the dynamo waves oscillates and becomes stationary. Using these results we can explain the existence of Maunder's minimum.

  7. Linear Power-Flow Models in Multiphase Distribution Networks: Preprint

    Bernstein, Andrey; Dall' Anese, Emiliano

    2017-05-26

    This paper considers multiphase unbalanced distribution systems and develops approximate power-flow models where bus-voltages, line-currents, and powers at the point of common coupling are linearly related to the nodal net power injections. The linearization approach is grounded on a fixed-point interpretation of the AC power-flow equations, and it is applicable to distribution systems featuring (i) wye connections; (ii) ungrounded delta connections; (iii) a combination of wye-connected and delta-connected sources/loads; and, (iv) a combination of line-to-line and line-to-grounded-neutral devices at the secondary of distribution transformers. The proposed linear models can facilitate the development of computationally-affordable optimization and control applications -- from advanced distribution management systems settings to online and distributed optimization routines. Performance of the proposed models is evaluated on different test feeders.

  8. Study on the distribution coefficient during environmental impact evaluation in Chinese inland nuclear power plants

    Xu Haifeng; Shang Zhaorong; Chen Fangqiang

    2012-01-01

    Description the radionuclide distribution coefficient of the important factors in the river sediment systems, at home and abroad the main method of measuring the K d value and progress in China's inland nuclear power plant environmental impact assessment of workers to carry out the distribution coefficient K d value measurement ideas put forward recommendations. (authors)

  9. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  10. Linearly Polarized Gluons and the Higgs Transverse Momentum Distribution

    Boer, Daniel; den Dunnen, Wilco J.; Pisano, Cristian; Schlegel, Marc; Vogelsang, Werner

    2012-01-01

    We study how gluons carrying linear polarization inside an unpolarized hadron contribute to the transverse momentum distribution of Higgs bosons produced in hadronic collisions. They modify the distribution produced by unpolarized gluons in a characteristic way that could be used to determine

  11. Radar meteors range distribution model. IV. Ionization coefficient

    Pecinová, Drahomíra; Pecina, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2008), s. 12-20 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : physics of meteors * radar meteors * range distribution Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  12. Copper and zinc distribution coefficients for sandy aquifer materials

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Boddum, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    Distribution coe�cients (Kd) were measured for copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in laboratory batch experiments for 17 sandy aquifer materials at environmentally relevant solute concentrations (Cu: 5±300 mg/l, Zn: 20±3100 mg/l). The Kd values ranged two to three orders of magnitude (Cu: 70±10,800 l/ kg...

  13. A new modified conjugate gradient coefficient for solving system of linear equations

    Hajar, N.; ‘Aini, N.; Shapiee, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Khadijah, W.; Rivaie, M.; Mamat, M.

    2017-09-01

    Conjugate gradient (CG) method is an evolution of computational method in solving unconstrained optimization problems. This approach is easy to implement due to its simplicity and has been proven to be effective in solving real-life application. Although this field has received copious amount of attentions in recent years, some of the new approaches of CG algorithm cannot surpass the efficiency of the previous versions. Therefore, in this paper, a new CG coefficient which retains the sufficient descent and global convergence properties of the original CG methods is proposed. This new CG is tested on a set of test functions under exact line search. Its performance is then compared to that of some of the well-known previous CG methods based on number of iterations and CPU time. The results show that the new CG algorithm has the best efficiency amongst all the methods tested. This paper also includes an application of the new CG algorithm for solving large system of linear equations

  14. Distributed CMOS Bidirectional Amplifiers Broadbanding and Linearization Techniques

    El-Khatib, Ziad; Mahmoud, Samy A

    2012-01-01

    This book describes methods to design distributed amplifiers useful for performing circuit functions such as duplexing, paraphrase amplification, phase shifting power splitting and power combiner applications.  A CMOS bidirectional distributed amplifier is presented that combines for the first time device-level with circuit-level linearization, suppressing the third-order intermodulation distortion. It is implemented in 0.13μm RF CMOS technology for use in highly linear, low-cost UWB Radio-over-Fiber communication systems. Describes CMOS distributed amplifiers for optoelectronic applications such as Radio-over-Fiber systems, base station transceivers and picocells; Presents most recent techniques for linearization of CMOS distributed amplifiers; Includes coverage of CMOS I-V transconductors, as well as CMOS on-chip inductor integration and modeling; Includes circuit applications for UWB Radio-over-Fiber networks.

  15. Linear electro-optic coefficient in multilayer self-organized InAs quantum dot structures

    Akca, I.B.; Dana, A.; Aydinli, A.; Rossetti, M.; Li, L.; Dagli, N.; Fiore, A.

    2007-01-01

    The electro-optic coefficients of self-organized InAs quantum dot layers in molecular beam epitaxy grown laser structures in reverse bias have been investigated. Enhanced electrooptic coefficients compared to bulk GaAs were observed.

  16. Evaluation of distribution patterns and decision of distribution coefficients of trace elements in high-purity aluminium by INAA

    Hayakawa, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Shogo; Hirai, Shoji

    1986-01-01

    Recently, a high-purity aluminium has been used in semi-coductor device, so on. It was required that trace impurities should be reduced and that its content should be quantitatively evaluated. In this study, distribution patterns of many trace impurities in 99.999 % aluminium ingots, which was purified using a normal freezing method, were evaluated by an INAA. The effective distribution coefficient k for each detected elements was calculated using a theoretical distribution equation in the normal freezing method. As a result, the elements of k 1 was Hf. Especially, La, Sm, U and Th could be effectively purified, but Sc and Hf could be scarcely purified. Further more, it was found that the slower freezing gave the effective distribution coefficient close to the equilibrium distribution coefficient, and that the effective distribution coefficient became smaller with the larger atomic radius. (author)

  17. On the size distribution of cities: an economic interpretation of the Pareto coefficient.

    Suh, S H

    1987-01-01

    "Both the hierarchy and the stochastic models of size distribution of cities are analyzed in order to explain the Pareto coefficient by economic variables. In hierarchy models, it is found that the rate of variation in the productivity of cities and that in the probability of emergence of cities can explain the Pareto coefficient. In stochastic models, the productivity of cities is found to explain the Pareto coefficient. New city-size distribution functions, in which the Pareto coefficient is decomposed by economic variables, are estimated." excerpt

  18. Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasmas with the power-law kappa-distribution

    Jiulin, Du

    2013-01-01

    Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasma with the power-law κ-distribution are studied by means of using the transport equation and macroscopic laws of Lorentz plasma without magnetic field. Expressions of electric conductivity, thermoelectric coefficient, and thermal conductivity for the power-law κ-distribution are accurately derived. It is shown that these transport coefficients are significantly modified by the κ-parameter, and in the limit of the parameter κ→∞ they are reduced to the standard forms for a Maxwellian distribution

  19. Self-similar optical pulses in competing cubic-quintic nonlinear media with distributed coefficients

    Zhang Jiefang; Tian Qing; Wang Yueyue; Dai Chaoqing; Wu Lei

    2010-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the self-similar propagation of optical pulses within the framework of the generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation with distributed coefficients. By appropriately choosing the relations between the distributed coefficients, we not only retrieve the exact self-similar solitonic solutions, but also find both the approximate self-similar Gaussian-Hermite solutions and compact solutions. Our analytical and numerical considerations reveal that proper choices of the distributed coefficients could make the unstable solitons stable and could restrict the nonlinear interaction between the neighboring solitons.

  20. Correlation between metal-ceramic bond strength and coefficient of linear thermal expansion difference

    Stella Crosara Lopes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metal-ceramic bond strength (MCBS of 6 metal-ceramic pairs (2 Ni-Cr alloys and 1 Pd-Ag alloy with 2 dental ceramics and correlate the MCBS values with the differences between the coefficients of linear thermal expansion (CTEs of the metals and ceramics. Verabond (VB Ni-Cr-Be alloy, Verabond II (VB2, Ni-Cr alloy, Pors-on 4 (P, Pd-Ag alloy, and IPS (I and Duceram (D ceramics were used for the MCBS test and dilatometric test. Forty-eight ceramic rings were built around metallic rods (3.0 mm in diameter and 70.0 mm in length made from the evaluated alloys. The rods were subsequently embedded in gypsum cast in order to perform a tensile load test, which enabled calculating the CMBS. Five specimens (2.0 mm in diameter and 12.0 mm in length of each material were made for the dilatometric test. The chromel-alumel thermocouple required for the test was welded into the metal test specimens and inserted into the ceramics. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed significant differences (p=0.01 for the MCBS test results (MPa, with PI showing higher MCBS (67.72 than the other pairs, which did not present any significant differences. The CTE (10-6 oC-1 differences were: VBI (0.54, VBD (1.33, VB2I (-0.14, VB2D (0.63, PI (1.84 and PD (2.62. Pearson's correlation test (r=0.17 was performed to evaluate of correlation between MCBS and CTE differences. Within the limitations of this study and based on the obtained results, there was no correlation between MCBS and CTE differences for the evaluated metal-ceramic pairs.

  1. Correlation between metal-ceramic bond strength and coefficient of linear thermal expansion difference.

    Lopes, Stella Crosara; Pagnano, Valéria Oliveira; Rollo, João Manuel Domingos de Almeida; Leal, Mônica Barbosa; Bezzon, Osvaldo Luiz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metal-ceramic bond strength (MCBS) of 6 metal-ceramic pairs (2 Ni-Cr alloys and 1 Pd-Ag alloy with 2 dental ceramics) and correlate the MCBS values with the differences between the coefficients of linear thermal expansion (CTEs) of the metals and ceramics. Verabond (VB) Ni-Cr-Be alloy, Verabond II (VB2), Ni-Cr alloy, Pors-on 4 (P), Pd-Ag alloy, and IPS (I) and Duceram (D) ceramics were used for the MCBS test and dilatometric test. Forty-eight ceramic rings were built around metallic rods (3.0 mm in diameter and 70.0 mm in length) made from the evaluated alloys. The rods were subsequently embedded in gypsum cast in order to perform a tensile load test, which enabled calculating the CMBS. Five specimens (2.0 mm in diameter and 12.0 mm in length) of each material were made for the dilatometric test. The chromel-alumel thermocouple required for the test was welded into the metal test specimens and inserted into the ceramics. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed significant differences (p=0.01) for the MCBS test results (MPa), with PI showing higher MCBS (67.72) than the other pairs, which did not present any significant differences. The CTE (10(-6) oC(-1)) differences were: VBI (0.54), VBD (1.33), VB2I (-0.14), VB2D (0.63), PI (1.84) and PD (2.62). Pearson's correlation test (r=0.17) was performed to evaluate of correlation between MCBS and CTE differences. Within the limitations of this study and based on the obtained results, there was no correlation between MCBS and CTE differences for the evaluated metal-ceramic pairs.

  2. Multiobjective fuzzy stochastic linear programming problems with inexact probability distribution

    Hamadameen, Abdulqader Othman [Optimization, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, UTM (Malaysia); Zainuddin, Zaitul Marlizawati [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, UTM (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    This study deals with multiobjective fuzzy stochastic linear programming problems with uncertainty probability distribution which are defined as fuzzy assertions by ambiguous experts. The problem formulation has been presented and the two solutions strategies are; the fuzzy transformation via ranking function and the stochastic transformation when α{sup –}. cut technique and linguistic hedges are used in the uncertainty probability distribution. The development of Sen’s method is employed to find a compromise solution, supported by illustrative numerical example.

  3. Correlated linear response calculations of the C6 dispersion coefficients of hydrogen halides

    Sauer, S. P. A.; Paidarová, Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 3, 2-4 (2007), s. 399-421 ISSN 1574-0404 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA401870702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : hydrogen halides * C6 dospersion coefficients * van der Waals coefficients * polarizability at imaginary frequences * SOPPA Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  4. With respect to coefficient of linear thermal expansion, bacterial vegetative cells and spores resemble plastics and metals, respectively.

    Nakanishi, Koichi; Kogure, Akinori; Fujii, Takenao; Kokawa, Ryohei; Deuchi, Keiji; Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu

    2013-10-09

    If a fixed stress is applied to the three-dimensional z-axis of a solid material, followed by heating, the amount of thermal expansion increases according to a fixed coefficient of thermal expansion. When expansion is plotted against temperature, the transition temperature at which the physical properties of the material change is at the apex of the curve. The composition of a microbial cell depends on the species and condition of the cell; consequently, the rate of thermal expansion and the transition temperature also depend on the species and condition of the cell. We have developed a method for measuring the coefficient of thermal expansion and the transition temperature of cells using a nano thermal analysis system in order to study the physical nature of the cells. The tendency was seen that among vegetative cells, the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have higher coefficients of linear expansion and lower transition temperatures than the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. On the other hand, spores, which have low water content, overall showed lower coefficients of linear expansion and higher transition temperatures than vegetative cells. Comparing these trends to non-microbial materials, vegetative cells showed phenomenon similar to plastics and spores showed behaviour similar to metals with regards to the coefficient of liner thermal expansion. We show that vegetative cells occur phenomenon of similar to plastics and spores to metals with regard to the coefficient of liner thermal expansion. Cells may be characterized by the coefficient of linear expansion as a physical index; the coefficient of linear expansion may also characterize cells structurally since it relates to volumetric changes, surface area changes, the degree of expansion of water contained within the cell, and the intensity of the internal stress on the cellular membrane. The coefficient of linear expansion holds promise as a new index for

  5. On the null distribution of Bayes factors in linear regression

    We show that under the null, the 2 log (Bayes factor) is asymptotically distributed as a weighted sum of chi-squared random variables with a shifted mean. This claim holds for Bayesian multi-linear regression with a family of conjugate priors, namely, the normal-inverse-gamma prior, the g-prior, and...

  6. Procedures and apparatus for measuring diffusion and distribution coefficients in compacted clays

    Hume, H B

    1993-12-01

    Diffusion and distribution coefficients are needed to assess the migration of radionuclides through the compacted clay-based buffer and backfill materials proposed for use in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault. This report describes the techniques used to measure these coefficients. Both steady-state and transient diffusion experiments are discussed. The procedures used to prepare the clay plug, assemble the cell, conduct the experiment and calculate the results are described. In addition, methods for obtaining distribution coefficients for radionuclides on both loose and compacted clays are discussed. (author). 18 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs.

  7. Procedures and apparatus for measuring diffusion and distribution coefficients in compacted clays

    Hume, H.B.

    1993-12-01

    Diffusion and distribution coefficients are needed to assess the migration of radionuclides through the compacted clay-based buffer and backfill materials proposed for use in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault. This report describes the techniques used to measure these coefficients. Both steady-state and transient diffusion experiments are discussed. The procedures used to prepare the clay plug, assemble the cell, conduct the experiment and calculate the results are described. In addition, methods for obtaining distribution coefficients for radionuclides on both loose and compacted clays are discussed. (author). 18 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs

  8. The stochastic distribution of available coefficient of friction on quarry tiles for human locomotion.

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Matz, Simon; Chang, Chien-Chi

    2012-01-01

    The available coefficient of friction (ACOF) for human locomotion is the maximum coefficient of friction that can be supported without a slip at the shoe and floor interface. A statistical model was introduced to estimate the probability of slip by comparing the ACOF with the required coefficient of friction, assuming that both coefficients have stochastic distributions. This paper presents an investigation of the stochastic distributions of the ACOF of quarry tiles under dry, water and glycerol conditions. One hundred friction measurements were performed on a walkway under the surface conditions of dry, water and 45% glycerol concentration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test was used to determine if the distribution of the ACOF was a good fit with the normal, log-normal and Weibull distributions. The results indicated that the ACOF appears to fit the normal and log-normal distributions better than the Weibull distribution for the water and glycerol conditions. However, no match was found between the distribution of ACOF under the dry condition and any of the three continuous distributions evaluated. Based on limited data, a normal distribution might be more appropriate due to its simplicity, practicality and familiarity among the three distributions evaluated.

  9. The rate coefficients of unimolecular reactions in the systems with power-law distributions

    Yin, Cangtao; Guo, Ran; Du, Jiulin

    2014-08-01

    The rate coefficient formulae of unimolecular reactions are generalized to the systems with the power-law distributions based on nonextensive statistics, and the power-law rate coefficients are derived in the high and low pressure limits, respectively. The numerical analyses are made of the rate coefficients as functions of the ν-parameter, the threshold energy, the temperature and the number of degrees of freedom. We show that the new rate coefficients depend strongly on the ν-parameter different from one (thus from a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution). Two unimolecular reactions, CH3CO→CH3+CO and CH3NC→CH3CN, are taken as application examples to calculate their power-law rate coefficients, which obtained with the ν-parameters slightly different from one can be exactly in agreement with all the experimental studies on these two reactions in the given temperature ranges.

  10. Linear Model for Optimal Distributed Generation Size Predication

    Ahmed Al Ameri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a linear model predicting optimal size of Distributed Generation (DG that addresses the minimum power loss. This method is based fundamentally on strong coupling between active power and voltage angle as well as between reactive power and voltage magnitudes. This paper proposes simplified method to calculate the total power losses in electrical grid for different distributed generation sizes and locations. The method has been implemented and tested on several IEEE bus test systems. The results show that the proposed method is capable of predicting approximate optimal size of DG when compared with precision calculations. The method that linearizes a complex model showed a good result, which can actually reduce processing time required. The acceptable accuracy with less time and memory required can help the grid operator to assess power system integrated within large-scale distribution generation.

  11. Effect of water content on strontium retardation factor and distribution coefficient in Chinese loess.

    Huo, Lijuan; Qian, Tianwei; Hao, Junting; Liu, Hongfang; Zhao, Dongye

    2013-12-01

    Geological burial and landfill are often employed for disposal of nuclear wastes. Typically, radionuclides from nuclear facilities transport through the unsaturated zone before reaching the groundwater aquifer. However, transport studies are often conducted under saturated and steady-state flow conditions. This research aimed to examine the effects of unsaturated flow conditions and soil water content (θ) on Sr sorption and retardation in Chinese loess through 1D column transport experiments. Reagent SrCl2 was used as a surrogate for the radioactive isotope ((90)Sr) in the experiment because of their analogous adsorption and transportation characteristics. The spatial distribution of Sr along the column length was determined by segmenting the soil bed and analysing the Sr content in each soil segment following each column breakthrough test. The single-region (SR) and two-region (TR) models were employed to interpret the transport data of Sr as well as a tracer (Br(-)), which resulted in the dispersion coefficient (D) and retardation factor (Rd) under a given set of unsaturated flow conditions. For the tracer, the SR and TR models offered nearly the same goodness of fitting to the breakthrough curves (R(2) ≈ 0.97 for both models). For the highly sorptive Sr, however, the TR model provided better fitting (R(2), 0.80-0.96) to the Sr retention profiles than the SR model (R(2), 0.20-0.89). The Sr retention curves exhibited physical non-equilibrium characteristics, particularly at lower water content of the soil. For the unsaturated soil, D and the pore water velocity (v) displayed a weak linear correlation, which is attributed to the altering dispersivity as the water content varies. A much improved linear correlation was observed between D and v/θ. The retardation factor of Sr increased from 69.1 to 174.2 as θ decreased from 0.46 to 0.26 (cm(3) cm(-3)), while the distribution coefficient (Kd) based on Rd remained nearly unchanged at various θ levels. These

  12. Measurement of Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion and Temperature-Dependent Refractive Index Using Interferometric System

    Corsetti, James A.; Green, William E.; Ellis, Jonathan D.; Schmidt, Greg R.; Moore, Duncan T.

    2017-01-01

    A system combining an interferometer with an environmental chamber for measuring both coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and temperature-dependent refractive index (dn/dT) simultaneously is presented. The operation and measurement results of this instrument are discussed.

  13. Linear thermal expansion coefficient (at temperatures from 130 to 800 K) of borosilicate glasses applicable for coupling with silicon in microelectronics

    Sinev, Leonid S.; Petrov, Ivan D.

    2017-01-01

    Processing results of measurements of linear thermal expansion coefficients and linear thermal expansion of two brands of borosilicate glasses --- LK5 and Borofloat 33 --- are presented. The linear thermal expansion of glass samples have been determined in the temperature range 130 to 800 K (minus 143 to 526 $\\deg$C) using thermomechanical analyzer TMA7100. Relative imprecision of indirectly measured linear thermal expansion coefficients and linear thermal expansion of both glass brands is le...

  14. Sediment pore water distribution coefficients of PCB congeners in enriched black carbon sediment

    Martinez, Andres; O'Sullivan, Colin; Reible, Danny; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2013-01-01

    More than 2300 sediment pore water distribution coefficients (K PCBids ) of 93 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured and modeled from sediments from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal. K PCBids were calculated from previously reported bulk sediment values and newly analyzed pore water. PCBs in pore waters were measured using SPME PDMS-fiber and ∑PCB ranged from 41 to 1500 ng L −1 . The resulting K PCBids were ∼1 log unit lower in comparison to other reported values. A simple model for the K PCBid consisted of the product of the organic carbon fraction and the octanol–water partition coefficient and provided an excellent prediction for the measured values, with a mean square error of 0.09 ± 0.06. Although black carbon content is very high in these sediments and was expected to play an important role in the distribution of PCBs, no improvement was obtained when a two-carbon model was used. -- Highlights: •PCB sediment-pore water distribution coefficients were measured and modeled. •Distribution coefficients were lower in comparison to other reported values. •Organic carbon fraction times the K OW yielded the best prediction model. •The incorporation of black carbon into a model did not improve the results. -- The organic carbon fraction times the octanol–water partition coefficient yielded the best prediction model for the sediment pore water distribution coefficient of PCBs

  15. Use of the lognormal distribution for the coefficients of friction and wear

    Steele, Clint

    2008-01-01

    To predict the reliability of a system, an engineer might allocate a distribution to each input. This raises a question: how to select the correct distribution? Siddall put forward an evolutionary approach that was intended to utilise both the understanding of the engineer and available data. However, this method requires a subjective initial distribution based on the engineer's understanding of the variable or parameter. If the engineer's understanding is limited, the initial distribution will be misrepresentative of the actual distribution, and application of the method will likely fail. To provide some assistance, the coefficients of friction and wear are considered here. Basic tribology theory, dimensional issues and the central limit theorem are used to argue that the distribution for each of the coefficients will typically be like a lognormal distribution. Empirical evidence from other sources is cited to lend support to this argument. It is concluded that the distributions for the coefficients of friction and wear would typically be lognormal in nature. It is therefore recommended that the engineer, without data or evidence to suggest differently, should allocate a lognormal distribution to the coefficients of friction and wear

  16. Measurement of distribution coefficients of U series radionuclides on soils under shallow land environment (2). pH dependence of distribution coefficients

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Takebe, Shinichi; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Inagawa, Satoshi; Sasaki, Tomozou

    2001-01-01

    In order to study sorption behavior of U series radionuclides (Pb, Ra, Th, Ac, Pa and U) under aerated zone environment (loam-rain water system) and aquifer environment (sand-groundwater system) for safety assessment of U bearing waste, pH dependence of distribution coefficients of each element has been obtained. The pH dependence of distribution coefficients of Pb, Ra, Th, Ac and U was analyzed by model calculation based on aqueous speciation of each element and soil surface charge characteristics, which is composed of a cation exchange capacity and surface hydroxyl groups. From the model calculation, the sorption behavior of Pb, Ra, Th, Ac and U could be described by a combination of cation exchange reaction and surface-complexation model. (author)

  17. Distribution functions to estimate radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients in soils: the case of Cs

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Mart i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In the frame of the revision of the IAEA TRS 364 (Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments), a database of radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) in soils was compiled with data coming from field and laboratory experiments, from references mostly from 1990 onwards, including data from reports, reviewed papers, and grey literature. The K{sub d} values were grouped for each radionuclide according to two criteria. The first criterion was based on the sand and clay mineral percentages referred to the mineral matter, and the organic matter (OM) content in the soil. This defined the 'texture/OM' criterion. The second criterion was to group soils regarding specific soil factors governing the radionuclide-soil interaction ('cofactor' criterion). The cofactors depended on the radionuclide considered. An advantage of using cofactors was that the variability of K{sub d} ranges for a given soil group decreased considerably compared with that observed when the classification was based solely on sand, clay and organic matter contents. The K{sub d} best estimates were defined as the calculated GM values assuming that K{sub d} values were always log-normally distributed. Risk assessment models may require as input data for a given parameter either a single value (a best estimate) or a continuous function from which not only individual best estimates but also confidence ranges and data variability can be derived. In the case of the K{sub d} parameter, a suitable continuous function which contains the statistical parameters (e.g. arithmetical/geometric mean, arithmetical/geometric standard deviation, mode, etc.) that better explain the distribution among the K{sub d} values of a dataset is the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF). To our knowledge, appropriate CDFs has not been proposed for radionuclide K{sub d} in soils yet. Therefore, the aim of this works is to create CDFs for

  18. Empirical Sampling Distributions of Equating Coefficients for Graded and Nominal Response Instruments.

    Baker, Frank B.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the sampling distributions of equating coefficients produced by the characteristic curve method for tests using graded and nominal response scoring using simulated data. For both models and across all three equating situations, the sampling distributions were generally bell-shaped and peaked, and occasionally had a small degree of…

  19. Experimental Study on the Tensile Strength and Linear Expansion Coefficient of Air Tunnel Terrazzo Surface

    Boping Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, studies on the surface tension of air tunnel terrazzo under wind load and how regularly it is affected by temperature are relatively less, and the measured results of the thermal expansion coefficient of terrazzo have not yet been given. In this paper, based on the top terrazzo surface structure of the inner wall of the wind tunnel, the tensile performance tests of terrazzo surface layer are conducted, while the thermal expansion coefficient of the six terrazzo test blocks were tested. The tests and analysis show that the construction of terrazzo surface, based on the proposed construction process, can effectively guarantee the reliable cement performance for the binding layer between mortar and concrete base layer, terrazzo surface layer and the cement mortar layer. And the thermal expansion coefficient of terrazzo can be valued at 1.06e-5/ºC.

  20. Experimental determination of the distribution coefficient (Kd) of lead and barium in soils of semiarid region of Bahia, Brazil

    Santos, Mariana M.; Fernandes, Heloisa H.F; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth M.; Su, Jian

    2013-01-01

    To determine the concentration of heavy metals and other contaminants in soils, aimed at evaluating the environmental impact, the use of the distribution coefficient is required (Kd), defined as the relationship between the concentrations adsorbed and in solution. The objective of this study was to determine the rates for the Lead and Barium metals in soil collected in Caetite, the state of Bahia, in two different depths. The importance of determining the distribution coefficient lies in the fact that being performed using a tropical soil. For the isotherms of Kd was used batch test method by adsorption to obtain the final concentrations. The first step was to determine the best ratio soil: solution obtained after equilibration time and finally the equilibrium concentration of the contaminant. Were also calculated percentages of the metal adsorbed by the soil and the amount of solute by the adsorbent. With the values obtained in experiments and using Mathematica 8.0 software, were made graphics equilibrium concentration versus quantity adsorbed (C vs. S). It can also plot isotherms for different models of Kd: linear, Langmuir and Freundlich in order to determine which adsorption model would fit best to the measured data and thus determine the distribution coefficient of the metal in the soil analyzed. The Freundlich isotherm was better adapted to the points of the two metals in both soils

  1. Standard test method for distribution coefficients of inorganic species by the batch method

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of distribution coefficients of chemical species to quantify uptake onto solid materials by a batch sorption technique. It is a laboratory method primarily intended to assess sorption of dissolved ionic species subject to migration through pores and interstices of site specific geomedia. It may also be applied to other materials such as manufactured adsorption media and construction materials. Application of the results to long-term field behavior is not addressed in this method. Distribution coefficients for radionuclides in selected geomedia are commonly determined for the purpose of assessing potential migratory behavior of contaminants in the subsurface of contaminated sites and waste disposal facilities. This test method is also applicable to studies for parametric studies of the variables and mechanisms which contribute to the measured distribution coefficient. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement a...

  2. Distribution coefficients for plutonium and americium on particulates in aquatic environments

    Sanchez, A.L.; Schell, W.R.; Sibley, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution coefficients of two transuranic elements, plutonium and americium, were measured experimentally in laboratory systems of selected freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments. Gamma-ray emitting isotopes of these radionuclides, 237 Pu and 241 Am, were significantly greater than the sorption Ksub(d) values, suggesting some irreversibility in the sorption of these radionuclides onto sediments. The effects of pH and of sediment concentration on the distribution coefficients were also investigated. There were significant changes in the Ksub(d) values as these parameters were varied. Experiments using sterilized and nonsterilized samples for some of the sediment/water systems indicate possible bacterial effects on Ksub(d) values. (author)

  3. A methodology to quantify the stochastic distribution of friction coefficient required for level walking.

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Chang, Chien-Chi; Matz, Simon; Lesch, Mary F

    2008-11-01

    The required friction coefficient is defined as the minimum friction needed at the shoe and floor interface to support human locomotion. The available friction is the maximum friction coefficient that can be supported without a slip at the shoe and floor interface. A statistical model was recently introduced to estimate the probability of slip and fall incidents by comparing the available friction with the required friction, assuming that both the available and required friction coefficients have stochastic distributions. This paper presents a methodology to investigate the stochastic distributions of the required friction coefficient for level walking. In this experiment, a walkway with a layout of three force plates was specially designed in order to capture a large number of successful strikes without causing fatigue in participants. The required coefficient of friction data of one participant, who repeatedly walked on this walkway under four different walking conditions, is presented as an example of the readiness of the methodology examined in this paper. The results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test indicated that the required friction coefficient generated from each foot and walking condition by this participant appears to fit the normal, log-normal or Weibull distributions with few exceptions. Among these three distributions, the normal distribution appears to fit all the data generated with this participant. The average of successful strikes for each walk achieved with three force plates in this experiment was 2.49, ranging from 2.14 to 2.95 for each walking condition. The methodology and layout of the experimental apparatus presented in this paper are suitable for being applied to a full-scale study.

  4. A Lie-Deprit perturbation algorithm for linear differential equations with periodic coefficients

    Casas Pérez, Fernando; Chiralt Monleon, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A perturbative procedure based on the Lie-Deprit algorithm of classical mechanics is proposed to compute analytic approximations to the fundamental matrix of linear di erential equations with periodic coe cients. These approximations reproduce the structure assured by the Floquet theorem. Alternatively, the algorithm provides explicit approximations to the Lyapunov transformation reducing the original periodic problem to an autonomous sys- tem and also to its characteristic ...

  5. Angular distribution coefficients for γ-ray polarization produced in polarized capture reactions

    Wulf, E.A.; Guillemette, J.; Weller, H.R.; Seyler, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The previous publications have dealt with the angular momentum formalism of both linear and circularly polarized photons in (γ, x) reactions on both polarized and unpolarized targets, and the inverse (capture) reactions initiated by polarized beams. In the present work, utilizing the general formalism of Welton, the authors deal with the linear polarization of the γ-rays which are produced in capture reactions on unpolarized targets, including the possibility of having incident polarized spin 1/2 projectiles. These capture reactions are denoted by a(rvec x, rvec L)c, where rvec x is the incident polarized spin 1/2 projectile and rvec L represents the outgoing polarized γ-ray. They present here the formalism in a convenient form, display a sample table of coefficients, and illustrate its use by means of several examples. A FORTRAN code will be made available for generating similar coefficients for other reactions

  6. Polaron effects on the linear and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in cylindrical quantum dots with applied magnetic field

    Wu Qingjie; Guo Kangxian; Liu Guanghui; Wu Jinghe

    2013-01-01

    Polaron effects on the linear and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in cylindrical quantum dots with the radial parabolic potential and the z-direction linear potential with applied magnetic field are theoretically investigated. The optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes are presented by using the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. Numerical calculations are presented for GaAs/AlGaAs. It is found that taking into account the electron-LO-phonon interaction, not only are the linear, the nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes enhanced, but also the total optical absorption coefficients are more sensitive to the incident optical intensity. It is also found that no matter whether the electron-LO-phonon interaction is considered or not, the absorption coefficients and refractive index changes above are strongly dependent on the radial frequency, the magnetic field and the linear potential coefficient.

  7. Analysis of the collagen birefringence and the relative attenuation coefficient of health and burned skin irradiated with linearly polarized He-Ne laser

    Silva, Daniela de Fatima Teixeira da

    2002-01-01

    Low-intensity laser therapy is characterized by its ability to induce athermic effects and nondestructive photobiological processes. Although it has been in use for more than 40 years, this phototherapy is still not an established therapeutic modality. The objectives of this study were: to quantify the collagen fibers organization by polarized light microscopy in normal and burned skin samples at day 17 post-injury considering preferential axis as the animal's spinal column and aligning the linear laser polarization in two directions of polarization, parallel or perpendicular to this axis; to determine the relative attenuation coefficient for the intensity light by the technique of imaging the light distribution in normal and burned skin during wound healing process taking only parallel direction of polarization. To reach the objectives, burns about 6 mm in diameter were created with liquid N 2 on the back of the rats and the lesions were irradiated on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 post-wounding, D= 1 J/cm 2 , to investigate the effects of low-intensity linearly polarized He-Ne laser beam on skin wounds healing. Control lesions were not irradiated. The results have demonstrated that: the skin samples irradiated with linearly parallel polarized He-Ne laser beam showed collagen fibers more organized; burned skin samples presents a higher attenuation coefficient than normal skin samples. These results are important to optimize low intensity laser therapy dosimetry on acceleration wound healing. (author)

  8. The stochastic distribution of available coefficient of friction for human locomotion of five different floor surfaces.

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Matz, Simon; Chang, Chien-Chi

    2014-05-01

    The maximum coefficient of friction that can be supported at the shoe and floor interface without a slip is usually called the available coefficient of friction (ACOF) for human locomotion. The probability of a slip could be estimated using a statistical model by comparing the ACOF with the required coefficient of friction (RCOF), assuming that both coefficients have stochastic distributions. An investigation of the stochastic distributions of the ACOF of five different floor surfaces under dry, water and glycerol conditions is presented in this paper. One hundred friction measurements were performed on each floor surface under each surface condition. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test was used to determine if the distribution of the ACOF was a good fit with the normal, log-normal and Weibull distributions. The results indicated that the ACOF distributions had a slightly better match with the normal and log-normal distributions than with the Weibull in only three out of 15 cases with a statistical significance. The results are far more complex than what had heretofore been published and different scenarios could emerge. Since the ACOF is compared with the RCOF for the estimate of slip probability, the distribution of the ACOF in seven cases could be considered a constant for this purpose when the ACOF is much lower or higher than the RCOF. A few cases could be represented by a normal distribution for practical reasons based on their skewness and kurtosis values without a statistical significance. No representation could be found in three cases out of 15. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution coefficients of purine alkaloids in water-ammonium sulfate-alkyl acetate-dialkyl phthalate systems

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) was studied in the systems: alkyl acetates-dialkyl phtalate-salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate). The quantitative characteristics of the extraction-distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of extraction ( R, %) are calculated. The relationships between the distribution coefficients of alkaloids and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the molecule of alkyl acetate (dialkyl phtalate) are determined. The possibility of predicting the distribution coefficients is demonstrated.

  10. Estimation of the distribution coefficient by combined application of two different methods

    Vogl, G.; Gerstenbrand, F.

    1982-01-01

    A simple, non-invasive method is presented which permits determination of the rBCF and, in addition, of the distribution coefficient of the grey matter. The latter, which is closely correlated with the cerebral metabolism, has only been determined in vitro so far. The new method will be a means to check its accuracy. (orig.) [de

  11. A simple approximation to the bivariate normal distribution with large correlation coefficient

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The bivariate normal distribution function is approximated with emphasis on situations where the correlation coefficient is large. The high accuracy of the approximation is illustrated by numerical examples. Moreover, exact upper and lower bounds are presented as well as asymptotic results on the

  12. Using the Ridge Regression Procedures to Estimate the Multiple Linear Regression Coefficients

    Gorgees, HazimMansoor; Mahdi, FatimahAssim

    2018-05-01

    This article concerns with comparing the performance of different types of ordinary ridge regression estimators that have been already proposed to estimate the regression parameters when the near exact linear relationships among the explanatory variables is presented. For this situations we employ the data obtained from tagi gas filling company during the period (2008-2010). The main result we reached is that the method based on the condition number performs better than other methods since it has smaller mean square error (MSE) than the other stated methods.

  13. A penalized framework for distributed lag non-linear models.

    Gasparrini, Antonio; Scheipl, Fabian; Armstrong, Ben; Kenward, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    Distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) are a modelling tool for describing potentially non-linear and delayed dependencies. Here, we illustrate an extension of the DLNM framework through the use of penalized splines within generalized additive models (GAM). This extension offers built-in model selection procedures and the possibility of accommodating assumptions on the shape of the lag structure through specific penalties. In addition, this framework includes, as special cases, simpler models previously proposed for linear relationships (DLMs). Alternative versions of penalized DLNMs are compared with each other and with the standard unpenalized version in a simulation study. Results show that this penalized extension to the DLNM class provides greater flexibility and improved inferential properties. The framework exploits recent theoretical developments of GAMs and is implemented using efficient routines within freely available software. Real-data applications are illustrated through two reproducible examples in time series and survival analysis. © 2017 The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.

  14. Spatial linear flows of finite length with nonuniform intensity distribution

    Mikhaylov Ivan Evgrafovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Irrotational flows produced by spatial linear flows of finite length with different uneven lows of discharge over the flow length are represented in cylindrical coordinate system. Flows with the length 2a are placed in infinite space filled with ideal (inviscid fluid. In “А” variant discharge is fading linearly downward along the length of the flow. In “B” variant in upper half of the flow (length a discharge is fading linearly downward, in lower half of the flow discharge is fading linearly from the middle point to lower end. In “C” variant discharge of the flow is growing linearly from upper and lower ends to middle point.Equations for discharge distribution along the length of the flow are provided for each variant. Equations consist of two terms and include two dimensional parameters and current coordinate that allows integrating on flow length. Analytical expressions are derived for speed potential functions and flow speed components for flow speeds produced by analyzed flows. These analytical expressions consist of dimensional parameters of discharge distribution patterns along the length of the flow. Flow lines equation (meridional sections of flow surfaces for variants “A”, “B”, “C” is unsolvable in quadratures. Flow lines plotting is proposed to be made by finite difference method. Equations for flow line plotting are provided for each variant. Calculations of these equations show that the analyzed flows have the following flow lines: “A” has confocal hyperbolical curves, “B” and “C” have confocal hyperboles. Flow surfaces are confocal hyperboloids produced by rotation of these hyperboles about the axis passing through the flows. In “A” variant the space filled with fluid is separated by vividly horizontal flow surface in two parts. In upper part that includes the smaller part of the flow length flow lines are oriented downward, in lower part – upward. The equation defining coordinate of

  15. A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHILDBEARING COEFFICIENT IN THE ALTAI REGION BASED ON METHOD OF FUZZY LINEAR REGRESSION

    Sergei Vladimirovich Varaksin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Construction of a mathematical model of the dynamics of childbearing change in the Altai region in 2000–2016, analysis of the dynamics of changes in birth rates for multiple age categories of women of childbearing age. Methodology. A auxiliary analysis element is the construction of linear mathematical models of the dynamics of childbearing by using fuzzy linear regression method based on fuzzy numbers. Fuzzy linear regression is considered as an alternative to standard statistical linear regression for short time series and unknown distribution law. The parameters of fuzzy linear and standard statistical regressions for childbearing time series were defined with using the built in language MatLab algorithm. Method of fuzzy linear regression is not used in sociological researches yet. Results. There are made the conclusions about the socio-demographic changes in society, the high efficiency of the demographic policy of the leadership of the region and the country, and the applicability of the method of fuzzy linear regression for sociological analysis.

  16. On Attainability of Optimal Solutions for Linear Elliptic Equations with Unbounded Coefficients

    P. I. Kogut

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We study an optimal boundary control problem (OCP associated to a linear elliptic equation —div (Vj/ + A(xVy = f describing diffusion in a turbulent flow. The characteristic feature of this equation is the fact that, in applications, the stream matrix A(x = [a,ij(x]i,j=i,...,N is skew-symmetric, ац(х = —a,ji(x, measurable, and belongs to L -space (rather than L°°. An optimal solution to such problem can inherit a singular character of the original stream matrix A. We show that optimal solutions can be attainable by solutions of special optimal boundary control problems.

  17. On the asymptotic expansions of solutions of an nth order linear differential equation with power coefficients

    Paris, R.B.; Wood, A.D.

    1984-11-01

    The asymptotic expansions of solutions of a class of linear ordinary differential equations of arbitrary order n, containing a factor zsup(m) multiplying the lower order derivatives, are investigated for large values of z in the complex plane. Four classes of solutions are considered which exhibit the following behaviour as /z/ → infinity in certain sectors: (i) solutions whose behaviour is either exponentially large or algebraic (involving p ( < n) algebraic expansions), (ii) solutions which are exponentially small (iii) solutions with a single algebraic expansion and (iv) solutions which are even and odd functions of z whenever n+m is even. The asymptotic expansions of these solutions in a full neigbourhood of the point at infinity are obtained by means of the theory of the solutions in the case m=O developed in a previous paper

  18. A Numerical Procedure for Flow Distribution and Pressure Drops for U and Z Type Configurations Plate Heat Exchangers with Variable Coefficients

    López, R; Lecuona, A; Ventas, R; Vereda, C

    2012-01-01

    In Plate Heat Exchangers it is important to determine the flow distribution and pressure drops, because they affect directly the performance of a heat exchanger. This work proposes an incompressible, one-dimensional, steady state, discrete model allowing for variable overall momentum coefficients to determine these magnitudes. The model consists on a modified version of the Bajura and Jones model for dividing and combining flow manifolds. The numerical procedure is based on the finite differences approximation approach proposed by Datta and Majumdar. A linear overall momentum coefficient distribution is used in the dividing manifold, but the model is not limited to linear distributions. Comparisons are made with experimental, numerical and analytical data, yielding good results.

  19. Limit of ratio of consecutive terms for general order-k linear homogeneous recurrences with constant coefficients

    Fiorenza, Alberto; Vincenzi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We prove a result true for all linear homogeneous recurrences with constant coefficients. → As a corollary of our results we immediately get the celebrated Poincare' theorem. → The limit of the ratio of adjacent terms is characterized as the unique leading root of the characteristic polynomial. → The Golden Ratio, Kepler limit of the classical Fibonacci sequence, is the unique leading root. → The Kepler limit may differ from the unique root of maximum modulus and multiplicity. - Abstract: For complex linear homogeneous recursive sequences with constant coefficients we find a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of the limit of the ratio of consecutive terms. The result can be applied even if the characteristic polynomial has not necessarily roots with modulus pairwise distinct, as in the celebrated Poincare's theorem. In case of existence, we characterize the limit as a particular root of the characteristic polynomial, which depends on the initial conditions and that is not necessarily the unique root with maximum modulus and multiplicity. The result extends to a quite general context the way used to find the Golden mean as limit of ratio of consecutive terms of the classical Fibonacci sequence.

  20. Young's Modulus and Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion of ZnO Conductive and Transparent Ultra-Thin Films

    Naoki Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technique for measuring Young's modulus of an ultra-thin film, with a thickness in the range of about 10 nm, was developed by combining an optical lever technique for measuring the residual stress and X-ray diffraction for measuring the strain in the film. The new technique was applied to analyze the mechanical properties of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO films, that have become the focus of significant attention as a substitute material for indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes. Young's modulus of the as-deposited GZO films decreased with thickness; the values for 30 nm and 500 nm thick films were 205 GPa and 117 GPa, respectively. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion of the GZO films was measured using the new technique in combination with in-situ residual stress measurement during heat-cycle testing. GZO films with 30–100 nm thickness had a coefficient of linear thermal expansion in the range of 4.3 × 10−6 – 5.6 × 10−6 °C−1.

  1. Investigation of Thermal Expansion of a Glass Ceramic Material with an Extra-Low Thermal Linear Expansion Coefficient

    Kompan, T. A.; Korenev, A. S.; Lukin, A. Ya.

    2008-10-01

    The artificial material sitall CO-115M was developed purposely as a material with an extra-low thermal expansion. The controlled crystallization of an aluminosilicate glass melt leads to the formation of a mixture of β-spodumen, β-eucryptite, and β-silica anisotropic microcrystals in a matrix of residual glass. Due to the small size of the microcrystals, the material is homogeneous and transparent. Specific lattice anharmonism of these microcrystal materials results in close to zero average thermal linear expansion coefficient (TLEC) of the sitall material. The thermal expansion coefficient of this material was measured using an interferometric method in line with the classical approach of Fizeau. To obtain the highest accuracy, the registration of light intensity of the total interference field was used. Then, the parameters of the interference pattern were calculated. Due to the large amount of information in the interference pattern, the error of the calculated fringe position was less than the size of a pixel of the optical registration system. The thermal expansion coefficient of the sitall CO-115M and its temperature dependence were measured. The TLEC value of about 3 × 10-8 K-1 to 5 × 10-8 K-1 in the temperature interval from -20 °C to +60 °C was obtained. A special investigation was carried out to show the homogeneity of the material.

  2. Distribution of physicians and hospital beds based on Gini coefficient and Lorenz curve: A national survey

    Satar Rezaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inequality is prevalent in all sectors, particularly in distribution of and access to resources in the health sector. The aim of current study was to investigate the distribution of physicians and hospital beds in Iran in 2001, 2006 and 2011. Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study evaluated the distribution of physicians and hospital beds in 2001, 2006 and 2011 using Gini coefficient and Lorenz curve. The required data, including the number of physicians (general practitioners and specialists, number of hospital beds and number of hospitalized patients were obtained from the statistical yearbook of Iranian Statistical Center (ISC. The data analysis was performed by DASP software. Results: The Gini Coefficients for physicians and hospital beds based on population in 2001 were 0.19 and 0.16, and based on hospitalized patients, were 0.48 and 0.37, respectively. In 2006, these values were found to be 0.18 and 0.15 based on population, and 0.21 and 0.21 based on hospitalized patients, respectively. In 2011, however, the Gini coefficients were reported to be 0.16 and 0.13 based on population, and 0.47 and 0.37 based on hospitalized patients, respectively. Although distribution status had improved in 2011compared with 2001 in terms of population and number of hospitalized patients, there was more inequality in distribution based on the number of hospitalized patients than based on population. Conclusion: This study indicated that inequality in distribution of physicians and hospital beds was declined in 2011 compared with 2001. This distribution was based on the population, so it is suggested that, in allocation of resource, the health policymakers consider such need indices as the pattern of diseases and illness-prone areas, number of inpatients, and mortality.

  3. Distribution coefficient of radionuclides on rocks for performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste repository

    Shibutani, Tomoki; Shibata, Masahiro; Suyama, Tadahiro

    1999-11-01

    Distribution coefficients of radionuclides on rocks are selected for safety assessment in the 'Second Progress Report on Research and Development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan (H12 Report)'. The categorized types of rock are granitic rocks (crystalline and acidic rocks), basaltic rocks (crystalline and basic rocks), psammitic rocks (neogene sedimentary (soft)), and tuffaceous-pelitic rocks (pre-neogene sedimentary rocks (hard)). The types of groundwater are FRHP (fresh reducing high-pH), FRLP (fresh reducing low-pH), SRHP (saline reducing high-pH), SRLP (saline reducing low-pH), MRNP (mixing reducing neutral-pH) and FOHP (fresh oxidizing high-pH) groundwater. The elements to be surveyed are Ni, Se, Zr, Nb, Tc, Pd, Sn, Cs, Sm, Pb, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm. Distribution coefficients are collected from literatures describing batch sorption experimental results, and are selected under consideration of conservativity. (author)

  4. Storage and distribution/Linear programming for storage operations

    Coleman, D

    1978-07-15

    The techniques of linear programing to solve storage problems as applied in a tank farm tie-in with refinery throughput operation include: (1) the time-phased model which works on storage and refinery operations input parameters, e.g., production, distribution, cracking, etc., and is capable of representing product stockpiling in slack periods to meet future peak demands, and investigating alternative strategies such as exchange deals and purchase and leasing of additional storage, and (2) the Monte Carlo simulation method, which inputs parameters, e.g., arrival of crude products at refinery, tankage size, likely demand for products, etc., as probability distributions rather than single values, and is capable of showing the average utilization of facilities, potential bottlenecks, investment required to achieve an increase in utilization, and to enable the user to predict total investment, cash flow, and profit emanating from the original financing decision. The increasing use of computer techniques to solve refinery and storage problems is attributed to potential savings resulting from more effective planning, reduced computer costs, ease of access and more usable software. Diagrams.

  5. Distribution Coefficient Kd of Cesium in Soils from Areas in Perak

    Azian Hashim; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Md Suhaimi Elias; Shakirah Shukor; Muhd Azfar Azman; Siti Aminah Omar

    2015-01-01

    This is the paper reports on the study of distribution coefficient or Kd value in soil collected from the Western of Perak, which is Manjung, Setiawan, and Lahat with two different depths using lab batch method. Particle sizes were analyzed using the conventional technique known as pipette method. pH of the sample were 2-3. Determinations for cesium were performed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass (ICP-MS). From the results, distribution factor for cesium, Kd value, was found to be influenced by the particle size of soil. (author)

  6. Are distribution coefficients measured from batch experiments meaningful for quantifying retention in compacted material?

    Goutelard, F.; Charles, Y.; Page, J. [CEA/DEN/DPC/SECR/L3MR batiment 450, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: To quantify the ability of a clayey material to act as a barrier for radionuclides migration, reliable data on retention properties must be available. The most common method for determining the distribution coefficient, quantifying the radionuclide adsorption, is the batch technique applied to powdered solid. Are these data meaningful for highly compacted minerals? This question is still under debate in literature [1,2]. The aim of the present study is to compare distribution coefficient (KD) value for Cs and Ni onto compacted and dispersed for both Bentonite MX80 and Callovo-Oxfordian clayey material in a simulated site water. Firstly, classical batch sorption experiments are carried on dispersed materials pre-conditioned with the simulated site water at pH 7.3. Radiotracer {sup 137}Cs and {sup 58}Ni are used to investigate the constant-pH isotherm sorption. The bottleneck for measuring distribution coefficient onto highly compacted material lies in a careful monitoring of chemical conditions because they are driven by diffusion processes. For this study, we have chosen to use in-diffusion experiments [3]. Sample size is optimized to reach for high retention level (300 mL/g) the steady state in a reasonable time (3 to 6 month). In order to describe the response surface of compacted distribution coefficient on bentonite MX80, a 2 variables Doehlert matrix has been chosen. In this experimental design, the two variables are density and dispersed distribution coefficient. Bentonite is pre-conditioning before compaction to a density ranging from 1.2 to 1.85 kg/l. The pellet is confined in a cylindrical stainless steel filter (150 {mu}L) closed to both ends. The cell is placed in a tightly closed bottle containing the working solution. After a re-equilibration period (at least 3 weeks), {sup 133}Cs and {sup 59}Ni stable isotope are introduced for monitoring the KD level (between 150 mL/g to 330 mL/g). Radiotracer {sup 137}Cs and {sup 58

  7. Are distribution coefficients measured from batch experiments meaningful for quantifying retention in compacted material?

    Goutelard, F.; Charles, Y.; Page, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: To quantify the ability of a clayey material to act as a barrier for radionuclides migration, reliable data on retention properties must be available. The most common method for determining the distribution coefficient, quantifying the radionuclide adsorption, is the batch technique applied to powdered solid. Are these data meaningful for highly compacted minerals? This question is still under debate in literature [1,2]. The aim of the present study is to compare distribution coefficient (KD) value for Cs and Ni onto compacted and dispersed for both Bentonite MX80 and Callovo-Oxfordian clayey material in a simulated site water. Firstly, classical batch sorption experiments are carried on dispersed materials pre-conditioned with the simulated site water at pH 7.3. Radiotracer 137 Cs and 58 Ni are used to investigate the constant-pH isotherm sorption. The bottleneck for measuring distribution coefficient onto highly compacted material lies in a careful monitoring of chemical conditions because they are driven by diffusion processes. For this study, we have chosen to use in-diffusion experiments [3]. Sample size is optimized to reach for high retention level (300 mL/g) the steady state in a reasonable time (3 to 6 month). In order to describe the response surface of compacted distribution coefficient on bentonite MX80, a 2 variables Doehlert matrix has been chosen. In this experimental design, the two variables are density and dispersed distribution coefficient. Bentonite is pre-conditioning before compaction to a density ranging from 1.2 to 1.85 kg/l. The pellet is confined in a cylindrical stainless steel filter (150 μL) closed to both ends. The cell is placed in a tightly closed bottle containing the working solution. After a re-equilibration period (at least 3 weeks), 133 Cs and 59 Ni stable isotope are introduced for monitoring the KD level (between 150 mL/g to 330 mL/g). Radiotracer 137 Cs and 58 Ni are used to quantify the

  8. The effect of transition metals additions on the temperature coefficient of linear expansion of titanium and vanadium

    Lesnaya, M.I.; Volokitin, G.G.; Kashchuk, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported of an experimental research into the influence of small additions of α-transition metals on the temperature coefficient of linear expansion of titanium and vanadium. Using the configuration model of substance as the basis, expeained are the lowering of the critical liquefaction temperature or the melting point of vanadium and the raising of it, as caused by the addition of metals of the 6 group of the periodic chart and by the addition of metals of the 8 group, respectively, and also a shift in the temperature of the polymorphic α-β-transformation of titanium. Suggested as the best alloying metal for vanadium are tungsten and tantalum; for titaniums is vanadium whose admixtures lower the melting point and shift the polymorphic transformation temperature by as much as 100 to 120 degrees

  9. Representation of stress distributions inprismatic and cylindrical linear elements

    Fernando Giménez-Palomares

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The  loads  applied  on  a  linear  structural  element  generate  internal  forces  in  the  cross  sections  which,  in turn, result in stresses along the element. The nature, extent and shape of stress distributions are required  parameters  to  compute  the  strength  of  structural  elements  or  machinery  components  in  order  to  its analysis or design. In this work, it is presented a virtual laboratory which allows to obtain different stress distributions  in  an  isostatic  beam,  prismatic  or  cylindrical,  subjected  to  axial  forces,  shear  forces  and bending moments. The virtual laboratory permits a great interactivity, allowing the simulation of various real  situations  in  which  the  user  can  modify  the  magnitude  and  direction  of  acting  loads,  and  also  the boundary conditions of the beam. The ultimate goal of this paper is to present a tool aimed to support the learning and teaching of subjects related to Elasticy and Strength of Materials that are found in bachelor university degrees.

  10. Predicting volume of distribution with decision tree-based regression methods using predicted tissue:plasma partition coefficients.

    Freitas, Alex A; Limbu, Kriti; Ghafourian, Taravat

    2015-01-01

    Volume of distribution is an important pharmacokinetic property that indicates the extent of a drug's distribution in the body tissues. This paper addresses the problem of how to estimate the apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) of chemical compounds in the human body using decision tree-based regression methods from the area of data mining (or machine learning). Hence, the pros and cons of several different types of decision tree-based regression methods have been discussed. The regression methods predict Vss using, as predictive features, both the compounds' molecular descriptors and the compounds' tissue:plasma partition coefficients (Kt:p) - often used in physiologically-based pharmacokinetics. Therefore, this work has assessed whether the data mining-based prediction of Vss can be made more accurate by using as input not only the compounds' molecular descriptors but also (a subset of) their predicted Kt:p values. Comparison of the models that used only molecular descriptors, in particular, the Bagging decision tree (mean fold error of 2.33), with those employing predicted Kt:p values in addition to the molecular descriptors, such as the Bagging decision tree using adipose Kt:p (mean fold error of 2.29), indicated that the use of predicted Kt:p values as descriptors may be beneficial for accurate prediction of Vss using decision trees if prior feature selection is applied. Decision tree based models presented in this work have an accuracy that is reasonable and similar to the accuracy of reported Vss inter-species extrapolations in the literature. The estimation of Vss for new compounds in drug discovery will benefit from methods that are able to integrate large and varied sources of data and flexible non-linear data mining methods such as decision trees, which can produce interpretable models. Graphical AbstractDecision trees for the prediction of tissue partition coefficient and volume of distribution of drugs.

  11. Flow and linear coefficient of thermal expansion of four types of Base Plate waxes compared with ADA standard

    Monzavi A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Waxes have a lot of applications in dentistry. Such materials are of thermoplastic type that undergoes deformation in different temperatures. Two important properties of base plate waxes are flow and their coefficient of linear thermal expansion. Recently, different institutions, inside the country, produce dentistry waxes, while they have not been standardized. Consequently, consumers' dissatisfaction are observed. In this research, the two above- mentioned factors were compared between three kinds of Iranian waxes with Cavex that is foreign production, based on test number 24 of ADA. To measure the flow rate in the temperatures of 23, 37 and 45°c, Wilcoxon statistical analysis was used. The results showed that in 23°c, the flow rate of Cavex and Azardent waxes met ADA standards; however, it was not true for two others types. In 37°c, the flow of none of the waxes was standardized and in 45°c their flow was acceptable, moreover, thermal expansion coefficient, for Cavex and Azardent types, was based on ADA standard.

  12. Engineering magnetic polariton system with distributed coefficients: Applications to soliton management

    Kuetche, Victor K.; Nguepjouo, Francis T.; Kofane, Timoleon C.

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the recent design of a powerful method for generating higher-dimensional evolution systems with distributed coefficients Kuetche (2014) [15] illustrated on the dynamics of the current-fed membrane of zero Young’s modulus, we construct the general Lax-representation of a new higher-dimensional coupled evolution equations with varying coefficients. Discussing the physical meanings of these equations, we show that the coupled system above describes the propagation of magnetic polaritons within saturated ferrites, resulting structurally from the fast-near adiabatic magnetization dynamics combined to the Maxwell’s equations. Accordingly, we address some practical issues of the nonautonomous soliton managements underlying in the fast remagnetization process of data inputs within magnetic memory devices

  13. Estimation of soil-soil solution distribution coefficient of radiostrontium using soil properties.

    Ishikawa, Nao K; Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko

    2009-02-01

    We propose a new approach for estimation of soil-soil solution distribution coefficient (K(d)) of radiostrontium using some selected soil properties. We used 142 Japanese agricultural soil samples (35 Andosol, 25 Cambisol, 77 Fluvisol, and 5 others) for which Sr-K(d) values had been determined by a batch sorption test and listed in our database. Spearman's rank correlation test was carried out to investigate correlations between Sr-K(d) values and soil properties. Electrical conductivity and water soluble Ca had good correlations with Sr-K(d) values for all soil groups. Then, we found a high correlation between the ratio of exchangeable Ca to Ca concentration in water soluble fraction and Sr-K(d) values with correlation coefficient R=0.72. This pointed us toward a relatively easy way to estimate Sr-K(d) values.

  14. Equilibrium beam distribution in an electron storage ring near linear synchrobetatron coupling resonances

    Boaz Nash

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear dynamics in a storage ring can be described by the one-turn map matrix. In the case of a resonance where two of the eigenvalues of this matrix are degenerate, a coupling perturbation causes a mixing of the uncoupled eigenvectors. A perturbation formalism is developed to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the one-turn map near such a linear resonance. Damping and diffusion due to synchrotron radiation can be obtained by integrating their effects over one turn, and the coupled eigenvectors can be used to find the coupled damping and diffusion coefficients. Expressions for the coupled equilibrium emittances and beam distribution moments are then derived. In addition to the conventional instabilities at the sum, integer, and half-integer resonances, it is found that the coupling can cause an instability through antidamping near a sum resonance even when the symplectic dynamics are stable. As one application of this formalism, the case of linear synchrobetatron coupling is analyzed where the coupling is caused by dispersion in the rf cavity, or by a crab cavity. Explicit closed-form expressions for the sum/difference resonances are given along with the integer/half-integer resonances. The integer and half-integer resonances caused by coupling require particular care. We find an example of this with the case of a crab cavity for the integer resonance of the synchrotron tune. Whether or not there is an instability is determined by the value of the horizontal betatron tune, a unique feature of these coupling-caused integer or half-integer resonances. Finally, the coupled damping and diffusion coefficients along with the equilibrium invariants and projected emittances are plotted as a function of the betatron and synchrotron tunes for an example storage ring based on PEP-II.

  15. Distributed Monitoring of the R(sup 2) Statistic for Linear Regression

    Bhaduri, Kanishka; Das, Kamalika; Giannella, Chris R.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of monitoring a multivariate linear regression model is relevant in studying the evolving relationship between a set of input variables (features) and one or more dependent target variables. This problem becomes challenging for large scale data in a distributed computing environment when only a subset of instances is available at individual nodes and the local data changes frequently. Data centralization and periodic model recomputation can add high overhead to tasks like anomaly detection in such dynamic settings. Therefore, the goal is to develop techniques for monitoring and updating the model over the union of all nodes data in a communication-efficient fashion. Correctness guarantees on such techniques are also often highly desirable, especially in safety-critical application scenarios. In this paper we develop DReMo a distributed algorithm with very low resource overhead, for monitoring the quality of a regression model in terms of its coefficient of determination (R2 statistic). When the nodes collectively determine that R2 has dropped below a fixed threshold, the linear regression model is recomputed via a network-wide convergecast and the updated model is broadcast back to all nodes. We show empirically, using both synthetic and real data, that our proposed method is highly communication-efficient and scalable, and also provide theoretical guarantees on correctness.

  16. STUDY OF REFLECTION COEFFICIENT DISTRIBUTION FOR ANTI-REFLECTION COATINGS ON SMALL-RADIUS OPTICAL PARTS

    L. A. Gubanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with findings for the energy reflection coefficient distribution of anti- reflection coating along the surface of optical elements with a very small radius (2-12 mm. The factors influencing the magnitude of the surface area of the optical element, in which the energy reflection coefficient is constant, were detected. The main principles for theoretical models that describe the spectral characteristics of the multilayer interference coatings were used to achieve these objectives. The relative size of the enlightenment area is defined as the ratio of the radius for the optical element surface, where the reflection is less than a certain value, to its radius (ρ/r. The result of research is the following: this size is constant for a different value of the curvature radius for the optical element made of the same material. Its value is determined by the refractive index of material (nm, from which the optical element was made, and the design of antireflection coatings. For single-layer coatings this value is ρ/r = 0.5 when nm = 1.51; and ρ/r = 0.73 when nm = 1.75; for two-layer coatings ρ/r = 0.35 when nm = 1.51 and ρ/r = 0.41 when nm = 1.75. It is shown that with increasing of the material refractive index for the substrate size, the area of minimum reflection coefficient is increased. The paper considers a single-layer, two-layer, three-layer and five-layer structures of antireflection coatings. The findings give the possibility to conclude that equal thickness coverings formed on the optical element surface with a small radius make no equal reflection from the entire surface, and distribution of the layer thickness needs to be looked for, providing a uniform radiation reflection at all points of the spherical surface.

  17. Evaluation of distribution coefficients for the prediction of strontium and cesium migration in a uniform sand

    Reynolds, W.D.; Gillham, R.W.; Cherry, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The validity of using a distribution coefficient (Ksub(d)) in the mathematical prediction of strontium and cesium transport through uniform saturated sand was investigated by comparing measured breakthrough curves with curves of simulations using the advection-dispersion and the advection equations. Values for Ksub(d) were determined by batch equilibration tests and, indirectly, by fitting the mathematical model to breakthrough data from column experiments. Although the advection-dispersion equation accurately represented the breakthrough curves for two nonreactive solutes (chloride and tritium), neither it nor the advection equation provided close representations of the strontium and cesium curves. The simulated breakthrough curves for strontium and cesium were nearly symmetrical, whereas the data curves were very asymmetrical, with long tails. Column experiments with different pore-water velocities indicated that the shape of the normalized breakthrough curves was not sensitive to velocity. This suggests that the asymmetry of the measured curves was the result of nonlinear partitioning of the cations between the solid and liquid phases, rather than nonequilibrium effects. The results indicate that the distribution coefficient, when used in advection-dispersion models for prediction of the migration of strontium and cesium in field situations, can result in significant error

  18. Spatial distribution of coefficients for determination of global radiation in Serbia

    Nikolić Jugoslav L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a creation of the spatial distribution of the corresponding coefficients for the indirect determination of global radiation using all direct measurements data of this shortwave radiation balance component in Serbia in the standard climate period (1961-1990. Based on the global radiation direct measurements data recorded in the past and routine measurements/observations of cloudiness and sunshine duration, the spatial distribution coefficients maps required for calculation of global radiation were produced on the basis of sunshine/cloudiness in an arbitrary point on the territory of Serbia. Besides, a specific verification of the proposed empirical formula was performed. This paper contributes to a wide range of practical applications as direct measurements of global radiation are relatively rare, and are not carried out in Serbia today. Significant application is possible in the domain of renewable energy sources. The development of method for determination of the global radiation has an importance from the aspect of the environmental protection; however it also has an economic importance through applications in numerous commercial projects, as it does not require special measurements or additional financial investments.

  19. Radionuclide adsorption distribution coefficients measured in Hanford sediments for the low level waste performance assessment project

    Kaplan, D.I.; Serne, R.J.; Owen, A.T.

    1996-08-01

    Preliminary modeling efforts for the Hanford Site's Low Level Waste-Performance Assessment (LLW PA) identified 129 I, 237 Np, 79 Se, 99 Tc, and 234 , 235 , 238 U as posing the greatest potential health hazard. It was also determined that the outcome of these simulations was very sensitive to the parameter describing the extent to which radionuclides sorb to the subsurface matrix, i.e., the distribution coefficient (K d ). The distribution coefficient is a ratio of the radionuclide concentration associated with the solid phase to that in the liquid phase. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure iodine, neptunium, technetium, and uranium K d values using laboratory conditions similar to those expected at the LLW PA disposal site, and (2) evaluate the effect of selected environmental parameters, such as pH, ionic strength, moisture concentration, and radio nuclide concentration, on K d values of selected radionuclides. It is the intent of these studies to develop technically defensible K d values for the PA. The approach taken throughout these studies was to measure the key radio nuclide K d values as a function of several environmental parameters likely to affect their values. Such an approach provides technical defensibility by identifying the mechanisms responsible for trends in K d values. Additionally, such studies provide valuable guidance regarding the range of K d values likely to be encountered in the proposed disposal site

  20. Estimation of distribution coefficient for uranium in soil around a waste disposal site at Trombay

    Mishra, S.; Chaudhary, D.K.; Sandeep, P.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Soil contamination arising from the disposed waste from industrial origin is of major concern now a days. There is a possibility of run off as well as Ieaching of contaminants from the sites to nearby aquatic bodies through rain water. Distribution coefficient, K d in soil is an important parameter to predict the migration of contaminants. However it requires precise measurement not only for the accurate prediction of contaminant transport but also for describing the sorption behavior in a particular environment. The variation of K d values for a radionuclide is due to differences in geochemical conditions, soil materials, nature of water and methods used for the measurements. For the present study soil samples have been collected near a waste disposal site at Trombay and the sorption of uranium has been studied by measuring the distribution coefficient (K d ) by laboratory batch method. In our earlier studies, we could notice substantial effect of ionic composition of ground water on the K d values of uranium. In this study we have used rain water as the sorption media and the measured K d value s were compared with previous values for different soil and water characteristics from different regions of India

  1. Distributed Monitoring of the R2 Statistic for Linear Regression

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The problem of monitoring a multivariate linear regression model is relevant in studying the evolving relationship between a set of input variables (features) and...

  2. Development of polyparameter linear free energy relationship models for octanol-air partition coefficients of diverse chemicals.

    Jin, Xiaochen; Fu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xuehua; Chen, Jingwen

    2017-03-22

    The octanol-air partition coefficient (K OA ) is a key parameter describing the partition behavior of organic chemicals between air and environmental organic phases. As the experimental determination of K OA is costly, time-consuming and sometimes limited by the availability of authentic chemical standards for the compounds to be determined, it becomes necessary to develop credible predictive models for K OA . In this study, a polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) model for predicting K OA at 298.15 K and a novel model incorporating pp-LFERs with temperature (pp-LFER-T model) were developed from 795 log K OA values for 367 chemicals at different temperatures (263.15-323.15 K), and were evaluated with the OECD guidelines on QSAR model validation and applicability domain description. Statistical results show that both models are well-fitted, robust and have good predictive capabilities. Particularly, the pp-LFER model shows a strong predictive ability for polyfluoroalkyl substances and organosilicon compounds, and the pp-LFER-T model maintains a high predictive accuracy within a wide temperature range (263.15-323.15 K).

  3. Critical electrode size in measurement of d33 coefficient of films via spatial distribution of piezoelectric displacement

    Wang Zhihong; Miao Jianmin

    2008-01-01

    Spatial distributions of piezoelectric displacement response across the top electrode have been used in this paper to measure the piezoelectric coefficient d 33 of films based on the converse piezoelectric effect. The technical details and features of a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer have been summarized and discussed for accurately obtaining the spatial displacement distributions. Three definitions, including the apparent, the effective and the constrained piezoelectric coefficient d 33 of films, have been clarified and used to better understand the fundamental phenomenon behind the measured displacement distributions. Finite element analysis reveals that both the apparent and the effective piezoelectric coefficients depend on the electrode radius of test capacitor as well as film thickness. However, there exists a critical electrode size for apparent piezoelectric coefficients and a critical test capacitor aspect ratio for effective piezoelectric coefficient. Beyond their respective critical values, both coefficients converge to the constrained piezoelectric coefficient irrespective of film thickness. The finding of the critical electric size makes it possible to consistently measure the constrained piezoelectric coefficient of films by using the spatial distributions of the piezoelectric displacement response and becomes the fundamental criterion of this measurement method

  4. Robust Exponential Synchronization for a Class of Master-Slave Distributed Parameter Systems with Spatially Variable Coefficients and Nonlinear Perturbation

    Chengdong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the exponential synchronization problem of a class of master-slave distributed parameter systems (DPSs with spatially variable coefficients and spatiotemporally variable nonlinear perturbation, modeled by a couple of semilinear parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs. With a locally Lipschitz constraint, the perturbation is a continuous function of time, space, and system state. Firstly, a sufficient condition for the robust exponential synchronization of the unforced semilinear master-slave PDE systems is investigated for all admissible nonlinear perturbations. Secondly, a robust distributed proportional-spatial derivative (P-sD state feedback controller is desired such that the closed-loop master-slave PDE systems achieve exponential synchronization. Using Lyapunov’s direct method and the technique of integration by parts, the main results of this paper are presented in terms of spatial differential linear matrix inequalities (SDLMIs. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods applied to the robust exponential synchronization problem of master-slave PDE systems with nonlinear perturbation.

  5. Effect of the concentration of magnetic grains on the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped lyotropic mesophases: deviation from the Beer-Lambert law.

    Cuppo, F L S; Gómez, S L; Figueiredo Neto, A M

    2004-04-01

    In this paper is reported a systematic experimental study of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped isotropic lyotropic mixtures as a function of the magnetic-grains concentration. The linear optical absorption of ferrolyomesophases increases in a nonlinear manner with the concentration of magnetic grains, deviating from the usual Beer-Lambert law. This behavior is associated to the presence of correlated micelles in the mixture which favors the formation of small-scale aggregates of magnetic grains (dimers), which have a higher absorption coefficient with respect to that of isolated grains. We propose that the indirect heating of the micelles via the ferrofluid grains (hyperthermia) could account for this nonlinear increase of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient as a function of the grains concentration.

  6. Numerical investigation of multi-beam laser heterodyne measurement with ultra-precision for linear expansion coefficient of metal based on oscillating mirror modulation

    Li Yan-Chao; Wang Chun-Hui; Qu Yang; Gao Long; Cong Hai-Fang; Yang Yan-Ling; Gao Jie; Wang Ao-You

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method of multi-beam laser heterodyne measurement for metal linear expansion coefficient. Based on the Doppler effect and heterodyne technology, the information is loaded of length variation to the frequency difference of the multi-beam laser heterodyne signal by the frequency modulation of the oscillating mirror, this method can obtain many values of length variation caused by temperature variation after the multi-beam laser heterodyne signal demodulation simultaneously. Processing these values by weighted-average, it can obtain length variation accurately, and eventually obtain the value of linear expansion coefficient of metal by the calculation. This novel method is used to simulate measurement for linear expansion coefficient of metal rod under different temperatures by MATLAB, the obtained result shows that the relative measurement error of this method is just 0.4%. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  7. Numerical investigation of multi-beam laser heterodyne measurement with ultra-precision for linear expansion coefficient of metal based on oscillating mirror modulation

    Li, Yan-Chao; Wang, Chun-Hui; Qu, Yang; Gao, Long; Cong, Hai-Fang; Yang, Yan-Ling; Gao, Jie; Wang, Ao-You

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method of multi-beam laser heterodyne measurement for metal linear expansion coefficient. Based on the Doppler effect and heterodyne technology, the information is loaded of length variation to the frequency difference of the multi-beam laser heterodyne signal by the frequency modulation of the oscillating mirror, this method can obtain many values of length variation caused by temperature variation after the multi-beam laser heterodyne signal demodulation simultaneously. Processing these values by weighted-average, it can obtain length variation accurately, and eventually obtain the value of linear expansion coefficient of metal by the calculation. This novel method is used to simulate measurement for linear expansion coefficient of metal rod under different temperatures by MATLAB, the obtained result shows that the relative measurement error of this method is just 0.4%.

  8. Relation between distribution coefficient of radioactive strontium and solid-liquid distribution ratio of background stable strontium

    Igarashi, Toshifumi; Mahara, Yasunori; Okamura, Masaki; Ashikawa, Nobuo.

    1992-01-01

    Distribution coefficients (K d ) of nuclides, which are defined as the ratio of the adsorbed concentration to the solution concentration, are important in predicting nuclide migration in the subsurface environment. This study was undertaken to contrust an effective method of determining the most pertinent K d value for simulating in situ distribution phenomena between the solid and liquid phases, by using background stable isotopes. This paper describes the applicability of this method to Sr by carrying out a batch Sr adsorption experiment where stable Sr coexisted with the radioactive isotope, 85 Sr, and by comparing the concentration distribution ratio of the background stable Sr with the K d value obtained by the batch experiment. The results showed that the K d of 85 Sr (K d85 ) agreed well with the K d of the coexisting stable Sr (K ds ) and that the two values decreased with an increase in the concentration of the stable Sr, when sand was used as an adsorbent. In addition, the K d85 corresponded to the ratio of the exchangeable solid-phase concentration of background stable Sr to the concentration of the background stable Sr in groundwater when the concentration of the coexisting stable Sr approached the background level. On the other hand, when powdered rock samples were used, the K d85 did not agree with the K ds , and the concentration distribution ratio of the background stable Sr was greater than the K d85 . This discrepancy might be due to the disequilibrium resulting from grinding the rock matrices. This suggests that measurement of the background stable Sr distribution ratio between the solid and liquid phases can be an effective method of estimating the K d of radioactive Sr when the groundwater is in satisfactory contact with the adsorption medium. (author)

  9. Distributed Cooperative Secondary Control of Microgrids Using Feedback Linearization

    Bidram, Ali; Davoudi, Ali; Lewis, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a secondary voltage control of microgrids based on the distributed cooperative control of multi-agent systems. The proposed secondary control is fully distributed; each distributed generator (DG) only requires its own information and the information of some neighbors. The dist......This paper proposes a secondary voltage control of microgrids based on the distributed cooperative control of multi-agent systems. The proposed secondary control is fully distributed; each distributed generator (DG) only requires its own information and the information of some neighbors...... parameters can be tuned to obtain a desired response speed. The effectiveness of the proposed control methodology is verified by the simulation of a microgrid test system....

  10. [Assessment of ecosystem in giant panda distribution area based on entropy method and coefficient of variation].

    Yan, Zhi Gang; Li, Jun Qing

    2017-12-01

    The areas of the habitat and bamboo forest, and the size of the giant panda wild population have greatly increased, while habitat fragmentation and local population isolation have also intensified in recent years. Accurate evaluation of ecosystem status of the panda in the giant panda distribution area is important for giant panda conservation. The ecosystems of the distribution area and six mountain ranges were subdivided into habitat and population subsystems based on the hie-rarchical system theory. Using the panda distribution area as the study area and the three national surveys as the time node, the evolution laws of ecosystems were studied using the entropy method, coefficient of variation, and correlation analysis. We found that with continuous improvement, some differences existed in the evolution and present situation of the ecosystems of six mountain ranges could be divided into three groups. Ecosystems classified into the same group showed many commonalities, and difference between the groups was considerable. Problems of habitat fragmentation and local population isolation became more serious, resulting in ecosystem degradation. Individuali-zed ecological protection measures should be formulated and implemented in accordance with the conditions in each mountain system to achieve the best results.

  11. Calculation of age-dependent dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides uniformly distributed in air

    Hung, Tran Van; Satoh, Daiki; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Tsuda, Shuichi; Endo, Akira; Saito, Kimiaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    2005-02-01

    Age-dependent dose conversion coefficients for external exposure to photons emitted by radionuclides uniformly distributed in air were calculated. The size of the source region in the calculation was assumed to be effectively semi-infinite in extent. Firstly, organ doses were calculated with a series of age-specific MIRD-5 type phantoms using MCNP code, a Monte Carlo transport code. The calculations were performed for mono-energetic photon sources of twelve energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV and for phantoms of newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, and adult. Then, the effective doses to the different age-phantoms from the mono-energetic photon sources were estimated based on the obtained organ doses. The calculated effective doses were used to interpolate the conversion coefficients of the effective doses for 160 radionuclides, which are important for dose assessment of nuclear facilities. In the calculation, energies and intensities of emitted photons from radionuclides were taken from DECDC, a recent compilation of decay data for radiation dosimetry developed at JAERI. The results are tabulated in the form of effective dose per unit concentration and time (Sv per Bq s m -3 ). (author)

  12. Distribution coefficients for chemical components of a coal-oil/water system

    Picel, K C; Stamoudis, V C; Simmons, M S

    1988-09-01

    Distribution coefficients (K/sub D/) were measured by equilibrating a coal oil comparative reference material (CRM-1) with water and then separating the oil and water phases. Aqueous phase concentrations were determined by direct analysis of this phase, while organic phase concentrations were determined from the original oil composition by difference. The log K/sub D/ values obtained for acidic and basic components were generally <3, while those for the neutral components ranged from 3 to 6. For aromatic hydrocarbons, strong correlations were observed between log K/sub D/ and log S/sub w/ (water solubility), and between log K/sub D/ and log K/sub o//sub w/ (octanol/water partition coefficient). Alkylated benzenes had significantly higher K/sub D/s than did unsubstituted aromatics of similar molecular weight. Examination of homologs revealed an increase of 0.307 log K/sub D/ units per additional carbon atom for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons having from 10 to 16 carbons. Alkyl substituent effects determined for various sets of homologs ranged from 0.391 to 0.466 log K/sub d/ units per -CH/sub 2/- group added. 38 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Solvent Extraction Batch Distribution Coefficients with Savannah River Site Dissolved Salt Cake

    Walker, D.D.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers characterized high-level waste derived from dissolved salt cake from the Savannah River Site (SRS) tank farm and measured the cesium distribution coefficients (DCs) for extraction, scrub, and stripping steps of the caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet. The measurements used two SRS high-level waste samples derived entirely or in part from salt cake. The chemical compositions of both samples are reported. Dissolved salt cake waste contained less Cs-137 and more dianions than is typical of supernate samples. Extraction and scrub DCs values for both samples exceeded process requirements and agreed well with model predictions. Strip DCs values for the Tank 46F sample also met process requirements. However, strip DCs values could not be calculated for the Tank 38H sample due to the poor material balance for Cs-137. Potential explanations for the poor material balance are discussed and additional work to determine the cause is described

  14. Sorption distribution coefficients of uranium, thorium and radium of selected Malaysian peat soils

    Mohd Zaidi Ibrahim; Zalina Laili; Muhamat Omar; Phillip, Esther

    2010-01-01

    A study on sorption of uranium, thorium and radium on Malaysian peat soils was conducted to determine their distribution coefficient (K d ) values. Batch studies were performed to investigate the influence of pH and the concentrations of radionuclides. Peat soil samples used in this study were collected from Bachok, Batu Pahat, Dalat, Hutan Melintang and Pekan. The peat samples from different location have different chemical characteristics and K d values. No correlation was found between chemical characteristics and the K d values for radium and thorium, but K d value for uranium was found correlated with humic and organic content. The K d value was found to be influenced by soluble humic substances or humic substances leach out from peat soils. (author)

  15. Evaluating and categorizing the reliability of distribution coefficient values in the sorption database

    Ochs, Michael; Saito, Yoshihiko; Kitamura, Akira; Shibata, Masahiro; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu

    2007-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed the sorption database (JNC-SDB) for bentonite and rocks in order to assess the retardation property of important radioactive elements in natural and engineered barriers in the H12 report. The database includes distribution coefficient (K d ) of important radionuclides. The K d values in the SDB are about 20,000 data. The SDB includes a great variety of K d and additional key information from many different literatures. Accordingly, the classification guideline and classification system were developed in order to evaluate the reliability of each K d value (Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Cs, Ra, Se, Tc on bentonite). The reliability of 3740 K d values are evaluated and categorized. (author)

  16. Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples; Metodo dos dois meios para a determinacao do coeficiente de atenuacao linear de amostras irregulares de solos

    Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges

    2004-07-01

    In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient ({mu}) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the {mu} determination. It consists of the {mu} determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of {mu} was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)

  17. Field experiment determinations of distribution coefficients of actinide elements in alkaline lake environments

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Li, Y.H.; Anderson, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations of a number of elements (Am, Pu, U, Pa, Th, Ac, Ra, Po, Pb, Cs, and Sr) have been measured in the water and sediments of a group of alkaline lakes in the western USA. These data demonstrate greatly enhanced soluble phase concentrations of elements with oxidation states of III, IV, V, and VI as the result of carbonate complexing. Dissolved concentrations of isotopes of U, Pa, and Th in a lake with pH = 10 and a total inorganic carbon concentration of 4 x 10 -1 moles/1 were greater than those in sea water (pH = 8, ΣCO 2 = 2 x 10 -3 moles/1) by order of magnitude for 233 U, 238 U (--10 2 ), 231 Pa, 228 Th, 230 Th (--10 3 ) and 22 Th (--10 5 ). Concentrations of fallout /sup 239,240/Pu in the more alkaline lakes were equivalent to effective distribution coefficients of --10 3 , about a factor of 10 2 lower than in most other natural lakes, rivers, estuaries and coastal marine waters. Measurements of radionuclides in natural systems are essential for assessment of the likely fate of radionuclides which may be released from high level waste repositories to ground water. Laboratory-scale experiments using tracer additions of radionuclides to mixtures of water and sediment yielded distribution coefficients which were significantly different from those derived from field measurements (10 1 -10 2 lower for Po and Pu). Order of magnitude calculations from thermodynamic data of expected maximum U and Th concentrations, limited by pure phase solubilities, suggest that carbonate complexing can enhance solubility by many orders of magnitude in natural waters, even at relatively low carbonate ion concentrations

  18. Temperature and orientation dependence of the short-term strength characteristics, Young's modulus, and linear expansion coefficient of ZhS6F alloy single crystals

    Svetlov, I L; Sukhanov, N N; Krivko, A I; Roshchina, I N; Khatsinskaia, I M

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data are presented on the temperature dependence of the short- term strength characteristics, Young's modulus, and linear expansion coefficients of single crystals of a nickel alloy, ZhS6F, with crystallographic orientations along the 001, 111, 011, and 112 lines. It is found that the mechanical properties and Young's modulus of the alloy crystals exibit anisotropy in the temperature range 20-900 C. The linear thermal expansion coefficient is isotropic up to 900 C and equal to that of the equiaxed alloy. 10 references.

  19. Statistical distributions of earthquakes and related non-linear features in seismic waves

    Apostol, B.-F.

    2006-01-01

    A few basic facts in the science of the earthquakes are briefly reviewed. An accumulation, or growth, model is put forward for the focal mechanisms and the critical focal zone of the earthquakes, which relates the earthquake average recurrence time to the released seismic energy. The temporal statistical distribution for average recurrence time is introduced for earthquakes, and, on this basis, the Omori-type distribution in energy is derived, as well as the distribution in magnitude, by making use of the semi-empirical Gutenberg-Richter law relating seismic energy to earthquake magnitude. On geometric grounds, the accumulation model suggests the value r = 1/3 for the Omori parameter in the power-law of energy distribution, which leads to β = 1,17 for the coefficient in the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence law, in fair agreement with the statistical analysis of the empirical data. Making use of this value, the empirical Bath's law is discussed for the average magnitude of the aftershocks (which is 1.2 less than the magnitude of the main seismic shock), by assuming that the aftershocks are relaxation events of the seismic zone. The time distribution of the earthquakes with a fixed average recurrence time is also derived, the earthquake occurrence prediction is discussed by means of the average recurrence time and the seismicity rate, and application of this discussion to the seismic region Vrancea, Romania, is outlined. Finally, a special effect of non-linear behaviour of the seismic waves is discussed, by describing an exact solution derived recently for the elastic waves equation with cubic anharmonicities, its relevance, and its connection to the approximate quasi-plane waves picture. The properties of the seismic activity accompanying a main seismic shock, both like foreshocks and aftershocks, are relegated to forthcoming publications. (author)

  20. Peer-Assisted Content Distribution with Random Linear Network Coding

    Hundebøll, Martin; Ledet-Pedersen, Jeppe; Sluyterman, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Peer-to-peer networks constitute a widely used, cost-effective and scalable technology to distribute bandwidth-intensive content. The technology forms a great platform to build distributed cloud storage without the need of a central provider. However, the majority of todays peer-to-peer systems...

  1. Linear Estimation of Standard Deviation of Logistic Distribution ...

    The paper presents a theoretical method based on order statistics and a FORTRAN program for computing the variance and relative efficiencies of the standard deviation of the logistic population with respect to the Cramer-Rao lower variance bound and the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUE\\'s) when the mean is ...

  2. Coefficients of distribution and accumulation of K, Rb, Cs and 137Cs in the intensive poultry breeding cycle

    Djuric, G.; Ajdacic, N.; Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of K,Rb,Cs and the activity level of Cs-137 in samples from the intensive poultry breeding cycle (feed, meat, eggs), under the condition of chronic alimentary contamination is presented. Concentrations of Cs and Rb were determined by non-destructive neutron activation analysis, concentration of K by atomic absorption flame photometry and activity of Cs-137 by gamma spectrometric analysis. On the basis of these results, coefficients of distribution and accumulation were calculated. The distribution coefficients of the analysed stable isotopes in meat have values close to 1, whereas for various parts of egg these coefficients vary between 0.5 and 1.5. Significant differences in Cs-137 distribution in various parts of egg were established. The values of accumulation coefficients indicate that all analysed elements selectively accumulate in the meat of young birds (broilers), and Cs-137 accumulates in the egg white as well. (orig.)

  3. No-signaling quantum key distribution: solution by linear programming

    Hwang, Won-Young; Bae, Joonwoo; Killoran, Nathan

    2015-02-01

    We outline a straightforward approach for obtaining a secret key rate using only no-signaling constraints and linear programming. Assuming an individual attack, we consider all possible joint probabilities. Initially, we study only the case where Eve has binary outcomes, and we impose constraints due to the no-signaling principle and given measurement outcomes. Within the remaining space of joint probabilities, by using linear programming, we get bound on the probability of Eve correctly guessing Bob's bit. We then make use of an inequality that relates this guessing probability to the mutual information between Bob and a more general Eve, who is not binary-restricted. Putting our computed bound together with the Csiszár-Körner formula, we obtain a positive key generation rate. The optimal value of this rate agrees with known results, but was calculated in a more straightforward way, offering the potential of generalization to different scenarios.

  4. Carrier Mediated Distribution System (CAMDIS): a new approach for the measurement of octanol/water distribution coefficients.

    Wagner, Bjoern; Fischer, Holger; Kansy, Manfred; Seelig, Anna; Assmus, Frauke

    2015-02-20

    Here we present a miniaturized assay, referred to as Carrier-Mediated Distribution System (CAMDIS) for fast and reliable measurement of octanol/water distribution coefficients, log D(oct). By introducing a filter support for octanol, phase separation from water is facilitated and the tendency of emulsion formation (emulsification) at the interface is reduced. A guideline for the best practice of CAMDIS is given, describing a strategy to manage drug adsorption at the filter-supported octanol/buffer interface. We validated the assay on a set of 52 structurally diverse drugs with known shake flask log D(oct) values. Excellent agreement with literature data (r(2) = 0.996, standard error of estimate, SEE = 0.111), high reproducibility (standard deviation, SD < 0.1 log D(oct) units), minimal sample consumption (10 μL of 100 μM DMSO stock solution) and a broad analytical range (log D(oct) range = -0.5 to 4.2) make CAMDIS a valuable tool for the high-throughput assessment of log D(oc)t. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolution of Sr distribution coefficient as a function of time, incubation conditions and measurement technique

    Wang Guo; Staunton, Siobhan

    2005-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the dynamics of radiostrontium in soil is required to allow accurate long-term predictions of its mobility. We have followed the soil solution distribution of 85 Sr as a function of time under controlled conditions over 4 months and studied the effect of soil moisture content and organic matter amendments. Data have been compared to redox conditions and soil pH. To fuel the ongoing debate on the validity of distribution coefficient (K d ) values measured in dilute suspension, we have compared values obtained from the activity concentration in soil solution obtained by centrifugation to data obtained in suspension with or without air-drying of the soil samples after incubation. The 85 Sr adsorption properties of soil, incubated without prior contamination were also measured. There is some time-dependent adsorption of Sr. This is partly due to changing soil composition due to the decomposition of added organic matter and anaerobic conditions induced by flooding. There is also a kinetic effect, but adsorption remains largely reversible. Most of the observed effects are lost when soil is suspended in electrolyte solution

  6. The effects of different expansions of the exit distribution on the extrapolation length for linearly anisotropic scattering

    Bulut, S.; Guelecyuez, M.C.; Kaskas, A.; Tezcan, C.

    2007-01-01

    H N and singular eigenfunction methods are used to determine the neutron distribution everywhere in a source-free half space with zero incident flux for a linearly anisotropic scattering kernel. The singular eigenfunction expansion of the method of elementary solutions is used. The orthogonality relations of the discrete and continuous eigenfunctions for linearly anisotropic scattering provides the determination of the expansion coefficients. Different expansions of the exit distribution are used: the expansion in powers of μ, the expansion in terms of Legendre polynomials and the expansion in powers of 1/(1+μ). The results are compared to each other. In the second part of our work, the transport equation and the infinite medium Green function are used. The numerical results of the extrapolation length obtained for the different expansions is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Stationary distributions of stochastic processes described by a linear neutral delay differential equation

    Frank, T D

    2005-01-01

    Stationary distributions of processes are derived that involve a time delay and are defined by a linear stochastic neutral delay differential equation. The distributions are Gaussian distributions. The variances of the Gaussian distributions are either monotonically increasing or decreasing functions of the time delays. The variances become infinite when fixed points of corresponding deterministic processes become unstable. (letter to the editor)

  8. On the statistics of the minimal solution of a linear Diophantine equation and uniform distribution of the real part of orbits in hyperbolic spaces

    Risager, Morten S.; Rudnick, Zeev

    We study a variant of a problem considered by Dinaburg and Sinai on the statistics of the minimal solution to a linear Diophantine equation. We show that the signed ratio between the Euclidean norms of the minimal solution and the coefficient vector is uniformly distributed modulo one. We reduce ...

  9. On the non-linear pressure distribution in embankment dams

    Svensson, Urban [Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate if a mathematical/numerical model of the air-theory can be formulated. It is the author's view that this has been demonstrated. The model is based on relevant physical laws and principles and produces results which are in qualitative agreement with observations. However, it should be emphasised that it is a feasibility study where some empirical relations have been tuned without considering possible experimental data or findings. If a more well-founded model is to be developed it is suggested that the following points are considered: (1) Compile relevant information on permeabilities for the type of two-phase flow considered. (2) Evaluate relevant laws and coefficients for the phase exchange. (3) Verify simulations by comparisons with laboratory experiments, if available. (4) Consider the two-dimensional situation.

  10. AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF NONNORMALITY UPON THE SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF THE PROJECT MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT.

    HJELM, HOWARD; NORRIS, RAYMOND C.

    THE STUDY EMPIRICALLY DETERMINED THE EFFECTS OF NONNORMALITY UPON SOME SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (PMCC). SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE PMCC WERE OBTAINED BY DRAWING NUMEROUS SAMPLES FROM CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL POPULATIONS HAVING VARIOUS DEGREES OF NONNORMALITY AND BY CALCULATING CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS…

  11. The Heat Resistance of Microbial Cells Represented by D Values Can be Estimated by the Transition Temperature and the Coefficient of Linear Expansion.

    Nakanishi, Koichi; Kogure, Akinori; Deuchi, Keiji; Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu; Ito, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We previously developed a method for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms by measuring the transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion of a cell changes. Here, we performed heat resistance measurements using a scanning probe microscope with a nano thermal analysis system. The microorganisms studied included six strains of the genus Bacillus or related genera, one strain each of the thermophilic obligate anaerobic bacterial genera Thermoanaerobacter and Moorella, two strains of heat-resistant mold, two strains of non-sporulating bacteria, and one strain of yeast. Both vegetative cells and spores were evaluated. The transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion due to heating changed from a positive value to a negative value correlated strongly with the heat resistance of the microorganism as estimated from the D value. The microorganisms with greater heat resistance exhibited higher transition temperatures. There was also a strong negative correlation between the coefficient of linear expansion and heat resistance in bacteria and yeast, such that microorganisms with greater heat resistance showed lower coefficients of linear expansion. These findings suggest that our method could be useful for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms.

  12. Classification of distribution coefficient data by mineral components and chemical forms

    Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    1996-01-01

    The use of distribution coefficient (Kd) in radionuclide transport model has been reported in a number of papers. However, Kd data cover a wide range even for a specific element. In this study the Kd data of neptunium, uranium and selenium, which are included in sorption database (SDB, OECD/NEA) of radionuclides, were classified by a solid phase and a dominant species in a solution. The aqueous species of these elements were estimated by a geochemical model. The Kd data classified by the analyzed speciation were tested by a nonparametric statistical method. The results of tests proved that the Kd data of neptunium or uranium, which covered a wide range, were influenced by the supersaturation of Np(OH) 4 (s) or schoepite. The Kd data of neptunium could be classified by the dominant aqueous species, NpO 2 + , NpO 2 CO 3 - , NpO 2 OH(aq) and Np(OH) 4 (aq). The Kd data of these four dominant species which are not equilibrated with supersaturated Np(OH) 4 (s) are less than 100 ml/g. The analyzed aqueous species of uranium were UO 2 (OH) 2 (aq) and UO 2 (CO 3 ) n 2-2n (n=2,3) in hexavalent state. It is suggested that the distribution coefficient of neptunium and uranium depends on dominant aqueous species or charged species, i.e., cationic, anionic and nonionic forms. The dominant aqueous species of selenium are HSe - , HSeO 3 - , SeO 3 2- and SeO 4 2- . The result of the nonparametric statistical test shows that the Kd value of HSeO 3 - is higher than of other anionic forms. However, the influence of the species, HSe - , SeO 3 2- and SeO 4 2- , on Kd values is not clearly identified. Considering the dominant species, the Kd of elements are in ranges of 1 to 2 orders of magnitude being in general narrower than those classified by mineral and rock types. (author)

  13. Distribution coefficients of different soil types at Olkiluoto repository site and its surroundings, southwestern Finland

    Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, FI-00420 Helsinki (Finland); Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In Finland, the Olkiluoto Island on the western coast has been selected as a repository site for the spent nuclear fuel. Due to shallow sea areas around the island, the post-glacial crustal rebound (around 6 mm/y) is changing the landscape significantly; during the next thousands of years new soil types are emerging, the present bays will narrow and form future lakes and mires assumedly similar to those farther inland at present. The effects of terrain development are important in long-term safety assessments for the repository, especially in the biosphere assessments addressing radiation exposure of people and biota in scenarios of radionuclide releases. 'In situ' distribution coefficients, K{sub d} values are used to indicate the relevant mobility of radionuclides of concern from nuclear waste. These radionuclides have very long half-lives and long interaction times with soils, ranging from centuries to millennia. By measuring the desorption K{sub d} values of the indigenous stable elements (Ag, Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Nb, Ni, Se and Sr) from field moist samples are a valid description of slow retention processes. The 'in situ' K{sub d} desorption values are calculated for humus, peat and different mineral soil samples taken from the Olkiluoto Island and the Reference Area used as an analogue of the future terrain. The solids are extracted alternatively by HNO{sub 3}-HF and NH{sub 4}Ac (pH 4.5). The K{sub d} values are highly dependent on environmental factors, including but not limited to pH, soil type, soil horizon, soil body, texture, element chemical form, organic matter, carbon content and biological activity. This is discussed in the contribution; e.g., for several elements pH and K{sub d} values correlate - the finer the soil or sediment, the higher the K{sub d} values - and humus and peat samples have a clear correlation with the organic matter and carbon contents. The contribution also compares the 'in situ' K{sub d} values to

  14. Partial F-tests with multiply imputed data in the linear regression framework via coefficient of determination.

    Chaurasia, Ashok; Harel, Ofer

    2015-02-10

    Tests for regression coefficients such as global, local, and partial F-tests are common in applied research. In the framework of multiple imputation, there are several papers addressing tests for regression coefficients. However, for simultaneous hypothesis testing, the existing methods are computationally intensive because they involve calculation with vectors and (inversion of) matrices. In this paper, we propose a simple method based on the scalar entity, coefficient of determination, to perform (global, local, and partial) F-tests with multiply imputed data. The proposed method is evaluated using simulated data and applied to suicide prevention data. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Sources, distribution and export coefficient of phosphorus in lowland polders of Lake Taihu Basin, China.

    Huang, Jiacong; Gao, Junfeng; Jiang, Yong; Yin, Hongbin; Amiri, Bahman Jabbarian

    2017-12-01

    Identifying phosphorus (P) sources, distribution and export from lowland polders is important for P pollution management, however, is challenging due to the high complexity of hydrological and P transport processes in lowland areas. In this study, the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of P export coefficient (PEC) from all the 2539 polders in Lake Taihu Basin, China were estimated using a coupled P model for describing P dynamics in a polder system. The estimated amount of P export from polders in Lake Taihu Basin during 2013 was 1916.2 t/yr, with a spatially-averaged PEC of 1.8 kg/ha/yr. PEC had peak values (more than 4.0 kg/ha/yr) in the polders near/within the large cities, and was high during the rice-cropping season. Sensitivity analysis based on the coupled P model revealed that the sensitive factors controlling the PEC varied spatially and changed through time. Precipitation and air temperature were the most sensitive factors controlling PEC. Culvert controlling and fertilization were sensitive factors controlling PEC during some periods. This study demonstrated an estimation of PEC from 2539 polders in Lake Taihu Basin, and an identification of sensitive environmental factors affecting PEC. The investigation of polder P export in a watershed scale is helpful for water managers to learn the distribution of P sources, to identify key P sources, and thus to achieve best management practice in controlling P export from lowland areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination coefficient distribution rhenium and tungsten using method extraction with solvent methyl ethyl ketone

    Riftanio Natapratama Hidayat; Maria Christina Prihatiningsih; Duyeh Setiawan

    2015-01-01

    Determination of the distribution coefficient (K d ) of the rhenium and tungsten conducted for the purpose of knowing the value of K d of the two elements. K d value determination is applied to the process of separation rhenium-188 from target of tungsten-188 for the purposes purification of radioisotopes that are made to meet the radionuclide and radiochemical purity. The K d value determination using solvent extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). Prior to the determination of K d values, determined beforehand the optimum conditions of extraction process based on the effect of agitation time, the volume of MEK, and the pH of the solution. Confirmation the results of the extraction was conducted using UV-Vis spectrophotometer with a complexing KSCN under acidic conditions and reductant SnCl 2 . The results showed that the optimum condition extraction process to feed each of 10 ppm is when the agitation for 10 minutes, the volume of MEK in 20 ml, and the pH below 5. Obtained the maximum recovery of rhenium are drawn to the organic phase as much as 9.545 ppm. However, the condition of the extraction process does not affect the migration of tungsten to the organic phase. Then the maximum K d values obtained at 2.7566 rhenium and tungsten maximum K d is 0.0873. Optimum conditions of extraction process can be further tested on radioactive rhenium and tungsten as an alternative to the separation of radioisotopes. (author)

  17. Distribution coefficients of caesium, chlorine, iodine, niobium, selenium and technetium on Olkiluoto soils

    Soederlund, M.; Lusa, M.; Virtanen, S.; Vaelimaa, I.; Hakanen, M.; Lehto, J.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2014-02-01

    Retention of caesium, chlorine, iodine, niobium, selenium and technetium was investigated on soil samples from Olkiluoto using laboratory batch sorption experiments. Distribution coefficients were measured for both dried and sieved and untreated (wet, not sieved) mineral soil and humus in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Mineralogical composition of the samples was determined by XRD-analysis. Caesium was sorbed efficiently on mineral soil samples and less efficiently on humus. Sorption decreased with decreasing cation exchange capacity and clay fraction content. The effect of competing cations decreased in the order Cs + >NH 4 + >K + >Ca 2+ >Na + . Chlorine was not retained by mineral soil samples, and the sorption was weak on humus. The sorption of iodine was the strongest on humus and the weakest on the untreated mineral soil samples in the anaerobic conditions. In the mineral soil samples, the sorption decreased with decreasing organic matter content and increasing pH. The retention of niobium on soil samples was the most efficient among the studied elements. The retention was high regardless of the aeration conditions. Sorption on humus was smaller. Selenium was retained efficiently on humus. Sorption on mineral soil samples was stronger in aerobic conditions. Sorption increased with time. Technetium was sorbed well on humus and anaerobic, untreated mineral soil samples. Sorption increased with increasing organic matter content and decreasing redox potential. The results from the sorption experiments are used in the site specific radionuclide migration modelling. (orig.)

  18. Selection of distribution coefficients for contaminant fate and transport calculations: Strontium as a case study

    Kaplan, D.I.; Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    As part of an ongoing project funded by a cooperative effort involving the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) of the Department of Energy (DOE), and the Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NRC), distribution coefficient (K d ) values are being compiled from the literature to develop provisional tables for cadmium, cesium, chromium, lead, plutonium, strontium, thorium, and uranium. The tables are organized according to important aqueous- and solid-phase parameters affecting the sorption of these contaminants. These parameters, which vary with contaminant, include pH and redox conditions; cation exchange capacity (CEC); presence of iron-oxide, aluminum-oxide, clay, and mica minerals; organic matter content; and solution concentrations of contaminants, competing ions, and complexing ligands. Sorption information compiled for strontium is used to illustrate our approach. The strontium data show how selected geochemical parameters (i.e., CEC, pH, and clay content) affect Strontium K d values and the selection of open-quote default close-quote K d values needed for modeling contaminant transport and risks at sites for which site specific data are lacking. Results of our evaluation may be used by site management and technical staff to assess contaminant fate, migration, and risk calculations in support of site remediation and waste management decisions

  19. Optimised method to estimate octanol water distribution coefficient (logD) in a high throughput format.

    Low, Ying Wei Ivan; Blasco, Francesca; Vachaspati, Prakash

    2016-09-20

    Lipophilicity is one of the molecular properties assessed in early drug discovery. Direct measurement of the octanol-water distribution coefficient (logD) requires an analytical method with a large dynamic range or multistep dilutions, as the analyte's concentrations span across several orders of magnitude. In addition, water/buffer and octanol phases which have very different polarity could lead to matrix effects and affect the LC-MS response, leading to erroneous logD values. Most compound libraries use DMSO stocks as it greatly reduces the sample requirement but the presence of DMSO has been shown to underestimate the lipophilicity of the analyte. The present work describes the development of an optimised shake flask logD method using deepwell 96 well plate that addresses the issues related to matrix effects, DMSO concentration and incubation conditions and is also amenable to high throughput. Our results indicate that the equilibrium can be achieved within 30min by flipping the plate on its side while even 0.5% of DMSO is not tolerated in the assay. This study uses the matched matrix concept to minimise the errors in analysing the two phases namely buffer and octanol in LC-MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution coefficients for Pb+2 and Cr+6 with variation in soil particle size

    Singhal, R.K.; Preetha, J.; Gurg, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Simulated experiments were conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the impact of soil particle size on the distribution coefficient (K d ) for soil - water system for Pb as Pb +2 and Cr as Cr +6 . The variation in particle size leads to variation in mineralogical and organic carbon (OC) contents which in turn lead to variation in cation exchange capacity (CEC). The conditions were kept as close to that of the natural environment during the spiking of the soil. The spiked soil is fractionated in seven different fractions between 500 - 355 μm and 105 - > 75 μm contains relatively higher percentage of OC than the other fractions. The CEC of different fractions of the soil is determined by ammonium acetate method. Higher CEC was observed for particle in the range of 105 - > 75 μm. The analysis of Pb and Cr was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer after the complete destruction f the soil matrix. Among the various fractions, the K d values are higher for 75μm for Pb +2 and Cr +6 and their ranges are 4.3-9.6 x 10 5 ml/gm and 2.1-24.8 x 10 6 ml/gm, respectively. (author)

  1. Predicting cyclohexane/water distribution coefficients for the SAMPL5 challenge using MOSCED and the SMD solvation model

    Diaz-Rodriguez, Sebastian; Bozada, Samantha M.; Phifer, Jeremy R.; Paluch, Andrew S.

    2016-11-01

    We present blind predictions using the solubility parameter based method MOSCED submitted for the SAMPL5 challenge on calculating cyclohexane/water distribution coefficients at 298 K. Reference data to parameterize MOSCED was generated with knowledge only of chemical structure by performing solvation free energy calculations using electronic structure calculations in the SMD continuum solvent. To maintain simplicity and use only a single method, we approximate the distribution coefficient with the partition coefficient of the neutral species. Over the final SAMPL5 set of 53 compounds, we achieved an average unsigned error of 2.2± 0.2 log units (ranking 15 out of 62 entries), the correlation coefficient ( R) was 0.6± 0.1 (ranking 35), and 72± 6 % of the predictions had the correct sign (ranking 30). While used here to predict cyclohexane/water distribution coefficients at 298 K, MOSCED is broadly applicable, allowing one to predict temperature dependent infinite dilution activity coefficients in any solvent for which parameters exist, and provides a means by which an excess Gibbs free energy model may be parameterized to predict composition dependent phase-equilibrium.

  2. The Effect of Nonzero Autocorrelation Coefficients on the Distributions of Durbin-Watson Test Estimator: Three Autoregressive Models

    Mei-Yu LEE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the nonzero autocorrelation coefficients on the sampling distributions of the Durbin-Watson test estimator in three time-series models that have different variance-covariance matrix assumption, separately. We show that the expected values and variances of the Durbin-Watson test estimator are slightly different, but the skewed and kurtosis coefficients are considerably different among three models. The shapes of four coefficients are similar between the Durbin-Watson model and our benchmark model, but are not the same with the autoregressive model cut by one-lagged period. Second, the large sample case shows that the three models have the same expected values, however, the autoregressive model cut by one-lagged period explores different shapes of variance, skewed and kurtosis coefficients from the other two models. This implies that the large samples lead to the same expected values, 2(1 – ρ0, whatever the variance-covariance matrix of the errors is assumed. Finally, comparing with the two sample cases, the shape of each coefficient is almost the same, moreover, the autocorrelation coefficients are negatively related with expected values, are inverted-U related with variances, are cubic related with skewed coefficients, and are U related with kurtosis coefficients.

  3. A Correction of Random Incidence Absorption Coefficients for the Angular Distribution of Acoustic Energy under Measurement Conditions

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Most acoustic measurements are based on an assumption of ideal conditions. One such ideal condition is a diffuse and reverberant field. In practice, a perfectly diffuse sound field cannot be achieved in a reverberation chamber. Uneven incident energy density under measurement conditions can cause...... discrepancies between the measured value and the theoretical random incidence absorption coefficient. Therefore the angular distribution of the incident acoustic energy onto an absorber sample should be taken into account. The angular distribution of the incident energy density was simulated using the beam...... tracing method for various room shapes and source positions. The averaged angular distribution is found to be similar to a Gaussian distribution. As a result, an angle-weighted absorption coefficient was proposed by considering the angular energy distribution to improve the agreement between...

  4. Stochastic distribution of the required coefficient of friction for level walking--an in-depth study.

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Matz, Simon; Chang, Chien-Chi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the stochastic distribution of the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) which is a critical element for estimating slip probability. Fifty participants walked under four walking conditions. The results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test indicate that 76% of the RCOF data showed a difference in distribution between both feet for the same participant under each walking condition; the data from both feet were kept separate. The results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test indicate that most of the distribution of the RCOF appears to have a good match with the normal (85.5%), log-normal (84.5%) and Weibull distributions (81.5%). However, approximately 7.75% of the cases did not have a match with any of these distributions. It is reasonable to use the normal distribution for representation of the RCOF distribution due to its simplicity and familiarity, but each foot had a different distribution from the other foot in 76% of cases. The stochastic distribution of the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) was investigated for use in a statistical model to improve the estimate of slip probability in risk assessment. The results indicate that 85.5% of the distribution of the RCOF appears to have a good match with the normal distribution.

  5. Measurement of distribution coefficients using a radial injection dual-tracer test

    Pickens, J.F.; Jackson, R.E.; Inch, K.J.; Merritt, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    The dispersive and adsorptive properties of a sandy aquifer were evaluated by using a radial injection dual-tracer test with 131 I as the nonreactive tracer and 85 Sr as the reactive tracer. The tracer migration was monitored by using multilevel point-sampling devices located at various radial distances and depths. Nonequilibrium physical and chemical adsorption effects for 85 Sr were treated as a spreading or dispersion mechanism in the breakthrough curve analysis. The resulting effective dispersivity values for 85 Sr were typically a factor of 2 to 5 larger than those obtained for 131 I. The distribution coefficient (K/sub d//sup Sr/) values obtained from analysis of the breakthrough curves at three depths and two radial distances ranged from 2.6 to 4.5 ml/g. These compare favorably with values obtained by separation of fluids from solids in sediment cores, by batch experiments on core sediments and by analysis of a 25-year-old radioactive waste plume in another part of the same aquifer. Correlations of adsorbed 85 Sr radioactivity with grain size fractions demonstrated preferential adsorption to the coarsest fraction and to the finest fraction. The relative amounts of electrostatically and specifically adsorbed 85 Sr on the aquifer sediments were determined with desorption experiments on core sediments using selective chemical extractants. The withdrawal phase breakthrough curves for the well, obtained immediately following the injection phase, showed essentially full tracer recoveries for both 131 I and 85 Sr. Relatively slow desorption of 85 Sr provided further indication of the nonequilibrium nature of the adsorption-desorption phenomena

  6. Studies on distribution coefficient (Kd) of naturally occurring radionuclides in geological matrices

    Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of fate and transport of toxic and radioactive metals in the subsurface of uranium tailing pond sites is critical to the assessment of environmental impact and to the development of effective remediation technologies. The mobility of radionuclides and toxic metals is enhanced by acidification of tailings due to sulphide oxidation catalysed by microbial activity. Due to infiltration of water, there is a possibility of leaching of these radionuclides and toxic metals from the tailings pond to the ground water. Sorption onto mineral surfaces is an important mechanism for reducing radionuclide concentrations along ground water flow paths and retarding radionuclide migration to the accessible environment. Reactive transport of ground water contaminants often assume that the reaction governing the retardation of a particular contaminant or radionuclide can be described by simple partitioning constant, K d . This constant is assumed to account for all the reversible sorption processes affecting transport of the contaminant. Experimental determination of site-specific K d values is absolutely essential for the accurate estimation of reactive transport of these contaminants. The results of such studies would be helpful to model migration of these pollutants and to estimate the radiation dose to members of the public through groundwater drinking pathway at different distances from the tailings pond. In the present study it is clearly observed that K d values of most of the radionuclides are strongly dependent on different soil and ground water parameters. The relationships generated between distribution coefficient values of different radionuclides and different soil and ground water parameters can be used to generate look up table. And these relationships can also be used for the prediction of K d values of different radionuclides by using the different physico-chemical parameters of soil and ground water of the particular location

  7. Development of Solution-Processable, Optically Transparent Polyimides with Ultra-Low Linear Coefficients of Thermal Expansion

    Masatoshi Hasegawa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of new high-temperature polymeric materials applicable to plastic substrates in image display devices with a focus on our previous results. Novel solution-processable colorless polyimides (PIs with ultra-low linear coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE are proposed in this paper. First, the principles of the coloration of PI films are briefly discussed, including the influence of the processing conditions on the film coloration, as well as the chemical and physical factors dominating the low CTE characteristics of the resultant PI films to clarify the challenges in simultaneously achieving excellent optical transparency, a very high Tg, a very low CTE, and excellent film toughness. A possible approach of achieving these target properties is to use semi-cycloaliphatic PI systems consisting of linear chain structures. However, semi-cycloaliphatic PIs obtained using cycloaliphatic diamines suffer various problems during precursor polymerization, cyclodehydration (imidization, and film preparation. In particular, when using trans-1,4-cyclohexanediamine (t-CHDA as the cycloaliphatic diamine, a serious problem emerges: salt formation in the initial stages of the precursor polymerization, which terminates the polymerization in some cases or significantly extends the reaction period. The system derived from 3,3′,4,4′-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (s-BPDA and t-CHDA can be polymerized by a controlled heating method and leads to a PI film with relatively good properties, i.e., excellent light transmittance at 400 nm (T400 = ~80%, a high Tg (>300 °C, and a very low CTE (10 ppm·K−1. However, this PI film is somewhat brittle (the maximum elongation at break, εb max is about 10%. On the other hand, the combination of cycloaliphatic tetracarboxylic dianhydrides and aromatic diamines does not result in salt formation. The steric structures of cycloaliphatic tetracarboxylic dianhydrides significantly influence

  8. A Semi-linear Backward Parabolic Cauchy Problem with Unbounded Coefficients of Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman Type and Applications to Optimal Control

    Addona, Davide, E-mail: d.addona@campus.unimib.it [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, (MILANO BICOCCA) Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    We obtain weighted uniform estimates for the gradient of the solutions to a class of linear parabolic Cauchy problems with unbounded coefficients. Such estimates are then used to prove existence and uniqueness of the mild solution to a semi-linear backward parabolic Cauchy problem, where the differential equation is the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation of a suitable optimal control problem. Via backward stochastic differential equations, we show that the mild solution is indeed the value function of the controlled equation and that the feedback law is verified.

  9. Absolute non-linear optical coefficients measurements of CsLiB 6O 10 single crystals by second harmonic generation

    Sifi, A.; Klein, R. S.; Maillard, A.; Kugel, G. E.; Péter, A.; Polgár, K.

    2003-10-01

    We present absolute measurements of the effective non-linear optical coefficients deff of cesium lithium borate crystals (CsLiB 6O 10, CLBO) by second harmonic generation using a continuous Nd-YAG laser source. The experiments were carried out at room temperature, on crystals cut perpendicular to type I or type II phase matching directions, with two different crystal lengths along the propagation direction. The d36 and d14 non-linear coefficients involved in deff developments are deduced and are shown to be equal as it is predicted by the Kleinman symmetry. Two different compositions prepared by the Czochralski technique from melt with compositions of 1:1:6 and 1:1:5.5 molar ratios of Cs 2O, Li 2O and B 2O 3 are comparatively studied.

  10. Simultaneous effects of hydrostatic pressure and spin–orbit coupling on linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in a GaAs quantum ring

    Mughnetsyan, V.N.; Manaselyan, A.Kh.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the simultaneous effect of hydrostatic pressure and Rashba spin–orbit interaction on intraband linear and nonlinear light absorption has been investigated in cylindrical quantum ring. The one electron energy spectrum has been found using the effective mass approximation and diagonalization procedure. We have found that the Rashba interaction can lead both to the blue- or to the red-shift of the absorption spectrum depending on the transitions character, while the only red-shift is observed due to the hydrostatic pressure. - Highlights: ► The effects of hydrostatic pressure and spin–orbit coupling are investigated for quantum ring. ► The non-linear absorption coefficient is calculated. ► The hydrostatic pressure leads to the decrease in the absorption coefficient. ► Spin–orbit coupling weakens some transitions and strengthens others.

  11. Estimation Of The Spatial Distribution Of Crop Coefficient (Kc) From Landsat Satellite Imagery

    Abou EI-Magd, I.H.

    2009-01-01

    Single crop coefficient factor (K c ) is an essential component for crop water allocation for efficient irrigation scheduling and irrigation water management. Kc is basically defined as the ratio of actual evapotranspiration and grass/alfalfa reference evapotranspiration and always measured by lysimeter in localized area in the field, which then generalized on the whole irrigated land. The lack of precise information about the crop coefficient particularly in our country together with both small sized fields and heterogeneity of agricultural crops calls for developing a new methodology for computing a real time crop coefficient from remotely sensed data. This paper discusses the methodology developed for obtaining a real time single crop coefficient from Landsat Satellite ETM + 7 imageries. The methodology was applied and optimized on one irrigation field with two different dates and crop cover in the northern Delta of Egypt

  12. Measurement of Turbulent Skin Friction Drag Coefficients Produced by Distributed Surface Roughness of Pristine Marine Coatings

    Zafiryadis, Frederik; Meyer, Knud Erik; Gökhan Ergin, F.

    drag coefficients as well as roughness Reynolds numbers for the various marine coatings across the range of Rex by fitting of the van Driest profile. The results demonstrate sound agreement with the present ITTC method for determining skin friction coefficients for practically smooth surfaces at low...... Reynolds numbers compared to normal operation mode for the antifouling coatings. Thus, better estimates for skin friction of rough hulls can be realised using the proposed method to optimise preliminary vessel design....

  13. On Solutions for Linear and Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations with Variable Coefficients: A Computational Approach

    Gabriel Amador

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, after reviewing two different ways to solve Riccati systems, we are able to present an extensive list of families of integrable nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS equations with variable coefficients. Using Riccati equations and similarity transformations, we are able to reduce them to the standard NLS models. Consequently, we can construct bright-, dark- and Peregrine-type soliton solutions for NLS with variable coefficients. As an important application of solutions for the Riccati equation with parameters, by means of computer algebra systems, it is shown that the parameters change the dynamics of the solutions. Finally, we test numerical approximations for the inhomogeneous paraxial wave equation by the Crank-Nicolson scheme with analytical solutions found using Riccati systems. These solutions include oscillating laser beams and Laguerre and Gaussian beams.

  14. Artificial neural network application for predicting soil distribution coefficient of nickel

    Falamaki, Amin

    2013-01-01

    The distribution (or partition) coefficient (K d ) is an applicable parameter for modeling contaminant and radionuclide transport as well as risk analysis. Selection of this parameter may cause significant error in predicting the impacts of contaminant migration or site-remediation options. In this regards, various models were presented to predict K d values for different contaminants specially heavy metals and radionuclides. In this study, artificial neural network (ANN) is used to present simplified model for predicting K d of nickel. The main objective is to develop a more accurate model with a minimal number of parameters, which can be determined experimentally or select by review of different studies. In addition, the effects of training as well as the type of the network are considered. The K d values of Ni is strongly dependent on pH of the soil and mathematical relationships were presented between pH and K d of nickel recently. In this study, the same database of these presented models was used to verify that neural network may be more useful tools for predicting of K d . Two different types of ANN, multilayer perceptron and redial basis function, were used to investigate the effect of the network geometry on the results. In addition, each network was trained by 80 and 90% of the data and tested for 20 and 10% of the rest data. Then the results of the networks compared with the results of the mathematical models. Although the networks trained by 80 and 90% of the data the results show that all the networks predict with higher accuracy relative to mathematical models which were derived by 100% of data. More training of a network increases the accuracy of the network. Multilayer perceptron network used in this study predicts better than redial basis function network. - Highlights: ► Simplified models for predicting K d of nickel presented using artificial neural networks. ► Multilayer perceptron and redial basis function used to predict K d of nickel in

  15. Measurement of activity distribution using photostimulable phosphor imaging plates in decommissioned 10 MV medical linear accelerator.

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Yonai, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Masahiro; Sakae, Takeji; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Abe, Yoshihisa; Itami, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Photonuclear reactions generate neutrons in the head of the linear accelerator. Therefore, some parts of the linear accelerator can become activated. Such activated materials must be handled as radioactive waste. The authors attempted to investigate the distribution of induced radioactivity using photostimulable phosphor imaging plates. Autoradiographs were produced from some parts of the linear accelerator (the target, upper jaw, multileaf collimator and shielding). The levels of induced radioactivity were confirmed to be non-uniform within each part from the autoradiographs. The method was a simple and highly sensitive approach to evaluating the relative degree of activation of the linear accelerators, so that appropriate materials management procedures can be carried out.

  16. MAGNETIC INDUCTION DISTRIBUTION IN A LINEAR SYNCHRONUS MOTOR WITH MAGNETIC SUSPENSION

    D.I. Parkhomenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Results of computer simulation and experimental investigations of magnetic induction distribution in a coaxial linear synchronous motor with magnetic suspension are presented. The magnetic induction distribution has been studied both in the motor air gap and on the runner surface.

  17. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  18. Ionization constants by curve fitting: determination of partition and distribution coefficients of acids and bases and their ions.

    Clarke, F H; Cahoon, N M

    1987-08-01

    A convenient procedure has been developed for the determination of partition and distribution coefficients. The method involves the potentiometric titration of the compound, first in water and then in a rapidly stirred mixture of water and octanol. An automatic titrator is used, and the data is collected and analyzed by curve fitting on a microcomputer with 64 K of memory. The method is rapid and accurate for compounds with pKa values between 4 and 10. Partition coefficients can be measured for monoprotic and diprotic acids and bases. The partition coefficients of the neutral compound and its ion(s) can be determined by varying the ratio of octanol to water. Distribution coefficients calculated over a wide range of pH values are presented graphically as "distribution profiles". It is shown that subtraction of the titration curve of solvent alone from that of the compound in the solvent offers advantages for pKa determination by curve fitting for compounds of low aqueous solubility.

  19. Determination of distribution coefficient (Kd's) of some artificial and naturally occurring radionuclide in fresh and marine coastal water sediment

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S; Haleem, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    Distribution coefficients of artificial and natural radionuclides in fresh and marine water sediment are used in modeling radionuclide dispersion in water system, and the radiation risk and environmental investigating of impact of radioactive emissions, due to routine operations of nuclear plants or disposal and burial of radioactive waste in the environment. In the present work, distribution coefficient of uranium, lead, polonium, radium (naturally occurring radionuclides that may be emitted into the Syrian environment by the phosphate and oil industry with relatively high concentrations) and caesium 137 and strontium 85, in fresh water sediment (Euphrates River, Orantos River and Mzzerib Lake) and marine coastal water (Lattakia, Tartous and Banias). Distribution coefficients were found to vary between (5.8-17.18)*10 3 , (2.2-8.11)*10 3 , (0.22-2.08)*10 3 , (0.16-0.19)*10 3 , (0.38-0.69)*10 3 and 49-312 for polonium, lead, uranium, radium, cesium and strontium respectively. Results have indicated that most measurement distribution coefficients in the present study were lower than those values reported in IAEA documents for marine coastal sediment. In addition, variations of Kd's with aqueous phase composition and sediment elemental and mineralogical composition and its total organic materials content have been studied, where liner correlation coefficients for each isotope with different parameters have been determined. The obtained data reported in this study can be used for radioactive contaminants dispersion and transfer in Syrian river, lake and coast to assess risks to public due to discharges of the phosphate and oil industry into the Syrian environment. (Authors)

  20. Isobio software: biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram from physical dose conversion using linear-quadratic-linear model.

    Jaikuna, Tanwiwat; Khadsiri, Phatchareewan; Chawapun, Nisa; Saekho, Suwit; Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit

    2017-02-01

    To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL) model. The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR), and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD 2 ) was calculated using biological effective dose (BED) based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD 2 verification with pair t -test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit). Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS) in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) determined by D 90% , 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D 2cc , and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD 2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p -values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT) in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  1. Robust distributed model predictive control of linear systems with structured time-varying uncertainties

    Zhang, Langwen; Xie, Wei; Wang, Jingcheng

    2017-11-01

    In this work, synthesis of robust distributed model predictive control (MPC) is presented for a class of linear systems subject to structured time-varying uncertainties. By decomposing a global system into smaller dimensional subsystems, a set of distributed MPC controllers, instead of a centralised controller, are designed. To ensure the robust stability of the closed-loop system with respect to model uncertainties, distributed state feedback laws are obtained by solving a min-max optimisation problem. The design of robust distributed MPC is then transformed into solving a minimisation optimisation problem with linear matrix inequality constraints. An iterative online algorithm with adjustable maximum iteration is proposed to coordinate the distributed controllers to achieve a global performance. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed robust distributed MPC algorithm.

  2. A numerical study of one-dimensional replicating patterns in reaction-diffusion systems with non-linear diffusion coefficients

    Ferreri, J. C.; Carmen, A. del

    1998-01-01

    A numerical study of the dynamics of pattern evolution in reaction-diffusion systems is performed, although limited to one spatial dimension. The diffusion coefficients are nonlinear, based on powers of the scalar variables. The system keeps the dynamics of previous studies in the literature, but the presence of nonlinear diffusion generates a field of strong nonlinear interactions due to the presence of receding travelling waves. This field is limited by the plane of symmetry of the space domain and the last born outgoing travelling wave. These effects are discussed. (author). 10 refs., 7 figs

  3. A role of the coefficient of the differential term in qualitative theory of half-linear equations

    Řehák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 2 (2010), s. 151-162 ISSN 0862-7959 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA201/07/0145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : half-linear dynamic equation * time scale * transformation * comparison theorem * oscillation criteria Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.dml.cz/handle/10338.dmlcz/140692

  4. On the Use of Fine Distributed Moderating Material to Enhance Feedback Coefficients in Fast Reactors

    Merk, B.

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions and outlook: • Use of moderating material to enhance feedback coefficients in SFR: • Creation of a new degree of freedom for SFR design; • Good opportunities for the compensation of the effects due to transmutation fuels; • No major influence on Am incinieration; • Major problem is the thermal stability; • Stability up to ~1300°C by use of YH

  5. Calculation of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity considering non-uniform radial temperature distribution in the fuel rod

    Pazirandeh, Ali [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Science and Research Branch; Hooshyar Mobaraki, Almas

    2017-07-15

    The safe operation of a reactor is based on feedback models. In this paper we attempted to discuss the influence of a non-uniform radial temperature distribution on the fuel rod temperature coefficient of reactivity. The paper demonstrates that the neutron properties of a reactor core is based on effective temperature of the fuel to obtain the correct fuel temperature feedback. The value of volume-averaged temperature being used in the calculations of neutron physics with feedbacks would result in underestimating the probable event. In the calculation it is necessary to use the effective temperature of the fuel in order to provide correct accounting of the fuel temperature feedback. Fuel temperature changes in different zones of the core and consequently reactivity coefficient change are an important parameter for analysis of transient conditions. The restricting factor that compensates the inserted reactivity is the temperature reactivity coefficient and effective delayed neutron fraction.

  6. Homogeneity of the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of ZERODUR: a review of a decade of evaluations

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and its spatial homogeneity from small to large formats is the most important property of ZERODUR. Since more than a decade SCHOTT has documented the excellent CTE homogeneity. It started with reviews of past astronomical telescope projects like the VLT, Keck and GTC mirror blanks and continued with dedicated evaluations of the production. In recent years, extensive CTE measurements on samples cut from randomly selected single ZERODUR parts in meter size and formats of arbitrary shape, large production boules and even 4 m sized blanks have demonstrated the excellent CTE homogeneity in production. The published homogeneity data shows single ppb/K peak to valley CTE variations on medium spatial scale of several cm down to small spatial scale of only a few mm mostly at the limit of the measurement reproducibility. This review paper summarizes the results also in respect to the increased CTE measurement accuracy over the last decade of ZERODUR production.

  7. Performance of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a reliability index under various distributions in scale reliability studies.

    Mehta, Shraddha; Bastero-Caballero, Rowena F; Sun, Yijun; Zhu, Ray; Murphy, Diane K; Hardas, Bhushan; Koch, Gary

    2018-04-29

    Many published scale validation studies determine inter-rater reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). However, the use of this statistic must consider its advantages, limitations, and applicability. This paper evaluates how interaction of subject distribution, sample size, and levels of rater disagreement affects ICC and provides an approach for obtaining relevant ICC estimates under suboptimal conditions. Simulation results suggest that for a fixed number of subjects, ICC from the convex distribution is smaller than ICC for the uniform distribution, which in turn is smaller than ICC for the concave distribution. The variance component estimates also show that the dissimilarity of ICC among distributions is attributed to the study design (ie, distribution of subjects) component of subject variability and not the scale quality component of rater error variability. The dependency of ICC on the distribution of subjects makes it difficult to compare results across reliability studies. Hence, it is proposed that reliability studies should be designed using a uniform distribution of subjects because of the standardization it provides for representing objective disagreement. In the absence of uniform distribution, a sampling method is proposed to reduce the non-uniformity. In addition, as expected, high levels of disagreement result in low ICC, and when the type of distribution is fixed, any increase in the number of subjects beyond a moderately large specification such as n = 80 does not have a major impact on ICC. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs concentric double quantum rings: Effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration

    Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A.; Restrepo, R.L.; Duque, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear intra-band optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga 1−x Al x As two-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration the energies of the ground (n=1,l=0) and the first excited state (n=2,l=1) have been found using the effective mass approximation and the transfer matrix formalism. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the intra-band optical transitions are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration for different sizes of the structure. We also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy for different values of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, sizes of the structure, and incident optical intensity. Its is found that the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and the aluminum concentration lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the intra-band optical spectrum. - Highlights: ► Linear and nonlinear intra-band absorption in quantum rings. ► Threshold energy strongly depends on the hydrostatic pressure. ► Threshold energy strongly depends on the stoichiometry and sizes of structure. ► Optical absorption is affected by the incident optical intensity.

  9. Linear and mass attenuation coefficient for CdTe compound of X-rays from 10 to 100 keV energy range in different phases

    Saim, A., E-mail: saim1989asma@gmail.com; Tebboune, A.; Berkok, H.; Belameiri, N.; Belbachir, A.H.

    2014-07-25

    The Full Potential Linear Muffin Tin Orbitals method within the density functional theory has been utilized to calculate structural and electronic properties of the CdTe compound. We have checked that the CdTe has two phase-transitions from zinc-blend to cinnabar and from cinnabar to rocksalt. We have found that the rigidity, the energy and the nature of the gap change according to the phase change, so we can predict that a CdTe detector may have different behaviors in different phase conditions. In order to investigate this behavior change, the linear and the mass attenuation coefficients of X-ray in rocksalt, zinc-blend and cinnabar structures are calculated from 10 keV to100 keV, using the XCOM data. We have found that when CdTe undergoes a phase transition from zinc-blend to cinnabar, its linear attenuation coefficient decreases down to a value of about 100 times smaller than its initial one, and when it undergoes a transition from cinnabar to rocksalt it increases up to a value about 90 times larger than its initial one.

  10. Study of the mineralogic composition influence of the ground of Goiania, Brazil, in the distribution coefficient of the 137 Cs

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between the soil and a solute in a liquid effluent depend on the characteristics of this solute as well as on the nature of the soil. The soil distribution coefficient K d in non altered natural systems can be estimated by the summation of the K d 's of its individual mineral components. In thesis this approach allows an evaluation of the distribution coefficient on the basis of the qualitative and quantitative identification of the mineral constituents of a given soil. This work reported here aimed at gathering preliminary data and at pointing the relevance of the approach in studies of radionuclide sorption by soils. A sample of the Goiania soil was collected and analyzed by X Ray diffractometry. The thus identified mineral components were subsequently submitted to individual batch tests, using 137 Cs as tracer. The mineral species tested were: kaolinite, gibbsite, goethite, hematite, muscovite, quartz and zirconite. The values obtained for K d are presented and discussed. (author)

  11. A microfluidic platform for the rapid determination of distribution coefficients by gravity assisted droplet-based liquid-liquid extraction

    Poulsen, Carl Esben; Wootton, Robert C. R.; Wolff, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The determination of pharmacokinetic properties of drugs, such as the distribution coefficient, D, is a crucial measurement in pharmaceutical research. Surprisingly, the conventional (gold standard) technique used for D measurements, the shake-flask method, is antiquated and unsuitable...... for the testing of valuable and scarce drug candidates. Herein we present a simple micro fluidic platform for the determination of distribution coefficients using droplet-based liquid-liquid extraction. For simplicity, this platform makes use of gravity to enable phase separation for analysis and is 48 times...... the apparent acid dissociation constant, pK', as a proxy for inter-system comparison. Our platform determines a pK' value of 7.24 ± 0.15, compared to 7.25 ± 0.58 for the shake-flask method in our hands and 7.21 for the shake-flask method in literature. Devices are fabricated using injection moulding, the batch...

  12. X-ray diffraction measurement of the linear thermal expansion coefficients of WCoB in the range 300 to 973 K

    Petrov, K.; Will, G.

    1981-01-01

    High-temperature treatment of tungsten carbide-cobalt hard alloys in TiB 2 media leads to the formation of a surface diffusion coating which contains orthorhombic WCoB. The function of this compound in enhancing wear resistance of cutting tools, is discussed. The thermal expansion of WCoB is of primary interest, since the wear resistance of the coating reflects the degree of matching of the thermal expansion coefficients of the different phases. Preparation of the samples is described and experimental details of the X-ray diffraction measurements are given. The temperature dependence of the lattice parameters for the range 300 to 973 K, and the corresponding linear thermal expansion coefficients along the three principal crystallographic directions, are given. The results are discussed in terms of the bonding features of the solid. (U.K.)

  13. Fractional approximations for linear first order differential equation with polynomial coefficients-application to E1(x) and Z(s)

    Martin, P.; Zamudio-Cristi, J.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described to obtain fractional approximations for linear first order differential equations with polynomial coefficients. This approximation can give good accuracy in a large region of the complex variable plane that may include all the real axis. The parameters of the approximation are solutions of algebraic equations obtained through the coefficients of the highest and lowest power of the variable after the sustitution of the fractional approximation in the differential equation. The method is more general than the asymptotical Pade method, and it is not required to determine the power series or asymptotical expansion. A simple approximation for the exponential integral is found, which give three exact digits for most of the real values of the variable. Approximations of higher accuracy and of the same degree than other authors are also obtained. (Author) [pt

  14. Distribution coefficients for 85Sr and 137Cs in Japanese agricultural soils and their correlations with soil properties

    Kamei-Ishikawa, N.; Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, soil-soil solution distribution coefficients (K d ) of Sr and Cs were obtained for 112 Japanese agricultural soil samples (50 paddy soil and 62 upland soil samples) using batch sorption test. The relationships between Sr- or Cs-K d values and soil properties were discussed. Furthermore, the amount of Cs fixed in soil was estimated for 22 selected soil samples using a sequential extraction method. Then, cross effects of some soil properties for Cs fixation were evaluated. (author)

  15. Distribution of stress in greenhouses frames estimated by aerodynamic coefficients of Brazilian and European standards

    José Gabriel Vieira Neto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Widely disseminated in both national and international scenarios, greenhouses are agribusiness solutions which are designed to allow for greater efficiency and control of the cultivation of plants. Bearing this in mind, the construction of greenhouses should take into consideration the incidence of wind, and other such aspects of comfort and safety, and ensure they are factored into the design of structural elements. In this study, we evaluated the effects of pressure coefficients established by the European standard EN 13031-1 (2001 and the Brazilian standard ABNT (1988, which are applicable to the structures of greenhouses with flat roofs, taking into account the following variables: roof slope, external and internal pressure coefficients and height-span ratio of the structure. Using the ANSYSTM computer program, zones of columns and roof were discretized by the Beam44 finite element to identify the maximum and minimum stress portions connected to the aerodynamic coefficients. With this analysis, we found that, in the smallest roof slope (a equal to 20°, the frame stress was quite similar for standards adopted. On the other hand, for the greatest inclination (a equal to 26°, the stress was consistently lower under the Brazilian standard. In view of this, we came to the conclusion that the differences between stresses when applying both standards were more significant at the higher degrees of height-span ratio and roof slope.

  16. Linear VSS and Distributed Commitments Based on Secret Sharing and Pairwise Checks

    Fehr, Serge; Maurer, Ueli M.

    2002-01-01

    . VSS and DC are main building blocks for unconditional secure multi-party computation protocols. This general approach covers all known linear VSS and DC schemes. The main theorem states that the security of a scheme is equivalent to a pure linear-algebra condition on the linear mappings (e.......g. described as matrices and vectors) describing the scheme. The security of all known schemes follows as corollaries whose proofs are pure linear-algebra arguments, in contrast to some hybrid arguments used in the literature. Our approach is demonstrated for the CDM DC scheme, which we generalize to be secure......We present a general treatment of all non-cryptographic (i.e., information-theoretically secure) linear veriable-secret-sharing (VSS) and distributed-commitment (DC) schemes, based on an underlying secret sharing scheme, pairwise checks between players, complaints, and accusations of the dealer...

  17. Study of variance and covariance terms in linear attenuation coefficient measurements of irregular samples through the two media method by gamma-ray transmission

    Kuramoto, R.Y.R.Renato Yoichi Ribeiro.; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2002-01-01

    The two media method permits the application of Beer's law (Thesis (Master Degree), Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR, Brazil, pp. 23) for the linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular thickness samples by gamma-ray transmission. However, the use of this methodology introduces experimental complexity due to the great number of variables to be measured. As consequence of this complexity, the uncertainties associated with each of these variables may be correlated. In this paper, we examine the covariance terms in the uncertainty propagation, and quantify the correlation among the uncertainties of each of the variables in question

  18. Measurement of the linear thermo-optical coefficient of Ga0.51In0.49P using photonic crystal nanocavities

    Sokolov, Sergei; Lian, Jin; Combrié, Sylvain; Rossi, Alfredo De; Mosk, Allard. P.

    2017-01-01

    Ga0.51In0.49PGa0.51In0.49P is a promising candidate for thermally tunable nanophotonic devices due to its low thermal conductivity. In this work we study its thermo-optical response. We obtain the linear thermo-optical coefficient 푑푛/푑푇=2.0±0.3·10−4  K−1dn/dT=2.0±0.3·10−4  K−1 by investigating the

  19. Noiseless Linear Amplifiers in Entanglement-Based Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    Yichen Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to improve the performance of two entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols using noiseless linear amplifiers. The two entanglement-based schemes consist of an entanglement distribution protocol with an untrusted source and an entanglement swapping protocol with an untrusted relay. Simulation results show that the noiseless linear amplifiers can improve the performance of these two protocols, in terms of maximal transmission distances, when we consider small amounts of entanglement, as typical in realistic setups.

  20. Maximal planar networks with large clustering coefficient and power-law degree distribution

    Zhou Tao; Yan Gang; Wang Binghong

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we propose a simple rule that generates scale-free networks with very large clustering coefficient and very small average distance. These networks are called random Apollonian networks (RANs) as they can be considered as a variation of Apollonian networks. We obtain the analytic results of power-law exponent γ=3 and clustering coefficient C=(46/3)-36 ln (3/2)≅0.74, which agree with the simulation results very well. We prove that the increasing tendency of average distance of RANs is a little slower than the logarithm of the number of nodes in RANs. Since most real-life networks are both scale-free and small-world networks, RANs may perform well in mimicking the reality. The RANs possess hierarchical structure as C(k)∼k -1 that are in accord with the observations of many real-life networks. In addition, we prove that RANs are maximal planar networks, which are of particular practicability for layout of printed circuits and so on. The percolation and epidemic spreading process are also studied and the comparisons between RANs and Barabasi-Albert (BA) as well as Newman-Watts (NW) networks are shown. We find that, when the network order N (the total number of nodes) is relatively small (as N∼10 4 ), the performance of RANs under intentional attack is not sensitive to N, while that of BA networks is much affected by N. And the diseases spread slower in RANs than BA networks in the early stage of the suseptible-infected process, indicating that the large clustering coefficient may slow the spreading velocity, especially in the outbreaks

  1. Colocalization coefficients evaluating the distribution of molecular targets in microscopy methods based on pointed patterns

    Pastorek, Lukáš; Sobol, Margaryta; Hozák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 4 (2016), s. 391-406 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA ČR GA15-08738S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Grant - others:Human Frontier Science Program(FR) RGP0017/2013 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Colocalization * Quantitative analysis * Pointed patterns * Transmission electron microscopy * Manders' coefficients * Immunohistochemistry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.553, year: 2016

  2. A Bayesian Framework for Estimating the Concordance Correlation Coefficient Using Skew-elliptical Distributions.

    Feng, Dai; Baumgartner, Richard; Svetnik, Vladimir

    2018-04-05

    The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is a widely used scaled index in the study of agreement. In this article, we propose estimating the CCC by a unified Bayesian framework that can (1) accommodate symmetric or asymmetric and light- or heavy-tailed data; (2) select model from several candidates; and (3) address other issues frequently encountered in practice such as confounding covariates and missing data. The performance of the proposal was studied and demonstrated using simulated as well as real-life biomarker data from a clinical study of an insomnia drug. The implementation of the proposal is accessible through a package in the Comprehensive R Archive Network.

  3. Prediction of the thermal expansion coefficients of bio diesels from several sources through the application of linear regression; Predicao dos coeficientes de expansao termica de biodieseis de diversas origens atraves da aplicacao da regressa linear

    Canciam, Cesar Augusto [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Campus Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: canciam@utfpr.edu.br

    2012-07-01

    When evaluating the consumption of bio fuels, the knowledge of the density is of great importance for rectify the effect of temperature. The thermal expansion coefficient is a thermodynamic property that provides a measure of the density variation in response to temperature variation, keeping the pressure constant. This study aimed to predict the thermal expansion coefficients of ethyl bio diesels from castor beans, soybeans, sunflower seeds and Mabea fistulifera Mart. oils and of methyl bio diesels from soybeans, sunflower seeds, souari nut, cotton, coconut, castor beans and palm oils, from beef tallow, chicken fat and hydrogenated vegetable fat residual. For this purpose, there was a linear regression analysis of the density of each bio diesel a function of temperature. These data were obtained from other works. The thermal expansion coefficients for bio diesels are between 6.3729x{sup 10-4} and 1.0410x10{sup -3} degree C-1. In all the cases, the correlation coefficients were over 0.99. (author)

  4. Linear relationship between in distribution of thallium-201 and blood flow in ischemic and nonischemic myocardium during exercise

    Nielsen, A.P.; Morris, K.G.; Murdock, R.; Bruno, F.P.; Cobb, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the myocardial distribution of thallium-201 and regional myocrdial blood flow during ischemia and the physiologic stress of exercise. Studies were carried out in six dogs with chronically implanted catheters in the atrium and aorta and a snare on the circumflex coronary artery distal to the first marginal branch. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured during quiet, resting conditions using 7 to 10 ] of radioisotope-labeled microspheres. Each dog was then exercised on a treadmill at speeds of 5 to 9 mph at a 5/sup o/ incline. (After 1 minute of exercise the cirumflex coronary artery was occluded and thallium-201 and a second label of microspheres were injected. Exercise was continued for 5 minutes. The dogs were then sacrificed and the left ventricle was sectioned into approximately 80 1-2-g samples to compare thallium-201 activity and regional myocardial blood flow. The maximum increase in blood flow ranged from 3.3 to 7.2 times resting control values. Each dog had myocardial samples in which blood flow was markedly reduced, to less than 0.10 ml/min/g. In each dog there was a close linear relationship between thallium-201 distribution and direct measurements of regional myocardial blood flow. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a correlation coefficient of 0.98 or greater in each dog. These data indicate that during the physiologic stress of exercise, the myocardial distribution of thallium activity is linearly related to regional myocardial blood flow in both the ischemic and nonischemic regions

  5. Variation of the distribution coefficient (Kd) of selenium in soils under various microbial states

    Fevrier, L.; Martin-Garin, A.; Leclerc, E.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) evaluate whether the K d value of selenium is dependent upon the soil microbial activity and (ii) define the limitation of the use of the K d concept to describe selenium behaviour in soils when assessing the long-term radiological waste disposal risk. K d coefficients, as well as information on selenite speciation in the soil-solution, were derived from short- and long-term batch experiments with a calcareous silty clay soil in various microbial states. Soil microbial activity induced (i) an increase of the K d value from 16 l kg -1 in sterile conditions to 130 l kg -1 when the soil was amended with glucose and nitrate, and (ii) changes in selenium speciation both in the solution (presence of seleno-species other than free Se(IV)) and in the solid phase (Se linked to microorganisms). Although the K d coefficient adequately reflects the initial fractionation between soil-solid and soil-solution, it does not allow for speciation and microbial processes, which could affect reversibility, mobility and the long-term accumulation and uptake into crops

  6. Convergence Rate Analysis of Distributed Gossip (Linear Parameter) Estimation: Fundamental Limits and Tradeoffs

    Kar, Soummya; Moura, José M. F.

    2011-08-01

    The paper considers gossip distributed estimation of a (static) distributed random field (a.k.a., large scale unknown parameter vector) observed by sparsely interconnected sensors, each of which only observes a small fraction of the field. We consider linear distributed estimators whose structure combines the information \\emph{flow} among sensors (the \\emph{consensus} term resulting from the local gossiping exchange among sensors when they are able to communicate) and the information \\emph{gathering} measured by the sensors (the \\emph{sensing} or \\emph{innovations} term.) This leads to mixed time scale algorithms--one time scale associated with the consensus and the other with the innovations. The paper establishes a distributed observability condition (global observability plus mean connectedness) under which the distributed estimates are consistent and asymptotically normal. We introduce the distributed notion equivalent to the (centralized) Fisher information rate, which is a bound on the mean square error reduction rate of any distributed estimator; we show that under the appropriate modeling and structural network communication conditions (gossip protocol) the distributed gossip estimator attains this distributed Fisher information rate, asymptotically achieving the performance of the optimal centralized estimator. Finally, we study the behavior of the distributed gossip estimator when the measurements fade (noise variance grows) with time; in particular, we consider the maximum rate at which the noise variance can grow and still the distributed estimator being consistent, by showing that, as long as the centralized estimator is consistent, the distributed estimator remains consistent.

  7. Vertical random variability of the distribution coefficient in the soil and its effect on the migration of fallout radionuclides

    Bunzl, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the field, the distribution coefficient, K d , for the sorption of a radionuclide by the soil cannot be expected to be constant. Even in a well defined soil horizon, K d will vary stochastically in horizontal as well as in vertical direction around a mean value. The horizontal random variability of K d produce a pronounced tailing effect in the concentration depth profile of a fallout radionuclide, much less is known on the corresponding effect of the vertical random variability. To analyze this effect theoretically, the classical convection-dispersion model in combination with the random-walk particle method was applied. The concentration depth profile of a radionuclide was calculated one year after deposition assuming constant values of the pore water velocity, the diffusion/dispersion coefficient, and the distribution coefficient (K d = 100 cm 3 x g -1 ) and exhibiting a vertical variability for K d according to a log-normal distribution with a geometric mean of 100 cm 3 x g -1 and a coefficient of variation of CV 0.53. The results show that these two concentration depth profiles are only slightly different, the location of the peak is shifted somewhat upwards, and the dispersion of the concentration depth profile is slightly larger. A substantial tailing effect of the concentration depth profile is not perceivable. Especially with respect to the location of the peak, a very good approximation of the concentration depth profile is obtained if the arithmetic mean of the K d -values (K d = 113 cm 3 x g -1 ) and a slightly increased dispersion coefficient are used in the analytical solution of the classical convection-dispersion equation with constant K d . The evaluation of the observed concentration depth profile with the analytical solution of the classical convection-dispersion equation with constant parameters will, within the usual experimental limits, hardly reveal the presence of a log-normal random distribution of K d in the vertical direction in

  8. Study on the influence of X-ray tube spectral distribution on the analysis of bulk samples and thin films: Fundamental parameters method and theoretical coefficient algorithms

    Sitko, Rafal

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of X-ray tube spectral distribution is necessary in theoretical methods of matrix correction, i.e. in both fundamental parameter (FP) methods and theoretical influence coefficient algorithms. Thus, the influence of X-ray tube distribution on the accuracy of the analysis of thin films and bulk samples is presented. The calculations are performed using experimental X-ray tube spectra taken from the literature and theoretical X-ray tube spectra evaluated by three different algorithms proposed by Pella et al. (X-Ray Spectrom. 14 (1985) 125-135), Ebel (X-Ray Spectrom. 28 (1999) 255-266), and Finkelshtein and Pavlova (X-Ray Spectrom. 28 (1999) 27-32). In this study, Fe-Cr-Ni system is selected as an example and the calculations are performed for X-ray tubes commonly applied in X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), i.e., Cr, Mo, Rh and W. The influence of X-ray tube spectra on FP analysis is evaluated when quantification is performed using various types of calibration samples. FP analysis of bulk samples is performed using pure-element bulk standards and multielement bulk standards similar to the analyzed material, whereas for FP analysis of thin films, the bulk and thin pure-element standards are used. For the evaluation of the influence of X-ray tube spectra on XRF analysis performed by theoretical influence coefficient methods, two algorithms for bulk samples are selected, i.e. Claisse-Quintin (Can. Spectrosc. 12 (1967) 129-134) and COLA algorithms (G.R. Lachance, Paper Presented at the International Conference on Industrial Inorganic Elemental Analysis, Metz, France, June 3, 1981) and two algorithms (constant and linear coefficients) for thin films recently proposed by Sitko (X-Ray Spectrom. 37 (2008) 265-272)

  9. Modeling of non-linear CHP efficiency curves in distributed energy systems

    Milan, Christian; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo

    2015-01-01

    Distributed energy resources gain an increased importance in commercial and industrial building design. Combined heat and power (CHP) units are considered as one of the key technologies for cost and emission reduction in buildings. In order to make optimal decisions on investment and operation...... for these technologies, detailed system models are needed. These models are often formulated as linear programming problems to keep computational costs and complexity in a reasonable range. However, CHP systems involve variations of the efficiency for large nameplate capacity ranges and in case of part load operation......, which can be even of non-linear nature. Since considering these characteristics would turn the models into non-linear problems, in most cases only constant efficiencies are assumed. This paper proposes possible solutions to address this issue. For a mixed integer linear programming problem two...

  10. The use of linear programming in optimization of HDR implant dose distributions

    Jozsef, Gabor; Streeter, Oscar E.; Astrahan, Melvin A.

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of high dose rate brachytherapy enabled optimization of dose distributions to be used on a routine basis. The objective of optimization is to homogenize the dose distribution within the implant while simultaneously satisfying dose constraints on certain points. This is accomplished by varying the time the source dwells at different locations. As the dose at any point is a linear function of the dwell times, a linear programming approach seems to be a natural choice. The dose constraints are inherently linear inequalities. Homogeneity requirements are linearized by minimizing the maximum deviation of the doses at points inside the implant from a prescribed dose. The revised simplex method was applied for the solution of this linear programming problem. In the homogenization process the possible source locations were chosen as optimization points. To avoid the problem of the singular value of the dose at a source location from the source itself we define the 'self-contribution' as the dose at a small distance from the source. The effect of varying this distance is discussed. Test cases were optimized for planar, biplanar and cylindrical implants. A semi-irregular, fan-like implant with diverging needles was also investigated. Mean central dose calculation based on 3D Delaunay-triangulation of the source locations was used to evaluate the dose distributions. The optimization method resulted in homogeneous distributions (for brachytherapy). Additional dose constraints--when applied--were satisfied. The method is flexible enough to include other linear constraints such as the inclusion of the centroids of the Delaunay-triangulation for homogenization, or limiting the maximum allowable dwell time

  11. Determination of distribution coefficients of some natural radionuclides (U, Ra, Pb, Po) between different types of Syrian soils and their solutions

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2009-11-01

    In this study, distribution coefficients of some natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po) between different types of soils in Syria and their solutions were determined. The distribution coefficients values ranged from (164-1933, 280-1722, 350-4749 and 101-117) l kg - 1 for 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively at pH = 4.0. While, the distribution coefficients values ranged from (207-6706, 673-2397, 149-2147 and 103- 292) l kg - 1 for 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively at pH = 5.5. In addition, the distribution coefficients values ranged from (167-1707, 126- 1239, 44-1122 and 125-1475) l kg - 1 for 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively at pH = 7.0. Moreover, the results showed that 210 Po distribution coefficients had the maximum values at pH 7. While 210 Pb distribution coefficients had the minimum values at same pH. In addition to, U distribution coefficients had the maximum values at pH 5.5. On the other hand, the effect of soil mineral content, CEC, ECE, pH and soluble ions on the distribution coefficients were investigated. In general, the results showed that there are logarithmic relationships between studied radionuclide activity in the soil and their distribution coefficients in all soil types (R 2 ranged from 0.59 to 1.00 at pH 4.0). On the other hand, there were no relationships between the distribution coefficients and soil pH. (authors)

  12. Distribution coefficients for radionuclides in aquatic environments. Volume 2. Dialysis experiments in marine environments

    Sibley, T.H.; Nevissi, A.E.; Schell, W.R.

    1981-05-01

    The overall objective of this research program was to obtain new information that can be used to predict the fate of radionuclides that may enter the aquatic environment from nuclear power plants, waste storage facilities or fuel reprocessing plants. Important parameters for determining fate are the distribution of radionuclides between the soluble and particulate phases and the partitioning of radionuclides among various suspended particulates. This report presents the results of dialysis experiments that were used to study the distribution of radionuclides among suspended sediments, phytoplankton, organic detritus, and filtered sea water. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium distribution of (59)Fe, (60)Co, (65)Zn, (106)Ru, (137)Cs, (207)Bi, (238)Pu, and (241)Am in marine system. Diffusion across the dialysis membranes depends upon the physico-chemical form of the radionuclides, proceeding quite rapidly for ionic species of (137)Cs and (60)Co but much more slowly for radionuclides which occur primarily as colloids and solid precipitates such as (59)Fe, (207)Bi, and (241)Am. All the radionuclides adsorb to suspended particulates although the amount of adsorption depends upon the specific types and concentration of particulates in the system and the selected radionuclide. High affinity of some radionuclides - e.g., (106)Ru and (241)Am - for detritus and phytoplankton suggests that suspended organics may significantly affect the eventual fate of those radionuclides in marine ecosystems

  13. Epidermis Microstructure Inspired Graphene Pressure Sensor with Random Distributed Spinosum for High Sensitivity and Large Linearity.

    Pang, Yu; Zhang, Kunning; Yang, Zhen; Jiang, Song; Ju, Zhenyi; Li, Yuxing; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Danyang; Jian, Muqiang; Zhang, Yingying; Liang, Renrong; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-03-27

    Recently, wearable pressure sensors have attracted tremendous attention because of their potential applications in monitoring physiological signals for human healthcare. Sensitivity and linearity are the two most essential parameters for pressure sensors. Although various designed micro/nanostructure morphologies have been introduced, the trade-off between sensitivity and linearity has not been well balanced. Human skin, which contains force receptors in a reticular layer, has a high sensitivity even for large external stimuli. Herein, inspired by the skin epidermis with high-performance force sensing, we have proposed a special surface morphology with spinosum microstructure of random distribution via the combination of an abrasive paper template and reduced graphene oxide. The sensitivity of the graphene pressure sensor with random distribution spinosum (RDS) microstructure is as high as 25.1 kPa -1 in a wide linearity range of 0-2.6 kPa. Our pressure sensor exhibits superior comprehensive properties compared with previous surface-modified pressure sensors. According to simulation and mechanism analyses, the spinosum microstructure and random distribution contribute to the high sensitivity and large linearity range, respectively. In addition, the pressure sensor shows promising potential in detecting human physiological signals, such as heartbeat, respiration, phonation, and human motions of a pushup, arm bending, and walking. The wearable pressure sensor array was further used to detect gait states of supination, neutral, and pronation. The RDS microstructure provides an alternative strategy to improve the performance of pressure sensors and extend their potential applications in monitoring human activities.

  14. An employment of distribution coefficients for the valuation of the soils with regard to their radiological risks

    Carini, F.; Silva, S.; Fontana, P.

    1985-01-01

    As a preliminary step it has been demonstrated that the distribution coefficients may prove useful items in order to classify soils to a radioprotective purpose. We have obtained transfer factors from soils, which were different according to their principal chemical and physical features, into plants typical of the middle Po valley agriculture. By utilizing these factors as guiding indexes,it is possible, through cluster analysis, to determine a range of soils with regard to their radiological risk starting only from the pedologic parameters

  15. Determination of the distribution coefficient of 46 elements on tin dioxide in 0.1N HNO3-acetone media

    Jaffrezic-Renault, N.

    1977-01-01

    The use of radioactive indicators for the determination of the distribution coefficients of 46 elements on SnO 2 in 0.1N HNO 3 -acetone media is described. The determination has been carried out in static conditions: labelled element solution has been agitated with SnO 2 for two hours; the elements have been labelled with radioisotopes generally obtained by (n, γ) reaction, by irradiating a part of the used salt in EL 3 or OSIRIS reactor in the C.E.N. Saclay (France). Results show that the elements may be classified into several groups, according to their oxidation state. (T.I.)

  16. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to BAM neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays

    Zhou Tiejun; Chen Anping; Zhou Yuyuan

    2005-01-01

    By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and Liapunov function, we obtain some sufficient criteria to ensure the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to the bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays. These results improve and generalize the works of papers [J. Cao, L. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 61 (2000) 1825] and [Z. Liu, A. Chen, J. Cao, L. Huang, IEEE Trans. Circuits Systems I 50 (2003) 1162]. An example is given to illustrate that the criteria are feasible

  17. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to BAM neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays

    Zhou, distributed delays [rapid communication] T.; Chen, A.; Zhou, Y.

    2005-08-01

    By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and Liapunov function, we obtain some sufficient criteria to ensure the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution to the bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with periodic coefficients and continuously distributed delays. These results improve and generalize the works of papers [J. Cao, L. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 61 (2000) 1825] and [Z. Liu, A. Chen, J. Cao, L. Huang, IEEE Trans. Circuits Systems I 50 (2003) 1162]. An example is given to illustrate that the criteria are feasible.

  18. Three-dimensional reconstruction of a radionuclide distribution within a medium of uniform coefficient of attenuation

    Diaz, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The non-invasive, fully three-dimensional reconstruction of a radionuclide distribution is studied. The problem is considered in ideal form. Several solutions, ranging from the completely analytical to the completely graphical, are presented for both the non-attenuated and uniformly attenuated cases. A function is defined which, if enacted as a response to each detected photon, will yield, upon superposition, a faithful reconstruction of the radionuclide density. Two and three-dimensional forms of this functions are defined for both the non-attenuated and uniformly attenuated case

  19. Spatial Distribution of the Coefficient of Variation for the Paleo-Earthquakes in Japan

    Nomura, S.; Ogata, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Renewal processes, point prccesses in which intervals between consecutive events are independently and identically distributed, are frequently used to describe this repeating earthquake mechanism and forecast the next earthquakes. However, one of the difficulties in applying recurrent earthquake models is the scarcity of the historical data. Most studied fault segments have few, or only one observed earthquake that often have poorly constrained historic and/or radiocarbon ages. The maximum likelihood estimate from such a small data set can have a large bias and error, which tends to yield high probability for the next event in a very short time span when the recurrence intervals have similar lengths. On the other hand, recurrence intervals at a fault depend on the long-term slip rate caused by the tectonic motion in average. In addition, recurrence times are also fluctuated by nearby earthquakes or fault activities which encourage or discourage surrounding seismicity. These factors have spatial trends due to the heterogeneity of tectonic motion and seismicity. Thus, this paper introduces a spatial structure on the key parameters of renewal processes for recurrent earthquakes and estimates it by using spatial statistics. Spatial variation of mean and variance parameters of recurrence times are estimated in Bayesian framework and the next earthquakes are forecasted by Bayesian predictive distributions. The proposal model is applied for recurrent earthquake catalog in Japan and its result is compared with the current forecast adopted by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan.

  20. Determination of the quasi-TE mode (in-plane) graphene linear absorption coefficient via integration with silicon-on-insulator racetrack cavity resonators.

    Crowe, Iain F; Clark, Nicholas; Hussein, Siham; Towlson, Brian; Whittaker, Eric; Milosevic, Milan M; Gardes, Frederic Y; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Halsall, Matthew P; Vijayaraghaven, Aravind

    2014-07-28

    We examine the near-IR light-matter interaction for graphene integrated cavity ring resonators based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) race-track waveguides. Fitting of the cavity resonances from quasi-TE mode transmission spectra reveal the real part of the effective refractive index for graphene, n(eff) = 2.23 ± 0.02 and linear absorption coefficient, α(gTE) = 0.11 ± 0.01dBμm(-1). The evanescent nature of the guided mode coupling to graphene at resonance depends strongly on the height of the graphene above the cavity, which places limits on the cavity length for optical sensing applications.

  1. Study of distribution coefficient of some radionuclides in liquid-solid systems

    Ghafar, M.; Abdul-Hadi, A.; Al-Hassanieh, O.

    2001-10-01

    The distribution of the elements U, Th, Am, Eu, Cs, Sr and Ra in a solid-aqueous system. Natural phosphate in contact with groundwater, was investigated usingγ and α spectroscopy. The effect of various factors such as phase contact time, Ph, particle size of the solid phase, and the concentration of a element Ca, were studied. The obtained results show that, more than 98% of the actinide elements and europium are adsorbed by the solid phase under all conditions. The fission products Cs and Sr have different behaviours, depending on experiment conditions. The behaviour of Ra is closer to the actinides than to the fission products. There are small differences between the behaviour of the actinide elements, which can be interpreted by migration mechanism from the aqueous to the solid phase i.e. adsorption or precipitation. (author)

  2. Oscillation for equations with positive and negative coefficients and with distributed delay I: General results

    Leonid Berezansky

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available We study a scalar delay differential equation with a bounded distributed delay, $$ dot{x}(t+ int_{h(t}^t x(s,d_s R(t,s - int_{g(t}^t x(s,d_s T(t,s=0, $$ where $R(t,s$, $T(t,s$ are nonnegative nondecreasing in $s$ for any $t$, $$ R(t,h(t=T(t,g(t=0, quad R(t,s geq T(t,s. $$ We establish a connection between non-oscillation of this differential equation and the corresponding differential inequalities, and between positiveness of the fundamental function and the existence of a nonnegative solution for a nonlinear integral inequality that constructed explicitly. We also present comparison theorems, and explicit non-oscillation and oscillation results. In a separate publication (part II, we will consider applications of this theory to differential equations with several concentrated delays, integrodifferential, and mixed equations.

  3. Determination of the cesium distribution coefficient in Goiania and Abadia de Goias cities soils

    Marumo, J.T.; Suarez, A.A.

    1989-10-01

    In September, 1987, an unauthorized removal of a cesium-therapy unit and its violation caused an accident, where several places of Goiania's city, capital of Goias, Brazil, were contaminated. The removal of the radioactive wastes generated from decontamination process, was made to Abadia de Goias city (near Goiania), where an interim storage was constructed. Soil samples collected from the 57 th Street (Goiania) and from the interim storage permitted to determine, through static method, the cesium distribution coefficent for different cesium solution concentrations. Those results allows for some migration/retention evaluations in disposal site selection. Some soils parameters (water content, density, granulometric analysis etc) as well as clay minerals constituents were also determined. (author) [pt

  4. PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR BY EDDY CURRENT AND FLUX DENSITY DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS

    M. S. MANNA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of electromagnetic devices as machines, transformers, heating devices confronts the engineers with several problems. For the design of an optimized geometry and the prediction of the operational behaviour an accurate knowledge of the dependencies of the field quantities inside the magnetic circuits is necessary. This paper provides the eddy current and core flux density distribution analysis in linear induction motor. Magnetic flux in the air gap of the Linear Induction Motor (LIM is reduced to various losses such as end effects, fringes, effect, skin effects etc. The finite element based software package COMSOL Multiphysics Inc. USA is used to get the reliable and accurate computational results for optimization the performance of Linear Induction Motor (LIM. The geometrical characteristics of LIM are varied to find the optimal point of thrust and minimum flux leakage during static and dynamic conditions.

  5. LQR-Based Optimal Distributed Cooperative Design for Linear Discrete-Time Multiagent Systems.

    Zhang, Huaguang; Feng, Tao; Liang, Hongjing; Luo, Yanhong

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a novel linear quadratic regulator (LQR)-based optimal distributed cooperative design method is developed for synchronization control of general linear discrete-time multiagent systems on a fixed, directed graph. Sufficient conditions are derived for synchronization, which restrict the graph eigenvalues into a bounded circular region in the complex plane. The synchronizing speed issue is also considered, and it turns out that the synchronizing region reduces as the synchronizing speed becomes faster. To obtain more desirable synchronizing capacity, the weighting matrices are selected by sufficiently utilizing the guaranteed gain margin of the optimal regulators. Based on the developed LQR-based cooperative design framework, an approximate dynamic programming technique is successfully introduced to overcome the (partially or completely) model-free cooperative design for linear multiagent systems. Finally, two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design methods.

  6. Unified solution of the Boltzmann equation for electron and ion velocity distribution functions and transport coefficients in weakly ionized plasmas

    Konovalov, Dmitry A.; Cocks, Daniel G.; White, Ronald D.

    2017-10-01

    The velocity distribution function and transport coefficients for charged particles in weakly ionized plasmas are calculated via a multi-term solution of Boltzmann's equation and benchmarked using a Monte-Carlo simulation. A unified framework for the solution of the original full Boltzmann's equation is presented which is valid for ions and electrons, avoiding any recourse to approximate forms of the collision operator in various limiting mass ratio cases. This direct method using Lebedev quadratures over the velocity and scattering angles avoids the need to represent the ion mass dependence in the collision operator through an expansion in terms of the charged particle to neutral mass ratio. For the two-temperature Burnett function method considered in this study, this amounts to avoiding the need for the complex Talmi-transformation methods and associated mass-ratio expansions. More generally, we highlight the deficiencies in the two-temperature Burnett function method for heavy ions at high electric fields to calculate the ion velocity distribution function, even though the transport coefficients have converged. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2016)", edited by Goran Poparic, Bratislav Obradovic, Dragana Maric and Aleksandar Milosavljevic.

  7. Comparison of the distribution coefficients of plutonium and other radionuclides in Lake Michigan to those in other systems

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Nelson, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    Filtration of Lake Michigan water samples has been carried out routinely since 1973, and some plutonium concentrations in the seston have been reported. During 1975 and 1976 a sufficient number of filter samples from various depths was obtained throughout the field seasons to establish whether or not a distribution coefficient also controls the uptake of plutonium by the formation of particulates and their settling from the surface waters. Samples from ANL station 5 (10 km SW of Grand Haven, Michigan, water depth 67 m), of the southern basin, and from the lower Great Lakes have been analyzed for dry weight, ash weight, total organic (loss of weight on ignition), amorphous silica, calcite, and residual minerals. Distribution coefficients were calculated on the basis of each of these solid components, and self-consistent values were observed for depth, season, or lake only, on the basis of dry weight of seston. The findings strongly suggest that the uptake of fallout plutonium (including inputs of new fallout during the summer of 1975) is dominated by a surface coating process common to all seston particle types. An insufficient number of 137 Cs analyses were obtained to correlate its uptake to a specific component of the seston, but its behavior is clearly different from that of plutonium

  8. Quantitative structure-property relationship study of n-octanol-water partition coefficients of some of diverse drugs using multiple linear regression

    Ghasemi, Jahanbakhsh; Saaidpour, Saadi

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study was performed to develop models those relate the structures of 150 drug organic compounds to their n-octanol-water partition coefficients (log P o/w ). Molecular descriptors derived solely from 3D structures of the molecular drugs. A genetic algorithm was also applied as a variable selection tool in QSPR analysis. The models were constructed using 110 molecules as training set, and predictive ability tested using 40 compounds. Modeling of log P o/w of these compounds as a function of the theoretically derived descriptors was established by multiple linear regression (MLR). Four descriptors for these compounds molecular volume (MV) (geometrical), hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) (constitutional), hydrogen bond forming ability (HB) (electronic) and polar surface area (PSA) (electrostatic) are taken as inputs for the model. The use of descriptors calculated only from molecular structure eliminates the need for experimental determination of properties for use in the correlation and allows for the estimation of log P o/w for molecules not yet synthesized. Application of the developed model to a testing set of 40 drug organic compounds demonstrates that the model is reliable with good predictive accuracy and simple formulation. The prediction results are in good agreement with the experimental value. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and square correlation coefficient (R 2 ) for MLR model were 0.22 and 0.99 for the prediction set log P o/w

  9. Enhancing Classification Performance of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy- Brain–Computer Interface Using Adaptive Estimation of General Linear Model Coefficients

    Nauman Khalid Qureshi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel methodology for enhanced classification of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS signals utilizable in a two-class [motor imagery (MI and rest; mental rotation (MR and rest] brain–computer interface (BCI is presented. First, fNIRS signals corresponding to MI and MR are acquired from the motor and prefrontal cortex, respectively, afterward, filtered to remove physiological noises. Then, the signals are modeled using the general linear model, the coefficients of which are adaptively estimated using the least squares technique. Subsequently, multiple feature combinations of estimated coefficients were used for classification. The best classification accuracies achieved for five subjects, for MI versus rest are 79.5, 83.7, 82.6, 81.4, and 84.1% whereas those for MR versus rest are 85.5, 85.2, 87.8, 83.7, and 84.8%, respectively, using support vector machine. These results are compared with the best classification accuracies obtained using the conventional hemodynamic response. By means of the proposed methodology, the average classification accuracy obtained was significantly higher (p < 0.05. These results serve to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a high-classification-performance fNIRS-BCI.

  10. Prediction of octanol-water partition coefficients of organic compounds by multiple linear regression, partial least squares, and artificial neural network.

    Golmohammadi, Hassan

    2009-11-30

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study was performed to develop models those relate the structure of 141 organic compounds to their octanol-water partition coefficients (log P(o/w)). A genetic algorithm was applied as a variable selection tool. Modeling of log P(o/w) of these compounds as a function of theoretically derived descriptors was established by multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS), and artificial neural network (ANN). The best selected descriptors that appear in the models are: atomic charge weighted partial positively charged surface area (PPSA-3), fractional atomic charge weighted partial positive surface area (FPSA-3), minimum atomic partial charge (Qmin), molecular volume (MV), total dipole moment of molecule (mu), maximum antibonding contribution of a molecule orbital in the molecule (MAC), and maximum free valency of a C atom in the molecule (MFV). The result obtained showed the ability of developed artificial neural network to prediction of partition coefficients of organic compounds. Also, the results revealed the superiority of ANN over the MLR and PLS models. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Visualizing measurement for 3D smooth density distributions by means of linear programming

    Tayama, Norio; Yang, Xue-dong

    1994-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a theoretical possibility of a new visualizing measurement method based on an optimum 3D reconstruction from a few selected projections. A theory of optimum 3D reconstruction by a linear programming is discussed, utilizing a few projections for sampled 3D smooth-density-distribution model which satisfies the condition of the 3D sampling theorem. First by use of the sampling theorem, it is shown that we can set up simultaneous simple equations which corresponds to the case of the parallel beams. Then we solve the simultaneous simple equations by means of linear programming algorithm, and we can get an optimum 3D density distribution images with minimum error in the reconstruction. The results of computer simulation with the algorithm are presented. (author)

  12. Research on sorption behavior of radionuclides under shallow land environment. Mechanism and standard methodologies for measurement of distribution coefficients of radionuclides

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Tadao; Takebe, Shinichi; Nagao, Seiya; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Komiya, Tomokazu; Hagiwara, Shigeru

    2001-01-01

    This study consists of two categories' research works. One is research on sorption mechanism of radionuclides with long half-life, which are Technetium-99, TRU elements and U series radionuclides, on soil and rocks, including a development of database of distribution coefficients of radionuclides. The database on the distribution coefficients of radionuclides with information about measurement conditions, such as shaking method, soil characteristics and solution composition, has been already opened to the public (JAERI-DATABASE 20001003). Another study is investigation on a standard methodology of the distribution coefficient of radionuclide on soils, rocks and engineering materials in Japan. (author)

  13. Linearized image reconstruction method for ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography based on power density distribution

    Song, Xizi; Xu, Yanbin; Dong, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is a promising measurement technique with important industrial and clinical applications. However, with limited effective measurements, it suffers from poor spatial resolution due to the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. Recently, there has been an increasing research interest in hybrid imaging techniques, utilizing couplings of physical modalities, because these techniques obtain much more effective measurement information and promise high resolution. Ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography (UMEIT) is one of the newly developed hybrid imaging techniques, which combines electric and acoustic modalities. A linearized image reconstruction method based on power density is proposed for UMEIT. The interior data, power density distribution, is adopted to reconstruct the conductivity distribution with the proposed image reconstruction method. At the same time, relating the power density change to the change in conductivity, the Jacobian matrix is employed to make the nonlinear problem into a linear one. The analytic formulation of this Jacobian matrix is derived and its effectiveness is also verified. In addition, different excitation patterns are tested and analyzed, and opposite excitation provides the best performance with the proposed method. Also, multiple power density distributions are combined to implement image reconstruction. Finally, image reconstruction is implemented with the linear back-projection (LBP) algorithm. Compared with ERT, with the proposed image reconstruction method, UMEIT can produce reconstructed images with higher quality and better quantitative evaluation results. (paper)

  14. Electron energy distribution functions and transport coefficients relevant for air plasmas in the troposphere: impact of humidity and gas temperature

    Gordillo-Vazquez, F J [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA), CSIC, PO Box 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain); Donko, Z [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest, PO Box, 49 (Hungary)

    2009-08-15

    A Boltzmann and Monte Carlo analysis of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and transport coefficients for air plasmas is presented for the conditions of the Earth troposphere where some transient luminous events (TLEs) such as blue jets, blue starters and gigantic jets have been observed. According to recent model results (Minschwaner et al 2004 J. Climate 17 1272) supported by the halogen occultation experiment, the relative humidity of the atmospheric air between 0 and 15 km can change between 15% and 100% depending on the altitude investigated and the ground temperature. The latter results cover a region of latitudes between -25 deg. S and +25 deg. N, that is, the Earth tropical region where lightning and TLE activity is quite high. The calculations shown here suggest that the relative humidity has a clear impact on the behaviour of the EEDF and magnitude of the transport coefficients of air plasmas at ground (0 km) and room temperature conditions (293 K). At higher altitudes (11 and 15 km), the influence of the relative humidity is negligible when the values of the gas temperature are assumed to be the 'natural' ones corresponding to those altitudes, that is, {approx}215 K (at 11 km) and {approx}198 K (at 15 km). However, it is found that a small enhancement (of maximum 100 K) in the background gas temperature (that could be reasonably associated with the TLE activity) would lead to a remarkable impact of the relative humidity on the EEDF and transport coefficients of air plasmas under the conditions of blue jets, blue starters and gigantic jets at 11 and 15 km. The latter effects are visible for relatively low reduced electric fields (E/N {<=} 25 Td) that could be controlling the afterglow kinetics of the air plasmas generated by TLEs. However, for much higher fields such as, for instance, 400 Td (representative of the fields in the streamer coronas and lightning leaders), the impact of increasing the relative humidity and gas

  15. Electron energy distribution functions and transport coefficients relevant for air plasmas in the troposphere: impact of humidity and gas temperature

    Gordillo-Vazquez, F J; Donko, Z

    2009-01-01

    A Boltzmann and Monte Carlo analysis of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and transport coefficients for air plasmas is presented for the conditions of the Earth troposphere where some transient luminous events (TLEs) such as blue jets, blue starters and gigantic jets have been observed. According to recent model results (Minschwaner et al 2004 J. Climate 17 1272) supported by the halogen occultation experiment, the relative humidity of the atmospheric air between 0 and 15 km can change between 15% and 100% depending on the altitude investigated and the ground temperature. The latter results cover a region of latitudes between -25 deg. S and +25 deg. N, that is, the Earth tropical region where lightning and TLE activity is quite high. The calculations shown here suggest that the relative humidity has a clear impact on the behaviour of the EEDF and magnitude of the transport coefficients of air plasmas at ground (0 km) and room temperature conditions (293 K). At higher altitudes (11 and 15 km), the influence of the relative humidity is negligible when the values of the gas temperature are assumed to be the 'natural' ones corresponding to those altitudes, that is, ∼215 K (at 11 km) and ∼198 K (at 15 km). However, it is found that a small enhancement (of maximum 100 K) in the background gas temperature (that could be reasonably associated with the TLE activity) would lead to a remarkable impact of the relative humidity on the EEDF and transport coefficients of air plasmas under the conditions of blue jets, blue starters and gigantic jets at 11 and 15 km. The latter effects are visible for relatively low reduced electric fields (E/N ≤ 25 Td) that could be controlling the afterglow kinetics of the air plasmas generated by TLEs. However, for much higher fields such as, for instance, 400 Td (representative of the fields in the streamer coronas and lightning leaders), the impact of increasing the relative humidity and gas temperature is only slightly

  16. Chaotic oscillations of the Klein-Gordon equation with distributed energy pumping and van der Pol boundary regulation and distributed time-varying coefficients

    Bo Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Consider the Klein-Gordon equation with variable coefficients, a van der Pol cubic nonlinearity in one of the boundary conditions and a spatially distributed antidamping term, we use a variable-substitution technique together with the analogy with the 1-dimensional wave equation to prove that for the Klein-Gordon equation chaos occurs for a class of equations and boundary conditions when system parameters enter a certain regime. Chaotic and nonchaotic profiles of solutions are illustrated by computer graphics.

  17. Adaptive operational modal identification for slow linear time-varying structures based on frozen-in coefficient method and limited memory recursive principal component analysis

    Wang, Cheng; Guan, Wei; Wang, J. Y.; Zhong, Bineng; Lai, Xiongming; Chen, Yewang; Xiang, Liang

    2018-02-01

    To adaptively identify the transient modal parameters for linear weakly damped structures with slow time-varying characteristics under unmeasured stationary random ambient loads, this paper proposes a novel operational modal analysis (OMA) method based on the frozen-in coefficient method and limited memory recursive principal component analysis (LMRPCA). In the modal coordinate, the random vibration response signals of mechanical weakly damped structures can be decomposed into the inner product of modal shapes and modal responses, from which the natural frequencies and damping ratios can be well acquired by single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) identification approach such as FFT. Hence, for the OMA method based on principal component analysis (PCA), it becomes very crucial to examine the relation between the transformational matrix and the modal shapes matrix, to find the association between the principal components (PCs) matrix and the modal responses matrix, and to turn the operational modal parameter identification problem into PCA of the stationary random vibration response signals of weakly damped mechanical structures. Based on the theory of "time-freezing", the method of frozen-in coefficient, and the assumption of "short time invariant" and "quasistationary", the non-stationary random response signals of the weakly damped and slow linear time-varying structures (LTV) can approximately be seen as the stationary random response time series of weakly damped and linear time invariant structures (LTI) in a short interval. Thus, the adaptive identification of time-varying operational modal parameters is turned into decompositing the PCs of stationary random vibration response signals subsection of weakly damped mechanical structures after choosing an appropriate limited memory window. Finally, a three-degree-of-freedom (DOF) structure with weakly damped and slow time-varying mass is presented to illustrate this method of identification. Results show that the LMRPCA

  18. Temperature Dependent Rate Coefficients for the Gas-Phase Reaction of the OH Radical with Linear (L2, L3) and Cyclic (D3, D4) Permethylsiloxanes.

    Bernard, François; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Burkholder, James B

    2018-04-19

    Permethylsiloxanes are emitted into the atmosphere during production and use as personal care products, lubricants, and cleaning agents. The predominate atmospheric loss process for permethylsiloxanes is expected to be via gas-phase reaction with the OH radical. In this study, rate coefficients, k(T), for the OH radical gas-phase reaction with the two simplest linear and cyclic permethylsiloxanes were measured using a pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique over the temperature range of 240-370 K and a relative rate method at 294 K: hexamethyldisiloxane ((CH 3 ) 3 SiOSi(CH 3 ) 3 , L 2 ), k 1 ; octamethyltrisiloxane ([(CH 3 ) 3 SiO] 2 Si(CH 3 ) 2 , L 3 ), k 2 ; hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane ([-Si(CH 3 ) 2 O-] 3 , D 3 ), k 3 ; and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane ([-Si(CH 3 ) 2 O-] 4 , D 4 ), k 4 . The obtained k(294 K) values and temperature-dependence expressions for the 240-370 K temperature range are (cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , 2σ absolute uncertainties): k 1 (294 K) = (1.28 ± 0.08) × 10 -12 , k 1 ( T) = (1.87 ± 0.18) × 10 -11 exp(-(791 ± 27)/ T); k 2 (294 K) = (1.72 ± 0.10) × 10 -12 , k 2 ( T) = 1.96 × 10 -13 (T/298) 4.34 exp(657/ T); k 3 (294 K) = (0.82 ± 0.05) × 10 -12 , k 3 ( T) = (1.29 ± 0.19) × 10 -11 exp(-(805 ± 43)/ T); and k 4 (294 K) = (1.12 ± 0.10) × 10 -12 , k 4 ( T) = (1.80 ± 0.26) × 10 -11 exp(-(816 ± 43)/ T). The cyclic molecules were found to be less reactive than the analogous linear molecule with the same number of -CH 3 groups, while the linear and cyclic permethylsiloxane reactivity both increase with the increasing number of CH 3 - groups. The present results are compared with previous rate coefficient determinations where available. The permethylsiloxanes included in this study are atmospherically short-lived compounds with estimated atmospheric lifetimes of 11, 8, 17, and 13 days, respectively.

  19. Evaluation of the particle size of aggregates used in high density micro-concretes on the gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Albuquerque, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Full text: When a component for protecting against ionizing radiation is designed, the main aim to be accomplished is to attenuate radiations to acceptable values, within tolerable limits. Several materials and arrangements can be utilized as protection, among which we can name concrete, steel, lead plates and mortars. Where low-energy radiations (some dozens of keVs) are involved, the main interaction between radiation and the material is the photoelectric effect, whose radiation absorption depends on the photon and specific atomic number of the absorbent. High-density concretes are made by mixing several materials, and the granulometric mixture and proportion of these will determine the physical and chemical features of the product. When the aim is to develop a concrete trace to be utilized as a protection against gamma and X-ray ionizing radiations in low energies, not only aspects of the structural behavior of the component or material must be evaluated, but also the behavior of the composing materials in face of radiation flow must be studied and known in order to develop a concrete with proper performance and that can meet application requirements; among such requirements we can mention the homogeneity of the applied concrete, which directly affects the effective linear attenuation rate of the component and can assure a good performance in face of demands. In this work, our aim was to evaluate what influence the particle size of the aggregates used for producing of assayed concretes has on the variation of the linear attenuation coefficient at different points of the same sample, results which can be used to obtain the inhomogeneity rate of each case of the analyzed concretes. The concrete samples were prepared with small thicknesses, ten millimeters (10 mm) and to perform the assays, a source of Americium-241 was used to transmit gamma-rays in order to determine the variation that existed in the linear attenuation coefficient of each sample. The following

  20. The development of a high-throughput measurement method of octanol/water distribution coefficient based on hollow fiber membrane solvent microextraction technique.

    Bao, James J; Liu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yong; Li, Youxin

    2014-09-15

    This paper describes the development of a novel high-throughput hollow fiber membrane solvent microextraction technique for the simultaneous measurement of the octanol/water distribution coefficient (logD) for organic compounds such as drugs. The method is based on a designed system, which consists of a 96-well plate modified with 96 hollow fiber membrane tubes and a matching lid with 96 center holes and 96 side holes distributing in 96 grids. Each center hole was glued with a sealed on one end hollow fiber membrane tube, which is used to separate the aqueous phase from the octanol phase. A needle, such as microsyringe or automatic sampler, can be directly inserted into the membrane tube to deposit octanol as the accepted phase or take out the mixture of the octanol and the drug. Each side hole is filled with aqueous phase and could freely take in/out solvent as the donor phase from the outside of the hollow fiber membranes. The logD can be calculated by measuring the drug concentration in each phase after extraction equilibrium. After a comprehensive comparison, the polytetrafluoroethylene hollow fiber with the thickness of 210 μm, an extraction time of 300 min, a temperature of 25 °C and atmospheric pressure without stirring are selected for the high throughput measurement. The correlation coefficient of the linear fit of the logD values of five drugs determined by our system to reference values is 0.9954, showed a nice accurate. The -8.9% intra-day and -4.4% inter-day precision of logD for metronidazole indicates a good precision. In addition, the logD values of eight drugs were simultaneously and successfully measured, which indicated that the 96 throughput measure method of logD value was accurate, precise, reliable and useful for high throughput screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Wigner-Ville Distribution Based on the Linear Canonical Transform and Its Applications for QFM Signal Parameters Estimation

    Yu-E Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD based on the linear canonical transform (LCT (WDL not only has the advantages of the LCT but also has the good properties of WVD. In this paper, some new and important properties of the WDL are derived, and the relationships between WDL and some other time-frequency distributions are discussed, such as the ambiguity function based on LCT (LCTAF, the short-time Fourier transform (STFT, and the wavelet transform (WT. The WDLs of some signals are also deduced. A novel definition of the WVD based on the LCT and generalized instantaneous autocorrelation function (GWDL is proposed and its applications in the estimation of parameters for QFM signals are also discussed. The GWDL of the QFM signal generates an impulse and the third-order phase coefficient of QFM signal can be estimated in accordance with the position information of such impulse. The proposed algorithm is fast because it only requires 1-dimensional maximization. Also the new algorithm only has fourth-order nonlinearity thus it has accurate estimation and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR threshold. The simulation results are provided to support the theoretical results.

  2. Linear time algorithms to construct populations fitting multiple constraint distributions at genomic scales.

    Siragusa, Enrico; Haiminen, Niina; Utro, Filippo; Parida, Laxmi

    2017-10-09

    Computer simulations can be used to study population genetic methods, models and parameters, as well as to predict potential outcomes. For example, in plant populations, predicting the outcome of breeding operations can be studied using simulations. In-silico construction of populations with pre-specified characteristics is an important task in breeding optimization and other population genetic studies. We present two linear time Simulation using Best-fit Algorithms (SimBA) for two classes of problems where each co-fits two distributions: SimBA-LD fits linkage disequilibrium and minimum allele frequency distributions, while SimBA-hap fits founder-haplotype and polyploid allele dosage distributions. An incremental gap-filling version of previously introduced SimBA-LD is here demonstrated to accurately fit the target distributions, allowing efficient large scale simulations. SimBA-hap accuracy and efficiency is demonstrated by simulating tetraploid populations with varying numbers of founder haplotypes, we evaluate both a linear time greedy algoritm and an optimal solution based on mixed-integer programming. SimBA is available on http://researcher.watson.ibm.com/project/5669.

  3. Correlation functions for the distribution coefficients of U(IV) and Pu(III) ions between aqueous nitric acid and 30% TBP in an aliphatic diluent

    Geldard, J.F.; Beyerlein, A.L.; Phillips, L.

    1985-09-01

    Distribution coefficient correlations for U(IV) and Pu(III) are obtained in terms of a modified form of the total nitrate ion salting strength that was successfully used to obtain distribution coefficient correlations for U(VI) and Pu(IV) in the earlier work of G.L. Richardson. The modification of salting strength was needed to account for the fact that the U(IV) distribution coefficients measured under conditions where U(VI) is present consistently fall below those obtained when it is absent. The correlations were incorporated into the mixer-settler computer model PUBG, and in the simulation of a 20-stage 1B partitioning contactor, calculated product stream concentrations were in excellent agreement with experiment. Earlier mixer-settler computer models, which failed to account for U(IV) distribution coefficients, predicted that U(IV) remained in the aqueous product stream, which is contrary to the experimental measurements.

  4. Correlation functions for the distribution coefficients of U(IV) and Pu(III) ions between aqueous nitric acid and 30% TBP in an aliphatic diluent

    Geldard, J.F.; Beyerlein, A.L.; Phillips, L.

    1985-01-01

    Distribution coefficient correlations for U(IV) and Pu(III) are obtained in terms of a modified form of the total nitrate ion salting strength that was successfully used to obtain distribution coefficient correlations for U(VI) and Pu(IV) in the earlier work of G.L. Richardson. The modification of salting strength was needed to account for the fact that the U(IV) distribution coefficients measured under conditions where U(VI) is present consistently fall below those obtained when it is absent. The correlations were incorporated into the mixer-settler computer model PUBG, and in the simulation of a 20-stage 1B partitioning contactor, calculated product stream concentrations were in excellent agreement with experiment. Earlier mixer-settler computer models, which failed to account for U(IV) distribution coefficients, predicted that U(IV) remained in the aqueous product stream, which is contrary to the experimental measurements

  5. Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in degree of linear polarization polarimetry.

    Li, Xiaobo; Hu, Haofeng; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie

    2016-04-04

    We consider the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) polarimetry system, which performs two intensity measurements at orthogonal polarization states to estimate DOLP. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the DOLP estimator depends on the distribution of integration time for two intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time in an approximate way by employing Delta method and Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analyses and real-world experiments, it is shown that the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased for any value of DOLP. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improve the measurement accuracy of the polarimetry system.

  6. SuperLU{_}DIST: A scalable distributed-memory sparse direct solver for unsymmetric linear systems

    Li, Xiaoye S.; Demmel, James W.

    2002-03-27

    In this paper, we present the main algorithmic features in the software package SuperLU{_}DIST, a distributed-memory sparse direct solver for large sets of linear equations. We give in detail our parallelization strategies, with focus on scalability issues, and demonstrate the parallel performance and scalability on current machines. The solver is based on sparse Gaussian elimination, with an innovative static pivoting strategy proposed earlier by the authors. The main advantage of static pivoting over classical partial pivoting is that it permits a priori determination of data structures and communication pattern for sparse Gaussian elimination, which makes it more scalable on distributed memory machines. Based on this a priori knowledge, we designed highly parallel and scalable algorithms for both LU decomposition and triangular solve and we show that they are suitable for large-scale distributed memory machines.

  7. A Linear Algebra Framework for Static High Performance Fortran Code Distribution

    Corinne Ancourt

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Fortran (HPF was developed to support data parallel programming for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD and multiple-instruction multiple-data (MIMD machines with distributed memory. The programmer is provided a familiar uniform logical address space and specifies the data distribution by directives. The compiler then exploits these directives to allocate arrays in the local memories, to assign computations to elementary processors, and to migrate data between processors when required. We show here that linear algebra is a powerful framework to encode HPF directives and to synthesize distributed code with space-efficient array allocation, tight loop bounds, and vectorized communications for INDEPENDENT loops. The generated code includes traditional optimizations such as guard elimination, message vectorization and aggregation, and overlap analysis. The systematic use of an affine framework makes it possible to prove the compilation scheme correct.

  8. Evaluation of sorption distribution coefficient of Cs onto granite using sorption data collected in sorption database and sorption model

    Nagasaki, S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the sorption distribution coefficients (K d ) of Cs onto granite collected from the JAERI Sorption Database (SDB), the parameters for a two-site model without the triple-layer structure were optimized. Comparing the experimentally measured K d values of Cs onto Mizunami granite carried out by JAEA with the K d values predicted by the model, the effect of the ionic strength on the K d values of Cs onto granite was evaluated. It was found that K d values could be determined using the content of biotite in granite at a sodium concentration ([Na]) of 1 x 10 -2 to 5 x 10 -1 mol/dm 3 . It was suggested that in high ionic strength solutions, the sorption of Cs onto other minerals such as microcline should also be taken into account. (author)

  9. Evaluation of sorption distribution coefficient of Cs onto granite using sorption data collected in sorption database and sorption model

    Nagasaki, S., E-mail: nagasas@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Based on the sorption distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) of Cs onto granite collected from the JAERI Sorption Database (SDB), the parameters for a two-site model without the triple-layer structure were optimized. Comparing the experimentally measured K{sub d} values of Cs onto Mizunami granite carried out by JAEA with the K{sub d} values predicted by the model, the effect of the ionic strength on the K{sub d} values of Cs onto granite was evaluated. It was found that K{sub d} values could be determined using the content of biotite in granite at a sodium concentration ([Na]) of 1 x 10{sup -2} to 5 x 10{sup -1} mol/dm{sup 3} . It was suggested that in high ionic strength solutions, the sorption of Cs onto other minerals such as microcline should also be taken into account. (author)

  10. The determination of the cesium distribution coefficient of the interim storage soil from Abadia de Goias, Go, Brazil

    Marumo, J.T.; Suarez, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    In September, 1987, an unauthorized removal of a cesium-therapy unit and its violation caused an accident, where several places of Goiania's city, capital of Goias, Brazil, were contaminated. The removal of the radioactive wastes generated from decontamination process, was made to Abadia de Goias city (near Goiania), where an interim storage was constructed. Soil samples collected from the 57th Street (Goiania) and from the interim storage permitted to determine, through static method, the cesium distribution coefficient for different cesium solution concentrations. Those results allows for some migration/retention evaluations in disposal site selection. Some soils parameters (water content, density, granulometric analysis, etc) as well as clay minerals constituents were also determined. (author) [pt

  11. Analysis of Known Linear Distributed Average Consensus Algorithms on Cycles and Paths

    Jesús Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare six known linear distributed average consensus algorithms on a sensor network in terms of convergence time (and therefore, in terms of the number of transmissions required. The selected network topologies for the analysis (comparison are the cycle and the path. Specifically, in the present paper, we compute closed-form expressions for the convergence time of four known deterministic algorithms and closed-form bounds for the convergence time of two known randomized algorithms on cycles and paths. Moreover, we also compute a closed-form expression for the convergence time of the fastest deterministic algorithm considered on grids.

  12. Effects of Void Uncertainties on Pin Power Distributions and the Void Reactivity Coefficient for a 10X10 BWR Assembly

    Jatuff, F.; Krouthen, J.; Helmersson, S.; Chawla, R.

    2004-01-01

    A significant source of uncertainty in Boiling Water Reactor physics is associated with the precise characterisation of the axially-dependent neutron moderation properties of the coolant inside the fuel assembly channel, and the corresponding effects on reactor physics parameters such as the lattice neutron multiplication, the neutron migration length, and the pin-by-pin power distribution. In this paper, the effects of particularly relevant void fraction uncertainties on reactor physics parameters have been studied for a BWR assembly of type Westinghouse SVEA-96 using the CASMO-4, HELIOS/PRESTO-2 and MCNP4C codes. The SVEA-96 geometry is characterised by the sub-division of the assembly into four different sub-bundles by means of an inner bypass with a cruciform shape. The study has covered the following issues: (a) the effects of different cross-section data libraries on the void coefficient of reactivity, for a wide range of void fractions; (b) the effects due to a heterogeneous vs. homogeneous void distribution inside the sub-bundles; and (c) the consequences of partly inserted absorber blades producing different void fractions in different sub-bundles. (author)

  13. Quasi-stationary states of an electron with linearly dependent effective mass in an open nanostructure within transmission coefficient and S-matrix methods

    Seti, Julia; Tkach, Mykola; Voitsekhivska, Oxana

    2018-03-01

    The exact solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a double-barrier open semiconductor plane nanostructure are obtained by using two different approaches, within the model of the rectangular potential profile and the continuous position-dependent effective mass of the electron. The transmission coefficient and scattering matrix are calculated for the double-barrier nanostructure. The resonance energies and resonance widths of the electron quasi-stationary states are analyzed as a function of the size of the near-interface region between wells and barriers, where the effective mass linearly depends on the coordinate. It is established that, in both methods, the increasing size affects in a qualitatively similar way the spectral characteristics of the states, shifting the resonance energies into the low- or high-energy region and increasing the resonance widths. It is shown that the relative difference of resonance energies and widths of a certain state, obtained in the model of position-dependent effective mass and in the widespread abrupt model in physically correct range of near-interface sizes, does not exceed 0.5% and 5%, respectively, independently of the other geometrical characteristics of the structure.

  14. Determination of the linear coefficient of thermal expansion in polymer films at the nanoscale: influence of the composition of EVA copolymers and the molecular weight of PMMA.

    González-Benito, J; Castillo, E; Cruz-Caldito, J F

    2015-07-28

    Nanothermal-expansion of poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate), EVA, and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, in the form of films was measured to finally obtain linear coefficients of thermal expansion, CTEs. The simple deflection of a cantilever in an atomic force microscope, AFM, was used to monitor thermal expansions at the nanoscale. The influences of: (a) the structure of EVA in terms of its composition (vinylacetate content) and (b) the size of PMMA chains in terms of the molecular weight were studied. To carry out this, several polymer samples were used, EVA copolymers with different weight percents of the vinylacetate comonomer (12, 18, 25 and 40%) and PMMA polymers with different weight average molecular weights (33.9, 64.8, 75.600 and 360.0 kg mol(-1)). The dependencies of the vinyl acetate weight fraction of EVA and the molecular weight of PMMA on their corresponding CTEs were analyzed to finally explain them using new, intuitive and very simple models based on the rule of mixtures. In the case of EVA copolymers a simple equation considering the weighted contributions of each comonomer was enough to estimate the final CTE above the glass transition temperature. On the other hand, when the molecular weight dependence is considered the free volume concept was used as novelty. The expansion of PMMA, at least at the nanoscale, was well and easily described by the sum of the weighted contributions of the occupied and free volumes, respectively.

  15. Load-Flow in Multiphase Distribution Networks: Existence, Uniqueness, Non-Singularity, and Linear Models

    Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Cong [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL); Le Boudec, Jean-Yves [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)

    2018-04-06

    This paper considers unbalanced multiphase distribution systems with generic topology and different load models, and extends the Z-bus iterative load-flow algorithm based on a fixed-point interpretation of the AC load-flow equations. Explicit conditions for existence and uniqueness of load-flow solutions are presented. These conditions also guarantee convergence of the load-flow algorithm to the unique solution. The proposed methodology is applicable to generic systems featuring (i) wye connections; (ii) ungrounded delta connections; (iii) a combination of wye-connected and delta-connected sources/loads; and, (iv) a combination of line-to-line and line-to-grounded-neutral devices at the secondary of distribution transformers. Further, a sufficient condition for the non-singularity of the load-flow Jacobian is proposed. Finally, linear load-flow models are derived, and their approximation accuracy is analyzed. Theoretical results are corroborated through experiments on IEEE test feeders.

  16. Decentralized Observer with a Consensus Filter for Distributed Discrete-Time Linear Systems

    Acikmese, Behcet; Mandic, Milan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a decentralized observer with a consensus filter for the state observation of a discrete-time linear distributed systems. In this setup, each agent in the distributed system has an observer with a model of the plant that utilizes the set of locally available measurements, which may not make the full plant state detectable. This lack of detectability is overcome by utilizing a consensus filter that blends the state estimate of each agent with its neighbors' estimates. We assume that the communication graph is connected for all times as well as the sensing graph. It is proven that the state estimates of the proposed observer asymptotically converge to the actual plant states under arbitrarily changing, but connected, communication and sensing topologies. As a byproduct of this research, we also obtained a result on the location of eigenvalues, the spectrum, of the Laplacian for a family of graphs with self-loops.

  17. Distribution functions for the linear region of the S-N curve

    Mueller, Christian; Waechter, Michael; Masendorf, Rainer; Esderts, Alfons [TU Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. for Plant Engineering and Fatigue Analysis

    2017-08-01

    This study establishes a database containing the results of fatigue tests from the linear region of the S-N curve using sources from the literature. Each set of test results originates from testing metallic components on a single load level. Eighty-nine test series with sample sizes of 14 ≤ n ≤ 500 are included in the database, resulting in a sum of 6,086 individual test results. The test series are tested in terms of the type of distribution function (log-normal or 2-parameter Weibull) using the Shapiro-Wilk test, the Anderson-Darling test and probability plots. The majority of the tested individual test results follows a log-normal distribution.

  18. Accurate Evaluation of Expected Shortfall for Linear Portfolios with Elliptically Distributed Risk Factors

    Dobrislav Dobrev∗

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide an accurate closed-form expression for the expected shortfall of linear portfolios with elliptically distributed risk factors. Our results aim to correct inaccuracies that originate in Kamdem (2005 and are present also in at least thirty other papers referencing it, including the recent survey by Nadarajah et al. (2014 on estimation methods for expected shortfall. In particular, we show that the correction we provide in the popular multivariate Student t setting eliminates understatement of expected shortfall by a factor varying from at least four to more than 100 across different tail quantiles and degrees of freedom. As such, the resulting economic impact in financial risk management applications could be significant. We further correct such errors encountered also in closely related results in Kamdem (2007 and 2009 for mixtures of elliptical distributions. More generally, our findings point to the extra scrutiny required when deploying new methods for expected shortfall estimation in practice.

  19. Privacy-Preserving Distributed Linear Regression on High-Dimensional Data

    Gascón Adrià

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose privacy-preserving protocols for computing linear regression models, in the setting where the training dataset is vertically distributed among several parties. Our main contribution is a hybrid multi-party computation protocol that combines Yao’s garbled circuits with tailored protocols for computing inner products. Like many machine learning tasks, building a linear regression model involves solving a system of linear equations. We conduct a comprehensive evaluation and comparison of different techniques for securely performing this task, including a new Conjugate Gradient Descent (CGD algorithm. This algorithm is suitable for secure computation because it uses an efficient fixed-point representation of real numbers while maintaining accuracy and convergence rates comparable to what can be obtained with a classical solution using floating point numbers. Our technique improves on Nikolaenko et al.’s method for privacy-preserving ridge regression (S&P 2013, and can be used as a building block in other analyses. We implement a complete system and demonstrate that our approach is highly scalable, solving data analysis problems with one million records and one hundred features in less than one hour of total running time.

  20. Simulation of temporal and spatial distribution of required irrigation water by crop models and the pan evaporation coefficient method

    Yang, Yan-min; Yang, Yonghui; Han, Shu-min; Hu, Yu-kun

    2009-07-01

    Hebei Plain is the most important agricultural belt in North China. Intensive irrigation, low and uneven precipitation have led to severe water shortage on the plain. This study is an attempt to resolve this crucial issue of water shortage for sustainable agricultural production and water resources management. The paper models distributed regional irrigation requirement for a range of cultivated crops on the plain. Classic crop models like DSSAT- wheat/maize and COTTON2K are used in combination with pan-evaporation coefficient method to estimate water requirements for wheat, corn, cotton, fruit-trees and vegetables. The approach is more accurate than the static approach adopted in previous studies. This is because the combination use of crop models and pan-evaporation coefficient method dynamically accounts for irrigation requirement at different growth stages of crops, agronomic practices, and field and climatic conditions. The simulation results show increasing Required Irrigation Amount (RIA) with time. RIA ranges from 5.08×109 m3 to 14.42×109 m3 for the period 1986~2006, with an annual average of 10.6×109 m3. Percent average water use by wheat, fruit trees, vegetable, corn and cotton is 41%, 12%, 12%, 11%, 7% and 17% respectively. RIA for April and May (the period with the highest irrigation water use) is 1.78×109 m3 and 2.41×109 m3 respectively. The counties in the piedmont regions of Mount Taihang have high RIA while the central and eastern regions/counties have low irrigation requirement.

  1. Analytic characterization of linear accelerator radiosurgery dose distributions for fast optimization

    Meeks, S.L.; Buatti, J.M.; Eyster, B.; Kendrick, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Linear accelerator (linac) radiosurgery utilizes non-coplanar arc therapy delivered through circular collimators. Generally, spherically symmetric arc sets are used, resulting in nominally spherical dose distributions. Various treatment planning parameters may be manipulated to provide dose conformation to irregular lesions. Iterative manipulation of these variables can be a difficult and time-consuming task, because (a) understanding the effect of these parameters is complicated and (b) three-dimensional (3D) dose calculations are computationally expensive. This manipulation can be simplified, however, because the prescription isodose surface for all single isocentre distributions can be approximated by conic sections. In this study, the effects of treatment planning parameter manipulation on the dimensions of the treatment isodose surface were determined empirically. These dimensions were then fitted to analytic functions, assuming that the dose distributions were characterized as conic sections. These analytic functions allowed real-time approximation of the 3D isodose surface. Iterative plan optimization, either manual or automated, is achieved more efficiently using this real time approximation of the dose matrix. Subsequent to iterative plan optimization, the analytic function is related back to the appropriate plan parameters, and the dose distribution is determined using conventional dosimetry calculations. This provides a pseudo-inverse approach to radiosurgery optimization, based solely on geometric considerations. (author)

  2. Magnetic Flux Distribution of Linear Machines with Novel Three-Dimensional Hybrid Magnet Arrays

    Nan Yao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose a novel tubular linear machine with hybrid permanent magnet arrays and multiple movers, which could be employed for either actuation or sensing technology. The hybrid magnet array produces flux distribution on both sides of windings, and thus helps to increase the signal strength in the windings. The multiple movers are important for airspace technology, because they can improve the system’s redundancy and reliability. The proposed design concept is presented, and the governing equations are obtained based on source free property and Maxwell equations. The magnetic field distribution in the linear machine is thus analytically formulated by using Bessel functions and harmonic expansion of magnetization vector. Numerical simulation is then conducted to validate the analytical solutions of the magnetic flux field. It is proved that the analytical model agrees with the numerical results well. Therefore, it can be utilized for the formulation of signal or force output subsequently, depending on its particular implementation.

  3. An Efficacious Multi-Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming Approach for Optimal Power Flow Considering Distributed Generation.

    Warid, Warid; Hizam, Hashim; Mariun, Norman; Abdul-Wahab, Noor Izzri

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new formulation for the multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF) problem for meshed power networks considering distributed generation. An efficacious multi-objective fuzzy linear programming optimization (MFLP) algorithm is proposed to solve the aforementioned problem with and without considering the distributed generation (DG) effect. A variant combination of objectives is considered for simultaneous optimization, including power loss, voltage stability, and shunt capacitors MVAR reserve. Fuzzy membership functions for these objectives are designed with extreme targets, whereas the inequality constraints are treated as hard constraints. The multi-objective fuzzy optimal power flow (OPF) formulation was converted into a crisp OPF in a successive linear programming (SLP) framework and solved using an efficient interior point method (IPM). To test the efficacy of the proposed approach, simulations are performed on the IEEE 30-busand IEEE 118-bus test systems. The MFLP optimization is solved for several optimization cases. The obtained results are compared with those presented in the literature. A unique solution with a high satisfaction for the assigned targets is gained. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MFLP technique in terms of solution optimality and rapid convergence. Moreover, the results indicate that using the optimal DG location with the MFLP algorithm provides the solution with the highest quality.

  4. Correlation between octanol/water and liposome/water distribution coefficients and drug absorption of a set of pharmacologically active compounds.

    Esteves, Freddy; Moutinho, Carla; Matos, Carla

    2013-06-01

    Absorption and consequent therapeutic action are key issues in the development of new drugs by the pharmaceutical industry. In this sense, different models can be used to simulate biological membranes to predict the absorption of a drug. This work compared the octanol/water and the liposome/water models. The parameters used to relate the two models were the distribution coefficients between liposomes and water and octanol and water and the fraction of drug orally absorbed. For this study, 66 drugs were collected from literature sources and divided into four groups according to charge and ionization degree: neutral; positively charged; negatively charged; and partially ionized/zwitterionic. The results show a satisfactory linear correlation between the octanol and liposome systems for the neutral (R²= 0.9324) and partially ionized compounds (R²= 0.9367), contrary to the positive (R²= 0.4684) and negatively charged compounds (R²= 0.1487). In the case of neutral drugs, results were similar in both models because of the high fraction orally absorbed. However, for the charged drugs (positively, negatively, and partially ionized/zwitterionic), the liposomal model has a more-appropriate correlation with absorption than the octanol model. These results show that the neutral compounds only interact with membranes through hydrophobic bonds, whereas charged drugs favor electrostatic interactions established with the liposomes. With this work, we concluded that liposomes may be a more-appropriate biomembrane model than octanol for charged compounds.

  5. Biologically effective dose distribution based on the linear quadratic model and its clinical relevance

    Lee, Steve P.; Leu, Min Y.; Smathers, James B.; McBride, William H.; Parker, Robert G.; Withers, H. Rodney

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy plans based on physical dose distributions do not necessarily entirely reflect the biological effects under various fractionation schemes. Over the past decade, the linear-quadratic (LQ) model has emerged as a convenient tool to quantify biological effects for radiotherapy. In this work, we set out to construct a mechanism to display biologically oriented dose distribution based on the LQ model. Methods and Materials: A computer program that converts a physical dose distribution calculated by a commercially available treatment planning system to a biologically effective dose (BED) distribution has been developed and verified against theoretical calculations. This software accepts a user's input of biological parameters for each structure of interest (linear and quadratic dose-response and repopulation kinetic parameters), as well as treatment scheme factors (number of fractions, fractional dose, and treatment time). It then presents a two-dimensional BED display in conjunction with anatomical structures. Furthermore, to facilitate clinicians' intuitive comparison with conventional fractionation regimen, a conversion of BED to normalized isoeffective dose (NID) is also allowed. Results: Two sample cases serve to illustrate the application of our tool in clinical practice. (a) For an orthogonal wedged pair of x-ray beams treating a maxillary sinus tumor, the biological effect at the ipsilateral mandible can be quantified, thus illustrates the so-called 'double-trouble' effects very well. (b) For a typical four-field, evenly weighted prostate treatment using 10 MV x-rays, physical dosimetry predicts a comparable dose at the femoral necks between an alternate two-fields/day and four-fields/day schups. However, our BED display reveals an approximate 21% higher BED for the two-fields/day scheme. This excessive dose to the femoral necks can be eliminated if the treatment is delivered with a 3:2 (anterio-posterior/posterio-anterior (AP

  6. Optimization of enrichment distributions in nuclear fuel assemblies loaded with Uranium and Plutonium via a modified linear programming technique

    Cuevas Vivas, Gabriel Francisco

    1999-12-01

    A methodology to optimize enrichment distributions in Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies is developed and tested. The optimization technique employed is the linear programming revised simplex method, and the fuel assembly's performance is evaluated with a neutron transport code that is also utilized in the calculation of sensitivity coefficients. The enrichment distribution optimization procedure begins from a single-value (flat) enrichment distribution until a target, maximum local power peaking factor, is achieved. The optimum rod enrichment distribution, with 1.00 for the maximum local power peaking factor and with each rod having its own enrichment, is calculated at an intermediate stage of the analysis. Later, the best locations and values for a reduced number of rod enrichments is obtained as a function of a target maximum local power peaking factor by applying sensitivity to change techniques. Finally, a shuffling process that assigns individual rod enrichments among the enrichment groups is performed. The relative rod power distribution is then slightly modified and the rod grouping redefined until the optimum configuration is attained. To verify the accuracy of the relative rod power distribution, a full computation with the neutron transport code using the optimum enrichment distribution is carried out. The results are compared and tested for assembly designs loaded with fresh Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and plutonium Mixed Oxide (MOX) isotopics for both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium were utilized to demonstrate the wide range of applicability of the optimization technique. The feature of the assembly designs used for evaluation purposes included burnable absorbers and internal water regions, and were prepared to resemble the configurations of modern assemblies utilized in commercial Boiling Water Reactor (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). In some cases, a net improvement in the relative rod power distribution or in the

  7. Spatial Distribution of the Coefficient of Variation and Bayesian Forecast for the Paleo-Earthquakes in Japan

    Nomura, Shunichi; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Bayesian method of probability forecasting for recurrent earthquakes of inland active faults in Japan. Renewal processes with the Brownian Passage Time (BPT) distribution are applied for over a half of active faults in Japan by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japan. Long-term forecast with the BPT distribution needs two parameters; the mean and coefficient of variation (COV) for recurrence intervals. The HERP applies a common COV parameter for all of these faults because most of them have very few specified paleoseismic events, which is not enough to estimate reliable COV values for respective faults. However, different COV estimates are proposed for the same paleoseismic catalog by some related works. It can make critical difference in forecast to apply different COV estimates and so COV should be carefully selected for individual faults. Recurrence intervals on a fault are, on the average, determined by the long-term slip rate caused by the tectonic motion but fluctuated by nearby seismicities which influence surrounding stress field. The COVs of recurrence intervals depend on such stress perturbation and so have spatial trends due to the heterogeneity of tectonic motion and seismicity. Thus we introduce a spatial structure on its COV parameter by Bayesian modeling with a Gaussian process prior. The COVs on active faults are correlated and take similar values for closely located faults. It is found that the spatial trends in the estimated COV values coincide with the density of active faults in Japan. We also show Bayesian forecasts by the proposed model using Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Our forecasts are different from HERP's forecast especially on the active faults where HERP's forecasts are very high or low.

  8. TU-F-18C-05: Evaluation of a Method to Calculate Patient-Oriented MGD Coefficients Using Estimates of Glandular Tissue Distribution

    Porras-Chaverri, M; Galavis, P; Bakic, P; Vetter, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate mammographic mean glandular dose (MGD) coefficients for particular known tissue distributions using a novel formalism that incorporates the effect of the heterogeneous glandular tissue distribution, by comparing them with MGD coefficients derived from the corresponding anthropomorphic computer breast phantom. Methods: MGD coefficients were obtained using MCNP5 simulations with the currently used homogeneous assumption and the heterogeneously-layered breast (HLB) geometry and compared against those from the computer phantom (ground truth). The tissue distribution for the HLB geometry was estimated using glandularity map image pairs corrected for the presence of non-glandular fibrous tissue. Heterogeneity of tissue distribution was quantified using the glandular tissue distribution index, Idist. The phantom had 5 cm compressed breast thickness (MLO and CC views) and 29% whole breast glandular percentage. Results: Differences as high as 116% were found between the MGD coefficients with the homogeneous breast core assumption and those from the corresponding ground truth. Higher differences were found for cases with more heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue. The Idist for all cases was in the [−0.8 − +0.3] range. The use of the methods presented in this work results in better agreement with ground truth with an improvement as high as 105 pp. The decrease in difference across all phantom cases was in the [9 − 105] pp range, dependent on the distribution of glandular tissue and was larger for the cases with the highest Idist values. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of corrected glandularity image pairs, as well as the HLB geometry, improves the estimates of MGD conversion coefficients by accounting for the distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. The accuracy of this approach with respect to ground truth is highly dependent on the particular glandular tissue distribution studied. Predrag Bakic discloses current

  9. Determination of the coefficient of uranium and thorium distribution in phosphogypsum for their use in sanitary landfills

    Marchesi, Marcos Vinicius A.; Hama, Naruhiko; Jacomino, Vanusa M. F.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D. S., E-mail: mvmarchesi@hotmail.com, E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.br, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.br, E-mail: ana.ladeira@cdtn.br, E-mail: naruhikohama@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do; Taddei, Maria Helena, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2013-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a byproduct from the production of phosphoric acid, and contain radionuclides, heavy metals and metalloids from phosphate rock. It represents a risk to the environment if improperly stored. Because it is composed mainly of dihydrated calcium sulphate, phosphogypsum can be used in anaerobic environments such as those found in landfills to accelerate microbial processes of decomposition of municipal solid waste and thus increase the life of these facilities. One of the options of your application being studied is the use of phosphogypsum replacing the covers of soil/clay in landfills. Besides reducing the demand for soil and clay, this application would be an alternative to disposal of the waste, since the alternatives are not sufficient for more than five million tons produced per year in Brazil. To ensure the safety of this application, the potential environmental impact of contaminants in phosphogypsum should be evaluated. The rate of leaching of contaminants are being studied by determining the coefficient of distribution of the contaminants in the phosphogypsum. Batch tests were performed by mixing different proportions of slurry and phosphogypsum. This work presents the results for the chain of uranium and natural thorium.

  10. Determination of distribution coefficients for 134 Cs, 60 Co and 234 Th radionuclides in Pinheiro river sediment

    Lima, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution coefficients (K α) were determined in order to foresee the fate of the radionuclides discharged to the environment. Based upon the source-term released by IPEN's facilities in Pinheiros River during the year of 1988, three radionuclides were chosen as being the more critical, according to the radiation protection standards: 137 Cs, 60 Co and 232 Th. Their K α were determined experimentally in laboratory by using the corresponding radioactive tracers 134 Cs, 60 Co and 234 Th. Three different experimental methodologies were used: the static method, the shaken method and the dynamic method. The parameters studied were the effects of pH, aerobic condition and time of contact. The results obtained experimentally for the Kds confirm the predictions that: the cesium is slowly retained by the sediment along the Pinheiros River, the cobalt is an unstable element, therefore its retention by the sediment is affected by variations in the pH values, and finally, the thorium is almost completely retained in the vicinity of the discharge point. (author)

  11. Determination of the coefficient of uranium and thorium distribution in phosphogypsum for their use in sanitary landfills

    Marchesi, Marcos Vinicius A.; Hama, Naruhiko; Jacomino, Vanusa M. F.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D. S.; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do; Taddei, Maria Helena

    2013-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a byproduct from the production of phosphoric acid, and contain radionuclides, heavy metals and metalloids from phosphate rock. It represents a risk to the environment if improperly stored. Because it is composed mainly of dihydrated calcium sulphate, phosphogypsum can be used in anaerobic environments such as those found in landfills to accelerate microbial processes of decomposition of municipal solid waste and thus increase the life of these facilities. One of the options of your application being studied is the use of phosphogypsum replacing the covers of soil/clay in landfills. Besides reducing the demand for soil and clay, this application would be an alternative to disposal of the waste, since the alternatives are not sufficient for more than five million tons produced per year in Brazil. To ensure the safety of this application, the potential environmental impact of contaminants in phosphogypsum should be evaluated. The rate of leaching of contaminants are being studied by determining the coefficient of distribution of the contaminants in the phosphogypsum. Batch tests were performed by mixing different proportions of slurry and phosphogypsum. This work presents the results for the chain of uranium and natural thorium

  12. From linear possibility distributions to a non-infinitesimal probabilistic semantics of conditional knowledge

    Benferhat, S.; Dubois, D.; Prade, H. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)

    1996-12-31

    The authors have proposed in their previous works to view a set of default information of the form, {open_quotes}generally, from {alpha}{sub i} deduce {beta}{sub i}{close_quotes}, as the family of possibility distributions satisfying constraints expressing that the situations where {alpha}{sub 1} {beta}{sub i} is true are more possible than the situations where {alpha}{sub i} {beta}{sub i} is true. This provides a representation theorem for default reasoning obeying the System P of postulates proposed by Lehmann et al., and for which it also exists a semantics in terms of infinitesimal probabilities. This paper offers a detailed analysis of the structure of this family of possibility distributions by making use of two different orderings between them: the specificity ordering and the refinement ordering. It is shown that from a representation point of view, it is sufficient to consider the subset of linear possibility distributions which corresponds to all the possible completions of the default knowledge in agreement with the constraints. Surprisingly, it is also shown that a standard probabilistic semantics can be equivalently given to System P, without referring to infinitesimals, by using a special family of probability measures, here called acceptance functions, and that has been also recently considered by Snow in that perspective.

  13. Optimal Operation of Distribution Electronic Power Transformer Using Linear Quadratic Regulator Method

    Mohammad Hosein Rezaei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Transformers perform many functions such as voltage transformation, isolation and noise decoupling. They are indispensable components in electric power distribution system. However, at low frequencies (50 Hz, they are one of the heaviest and the most expensive equipment in an electrical distribution system. Nowadays, electronic power transformers are used instead of conventional power transformers that do voltage transformation and power delivery in power system by power electronic converter. In this paper, the structure of distribution electronic power transformer (DEPT are analized and then paid attention on the design of a linear-quadratic-regulator (LQR with integral action to improve dynamic performance of DEPT with voltage unbalance, voltage sags, voltage harmonics and voltage flicker. The presentation control strategy is simulated by MATLAB/SIMULINK. In addition, the results that are in terms of dc-link reference voltage, input and output voltages clearly show that a better dynamic performance can be achieved by using the LQR method when compared to other techniques.

  14. Experimental determination of the distribution coefficient (Kd) of lead and barium in soils of semiarid region of Bahia, Brazil; Determinacao experimental do coeficiente de distribuicao (Kd) de chumbo e bario em solos da regiao semiarida do estado da Bahia

    Santos, Mariana M.; Fernandes, Heloisa H.F; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth M.; Su, Jian, E-mail: mariana@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: heloisa@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: bettinadulley@hotmail.com, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COOPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Simulacao e Metodos em Engenharia

    2013-07-01

    To determine the concentration of heavy metals and other contaminants in soils, aimed at evaluating the environmental impact, the use of the distribution coefficient is required (Kd), defined as the relationship between the concentrations adsorbed and in solution. The objective of this study was to determine the rates for the Lead and Barium metals in soil collected in Caetite, the state of Bahia, in two different depths. The importance of determining the distribution coefficient lies in the fact that being performed using a tropical soil. For the isotherms of Kd was used batch test method by adsorption to obtain the final concentrations. The first step was to determine the best ratio soil: solution obtained after equilibration time and finally the equilibrium concentration of the contaminant. Were also calculated percentages of the metal adsorbed by the soil and the amount of solute by the adsorbent. With the values obtained in experiments and using Mathematica 8.0 software, were made graphics equilibrium concentration versus quantity adsorbed (C vs. S). It can also plot isotherms for different models of Kd: linear, Langmuir and Freundlich in order to determine which adsorption model would fit best to the measured data and thus determine the distribution coefficient of the metal in the soil analyzed. The Freundlich isotherm was better adapted to the points of the two metals in both soils.

  15. Relativistic neoclassical transport coefficients with momentum correction

    Marushchenko, I.; Azarenkov, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    The parallel momentum correction technique is generalized for relativistic approach. It is required for proper calculation of the parallel neoclassical flows and, in particular, for the bootstrap current at fusion temperatures. It is shown that the obtained system of linear algebraic equations for parallel fluxes can be solved directly without calculation of the distribution function if the relativistic mono-energetic transport coefficients are already known. The first relativistic correction terms for Braginskii matrix coefficients are calculated.

  16. Implementation and Performance Evaluation of Distributed Cloud Storage Solutions using Random Linear Network Coding

    Fitzek, Frank; Toth, Tamas; Szabados, Áron

    2014-01-01

    This paper advocates the use of random linear network coding for storage in distributed clouds in order to reduce storage and traffic costs in dynamic settings, i.e. when adding and removing numerous storage devices/clouds on-the-fly and when the number of reachable clouds is limited. We introduce...... various network coding approaches that trade-off reliability, storage and traffic costs, and system complexity relying on probabilistic recoding for cloud regeneration. We compare these approaches with other approaches based on data replication and Reed-Solomon codes. A simulator has been developed...... to carry out a thorough performance evaluation of the various approaches when relying on different system settings, e.g., finite fields, and network/storage conditions, e.g., storage space used per cloud, limited network use, and limited recoding capabilities. In contrast to standard coding approaches, our...

  17. Random Linear Network Coding is Key to Data Survival in Highly Dynamic Distributed Storage

    Sipos, Marton A.; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Distributed storage solutions have become widespread due to their ability to store large amounts of data reliably across a network of unreliable nodes, by employing repair mechanisms to prevent data loss. Conventional systems rely on static designs with a central control entity to oversee...... and control the repair process. Given the large costs for maintaining and cooling large data centers, our work proposes and studies the feasibility of a fully decentralized systems that can store data even on unreliable and, sometimes, unavailable mobile devices. This imposes new challenges on the design...... as the number of available nodes varies greatly over time and keeping track of the system's state becomes unfeasible. As a consequence, conventional erasure correction approaches are ill-suited for maintaining data integrity. In this highly dynamic context, random linear network coding (RLNC) provides...

  18. A distributed-memory hierarchical solver for general sparse linear systems

    Chen, Chao [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Inst. for Computational and Mathematical Engineering; Pouransari, Hadi [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Boman, Erik G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Darve, Eric [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Inst. for Computational and Mathematical Engineering and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-12-20

    We present a parallel hierarchical solver for general sparse linear systems on distributed-memory machines. For large-scale problems, this fully algebraic algorithm is faster and more memory-efficient than sparse direct solvers because it exploits the low-rank structure of fill-in blocks. Depending on the accuracy of low-rank approximations, the hierarchical solver can be used either as a direct solver or as a preconditioner. The parallel algorithm is based on data decomposition and requires only local communication for updating boundary data on every processor. Moreover, the computation-to-communication ratio of the parallel algorithm is approximately the volume-to-surface-area ratio of the subdomain owned by every processor. We also provide various numerical results to demonstrate the versatility and scalability of the parallel algorithm.

  19. A simplified calculation procedure for mass isotopomer distribution analysis (MIDA) based on multiple linear regression.

    Fernández-Fernández, Mario; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a novel, rapid and easy calculation procedure for Mass Isotopomer Distribution Analysis based on multiple linear regression which allows the simultaneous calculation of the precursor pool enrichment and the fraction of newly synthesized labelled proteins (fractional synthesis) using linear algebra. To test this approach, we used the peptide RGGGLK as a model tryptic peptide containing three subunits of glycine. We selected glycine labelled in two 13 C atoms ( 13 C 2 -glycine) as labelled amino acid to demonstrate that spectral overlap is not a problem in the proposed methodology. The developed methodology was tested first in vitro by changing the precursor pool enrichment from 10 to 40% of 13 C 2 -glycine. Secondly, a simulated in vivo synthesis of proteins was designed by combining the natural abundance RGGGLK peptide and 10 or 20% 13 C 2 -glycine at 1 : 1, 1 : 3 and 3 : 1 ratios. Precursor pool enrichments and fractional synthesis values were calculated with satisfactory precision and accuracy using a simple spreadsheet. This novel approach can provide a relatively rapid and easy means to measure protein turnover based on stable isotope tracers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Modeling exposure–lag–response associations with distributed lag non-linear models

    Gasparrini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In biomedical research, a health effect is frequently associated with protracted exposures of varying intensity sustained in the past. The main complexity of modeling and interpreting such phenomena lies in the additional temporal dimension needed to express the association, as the risk depends on both intensity and timing of past exposures. This type of dependency is defined here as exposure–lag–response association. In this contribution, I illustrate a general statistical framework for such associations, established through the extension of distributed lag non-linear models, originally developed in time series analysis. This modeling class is based on the definition of a cross-basis, obtained by the combination of two functions to flexibly model linear or nonlinear exposure-responses and the lag structure of the relationship, respectively. The methodology is illustrated with an example application to cohort data and validated through a simulation study. This modeling framework generalizes to various study designs and regression models, and can be applied to study the health effects of protracted exposures to environmental factors, drugs or carcinogenic agents, among others. © 2013 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24027094

  1. Distributed Leader-Following Finite-Time Consensus Control for Linear Multiagent Systems under Switching Topology

    Xu, Xiaole; Chen, Shengyong

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the finite-time consensus problem of leader-following multiagent systems. The dynamical models for all following agents and the leader are assumed the same general form of linear system, and the interconnection topology among the agents is assumed to be switching and undirected. We mostly consider the continuous-time case. By assuming that the states of neighbouring agents are known to each agent, a sufficient condition is established for finite-time consensus via a neighbor-based state feedback protocol. While the states of neighbouring agents cannot be available and only the outputs of neighbouring agents can be accessed, the distributed observer-based consensus protocol is proposed for each following agent. A sufficient condition is provided in terms of linear matrix inequalities to design the observer-based consensus protocol, which makes the multiagent systems achieve finite-time consensus under switching topologies. Then, we discuss the counterparts for discrete-time case. Finally, we provide an illustrative example to show the effectiveness of the design approach. PMID:24883367

  2. Estimating spatially distributed monthly evapotranspiration rates by linear transformations of MODIS daytime land surface temperature data

    J. Szilagyi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Under simplifying conditions catchment-scale vapor pressure at the drying land surface can be calculated as a function of its watershed-representative temperature (<Ts> by the wet-surface equation (WSE, similar to the wet-bulb equation in meteorology for calculating the dry-bulb thermometer vapor pressure of the Complementary Relationship of evaporation. The corresponding watershed ET rate, , is obtained from the Bowen ratio with the help of air temperature, humidity and percent possible sunshine data. The resulting (<Ts>, pair together with the wet-environment surface temperature (<Tws> and ET rate (ETw, obtained by the Priestley-Taylor equation, define a linear transformation on a monthly basis by which spatially distributed ET rates can be estimated as a sole function of MODIS daytime land surface temperature, Ts, values within the watershed. The linear transformation preserves the mean which is highly desirable. <Tws>, in the lack of significant open water surfaces within the study watershed (Elkhorn, Nebraska, was obtained as the mean of the smallest MODIS Ts values each month. The resulting period-averaged (2000–2007 catchment-scale ET rate of 624 mm/yr is very close to the water-balance derived ET rate of about 617 mm/yr. The latter is a somewhat uncertain value due to the effects of (a observed groundwater depletion of about 1m over the study period caused by extensive irrigation, and; (b the uncertain rate of net regional groundwater supply toward the watershed. The spatially distributed ET rates correspond well with soil/aquifer properties and the resulting land use type (i.e. rangeland versus center-pivot irrigated crops.

  3. Spectro-ellipsometric studies of sputtered amorphous Titanium dioxide thin films: simultaneous determination of refractive index, extinction coefficient, and void distribution

    Lee, S I; Oh, S G

    1999-01-01

    Amorphous titanium dioxide thin films were deposited onto silicon substrates by using RF magnetron sputtering, and the index of refraction, the extinction coefficient, and the void distribution of these films were simultaneously determined from the analyses of there ellipsometric spectra. In particular, our novel strategy, which combines the merits of multi-sample fitting, the dual dispersion function, and grid search, was proven successful in determining optical constants over a wide energy range, including the energy region where the extinction coefficient was large. Moreover, we found that the void distribution was dependent on the deposition conditions, such as the sputtering power, the substrate temperature, and the substrate surface.

  4. A novel method for the investigation of liquid/liquid distribution coefficients and interface permeabilities applied to the water-octanol-drug system.

    Stein, Paul C; di Cagno, Massimiliano; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2011-09-01

    In this work a new, accurate and convenient technique for the measurement of distribution coefficients and membrane permeabilities based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described. This method is a novel implementation of localized NMR spectroscopy and enables the simultaneous analysis of the drug content in the octanol and in the water phase without separation. For validation of the method, the distribution coefficients at pH = 7.4 of four active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely ibuprofen, ketoprofen, nadolol, and paracetamol (acetaminophen), were determined using a classical approach. These results were compared to the NMR experiments which are described in this work. For all substances, the respective distribution coefficients found with the two techniques coincided very well. Furthermore, the NMR experiments make it possible to follow the distribution of the drug between the phases as a function of position and time. Our results show that the technique, which is available on any modern NMR spectrometer, is well suited to the measurement of distribution coefficients. The experiments present also new insight into the dynamics of the water-octanol interface itself and permit measurement of the interface permeability.

  5. Ion Exchange Distribution Coefficient Tests and Computer Modeling at High Ionic Strength Supporting Technetium Removal Resin Maturation

    Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, Frank G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-12-19

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for this facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW). Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and poured into canisters for disposition. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Due to the water solubility properties of pertechnetate and long half-life of 99Tc, effective management of 99Tc is important to the overall success of the Hanford River Protection Project mission. To achieve the full target WTP throughput, additional LAW immobilization capacity is needed, and options are being explored to immobilize the supplemental LAW portion of the tank waste. Removal of 99Tc, followed by off-site disposal, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for supplemental LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing 99Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. To enable an informed decision regarding the viability of technetium removal, further maturation of available technologies is being performed. This report contains results of experimental ion exchange distribution coefficient testing and computer modeling using the resin SuperLig® 639a to selectively remove perrhenate from high ionic strength simulated LAW. It is advantageous to operate at higher concentration in order to treat the waste

  6. Non-linear learning in online tutorial to enhance students’ knowledge on normal distribution application topic

    Kartono; Suryadi, D.; Herman, T.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the enhancement of non-linear learning (NLL) in the online tutorial (OT) content to students’ knowledge of normal distribution application (KONDA). KONDA is a competence expected to be achieved after students studied the topic of normal distribution application in the course named Education Statistics. The analysis was performed by quasi-experiment study design. The subject of the study was divided into an experimental class that was given OT content in NLL model and a control class which was given OT content in conventional learning (CL) model. Data used in this study were the results of online objective tests to measure students’ statistical prior knowledge (SPK) and students’ pre- and post-test of KONDA. The statistical analysis test of a gain score of KONDA of students who had low and moderate SPK’s scores showed students’ KONDA who learn OT content with NLL model was better than students’ KONDA who learn OT content with CL model. Meanwhile, for students who had high SPK’s scores, the gain score of students who learn OT content with NLL model had relatively similar with the gain score of students who learn OT content with CL model. Based on those findings it could be concluded that the NLL model applied to OT content could enhance KONDA of students in low and moderate SPK’s levels. Extra and more challenging didactical situation was needed for students in high SPK’s level to achieve the significant gain score.

  7. Accelerated Cyclic Reduction: A Distributed-Memory Fast Solver for Structured Linear Systems

    Chávez, Gustavo

    2017-12-15

    We present Accelerated Cyclic Reduction (ACR), a distributed-memory fast solver for rank-compressible block tridiagonal linear systems arising from the discretization of elliptic operators, developed here for three dimensions. Algorithmic synergies between Cyclic Reduction and hierarchical matrix arithmetic operations result in a solver that has O(kNlogN(logN+k2)) arithmetic complexity and O(k Nlog N) memory footprint, where N is the number of degrees of freedom and k is the rank of a block in the hierarchical approximation, and which exhibits substantial concurrency. We provide a baseline for performance and applicability by comparing with the multifrontal method with and without hierarchical semi-separable matrices, with algebraic multigrid and with the classic cyclic reduction method. Over a set of large-scale elliptic systems with features of nonsymmetry and indefiniteness, the robustness of the direct solvers extends beyond that of the multigrid solver, and relative to the multifrontal approach ACR has lower or comparable execution time and size of the factors, with substantially lower numerical ranks. ACR exhibits good strong and weak scaling in a distributed context and, as with any direct solver, is advantageous for problems that require the solution of multiple right-hand sides. Numerical experiments show that the rank k patterns are of O(1) for the Poisson equation and of O(n) for the indefinite Helmholtz equation. The solver is ideal in situations where low-accuracy solutions are sufficient, or otherwise as a preconditioner within an iterative method.

  8. Accelerated Cyclic Reduction: A Distributed-Memory Fast Solver for Structured Linear Systems

    Chá vez, Gustavo; Turkiyyah, George; Zampini, Stefano; Ltaief, Hatem; Keyes, David E.

    2017-01-01

    We present Accelerated Cyclic Reduction (ACR), a distributed-memory fast solver for rank-compressible block tridiagonal linear systems arising from the discretization of elliptic operators, developed here for three dimensions. Algorithmic synergies between Cyclic Reduction and hierarchical matrix arithmetic operations result in a solver that has O(kNlogN(logN+k2)) arithmetic complexity and O(k Nlog N) memory footprint, where N is the number of degrees of freedom and k is the rank of a block in the hierarchical approximation, and which exhibits substantial concurrency. We provide a baseline for performance and applicability by comparing with the multifrontal method with and without hierarchical semi-separable matrices, with algebraic multigrid and with the classic cyclic reduction method. Over a set of large-scale elliptic systems with features of nonsymmetry and indefiniteness, the robustness of the direct solvers extends beyond that of the multigrid solver, and relative to the multifrontal approach ACR has lower or comparable execution time and size of the factors, with substantially lower numerical ranks. ACR exhibits good strong and weak scaling in a distributed context and, as with any direct solver, is advantageous for problems that require the solution of multiple right-hand sides. Numerical experiments show that the rank k patterns are of O(1) for the Poisson equation and of O(n) for the indefinite Helmholtz equation. The solver is ideal in situations where low-accuracy solutions are sufficient, or otherwise as a preconditioner within an iterative method.

  9. Bayesian linear regression with skew-symmetric error distributions with applications to survival analysis

    Rubio, Francisco J.

    2016-02-09

    We study Bayesian linear regression models with skew-symmetric scale mixtures of normal error distributions. These kinds of models can be used to capture departures from the usual assumption of normality of the errors in terms of heavy tails and asymmetry. We propose a general noninformative prior structure for these regression models and show that the corresponding posterior distribution is proper under mild conditions. We extend these propriety results to cases where the response variables are censored. The latter scenario is of interest in the context of accelerated failure time models, which are relevant in survival analysis. We present a simulation study that demonstrates good frequentist properties of the posterior credible intervals associated with the proposed priors. This study also sheds some light on the trade-off between increased model flexibility and the risk of over-fitting. We illustrate the performance of the proposed models with real data. Although we focus on models with univariate response variables, we also present some extensions to the multivariate case in the Supporting Information.

  10. Measurements of distribution coefficient for U and Th on sand stone in synthesized sea water and distilled water

    Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Okada, Kenichi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Masahiro; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has developed the sorption database for bentonite and rocks in order to assess the retardation property of important radioactive elements in natural and engineered barriers in the H12 report. However, there are not enough distribution coefficient data for radioactive elements in saline type groundwater in the database. Thus the batch sorption tests were performed for uranium (U) and thorium (Th) in saline type groundwater. For these elements, there are little registration numbers in the JNC's sorption database, and also these elements are important to evaluate the safety of disposal system. The experiments for each radioactive element were performed on the following conditions; U: Kd measurements using the solutions (synthesized sea water and distilled water) reacted with sand stone as a function of carbonate concentration, under reducing conditions. Th: Kd measurements using the solutions (synthesized sea water and distilled water) reacted with sand stone. The results of the experiments are summarized below; In the case of U, Kd was approximately 6.5E-01 - 9.2E-01 m 3 /kg in synthesized sea water. On the other hand, Kd was 2.2E-02 - 2.4E-02 m 3 /kg in the high carbonate solution. And also, Kd was 6.5E-02 - 7.2E-02 m 3 /kg in synthesized sea water adjusted pH 10 and 3.4E-02 - 4.1E-02 m 3 /kg in distilled water adjusted pH 10, respectively. In the case of Th, Kd was measured in synthesized sea water adjusted to pH 10 and in distilled water adjusted to pH 10. At the sorption measurements of Th, precipitation might be occurred by very low solubility of Th. (author)

  11. A comparative study of distribution coefficients (Kd) for naturally occurring Uranium (U) and Thorium (Th) in two different aquatic environments

    Kumar, Ajay; Karpe, Rupali; Rout, Sabyasachi; Narayanan, Usha; Ravi, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The uranium and thorium contents and their mobility in aqueous systems are mainly controlled by the pH, alkalinity, the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and the type of complexing agents present, such as carbonates, phosphates, vanadates, fluorides, sulfates and silicates, etc. A comparative study of distribution coefficients (K d ) for U and Th in sediment-seawater and soil-groundwater system has been carried out. K d was determined using a batch method. In this method, 5 g dried sediment samples was placed in each of seven empty conical flasks and equilibrated for 7 days with 150 mL of sea water containing 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75 and 100 mg/L of uranium and thorium contents followed by shaking using end-over end shaker at 25°C. After equilibration time, the samples of each set were centrifuged, filtered through 0.45 μm filter paper and supernatant analyzed for uranium and thorium. In the similar way, experiments were conducted for soil-groundwater system. The concentration of uranium in aliquots of equilibrium solution was measured using laser fluorimeter and Th was determined using anion exchange column followed by co-precipitation with ferric hydroxide and estimated by gross alpha counter. Physico-chemical parameters of soil, sediments, seawater and groundwater were also studied. In this study, K d values have been reported as the mean from two sets of experimental determinations. Based on the resulting data set, it can be concluded that K d values of uranium and thorium are not only dependent on properties of adsorbed phases but also on the kinds of minerals present in that medium. The results of K d values obtained indicated that the sediments have better sorption properties than soil

  12. Determination of Spearman Correlation Coefficient (r to Evaluate the Linear Association of Dermal Collagen and Elastic Fibers in the Perspectives of Skin Injury

    Naveen Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Difference in scar formation at different sites, in different directions at the same site, but with changes in the elasticity of skin with age, sex, and race or in some pathological conditions, is well known to clinicians. The inappropriate collagen syntheses and delayed or lack of epithelialization are known to induce scar formation with negligible elasticity at the site of damage. Changes in the elasticity of scars may be due to an unequal distribution of dermal collagen (C and elastic (E fibers. Materials and Methods. Spearman correlation coefficients (r of collagen and elastic fibers in horizontal (H and in vertical (V directions (variables CV, CH, EV, and EH were measured from the respective quantitative fraction data in 320 skin samples from 32 human cadavers collected at five selected sites over extremities. Results. Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed the statistically significant (p<0.01 strong positive correlation between CH and CV in all the areas, that is, shoulder joint area (r=0.66, wrist (r=0.75, forearm (r=0.75, and thigh (r=0.80, except at the ankle (r=0.26, p=0.14 region. Similarly, positive correlation between EH and EV has been observed at the forearm (r=0.65, moderate and thigh (r=0.42, low regions. However, a significant moderate negative correlation was observed between CV and EV at the forearm (r=-0.51 and between CH and EH at the thigh region (r=-0.65. Conclusion. Significant differences of correlations of collagen and elastic fibers in different directions from different areas of extremities were noted. This may be one of the possible anatomical reasons of scar behavior in different areas and different directions of the same area.

  13. Determination of Spearman Correlation Coefficient (r) to Evaluate the Linear Association of Dermal Collagen and Elastic Fibers in the Perspectives of Skin Injury.

    Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Pramod; Badagabettu, Satheesha Nayak; Lewis, Melissa Glenda; Adiga, Murali; Padur, Ashwini Aithal

    2018-01-01

    Difference in scar formation at different sites, in different directions at the same site, but with changes in the elasticity of skin with age, sex, and race or in some pathological conditions, is well known to clinicians. The inappropriate collagen syntheses and delayed or lack of epithelialization are known to induce scar formation with negligible elasticity at the site of damage. Changes in the elasticity of scars may be due to an unequal distribution of dermal collagen (C) and elastic (E) fibers. Spearman correlation coefficients ( r ) of collagen and elastic fibers in horizontal (H) and in vertical (V) directions (variables CV, CH, EV, and EH) were measured from the respective quantitative fraction data in 320 skin samples from 32 human cadavers collected at five selected sites over extremities. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed the statistically significant ( p < 0.01) strong positive correlation between C H and C V in all the areas, that is, shoulder joint area ( r = 0.66), wrist ( r = 0.75), forearm ( r = 0.75), and thigh ( r = 0.80), except at the ankle ( r = 0.26, p = 0.14) region. Similarly, positive correlation between E H and E V has been observed at the forearm ( r = 0.65, moderate) and thigh ( r = 0.42, low) regions. However, a significant moderate negative correlation was observed between C V and E V at the forearm ( r = -0.51) and between C H and E H at the thigh region ( r = -0.65). Significant differences of correlations of collagen and elastic fibers in different directions from different areas of extremities were noted. This may be one of the possible anatomical reasons of scar behavior in different areas and different directions of the same area.

  14. Resonance zones and quasi-linear diffusion coefficients for radiation belt energetic electron interaction with oblique chorus waves in the Dungey magnetosphere

    Shi Run; Ni, Binbin; Gu Xudong; Zhao Zhengyu; Zhou Chen

    2012-01-01

    The resonance regions for resonant interactions of radiation belt electrons with obliquely propagating whistler-mode chorus waves are investigated in detail in the Dungey magnetic fields that are parameterized by the intensity of uniform southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz or, equivalently, by the values of D=(M/B z,0 ) 1/3 (where M is the magnetic moment of the dipole and B z,0 is the uniform southward IMF normal to the dipole’s equatorial plane). Adoption of background magnetic field model can considerably modify the determination of resonance regions. Compared to the results for the case of D = 50 (very close to the dipole field), the latitudinal coverage of resonance regions for 200 keV electrons interacting with chorus waves tends to become narrower for smaller D-values, regardless of equatorial pitch angle, resonance harmonics, and wave normal angle. In contrast, resonance regions for 1 MeV electrons tend to have very similar spatial lengths along the field line for various Dungey magnetic field models but cover different magnetic field intervals, indicative of a strong dependence on electron energy. For any given magnetic field line, the resonance regions where chorus-electron resonant interactions can take place rely closely on equatorial pitch angle, resonance harmonics, and kinetic energy. The resonance regions tend to cover broader latitudinal ranges for smaller equatorial pitch angles, higher resonance harmonics, and lower electron energies, consistent with the results in Ni and Summers [Phys. Plasmas 17, 042902, 042903 (2010)]. Calculations of quasi-linear bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients for radiation belt electrons due to nightside chorus waves indicate that the resultant scattering rates differ from using different Dungey magnetic field models, demonstrating a strong dependence of wave-induced electron scattering effect on the adoption of magnetic field model. Our results suggest that resonant wave-particle interaction processes

  15. Measurements of distribution coefficient for Sn, Pb and Th on sand stone and tuff in saline type groundwater

    Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Okada, Kenichi; Muroi, Masayuki; Shibata, Masahiro; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has developed the sorption database for bentonite and rocks in order to assess the retardation capacities of important radioactive elements in natural and engineered barriers in the H12 report. However, there are not enough distribution coefficient data for radioactive elements in saline type groundwater in the database. Sn (tin), Pb (lead) and Th(thorium) are important radioactive elements for performance assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal, thus we carried out the batch sorption experiments for these radioactive elements on sand stone and tuff. The experiments for each radioactive element were performed on the following conditions; Sn: Kd measurements using the solutions (distilled water or artificial sea water) reacted with sand stone. Pb: Kd measurements using solution (artificial sea water) reacted with sand stone or tuff. Th: Kd measurements using solution (artificial sea water) reacted with sand stone as a function of carbonate concentration. The results of experiment are summarized below; In the case of Sn, Kd were 0.4-1 m 3 /kg in distilled water type and approximately 1 m 3 /kg in artificial sea water type. And also, Kd was 0.3 m 3 /kg in artificial sea water adjusted Ph 12. In artificial sea water type, it was suggested that Kd decreased with pH. In the case of Pb, Kd were approximately 2 m 3 /kg on sand stone and 4-10 m 3 /kg on tuff in artificial sea water type. Kd on tuff was a little larger than that on sand stone. There were no distinctly differences depending on solid-liquid separation methods. In the case of Th, Kd was approximately 1-8 m 3 /kg in artificial sea water type. On the other hand, sorption of Th on sand stone was not observed (i.e., Kd = 0 m 3 /kg) in high carbonate solution. It was estimated that low Kd in high carbonate solution might be caused by speciation of because Th could form the anions in the solution such as hydroxo-carbonate complexes and carbonate complexes

  16. Distributed Cooperative Current-Sharing Control of Parallel Chargers Using Feedback Linearization

    Jiangang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a distributed current-sharing scheme to address the output current imbalance problem for the parallel chargers in the energy storage type light rail vehicle system. By treating the parallel chargers as a group of agents with output information sharing through communication network, the current-sharing control problem is recast as the consensus tracking problem of multiagents. To facilitate the design, input-output feedback linearization is first applied to transform the nonidentical nonlinear charging system model into the first-order integrator. Then, a general saturation function is introduced to design the cooperative current-sharing control law which can guarantee the boundedness of the proposed control. The cooperative stability of the closed-loop system under fixed and dynamic communication topologies is rigorously proved with the aid of Lyapunov function and LaSalle invariant principle. Simulation using a multicharging test system further illustrates that the output currents of parallel chargers are balanced using the proposed control.

  17. Multimoded rf delay line distribution system for the Next Linear Collider

    S. G. Tantawi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The delay line distribution system is an alternative to conventional pulse compression, which enhances the peak power of rf sources while matching the long pulse of those sources to the shorter filling time of accelerator structures. We present an implementation of this scheme that combines pairs of parallel delay lines of the system into single lines. The power of several sources is combined into a single waveguide delay line using a multimode launcher. The output mode of the launcher is determined by the phase coding of the input signals. The combined power is extracted from the delay line using mode-selective extractors, each of which extracts a single mode. Hence, the phase coding of the sources controls the output port of the combined power. The power is then fed to the local accelerator structures. We present a detailed design of such a system, including several implementation methods for the launchers, extractors, and ancillary high power rf components. The system is designed so that it can handle the 600 MW peak power required by the Next Linear Collider design while maintaining high efficiency.

  18. Non-linear singular problems in p-adic analysis: associative algebras of p-adic distributions

    Albeverio, S; Khrennikov, A Yu; Shelkovich, V M

    2005-01-01

    We propose an algebraic theory which can be used for solving both linear and non-linear singular problems of p-adic analysis related to p-adic distributions (generalized functions). We construct the p-adic Colombeau-Egorov algebra of generalized functions, in which Vladimirov's pseudo-differential operator plays the role of differentiation. This algebra is closed under Fourier transformation and associative convolution. Pointvalues of generalized functions are defined, and it turns out that any generalized function is uniquely determined by its pointvalues. We also construct an associative algebra of asymptotic distributions, which is generated by the linear span of the set of associated homogeneous p-adic distributions. This algebra is embedded in the Colombeau-Egorov algebra as a subalgebra. In addition, a new technique for constructing weak asymptotics is developed

  19. The Weizsäcker-Williams distribution of linearly polarized gluons (and its fluctuations) at small x

    Dumitru, Adrian; Skokov, Vladimir

    2017-09-11

    The conventional and linearly polarized Weizsäcker-Williams gluon distributions at small x are defined from the two-point function of the gluon field in light-cone gauge. They appear in the cross section for dijet production in deep inelastic scattering at high energy. We determine these functions in the small-x limit from solutions of the JIMWLK evolution equations and show that they exhibit approximate geometric scaling. Also, we discuss the functional distributions of these WW gluon distributions over the JIMWLK ensemble at rapidity Y ~ 1/αs. These are determined by a 2d Liouville action for the logarithm of the covariant gauge function g2tr A+(q)A+(-q). For transverse momenta on the order of the saturation scale we observe large variations across configurations (evolution trajectories) of the linearly polarized distribution up to several times its average, and even to negative values.

  20. Determination of the distribution coefficients for the radionuclides 134Cs, 60Co and 234Th in the Pinheiros river sediment

    Lima, Marina Ferreira

    1992-01-01

    The distribution coefficients (Kd) were determined in order to foresee the fate of the radionuclides discharged to the environment. Based upon the source-term released by IPEN's facilities in Pinheiros River during the year of 1988, three radionuclides were chosen as being the more critical, according to the radiation protection standards: 137 Cs, 60 Co and 232 Th. Their Kd were determined experimentally in laboratory by using the corresponding radioactive tracers 134 Cs, 60 Co and 234 Th. Three different experimental methodologies were used: the static method. the shaken method and the dynamic method. The parameters studied were the effects of pH, aerobic condition and time of contact. No considerable changes were observed for the cesium Kd with the variation of pH and aerobic condition, the kd extreme values being 20 ml/g and 30 ml/g for the pH range between 4 and 8. The study of the time of contact showed that the equilibrium between the cesium concentration in the water and sediment was achieved in a few days. For the cobalt, the pH effect was considerable, since the Kd increased from 46 ml/g for pH 4 to 2,25x10 3 ml/g for pH 8. The Kd observed with the agitation with air was around 420 ml/g, rising to 670 ml/g with the agitation with N 2 . The results obtained in the study of the time of contact effect showed that the equilibrium between the cobalt concentration in the water and sediment was not achieved even after 15 days of contact. For the thorium, also, the pH effect was considerable, since the Kd increased fram 1,40 x 10 5 ml/g for pH 4 to 2,55 x 10 6 ml/g for pH 8. No effect was observed, on the other hand, for the kd values obtained in the experiment carried out with air agitation or N 2 agitation, around 2,75 x 10 6 ml/g. The results obtained in the study of the time of contact effect showed that the equilibrium between the thorium concentration in the water and sediment was achieved after just one hour of contact. The results obtained can be

  1. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming.

    Hook, S E; Dijkstra, J; Wright, A-D G; McBride, B W; France, J

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few mathematical models have been designed to model rumen protozoa in both the free-living and attached phases, and the data used in the models were acquired using classical techniques. It has therefore become necessary to provide an updated model that more accurately represents these microorganisms and incorporates the recent literature on distribution, sequestration, and generation times. This paper represents a novel approach to synthesizing experimental data on rumen microorganisms in a quantitative and structured manner. The development of a linear programming model of rumen protozoa in an approximate steady state will be described and applied to data from healthy ruminants consuming commonly fed diets. In the model, protozoa associated with the liquid phase and protozoa attached to particulate matter or sequestered against the rumen wall are distinguished. Growth, passage, death, and transfer of protozoa between both pools are represented. The results from the model application using the contrasting diets of increased forage content versus increased starch content indicate that the majority of rumen protozoa, 63 to 90%, are found in the attached phase, either attached to feed particles or sequestered on the rumen wall. A slightly greater proportion of protozoa are found in the attached phase in animals fed a hay diet compared with a starch diet. This suggests that experimental protocols that only sample protozoa from the rumen fluid could be significantly underestimating the size of the protozoal population of the rumen. Further data are required on the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of healthy animals to improve model development, but the model described herein

  2. Linear VSS and Distributed Commitments Based on Secret Sharing and Pairwise Checks

    Fehr, Serge; Maurer, Ueli M.

    2002-01-01

    . VSS and DC are main building blocks for unconditional secure multi-party computation protocols. This general approach covers all known linear VSS and DC schemes. The main theorem states that the security of a scheme is equivalent to a pure linear-algebra condition on the linear mappings (e.......g. described as matrices and vectors) describing the scheme. The security of all known schemes follows as corollaries whose proofs are pure linear-algebra arguments, in contrast to some hybrid arguments used in the literature. Our approach is demonstrated for the CDM DC scheme, which we generalize to be secure...

  3. An iteratively reweighted least-squares approach to adaptive robust adjustment of parameters in linear regression models with autoregressive and t-distributed deviations

    Kargoll, Boris; Omidalizarandi, Mohammad; Loth, Ina; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Alkhatib, Hamza

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate a linear regression time series model of possibly outlier-afflicted observations and autocorrelated random deviations. This colored noise is represented by a covariance-stationary autoregressive (AR) process, in which the independent error components follow a scaled (Student's) t-distribution. This error model allows for the stochastic modeling of multiple outliers and for an adaptive robust maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of the unknown regression and AR coefficients, the scale parameter, and the degree of freedom of the t-distribution. This approach is meant to be an extension of known estimators, which tend to focus only on the regression model, or on the AR error model, or on normally distributed errors. For the purpose of ML estimation, we derive an expectation conditional maximization either algorithm, which leads to an easy-to-implement version of iteratively reweighted least squares. The estimation performance of the algorithm is evaluated via Monte Carlo simulations for a Fourier as well as a spline model in connection with AR colored noise models of different orders and with three different sampling distributions generating the white noise components. We apply the algorithm to a vibration dataset recorded by a high-accuracy, single-axis accelerometer, focusing on the evaluation of the estimated AR colored noise model.

  4. Distribution coefficients of amino acid, peptide and enzyme in respect to aqueous two phase system composed of dextran, polyethylene glycol and water; Dekisutoran+poriechiren gurikoru+mizu karanaru suiseinisokei ni taisuru aminosan, pepuchido oyobi koso no bunpai keisu

    Iwai, Yoshio [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kakizaka, Keijiro; Shindo, Takashi; Ishida, Otetsu; Arai, Yasuhiko

    1999-01-05

    Distribution coefficients of five kinds of amino acids (aspartic acid, asparagines, methionine, cysteine and cytidine) and two kinds of peptides (glycylglycine and hexane glycine) were measured. These distribution coefficients are in good correlation with the osmosis viral expression. The interaction parameter in the osmosis viral expression can be estimated by hydrophilic group parameter. The distribution coefficient of {alpha}-amylase was estimated by the osmosis viral expression using the above-mentioned hydrophilic group parameter, and the estimated value showed substantially good correspondence with the actually measured value, but for the distribution coefficient of {beta}-amylase, no coincidence was found. (translated by NEDO)

  5. Quantitative differentiation of breast lesions at 3T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using the ratio of distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC).

    Ertas, Gokhan; Onaygil, Can; Akin, Yasin; Kaya, Handan; Aribal, Erkin

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the accuracy of diffusion coefficients and diffusion coefficient ratios of breast lesions and of glandular breast tissue from mono- and stretched-exponential models for quantitative diagnosis in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We analyzed pathologically confirmed 170 lesions (85 benign and 85 malignant) imaged using a 3.0T MR scanner. Small regions of interest (ROIs) focusing on the highest signal intensity for lesions and also for glandular tissue of contralateral breast were obtained. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) were estimated by performing nonlinear fittings using mono- and stretched-exponential models, respectively. Coefficient ratios were calculated by dividing the lesion coefficient by the glandular tissue coefficient. A stretched exponential model provides significantly better fits then the monoexponential model (P DDC ratio (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.93) when compared with lesion DDC, ADC ratio, and lesion ADC (AUC = 0.91, 0.90, 0.90) but with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). At optimal thresholds, the DDC ratio achieves 93% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and 87% overall diagnostic accuracy, while ADC ratio leads to 89% sensitivity, 78% specificity, and 83% overall diagnostic accuracy. The stretched exponential model fits better with signal intensity measurements from both lesion and glandular tissue ROIs. Although the DDC ratio estimated by using the model shows a higher diagnostic accuracy than the ADC ratio, lesion DDC, and ADC, it is not statistically significant. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1633-1641. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Simulation of magnetic induction distribution in a coaxial linear motor with axial and radial direction of permanent magnets magnetization

    G.M. Golenkov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of computer simulation and experimental study of magnetic induction distribution in a coaxial linear motor air gap throughout the length of the runner active part at different heights of the air gap between the runner and the inductor magnetic core for motors with axial and radial direction of the permanent magnets magnetization.

  7. Free vibration analysis of straight-line beam regarded as distributed system by combining Wittrick-Williams algorithm and transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method

    Choi, Myung Soo; Yang, Kyong Uk [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of); Kondou, Takahiro [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Bonkobara, Yasuhiro [University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    We developed a method for analyzing the free vibration of a structure regarded as a distributed system, by combining the Wittrick-Williams algorithm and the transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method. A computational algorithm was formulated for analyzing the free vibration of a straight-line beam regarded as a distributed system, to explain the concept of the developed method. To verify the effectiveness of the developed method, the natural frequencies of straight-line beams were computed using the finite element method, transfer matrix method, transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method, the exact solution, and the developed method. By comparing the computational results of the developed method with those of the other methods, we confirmed that the developed method exhibited superior performance over the other methods in terms of computational accuracy, cost and user convenience.

  8. Measurement method of the distribution coefficient on the sorption process. Basic procedure of the method relevant to the barrier materials used for the deep geological disposal: 2006

    2006-08-01

    This standard was approved by Atomic Energy Society of Japan after deliberation of the Subcommittee on the Radioactive Waste Management, the Nuclear Cycle Technical Committee and the Standard Committee, and after obtaining about 600 comments from specialists of about 30 persons. This document defines the basic measurement procedure of the distribution coefficient (hereafter referred as Kd) to judge the reliability, reproducibility and applications and to provide the requirements for inter-comparison of Kd for a variety of barrier materials used for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The basic measurement procedure of Kd is standardized, following the preceded standard, 'Measurement Method of the Distribution Coefficient on the Sorption Process - Basic Procedure of Batch Method Relevant to the Barrier Materials Used for the Shallow Land Disposal: 2002 (hereafter referred as Standard for the Shallow Land Disposal)', and considering recent progress after its publication and specific issues to the deep geological disposal. (J.P.N.)

  9. Sorption-desorption processes of radioisotopes with solid materials from liquid releases and atmosphere deposits. The distribution coefficient (Ksub(d)), its uses, limitations, and practical applications

    Saas, Arsene

    1979-03-01

    The various sorption-desorption processes of radionuclides with environmental materials are presented. The parameters governing the distribution coefficient are reviewed in the light of various examples. The factors affecting equilibria between the different phases are: reaction time, concentration of the solid phase, water quality, salinity, competition between ions, concentration of radioisotopes or stable isotopes, pH of the mobile phase, particle diameter, chemical form of the radioisotopes, nature of the solid phase, temperature. The effects of the biological parameters on the distribution coefficient are discussed. Biological processes affect the main chemical transformations: mineralization, insolubilization, oxidation-reduction, complexation, ... The importance of these processes is demonstrated by a number of examples in various media. Finally, the practical use of Ksub(d) in the assessment of the environmental impact of radioactive releases is developed, with special emphasis on the limits of its use in siting studies and its essential interest in specifying pathways and capacity of a river system [fr

  10. Tracking Electroencephalographic Changes Using Distributions of Linear Models: Application to Propofol-Based Depth of Anesthesia Monitoring.

    Kuhlmann, Levin; Manton, Jonathan H; Heyse, Bjorn; Vereecke, Hugo E M; Lipping, Tarmo; Struys, Michel M R F; Liley, David T J

    2017-04-01

    Tracking brain states with electrophysiological measurements often relies on short-term averages of extracted features and this may not adequately capture the variability of brain dynamics. The objective is to assess the hypotheses that this can be overcome by tracking distributions of linear models using anesthesia data, and that anesthetic brain state tracking performance of linear models is comparable to that of a high performing depth of anesthesia monitoring feature. Individuals' brain states are classified by comparing the distribution of linear (auto-regressive moving average-ARMA) model parameters estimated from electroencephalographic (EEG) data obtained with a sliding window to distributions of linear model parameters for each brain state. The method is applied to frontal EEG data from 15 subjects undergoing propofol anesthesia and classified by the observers assessment of alertness/sedation (OAA/S) scale. Classification of the OAA/S score was performed using distributions of either ARMA parameters or the benchmark feature, Higuchi fractal dimension. The highest average testing sensitivity of 59% (chance sensitivity: 17%) was found for ARMA (2,1) models and Higuchi fractal dimension achieved 52%, however, no statistical difference was observed. For the same ARMA case, there was no statistical difference if medians are used instead of distributions (sensitivity: 56%). The model-based distribution approach is not necessarily more effective than a median/short-term average approach, however, it performs well compared with a distribution approach based on a high performing anesthesia monitoring measure. These techniques hold potential for anesthesia monitoring and may be generally applicable for tracking brain states.

  11. Extensive Investigations on Bio-Inspired Trust and Reputation Model over Hops Coefficient Factor in Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks

    Vinod Kumar Verma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Resource utilization requires a substantial consideration for a trust and reputation model to be deployed within a wireless sensor network (WSN. In the evaluation, our attention is focused on the effect of hops coefficient factor estimation on WSN with bio-inspired trust and reputation model (BTRM. We present the state-of-the-art system level evaluation of accuracy and path length of sensor node operations for their current and average scenarios. Additionally, we emphasized over the energy consumption evaluation for static, dynamic and oscillatory modes of BTRM-WSN model. The performance of the hops coefficient factor for our proposed framework is evaluated via analytic bounds and numerical simulations.

  12. A Semiparametric Time Trend Varying Coefficients Model: With An Application to Evaluate Credit Rationing in U.S. Credit Market

    Jingping Gu; Paula Hernandez-Verme

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new semiparametric varying coefficient model which extends the existing semi-parametric varying coefficient models to allow for a time trend regressor with smooth coefficient function. We propose to use the local linear method to estimate the coefficient functions and we provide the asymptotic theory to describe the asymptotic distribution of the local linear estimator. We present an application to evaluate credit rationing in the U.S. credit market. Using U.S. mon...

  13. A Semiparametric Time Trend Varying Coefficients Model: With An Application to Evaluate Credit Rationing in U.S. Credit Market

    Qi Gao; Jingping Gu; Paula Hernandez-Verme

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new semiparametric varying coefficient model which extends the existing semi-parametric varying coefficient models to allow for a time trend regressor with smooth coefficient function. We propose to use the local linear method to estimate the coefficient functions and we provide the asymptotic theory to describe the asymptotic distribution of the local linear estimator. We present an application to evaluate credit rationing in the U.S. credit market. Using U.S. mon...

  14. Evaluation of distribution coefficients and concentration ratios of 90Sr and 137Cs in the Techa River and the Miass River

    Shishkina, Elena A.; Pryakhin, Evgeny A.; Popova, Irina Ya.; Osipov, Denis I.; Tikhova, Yu.; Andreyev, S.S.; Shaposhnikova, I.A.; Egoreichenkov, E.A.; Styazhkina, E.V.; Deryabina, Larisa V.; Tryapitsina, Galina A.; Melnikov, Viktor S.; Rudolfsen, Geir; Teien, Hans-Christian; Sneve, Malgorzata Karpov

    2016-01-01

    Source:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0265931X16300959 Empirical data on the behavior of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are needed for radioecological modeling, which is commonly used for predicting transfer of radionuclides, estimating doses, and assessing possible adverse effects on species and communities. Preliminary studies of radioecological parameters including distribution coefficients and concentration ratios, for 90Sr and 137Cs were not in full agreement w...

  15. Use of linear and areal habitat models to establish and distribute beaver Castor fiber harvest quotas in Norway

    Howard Parker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Norway the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber harvest is quota-regulated. Once the annual quota for each municipality has been determined it is distributed to landowner-organized beaver management units. Municipal wildlife managers can choose between two distributional models: the traditional “areal model” whereby each management unit receives its portion of the municipal quota based on the relative area of beaver habitat within the township that it contains, or the more recently developed “linear model” based on the relative length of beaver-utilized shoreline it contains. The linear model was developed in an attempt to increase the precision of the quota distribution process and is based on the fact that beaver occupy landscapes in a linear fashion along strips of shoreline rather than exploiting extensive areas. The assumption was that the linear model would provide a more precise and just method of distributing the municipal quota among landowners. Here we test the hypothesis that the length of beaverutilized shoreline is a better predictor of beaver colony density than the area of beaver habitat on 13 beaver management units of typical size (794 – 2200 hectares in Bø Township, Norway, during 2 years. As hypothesized, the number of beaver occupied sites on management units correlated significantly (p≤ 0.001 with the length of beaver-utilized shoreline, but not with the area of beaver habitat. Therefore municipalities should employ the linear model when a precise distribution of quotas is necessary. The density of Eurasian beaver colonies at the landscape scale (>100 km2 in south-central Scandinavia averages approximately 1 occupied site per 4 km2. This figure can be employed by municipal wildlife managers to estimate the colony density in their townships, and to calculate municipal quotas, when more precise census information is lacking.

  16. Vertical distribution of paracalanus crassirostris (copepoda, calanoidea: analysis by the general linear model

    Ana Milstein

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical distribution of each developmental stage of Paracalanus crassirostris was studied in a shallow water station at Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º30'S-45º07'W. Samples were collected monthly at the surface, 2m and near bottom levels . Salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, tide height, light penetration arid solar radiation were also recorded. Data were analysed by the general linear model. It showed that the amount of individuals at any developmental stage is affected diversely by hour, depth, hour-depth interaction and environmental factors throughout the year and that these effects are stronger in summer. All developmental stages were spread in the water column showing no regular vertical migrations. On the other hand, the number of organisms caught in a particular hour seemed to dependmore on the tide than on the animals behaviour. The results of the present paper showed, as observed by some other authors, the lack of vertical migration of a coastal copepod which is a grazer of fine particles throughout its life.A distribuição vertical dos diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento de P. crassirostris foi estudada durante um ano (junho 1976 - maio 1977, numa estação pouco profunda (5 m em Ubatuba. As amostras foram coletadas mensalmente, em tres profundidades, cada quatro horas, com garrafa van Dorn de 9 l registrando-se dados ambientais. Os dados foram processados com a técnica dos Mínimos Quadrados, na forma de uma Aralise de Regressão de um Modelo Linear que inclui covariáveis. O modelo foi construído a priori, considerando densidade de organismos por amostra, fatores ambientais, diferenças entre amostras procedentes de diferentes profundidades e horas, também como interações entre hora e profundidade. Para cada estádio de P. crassirostris, o modelo foi repetido 9 vezes, com os dados de dois meses cada vez, a fim de obter a variação das respostas no ano. Os resultados do modelo indicaram que a quantidade de indiv

  17. A Lie-admissible method of integration of Fokker-Planck equations with non-linear coefficients (exact and numerical solutions)

    Fronteau, J.; Combis, P.

    1984-08-01

    A Lagrangian method is introduced for the integration of non-linear Fokker-Planck equations. Examples of exact solutions obtained in this way are given, and also the explicit scheme used for the computation of numerical solutions. The method is, in addition, shown to be of a Lie-admissible type

  18. A polymer, random walk model for the size-distribution of large DNA fragments after high linear energy transfer radiation

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Brenner, D.; Hlatky, L. R.; Sachs, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) produced by densely ionizing radiation are not located randomly in the genome: recent data indicate DSB clustering along chromosomes. Stochastic DSB clustering at large scales, from > 100 Mbp down to simulations and analytic equations. A random-walk, coarse-grained polymer model for chromatin is combined with a simple track structure model in Monte Carlo software called DNAbreak and is applied to data on alpha-particle irradiation of V-79 cells. The chromatin model neglects molecular details but systematically incorporates an increase in average spatial separation between two DNA loci as the number of base-pairs between the loci increases. Fragment-size distributions obtained using DNAbreak match data on large fragments about as well as distributions previously obtained with a less mechanistic approach. Dose-response relations, linear at small doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, are obtained. They are found to be non-linear when the dose becomes so large that there is a significant probability of overlapping or close juxtaposition, along one chromosome, for different DSB clusters from different tracks. The non-linearity is more evident for large fragments than for small. The DNAbreak results furnish an example of the RLC (randomly located clusters) analytic formalism, which generalizes the broken-stick fragment-size distribution of the random-breakage model that is often applied to low-LET data.

  19. Distribution of individual inbreeding coefficients, relatedness and influence of stocking on native anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) population structure

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte

    2001-01-01

    inbreeding coefficients do not differ among locations within rivers. Relatedness varies between sites within rivers indicating varied local dynamics at a very small geographical scale. Relatedness is sometimes lower than expected among an equal number of simulated individuals with randomized genotypes......, the proportion of locally assigned trout correlates with the populations' stocking histories, with rivers presently subjected to stocking (hatchery trout) showing low mean similar to0.73), and rivers where stocking was discontinued showing high (mean similar to0.84) proportions of local fish, probably reflecting...

  20. A Simple Method Using a Topography Correction Coefficient for Estimating Daily Distribution of Solar Irradiance in Complex Terrain

    Yun, J.I.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate solar radiation data are critical to evaluate major physiological responses of plants. For most upland crops and orchard plants growing in complex terrain, however, it is not easy for farmers or agronomists to access solar irradiance data. Here we suggest a simple method using a sun-slope geometry based topographical coefficient to estimate daily solar irradiance on any sloping surfaces from global solar radiation measured at a nearby weather station. An hourly solar irradiance ratio (W i ) between sloping and horizontal surface is defined as multiplication of the relative solar intensity (k i ) and the slope irradiance ratio (r i ) at an hourly interval. The k i is the ratio of hourly solar radiation to the 24 hour cumulative radiation on a horizontal surface under clear sky conditions. The r i is the ratio of clear sky radiation on a given slope to that on a horizontal reference. Daily coefficient for slope correction is simply the sum of W i on each date. We calculated daily solar irradiance at 8 side slope locations circumventing a cone-shaped parasitic volcano (c.a., 570 m diameter for the bottom circle and 90 m bottom-to-top height) by multiplying these coefficients to the global solar radiation measured horizontally. Comparison with the measured slope irradiance from April 2007 to March 2008 resulted in the root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.61 MJ m −2 for the whole period but the RMSE for April to October (i.e., major cropping season in Korea) was much lower and satisfied the 5% error tolerance for radiation measurement. The RMSE was smallest in October regardless of slope aspect, and the aspect dependent variation of RMSE was greatest in November. Annual variation in RMSE was greatest on north and south facing slopes, followed by southwest, southeast, and northwest slopes in decreasing order. Once the coefficients are prepared, global solar radiation data from nearby stations can be easily converted to the solar irradiance map at landscape

  1. Analysis of the collagen birefringence and the relative attenuation coefficient of health and burned skin irradiated with linearly polarized He-Ne laser; Analise da birrefringencia do colageno e do coeficiente de atenuacao de amostras de pele sadia e queimada irradiadas pelo laser de He-Ne linearmente polarizado

    Silva, Daniela de Fatima Teixeira da

    2002-07-01

    Low-intensity laser therapy is characterized by its ability to induce athermic effects and nondestructive photobiological processes. Although it has been in use for more than 40 years, this phototherapy is still not an established therapeutic modality. The objectives of this study were: to quantify the collagen fibers organization by polarized light microscopy in normal and burned skin samples at day 17 post-injury considering preferential axis as the animal's spinal column and aligning the linear laser polarization in two directions of polarization, parallel or perpendicular to this axis; to determine the relative attenuation coefficient for the intensity light by the technique of imaging the light distribution in normal and burned skin during wound healing process taking only parallel direction of polarization. To reach the objectives, burns about 6 mm in diameter were created with liquid N{sub 2} on the back of the rats and the lesions were irradiated on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 post-wounding, D= 1 J/cm{sup 2}, to investigate the effects of low-intensity linearly polarized He-Ne laser beam on skin wounds healing. Control lesions were not irradiated. The results have demonstrated that: the skin samples irradiated with linearly parallel polarized He-Ne laser beam showed collagen fibers more organized; burned skin samples presents a higher attenuation coefficient than normal skin samples. These results are important to optimize low intensity laser therapy dosimetry on acceleration wound healing. (author)

  2. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As concentric double quantum rings: Effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration

    Baghramyan, H.M. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Barseghyan, M.G., E-mail: mbarsegh@ysu.am [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Kirakosyan, A.A. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Restrepo, R.L. [Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, AA 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2013-02-15

    The linear and nonlinear intra-band optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As two-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration the energies of the ground (n=1,l=0) and the first excited state (n=2,l=1) have been found using the effective mass approximation and the transfer matrix formalism. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the intra-band optical transitions are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration for different sizes of the structure. We also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy for different values of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, sizes of the structure, and incident optical intensity. Its is found that the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and the aluminum concentration lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the intra-band optical spectrum. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear and nonlinear intra-band absorption in quantum rings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threshold energy strongly depends on the hydrostatic pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threshold energy strongly depends on the stoichiometry and sizes of structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical absorption is affected by the incident optical intensity.

  3. Comparison of distributed vortex receptivity coefficients at excitation of 3D TS-waves in presence and absence of surface waviness and pressure gradient

    Borodulin, V. I.; Ivanov, A. V.; Kachanov, Y. S.; Mischenko, D. A.; Fedenkova, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper is devoted to quantitative experimental investigation of effective mechanisms of excitation of 3D TS instability waves due to distributed boundary layer receptivity to free-stream vortices. Experiments carried out in a self-similar boundary layer with Hartree parameter βH = -0.115 and concentrated on studying two receptivity mechanisms connected with distributed scattering of 3D unsteady free-stream vortices both on the natural boundary layer nonuniformity (smooth surface) and on 2D surface nonuniformity (waviness). Obtained quantitative characteristics (distributed receptivity coefficients) are compared directly with those obtained in Blasius boundary layer. It is found that the adverse pressure gradient leads to reduction of efficiency of the vortex-roughness receptivity mechanism.

  4. Neutron angular distribution in (γ, n reactions with linearly polarized γ-ray beam generated by laser Compton scattering

    K. Horikawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1957, Agodi predicted that the neutron angular distribution in (γ, n reactions with a 100% linearly polarized γ-ray beam for dipole excitation should be anisotropic and universally described by the simple function of a+b⋅cos⁡(2ϕ at the polar angle θ=90°, where ϕ is the azimuthal angle. However, this prediction has not been experimentally confirmed in over half a century. We have verified experimentally this angular distribution in the (γ, n reaction for 197Au, 127I, and natural Cu targets using linearly polarized laser Compton scattering γ-rays. The result suggests that the (γ→, n reaction is a novel tool to study nuclear physics in the giant dipole resonance region.

  5. Bounds for the probability distribution function of the linear ACD process

    Fernandes, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    Rio de Janeiro This paper derives both lower and upper bounds for the probability distribution function of stationary ACD(p, q) processes. For the purpose of illustration, I specialize the results to the main parent distributions in duration analysis. Simulations show that the lower bound is much tighter than the upper bound.

  6. The Stress Distribution in an Infinite Anisotropic Plate with Co-Linear Cracks

    Krenk, Steen

    1975-01-01

    A general solution of the plane problem of a finite number of co-linear cracks in an anisotropic material is presented. The solution is obtained by reducing the problem to four very simple Riemann-Hilbert problems. From the solution it is concluded that if the loads acting on the cracks have the ...

  7. Spectral line shapes in linear absorption and two-dimensional spectroscopy with skewed frequency distributions

    Farag, Marwa H.; Hoenders, Bernhard J.; Knoester, Jasper; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Gaussian dynamics on the line shapes in linear absorption and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy is well understood as the second-order cumulant expansion provides exact spectra. Gaussian solvent dynamics can be well analyzed using slope line analysis of two-dimensional

  8. Value distribution of meromorphic solutions of homogeneous and non-homogeneous complex linear differential-difference equations

    Luo Li-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the value distribution of meromorphic solutions of homogeneous and non-homogeneous complex linear differential-difference equations, and obtain the results on the relations between the order of the solutions and the convergence exponents of the zeros, poles, a-points and small function value points of the solutions, which show the relations in the case of non-homogeneous equations are sharper than the ones in the case of homogeneous equations.

  9. Form coefficient of helical toroidal solenoids

    Amelin, V.Z.; Kunchenko, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    For toroidal solenoids with continuous spiral coil, winded according to the laws of equiinclined and simple cylindrical spirals with homogeneous, linearly increasing to the coil periphery and ''Bitter'' distribution of current density, the analytical expressions for the dependence between capacity consumed and generated magnetic field, expressions for coefficients of form similar to Fabry coefficient for cylindrical solenoids are obtained and dependence of the form coefficient and relative volume of solenoid conductor on the number of revolutions of screw line per one circumvention over the large torus radius is also investigated. Analytical expressions of form coefficients and graphical material permit to select the optimum geometry as to capacity consumed both for spiral (including ''force-free'') and conventional toroidal solenoids of magnetic systems in thermonulear installations

  10. Linear Distributed GaN MMIC Power Amplifier with Improved Power-added Efficiency

    2017-03-01

    QPSK LTE waveform, the ACPR1improved by ~10 dBc at average output power of 23 dBm, without digital pre-distortion. Keywords: GaN, linear amplifiers...wideband amplifier, OIP3, LTE Introduction RF communications with spectral efficiency utilizes complex modulation schemes that require amplifier...wideband amplifiers remain. In this paper, we report on the measured CW performance of a multi-octave (100 MHz ‒ 8 GHz) GaN MMIC NDPA fabricated with

  11. Coefficients of interphase distribution and Gibbs energy of the transfer of nicotinic acid from water into aqueous solutions of ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide

    Grazhdan, K. V.; Gamov, G. A.; Dushina, S. V.; Sharnin, V. A.

    2012-11-01

    Coefficients of the interphase distribution of nicotinic acid are determined in aqueous solution systems of ethanol-hexane and DMSO-hexane at 25.0 ± 0.1°C. They are used to calculate the Gibbs energy of the transfer of nicotinic acid from water into aqueous solutions of ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide. The Gibbs energy values for the transfer of the molecular and zwitterionic forms of nicotinic acid are obtained by means of UV spectroscopy. The diametrically opposite effect of the composition of binary solvents on the transfer of the molecular and zwitterionic forms of nicotinic acid is noted.

  12. Estimation of uranium isotopes in soil affected by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and its mobility based on distribution coefficient and soil properties

    Sahoo, S.K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Mishra, S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India); Sorimachi, A.; Hosoda, M.; Tokonami, S. [Hirosaki University (Japan); Kritsananuwat, R. [Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Ishikawa, T. [Fukushima Medical University (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    An extraordinary earthquake of magnitude 9.0 followed by Tsunami on 11 March 2011 caused serious nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) about 250 km north to Tokyo, capital of Japan. This resulted in radioactive contamination due to deposition of long-lived radionuclides. Contaminated soil can cause an enhanced radiation exposure even after many years. Depending upon environmental conditions radionuclides can be mobilized to aquatic systems. Therefore, the fate and transfer of these radionuclides in the soil water system is very important for radiation protection and dose assessment. In the present study, emphasis has been given on isotope ratio measurement of uranium that may give some idea about its contamination during accident. Soil and water samples were collected from contaminated areas around FDNPP. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) is used for total uranium concentration and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) has been used for uranium isotopes measurement. Extraction chromatography has been used for the separation of uranium. We have observed, isotope ratio {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U is of natural origin, however in a few soil samples {sup 236}U has been detected. For the migration behavior, its distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) has been determined using laboratory batch method. Depleted uranium is used as tracer for uranium K{sub d} estimation. Chemical characterization of soil with respect to different parameters has been carried out. The effect of these soil parameters on distribution coefficient of uranium has been studied in order to explain the radionuclide mobility in this particular area. The distribution coefficient values for uranium are found to vary from 30-35679 L/Kg. A large variation in the distribution coefficient values shows the retention or mobility of uranium is highly dependent on soil characteristics in the particular area. This variation is explained with respect to pH, Fe, Mn

  13. Spatial distribution of microbial biomass, activity, community structure, and the biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and linear alcohol ethoxylate (LAE) in the subsurface.

    Federle, T W; Ventullo, R M; White, D C

    1990-12-01

    The vertical distribution of microbial biomass, activity, community structure and the mineralization of xenobiotic chemicals was examined in two soil profiles in northern Wisconsin. One profile was impacted by infiltrating wastewater from a laundromat, while the other served as a control. An unconfined aquifer was present 14 meters below the surface at both sites. Biomass and community structure were determined by acridine orange direct counts and measuring concentrations of phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA). Microbial activity was estimated by measuring fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis, thymidine incorporation into DNA, and mixed amino acid (MAA) mineralization. Mineralization kinetics of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and linear alcohol ethoxylate (LAE) were determined at each depth. Except for MAA mineralization rates, measures of microbial biomass and activity exhibited similar patterns with depth. PLFA concentration and rates of FDA hydrolysis and thymidine incorporation decreased 10-100 fold below 3 m and then exhibited little variation with depth. Fungal fatty acid markers were found at all depths and represented from 1 to 15% of the total PLFAs. The relative proportion of tuberculostearic acid (TBS), an actinomycete marker, declined with depth and was not detected in the saturated zone. The profile impacted by wastewater exhibited higher levels of PLFA but a lower proportion of TBS than the control profile. This profile also exhibited faster rates of FDA hydrolysis and amino acid mineralization at most depths. LAS was mineralized in the upper 2 m of the vadose zone and in the saturated zone of both profiles. Little or no LAS biodegradation occurred at depths between 2 and 14 m. LAE was mineralized at all depths in both profiles, and the mineralization rate exhibited a similar pattern with depth as biomass and activity measurements. In general, biomass and biodegradative activities were much lower in groundwater than in soil samples obtained

  14. Transport coefficients and orientational distributions of dilute colloidal dispersions composed of hematite particles (for an external magnetic field parallel to the angular velocity vector of simple shear flow)

    Satoh, Akira; Hayasaka, Ryo; Majima, Tamotsu

    2008-01-01

    We have treated a dilute dispersion composed of ferromagnetic rodlike particles with a magnetic moment normal to the particle axis, such as hematites, to investigate the influences of the magnetic field strength, shear rate, and random forces on the orientational distribution of rodlike particles and also on transport coefficients, such as viscosity and diffusion coefficient. In the present analysis, these rodlike particles are assumed to conduct the rotational Brownian motion in a simple shear flow as well as an external magnetic field. The results obtained here are summarized as follows. In the case of a strong magnetic field and a smaller shear rate, the rodlike particle can freely rotate in the xy-plane with the magnetic moment continuing to point the magnetic field direction. On the other hand, for a strong shear flow, the particle has a tendency to incline in the flow direction with the magnetic moment pointing to the magnetic field direction. In the case of the magnetic field applied normal to the direction of the sedimentation, the diffusion coefficient gives rise to smaller values than expected, since the rodlike particle sediments with the particle axis inclining toward directions normal to the movement direction and, of course, toward the direction along that direction

  15. Correlation Coefficients: Appropriate Use and Interpretation.

    Schober, Patrick; Boer, Christa; Schwarte, Lothar A

    2018-05-01

    Correlation in the broadest sense is a measure of an association between variables. In correlated data, the change in the magnitude of 1 variable is associated with a change in the magnitude of another variable, either in the same (positive correlation) or in the opposite (negative correlation) direction. Most often, the term correlation is used in the context of a linear relationship between 2 continuous variables and expressed as Pearson product-moment correlation. The Pearson correlation coefficient is typically used for jointly normally distributed data (data that follow a bivariate normal distribution). For nonnormally distributed continuous data, for ordinal data, or for data with relevant outliers, a Spearman rank correlation can be used as a measure of a monotonic association. Both correlation coefficients are scaled such that they range from -1 to +1, where 0 indicates that there is no linear or monotonic association, and the relationship gets stronger and ultimately approaches a straight line (Pearson correlation) or a constantly increasing or decreasing curve (Spearman correlation) as the coefficient approaches an absolute value of 1. Hypothesis tests and confidence intervals can be used to address the statistical significance of the results and to estimate the strength of the relationship in the population from which the data were sampled. The aim of this tutorial is to guide researchers and clinicians in the appropriate use and interpretation of correlation coefficients.

  16. Quantifying the linear and nonlinear relations between the urban form fragmentation and the carbon emission distribution

    Zuo, S.; Dai, S.; Ren, Y.; Yu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Scientifically revealing the spatial heterogeneity and the relationship between the fragmentation of urban landscape and the direct carbon emissions are of great significance to land management and urban planning. In fact, the linear and nonlinear effects among the various factors resulted in the carbon emission spatial map. However, there is lack of the studies on the direct and indirect relations between the carbon emission and the city functional spatial form changes, which could not be reflected by the land use change. The linear strength and direction of the single factor could be calculated through the correlation and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) analysis, the nonlinear power of one factor and the interaction power of each two factors could be quantified by the Geodetector analysis. Therefore, we compared the landscape fragmentation metrics of the urban land cover and functional district patches to characterize the landscape form and then revealed the relations between the landscape fragmentation level and the direct the carbon emissions based on the three methods. The results showed that fragmentation decreased and the fragmented patches clustered at the coarser resolution. The direct CO2 emission density and the population density increased when the fragmentation level aggregated. The correlation analysis indicated the weak linear relation between them. The spatial variation of GWR output indicated the fragmentation indicator (MESH) had the positive influence on the carbon emission located in the relatively high emission region, and the negative effects regions accounted for the small part of the area. The Geodetector which explores the nonlinear relation identified the DIVISION and MESH as the most powerful direct factor for the land cover patches, NP and PD for the functional district patches, and the interactions between fragmentation indicator (MESH) and urban sprawl metrics (PUA and DIS) had the greatly increased explanation powers on the

  17. Effects of pole flux distribution in a homopolar linear synchronous machine

    Balchin, M. J.; Eastham, J. F.; Coles, P. C.

    1994-05-01

    Linear forms of synchronous electrical machine are at present being considered as the propulsion means in high-speed, magnetically levitated (Maglev) ground transportation systems. A homopolar form of machine is considered in which the primary member, which carries both ac and dc windings, is supported on the vehicle. Test results and theoretical predictions are presented for a design of machine intended for driving a 100 passenger vehicle at a top speed of 400 km/h. The layout of the dc magnetic circuit is examined to locate the best position for the dc winding from the point of view of minimum core weight. Measurements of flux build-up under the machine at different operating speeds are given for two types of secondary pole: solid and laminated. The solid pole results, which are confirmed theoretically, show that this form of construction is impractical for high-speed drives. Measured motoring characteristics are presented for a short length of machine which simulates conditions at the leading and trailing ends of the full-sized machine. Combination of the results with those from a cylindrical version of the machine make it possible to infer the performance of the full-sized traction machine. This gives 0.8 pf and 0.9 efficiency at 300 km/h, which is much better than the reported performance of a comparable linear induction motor (0.52 pf and 0.82 efficiency). It is therefore concluded that in any projected high-speed Maglev systems, a linear synchronous machine should be the first choice as the propulsion means.

  18. Comparison of inter-diffusion coefficients for Ni/Cu thin films determined from classical heating analysis and linear temperature ramping analysis by means of profile reconstruction and a numerical solution of Fick's law

    Joubert, H.D.; Terblans, J.J.; Swart, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    Classical inter-diffusion studies assume a constant time of annealing when samples are annealed in a furnace. It is assumed that the sample temperature reaches the annealing temperature immediately after insertion, while the sample temperature immediately drops to room temperature after removal, the annealing time being taken as the time between insertion and removal. Using the above assumption, the diffusion coefficient can be calculated in a number of ways. In reality, the sample temperature does not immediately reach the annealing temperature; instead it rises at a rate governed by several heat transfer mechanisms, depending on the annealing procedure. For short annealing times, the sample temperature may not attain the annealing temperature, while for extended annealing times the sample temperature may reach the annealing temperature only for a fraction of the annealing time. To eliminate the effect of heat transfer mechanisms, a linear temperature ramping regime is proposed. Used in conjunction with a suitable profile reconstructing technique and a numerical solution of Fick's second law, the inter-diffusion parameters obtained from a linear ramping of Ni/Cu thin film samples can be compared to those obtained from calculations performed with the so-called Mixing-Roughness-Information model or any other suitable method used to determine classical diffusion coefficients.

  19. An investigation of the linear energy transfer distribution in a beam of negative pi-mesons

    Lewis, C.A.

    1979-07-01

    A review of the possible therapeutic advantages of negative pions is given and the more prolific of the dedicated facilities are described. The results are given of an examination of the microdosimetry of negative pion absorption in tissue through the measurement of event size spectra with proportional counters, and of the subsequent unfolding of these spectra in terms of LET distributions. The parameters LET and event size are discussed and methods of deriving LET distributions from event size measurements examined. Experiments with three tissue equivalent proportional counters of different geometry at the Rutherford Laboratory negative pion facility are described and the processing of the event size data is discussed. Fractional absorbed dose in LET distributions are presented for each of the counters at various positions of interest over the negative pion ionization profile. Quality Factors have been calculated from the data taken with the spherical counters and a Quality Factor of 5 is suggested for a negative pion beam. Results of measurements at two neutron facilities, a cyclotron neutron source and a 14 MeV neutron source, are also presented. Anomalies in the derived LET distributions are discussed. (UK)

  20. Development of a predictive model for lead, cadmium and fluorine soil-water partition coefficients using sparse multiple linear regression analysis.

    Nakamura, Kengo; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Komai, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we applied sparse multiple linear regression (SMLR) analysis to clarify the relationships between soil properties and adsorption characteristics for a range of soils across Japan and identify easily-obtained physical and chemical soil properties that could be used to predict K and n values of cadmium, lead and fluorine. A model was first constructed that can easily predict the K and n values from nine soil parameters (pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, total carbon, soil organic matter from loss on ignition and water holding capacity, the ratio of sand, silt and clay). The K and n values of cadmium, lead and fluorine of 17 soil samples were used to verify the SMLR models by the root mean square error values obtained from 512 combinations of soil parameters. The SMLR analysis indicated that fluorine adsorption to soil may be associated with organic matter, whereas cadmium or lead adsorption to soil is more likely to be influenced by soil pH, IL. We found that an accurate K value can be predicted from more than three soil parameters for most soils. Approximately 65% of the predicted values were between 33 and 300% of their measured values for the K value; 76% of the predicted values were within ±30% of their measured values for the n value. Our findings suggest that adsorption properties of lead, cadmium and fluorine to soil can be predicted from the soil physical and chemical properties using the presented models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution coefficients of 134Cs, 60Co, 65Zn and 51Cr in different contaminated soils affected by organic waste disposal

    Metwally, E.

    2003-01-01

    Batch adsorption experiments were conducted with mixtures of solutes of different concentrations of some radionuclides as 1 34Sc, 6 0Co, 6 5Zn and 5 1Cr, in five different soils. The soils varied in their organic matter source and content due to prolonged irrigation with primary treated sewage effluent or untreated industrial wastewater. the distribution coefficients (K d ) were measured at different equilibrium times namely, 2, 24, 48, 72, 144 and 336 h. statistical correlation and curve fittings indicated that metal sorption into soils was influenced by the presence of clays, organic matter content and hydrous oxides of Fe and Mn. The highest log K d values were obtained in case of Cs in all investigated soils with a general mean of 1.878 0.28. Log K d for Cr exhibited a higher values than those did for at any tested soil (general mean 1.675 .33 and 1.658 0.24 for Cr and Co respectively). Zinc had the lowest log K d values, indicating that Cs is highly retained in soil than other tested elements and Zn is relatively mobile in soil than other tested elements. The investigated elements retention in soil could be arranged in the following order: Cs > Cr > Co > Zn. Soils enriched in organic matter exhibited the highest sorption caption capacity for all tested metals. Variability in the distribution coefficient due to soils and metals interactions were discussed

  2. Homogeneous dose distribution of electrons obtained from linear accelerators equipped with beam scanners

    Borchardt, D.; Cwiekala, M.; Schroeder, U.G.

    1985-01-01

    Homogeneous distribution of electrons used for therapeutic purposes and obtained from accelerators, is achieved by means of Potter-Bucky diaphragms or by repeated, staggered, sawtooth-shaped sweeping movements of the electron beam (scanning) over the radiation field. The repetition of the scanning process (number of scans) can result in long measurement times for achieving a sufficiently homogeneous, dosimetrically adequate distribution of the electrons. This ''time problem'' makes it imperative to achieve good homogeneity while keeping the number of scans as low as possible. To solve the problem, the scanning movement of the electron beam is simulated by a computer programme and the independence of the homogeneity of the irradiation field and number of scans is investigated. Since changing the ratio of the two deflection rates exercises a significant influence, it is mandatory in dosimetry to pay close attention to strict observance of the deflection rates. (orig.) [de

  3. Retrieval of collision kernels from the change of droplet size distributions with linear inversion

    Onishi, Ryo; Takahashi, Keiko [Earth Simulator Center, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan); Matsuda, Keigo; Kurose, Ryoichi; Komori, Satoru [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: onishi.ryo@jamstec.go.jp, E-mail: matsuda.keigo@t03.mbox.media.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: takahasi@jamstec.go.jp, E-mail: kurose@mech.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: komori@mech.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2008-12-15

    We have developed a new simple inversion scheme for retrieving collision kernels from the change of droplet size distribution due to collision growth. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of steady isotropic turbulence with colliding droplets are carried out in order to investigate the validity of the developed inversion scheme. In the DNS, air turbulence is calculated using a quasi-spectral method; droplet motions are tracked in a Lagrangian manner. The initial droplet size distribution is set to be equivalent to that obtained in a wind tunnel experiment. Collision kernels retrieved by the developed inversion scheme are compared to those obtained by the DNS. The comparison shows that the collision kernels can be retrieved within 15% error. This verifies the feasibility of retrieving collision kernels using the present inversion scheme.

  4. Distributed Radiation Monitoring System for Linear Accelerators based on CAN Bus

    Kozak, T; Napieralski, A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—Gamma and neutron radiation is produced during the normal operation of linear accelerators like Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) or X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL). Gamma radiation cause general degeneration of electronics devices and neutron fluence can be a reason of soft error in memories and microcontrollers. X-FEL accelerator will be built only in one tunnel, therefore most of electronic control systems will be placed in radiation environment. Exposing control systems to radiation may lead to many errors and unexpected failure of the whole accelerator system. Thus, the radiation monitoring system able to monitor radiation doses produced near controlling systems is crucial. Knowledge of produced radiation doses allows to detect errors caused by radiation, make plans of essential exchange of control systems and prevent accelerator from serious damages. The paper presents the project of radiation monitoring system able to monitor radiation environment in real time.

  5. Analytic treatment of distributions of lithium neutrals and ions in linear devices

    Chung, Kyu-Sun, E-mail: kschung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hirooka, Yoshi; Ashikawa, Naoko [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Cho, Soon Gook; Choi, Heung Gyoon; Kang, In Je [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tsuchiya, Hayato [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Neutral lithium (Li) has been used for the mitigation of heat flux to the plasma facing components and for the control of hydrogen of fusion plasmas. Radial and axial variations of densities of Li neutrals and ions are obtained analytically for a cylindrical chamber by assuming the classical diffusion with or without the magnetic field (B). Neutrals and ions without B can be expressed as a linear combination of the modified Bessel functions of order zero (I{sub 0} and K{sub 0}), while ions with B are to be expressed as the square root of them. Analytical solutions of Li neutral densities with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are compared to those using Monte Carlo simulation and experimental values of the LIGHT-1 (Lithium Injection Gettering of Hydrogen and its Transport experiments) device. Proper combinations of the relaxation length and size of the source would produce well fitted profiles similar to those observed experimentally and those using Monte Carlo codes.

  6. Geochemical and physical properties, distribution coefficients of soils and sediments at the Olkiluoto Island and in the reference area in 2010-2011

    Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2014-04-01

    The report summarises the chemical, physical and mineralogical data and the calculated 'in situ' distribution coefficients (K d ) values of the indigenous elements from the different types of soil and sediment samples at the Olkiluoto Island and in the Reference area that were taken in 2010-2011. The data has been collected in order to extend the understanding of the site evolution and for radionuclide transport analyses and modelling. 'In situ' distribution coefficients, K d values are used to indicate the relevant mobility of elements and radionuclides. This report is part of the entirety of soil and sediment data from different soil types, soil layers and environmental conditions collected earlier for the biosphere site description and development. Soil and sediment samples were taken at various depths of humus, peat, gyttja, sandy/fine sandy till and cropland soils. The analyses procedure varied to some extent between the samples. In all samples were analysed pH, LOI, C, N, and the total concentrations of the elements using HNO 3 -HF extraction. The 'in situ' K d values were calculated using the formula by Sheppard et al.. For selected samples the easily leachable fraction was analysed by NH 4 Ac (pH 4.5). Bulk density and mineralogy was determined for a few samples. Grain size distribution was measured only from till samples. The results are discussed and the physical-chemical data and distribution coefficients of the results are presented. The cation exchange capacity and base saturation are calculated for the sandy/fine sandy till samples from Olkiluoto. The K d values of the important indigenous elements Ag, Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Ni, Se and Sr are of main interest in biosphere development due to the longest half-lives of the associated radionuclides, thus having long interaction times. The K d data are inherently extremely variable due to nature of practical quantity in question, aggregating a number of processes into a single value, but the data also vary

  7. Geochemical and physical properties, distribution coefficients of soils and sediments at the Olkiluoto Island and in the reference area in 2010-2011

    Lahdenperae, A.-M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    The report summarises the chemical, physical and mineralogical data and the calculated 'in situ' distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) values of the indigenous elements from the different types of soil and sediment samples at the Olkiluoto Island and in the Reference area that were taken in 2010-2011. The data has been collected in order to extend the understanding of the site evolution and for radionuclide transport analyses and modelling. 'In situ' distribution coefficients, K{sub d} values are used to indicate the relevant mobility of elements and radionuclides. This report is part of the entirety of soil and sediment data from different soil types, soil layers and environmental conditions collected earlier for the biosphere site description and development. Soil and sediment samples were taken at various depths of humus, peat, gyttja, sandy/fine sandy till and cropland soils. The analyses procedure varied to some extent between the samples. In all samples were analysed pH, LOI, C, N, and the total concentrations of the elements using HNO{sub 3}-HF extraction. The 'in situ' K{sub d} values were calculated using the formula by Sheppard et al.. For selected samples the easily leachable fraction was analysed by NH{sub 4}Ac (pH 4.5). Bulk density and mineralogy was determined for a few samples. Grain size distribution was measured only from till samples. The results are discussed and the physical-chemical data and distribution coefficients of the results are presented. The cation exchange capacity and base saturation are calculated for the sandy/fine sandy till samples from Olkiluoto. The K{sub d} values of the important indigenous elements Ag, Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Ni, Se and Sr are of main interest in biosphere development due to the longest half-lives of the associated radionuclides, thus having long interaction times. The K{sub d} data are inherently extremely variable due to nature of practical quantity in question, aggregating a number of

  8. Evaluation of distribution coefficients and concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in the Techa River and the Miass River.

    Shishkina, E A; Pryakhin, E A; Popova, I Ya; Osipov, D I; Tikhova, Yu; Andreyev, S S; Shaposhnikova, I A; Egoreichenkov, E A; Styazhkina, E V; Deryabina, L V; Tryapitsina, G A; Melnikov, V; Rudolfsen, G; Teien, H-C; Sneve, M K; Akleyev, A V

    2016-07-01

    Empirical data on the behavior of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are needed for radioecological modeling, which is commonly used for predicting transfer of radionuclides, estimating doses, and assessing possible adverse effects on species and communities. Preliminary studies of radioecological parameters including distribution coefficients and concentration ratios, for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were not in full agreement with the default values used in the ERICA Tool and the RESRAD BIOTA codes. The unique radiation situation in the Techa River, which was contaminated by long-lived radionuclides ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) in the middle of the last century allows improved knowledge about these parameters for river systems. Therefore, the study was focused on the evaluation of radioecological parameters (distribution coefficients and concentration ratios for (90)Sr and (137)Cs) for the Techa River and the Miass River, which is assumed as a comparison waterbody. To achieve the aim the current contamination of biotic and abiotic components of the river ecosystems was studied; distribution coefficients for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were calculated; concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs for three fish species (roach, perch and pike), gastropods and filamentous algae were evaluated. Study results were then compared with default values available for use in the well-known computer codes ERICA Tool and RESRAD BIOTA (when site-specific data are not available). We show that the concentration ratios of (137)Cs in whole fish bodies depend on the predominant type of nutrition (carnivores and phytophagous). The results presented here are useful in the context of improving of tools for assessing concentrations of radionuclides in biota, which could rely on a wider range of ecosystem information compared with the process limited the current versions of ERICA and RESRAD codes. Further, the concentration ratios of (90)Sr are species-specific and strongly dependent on Ca(2+) concentration in

  9. A distributed multi-agent linear biobjective algorithm for energy flow optimization in microgrids

    Brehm, Robert; Top, Søren; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    consisting of local energy resources and storage capacities is presented which is based on the auction algorithm for assignment problems originally introduced by Bertsekas in 1979 [1]. It is shown that the topology of a microgrid can be represented as a bipartite graph and mathematically be described...... as a classical transportation problem. This allows applying an auction algorithm scheme in a distributed way where each energy supply system node is either a source or a sink and is represented by an individual acting agent. The single-objective approach is extended towards bi-objectivity to build a framework...

  10. Determination of the distribution coefficient of pesticides in soil and potential mobility to bodies of water using isotopic techniques

    Gonzalez Moreno, Marcela Angelica

    2014-01-01

    The Carbaryl, Diazinon and Chloropyrifos insecticides, herbicides Atrazine and Glyphosate and the fungicide Tebuconazole are widely used pesticides in agriculture. Due the large use of this products that is important the knowledge of their destiny after their application. This way you can prevent and minimize pollution and decreased quality of different environmental compartments like soil and water. In this work, the adsorption of pesticides 14 C-Atrazine, 14 C-Carbaryl , 14 C-Chloropyrifos, 14 C-Diazinon, 14 C-Glyphosate-and 14 C-Tebuconazol was studied by adsorption isotherms through the Batch equilibrium method in an agricultural soil in the region of Araucania in 4 depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm). To the adsorption isotherm was applied the model of Freundlich to obtain distribution Freundlich constant (Kf) and subsequently the normalized adsorption constant depending (according?) on the content of organic matter (Koc). Besides the potential mobility and toxicity of pesticides on nearby bodies of water to the study site by the Pesticide Impact Rating Index program was obtained. Was considered for adsorption curves 5 concentrations for each pesticide unchecked, this solution pesticide was marked by an addition of 14 C-so to achieve a given activity. The solutions were added to 0.1 M CaCl 2 in a ratio soil: solution of 1: 2. The equilibration time was 24 hours with continuous agitation at 170 rpm horizontally pulse. Adsorbed pesticide concentration was determined by the difference between the concentration of pesticide added and the adsorbed pesticide concentration for which no activity (dpm) in the sample was quantified in a liquid scintillation counter (CCL). In addition the ground with the adsorbed pesticide was put to combustion in a Biological Oxidizer where pesticide molecules are degraded to CO 2 marking, this methodology recovery method is determined, which are considered low in this study. Koc indicate that has a weak adsorption Atrazine (Koc

  11. Optimization of dose distribution for the system of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery

    Suh Taesuk.

    1990-01-01

    This work addresses a method for obtaining an optimal dose distribution of stereotactic radiosurgery. Since stereotactic radiosurgery utilizes multiple noncoplanar arcs and a three-dimensional dose evaluation technique, many beam parameters and complex optimization criteria are included in the dose optimization. Consequently, a lengthy computation time is required to optimize even the simplest case by a trial and error method. The basic approach presented here is to use both an analytical and an experimental optimization to minimize the dose to critical organs while maintaining a dose shaped to the target. The experimental approach is based on shaping the target volumes using multiple isocenters from dose experience, or on field shaping using a beam's eye view technique. The analytical approach is to adapt computer-aided design optimization to find optimum parameters automatically. Three-dimensional approximate dose models are developed to simulate the exact dose model using a spherical or cylindrical coordinate system. Optimum parameters are found much faster with the use of computer-aided design optimization techniques. The implementation of computer-aided design algorithms with the approximate dose model and the application of the algorithms to several cases are discussed. It is shown that the approximate dose model gives dose distributions similar to those of the exact dose model, which makes the approximate dose model an attractive alternative to the exact dose model, and much more efficient in terms of computer-aided design and visual optimization

  12. Distributed 3D Source Localization from 2D DOA Measurements Using Multiple Linear Arrays

    Antonio Canclini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript addresses the problem of 3D source localization from direction of arrivals (DOAs in wireless acoustic sensor networks. In this context, multiple sensors measure the DOA of the source, and a central node combines the measurements to yield the source location estimate. Traditional approaches require 3D DOA measurements; that is, each sensor estimates the azimuth and elevation of the source by means of a microphone array, typically in a planar or spherical configuration. The proposed methodology aims at reducing the hardware and computational costs by combining measurements related to 2D DOAs estimated from linear arrays arbitrarily displaced in the 3D space. Each sensor measures the DOA in the plane containing the array and the source. Measurements are then translated into an equivalent planar geometry, in which a set of coplanar equivalent arrays observe the source preserving the original DOAs. This formulation is exploited to define a cost function, whose minimization leads to the source location estimation. An extensive simulation campaign validates the proposed approach and compares its accuracy with state-of-the-art methodologies.

  13. Distribution of Linear Alkylbenzenes (LABs in Sediments of Sarawak and Sembulan Rivers, Malaysia

    Sami Muhsen Magam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study is one of the first studies evaluating the levels of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs in surface sediments of Sarawak and Sembulan rivers which are located in the east coast of Malaysia. The LABs, which are molecular tracers of sewage contamination, were measured in 15 surface sediment samples collected from these rivers. The samples were extracted, fractioned and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The findings revealed that the concentrations of ∑LABs ranged from 156.47 to 7386.19 ng/g dry weight (dw in the sediments of Sarawak River and from 643.18 to 5567.12 ng/g dw in the sediments of Sembulan River. The highest LABs levels were detected in the sediments collected from the sampling location SS9 in Sembulan River whereas the lowest levels were observed in the SS1 sampling location in Sarawak River. The I/E ratios (ratio of internal to external isomers of LABs for Sarawak River sediments ranged from 0.52 to 0.98 while for Sembulan River they fell within the range 0.87-1.79. The I/E ratio at the sampling station SS4 was much lower than the I/E ratios at the other stations, thus indicating that the wastewater discharged into Sarawak River from the areas surrounding station SS4 was poorly treated.

  14. Distributed transition-edge sensors for linearized position response in a phonon-mediated X-ray imaging spectrometer

    Cabrera, Blas; Brink, Paul L.; Leman, Steven W.; Castle, Joseph P.; Tomada, Astrid; Young, Betty A.; Martínez-Galarce, Dennis S.; Stern, Robert A.; Deiker, Steve; Irwin, Kent D.

    2004-03-01

    For future solar X-ray satellite missions, we are developing a phonon-mediated macro-pixel composed of a Ge crystal absorber with four superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) distributed on the backside. The X-rays are absorbed on the opposite side and the energy is converted into phonons, which are absorbed into the four TES sensors. By connecting together parallel elements into four channels, fractional total energy absorbed between two of the sensors provides x-position information and the other two provide y-position information. We determine the optimal distribution for the TES sub-elements to obtain linear position information while minimizing the degradation of energy resolution.

  15. Estimation of uranium and cobalt-60 distribution coefficients and uranium-235 enrichment at the Combustion Engineering Company site in Windsor, Connecticut

    Wang, Y.; Orlandini, K.A.; Yu, C.

    1996-05-01

    Site-specific distribution coefficients for uranium isotopes and cobalt-60 (Co-60) and the fraction of uranium-235 (U-235) enrichment by mass were estimated for environmental samples collected from the Combustion Engineering Company site in Windsor, CT. This site has been identified for remedial action under the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The authority of DOE at the Combustion Engineering site is limited to (1) Building 3; (2) other activities or areas associated exclusively with Building 3 (such as sewer lines); or (3) contamination that is exclusively highly enriched uranium. In this study, 16 samples were collected from the Combustion Engineering site, including 8 soil, 4 sediment, 3 water, and 1 water plus sludge sample. These samples were analyzed for isotopic uranium by alpha spectrometry and for Co-60 by gamma spectrometry. The site-specific distribution coefficient for each isotope was estimated as the ratio of extractable radionuclide activity in the solid phase to the activity in the contact solution following a 19-day equilibration. The uranium activity measurements indicate that uranium-234 (U-234) and uranium-238 (U-238) were in secular equilibrium in two soil samples and that soil and sediment samples collected from other sampling locations had higher U-234 activity than U-238 activity in both the solid and solution phases. The site-specific distribution coefficient (Kd) ranged from 82 to 44,600 mL/g for U-238 and from 102 to 65,900 mL/g for U-234. Calculation of U-235 enrichment by mass indicated that four soil samples had values greater than 0.20; these values were 0.37, 0.38, 0.46, and 0.68. Cobalt-60 activity was detected in only three sediment samples. The measured Co-60 activity in the solid phase ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 pCi/g and that in the water phase of all three samples combined was 4 pCi/L. The Kd value for Co-60 in the site brook sediment was calculated to be 70 mL/g

  16. Modified Regression Correlation Coefficient for Poisson Regression Model

    Kaengthong, Nattacha; Domthong, Uthumporn

    2017-09-01

    This study gives attention to indicators in predictive power of the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) which are widely used; however, often having some restrictions. We are interested in regression correlation coefficient for a Poisson regression model. This is a measure of predictive power, and defined by the relationship between the dependent variable (Y) and the expected value of the dependent variable given the independent variables [E(Y|X)] for the Poisson regression model. The dependent variable is distributed as Poisson. The purpose of this research was modifying regression correlation coefficient for Poisson regression model. We also compare the proposed modified regression correlation coefficient with the traditional regression correlation coefficient in the case of two or more independent variables, and having multicollinearity in independent variables. The result shows that the proposed regression correlation coefficient is better than the traditional regression correlation coefficient based on Bias and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).

  17. FPGA and optical-network-based LLRF distributed control system for TESLA-XFEL linear accelerator

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Czarski, Tomasz; Giergusiewicz, Wojciech; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Olowski, Krysztof; Perkuszewski, Karol; Zielinski, Jerzy; Simrock, Stefan

    2005-02-01

    The work presents a structural and functional model of a distributed low level radio frequency (LLRF) control system for the TESLA-XFEL accelerator. The design of a system basing on the FPGA chips and multi-gigabit optical network was debated. The system design approach was fully parametric. The major emphasis is put on the methods of the functional and hardware concentration to use fully both: a very big transmission capacity of the optical fiber telemetric channels and very big processing power of the latest series of the, DSP enhanced and optical I/O equipped, FPGA chips. The subject of the work is the design of a universal, laboratory module of the LLRF sub-system. Initial parameters of the system model under the design are presented.

  18. Non-linear properties of R-R distributions as a measure of heart rate variability

    Irurzun, I.M.; Bergero, P.; Cordero, M.C.; Defeo, M.M.; Vicente, J.L.; Mola, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the dynamic quality of the R-R interbeat intervals of electrocardiographic signals from healthy people and from patients with premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) by applying different measure algorithms to standardised public domain data sets of heart rate variability. Our aim is to assess the utility of these algorithms for the above mentioned purposes. Long and short time series, 24 and 0.50 h respectively, of interbeat intervals of healthy and PVC subjects were compared with the aim of developing a fast method to investigate their temporal organization. Two different methods were used: power spectral analysis and the integral correlation method. Power spectral analysis has proven to be a powerful tool for detecting long-range correlations. If it is applied in a short time series, power spectra of healthy and PVC subjects show a similar behavior, which disqualifies power spectral analysis as a fast method to distinguish healthy from PVC subjects. The integral correlation method allows us to study the fractal properties of interbeat intervals of electrocardiographic signals. The cardiac activity of healthy and PVC people stems from dynamics of chaotic nature characterized by correlation dimensions d f equal to 3.40±0.50 and 5.00±0.80 for healthy and PVC subjects respectively. The methodology presented in this article bridges the gap between theoretical and experimental studies of non-linear phenomena. From our results we conclude that the minimum number of coupled differential equations to describe cardiac activity must be six and seven for healthy and PVC individuals respectively. From the present analysis we conclude that the correlation integral method is particularly suitable, in comparison with the power spectral analysis, for the early detection of arrhythmias on short time (0.5 h) series

  19. Soil-soil solution distribution coefficient of soil organic matter is a key factor for that of radioiodide in surface and subsurface soils.

    Unno, Yusuke; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Takeda, Akira; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the vertical distribution of the soil-soil-solution distribution coefficients (K d ) of 125 I, 137 Cs, and 85 Sr in organic-rich surface soil and organic-poor subsurface soil of a pasture and an urban forest near a spent-nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan. K d of 137 Cs was highly correlated with water-extractable K + . K d of 85 Sr was highly correlated with water-extractable Ca 2+ and SOC. K d of 125 I - was low in organic-rich surface soil, high slightly below the surface, and lowest in the deepest soil. This kinked distribution pattern differed from the gradual decrease of the other radionuclides. The thickness of the high- 125 I - K d middle layer (i.e., with high radioiodide retention ability) differed between sites. K d of 125 I - was significantly correlated with K d of soil organic carbon. Our results also showed that the layer thickness is controlled by the ratio of K d -OC between surface and subsurface soils. This finding suggests that the addition of SOC might prevent further radioiodide migration down the soil profile. As far as we know, this is the first report to show a strong correlation of a soil characteristic with K d of 125 I - . Further study is needed to clarify how radioiodide is retained and migrates in soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Improved spectral absorption coefficient grouping strategy of wide band k-distribution model used for calculation of infrared remote sensing signal of hot exhaust systems

    Hu, Haiyang; Wang, Qiang

    2018-07-01

    A new strategy for grouping spectral absorption coefficients, considering the influences of both temperature and species mole ratio inhomogeneities on correlated-k characteristics of the spectra of gas mixtures, has been deduced to match the calculation method of spectral overlap parameter used in multiscale multigroup wide band k-distribution model. By comparison with current spectral absorption coefficient grouping strategies, for which only the influence of temperature inhomogeneity on the correlated-k characteristics of spectra of single species was considered, the improvements in calculation accuracies resulting from the new grouping strategy were evaluated using a series of 0D cases in which radiance under 3-5-μm wave band emitted by hot combustion gas of hydrocarbon fuel was attenuated by atmosphere with quite different temperature and mole ratios of water vapor and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. Finally, evaluations are presented on the calculation of remote sensing thermal images of transonic hot jet exhausted from a chevron ejecting nozzle with solid wall cooling system.

  1. Time correlation functions and transport coefficients in a dilute superfluid

    Kirkpatrick, T.R.; Dorfman, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Time correlation functions for the transport coefficients in the linear Landau-Khalatnikov equations are derived on the basis of a formal theory. These Green--Kubo expressions are then explicitly evaluated for a dilute superfluid and the resulting transport coefficiencts are shown to be identical to those obtained previously by using a distribution function method

  2. Effects of vortex-like and non-thermal ion distributions on non-linear dust-acoustic waves

    Mamun, A.A.; Cairns, R.A.; Shukla, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of vortex-like and non-thermal ion distributions are incorporated in the study of nonlinear dust-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma. It is found that owing to the departure from the Boltzmann ion distribution to a vortex-like phase space distribution, the dynamics of small but finite amplitude dust-acoustic waves is governed by a modified Kortweg endash de Vries equation. The latter admits a stationary dust-acoustic solitary wave solution, which has larger amplitude, smaller width, and higher propagation velocity than that involving adiabatic ions. On the other hand, consideration of a non-thermal ion distribution provides the possibility of coexistence of large amplitude rarefactive as well as compressive dust-acoustic solitary waves, whereas these structures appear independently when the wave amplitudes become infinitely small. The present investigation should help us to understand the salient features of the non-linear dust-acoustic waves that have been observed in a recent numerical simulation study. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. New best estimates for radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients in soils. Part 3: miscellany of radionuclides (Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, I, Se, Sb, Pu, Am, and others)

    Gil-Garcia, C.; Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Rigol, A.; Vidal, M.

    2009-01-01

    New best estimates for the solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K d ) for a set of radionuclides are proposed, based on a selective data search and subsequent calculation of geometric means. The K d best estimates are calculated for soils grouped according to the texture and organic matter content. For a limited number of radionuclides this is extended to consider soil cofactors affecting soil-radionuclide interaction, such as pH, organic matter content, and radionuclide chemical speciation. Correlations between main soil properties and radionuclide K d are examined to complete the information derived from the best estimates with a rough prediction of K d based on soil parameters. Although there are still gaps for many radionuclides, new data from recent studies improve the calculation of K d best estimates for a number of radionuclides, such as selenium, antimony, and iodine.

  4. Thermodynamic equilibrium model to predict the cobalt distribution coefficient in the CoCl2--HCl--H2O--TBP liquid--liquid extraction system

    Nevarez, M.; Bautista, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a thermodynamic equilibrium model to predict the cobalt distribution coefficient in the CoCl 2 -HCl-H 2 O-TBP system is described. The model makes use of the various aqueous phase cobaltous chloride complexes stoichiometric stability constants expressed as their degree of formation, their mechanism of extraction into the organic phase, and the equilibrium constant for the extraction reaction. The model was verified by the good agreement between the calculated cobalt distribution coefficients and those obtained experimentally both in the present study and published by other investigators. The optimum extraction of cobalt by the TBP occurred at an HCl equilibrium aqueous place concentration between 8.5 and 9.5M. The development of efficient procedures for the separation and concentration of important industrial metals from their aqueous solutions by liquid-liquid extraction has recently been given impetus by the realization of an impending shortage of energy and mineral resources. Liquid-liquid extraction is one of the few methods by which it is possible to quantitatively separate elements which are similar in properties. The use of liquid-liquid extraction to separate cobalt and nickel, which very frequently occur in nature together, is an important separation problem in nonferrous metallurgy. There is some fundamental information available in the chemical literature regarding the mechanism and equilibrium thermodynamic properties of selected liquid-liquid extraction systems. This research effort shows how this available information can be utilized to improve existing separation and concentration theory and technique. The development and application of a thermodynamic equilibrium model for describing the liquid-liquid extraction of cobaltous chloride from aqueous HCl solutions by tributyl phosphate (TBP) using experimental data obtained in this investigation and from the literature are presented

  5. The effect of changing seawater Ca and Mg concentrations upon the distribution coefficients of Mg and Sr in the skeletons of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis

    Giri, Sharmila J.; Swart, Peter K.; Devlin, Quinn B.

    2018-02-01

    The skeletal composition of calcifying organisms, in particular Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios, have been widely used to understand fluctuations in seawater chemistry throughout the Phanerozoic. While the success of applying these data to the geologic record depends on a knowledge of the distribution coefficients for these elements (DMg and DSr), there are scarcely any studies which have described how these values vary as a result of changing seawater Mg/Ca ratios. To address this, we have cultured the scleractinian coral, Pocillopora damicornis, in seawater with ranges of Mg and Ca concentrations. Here, we demonstrate that Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios of coral skeletons correlate with total seawater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca molar ratios, but that apparent DMg and DSr values do not remain constant across the range of experimental seawater treatments, with DMg values significantly increasing with seawater Mg/Ca ratios and DSr values significantly increasing with seawater Ca concentrations. These trends are not rate dependent and may be best explained by a Rayleigh distillation model, in which the calcifying space is semi-isolated from seawater during skeletogenesis (i.e. leaky). As there is a slight increase in DMg and decrease in DSr values between our "Jurassic" and "Modern" seawater treatments, the application of a constant distribution coefficient to estimate changes in ancient seawater chemistry may underestimate seawater Mg/Ca ratios and overestimate Sr/Ca throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. We suggest that interpretations of seawater chemistry from fossil corals may be improved by using the relationships derived for skeletal and seawater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios established by our experiments, as they incorporate the effect of seawater Mg/Ca ratios on skeletal Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios.

  6. Occurrence of different classes of perfluorinated compounds in Greek wastewater treatment plants and determination of their solid–water distribution coefficients

    Arvaniti, Olga S.; Ventouri, Elpida I.; Stasinakis, Athanasios S.; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Eighteen PFCs were determined in wastewater and sludge samples using LC–MS/MS. ► PFPeA, PFOA and PFOS were the dominating compounds in both WWTPs. ► No significant decrease or even increase of most PFCs was noticed in effluents. ► Distribution coefficients of PFCs were calculated for different types of sludge. ► Sorption potential was affected by the target compound and the type of sludge. - Abstract: The concentrations of eighteen perfluorinated compounds (PFCs: C5–C14 carboxylates, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and 3 sulfonamides) were determined in wastewater and sludge samples originating from two different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (dissolved phase) or sonication followed by solid phase extraction (solid phase). Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed by LC–MS/MS. According to the results, perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were dominant in wastewater and sludge samples from both plants. The average concentrations in the raw and treated wastewater ranged up to 75.7 ng L −1 (perfluorotridecanoic acid, PFTrDA) and 76.0 ng L −1 (PFPeA), respectively. Concentrations of most PFCs were higher in effluents than in influents, indicating their formation during wastewater treatment processes. In sewage sludge, the average concentrations ranged up to 6.7 ng g −1 dry weight (PFOS). No significant seasonal variations in PFCs concentrations were observed, while higher concentrations of PFOA, PFOS and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were determined in the WWTP receiving municipal and industrial wastewater. Significantly different distribution coefficient (K d ) values were determined for different PFCs and different type of sludge, ranging between 169 L kg −1 (PFHxS) to 12,922 L kg −1 (PFDA).

  7. Reactivity and Power Distribution Management in LEU-loaded Linear B and BR

    Hartanto, Donny; Kim, Yonghee

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the relatively high excess reactivity issue during the initial transitional period was addressed. The design target is to achieve a maximum excess reactivity of about 1.0 dollar to prevent the possibility of the prompt jump critical accident. The initial core is divided into 2 radial Zr-zones in order to reduce the excess reactivity. By doing this, the power profile at the BOC can also be flattened. After the optimum initial core configuration has been found, the blanket region is also divided into 2 radial Zr-zones in order to flatten the power distribution at EOC. The neutronic analyses were all performed using the Monte Carlo code McCARD with ENDF-B/VII.0 library. It was found that by using the concave Zr-zoning in the initial core of B and BR, the maximum excess reactivity can be effectively lowered. The radial power profile can also be successfully flattened by using the Zr-zoning and concave initial core. The concave concept deserves more investigations for better performances of the B and BR core

  8. The application of rational approximation in the calculation of a temperature field with a non-linear surface heat-transfer coefficient during quenching for 42CrMo steel cylinder

    Cheng, Heming; Huang, Xieqing; Fan, Jiang; Wang, Honggang

    1999-10-01

    The calculation of a temperature field has a great influence upon the analysis of thermal stresses and stains during quenching. In this paper, a 42CrMo steel cylinder was used an example for investigation. From the TTT diagram of the 42CrMo steel, the CCT diagram was simulated by mathematical transformation, and the volume fraction of phase constituents was calculated. The thermal physical properties were treated as functions of temperature and the volume fraction of phase constituents. The rational approximation was applied to the finite element method. The temperature field with phase transformation and non-linear surface heat-transfer coefficients was calculated using this technique, which can effectively avoid oscillationin the numerical solution for a small time step. The experimental results of the temperature field calculation coincide with the numerical solutions.

  9. Influence of water vapour on the height distribution of positive ions, effective recombination coefficient and ionisation balance in the quiet lower ionosphere

    V. Barabash

    2014-03-01

    vapour concentration upper limit at altitudes between 75 and 87 km, beyond which the water vapour concentration ceases to influence the numerical densities of Cl2+ and Cl1+, the effective recombination coefficient and the electron number density in the summer ionosphere. This water vapour concentration limit corresponds to values found in the H2O-1 profile that was observed in the summer mesosphere by the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS. The electron density modelled using the H2O-1 profile agreed well with the electron density measured in the summer ionosphere when the measured profiles did not have sharp gradients. For sharp gradients in electron and positive ion number densities, a water profile that can reproduce the characteristic behaviour of the ionospheric parameters should have an inhomogeneous height distribution of water vapour.

  10. Derivation of Coefficients for the Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function from AVHRR-data over Europe, under Consideration of the Helmholtz Reciprocity Law

    Billing, H.; Koslowsky, D.

    In the AVHRR data of the polar orbiting NOAA Satellites, directional reflectance under a certain view from satellite and a certain illumination by the sun is measured. Due to the nearly sunsynchroneous orbit of the NOAA satellite, each area is seen under different viewing angles in successive days. Only after approximately 9 days, the conditions are again similar. Areas, seen in specular direction, may appear only half as bright, as if seen in antispecular direction. This deviation from a Lambertian reflector is a function of the surface roughness and the degree of coverage with vegetation. The NOAA afternoon satellites drift by half an hour from year to year. Thus even data from the same season, but different years, are seen under different illumination conditions. To derive the bidirectional reflection distribution function in dependence on satellite viewing angle and solar illumination becomes a very complicated procedure. Using the Helmholtz reciprocity principle (HRP), i.e. the symetrie in viewing and illumination, reduces the problem by one dimension. For different bidimensional reflection laws it will be tested, whether they can be formulated to fullfill the HRP. Via regression, the parameters will be deduced for time series of AVHRR data of 10 years from NOAA 11,14,16 and 17. Brdfunctions, suggested by Rao as well as a law, suggested by Ba seem to become unstable for low sun resp. large viewing zenit angles. Only brdfs with 4 coefficients can fit the observed distributions. A nonlinear temporal angular model (NTAM), suggested by Latifovic,Cihlar and Chen, seems to be suitable to describe even the hot spot and the dependence on plant growth. The coefficients of these brdf-function will be derived via regression for monthly series of cloud free data for the European area, where AVHRR data in full resolution are received in Berlin. Using these coefficients, monthly maps of surface roughness are produced for the above area for the time since 1985. Ba, M

  11. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1−x)}N double quantum wells operating at 1.55 μm

    Dakhlaoui, Hassen [Department of Physics, College of Science for Girls, University of Dammam (UOD), Saudi Arabia and Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage (Tunisia)

    2015-04-07

    In the present paper, the linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes between the ground and the first excited states in double GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1−x)}N quantum wells are studied theoretically. The electronic energy levels and their corresponding wave functions are obtained by solving Schrödinger-Poisson equations self-consistently within the effective mass approximation. The obtained results show that the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes can be red- and blue-shifted through varying the left quantum well width and the aluminum concentration x{sub b2} of the central barrier, respectively. These structural parameters are found to present optimum values for carrying out the transition of 0.8 eV (1.55 μm). Furthermore, we show that the desired transition can also be achieved by replacing the GaN in the left quantum well with Al{sub y}Ga{sub (1−y)}N and by varying the aluminum concentration y{sub Al}. The obtained results give a new degree of freedom in optoelectronic device applications such as optical fiber telecommunications operating at (1.55 μm)

  12. The influence of precipitation kinetics on trace element partitioning between solid and liquid solutions: A coupled fluid dynamics/thermodynamics framework to predict distribution coefficients

    Kavner, A.

    2017-12-01

    In a multicomponent multiphase geochemical system undergoing a chemical reaction such as precipitation and/or dissolution, the partitioning of species between phases is determined by a combination of thermodynamic properties and transport processes. The interpretation of the observed distribution of trace elements requires models integrating coupled chemistry and mechanical transport. Here, a framework is presented that predicts the kinetic effects on the distribution of species between two reacting phases. Based on a perturbation theory combining Navier-Stokes fluid flow and chemical reactivity, the framework predicts rate-dependent partition coefficients in a variety of different systems. We present the theoretical framework, with applications to two systems: 1. species- and isotope-dependent Soret diffusion of species in a multicomponent silicate melt subjected to a temperature gradient, and 2. Elemental partitioning and isotope fractionation during precipitation of a multicomponent solid from a multicomponent liquid phase. Predictions will be compared with results from experimental studies. The approach has applications for understanding chemical exchange in at boundary layers such as the Earth's surface magmatic systems and at the core/mantle boundary.

  13. The relationship between multilevel models and non-parametric multilevel mixture models: Discrete approximation of intraclass correlation, random coefficient distributions, and residual heteroscedasticity.

    Rights, Jason D; Sterba, Sonya K

    2016-11-01

    Multilevel data structures are common in the social sciences. Often, such nested data are analysed with multilevel models (MLMs) in which heterogeneity between clusters is modelled by continuously distributed random intercepts and/or slopes. Alternatively, the non-parametric multilevel regression mixture model (NPMM) can accommodate the same nested data structures through discrete latent class variation. The purpose of this article is to delineate analytic relationships between NPMM and MLM parameters that are useful for understanding the indirect interpretation of the NPMM as a non-parametric approximation of the MLM, with relaxed distributional assumptions. We define how seven standard and non-standard MLM specifications can be indirectly approximated by particular NPMM specifications. We provide formulas showing how the NPMM can serve as an approximation of the MLM in terms of intraclass correlation, random coefficient means and (co)variances, heteroscedasticity of residuals at level 1, and heteroscedasticity of residuals at level 2. Further, we discuss how these relationships can be useful in practice. The specific relationships are illustrated with simulated graphical demonstrations, and direct and indirect interpretations of NPMM classes are contrasted. We provide an R function to aid in implementing and visualizing an indirect interpretation of NPMM classes. An empirical example is presented and future directions are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Comparison of values of Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficient on the same sets of data

    Hauke, Jan; Kossowski, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient is a nonparametric (distribution-free) rank statistic proposed by Charles Spearman as a measure of the strength of an association between two variables. It is a measure of a monotone association that is used when the distribution of data makes Pearson’s correlation coefficient undesirable or misleading. Spearman’s coefficient is not a measure of the linear relationship between two variables, as some “statisticians” declare. It assesses how well an arbit...

  15. Exposure-lag-response in Longitudinal Studies: Application of Distributed Lag Non-linear Models in an Occupational Cohort.

    Neophytou, Andreas M; Picciotto, Sally; Brown, Daniel M; Gallagher, Lisa E; Checkoway, Harvey; Eisen, Ellen A; Costello, Sadie

    2018-02-13

    Prolonged exposures can have complex relationships with health outcomes, as timing, duration, and intensity of exposure are all potentially relevant. Summary measures such as cumulative exposure or average intensity of exposure may not fully capture these relationships. We applied penalized and unpenalized distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) with flexible exposure-response and lag-response functions in order to examine the association between crystalline silica exposure and mortality from lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in a cohort study of 2,342 California diatomaceous earth workers, followed 1942-2011. We also assessed associations using simple measures of cumulative exposure assuming linear exposure-response and constant lag-response. Measures of association from DLNMs were generally higher than from simpler models. Rate ratios from penalized DLNMs corresponding to average daily exposures of 0.4 mg/m3 during lag years 31-50 prior to the age of observed cases were 1.47 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92, 2.35) for lung cancer and 1.80 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.85) for non-malignant respiratory disease. Rate ratios from the simpler models for the same exposure scenario were 1.15 (95% CI: 0.89-1.48) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.03-1.46) respectively. Longitudinal cohort studies of prolonged exposures and chronic health outcomes should explore methods allowing for flexibility and non-linearities in the exposure-lag-response. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  16. Selection of flow-distributed oscillation and Turing patterns by boundary forcing in a linearly growing, oscillating medium.

    Míguez, David G; McGraw, Patrick; Muñuzuri, Alberto P; Menzinger, Michael

    2009-08-01

    We studied the response of a linearly growing domain of the oscillatory chemical chlorine dioxide-iodide-malonic acid (CDIMA) medium to periodic forcing at its growth boundary. The medium is Hopf-, as well as Turing-unstable and the system is convectively unstable. The results confirm numerical predictions that two distinct modes of pattern can be excited by controlling the driving frequency at the boundary, a flow-distributed-oscillation (FDO) mode of traveling waves at low values of the forcing frequency f , and a mode of stationary Turing patterns at high values of f . The wavelengths and phase velocities of the experimental patterns were compared quantitatively with results from dynamical simulations and with predictions from linear dispersion relations. The results for the FDO waves agreed well with these predictions, and obeyed the kinematic relations expected for phase waves with frequencies selected by the boundary driving frequency. Turing patterns were also generated within the predicted range of forcing frequencies, but these developed into two-dimensional structures which are not fully accounted for by the one-dimensional numerical and analytical models. The Turing patterns excited by boundary forcing persist when the forcing is removed, demonstrating the bistability of the unforced, constant size medium. Dynamical simulations at perturbation frequencies other than those of the experiments showed that in certain ranges of forcing frequency, FDO waves become unstable, breaking up into harmonic waves of different frequency and wavelength and phase velocity.

  17. Population decay time and distribution of exciton states analyzed by rate equations based on theoretical phononic and electron-collisional rate coefficients

    Oki, Kensuke; Ma, Bei; Ishitani, Yoshihiro

    2017-11-01

    Population distributions and transition fluxes of the A exciton in bulk GaN are theoretically analyzed using rate equations of states of the principal quantum number n up to 5 and the continuum. These rate equations consist of the terms of radiative, electron-collisional, and phononic processes. The dependence of the rate coefficients on temperature is revealed on the basis of the collisional-radiative model of hydrogen plasma for the electron-collisional processes and theoretical formulation using Fermi's "golden rule" for the phononic processes. The respective effects of the variations in electron, exciton, and lattice temperatures are exhibited. This analysis is a base of the discussion on nonthermal equilibrium states of carrier-exciton-phonon dynamics. It is found that the exciton dissociation is enhanced even below 150 K mainly by the increase in the lattice temperature. When the thermal-equilibrium temperature increases, the population fluxes between the states of n >1 and the continuum become more dominant. Below 20 K, the severe deviation from the Saha-Boltzmann distribution occurs owing to the interband excitation flux being higher than the excitation flux from the 1 S state. The population decay time of the 1 S state at 300 K is more than ten times longer than the recombination lifetime of excitons with kinetic energy but without the upper levels (n >1 and the continuum). This phenomenon is caused by a shift of population distribution to the upper levels. This phonon-exciton-radiation model gives insights into the limitations of conventional analyses such as the ABC model, the Arrhenius plot, the two-level model (n =1 and the continuum), and the neglect of the upper levels.

  18. Direct reconstruction of the source intensity distribution of a clinical linear accelerator using a maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm.

    Papaconstadopoulos, P; Levesque, I R; Maglieri, R; Seuntjens, J

    2016-02-07

    Direct determination of the source intensity distribution of clinical linear accelerators is still a challenging problem for small field beam modeling. Current techniques most often involve special equipment and are difficult to implement in the clinic. In this work we present a maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) approach to the source reconstruction problem utilizing small fields and a simple experimental set-up. The MLEM algorithm iteratively ray-traces photons from the source plane to the exit plane and extracts corrections based on photon fluence profile measurements. The photon fluence profiles were determined by dose profile film measurements in air using a high density thin foil as build-up material and an appropriate point spread function (PSF). The effect of other beam parameters and scatter sources was minimized by using the smallest field size ([Formula: see text] cm(2)). The source occlusion effect was reproduced by estimating the position of the collimating jaws during this process. The method was first benchmarked against simulations for a range of typical accelerator source sizes. The sources were reconstructed with an accuracy better than 0.12 mm in the full width at half maximum (FWHM) to the respective electron sources incident on the target. The estimated jaw positions agreed within 0.2 mm with the expected values. The reconstruction technique was also tested against measurements on a Varian Novalis Tx linear accelerator and compared to a previously commissioned Monte Carlo model. The reconstructed FWHM of the source agreed within 0.03 mm and 0.11 mm to the commissioned electron source in the crossplane and inplane orientations respectively. The impact of the jaw positioning, experimental and PSF uncertainties on the reconstructed source distribution was evaluated with the former presenting the dominant effect.

  19. Observer-based distributed adaptive fault-tolerant containment control of multi-agent systems with general linear dynamics.

    Ye, Dan; Chen, Mengmeng; Li, Kui

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we consider the distributed containment control problem of multi-agent systems with actuator bias faults based on observer method. The objective is to drive the followers into the convex hull spanned by the dynamic leaders, where the input is unknown but bounded. By constructing an observer to estimate the states and bias faults, an effective distributed adaptive fault-tolerant controller is developed. Different from the traditional method, an auxiliary controller gain is designed to deal with the unknown inputs and bias faults together. Moreover, the coupling gain can be adjusted online through the adaptive mechanism without using the global information. Furthermore, the proposed control protocol can guarantee that all the signals of the closed-loop systems are bounded and all the followers converge to the convex hull with bounded residual errors formed by the dynamic leaders. Finally, a decoupled linearized longitudinal motion model of the F-18 aircraft is used to demonstrate the effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Applicability of the Distribution Coefficient, KD, Based on Non-Aggregated Particulate Samples from Lakes with Low Suspended Solids Concentrations.

    Aine Marie Gormley-Gallagher

    Full Text Available Separate phases of metal partitioning behaviour in freshwater lakes that receive varying degrees of atmospheric contamination and have low concentrations of suspended solids were investigated to determine the applicability of the distribution coefficient, KD. Concentrations of Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg and Mn were determined using a combination of filtration methods, bulk sample collection and digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Phytoplankton biomass, suspended solids concentrations and the organic content of the sediment were also analysed. By distinguishing between the phytoplankton and (inorganic lake sediment, transient variations in KD were observed. Suspended solids concentrations over the 6-month sampling campaign showed no correlation with the KD (n = 15 for each metal, p > 0.05 for Mn (r2 = 0.0063, Cu (r2 = 0.0002, Cr (r2 = 0.021, Ni (r2 = 0.0023, Cd (r2 = 0.00001, Co (r2 = 0.096, Hg (r2 = 0.116 or Pb (r2 = 0.164. The results implied that colloidal matter had less opportunity to increase the dissolved (filter passing fraction, which inhibited the spurious lowering of KD. The findings conform to the increasingly documented theory that the use of KD in modelling may mask true information on metal partitioning behaviour. The root mean square error of prediction between the directly measured total metal concentrations and those modelled based on the separate phase fractions were ± 3.40, 0.06, 0.02, 0.03, 0.44, 484.31, 80.97 and 0.1 μg/L for Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Hg, Ni, Cr and Co respectively. The magnitude of error suggests that the separate phase models for Mn and Cu can be used in distribution or partitioning models for these metals in lake water.

  1. Ion distributions, exclusion coefficients, and separation factors of electrolytes in a charged cylindrical nanopore: a partially perturbative density functional theory study.

    Peng, Bo; Yu, Yang-Xin

    2009-10-07

    The structural and thermodynamic properties for charge symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes as well as mixed electrolyte system inside a charged cylindrical nanopore are investigated using a partially perturbative density functional theory. The electrolytes are treated in the restricted primitive model and the internal surface of the cylindrical nanopore is considered to have a uniform charge density. The proposed theory is directly applicable to the arbitrary mixed electrolyte solution containing ions with the equal diameter and different valences. Large amount of simulation data for ion density distributions, separation factors, and exclusion coefficients are used to determine the range of validity of the partially perturbative density functional theory for monovalent and multivalent counterion systems. The proposed theory is found to be in good agreement with the simulations for both mono- and multivalent counterion systems. In contrast, the classical Poisson-Boltzmann equation only provides reasonable descriptions of monovalent counterion system at low bulk density, and is qualitatively and quantitatively wrong in the prediction for the multivalent counterion systems due to its neglect of the strong interionic correlations in these systems. The proposed density functional theory has also been applied to an electrolyte absorbed into a pore that is a model of the filter of a physiological calcium channel.

  2. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As concentric double quantum rings: Effects of geometry, hydrostatic pressure, and aluminum concentration

    Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Restrepo, R.L. [Física Teórica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia, AA 7516, Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-01-15

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption associated with the transition between 1s and 2s states corresponding to the electron-donor-impurity complex in GaAs/Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As three-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and the variation of the aluminum concentration, the energies of the ground and first excited s-like states of a donor impurity in such a system have been calculated using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the optical transitions are examined as functions of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, radial impurity position, as well as the geometrical dimensions of the structure. The dependencies of the linear, nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy are investigated for different values of those mentioned parameters. It is found that the influences mentioned above lead to either redshifts or blueshifts of the resonant peaks of the optical absorption spectrum. It is particularly discussed the unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear of becoming positive for photon energies below the resonant transition one. It is shown that this phenomenon is associated with the particular features of the system under study, which determine the values of the electric dipole moment matrix elements. -- Highlights: • Intra-band optical absorption associated to impurity states in double quantum rings. • Combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration are studied. • The influences mentioned above lead to shifts of resonant peaks. • It is discussed an unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear absorption.

  3. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs concentric double quantum rings: Effects of geometry, hydrostatic pressure, and aluminum concentration

    Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A.; Restrepo, R.L.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption associated with the transition between 1s and 2s states corresponding to the electron-donor-impurity complex in GaAs/Ga 1−x Al x As three-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and the variation of the aluminum concentration, the energies of the ground and first excited s-like states of a donor impurity in such a system have been calculated using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the optical transitions are examined as functions of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, radial impurity position, as well as the geometrical dimensions of the structure. The dependencies of the linear, nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy are investigated for different values of those mentioned parameters. It is found that the influences mentioned above lead to either redshifts or blueshifts of the resonant peaks of the optical absorption spectrum. It is particularly discussed the unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear of becoming positive for photon energies below the resonant transition one. It is shown that this phenomenon is associated with the particular features of the system under study, which determine the values of the electric dipole moment matrix elements. -- Highlights: • Intra-band optical absorption associated to impurity states in double quantum rings. • Combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration are studied. • The influences mentioned above lead to shifts of resonant peaks. • It is discussed an unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear absorption

  4. Patterns of Failure After Proton Therapy in Medulloblastoma; Linear Energy Transfer Distributions and Relative Biological Effectiveness Associations for Relapses

    Sethi, Roshan V.; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Raiford, Michael; Malhi, Imran; Niemierko, Andrzej; Rapalino, Otto; Caruso, Paul; Yock, Torunn I.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Paganetti, Harald; MacDonald, Shannon M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The pattern of failure in medulloblastoma patients treated with proton radiation therapy is unknown. For this increasingly used modality, it is important to ensure that outcomes are comparable to those in modern photon series. It has been suggested this pattern may differ from photons because of variations in linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). In addition, the use of matching fields for delivery of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) may influence patterns of relapse. Here we report the patterns of failure after the use of protons, compare it to that in the available photon literature, and determine the LET and RBE values in areas of recurrence. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of patients with medulloblastoma treated with proton radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) between 2002 and 2011. We documented the locations of first relapse. Discrete failures were contoured on the original planning computed tomography scan. Monte Carlo calculation methods were used to estimate the proton LET distribution. Models were used to estimate RBE values based on the LET distributions. Results: A total of 109 patients were followed for a median of 38.8 months (range, 1.4-119.2 months). Of the patients, 16 experienced relapse. Relapse involved the supratentorial compartment (n=8), spinal compartment (n=11), and posterior fossa (n=5). Eleven failures were isolated to a single compartment; 6 failures in the spine, 4 failures in the supratentorium, and 1 failure in the posterior fossa. The remaining patients had multiple sites of disease. One isolated spinal failure occurred at the spinal junction of 2 fields. None of the 70 patients treated with an involved-field-only boost failed in the posterior fossa outside of the tumor bed. We found no correlation between Monte Carlo-calculated LET distribution and regions of recurrence. Conclusions: The most common site of failure in patients treated with protons for

  5. Improvement in carrier mobility and photovoltaic performance through random distribution of segments of linear and branched side chains

    Egbe, Daniel A.M.; Adam, Getachew; Pivrikas, Almantas; Ulbricht, Christoph; Ramil, Alberto M.; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (AT). Linz Inst. for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS); Hoppe, Harald [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). Inst. of Physics and Inst. of Micro- and Nanotechnologies; Rathgeber, Silke [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physics

    2010-07-01

    The random distribution of segments of linear octyloxy side chains and of branched 2-ethylhexyloxy side chains, on the backbone of anthracene containing poly(p-phenylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) (PPE-PPV) has resulted in a side chain based statistical copolymer, denoted AnE-PVstat, showing optimized features as compared to the well defined homologues AnE-PVaa, -ab, -ba and -bb, whose constitutional units are incorporated into its backbone. WAXS studies on AnE-P's demonstrate the highest degree of order at the self-assembly state of AnE-PVstat, which is confirmed by its highly structured thin film absorption band. Electric field independent charge carrier mobility ({mu}{sub hole}) for AnE-PVstat was demonstrated by CELIV and OFET measurements, both methods resulting in similar {mu}{sub hole} values of up to 5.43 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2}/Vs. Upon comparison, our results show that charge carrier mobility as measured by CELIV technique is predominantly an intrachain process and less an interchain one, which is in line with past photoconductivity results from PPE-PPV based materials. The present side chain distribution favors efficient solar cell active layer phase separation. As a result, a smaller amount of PC{sub 60}BM is needed to achieve relatively high energy conversion efficiencies above 3 %. The efficiency of {eta}{sub AM1.5} {approx} 3.8 % obtained for AnE-PVstat:PC{sub 60}BM blend is presently the state-of-art value for PPV-based materials. (orig.)

  6. Associations between maternal weekly air pollutant exposures and low birth weight: a distributed lag non-linear model

    Wu, Han; Jiang, Baofa; Zhu, Ping; Geng, Xingyi; Liu, Zhong; Cui, Liangliang; Yang, Liping

    2018-02-01

    When discussing the association between birth weight and air pollution, previous studies mainly focus on the maternal trimester-specific exposures during pregnancy, whereas the possible associations between birth weight and weekly-specific exposures have been largely neglected. We conducted a nested 1:4 matched case-control study in Jinan, China to examine the weekly-specific associations during pregnancy between maternal fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter gender-, gestational age-, and parity-specific standard score (BWGAP z-score) was calculated as the outcome of interest. Distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) were applied to estimate weekly-specific relationship between maternal air pollutant exposures and birth weight. For an increase of per inter-quartile range in maternal PM2.5 exposure concentration during pregnancy, the BWGAP z-score decreased significantly during the 27th-33th gestational weeks with the strongest association in the 30th gestational weeks (standard deviation units decrease in BWGAP z-score: -0.049, 95% CI: -0.080 -0.017, in three-pollutant model). No significant association between maternal weekly NO2 or SO2 BWGAP z-score was observed. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that maternal PM2.5 exposure during the 27th-33th gestational weeks may reduce the birth weight in the context of very high pollution level of PM2.5.

  7. An intelligent sensor array distributed system for vibration analysis and acoustic noise characterization of a linear switched reluctance actuator.

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  8. An Intelligent Sensor Array Distributed System for Vibration Analysis and Acoustic Noise Characterization of a Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator

    Maria Calado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs. The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  9. Distributed Time-Varying Formation Robust Tracking for General Linear Multiagent Systems With Parameter Uncertainties and External Disturbances.

    Hua, Yongzhao; Dong, Xiwang; Li, Qingdong; Ren, Zhang

    2017-05-18

    This paper investigates the time-varying formation robust tracking problems for high-order linear multiagent systems with a leader of unknown control input in the presence of heterogeneous parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The followers need to accomplish an expected time-varying formation in the state space and track the state trajectory produced by the leader simultaneously. First, a time-varying formation robust tracking protocol with a totally distributed form is proposed utilizing the neighborhood state information. With the adaptive updating mechanism, neither any global knowledge about the communication topology nor the upper bounds of the parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and leader's unknown input are required in the proposed protocol. Then, in order to determine the control parameters, an algorithm with four steps is presented, where feasible conditions for the followers to accomplish the expected time-varying formation tracking are provided. Furthermore, based on the Lyapunov-like analysis theory, it is proved that the formation tracking error can converge to zero asymptotically. Finally, the effectiveness of the theoretical results is verified by simulation examples.

  10. Untangling the causal relationship between tax burden distribution and economic growth in 23 OECD countries: Fresh evidence from linear and non-linear Granger causality

    Sami Saafi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the linear and nonlinear causality between a set of alternative tax burden ratios and economic growth in 23 OECD countries. To that end, the linear causality approach of Toda– Yamamoto (1995 and the nonparametric causality method of Kyrtsou and Labys (2006 are applied to annual data spanning from 1970 to 2014. Results obtained from the nonlinear causality test tend to reject the neutrality hypothesis for the tax structure–growth relationship in 19 of the 23 OECD countries. In the majority of the countries under investigation, the evidence is in line with the growth hypothesis where causality running from economic growth to tax burden ratios was detected in Australia, Denmark, Finland, Japan, New Zealand, and Norway. The opposite causality running from tax structure to economic growth was found in Germany, Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden. In contrast, the neutrality hypothesis was supported in Austria, Italy, Luxembourg, and the USA, whereas the feedback hypothesis was supported in Turkey and the UK. Additional robustness checks show that when the signs of variations are taken into account, there is an asymmetric causality running from positive tax burden shocks to positive per capita GDP shocks for Belgium, France, and Turkey. Overall, our findings suggest that policy implications of the tax structure-economic growth relationships should be interpreted with caution, taking into account the test-dependent and country-specific results.

  11. A review of the distribution coefficients of trace elements in soils: influence of sorption system, element characteristics, and soil colloidal properties.

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Tsadilas, Christos D; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about the behavior and reactions of separate soil components with trace elements (TEs) and their distribution coefficients (Kds) in soils is a key issue in assessing the mobility and retention of TEs. Thus, the fate of TEs and the toxic risk they pose depend crucially on their Kd in soil. This article reviews the Kd of TEs in soils as affected by the sorption system, element characteristics, and soil colloidal properties. The sorption mechanism, determining factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions on the sorption and Kd of TEs are also discussed here. This review demonstrates that the Kd value of TEs does not only depend on inorganic and organic soil constituents, but also on the nature and characteristics of the elements involved as well as on their competition for sorption sites. The Kd value of TEs is mainly affected by individual or competitive sorption systems. Generally, the sorption in competitive systems is lower than in mono-metal sorption systems. More strongly sorbed elements, such as Pb and Cu, are less affected by competition than mobile elements, such as Cd, Ni, and Zn. The sorption preference exhibited by soils for elements over others may be due to: (i) the hydrolysis constant, (ii) the atomic weight, (iii) the ionic radius, and subsequently the hydrated radius, and (iv) its Misono softness value. Moreover, element concentrations in the test solution mainly affect the Kd values. Mostly, values of Kd decrease as the concentration of the included cation increases in the test solution. Additionally, the Kd of TEs is controlled by the sorption characteristics of soils, such as pH, clay minerals, soil organic matter, Fe and Mn oxides, and calcium carbonate. However, more research is required to verify the practical utilization of studying Kd of TEs in soils as a reliable indicator for assessing the remediation process of toxic metals in soils and waters. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Linear regression

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  13. Attenuation coefficients of soils

    Martini, E.; Naziry, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    As a prerequisite to the interpretation of gamma-spectrometric in situ measurements of activity concentrations of soil radionuclides the attenuation of 60 to 1332 keV gamma radiation by soil samples varying in water content and density has been investigated. A useful empirical equation could be set up to describe the dependence of the mass attenuation coefficient upon photon energy for soil with a mean water content of 10%, with the results comparing well with data in the literature. The mean density of soil in the GDR was estimated at 1.6 g/cm 3 . This value was used to derive the linear attenuation coefficients, their range of variation being 10%. 7 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  14. ON THE NEED TO INCREASE THE RELIABILITY OF LINEAR INSULATORS FOR DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS 10-20 KV

    Yu. N. Shumilov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In Ukraine high voltage overhead distribution lines (OL of class 6 and 10 kV are the most extended. Their total length exceeds 280,000 km. More than 95% of the lines are made on line supports from reinforced concrete racks. On all poles of the overhead line, pin insulators are installed. According to the data of operation experience, up to 60-70% of single-phase earth (SPE faults due to «insulation» occurs on VL supports due to damage to line pin insulators, mainly during the thunderstorm period. Problem. Insufficient reliability of pin insulators leads to interruptions in power supply, accidents on the line, accidents in the area of reinforced concrete poles, where in the case of insulator damages, a long process of SPE occurs. Goal. The purpose of the work is to select the design and develop requirements for new linear insulators of 10-20 kV overhead lines that provide high resistance to lightning overvoltages with direct and inductive effects of lightning. Methodology. The research methodology consists in analyzing operational experience, calculating insulator parameters and laboratory tests. Results. Using statistical data on lightning parameters and data on mechanical loads on insulators, the main dimensions of line post insulators have been determined that will ensure their reliable operation under conditions of intense thunderstorm activity and extreme ice and wind loads. Conclusions. The main technical requirements for line post insulators for 10-20 kV distribution lines were formulated. On the 10 kV OL located in areas with increased thunderstorm activity it is recommended to use line post insulators instead of pin-type ones. On the OL-20 kV it is recommended to use only line post insulators. The use of high-lightning-resistant line post insulators on OL-10-20 kV will significantly increase the electrical safety and reliability of power supply to consumers. Increased by 2-3 times the cost of line post insulators in

  15. A new approach to evaluate factors controlling elemental sediment–seawater distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) in coastal regions, Japan

    Takata, Hyoe, E-mail: takata@kaiseiken.or.jp [Marine Ecology Research Institute, Central Laboratory, Onjuku, Chiba (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba City, Chiba (Japan); Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba City, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    In numerical models to simulate the dispersion of anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment, the sediment–seawater distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) for various elements is an important parameter. In coastal regions, K{sub d} values are largely dependent on hydrographic conditions and physicochemical characteristics of sediment. Here we report K{sub d} values for 36 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, I, Cs, rare earth elements, Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) in seawater and sediment samples from 19 Japanese coastal regions, and we examine the factors controlling the variability of these K{sub d} values by investigating their relationships to hydrographic conditions and sediment characteristics. There was large variability in K{sub d} values for Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se, Cd, I, Pb and Th. Variations of K{sub d} for Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Pb and Th appear to be controlled by hydrographic conditions. Although K{sub d} values for Ni, Cu, Se, Cd and I depend mainly on grain size, organic matter content, and the concentrations of hydrous oxides/oxides of Fe and Mn in sediments, heterogeneity in the surface characteristics of sediment particles appears to hamper evaluation of the relative importance of these factors. Thus, we report a new approach to evaluate the factors contributing to variability in K{sub d} for an element. By this approach, we concluded that the K{sub d} values for Cu, Se, Cd and I are controlled by grain size and organic matter in sediments, and the K{sub d} value for Ni is dependent on grain size and on hydrous oxides/oxides of Fe and Mn. - Highlights: • K{sub d}s for 36 elements were determined in 19 Japanese coastal regions. • K{sub d}s for several elements appeared to be controlled by multiple factors in sediments. • We evaluated these factors based on physico-chemical characteristics of sediments.

  16. AIRGAP MAGNETIC INDUCTION DISTRIBUTION IN A COAXIALLY-LINEAR SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH AXIAL AND RADIAL DIRECTION OF THE RUNNER PERMANENT MAGNETS MAGNETIZATION

    Abbasian Mohsen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Results of theoretical and experimental research on magnetic induction distribution in the air gap of a coaxially-linear synchronous motor with reciprocal motion within the pole pitch and axial and radial direction of the permanent magnets magnetization are presented.

  17. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  18. Universal Linear Fit Identification: A Method Independent of Data, Outliers and Noise Distribution Model and Free of Missing or Removed Data Imputation.

    Adikaram, K K L B; Hussein, M A; Effenberger, M; Becker, T

    2015-01-01

    Data processing requires a robust linear fit identification method. In this paper, we introduce a non-parametric robust linear fit identification method for time series. The method uses an indicator 2/n to identify linear fit, where n is number of terms in a series. The ratio Rmax of amax - amin and Sn - amin*n and that of Rmin of amax - amin and amax*n - Sn are always equal to 2/n, where amax is the maximum element, amin is the minimum element and Sn is the sum of all elements. If any series expected to follow y = c consists of data that do not agree with y = c form, Rmax > 2/n and Rmin > 2/n imply that the maximum and minimum elements, respectively, do not agree with linear fit. We define threshold values for outliers and noise detection as 2/n * (1 + k1) and 2/n * (1 + k2), respectively, where k1 > k2 and 0 ≤ k1 ≤ n/2 - 1. Given this relation and transformation technique, which transforms data into the form y = c, we show that removing all data that do not agree with linear fit is possible. Furthermore, the method is independent of the number of data points, missing data, removed data points and nature of distribution (Gaussian or non-Gaussian) of outliers, noise and clean data. These are major advantages over the existing linear fit methods. Since having a perfect linear relation between two variables in the real world is impossible, we used artificial data sets with extreme conditions to verify the method. The method detects the correct linear fit when the percentage of data agreeing with linear fit is less than 50%, and the deviation of data that do not agree with linear fit is very small, of the order of ±10-4%. The method results in incorrect detections only when numerical accuracy is insufficient in the calculation process.

  19. Universal Linear Fit Identification: A Method Independent of Data, Outliers and Noise Distribution Model and Free of Missing or Removed Data Imputation.

    K K L B Adikaram

    Full Text Available Data processing requires a robust linear fit identification method. In this paper, we introduce a non-parametric robust linear fit identification method for time series. The method uses an indicator 2/n to identify linear fit, where n is number of terms in a series. The ratio Rmax of amax - amin and Sn - amin*n and that of Rmin of amax - amin and amax*n - Sn are always equal to 2/n, where amax is the maximum element, amin is the minimum element and Sn is the sum of all elements. If any series expected to follow y = c consists of data that do not agree with y = c form, Rmax > 2/n and Rmin > 2/n imply that the maximum and minimum elements, respectively, do not agree with linear fit. We define threshold values for outliers and noise detection as 2/n * (1 + k1 and 2/n * (1 + k2, respectively, where k1 > k2 and 0 ≤ k1 ≤ n/2 - 1. Given this relation and transformation technique, which transforms data into the form y = c, we show that removing all data that do not agree with linear fit is possible. Furthermore, the method is independent of the number of data points, missing data, removed data points and nature of distribution (Gaussian or non-Gaussian of outliers, noise and clean data. These are major advantages over the existing linear fit methods. Since having a perfect linear relation between two variables in the real world is impossible, we used artificial data sets with extreme conditions to verify the method. The method detects the correct linear fit when the percentage of data agreeing with linear fit is less than 50%, and the deviation of data that do not agree with linear fit is very small, of the order of ±10-4%. The method results in incorrect detections only when numerical accuracy is insufficient in the calculation process.

  20. Kendall-Theil Robust Line (KTRLine--version 1.0)-A Visual Basic Program for Calculating and Graphing Robust Nonparametric Estimates of Linear-Regression Coefficients Between Two Continuous Variables

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2006-01-01

    The Kendall-Theil Robust Line software (KTRLine-version 1.0) is a Visual Basic program that may be used with the Microsoft Windows operating system to calculate parameters for robust, nonparametric estimates of linear-regression coefficients between two continuous variables. The KTRLine software was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, for use in stochastic data modeling with local, regional, and national hydrologic data sets to develop planning-level estimates of potential effects of highway runoff on the quality of receiving waters. The Kendall-Theil robust line was selected because this robust nonparametric method is resistant to the effects of outliers and nonnormality in residuals that commonly characterize hydrologic data sets. The slope of the line is calculated as the median of all possible pairwise slopes between points. The intercept is calculated so that the line will run through the median of input data. A single-line model or a multisegment model may be specified. The program was developed to provide regression equations with an error component for stochastic data generation because nonparametric multisegment regression tools are not available with the software that is commonly used to develop regression models. The Kendall-Theil robust line is a median line and, therefore, may underestimate total mass, volume, or loads unless the error component or a bias correction factor is incorporated into the estimate. Regression statistics such as the median error, the median absolute deviation, the prediction error sum of squares, the root mean square error, the confidence interval for the slope, and the bias correction factor for median estimates are calculated by use of nonparametric methods. These statistics, however, may be used to formulate estimates of mass, volume, or total loads. The program is used to read a two- or three-column tab-delimited input file with variable names in the first row and

  1. Correlation of Benzene, 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, and Naphthalene Distribution Coefficients to the Characteristics of Aquifer Materials With Low Organic Carbon Content

    Larsen, Thomas; Kjeldsen, Peter; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    area of the aquifer materials as a second regression parameter did not significantly improve the correlation. Estimated Koc values were up to 3 times higher than those predicted from regression equations based on the octanol-water partition coefficient. The reason for this is not known, but may...

  2. Soil-water distribution coefficients and plant transfer factors for {sup 134}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 65}Zn under field conditions in tropical Australia

    Twining, J.R. E-mail: jrt@ansto.gov.au; Payne, T.E.; Itakura, T

    2004-07-01

    Measurements of soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 65}Zn from two tropical red earth soils ('Blain' and 'Tippera') to sorghum and mung crops have been undertaken in the north of Australia. The aim of the study was to identify factors that control bioaccumulation of these radionuclides in tropical regions, for which few previous data are available. Batch sorption experiments were conducted to determine the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) of the selected radionuclides at pH values similar to natural pH values, which ranged from about 5.5 to 6.7. In addition, K{sub d} values were obtained at one pH unit above and below the soil-water equilibrium pH values to determine the effect of pH. The adsorption of Cs showed no pH dependence, but the K{sub d} values for the Tippera soils (2300-4100 ml/g) exceeded those for the Blain soils (800-1200 ml/g) at equilibrium pH. This was related to the greater clay content of the Tippera soil. Both Sr and Zn were more strongly adsorbed at higher pH values, but the K{sub d} values showed less dependence on the soil type. Strontium K{sub d}s were 30-60 ml/g whilst Zn ranged from 160 to 1630 ml/g for the two soils at equilibrium pH. With the possible exception of Sr, there was no evidence for downward movement of radionuclides through the soils during the course of the growing season. There was some evidence of surface movement of labelled soil particles. Soil-to-plant transfer factors varied slightly between the soils. The average results for sorghum were 0.1-0.3 g/g for Cs, 0.4-0.8 g/g for Sr and 18-26 g/g for Zn (dry weight) with the initial values relating to Blain and the following values to Tippera. Similar values were observed for the mung bean samples. The transfer factors for Cs and Sr were not substantially different from the typical values observed in temperate studies. However, Zn transfer factors for plants grown on both these tropical soils were greater than for soils in

  3. A time-domain decomposition iterative method for the solution of distributed linear quadratic optimal control problems

    Heinkenschloss, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    We study a class of time-domain decomposition-based methods for the numerical solution of large-scale linear quadratic optimal control problems. Our methods are based on a multiple shooting reformulation of the linear quadratic optimal control problem as a discrete-time optimal control (DTOC) problem. The optimality conditions for this DTOC problem lead to a linear block tridiagonal system. The diagonal blocks are invertible and are related to the original linear quadratic optimal control problem restricted to smaller time-subintervals. This motivates the application of block Gauss-Seidel (GS)-type methods for the solution of the block tridiagonal systems. Numerical experiments show that the spectral radii of the block GS iteration matrices are larger than one for typical applications, but that the eigenvalues of the iteration matrices decay to zero fast. Hence, while the GS method is not expected to convergence for typical applications, it can be effective as a preconditioner for Krylov-subspace methods. This is confirmed by our numerical tests.A byproduct of this research is the insight that certain instantaneous control techniques can be viewed as the application of one step of the forward block GS method applied to the DTOC optimality system.

  4. Recursive Algorithm For Linear Regression

    Varanasi, S. V.

    1988-01-01

    Order of model determined easily. Linear-regression algorithhm includes recursive equations for coefficients of model of increased order. Algorithm eliminates duplicative calculations, facilitates search for minimum order of linear-regression model fitting set of data satisfactory.

  5. Thermodynamic Calculation of the Distribution Coefficient Between the Liquid and Solid Phases of an Element in Dilute Solution in a Metal: Application to the Purification of Beryllium; Calcul Thermodynamique du Coefficient de Distribution Entre Phases Liquide et Solide d'un Element en Presence d'Autres Constituants en Solution Diluee dans un Metal: Application a la Purification du Beryllium

    Desre, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Electrochimie et d' Electrometallurgie (France); Schaub, B. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble (France); Bonnier, I. E. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Electrochimie et d' Electrometallurgie, Grenoble (France)

    1966-01-15

    The authors calculate the distribution coefficient {Gamma}{sub i} between the liquid and solid phases of an element i in the presence of other elements j in a solvent M ({Gamma}{sub i} = x'{sub i}/x{sub i}, where x'{sub i} and x{sub i} are the atomic fractions of i in the solid and liquid phases respectively) from the thermodynamic properties of binary systems of the type (i, M), (j, M) and (i, j). They show that the interaction of all the elements present may, under certain conditions, strongly affect the value of the coefficient {Gamma}{sub i}. This effect is pronounced if the following condition is fulfilled: {gamma}{sup {infinity}}{sub i(M)}, {gamma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j(M)} > {gamma}{sup {infinity}}{sub ij} where {gamma}{sup {infinity}}{sub i(M)}, {gamma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j(M)} and {gamma}{sup {infinity}}{sub ij} are limiting activity coefficients of the constituents i and j in the (i, M) (j, M) and (i, j) liquid state systems. It is a simple matter to deduce from this condition an application to the purification of metals by the zone-melting method; the condition enables one to choose an element j which is added deliberately to a metal in order to facilitate the elimination-of an element i (subsequent elimination of the element j being also, of course, a simple matter). For example, the authors were able to confirm that the addition of aluminium to beryllium enables one to improve the elimination of iron during the purification of the beryllium by the zone-melting technique, the aluminium acting as a carrier. (author) [French] Les auteurs calculent le coefficient de distribution Greek-Capital-Letter-Gamma {sub i} entre phases liquide et solide d'un element i en presence d'autres elements j dans un solvant M ( Greek-Capital-Letter-Gamma {sub i} = x'{sub i}/x{sub i}, x'{sub i} et x{sub i} representant respectivement les fractions atomiques de i dans les phases solide et liquide), a partir des proprietes thermodynamiques des systemes binaires de type: (i, M

  6. Distributed lags time series analysis versus linear correlation analysis (Pearson's r) in identifying the relationship between antipseudomonal antibiotic consumption and the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in a single Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital.

    Erdeljić, Viktorija; Francetić, Igor; Bošnjak, Zrinka; Budimir, Ana; Kalenić, Smilja; Bielen, Luka; Makar-Aušperger, Ksenija; Likić, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between antibiotic consumption and selection of resistant strains has been studied mainly by employing conventional statistical methods. A time delay in effect must be anticipated and this has rarely been taken into account in previous studies. Therefore, distributed lags time series analysis and simple linear correlation were compared in their ability to evaluate this relationship. Data on monthly antibiotic consumption for ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, carbapenems and cefepime as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptibility were retrospectively collected for the period April 2006 to July 2007. Using distributed lags analysis, a significant temporal relationship was identified between ciprofloxacin, meropenem and cefepime consumption and the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa isolates to these antibiotics. This effect was lagged for ciprofloxacin and cefepime [1 month (R=0.827, P=0.039) and 2 months (R=0.962, P=0.001), respectively] and was simultaneous for meropenem (lag 0, R=0.876, P=0.002). Furthermore, a significant concomitant effect of meropenem consumption on the appearance of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains (resistant to three or more representatives of classes of antibiotics) was identified (lag 0, R=0.992, PPearson's correlation coefficient. Correlation coefficient analysis was not able to identify relationships between antibiotic consumption and bacterial resistance when the effect was delayed. These results indicate that the use of diverse statistical methods can yield significantly different results, thus leading to the introduction of possibly inappropriate infection control measures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. An introduction to linear ordinary differential equations using the impulsive response method and factorization

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a method for solving linear ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach for the case of constant coefficients is elementary, and only requires a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, the book avoids the use of distribution theory, as well as the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The case of variable coefficients is addressed using Mammana’s result for the factorization of a real linear ordinary differential operator into a product of first-order (complex) factors, as well as a recent generalization of this result to the case of complex-valued coefficients.

  8. Universal Linear Fit Identification: A Method Independent of Data, Outliers and Noise Distribution Model and Free of Missing or Removed Data Imputation

    Adikaram, K. K. L. B.; Becker, T.

    2015-01-01

    Data processing requires a robust linear fit identification method. In this paper, we introduce a non-parametric robust linear fit identification method for time series. The method uses an indicator 2/n to identify linear fit, where n is number of terms in a series. The ratio R max of a max − a min and S n − a min *n and that of R min of a max − a min and a max *n − S n are always equal to 2/n, where a max is the maximum element, a min is the minimum element and S n is the sum of all elements. If any series expected to follow y = c consists of data that do not agree with y = c form, R max > 2/n and R min > 2/n imply that the maximum and minimum elements, respectively, do not agree with linear fit. We define threshold values for outliers and noise detection as 2/n * (1 + k 1 ) and 2/n * (1 + k 2 ), respectively, where k 1 > k 2 and 0 ≤ k 1 ≤ n/2 − 1. Given this relation and transformation technique, which transforms data into the form y = c, we show that removing all data that do not agree with linear fit is possible. Furthermore, the method is independent of the number of data points, missing data, removed data points and nature of distribution (Gaussian or non-Gaussian) of outliers, noise and clean data. These are major advantages over the existing linear fit methods. Since having a perfect linear relation between two variables in the real world is impossible, we used artificial data sets with extreme conditions to verify the method. The method detects the correct linear fit when the percentage of data agreeing with linear fit is less than 50%, and the deviation of data that do not agree with linear fit is very small, of the order of ±10−4%. The method results in incorrect detections only when numerical accuracy is insufficient in the calculation process. PMID:26571035

  9. Towards a Robust Solution of the Non-Linear Kinematics for the General Stewart Platform with Estimation of Distribution Algorithms

    Eusebio Eduardo Hernández Martinez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In robotics, solving the direct kinematics problem (DKP for parallel robots is very often more difficult and time consuming than for their serial counterparts. The problem is stated as follows: given the joint variables, the Cartesian variables should be computed, namely the pose of the mobile platform. Most of the time, the DKP requires solving a non-linear system of equations. In addition, given that the system could be non-convex, Newton or Quasi-Newton (Dogleg based solvers get trapped on local minima. The capacity of such kinds of solvers to find an adequate solution strongly depends on the starting point. A well-known problem is the selection of such a starting point, which requires a priori information about the neighbouring region of the solution. In order to circumvent this issue, this article proposes an efficient method to select and to generate the starting point based on probabilistic learning. Experiments and discussion are presented to show the method performance. The method successfully avoids getting trapped on local minima without the need for human intervention, which increases its robustness when compared with a single Dogleg approach. This proposal can be extended to other structures, to any non-linear system of equations, and of course, to non-linear optimization problems.

  10. Letting the (energy) Gini out of the bottle: Lorenz curves of cumulative electricity consumption and Gini coefficients as metrics of energy distribution and equity

    Jacobson, Arne; Milman, Anita D.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2005-01-01

    Energy services are fundamental determinants of the quality of life as well as the economic vitality of both industrialized and developing nations. Few analytic tools exist, however, to explore changes in individual, household, and national levels of energy consumption and utilization. In order to contribute to such analyses, we extend the application of Lorenz curves to energy consumption. We examined the distribution of residential electricity consumption in five countries: Norway, USA, El Salvador, Thailand, and Kenya. These countries exhibit a dramatic range of energy profiles, with electricity consumption far more evenly distributed across the population in some industrialized nations than others, and with further significant differences in the Lorenz distribution between industrialized and industrializing economies. The metric also provides critical insights into the temporal evolution of energy management in different states and nations. We illustrate this with a preliminary longitudinal study of commercial and industrial electricity use in California during the economically volatile 1990s. Finally, we explore the limits of Lorenz analyses for understanding energy equity through a discussion of the roles that variations in energy conversion efficiency and climate play in shaping distributions of energy consumption. The Lorenz method, which is widely employed by economists to analyze income distribution, is largely unused in energy analysis, but provides a powerful new tool for estimating the distributional dimensions of energy consumption. Its widespread use can make significant contributions to scientific and policy debates about energy equity in the context of climate change mitigation, electric power industry deregulation and restructuring, and the development of national infrastructure

  11. The influence of the deviation from the equilibrium deuteron distribution on the neutron spectra in linear pinch geometries

    Deutsch, R.; Herold, H.; Kaeppeler, H.J.; Schmidt, H.

    1982-07-01

    In order to analyse the influence of the deviation from the equilibrium distribution of the fast deuterons on the neutron spectrum, the limiting case, corresponding to a two-dimensional mono-energetic deuteron distribution, was studied. An essential difference in comparison to the equilibrium case is the appearance of a pronounced peak in the side-on spectra at Esub(n)approx.=2.5 MeV. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental data was made. If we take into account the relaxation processes, there results a good agreement between theory and experiment. (orig.)

  12. Asymptotic Distribution of Eigenvalues for a Class of Second-Order Elliptic Operators with Irregular Coefficients in R{sup d}

    Zielinski, Lech [Universite du Littoral, LMPA (France)], E-mail: lech.zielinski@lmpa.univ-littoral.fr

    2002-06-15

    Let A=A{sub 0}+v(x) where A{sub 0} is a second-order uniformly elliptic self-adjoint operator in R{sup d} and v is a real valued polynomially growing potential. Assuming that v and the coefficients of A{sub 0} are Hoelder continuous, we study the asymptotic behaviour of the counting function N(A,{lambda}) ({lambda}{sup {yields}}{infinity}) with the remainder estimates depending on the regularity hypotheses. Our strongest regularity hypotheses involve Lipschitz continuity and give the remainder estimate N(A,{lambda})O({l_brace}{lambda}{r_brace}{sup -{mu}}), where {mu} may take an arbitrary value strictly smaller than the best possible value known in the smooth case. In particular, our results are obtained without any hypothesis on critical points of the potential.

  13. Angular distributions as a probe of anomalous ZZH and γZH interactions at a linear collider with polarized beams

    Rindani, Saurabh D.; Sharma, Pankaj

    2009-01-01

    We examine the contribution of general Z*ZH and γ*ZH three-point interactions arising from new physics to the Higgs production process e + e - →HZ. From Lorentz covariance, each of these vertices may be written in terms of three (complex) form factors, whose real and imaginary parts together make six independent couplings. We take into account possible longitudinal or transverse beam polarization likely to be available at a linear collider. We show how partial cross sections and angular asymmetries in suitable combinations with appropriate beam polarizations can be used to disentangle various couplings from one another. A striking result is that using transverse polarization, one of the γZH couplings, not otherwise accessible, can be determined independently of all other couplings. Transverse polarization also helps in the independent determination of a combination of two other couplings, in contrast to a combination of four accessible with unpolarized or longitudinally polarized beams. We also obtain the sensitivity of the various observables in constraining the new-physics interactions at a linear collider operating at a center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV with longitudinal or transverse polarization.

  14. Negative power coefficient on PHWRs with CARA fuel

    Lestani, H.A.; González, H.J.; Florido, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A PHWR fuel was optimized to obtain a negative power coefficient. • Fuel cost, being a measure of design investment efficiency, was optimized. • Influence on power coefficient of geometrical and economical parameters’ was studied. • Different neutronic absorbers were studied; pure absorbers can be used. • Thermal and economical models were developed to complement neutronic assessment. - Abstract: A study of power coefficient of reactivity in heavy water reactors is made analyzing the reactivity components of fuels with several modifications oriented at reducing the coefficient. A cell model is used for neutronics calculations; a non-linear two dimensional model is used to evaluate the thermal changes that follow a power change; and a levelized unit energy cost model is used to assess the economical feasibility of the design changes introduced to reduce power coefficient. The necessity of modelling all the aforementioned quantities in a coupled scheme is stressed, as a strong interdependence was found. A series of design changes complied with a negative power coefficient of reactivity, with a feasible power radial distribution and with low refuelling cost. Some investigation lines that exceed the fuel cell study and deal with the plant operation are marked as potentially addressing the stable operation of big heavy water reactors

  15. Investigation of photon attenuation coefficients for marble

    Basyigit, C; Akkurt, I; Kilincarslan, S; Akkurt, A

    2005-01-01

    The total linear attenuation coefficients μ (cm -1 ) have been obtained using the XCOM program at photon energies of 1 keV to 1 GeV for six different natural marbles produced in different places in Turkey. The individual contribution of photon interaction processes to the total linear attenuation coefficients for marble has been investigated. The calculated results were also compared with the measurements. The results obtained for marble were also compared with concrete. (note)

  16. Effect of intense high-frequency laser field on the linear and nonlinear intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a parabolic quantum well under the applied electric field

    Yesilgul, U., E-mail: uyesilgul@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Ungan, F. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Kasapoglu, E.; Sarı, H. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sökmen, I. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey)

    2014-01-15

    The effects of the intense high-frequency laser field on the optical absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes in a GaAs/GaAlAs parabolic quantum well under the applied electric field have been investigated theoretically. The electron energy levels and the envelope wave functions of the parabolic quantum well are calculated within the effective mass approximation. Analytical expressions for optical properties are obtained using the compact density-matrix approach. The numerical results show that the intense high-frequency laser field has a large effect on the optical characteristics of these structures. Also we can observe that the refractive index and absorption coefficient changes are very sensitive to the electric field in large dimension wells. Thus, this result gives a new degree of freedom in the optoelectronic device applications. -- Highlights: • ILF has a large effect on the optical properties of parabolic quantum wells. • The total absorption coefficients increase as the ILF increases. • The RICs increase as the ILF increases.

  17. The use of Gauss-Hermite quadrature in the determination of the molecular weight distribution of linear polymers by rheometry

    T. M. Farias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The molecular weight distribution (MWD and its parameters are of the fundamental importance in the characterization of polymers. Therefore, the development of techniques for faster MWD determination is a relevant issue. This paper aims at implementing one of the relaxation models from double reptation theory proposed in the literature and analyzing the numeric strategy for the evaluation of the integrals appearing in the relaxation model. The inverse problem, i.e., the determination of the MWD from rheological data using a specified relaxation model and an imposed distribution function was approximated. Concerning the numerical strategy for the evaluation of the integrals appearing in the relaxation models, the use of Gauss-Hermite quadrature using a new change of variables was proposed. In the test of samples of polyethylene with polydispersities less than 10, the application of this methodology led to MWD curves which provided a good fit of the experimental SEC data.

  18. An Adaptive, Multi-Rate Linear Quadratic Regulator for a Shipboard MVDC Distribution System with Constant Power Loads

    2017-09-01

    investigation into the factors which most strongly influence ROA size would be instructive. The genetic algorithm could be modified to assess ROA size and an...DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WITH CONSTANT POWER LOADS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS REL95 REK4K 6. AUTHOR(S) Adam J. Mills 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  19. Modelling the impact of blood flow on the temperature distribution in the human eye and the orbit: fixed heat transfer coefficients versus the Pennes bioheat model versus discrete blood vessels

    Flyckt, V M M; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-10-07

    Prediction of the temperature distribution in the eye depends on how the impact of the blood flow is taken into account. Three methods will be compared: a simplified eye anatomy that applies a single heat transfer coefficient to describe all heat transport mechanisms between the sclera and the body core, a detailed eye anatomy in which the blood flow is accounted for either by the bioheat approach, or by including the discrete vasculature in the eye and the orbit. The comparison is done both for rabbit and human anatomies, normo-thermally and when exposed to homogeneous power densities. The first simplified model predicts much higher temperatures than the latter two. It was shown that the eye is very hard to heat when taking physiological perfusion correctly into account. It was concluded that the heat transfer coefficient describing the heat transport from the sclera to the body core reported in the literature for the first simplified model is too low. The bioheat approach is appropriate for a first-order approximation of the temperature distribution in the eye when exposed to a homogeneous power density, but the discrete vasculature down to 0.2 mm in diameter needs to be taken into account when the heterogeneity of the temperature distribution at a mm scale is of interest.

  20. Modelling the impact of blood flow on the temperature distribution in the human eye and the orbit: fixed heat transfer coefficients versus the Pennes bioheat model versus discrete blood vessels

    Flyckt, V M M; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W

    2006-01-01

    Prediction of the temperature distribution in the eye depends on how the impact of the blood flow is taken into account. Three methods will be compared: a simplified eye anatomy that applies a single heat transfer coefficient to describe all heat transport mechanisms between the sclera and the body core, a detailed eye anatomy in which the blood flow is accounted for either by the bioheat approach, or by including the discrete vasculature in the eye and the orbit. The comparison is done both for rabbit and human anatomies, normo-thermally and when exposed to homogeneous power densities. The first simplified model predicts much higher temperatures than the latter two. It was shown that the eye is very hard to heat when taking physiological perfusion correctly into account. It was concluded that the heat transfer coefficient describing the heat transport from the sclera to the body core reported in the literature for the first simplified model is too low. The bioheat approach is appropriate for a first-order approximation of the temperature distribution in the eye when exposed to a homogeneous power density, but the discrete vasculature down to 0.2 mm in diameter needs to be taken into account when the heterogeneity of the temperature distribution at a mm scale is of interest

  1. Type I error rates of rare single nucleotide variants are inflated in tests of association with non-normally distributed traits using simple linear regression methods.

    Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Sung, Heejong; Sabourin, Jeremy A; Justice, Cristina M; Sorant, Alexa J M; Wilson, Alexander F

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of (a) the minor allele frequency of the single nucleotide variant (SNV), (b) the degree of departure from normality of the trait, and (c) the position of the SNVs on type I error rates were investigated in the Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 19 whole exome sequence data. To test the distribution of the type I error rate, 5 simulated traits were considered: standard normal and gamma distributed traits; 2 transformed versions of the gamma trait (log 10 and rank-based inverse normal transformations); and trait Q1 provided by GAW 19. Each trait was tested with 313,340 SNVs. Tests of association were performed with simple linear regression and average type I error rates were determined for minor allele frequency classes. Rare SNVs (minor allele frequency < 0.05) showed inflated type I error rates for non-normally distributed traits that increased as the minor allele frequency decreased. The inflation of average type I error rates increased as the significance threshold decreased. Normally distributed traits did not show inflated type I error rates with respect to the minor allele frequency for rare SNVs. There was no consistent effect of transformation on the uniformity of the distribution of the location of SNVs with a type I error.

  2. Electron and ion angular distributions in resonant dissociative photoionization of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} using linearly polarized light

    Fernandez, Jorge; MartIn, Fernando [Departamento de Quimica C-9, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: fernando.martin@uam.es

    2009-04-15

    We have evaluated fully differential electron angular distributions in H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} dissociative photoionization by using linearly polarized light of 20, 27 and 33 eV. At 20 eV, the distributions exhibit simple p-wave patterns, which is the signature of direct ionization through the X{sup 2}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}(1s{sigma}{sub g}) channel. At 27 eV, where the Q{sub 1} autoionizing states are populated, we observe a similar pattern, except when the molecule is oriented perpendicularly to the polarization direction and the energy of the ejected electron is small. In contrast, at 33 eV, autoionization from the Q{sub 1} and Q{sub 2} states leads to interferences between the X{sup 2}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}(1s{sigma}{sub g}) and {sup 2}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}(2p{sigma}{sub u}) ionization channels that result in a strong asymmetry of the electron angular distributions along the molecular axis. This asymmetry changes rapidly with the energy of the ejected electron. Electron angular distributions integrated over all possible molecular orientations or ion angular distributions integrated over electron emission angle show no reminiscence of the above phenomena, but the corresponding asymmetry parameters dramatically change with electron and ion energies in the region of autoionizing states.

  3. Asymptotic Comparison of the Solutions of Linear Time-Delay Systems with Point and Distributed Lags with Those of Their Limiting Equations

    M. De la Sen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relations between the particular eigensolutions of a limiting functional differential equation of any order, which is the nominal (unperturbed linear autonomous differential equations, and the associate ones of the corresponding perturbed functional differential equation. Both differential equations involve point and distributed delayed dynamics including Volterra class dynamics. The proofs are based on a Perron-type theorem for functional equations so that the comparison is governed by the real part of a dominant zero of the characteristic equation of the nominal differential equation. The obtained results are also applied to investigate the global stability of the perturbed equation based on that of its corresponding limiting equation.

  4. Distributed-observer-based cooperative control for synchronization of linear discrete-time multi-agent systems.

    Liang, Hongjing; Zhang, Huaguang; Wang, Zhanshan

    2015-11-01

    This paper considers output synchronization of discrete-time multi-agent systems with directed communication topologies. The directed communication graph contains a spanning tree and the exosystem as its root. Distributed observer-based consensus protocols are proposed, based on the relative outputs of neighboring agents. A multi-step algorithm is presented to construct the observer-based protocols. In light of the discrete-time algebraic Riccati equation and internal model principle, synchronization problem is completed. At last, numerical simulation is provided to verify the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mass distribution and spatial organization of the linear bacterial motor of Spiroplasma citri R8A2.

    Trachtenberg, Shlomo; Andrews, S Brian; Leapman, Richard D

    2003-03-01

    In the simple, helical, wall-less bacterial genus Spiroplasma, chemotaxis and motility are effected by a linear, contractile motor arranged as a flat cytoskeletal ribbon attached to the inner side of the membrane along the shortest helical line. With scanning transmission electron microscopy and diffraction analysis, we determined the hierarchical and spatial organization of the cytoskeleton of Spiroplasma citri R8A2. The structural unit appears to be a fibril, approximately 5 nm wide, composed of dimers of a 59-kDa protein; each ribbon is assembled from seven fibril pairs. The functional unit of the intact ribbon is a pair of aligned fibrils, along which pairs of dimers form tetrameric ring-like repeats. On average, isolated and purified ribbons contain 14 fibrils or seven well-aligned fibril pairs, which are the same structures observed in the intact cell. Scanning transmission electron microscopy mass analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified cytoskeletons indicate that the 59-kDa protein is the only constituent of the ribbons.

  6. Soil organic carbon distribution in Mediterranean areas under a climate change scenario via multiple linear regression analysis.

    Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Obregón-Romero, Rafael

    2017-08-15

    Over time, the interest on soil studies has increased due to its role in carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, which could contribute to decreasing atmospheric CO 2 rates. In many studies, independent variables were related to soil organic carbon (SOC) alone, however, the contribution degree of each variable with the experimentally determined SOC content were not considered. In this study, samples from 612 soil profiles were obtained in a natural protected (Red Natura 2000) of Sierra Morena (Mediterranean area, South Spain), considering only the topsoil 0-25cm, for better comparison between results. 24 independent variables were used to define it relationship with SOC content. Subsequently, using a multiple linear regression analysis, the effects of these variables on the SOC correlation was considered. Finally, the best parameters determined with the regression analysis were used in a climatic change scenario. The model indicated that SOC in a future scenario of climate change depends on average temperature of coldest quarter (41.9%), average temperature of warmest quarter (34.5%), annual precipitation (22.2%) and annual average temperature (1.3%). When the current and future situations were compared, the SOC content in the study area was reduced a 35.4%, and a trend towards migration to higher latitude and altitude was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-Sectional Distribution of GARCH Coefficients across S&P 500 Constituents: Time-Variation over the Period 2000-2012

    David Ardia; Lennart F. Hoogerheide

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the time-variation of the cross-sectional distribution of asymmetric GARCH model parameters over the S&P 500 constituents for the period 2000-2012. We find the following results. First, the unconditional variances in the GARCH model obviously show major time-variation, with a high level after the dot-com bubble and the highest peak in the latest financial crisis. Second, in these more volatile periods it is especially the persistence of deviations of volatility from is uncondit...

  8. Activity concentration of 210Po and 210Pb, its contribution to the radiation dose and distribution coefficient in aquatic ecosystem of major rivers of coastal Karnataka

    Rajashekara, K.M.; Prakash, V.; Narayana, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Rivers are the major pathways for the transport of weathered materials from the land to the oceans. The geochemical studies on river waters provide an insight into the weathering process that control the distribution of elements in dissolved and particulate phases and their fluxes to the estuaries. Concentrations of natural series radionuclide in fresh water bodies are liable to be much more variable than those in the marine environment since they are heavily influenced by the local geochemistry of the watershed. The concentrations of radioactive materials vary from region to region and this variation is found to be significantly high in some areas. Some of the regions are rich with the flow of major rivers and estuaries of these rivers, and investigations of these riverine and estuarine aquatic environments would throw light on the transportation, distribution and enrichment mechanism of radionuclides. In this context, the activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb were measured in different matrices of aquatic ecosystem of the major rivers namely, Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi river of Coastal Karnataka

  9. Precipitable water: Its linear retrieval using leaps and bounds procedure and its global distribution from SEASAT SMMR data

    Pandey, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    Eight subsets using two to five frequencies of the SEASAT scanning multichannel microwave radiometer are examined to determine their potential in the retrieval of atmospheric water vapor content. Analysis indicates that the information concerning the 18 and 21 GHz channels are optimum for water vapor retrieval. A comparison with radiosonde observations gave an rms accuracy of approximately 0.40 g sq cm. The rms accuracy of precipitable water using different subsets was within 10 percent. Global maps of precipitable water over oceans using two and five channel retrieval (average of two and five channel retrieval) are given. Study of these maps reveals the possibility of global moisture distribution associated with oceanic currents and large scale general circulation in the atmosphere. A stable feature of the large scale circulation is noticed. The precipitable water is maximum over the Bay of Bengal and in the North Pacific over the Kuroshio current and shows a general latitudinal pattern.

  10. Histology and Gadolinium Distribution in the Rodent Brain After the Administration of Cumulative High Doses of Linear and Macrocyclic Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents

    Lohrke, Jessica; Frisk, Anna-Lena; Frenzel, Thomas; Schöckel, Laura; Rosenbruch, Martin; Jost, Gregor; Lenhard, Diana Constanze; Sieber, Martin A.; Nischwitz, Volker; Küppers, Astrid; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Retrospective studies in patients with primary brain tumors or other central nervous system pathologies as well as postmortem studies have suggested that gadolinium (Gd) deposition occurs in the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) after multiple administrations of primarily linear Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs). However, this deposition has not been associated with any adverse effects or histopathological alterations. The aim of this preclinical study was to systematically examine differences between linear and macrocyclic GBCAs in their potential to induce changes in brain and skin histology including Gd distribution in high spatial resolution. Materials and Methods Fifty male Wistar-Han rats were randomly allocated into control (saline, n = 10 rats) and 4 GBCA groups (linear GBCAs: gadodiamide and gadopentetate dimeglumine, macrocyclic GBCAs: gadobutrol and gadoteridol; n = 10 rats per group). The animals received 20 daily intravenous injections at a dose of 2.5 mmol Gd/kg body weight. Eight weeks after the last GBCA administration, the animals were killed, and the brain and skin samples were histopathologically assessed (hematoxylin and eosin; cresyl violet [Nissl]) and by immunohistochemistry. The Gd concentration in the skin, bone, brain, and skeletal muscle samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS, n = 4). The spatial Gd distribution in the brain and skin samples was analyzed in cryosections using laser ablation coupled with ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS, n = 3). For the ultra-high resolution of Gd distribution, brain sections of rats injected with gadodiamide or saline (n = 1) were assessed by scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Results No histological changes were observed in the brain. In contrast, 4 of 10 animals in the gadodiamide group but none of the animals in other groups showed macroscopic and histological

  11. Histology and Gadolinium Distribution in the Rodent Brain After the Administration of Cumulative High Doses of Linear and Macrocyclic Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents.

    Lohrke, Jessica; Frisk, Anna-Lena; Frenzel, Thomas; Schöckel, Laura; Rosenbruch, Martin; Jost, Gregor; Lenhard, Diana Constanze; Sieber, Martin A; Nischwitz, Volker; Küppers, Astrid; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2017-06-01

    Retrospective studies in patients with primary brain tumors or other central nervous system pathologies as well as postmortem studies have suggested that gadolinium (Gd) deposition occurs in the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) after multiple administrations of primarily linear Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs). However, this deposition has not been associated with any adverse effects or histopathological alterations. The aim of this preclinical study was to systematically examine differences between linear and macrocyclic GBCAs in their potential to induce changes in brain and skin histology including Gd distribution in high spatial resolution. Fifty male Wistar-Han rats were randomly allocated into control (saline, n = 10 rats) and 4 GBCA groups (linear GBCAs: gadodiamide and gadopentetate dimeglumine, macrocyclic GBCAs: gadobutrol and gadoteridol; n = 10 rats per group). The animals received 20 daily intravenous injections at a dose of 2.5 mmol Gd/kg body weight. Eight weeks after the last GBCA administration, the animals were killed, and the brain and skin samples were histopathologically assessed (hematoxylin and eosin; cresyl violet [Nissl]) and by immunohistochemistry. The Gd concentration in the skin, bone, brain, and skeletal muscle samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS, n = 4). The spatial Gd distribution in the brain and skin samples was analyzed in cryosections using laser ablation coupled with ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS, n = 3). For the ultra-high resolution of Gd distribution, brain sections of rats injected with gadodiamide or saline (n = 1) were assessed by scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. No histological changes were observed in the brain. In contrast, 4 of 10 animals in the gadodiamide group but none of the animals in other groups showed macroscopic and histological nephrogenic systemic fibrosis-like skin

  12. Independence of the effective dielectric constant of an electrolytic solution on the ionic distribution in the linear Poisson-Nernst-Planck model.

    Alexe-Ionescu, A L; Barbero, G; Lelidis, I

    2014-08-28

    We consider the influence of the spatial dependence of the ions distribution on the effective dielectric constant of an electrolytic solution. We show that in the linear version of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck model, the effective dielectric constant of the solution has to be considered independent of any ionic distribution induced by the external field. This result follows from the fact that, in the linear approximation of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck model, the redistribution of the ions in the solvent due to the external field gives rise to a variation of the dielectric constant that is of the first order in the effective potential, and therefore it has to be neglected in the Poisson's equation that relates the actual electric potential across the electrolytic cell to the bulk density of ions. The analysis is performed in the case where the electrodes are perfectly blocking and the adsorption at the electrodes is negligible, and in the absence of any ion dissociation-recombination effect.

  13. Size effects on the transport coefficient of liquid lithium, sodium and potassium using a soft sphere potential

    Adebayo, G.A.; Anusionwu, B.C.

    2004-08-01

    The dependence of the self diffusion coefficient of atoms in liquid Lithium, Sodium and Potassium, interacting through a soft sphere potential, on the number of atoms have been investigated using Molecular Dynamics Simulation at various temperatures. Our calculations predict non-linear relationship between the diffusion coefficient and the number of particles at high densities and medium or low temperatures. The radial distribution function obtained agrees well with experiment. (author)

  14. Distribución de las transformaciones lineales de los residuos mínimos cuadrados studentizados internamente = Distribution of linear transformations of internally studentized least squares residuals

    Seppo Pynnönem

    2012-03-01

    that the resulting ratio, U/S, has a distribution that is free of from the nuisance unknown scale parameter. External Studentization refers to a ratio in which the nominator and denominator are independent, while internal Studentization refers to a ratio in which these are dependent. The advantage of the internal Studentization is that typically one can use a single common scale estimator, while in the external Studentization every single residual is scaled by different scale estimator to gain the independence. With normal regression errors the joint distribution of an arbitrary (linearly independent subset of internally Studentized residuals is well documented. However, in some applications a linear combination of internally Studentized residuals may be useful. The boundedness of them is well documented, but the distribution seems not be derived in the literature. This paper contributes to the existing literature by deriving the joint distribution of an arbitrary linear transformation of internally Studentized residuals from ordinary least squares regression with spherical error distribution. All major versions of commonly utilized internally Studentized regression residuals in literature are obtained as special cases of the linear transformation

  15. Biostatistics Series Module 6: Correlation and Linear Regression.

    Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Correlation and linear regression are the most commonly used techniques for quantifying the association between two numeric variables. Correlation quantifies the strength of the linear relationship between paired variables, expressing this as a correlation coefficient. If both variables x and y are normally distributed, we calculate Pearson's correlation coefficient ( r ). If normality assumption is not met for one or both variables in a correlation analysis, a rank correlation coefficient, such as Spearman's rho (ρ) may be calculated. A hypothesis test of correlation tests whether the linear relationship between the two variables holds in the underlying population, in which case it returns a P correlation coefficient can also be calculated for an idea of the correlation in the population. The value r 2 denotes the proportion of the variability of the dependent variable y that can be attributed to its linear relation with the independent variable x and is called the coefficient of determination. Linear regression is a technique that attempts to link two correlated variables x and y in the form of a mathematical equation ( y = a + bx ), such that given the value of one variable the other may be predicted. In general, the method of least squares is applied to obtain the equation of the regression line. Correlation and linear regression analysis are based on certain assumptions pertaining to the data sets. If these assumptions are not met, misleading conclusions may be drawn. The first assumption is that of linear relationship between the two variables. A scatter plot is essential before embarking on any correlation-regression analysis to show that this is indeed the case. Outliers or clustering within data sets can distort the correlation coefficient value. Finally, it is vital to remember that though strong correlation can be a pointer toward causation, the two are not synonymous.

  16. Algebraic polynomials with random coefficients

    K. Farahmand

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an asymptotic value for the mathematical expected number of points of inflections of a random polynomial of the form a0(ω+a1(ω(n11/2x+a2(ω(n21/2x2+…an(ω(nn1/2xn when n is large. The coefficients {aj(w}j=0n, w∈Ω are assumed to be a sequence of independent normally distributed random variables with means zero and variance one, each defined on a fixed probability space (A,Ω,Pr. A special case of dependent coefficients is also studied.

  17. Precision studies of Drell-Yan transverse momentum distributions and the polarisation angular coefficients in Z-boson decays with the ATLAS detector

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00367680; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has performed precision measurements sensitive to the transverse mo- mentum of the Z/γ∗ bosons, both directly through the transverse momentum of the dilepton pair and through the angular decorrelation as measured in the φ∗ observable. These measurements are sensitive to soft resummation effects and hard jet emissions for small and large momentum transfers, respectively, probing QCD in a unique way. The studies carried out with 20.3 fb−1 of data at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV probe a wide dilepton invariant mass region from 12 GeV to 150 GeV, both integrated and differential in the dilepton rapidity. The measurements are compared to a variety of resummation calculations and parton shower Monte Carlos at up to NNLO+NNLL as well as fixed order predictions at NNLO QCD including NLO electroweak corrections. The precision measurement of angular distributions of the Drell-Yan lepton pairs around the Z-boson mass peak provide a stringent test of the underlying QCD dynamic of the Z...

  18. Precision studies of Drell-Yan transverse momentum distributions and the polarisation angular coefficients in Z boson decays with the ATLAS detector

    Ezhilov, Aleksei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has performed precision measurements sensitive to the transverse momentum of the Z/gamma* bosons, both directly through the transverse momentum of the di-lepton pair and through the angular decorrelation as measured in the phi* observable. These measurements are sensitive to soft resummation effects and hard jet emissions for small and large momentum transfers, respectively, probing QCD in a unique way. The studies carried out with 20.3 /fb of data at a center-of-mass energy of 8TeV probe a wide di-lepton invariant mass region from 12 GeV to 150 GeV, both integrated and differential in the di-lepton rapidity. The measurements are compared to a variety of resummation calculations and parton shower Monte Carlos at up to NNLO+NNLL as well as fixed order predictions at NNLO QCD including NLO electroweak corrections. The precision measurement of angular distributions of the Drell-Yan lepton pairs around the Z-boson mass peak provide a stringent test of the underlying QCD dynamic of the Z-bo...

  19. Precision studies of Drell-Yan pT distributions and polarization angular coefficients in Z boson decays with the ATLAS detector at 8 TeV

    Schmieden, Kristof; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has performed precision measurements sensitive to the transverse momentum of the Z/gamma* bosons, both directly through the transverse momentum of the di­lepton pair and through the angular decorrelation as measured in the phi* observable. These measurements are sensitive to soft resummation effects and hard jet emissions for small and large momentum transfers, respectively, probing QCD in a unique way. The studies carried out with 20.3 /fb of data at a center­of­mass energy of 8TeV probe a wide di­lepton invariant mass region from 12 GeV to 150 GeV, both integrated and differential in the di­lepton rapidity. The measurements are compared to a variety of resummation calculations and parton shower Monte Carlos at up to NNLO+NNLL as well as fixed order predictions at NNLO QCD including NLO electroweak corrections. The precision measurement of angular distributions of the Drell­Yan lepton pairs around the Z­boson mass peak provide a stringent test of the underlying QCD dynamic of t...

  20. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.