WorldWideScience

Sample records for lineaments

  1. Problems in the Study of lineaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Vladimir; Kholmyanskii, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The study of linear objects in upper crust, called lineaments, led at one time to a major scientific results - discovery of the planetary regmatic network, the birth of some new tectonic concepts, establishment of new search for signs of mineral deposits. But now lineaments studied not enough for such a promising research direction. Lineament geomorphology has a number of problems. 1.Terminology problems. Lineament theme still has no generally accepted terminology base. Different scientists have different interpretations even for the definition of lineament We offer an expanded definition for it: lineaments - line features of the earth's crust, expressed by linear landforms, geological linear forms, linear anomalies of physical fields may follow each other, associated with faults. The term "lineament" is not identical to the term "fault", but always lineament - reasonable suspicion to fault, and this suspicion is justified in most cases. The structure lineament may include only the objects that are at least presumably can be attributed to the deep processes. Specialists in the lineament theme can overcome terminological problems if together create a common terminology database. 2. Methodological problems. Procedure manual selection lineaments mainly is depiction of straight line segments along the axes of linear morphostructures on some cartographic basis. Reduce the subjective factors of manual selection is possible, following a few simple rules: - The choice of optimal projection, scale and quality of cartographic basis; - Selection of the optimal type of linear objects under study; - The establishment of boundary conditions for the allocation lineament (minimum length, maximum bending, the minimum length to width ratio, etc.); - Allocation of an increasing number of lineaments - for representative sampling and reduce the influence of random errors; - Ranking lineaments: fine lines (rank 3) combined to form larger lineaments rank 2; which, when combined

  2. Magnetic expression of the Transbrasiliano Lineament, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotti, R. M.; Curto, J. B.; Fuck, R. A.; Dantas, E. L.; Roig, H. L.; Almeida, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Transbrasiliano lineament is a continental-sized discontinuity exposed between the Amazonian craton and the eastern portion of the South American Platform. It is over 3,000 km long, extending from northern Paraguay, across the Tocantins Province and the Phanerozoic Paraná and Parnaíba basins, down to the Ceará Atlantic coast. In the context of West Gondwana, this large continental structure extends to the African continent along the 4o30 lineament. Its NE-SW preferential trend is marked by strong magnetic anomalies at the crustal level and by low velocity zones of S waves within the mantle, suggesting lithosphere thinning. On the surface the Transbrasiliano lineament translates as aligned drainage and ridges in the continental relief, and is comprised of a set of N20-50E Late Neoproterozoic ductile right-lateral shear zones, brittlely reactivated during the Mesozoic. Different interpretations were forwarded along the years, suggesting that the lineament represents a mega-suture active during Gondwana Supercontinent amalgamation, in the Late Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic, or seeing the strike-slip ductile faults as the result of shearing related with post-collision stages of the Brasiliano orogeny. Fault reactivation is believed to have controlled graben formation, sediment accumulation and magmatism of the Jaibaras basin in NW Ceará, as well as the establishing of depocentres within the Paraná and Parnaíba basins, influencing also sedimentation at the Atlantic coast. Although a direct link with the lineament has not been established, nearby areas are the site of seismic activity, mainly in NW Ceará and close to the Goiás-Tocantins border in central Brazil. The lineament is covered by aeromagnetic surveys collected over decades. Qualitative interpretation of magnetic and remote sensing data shows that the Transbrasiliano lineament is comprised of a system of ductile shear zones, forming parallel sets of faults penetrating below the large Paraná and

  3. Completed lineament interpretation of the Olkiluoto region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paananen, M.

    2013-10-01

    Site characterization activities at Olkiluoto have been taking place for c. 25 years, including a wide range of different geophysical survey methods using various geometries and scales of investigation. The measurements have been done from the air, ground surface, shallow and deep drillholes and the ONKALO underground facility. As a part of the complementary site investigations, two low-altitude geophysical airborne survey campaigns were done around and at Olkiluoto in 2008 and 2009. The survey in 2008 was focused in the Eurajoensalmi area N or NE of Olkiluoto Island. The survey in 2009 covered most of the Olkiluoto Island, the neighbouring sea area and the archipelago W, SW and S of Olkiluoto as well as some of the mainland area SE of Olkiluoto. This report presents a new lineament interpretation based on these new geophysical airborne surveys. For the interpretation work, the data were extensively further processed into different gradients and filtered data sets and maps. Furthermore, the potential of automatic curvature analyses was examined. Also, quantitative profile interpretation was done from a number of profiles to find out the dips and exact locations of the contacts of some features. The qualitative interpretation of the lineaments was carried out by visually inspecting the different versions of the geophysical maps and by digitizing the geometry of each interpreted lineament. The lineaments are collated into two ArcGIS themes (one for magnetic and one for EM lineaments), accompanied by an attribute table that includes a number of attributes for each interpreted feature: lineament identifier, reference to the data used in interpretation, uncertainty, length, average orientation and probable geological character. The total number of new interpreted features is 125 magnetic and 33 electromagnetic lineaments. The main trend of the interpreted features varies between WNW-ESE and NNW-SSE. Furthermore, trends in directions almost N-S and E-W are also

  4. Completed lineament interpretation of the Olkiluoto region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paananen, M. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-10-15

    Site characterization activities at Olkiluoto have been taking place for c. 25 years, including a wide range of different geophysical survey methods using various geometries and scales of investigation. The measurements have been done from the air, ground surface, shallow and deep drillholes and the ONKALO underground facility. As a part of the complementary site investigations, two low-altitude geophysical airborne survey campaigns were done around and at Olkiluoto in 2008 and 2009. The survey in 2008 was focused in the Eurajoensalmi area N or NE of Olkiluoto Island. The survey in 2009 covered most of the Olkiluoto Island, the neighbouring sea area and the archipelago W, SW and S of Olkiluoto as well as some of the mainland area SE of Olkiluoto. This report presents a new lineament interpretation based on these new geophysical airborne surveys. For the interpretation work, the data were extensively further processed into different gradients and filtered data sets and maps. Furthermore, the potential of automatic curvature analyses was examined. Also, quantitative profile interpretation was done from a number of profiles to find out the dips and exact locations of the contacts of some features. The qualitative interpretation of the lineaments was carried out by visually inspecting the different versions of the geophysical maps and by digitizing the geometry of each interpreted lineament. The lineaments are collated into two ArcGIS themes (one for magnetic and one for EM lineaments), accompanied by an attribute table that includes a number of attributes for each interpreted feature: lineament identifier, reference to the data used in interpretation, uncertainty, length, average orientation and probable geological character. The total number of new interpreted features is 125 magnetic and 33 electromagnetic lineaments. The main trend of the interpreted features varies between WNW-ESE and NNW-SSE. Furthermore, trends in directions almost N-S and E-W are also

  5. Lineament interpretation. Short review and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiren, Sven (GEOSIGMA AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The ground comprises the solid and continuous surface of the Earth. The crystalline crust, i.e. bedrock, is exposed or covered with sediments and vegetation. The morphology of the ground surface is influenced by a combination of tectonometamorphic- magmatic processes (building up) and denudation/erosion processes (tearing down). Landforms are related to these processes and the character of the bedrock (lithologies and structures), and the distribution of soil or other unconsolidated, superficial material. By using remote-sensing techniques applied for structural analysis of the ground surface, it is possible to map features in the terrain that are related to bedrock structures provided that the topography of the bedrock surface is not totally concealed below a cover of soil or other loose material. Even though the sedimentary cover is relatively thick it may be distorted and the ground surface displaced by late faulting in the basement rock. Studies of the relation between structures in the bedrock and the topography started more than 150 years ago. Hobbs (1903, 1912) introduced the fundamental concept of 'lineaments' and described them as 'significant lines in the Earth's face' and later he concluded that they are 'lines in the landscape which reveal the hidden architecture of the basement'. When airborne geophysical measurements started approximately fifty years ago such data were used to compliment the topographical interpretation of basement structures. Source data for studies of lineaments consist of information on the topography (e.g. topographical maps, aerial photos, elevation data, multi-spectral sensing, laser, radar and thermography) and geophysical data (e.g. airborne geophysical data comprising magnetic, electromagnetic, radiation measurements, and gravimetric measurements). The outcome of a lineament study depends on the terrain in the investigated area, the source data, the approach and systematic performance in the

  6. Lineament interpretation. Short review and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, Sven

    2010-11-01

    The ground comprises the solid and continuous surface of the Earth. The crystalline crust, i.e. bedrock, is exposed or covered with sediments and vegetation. The morphology of the ground surface is influenced by a combination of tectonometamorphic- magmatic processes (building up) and denudation/erosion processes (tearing down). Landforms are related to these processes and the character of the bedrock (lithologies and structures), and the distribution of soil or other unconsolidated, superficial material. By using remote-sensing techniques applied for structural analysis of the ground surface, it is possible to map features in the terrain that are related to bedrock structures provided that the topography of the bedrock surface is not totally concealed below a cover of soil or other loose material. Even though the sedimentary cover is relatively thick it may be distorted and the ground surface displaced by late faulting in the basement rock. Studies of the relation between structures in the bedrock and the topography started more than 150 years ago. Hobbs (1903, 1912) introduced the fundamental concept of 'lineaments' and described them as 'significant lines in the Earth's face' and later he concluded that they are 'lines in the landscape which reveal the hidden architecture of the basement'. When airborne geophysical measurements started approximately fifty years ago such data were used to compliment the topographical interpretation of basement structures. Source data for studies of lineaments consist of information on the topography (e.g. topographical maps, aerial photos, elevation data, multi-spectral sensing, laser, radar and thermography) and geophysical data (e.g. airborne geophysical data comprising magnetic, electromagnetic, radiation measurements, and gravimetric measurements). The outcome of a lineament study depends on the terrain in the investigated area, the source data, the approach and systematic performance in the interpretation, and the skill of

  7. A lineament analysis of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 was signed into law on January 7, 1983. It specifies procedures for the Department of Energy in the selection of a high level nuclear waste repository. Federal Environmental Protection Agency standards require adequate isolation of waste from the biosphere for 10,000 years. The law considers such geologic factors as tectonic stability, igneous activity, hydrologic conditions and natural resources to be of primary concern. Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada is one of three sites selected for further consideration in the site characterization process. The Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) within the Agency for Nuclear Projects of the State of Nevada is conducting an independent scientific assessment of the proposed site. The remote sensing technical assessment is one of seven task groups conducting review and research into the suitability of Yucca Mountain. The study undertaken by the Remote Sensing Group was that of a lineament analysis with regard to the site's structural relationship within a regional tectonic framework. Lineaments mapped from synoptic imagery may prove to represent structural zones of weakness. These zones may provide pathways for the infiltration of groundwater, conduits for the extrusion of magma or be reactivated as stress conditions change. This paper describes the methodology for a lineament analysis of the Yucca Mountain area

  8. Analysis of lineament swarms in a Precambrian metamorphic rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Addressing the geologic significance of lineaments and their correlation with joints/fractures is still unclear. The present study attempts to analyse the lineament swarms developed in a Precambrian metamorphic terrain in India using both unfiltered and filtered techniques. The unfiltered analysis technique shows that the ...

  9. Automated lineament mapping from remotely sensed data: case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The automatic procedures of PCI LINE and Imagine Objective Line Extraction were adopted to extract lineaments from Landsat OLI imagery (band 6) and Digital Elevation Models (SPOT DEM and ASTER DEM) of Osun Drainage Basin, Southwestern Nigeria. This was with a view to optimally map lineaments within the basin ...

  10. Use of Geological Lineaments Results in Groundwater Exploration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locating aquifiers in Precambrian crystalline rocks offers major problems unless areas of intense weathering or fracturing are targeted. These normally occur along geological lineaments which can be identified during groundwater exploration. Major geological lineaments were identified in the Zomba area, southern Malawi ...

  11. Forsmark site investigation. Interpretation of topographic lineaments 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Hans

    2003-04-01

    SKB performs site investigations for localization of a deep repository for high level radioactive waste. The site investigations are performed in two municipalities; Oesthammar and Oskarshamn. The Forsmark investigation area is situated in Oesthammar, close to the Forsmark nuclear power plant. The purpose of interpretation of lineaments from topographic data is to identify linear features (lineaments), which may correspond to deformation zones in the bedrock. The data will be combined with interpretations of lineaments from airborne geophysical data in order to produce an integrated lineament interpretation for the Forsmark area. This integrated interpretation will be combined with geological data in order to establish a bedrock geological map of the Forsmark area. The area for the lineament interpretation is the same as that selected for the bedrock mapping activities during 2002, i.e. the land area around Forsmark

  12. Analysis of lineament swarms in a Precambrian metamorphic rocks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The application of domain-based filtering techniques identifies a ... ation of lineaments from dominant joint/fractures. (Lattman and .... Georient software has been used for quantitative ..... Blanchet P H 1957 Development of fracture analysis as.

  13. THEMIS Observations of Domes and Associated Lineaments in Arcadia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, K. A.; McSween, H. Y.

    2003-12-01

    The northern plains of Mars contain several high concentrations (Acidalia, Utopia, Elysium, etc.) of small (System (THEMIS), visible images from THEMIS and the Mars Orbiter Camera, and elevation data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter were used to study a 390,000 km 2 area ˜1500 km to the northwest of Elysium Mons. Of interest is a region centered on Tyndall crater and bordered by Phlegras Montes to the west. The area is characterized by gentle, westward-sloping plains, with noticeable slope breaks along several N-S trending wrinkle ridges. Several hundred circular domes dot this area. Domes display features consistent with a volcanic origin. Most are circular to slightly elliptical at their base, with basal diameters ranging from 0.5-6 km. Summits typically rise material (as compared to the coarser-grained summits). Less than 25% of domes appear to have summit depressions and ~ 1% show fractured summit areas. Some domes appear to be randomly distributed, but many are aligned in chains according to wrinkle ridge orientations. Using THEMIS data, we have detected over 165 domes that are aligned with and superimposed upon over 145 lineaments. Most lineaments are cut by lineaments. No laterally extensive flows have been detected as emanating from lineaments, nor have similar lineaments been detected immediately outside the study area. The association of domes and lineaments is consistent with observations of volcanic constructs along open fissures in many terrestrial volcanic fields. Assuming a volcanic origin, the dome-lineament relationship suggests localized, structurally-controlled eruptions along open fissures. Initial extension caused the opening of fractures, which was followed by localized extrusions. Such localized development can provide information about eruption rates, magma compositions, or the physical properties of erupted lava. Either during or after volcanic activity, continued extension led to several domes being dissected by fissures.

  14. Characterisation of tectonic lineaments in the Central Equatorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterisation of tectonic lineaments in the Central Equatorial Atlantic region of Africa using Bouguer anomaly gravity data. ... Ife Journal of Science ... 3-D standard Euler deconvolution analysis was carried out on Bouguer anomaly gravity data for configuration definition and approximate depth estimate of tectonic ...

  15. Lineament systems indentification in Banten site using Spot 5 satellite image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliastuti; Heni Susiati; Yunus Daud; A-Sarwiyana Sastratenaya

    2013-01-01

    Lineament systems identification in Banten site using SPOT 5 satellite image has been performed. Based on regional site survey in Java Island, Banten is one of the potential candidate sites. The objective of this study was to determine direction and chronology of regional lineament morphology which was consider as fault or faulting in Banten site. The methodology used this study covered satellite image cropping, band selection, edge enhancement filtering, lineament extraction and lineament analysis. Result of the study showed that there were three dominant lineament groups, namely N-S, NW-SE, and E-W. Based on the forming chronology of the lineament, N-S group was the oldest one, followed by E-W group and NW-SE as the youngest group. These lineament groups have been confirmed as a manifestation of fault system structure. (author)

  16. Tectonic lineaments in the Baltic from Gaevle to Simrishamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floden, T.

    1977-12-01

    The present report deals with the tectonic pattern within the offshore area of middle and SE Sweden. The study is restricted to the large scale pattern that can be detected by seismic reflection profiling. Neotectonic events are discussed in connection with the special study of echosounding and seismic records from the Baltic Sea. This report is mainly based on investigations performed during the period 1966-1976 by means of continuous seismic reflection profiling. The investigations were mainly concentrated to areas with a sedimentary rock cover and thus, there is a large discrepance in the amount of available information between different parts of the Baltic. In the coastal zone, only those tectonic lineaments that are of importance for the understanding of the offshore conditions are included in the present maps. References to other known lineaments are made in the text

  17. Lineaments of Texas - possible surface expressions of deep-seated phenomena. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.

    1984-04-01

    Lineaments were identified on 51 Landsat images covering Texas and parts of adjacent states in Mexico and the United States. A method of identifying lineaments was designed so that the findings would be consistent, uncomplicated, objective, and reproducible. Lineaments denoted on the Landsat images were traced onto 1:250,000-scale work maps and then rendered cartographically on maps representing each of the 51 Landsat images at a scale of 1:500,000. At this stage more than 31,000 lineaments were identified. It included significant areas outside of Texas. In preparing the final lineament map of Texas at 1:1,000,000-scale from the 1:500,000-scale maps, all features that lay outside Texas and repetition among features perceived by individual workers were eliminated. Cultural features were checked for before reducing and cartographically fitting the mosaic of 51 individual map sheets to a single map base. Lineaments that were partly colinear but with different end points were modified into a single lineament trace with the combined length of the two or more colinear lineaments. Each lineament was checked to determine its validity according to our definition. The features were edited again to eliminate processing artifacts within the image itself, as well as representations of cultural features (fencelines, roads, and the like) and geomorphic patterns unrelated to bedrock structure. Thus the more than 31,000 lineaments originally perceived were reduced to the approximately 15,000 presented on the 1:1,000,000 map. Interpretations of the lineaments are presented.

  18. Lineament analysis of mineral areas of interest in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Mack, Thomas J.; Thompson, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    During a preliminary mineral resource assessment of Afghanistan (Peters and others, 2007), 24 mineralized areas of interest (AOIs) were highlighted as the focus for future economic development throughout various parts of the country. In addition to located mineral resources of value, development of a viable mining industry in Afghanistan will require the location of suitable groundwater resources for drinking, processing of mineral ores for use or for export, and for agriculture and food production in areas surrounding and supporting future mining enterprises. This report and accompanying GIS datasets describe the results of both automated and manual mapping of lineaments throughout the 24 mineral occurrence AOIs described in detail by Peters and others (2007; 2011). For this study, we define lineaments as "mappable linear or curvilinear features of a surface whose parts align in a straight or slightly curving relationship that may be the expression of a fault or other linear zones of weakness" as derived from remote sensing sources such as optical imagery, radar imagery or digital elevation models (DEMs) (Sabins, 2007).

  19. GIS based 3D visualization of subsurface and surface lineaments / faults and their geological significance, northern tamil nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanavel, J.; Ramasamy, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    The study area falls in the southern part of the Indian Peninsular comprising hard crystalline rocks of Archaeozoic and Proterozoic Era. In the present study, the GIS based 3D visualizations of gravity, magnetic, resistivity and topographic datasets were made and therefrom the basement lineaments, shallow subsurface lineaments and surface lineaments/faults were interpreted. These lineaments were classified as category-1 i.e. exclusively surface lineaments, category-2 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and category-3 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and basement lineaments. These three classified lineaments were analyzed in conjunction with known mineral occurrences and historical seismicity of the study area in GIS environment. The study revealed that the category-3 NNE-SSW to NE-SW lineaments have greater control over the mineral occurrences and the N-S, NNE-SSW and NE-SW, faults/lineaments control the seismicities in the study area.

  20. Evolution in the lineament patterns associated to strong earthquakes revealed by satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pinto, C. A.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Ouzounov, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    We study the temporal evolution of the stress patterns in the crust by using high-resolution (10-300 m) satellite images from MODIS and ASTER satellite sensors. We are able to detect some changes in density and orientation of lineaments preceding earthquake events. A lineament is generally defined as a straight or a somewhat curved feature in the landscape visible in a satellite image as an aligned sequence of pixels of a contrasting intensity compared to the background. The system of lineaments extracted from the satellite images is not identical to the geological lineaments; nevertheless, it generally reflects the structure of the faults and fractures in the Earth's crust. Our analysis has shown that the system of lineaments is very dynamical, and the significant number of lineaments appeared approximately one month before an earthquake, while one month after the earthquake the lineament configuration returned to its initial state. These features were not observed in the test areas that are free of any seismic activity in that period (null hypothesis). We have designed a computational prototype capable to detect lineament evolution and to utilize both ASTER and MODIS satellite L1/L2. We will demonstrate the first successful test results for several Mw> 5 earthquakes in Chile, Peru, China, and California (USA).

  1. Revealing topographic lineaments through IHS enhancement of DEM data. [Digital Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Gary

    1990-01-01

    Intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) processing of slope (dip), aspect (dip direction), and elevation to reveal subtle topographic lineaments which may not be obvious in the unprocessed data are used to enhance digital elevation model (DEM) data from northwestern Nevada. This IHS method of lineament identification was applied to a mosiac of 12 square degrees using a Cray Y-MP8/864. Square arrays from 3 x 3 to 31 x 31 points were tested as well as several different slope enhancements. When relatively few points are used to fit the plane, lineaments of various lengths are observed and a mechanism for lineament classification is described. An area encompassing the gold deposits of the Carlin trend and including the Rain in the southeast to Midas in the northwest is investigated in greater detail. The orientation and density of lineaments may be determined on the gently sloping pediment surface as well as in the more steeply sloping ranges.

  2. Derivation of groundwater flow-paths based on semi-automatic extraction of lineaments from remote sensing data

    OpenAIRE

    U. Mallast; R. Gloaguen; S. Geyer; T. Rödiger; C. Siebert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a semi-automatic method to infer groundwater flow-paths based on the extraction of lineaments from digital elevation models. This method is especially adequate in remote and inaccessible areas where in-situ data are scarce. The combined method of linear filtering and object-based classification provides a lineament map with a high degree of accuracy. Subsequently, lineaments are differentiated into geological and morphological lineaments using auxili...

  3. Analysis of the Tectonic Lineaments in the Ganiki Planitia (V14) Quadrangle, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venechuk, E. M.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Drury, D. E.; Long, S. M.; Grosfils, E. B.

    2005-01-01

    The Ganiki Planitia quadrangle, located between the Atla Regio highland to the south and the Atalanta Planitia lowland to the north, is deformed by many tectonic lineaments which have been mapped previously but have not yet been assessed in detail. As a result, neither the characteristics of these lineaments nor their relationship to material unit stratigraphy is well constrained. In this study we analyze the orientation of extensional and compressional lineaments in all non-tessera areas in order to begin characterizing the dominant tectonic stresses that have affected the region.

  4. Applicability of computer-aided comprehensive tool (LINDA: LINeament Detection and Analysis) and shaded digital elevation model for characterizing and interpreting morphotectonic features from lineaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Alaa; Koike, Katsuaki

    2017-09-01

    Detection and analysis of linear features related to surface and subsurface structures have been deemed necessary in natural resource exploration and earth surface instability assessment. Subjectivity in choosing control parameters required in conventional methods of lineament detection may cause unreliable results. To reduce this ambiguity, we developed LINDA (LINeament Detection and Analysis), an integrated tool with graphical user interface in Visual Basic. This tool automates processes of detection and analysis of linear features from grid data of topography (digital elevation model; DEM), gravity and magnetic surfaces, as well as data from remote sensing imagery. A simple interface with five display windows forms a user-friendly interactive environment. The interface facilitates grid data shading, detection and grouping of segments, lineament analyses for calculating strike and dip and estimating fault type, and interactive viewing of lineament geometry. Density maps of the center and intersection points of linear features (segments and lineaments) are also included. A systematic analysis of test DEMs and Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery datasets in the North and South Eastern Deserts of Egypt is implemented to demonstrate the capability of LINDA and correct use of its functions. Linear features from the DEM are superior to those from the imagery in terms of frequency, but both linear features agree with location and direction of V-shaped valleys and dykes and reference fault data. Through the case studies, LINDA applicability is demonstrated to highlight dominant structural trends, which can aid understanding of geodynamic frameworks in any region.

  5. Delineation of structural lineaments from marine magnetic anomalies off Lawson's Bay (Visakhapatnam), East Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    Marine magnetic surveys have recorded total field anomalies that correspond to structural lineaments extending from the coast into the sea. The significant anomalies recorded in this area are along wavelength high amplitude negative anomaly...

  6. Precambrian mega lineaments across the Indian sub-continent - Preliminary evidence from offshore magnetic data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Murty, G.P.S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; SuneetaRani, P.; Anuradha, A.

    junction/contact between two major geological provinces, viz. the Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT) and the Dharwar Craton. In addition to these two mega lineaments, major faults have been inferred, which acted as controlling parameters to create a bulge...

  7. Derivation of groundwater flow-paths based on semi-automatic extraction of lineaments from remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Mallast

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a semi-automatic method to infer groundwater flow-paths based on the extraction of lineaments from digital elevation models. This method is especially adequate in remote and inaccessible areas where in-situ data are scarce. The combined method of linear filtering and object-based classification provides a lineament map with a high degree of accuracy. Subsequently, lineaments are differentiated into geological and morphological lineaments using auxiliary information and finally evaluated in terms of hydro-geological significance. Using the example of the western catchment of the Dead Sea (Israel/Palestine, the orientation and location of the differentiated lineaments are compared to characteristics of known structural features. We demonstrate that a strong correlation between lineaments and structural features exists. Using Euclidean distances between lineaments and wells provides an assessment criterion to evaluate the hydraulic significance of detected lineaments. Based on this analysis, we suggest that the statistical analysis of lineaments allows a delineation of flow-paths and thus significant information on groundwater movements. To validate the flow-paths we compare them to existing results of groundwater models that are based on well data.

  8. Commerce geophysical lineament - Its source, geometry, and relation to the Reelfoot rift and New Madrid seismic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Hildenbrand, T.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Commerce geophysical lineament is a northeast-trending magnetic and gravity feature that extends from central Arkansas to southern Illinois over a distance of ???400 km. It is parallel to the trend of the Reelfoot graben, but offset ???40 km to the northwest of the western margin of the rift floor. Modeling indicates that the source of the aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies is probably a mafic dike swarm. The age of the source of the Commerce geophysical lineament is not known, but the linearity and trend of the anomalies suggest a relationship with the Reelfoot rift, which has undergone episodic igneous activity. The Commerce geophysical lineament coincides with several topographic lineaments, movement on associated faults at least as young as Quaternary, and intrusions of various ages. Several earthquakes (Mb > 3) coincide with the Commerce geophysical lineament, but the diversity of associated focal mechanisms and the variety of surface structural features along the length of the Commerce geophysical lineament obscure its relation to the release of present-day strain. With the available seismicity data, it is difficult to attribute individual earthquakes to a specific structural lineament such as the Commerce geophysical lineament. However, the close correspondence between Quaternary faulting and present-day seismicity along the Commerce geophysical lineament is intriguing and warrants further study.

  9. Using Remote Sensing for Lineament Extraction in al Maghrabah Area - Hajjah, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahmi, F.; Alami, O. B.; Baidder, L.; Khanbari, K.; Rhinane, H.; Hilali, A.

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing and GIS data have become more and more important for the study of geology, structural geology and extract of lineament which give us an overview of the tectonic events. The main objective of our study is to design a method for extracting and mapping of lineament from Landsat 8_OLI satellite images of the study area. Different processing techniques were used to achieve our objective : MNF Minimum Noise Fraction bands (4,5,6), Color composites (7,5,3), PCA Principal Component Analysis bands (4,5,7), band ratios (7/5,6/4,4/2), directional filters, and image processing applied on the Landsat 8_OLI composite colours. The results of this study indicate that, the area is really affected by several structural trends: N-S, NW-SE, and NE-SW directions. The result of lineament analysis gives us a good interpretation of the main structural geology and tectonic forces.

  10. Report for fiscal 1982 on comprehensive survey for nationwide geothermal resources. Preparation of lineament density maps - radar image analyses - in north-eastern area; 1982 nendo zenkoku chinetsu shigen sogo chosa hokokusho. Lineament mitsudozu sakusei (radar gazo kaiseki (Tohoku chiiki))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    Geological structure analysis maps and lineament maps were prepared on the north-eastern area and parts of the ancillary areas thereof by analyzing radar images of a 1 to 200,000 scale. With regard to the geological structures, analyses were performed by using as the original data the north look radar images for the three special geothermal areas to have prepared the geological structure analysis maps. The analysis of the radar images identified ground bed boundary lines in more detail than in the existing geological maps, and new discoveries were made available on faults. The lineament maps were compiled by implanting into respectively corresponding topographic maps the 24 N-S lineament maps made by the west look radar images for the whole surveyed areas, and the 16 E-W lineament maps made by the north look radar images for the special geothermal areas. Based on the clarity and characteristics deciphered on the images, the lineaments were classified into the major, minor, and subtle lineaments, which were indicated on the lineament maps. The lineaments were digitized by positions of the edge points, and the histograms and statistical tables were prepared by computer processing. (NEDO)

  11. Determination of Lineaments of the Sea of Marmara using Normalized Derivatives and Analytic Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oruc, B.

    2007-01-01

    The normalized derivatives and analytic signals calculated from magnetic anomaly map present useful results for the structural interpretation. The effectiveness of the methods on the solutions of lineaments has been tested for the edges of the thin-plate model. In the field data, magnetic anomaly map observed in the middle section of Marmara Sea has been used. The approximate solutions have been obtained for the lineaments of the area related in North Anatolia Fault from the characteristic images of the normalized derivatives and horizontal derivative analytic signals

  12. LINEAMENTS MAP OF TURKEY FROM LANDSAT IMAGERY AND SELECTING TARGET AREAS FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION, RELATIONSHIP OF REGIONAL LINEAMENTS TO EARTHQUAKE EPICENTERS, MINERAL WATERS AND HOT SPRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail HENDEN

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Landsat coverage countrywide have been interpreted and a map of lineaments has been prepared. Circular features which are the surface expressions of deep or near   intrusions have  been  carefully mapped in order to investigate their relationship (if any to known mineralizations. From the outset it was postulated that the miner- alizations  are    located at the intersections of lineaments, especially in the vicinity of circular features.  To  test this hypo- thesis known mineralizations were placed on this map. It is noted that the metallic mineral deposits can be grouped into ten regions,  and out  of these,  two regions need to  be explored more intensively. In  some regions selected, locations of possible mineralizations were determined. Earthquake epicenters, mineral water sources and hot spring locations were placed on the  lineaments map. It is seen  that the hot springs and earthquake epicentres are located on regional fault systems.

  13. Study of changes in the lineament structure, caused by earthquakes in South America by applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Zverev, A. T.; Malinnikov, V. A.

    The region between Southern Peru and Northern Chile is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in South America. This is caused by a constant subduction of the South American Plate, converging with the Nazca Plate in the extreme North of Chile. We used the 15 and 30 m resolution satellite images, provided by the ASTER (VNIR and SWIR) instrument onboard the Terra satellite to study changes in the geological faults close to earthquake epicenters in southern Peru. Visible and infrared spectral bands were analysed using “The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis” (LESSA) software package to examine changes in the lineament features and stripe density fields caused by seismic activity. We used the satellite images 128 and 48 days before and 73 days after a 5.2 Richter scale magnitude earthquake. The fact that the seasonal variations in the South of Peru and North of Chile are very small, and the vegetation is very limited, allowed us to establish substantial changes in the lineament and the stripe density field features. We develop a methodology that allows to evaluate the seismic risk in this region for the future.

  14. Statistical analysis of lineament patterns and their palinspastic restoration: Coeur d'Alene mining district, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatakrishnan, R.; McMillan, T.B.; Waller, E.B.

    1985-01-01

    2644 lineaments obtained from multistage lineament mapping on color infrared and conventional black and white aerial photos and Landsat images were digitized and length-weighted frequency distributions calculated at 5 degree intervals on a 10 kilometer square grid. Statistically significant peaks (<95%) and trough (>5%) within each cell were identified. These significant trends were cross correlated with available structural data such as mapped faults, joints and Pb-Zn-Ag bearing ore veins in each cell. The resulting lineament map was then subjected to a palinspastic restoration. Ambiguity in interpreting the paly-modal population was corrected by restoring the lineament within each of the 21 fault-bound structural domains. Restoration of the patterns was accomplished by translating the digitized block margins with their lineaments to the predetermined palinspastic base. On the basis of this reconstruction it has been possible to identify individual grid cells that had strongest correlations with available structural data. These cells clearly showed that spatial filtering of lineament patterns into statistically significant trends brings forth the strong structural controls on mineralization exerted by preexisting ac-joints and faults in the NW-SE trending arcuate Kootenay folds that were right-laterally displaced and deformed by the Lewis and Clark shear zone. Statistically significant correlation between ore-veins and lineaments was only possible on palinspastic restoration and not on the present day lineament map.

  15. Attempt at correlating Italian long lineaments from LANDSAT-1 satellite images with some geological phenomena. Possible use in geothermal energy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, E.; Fanelli, M.

    1975-01-01

    By utilizing the images from the LANDSAT-1, in the spectral band 0.8-1.1 microns (near infrared), a photomosaic was obtained of Italian territory. From this mosaic the field of long lineaments was drawn, corresponding to fractures of the earth crust more than 100 km long. The relationship between lineaments, hot springs, volcanic areas, and earthquake epicenters is verified. There is a clear connection between long lineaments and hot springs: 78% of the springs are located on one or more lineaments, and the existence of hot lineaments was observed. A slightly weaker, but still significant, connection exists between the Pliocene-Quaternary volcanic areas and long lineaments. The relationship between earthquakes and long lineaments can only be verified in some cases. The lineaments which can be related to earthquakes have little or no connection with the other phenomena.

  16. Significance of operator variation and the angle of illumination in lineament analysis on synoptic images. [LANDSAT geological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, B. S.; Short, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    The significance of operator variation and the angle of illumination in acquired imagery is analyzed for lineament analysis. Five operators analyzed a LANDSAT image and four photographs of a plastic relief map illuminated at a low angle from varying directions of the Prescott, Arizona region. Significant differences were found in both number and length of the lineaments recognized by the different investigators for the images. The actual coincidence of lineaments recognized by the investigators for the same image is exceptionally low. Even the directional data on lineament orientation is significantly different from operator to operator and from image to image. Cluster analysis of the orientation data displays a clustering by operators rather than by images. It is recommended that extreme caution be taken before attempting to compare different investigators' results in lineament analysis.

  17. Lineaments in the Shamakhy-Gobustan and Absheron hydrocarbon containing areas using gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmas, Ali; Karsli, Hakan; Kadirov, Fakhraddin A.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we purposed to investigate the edge of geostructures and position of existing faults of the Shamakhy-Gobustan and Absheron hydrocarbon containing regions in Azerbaijan. For this purpose, the horizontal gradient, analytic signal, tilt angle, and hyperbolic of tilt angle methods were applied to the first vertical derivative of gravity data instead of Bouguer gravity data. We obtained the maps that show the previous lineaments which were designated by considering the maximum contours of horizontal gradient, analytic signal maps, and zero values of tilt angle, hyperbolic of tilt angle maps. The geometry of basement interface was also modeled utilizing the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm to understand the sediment thickness and coherency or incoherency between the gravity values and basement topography. The lineaments were held a candle to most current tectonic structure map of the study area. It was seen that the techniques used in this study are very effective to determine the old and new lineaments in the Shamakhy-Gobustan and Absheron regions. The epicenter distribution of earthquakes within the study area supports the new lineaments which are extracted by our interpretation. We concluded that better comprehension of Azerbaijan geostructures and its effect on the large scale works will be provided by means of this study.

  18. Correlation between tectonic lineaments and permeability values of crystalline bedrock in the Gideaa area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, L.O.; Ronge, B.

    1986-11-01

    A tectonic model within the Gideaa site have been constructed based on a fracture mapping of the outcrops and by help of an interpretation of the topography and lineaments. The model has been refined by supplementary fracture measurements in the near Gissjoe hydropower tunnel. Former geophysical investigations, slingram and magnetic anomalies, verify the model. (orig./PW)

  19. ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION OF LINEAMENTS EXTRACTION USING GF-1 SATELLITE IMAGES IN LOESS COVERED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Faults, folds and other tectonics regions belong to the weak areas of geology, will form linear geomorphology as a result of erosion, which appears as lineaments on the earth surface. Lineaments control the distribution of regional formation, groundwater, and geothermal, etc., so it is an important indicator for the evaluation of the strength and stability of the geological structure. The current algorithms mostly are artificial visual interpretation and computer semi-automatic extraction, not only time-consuming, but labour-intensive. It is difficult to guarantee the accuracy due to the dependence on the expert’s knowledge, experience, and the computer hardware and software. Therefore, an integrated algorithm is proposed based on the GF-1 satellite image data, taking the loess area in the northern part of Jinlinghe basin as an example. Firstly, the best bands with 4-3-2 composition is chosen using optimum index factor (OIF. Secondly, line edge is highlighted by Gaussian high-pass filter and tensor voting. Finally, the Hough Transform is used to detect the geologic lineaments. Thematic maps of geological structure in this area are mapped through the extraction of lineaments. The experimental results show that, influenced by the northern margin of Qinling Mountains and the declined Weihe Basin, the lineaments are mostly distributed over the terrain lines, and mainly in the NW, NE, NNE, and ENE directions. It provided a reliable basis for analysing tectonic stress trend because of the agreement with the existing regional geological survey. The algorithm is more practical and has higher robustness, less disturbed by human factors.

  20. Analysis and Application of Lineaments Extraction Using GF-1 Satellite Images in Loess Covered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L.; Liu, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Ning, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Faults, folds and other tectonics regions belong to the weak areas of geology, will form linear geomorphology as a result of erosion, which appears as lineaments on the earth surface. Lineaments control the distribution of regional formation, groundwater, and geothermal, etc., so it is an important indicator for the evaluation of the strength and stability of the geological structure. The current algorithms mostly are artificial visual interpretation and computer semi-automatic extraction, not only time-consuming, but labour-intensive. It is difficult to guarantee the accuracy due to the dependence on the expert's knowledge, experience, and the computer hardware and software. Therefore, an integrated algorithm is proposed based on the GF-1 satellite image data, taking the loess area in the northern part of Jinlinghe basin as an example. Firstly, the best bands with 4-3-2 composition is chosen using optimum index factor (OIF). Secondly, line edge is highlighted by Gaussian high-pass filter and tensor voting. Finally, the Hough Transform is used to detect the geologic lineaments. Thematic maps of geological structure in this area are mapped through the extraction of lineaments. The experimental results show that, influenced by the northern margin of Qinling Mountains and the declined Weihe Basin, the lineaments are mostly distributed over the terrain lines, and mainly in the NW, NE, NNE, and ENE directions. It provided a reliable basis for analysing tectonic stress trend because of the agreement with the existing regional geological survey. The algorithm is more practical and has higher robustness, less disturbed by human factors.

  1. GIS-based identification of active lineaments within the Krasnokamensk Area, Transbaikalia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V. A.; Lespinasse, M.; Ustinov, S. A.; Cialec, C.

    2017-07-01

    Lineament analysis was carried out using detailed digital elevation models (DEM) of the Krasnokamensk Area, southeastern Transbaikalia (Russia). The results of this research confirm the presence of already known faults, but also identify unknown fault zones. The primary focus was identifying small discontinuities and their relationship with extended fault zones. The developed technique allowed construction and identification of the active lineaments with their orientation of the compression and expansion axes in the horizontal plane, their direction of shear movement (right or left), and their geodynamic setting of formation (compression or stretching). The results of active faults identification and definition of their kinematics on digital elevation models were confirmed by measuring the velocities and directions of modern horizontal surface motions using a geodesic GPS, as well as identifying the principal stress axes directions of the modern stress field using modern-day earthquake data. The obtained results are deemed necessary for proper rational environmental management decisions.

  2. Use of high resolution satellite images for tracking of changes in the lineament structure, caused by earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Garcia, R. V.; Trejo-Soto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades strong efforts have been made to apply new spaceborn technologies to the study and possible forecast of strong earthquakes. In this study we use ASTER/TERRA multispectral satellite images for detection and analysis of changes in the system of lineaments previous to a strong earthquake. A lineament is a straight or a somewhat curved feature in an image, which it is possible to detect by a special processing of images based on directional filtering and or Hough transform. ...

  3. Correlation of structural lineaments with oil discoveries in Potwar sub-basin, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Ali, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Potwar sub-basin is located in the foothills of western Himalayas. It is developed as a result of continent collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. This sub-basin is one of the major oil and gas producing-region of the country. Clastics of Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, Paleocene, and carbonates of Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene are producing reservoir. Fractured and eocene carbonate reservoirs (Sakesar and Chorgali) are the main producing horizons in the region. Shale of infra-Cambrian-Cambrian and Paleocene are the main source rocks in the area. Interpretation of satellite data for lineament analysis coupled with stress models indicate that 63% of oil and gas fields fall along and 37% within 2-5 km radius of extensional lineaments and their corresponding open fractured zones developed due to various stress regimes. It is therefore suggested that exploration for hydrocarbon may be targeted in the strike extension of the mentioned lineaments in areas where optimum conditions for hydrocarbon generation exist. (author)

  4. A new code for automatic detection and analysis of the lineament patterns for geophysical and geological purposes (ADALGEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pinto, C.; Arellano-Baeza, A.; Sánchez, G.

    2013-08-01

    We present a new numerical method for automatic detection and analysis of changes in lineament patterns caused by seismic and volcanic activities. The method is implemented as a series of modules: (i) normalization of the image contrast, (ii) extraction of small linear features (stripes) through convolution of the part of the image in the vicinity of each pixel with a circular mask or through Canny algorithm, and (iii) posterior detection of main lineaments using the Hough transform. We demonstrate that our code reliably detects changes in the lineament patterns related to the stress evolution in the Earth's crust: specifically, a significant number of new lineaments appear approximately one month before an earthquake, while one month after the earthquake the lineament configuration returns to its initial state. Application of our software to the deformations caused by volcanic activity yields the opposite results: the number of lineaments decreases with the onset of microseismicity. This discrepancy can be explained assuming that the plate tectonic earthquakes are caused by the compression and accumulation of stress in the Earth's crust due to subduction of tectonic plates, whereas in the case of volcanic activity we deal with the inflation of a volcano edifice due to elevation of pressure and magma intrusion and the resulting stretching of the surface.

  5. Incorporating the Uncertainties of Nodal-Plane Orientation in the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V.; Sverdrup, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    The process of delineating a seismo-lineament has evolved since the first description of the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) by Cronin et al. (2008, Env & Eng Geol 14(3) 199-219). SLAM is a reconnaissance tool to find the trace of the fault that produced an shallow-focus earthquake by projecting the corresponding nodal planes (NP) upward to their intersections with the ground surface, as represented by a DEM or topographic map. A seismo-lineament is formed by the intersection of the uncertainty volume associated with a given NP and the ground surface. The ground-surface trace of the fault that produced the earthquake is likely to be within one of the two seismo-lineaments associated with the two NPs derived from the earthquake's focal mechanism solution. When no uncertainty estimate has been reported for the NP orientation, the uncertainty volume associated with a given NP is bounded by parallel planes that are [1] tangent to the ellipsoidal uncertainty volume around the focus and [2] parallel to the NP. If the ground surface is planar, the resulting seismo-lineament is bounded by parallel lines. When an uncertainty is reported for the NP orientation, the seismo-lineament resembles a bow tie, with the epicenter located adjacent to or within the "knot." Some published lists of focal mechanisms include only one NP with associated uncertainties. The NP orientation uncertainties in strike azimuth (+/- gamma), dip angle (+/- epsilon) and rake that are output from an FPFIT analysis (Reasenberg and Oppenheimer, 1985, USGS OFR 85-739) are taken to be the same for both NPs (Oppenheimer, 2013, pers com). The boundaries of the NP uncertainty volume are each comprised by planes that are tangent to the focal uncertainty ellipsoid. One boundary, whose nearest horizontal distance from the epicenter is greater than or equal to that of the other boundary, is formed by the set of all planes with strike azimuths equal to the reported NP strike azimuth +/- gamma, and dip angle

  6. A comparison of two independent interpretations of lineaments from geophysical and topographic data at the Forsmark site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Rune

    2005-03-01

    In the development of site descriptions, uncertainties in the modelling work are given much attention. One aspect of this is the development of alternative models. Given the importance of the lineaments for the continued deformation zone modelling, it has been regarded important to carry out an alternative, independent lineament interpretation at the Forsmark site. The objective of the work presented in this report was to compare the primary and alternative interpretations, which have been provided by two independent groups of geoscientists. A primary interpretation has been carried out by GeoVista AB and an alternative interpretation (within the central part of the site investigation area) by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). Based on the results of this comparative study, further evaluation of the inferred lineaments and the need for supplementary information are discussed. When the two sets of inferred lineaments are compared, it must be remembered that the two groups have performed the interpretation work under different conditions. GeoVista AB has a profound knowledge of the geological setting, as opposed to GTK which has been provided only with some basic geological information. The different conditions might very well have affected some of the expert judgements involved in the interpretation process. However, the comparison of the two independent lineament interpretations has revealed that the results are, in principle, reproducible. Nevertheless, there are discrepancies that are judged to be significant and have to be considered during the further assessment of lineaments. The attributes assigned to the inferred lineaments provide an excellent tool for displaying the characteristics of an individual lineament. However, the use of a single attribute or a combination of attributes as a stand-alone criterion for the assessment can be seriously misleading. Whether a lineament represents a deformation zone or not must instead be concluded on the basis of

  7. TecLines: A MATLAB-Based Toolbox for Tectonic Lineament Analysis from Satellite Images and DEMs, Part 1: Line Segment Detection and Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Rahnama, Mehdi; Gloaguen, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Geological structures, such as faults and fractures, appear as image discontinuities or lineaments in remote sensing data. Geologic lineament mapping is a very important issue in geo-engineering, especially for construction site selection, seismic, and risk assessment, mineral exploration and hydrogeological research. Classical methods of lineaments extraction are based on semi-automated (or visual) interpretation of optical data and digital elevation models. We developed a freely available M...

  8. Forsmark site investigation. Detailed ground magnetic survey and lineament interpretation in the Forsmark area, 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Hans; Thunehed, Hans; Pitkaenen, Timo; Keisu, Mikael

    2007-12-01

    The report presents detailed ground magnetic measurements carried out on an 11.1 km 2 area in the Forsmark site investigation area. The main objective of this activity is to determine a detailed ground magnetic representation of the bedrock. The results from previous surveys were encouraging and have led to a broad geophysical programme for investigation of lineaments at Forsmark. This report comprises the results from the second and final phase of the extended survey programme and a compilation and summary of all phases in the programme. On ground and on lake ice, a grid with parallel lines was staked. Measurements of the magnetic total field were carried out along profiles, perpendicular to the staked lines, with a profile spacing of 10 m and a station spacing of 5 m. Measurements on the ice-covered sea bays were carried out by a two man crew. One crew member walked along the survey lines, carrying a RTK-GPS guiding the other crew member who measured the magnetic total field. No seaborne survey was carried out in the final phase. Previously, using a high accuracy RTK-GPS unit for boat navigation gave a seaborne survey grid of on average 10 m line spacing and 2-3 m station spacing. In total 427,238 magnetic survey stations have been measured and an area of 4.7 km 2 has been surveyed from boat. The magnetic pattern in the survey area can be divided into six main areas with different magnetic character. Along the southwest margin of the survey area the magnetic pattern is intensely banded with rapidly changing low and highly magnetic bands striking southeast-northwest, which to the northeast changes to a gentler, banded pattern of low to moderate magnetic intensity. To the northeast, at the SFR office and along the coastline to the southeast, the pattern is again intensely banded with, southeast-northwest trending, rapidly changing low and highly magnetic bands. These two banded structures probably forms fold limbs of a common fold with a northwest oriented fold

  9. Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) Applied to the South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, V. E.; Cronin, V. S.

    2014-12-01

    We used the seismo-lineament analysis method (SLAM; http://bearspace.baylor.edu/Vince_Cronin/www/SLAM/) to "predict" the location of the fault that produced the M 6.0 South Napa earthquake of 24 August 2014, using hypocenter and focal mechanism data from NCEDC (http://www.ncedc.org/ncedc/catalog-search.html) and a digital elevation model from the USGS National Elevation Dataset (http://viewer.nationalmap.gov/viewer/). The ground-surface trace of the causative fault (i.e., the Browns Valley strand of the West Napa fault zone; Bryant, 2000, 1982) and virtually all of the ground-rupture sites reported by the USGS and California Geological Survey (http://www.eqclearinghouse.org/2014-08-24-south-napa/) were located within the north-striking seismo-lineament. We also used moment tensors published online by the USGS and GCMT (http://comcat.cr.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/nc72282711#scientific_moment-tensor) as inputs to SLAM and found that their northwest-striking seismo-lineaments correlated spatially with the causative fault. We concluded that SLAM could have been used as soon as these mechanism solutions were available to help direct the search for the trace of the causative fault and possible rupture-related damage. We then considered whether the seismogenic fault could have been identified using SLAM prior to the 24 August event, based on the focal mechanisms of smaller prior earthquakes reported by the NCEDC or ISC (http://www.isc.ac.uk). Seismo-lineaments from three M~3.5 events from 1990 and 2012, located in the Vallejo-Crockett area, correlate spatially with the Napa County Airport strand of the West Napa fault and extend along strike toward the Browns Valley strand (Bryant, 2000, 1982). Hence, we might have used focal mechanisms from smaller earthquakes to establish that the West Napa fault is likely seismogenic prior to the South Napa earthquake. Early recognition that a fault with a mapped ground-surface trace is seismogenic, based on smaller earthquakes

  10. Qualitative assessment of tectonic lineaments over the coastal and innershelf of Kakinada and Kalingapatnam, central east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Rao, K.M.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, M.M.M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Rani, P.S.; Anuradha, A.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    -1 JOURNAL GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF INDIA Vol.69, June 2007, pp.1328-1334 Qualitative Assessment of Tectonic Lineaments Over the Coastal and Innershelf of Kakinada and Kalingapatnam, Central East Coast of India A.S.SUBRAHMANYAM, G. P. S. MURTY, K.V.L.N.S. SARMA... off 0016-7622/2007-69-6-1328/$ 1.00 ? GEOL. SOC. INDIA QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TECTONIC LINEAMENTS OVER COASTAL REGIONS, VISAKHAPATNAM, A.P. 1329 Fig.l. Earthquake distribution map of East Coast of India. Vizianagaram (18 Dec.1995...

  11. TecLines: A MATLAB-Based Toolbox for Tectonic Lineament Analysis from Satellite Images and DEMs, Part 1: Line Segment Detection and Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rahnama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Geological structures, such as faults and fractures, appear as image discontinuities or lineaments in remote sensing data. Geologic lineament mapping is a very important issue in geo-engineering, especially for construction site selection, seismic, and risk assessment, mineral exploration and hydrogeological research. Classical methods of lineaments extraction are based on semi-automated (or visual interpretation of optical data and digital elevation models. We developed a freely available Matlab based toolbox TecLines (Tectonic Lineament Analysis for locating and quantifying lineament patterns using satellite data and digital elevation models. TecLines consists of a set of functions including frequency filtering, spatial filtering, tensor voting, Hough transformation, and polynomial fitting. Due to differences in the mathematical background of the edge detection and edge linking procedure as well as the breadth of the methods, we introduce the approach in two-parts. In this first study, we present the steps that lead to edge detection. We introduce the data pre-processing using selected filters in spatial and frequency domains. We then describe the application of the tensor-voting framework to improve position and length accuracies of the detected lineaments. We demonstrate the robustness of the approach in a complex area in the northeast of Afghanistan using a panchromatic QUICKBIRD-2 image with 1-meter resolution. Finally, we compare the results of TecLines with manual lineament extraction, and other lineament extraction algorithms, as well as a published fault map of the study area.

  12. Study a Relation Between the Lascar Volcano Microseimicity and Changes in the Local System of Lineaments, Obtained Using the Landsat 8 Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Soto-Pinto, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decades strong efforts have been made to apply new spaceborn technologies to the study of volcanic activity. Recent studies have shown that the high resolution satellite images can be very useful for tracking of evolution of the stress patterns related to the volcanic activity. It can be done by observing the changes in density and orientation of lineaments extracted from satellite images. A lineament is generally defined as a straight or a somewhat curved feature in the landscape visible in a satellite image as an aligned sequence of pixels of a contrasting intensity compared to the background. The system of lineaments extracted from the satellite images is not identical to the geological lineaments which are usually determined by land-based surveys, nevertheless, it generally reflects the structure of the faults and fractures in the Earth's crust. For this study the lineaments were detected using the ADALGEO software, based on the Hough transform (Soto-Pinto et al, 2013). A temporal sequence of the Landsat 8 multispectral images of the Lascar volcano, located in the North of Chile, was used to study changes in lineament configuration during 2013-2014. It was found that, the number and orientation of lineaments is affected by microseimicity. In particular, it was found that often the density of lineaments decreases with the intensity of microseisms, which could be related to the volcano inflation.

  13. Lineament and Morphometric Analysis for Watershed Development of Tarali River Basin, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bartakke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tarali river is major tributary of River Krishna, which is flowing in western India. The study area lies between latitude 17°23' to 17°38' N and longitude 73°48' to 74°7' E. The area has steep to moderate slope and elevation ranges from 584 - 1171m above mean sea level. Basin exhibits hilly and mountain terrain forming ridges and Western Ghats with deep valley, plateaus and plain. The whole area can be obtained in topographical maps i.e. 47 G/14, 47 G/15 47 K/2, 47 K/3 covering area of about 627 sq.km, acquired from Survey of India. Present study includes lineament and morphometric analysis of Tarali River basin for management and conservation of watershed.

  14. Forsmark site investigation. Detailed ground magnetic survey and lineament interpretation in the Forsmark area, 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, Hans; Thunehed, Hans; Pitkaenen, Timo; Keisu, Mikael (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The report presents detailed ground magnetic measurements carried out on an 11.1 km2 area in the Forsmark site investigation area. The main objective of this activity is to determine a detailed ground magnetic representation of the bedrock. The results from previous surveys were encouraging and have led to a broad geophysical programme for investigation of lineaments at Forsmark. This report comprises the results from the second and final phase of the extended survey programme and a compilation and summary of all phases in the programme. On ground and on lake ice, a grid with parallel lines was staked. Measurements of the magnetic total field were carried out along profiles, perpendicular to the staked lines, with a profile spacing of 10 m and a station spacing of 5 m. Measurements on the ice-covered sea bays were carried out by a two man crew. One crew member walked along the survey lines, carrying a RTK-GPS guiding the other crew member who measured the magnetic total field. No seaborne survey was carried out in the final phase. Previously, using a high accuracy RTK-GPS unit for boat navigation gave a seaborne survey grid of on average 10 m line spacing and 2-3 m station spacing. In total 427,238 magnetic survey stations have been measured and an area of 4.7 km2 has been surveyed from boat. The magnetic pattern in the survey area can be divided into six main areas with different magnetic character. Along the southwest margin of the survey area the magnetic pattern is intensely banded with rapidly changing low and highly magnetic bands striking southeast-northwest, which to the northeast changes to a gentler, banded pattern of low to moderate magnetic intensity. To the northeast, at the SFR office and along the coastline to the southeast, the pattern is again intensely banded with, southeast-northwest trending, rapidly changing low and highly magnetic bands. These two banded structures probably forms fold limbs of a common fold with a northwest oriented fold axis

  15. Kinematics and age of Early Tertiary trench parallel volcano-tectonic lineaments in southern Mexico: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M.; Ferrari, L.; Lopez Martinez, M.; Cerca Martinez, M.; Serrano Duran, L.

    2007-05-01

    We present new geological, structural, and geochronological data that constrain the timing and geometry of Early Tertiary strike slip deformation in southwestern Mexico and its relation with the concurrent magmatic activity. Geologic mapping in Guerrero and Michoacan States documented two regional WNW trending volcano-tectonic lineaments sub parallel to the present trench. The southernmost lineament runs for ~140 km from San Miguel Totolapan area (NW Guerrero) to Sanchiqueo (SE Michoacan), and passes through Ciudad Altamirano. Its southeastern part is marked by the alignment of at least eleven silicic to intermediate major domes as well as by the course of the Balsas River. The northwestern part of the lineament is characterized by ductile left lateral shear zones in Early Tertiary plutonic rocks observed in the Rio Chiquito valley. Domes near Ciudad Altamirano are unaffected by ductile shearing and yielded a ~42 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age, setting a minimum age for this deformation. The northern volcano-tectonic lineament runs for ~190 km between the areas of Huitzuco in northern Guerrero and the southern part of the Tzitzio fold in eastern Michoacan. The Huautla, Tilzapotla, Taxco, La Goleta and Nanchititla silicic centers (all in the range 37-34 Ma) are emplaced along this lineament, which continues to the WNW trough a mafic dike swarm exposed north of Tiquicheo (37-35 Ma) and the Purungueo subvolcanic body (~42 Ma). These rocks, unaffected by ductile shearing, give a minimum age of deformation similar to the southern Totolapan-Sanquicheo lineament. Post ~42 Ma deformation is essentially brittle and is characterized by several left lateral and right lateral transcurrent faults with typical Riedel patterns. Other trench-parallel left lateral shear zones active in pre-Oligocene times were recently reported in western Oaxaca. The recognizing of Early Tertiary trench-parallel and left-lateral ductile shearing in internal areas of southern Mexico suggest a field of widely

  16. Study of the structure changes caused by volcanic activity in Mexico applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Garcia, R. V.; Trejo-Soto, M.; Molina-Sauceda, E.

    Mexico is one of the most volcanically active regions in North America Volcanic activity in central Mexico is associated with the subduction of the Cocos and Rivera plates beneath the North American plate Periods of enhanced microseismic activity associated with the volcanic activity of the Colima and Popocapetl volcanoes are compared to some periods of low microseismic activity We detected changes in the number and orientation of lineaments associated with the microseismic activity due to lineament analysis of a temporal sequence of high resolution satellite images of both volcanoes 15 m resolution multispectral images provided by the ASTER VNIR instrument were used The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis LESSA software package was employed for the lineament extraction

  17. Analysis of the relationship of automatically and manually extracted lineaments from DEM and geologically mapped tectonic faults around the Main Ethiopian Rift and the Ethiopian highlands, Ethiopia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kusák, Michal; Krbcová, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 5-17 ISSN 0300-5402 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : azimuth * faults * lineaments * Main Ethiopian Rift * morphometry Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography

  18. Statistical analysis of surface lineaments and fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Genliang; George, S.A.; Lindsey, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    Thirty-six sets of surface lineaments and fractures mapped from satellite images and/or aerial photos from parts of the Mid-continent and Colorado Plateau regions were collected, digitized, and statistically analyzed in order to obtain the probability distribution functions of natural fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs. The orientations and lengths of the surface linear features were calculated using the digitized coordinates of the two end points of each individual linear feature. The spacing data of the surface linear features within an individual set were, obtained using a new analytical sampling technique. Statistical analyses were then performed to find the best-fit probability distribution functions for the orientation, length, and spacing of each data set. Twenty-five hypothesized probability distribution functions were used to fit each data set. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to rank the significance of each fit. A distribution which provides the lowest chi-square goodness-of-fit value was considered the best-fit distribution. The orientations of surface linear features were best-fitted by triangular, normal, or logistic distributions; the lengths were best-fitted by PearsonVI, PearsonV, lognormal2, or extreme-value distributions; and the spacing data were best-fitted by lognormal2, PearsonVI, or lognormal distributions. These probability functions can be used to stochastically characterize naturally fractured reservoirs.

  19. TecLines: A MATLAB-Based Toolbox for Tectonic Lineament Analysis from Satellite Images and DEMs, Part 2: Line Segments Linking and Merging

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Rahnama; Richard Gloaguen

    2014-01-01

    Extraction and interpretation of tectonic lineaments is one of the routines for mapping large areas using remote sensing data. However, this is a subjective and time-consuming process. It is difficult to choose an optimal lineament extraction method in order to reduce subjectivity and obtain vectors similar to what an analyst would manually extract. The objective of this study is the implementation, evaluation and comparison of Hough transform, segment merging and polynomial fitting methods t...

  20. An interdisciplinary analysis of multispectral satellite data for selected cover types in the Colorado Mountains, using automatic data processing techniques. [geological lineaments and mineral exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. One capability which has been recognized by many geologists working with space photography is the ability to see linear features and alinements which were previously not apparent. To the exploration geologist, major lineaments seen on satellite images are of particular interest. A portion of ERTS-1 frame 1407-17193 (3 Sept. 1973) was used for mapping lineaments and producing an iso-lineament intersection map. Skylab photography over the area of prime area was not useable due to snow cover. Once the lineaments were mapped, a grid with 2.5 km spacing was overlayed on the map and the lineament intersections occurring within each grid square were counted and the number plotted in the center of the grid square. These numbers were then contoured producing a contour map of equal lineament intersection. It is believed that the areas of high intersection concentration would be the most favorable area for ore mineralization if favorable host rocks are also present. These highly fractured areas would act as conduits for carrying the ore forming solutions to the site of deposition in a favorable host rock. Two of the six areas of high intersection concentration are over areas of present or past mining camps and small claims are known to exist near the others. These would be prime target areas for future mineral exploration.

  1. Tectonic and volcanic history of Rhea as inferred from studies of scarps, ridges, troughs, and other lineaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The 13 geomorphic feature types presently defined through the analysis of landforms on Rhea are with only one exception interpretable as of tectonic or volcanic-tectonic origin. The troughs, grabens, grooves, pit chains, scarps, and other lineaments are purely extensional in nature, while the ridges are volcanic features formed in an extensional stress field; this extension was followed by a global compression era generating megaridges and megascarps. The extensional landforms seem to form a global grid pattern that is directionally similar to the theoretically projected pattern of a tidally distorted planet. 17 references

  2. Study of the structure changes caused by earthquakes in Chile applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A.; Zverev, A.; Malinnikov, V.

    Chile is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in the South America due to a constant subdiction of the South American plate, converging with the Nazca plate in the extreme North of Chile. Four events, namely: the Ovalle earthquake of Juny 18, 2003, M=6.3, with epicenter localized at (-30:49:33, -71:18:53), the Calama earthquake of Junly 19, 2001, M=5.2, (-30:29:38,-68:33:18), the Pica earthquake of April 10, 2003, M=5.1, (-21:03:20,-68:47:10) and the La Ligua earthquake of May 6, 2001, M=5.1, (-32:35:31,-71:07:58:) were analysed using the 15 m resolution satellite images, provided by the ASTER/VNIR instrument. The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis (LESSA) software package was used to examine changes in the lineament features caused by sismic activity. Lack of vegetation facilitates the study of the changes in the topography common to all events and makes it possible to evaluate the sismic risk in this region for the future.

  3. Statistical analysis of lineaments and their relation to fracturing, faulting, and halokinesis in the East Texas Basin. Report of investigations No. 110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dix, O.R.; Jackson, M.P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Lineament analysis is part of a broad spectrum of structural studies employed to determine the tectonic stability of the East Texas Basin. Such information is necessary to assess the suitability of East Texas salt domes as possible repository sites for the storage of high-level nuclear wastes. A sequence of statistical operations was designed to identify and assess the significance of lineament preferred orientation by means of a variety of statistical tests or parameters. Black-and-white aerial photographs, and band-5 Landsat imagery were analyzed. Well-defined, northeast-trending and northwest-trending lineament populations are present throughout the East Texas Basin. The northeast trend, comprising two peaks oriented at 045 0 and 055 0 , corresponds to the orientation of the Mexia-Talco peripheral fault zone, to subsurface faults in the center of the basin, and to some lithologic contacts. The northwest trend comprises two peaks oriented at 310 0 and 325 0 . Both the northeast and northwest trends are thought to result from preferential directions of fracture induced by interference folding at depth. Areas above shallow salt domes, particularly those in the southern part of the basin, are associated with higher lineament densities and lower preferred orientation of lineaments that are non-dome areas or areas above deep salt diapirs; this probably reflects radial and concentric fault and fracture patterns above the shallow domes. Analysis of computer-generated, geologically meaningless sets of lineaments strongly suggests that confidence levels of 99 percent are necessary to exclude randomly generated peaks, and that the significance of orthogonal pairsets has been exaggerated in the literature

  4. Combination of spaceborne radar interferometry (DEM) and Landsat TM imageries contributing to recent tectonic and geology studies in the Aswa lineament shear zone (Sudan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kervyn, V.C.; Slob, S.; Derauw, D.; Cecchi, Giovanna; Zilioli, Eugenio

    1998-01-01

    Until recently, the Aswa lineament shear zone in Uganda and Sudan was considered to be tectonically at rest but the 1990- 1991 seismic events triggered a renewal of interest in this area. Using ERS1 - ERS2 tandem covering the area where earthquakes were observed, we have generated a high resolution

  5. Anomalously deep earthquakes related to the Ojo de Agua Lineament and its tectonic significance, Sierras Pampeanas of Córdoba, Central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Caro Montero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sierras de Córdoba are the easternmost uplifted ranges of the Sierras Pampeanas geological province of Argentina. They are composed of a Neoproterozoic–Paleozoic basement arranged in north–south aligned mountain ranges, limited by west-vergent reverse faults, reactivated or formed by compressive tectonics during the Andean orogeny. The ranges are also affected by oblique subvertical lineaments, probably related to pan-Gondwanan structures. The recorded seismicity shows anomalously deep earthquakes (up to 80 km depth concentrated in the northwestern area. We attribute this seismicity to the current tectonic activity of the Ojo de Agua Lineament. This lineament is a N130º–135° strike, 70º–80° NE dip, macrostructure with more than 80 km depth and 160 km length. A sinistral transcompressional kinematics (convergent oblique shear is deduced by the focal mechanism of a deep earthquake, together with hydrological and geomorphological features strongly modified. The continental lithosphere under the Sierras de Córdoba would be colder and more rigid than in a normal subduction area, due to the retraction of the asthenospheric wedge to the foreland, causing seismicity to depths greater than 40 km, below the Mohorovičić discontinuity. Neogene volcanism would be closely related to this lineament, allowing the rapid ascent of melts from the mantle.

  6. Preliminary Use of the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to Investigate Seismogenic Faulting in the Grand Canyon Area, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.; Cleveland, D. M.; Prochnow, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    This is a progress report on our application of the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to the eastern Grand Canyon area of northern Arizona. SLAM is a new integrated method for identifying potentially seismogenic faults using earthquake focal-mechanism solutions, geomorphic analysis and field work. There are two nodal planes associated with any double-couple focal-mechanism solution, one of which is thought to coincide with the fault that produced the earthquake; the slip vector is normal to the other (auxiliary) plane. When no uncertainty in the orientation of the fault-plane solution is reported, we use the reported vertical and horizontal uncertainties in the focal location to define a tabular uncertainty volume whose orientation coincides with that of the fault-plane solution. The intersection of the uncertainty volume and the ground surface (represented by the DEM) is termed a seismo-lineament. An image of the DEM surface is illuminated perpendicular to the strike of the seismo- lineament to accentuate geomorphic features within the seismo-lineament that may be related to seismogenic faulting. This evaluation of structural geomorphology is repeated for several different azimuths and elevations of illumination. A map is compiled that includes possible geomorphic indicators of faulting as well as previously mapped faults within each seismo-lineament, constituting a set of hypotheses for the possible location of seismogenic fault segments that must be evaluated through fieldwork. A fault observed in the field that is located within a seismo-lineament, and that has an orientation and slip characteristics that are statistically compatible with the fault-plane solution, is considered potentially seismogenic. We compiled a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Grand Canyon area from published data sets. We used earthquake focal-mechanism solutions produced by David Brumbaugh (2005, BSSA, v. 95, p. 1561-1566) for five M > 3.5 events reported between 1989 and 1995

  7. Fracture mapping of lineaments and recognizing their tectonic significance using SPOT-5 satellite data: A case study from the Bajestan area, Lut Block, east of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadirouhani, Reyhaneh; Rahimi, Behnam; Karimpour, Mohammad Hassan; Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, Azadeh; Afshar Najafi, Sadegh; Pour, Amin Beiranvand

    2017-10-01

    Syste'm Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) remote sensing satellite data have useful characteristics for lineament extraction and enhancement related to the tectonic evaluation of a region. In this study, lineament features in the Bajestan area associated with the tectonic significance of the Lut Block (LB), east Iran were mapped and characterized using SPOT-5 satellite data. The structure of the Bajestan area is affected by the activity of deep strike-slip faults in the boundary of the LB. Structural elements such as faults and major joints were extracted, mapped, and analyzed by the implementation of high-Pass and standard kernels (Threshold and Sobel) filters to bands 1, 2 and 3 of SPOT-5 Level 2 A scene product of the Bajestan area. Lineament map was produced by assigning resultant filter images to red-green-blue (RGB) colour combinations of three main directions such as N-S, E-W and NE-SW. Results derived from image processing technique and statistical assessment indicate that two main orientations, including NW-SE with N-110 azimuth and NE-SW with N-40 azimuth, were dominated in the Bajestan area. The NW-SE trend has a high frequency in the study area. Based on the results of remote sensing lineament analysis and fieldwork, two dextral and sinistral strike-slip components were identified as main fault trends in the Bajestan region. Two dextral faults have acted as the cause of shear in the south and north of the Bajestan granitoid mass. Furthermore, the results indicate that the most of the lineaments in this area are extensional fractures corresponding to both the dykes emplacement and hydrothermal alteration zones. The application of SPOT-5 satellite data for structural analysis in a study region has great capability to provide very useful information of a vast area with low cost and time-consuming.

  8. Mariner 10 data analysis. 1: Scarps, ridges, troughs, and other lineaments on Mercury. 2: Geologic significance of photometric variations on Mercury. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.

    1977-01-01

    Volcanic and tectonic implications of the surface morphology of Mercury are discussed. Mercurian scarps, ridges, troughs, and other lineaments are described and classified as planimetrically linear, arcuate, lobate, or irregular. A global pattern of lineaments is interpreted to reflect modification of linear crustal joints formed in response to stresses induced by tidal spindown. Large arcuate scarps on Mercury most likely record a period of compressional tectonism near the end of heavy bombardment. Shrinkage owing to planetary cooling is the mechanism preferred for their production. Measurements of local normal albedo are combined with computer-generated photometric maps of Mercury to provide constraints on the nature of surface materials and processes. If the mercurian surface obeys the average lunar photometric function, its normal albedo at 554 nm is .16 + or - .03.

  9. Mapping of tecto-lineaments and their influence on sedimentological processes in a GIS environment: a case study of the Iberian trough, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero-Hernández Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The subsurface sedimentary succession of the Iberian Trough, Spain was examined using geophysical techniques (analogue seismic profiles and inverse distance weighted (IDW interpolation algorithm implemented in a gvGIS open source software. The results showed that the Late Cretaceous succession is divided into two depositional sequences: DS-1 (Late Albian-Middle Turonian and DS-2 (Late Turonian-Campanian. From the analogical seismic sections, digital data and quantitative isopach maps for DS-1 and DS-2 were obtained. The new isopach maps obtained for the DS-1 sequence showed that the deeper sectors of the basin were located to the northeast and the proximal ones to the southwest. The palaeoshoreline was inferred to be situated in the N 150 direction. Across and parallel to this direction several blocks were delimited by faults, with a direction between 30 N and N 65. The thickness of the sediments in these blocks varied in direction NW-SE, with subsidence and depocentres in hangingwall and uplift in the footwall. These variations may have been related to active synsedimentary faults (e.g., Boñar and Yugueros Faults. In the DS-2 sequence, a lineament separated the smaller thicknesses to the southwest from the larger thicknesses (up to 1400 m to the northeast. This lineament had an N170 orientation and it indicated the position of the palaeoshoreline. In the isopach map for DS-2 there were two groups of lineaments. The first showed a block structure that was limited by N100-120, they were foundering toward the S and had large thicknesses (depocentres, and rose towards the N, where there were smaller thicknesses. The second group of lineaments had a N 50-65 direction and, in this case, they had a similar interpretation as the one in DS-1. The maps obtained are of great help for geologists and permit better understanding of the geological setting and stratigraphic succession of the Late Cretaceous of the Iberian Trough.

  10. Study of the structural changes in the Popocatepetl volcano in Mexico related to microseismicity by applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Garcia, R. V.; Trejo-Soto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Mexico is one of the most volcanically active regions in North America. Volcanic activity in central Mexico is associated with the subduction of the Cocos and Rivera plates beneath the North American plate. Periods of enhanced microseismic activity, associated with the volcanic activity of the Popocatepetl volcano is compared with periods, during which the microseismic activity was low. We detected systematical changes in the number of lineaments, associated with the microseismic activity due...

  11. Comparison of different digital elevation models and satellite imagery for lineament analysis: Implications for identification and spatial arrangement of fault zones in crystalline basement rocks of the southern Black Forest (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, J.; Grimmer, J. C.; Becker, A.; Schill, E.; Kohl, T.

    2018-03-01

    GIS-based remote sensing techniques and lineament mapping provide additional information on the spatial arrangement of faults and fractures in large areas with variable outcrop conditions. Due to inherent censoring and truncation bias mapping of lineaments is still a challenging task. In this study we show how statistical evaluations help to improve the reliability of lineament mappings by comparing two digital elevation models (ASTER, LIDAR) and satellite imagery data sets in the seismically active southern Black Forest. A statistical assessment of the orientation, average length, and the total length of mapped lineaments reveals an impact of the different resolutions of the data sets that allow to define maximum (censoring bias) and minimum (truncation bias) observable lineament length for each data set. The increase of the spatial resolution of the digital elevation model from 30 m × 30 m to 5 m × 5 m results in a decrease of total lineament length by about 40% whereby the average lineament lengths decrease by about 60%. Lineament length distributions of both data sets follow a power law distribution as documented elsewhere for fault and fracture systems. Predominant NE-, N-, NNW-, and NW-directions of the lineaments are observed in all data sets and correlate with well-known, mappable large-scale structures in the southern Black Forest. Therefore, mapped lineaments can be correlated with faults and hence display geological significance. Lineament density in the granite-dominated areas is apparently higher than in the gneiss-dominated areas. Application of a slip- and dilation tendency analysis on the fault pattern reveals largest reactivation potentials for WNW-ESE and N-S striking faults as strike-slip faults whereas normal faulting may occur along NW-striking faults within the ambient stress field. Remote sensing techniques in combination with highly resolved digital elevation models and a slip- and dilation tendency analysis thus can be used to quickly get

  12. Mapping of tecto-lineaments and investigate their association with earthquakes in Egypt: a hybrid approach using remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Ismail Elmahdy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study integrates quantitative methods to detect surface and near-surface geological linear structures from digital elevation model. A set of altitude, slope and shaded relief maps was enhanced by applying Sobel filter with 10% threshold and percentile stretch to detect geological fractures and their displacements over regional scale. Topographic fabric grain algorithm, which classifies point lines into the ridge/valley and quantifies the degree to which all the ridges and valleys are aligned in the same direction, was used to auto-detect lineaments. About 1300 linear features were computed and their orientations were statistically analysed using rose diagrams. The enhanced morphometric maps successfully visualized fault zones and their displacements and detected the regional fault zones cutting across the entire Egypt. Their trends were found to be in the NE–SW, NNE–SSW, NW–SE, NNW–SSE, N–S, E–W and WNW–ESE directions. The results obtained using the integrated methods were compared with those in geological and seismic maps of Egypt and showed strong agreement in several places. This proposed method may be useful for mapping concealed geological structures, where geophysical surveying is difficult and geological information not available.

  13. TecLines: A MATLAB-Based Toolbox for Tectonic Lineament Analysis from Satellite Images and DEMs, Part 2: Line Segments Linking and Merging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rahnama

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and interpretation of tectonic lineaments is one of the routines for mapping large areas using remote sensing data. However, this is a subjective and time-consuming process. It is difficult to choose an optimal lineament extraction method in order to reduce subjectivity and obtain vectors similar to what an analyst would manually extract. The objective of this study is the implementation, evaluation and comparison of Hough transform, segment merging and polynomial fitting methods towards automated tectonic lineament mapping. For this purpose we developed a new MATLAB-based toolbox (TecLines. The proposed toolbox capabilities were validated using a synthetic Digital Elevation Model (DEM and tested along in the Andarab fault zone (Afghanistan where specific fault structures are known. In this study, we used filters in both frequency and spatial domains and the tensor voting framework to produce binary edge maps. We used the Hough transform to extract linear image discontinuities. We used B-spline as a polynomial curve fitting method to eliminate artificial line segments that are out of interest and to link discontinuous segments with similar trends. We performed statistical analyses in order to compare the final image discontinuities maps with existing references map.

  14. Use of high resolution satellite images for tracking of changes in the lineament structure, caused by earthquakes, situated nearly the Pacific coast of the North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Garcia, R. V.; Trejo-Soto, M.

    The Pacific coast of the North and South America is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in the world forming part of the so-called Ring of Fire More than 10 earthquakes with the Richter scale magnitude 4 5 were analyzed They were located in the regions with small seasonal variations and limited vegetation to facilitate the tracking of features associated with the seismic activity only High resolution Aster satellite images were used to extract the principal lineaments using The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis LESSA software package It was found that the number and orientation of lineaments changed significantly about one month before an earthquake approximately and a few months later the system returns to its initial state This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude and it is much more easily detectable in case of convergent plate boundaries for example Nasca and South American plates The results obtained open the possibility to develop a methodology able to evaluate the seismic risk in the regions with similar geological conditions

  15. Variable near-surface deformation along the Commerce segment of the Commerce geophysical lineament, southeast Missouri to southern Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, J.K.; Stephenson, W.J.; Williams, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a plausible link between surface and near-surface tectonic features and the vertical projection of the Commerce geophysical lineament (CGL). The CGL is a 5- to 10-km-wide zone of basement magnetic and gravity anomalies traceable for more than 600 km, extending from Arkansas through southeast Missouri and southern Illinois and into Indiana. Twelve kilometers of high-resolution seismic reflection data, collected at four sites along a 175-km segment of the CGL projection, are interpreted to show varying amounts of deformation involving Tertiary and some Quaternary sediments. Some of the locally anomalous geomorphic features in the northern Mississippi embayment region (i.e., paleoliquefaction features, anomalous directional changes in stream channels, and areas of linear bluff escarpments) overlying the CGL can be correlated with specific faults and/or narrow zones of deformed (faulted and folded) strata that are imaged on high-resolution seismic reflection data. There is an observable change in near-surface deformation style and complexity progressing from the southwest to the northeast along the trace of the CGL. The seismic reflection data collaborate mapping evidence which suggests that this region has undergone a complex history of deformation, some of which is documented to be as young as Quaternary, during multiple episodes of reactivation under varying stress fields. This work, along with that of other studies presented in this volume, points to the existence of at least one major crustal feature outside the currently defined zone of seismic activity (New Madrid Seismic Zone) that should be considered as a significant potential source zone for seismogenic activity within the midcontinent region of the United States. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The West Beverly Hills Lineament and Beverly Hills High School: Ethical Issues in Geo-Hazard Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gath, Eldon; Gonzalez, Tania; Roe, Joe; Buchiarelli, Philip; Kenny, Miles

    2014-05-01

    Results of geotechnical studies for the Westside Subway were disclosed in a public hearing on Oct. 19, 2011, showing new "active faults" of the Santa Monica fault and the West Beverly Hills Lineament (WBHL), identified as a northern extension of the Newport-Inglewood fault. Presentations made spoke of the danger posed by these faults, the possibility of killing people, and how it was good news that these faults had been discovered now instead of later. The presentations were live and are now memorialized as YouTube videos, (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Omx2BTIpzAk and others). No faults had been physically exposed or observed by the study; the faults were all interpreted from cone penetrometer probes, supplemented by core borings and geophysical transects. Several of the WBHL faults traversed buildings of the Beverly Hills High School (BHHS), triggering the school district to geologically map and characterize these faults for future planning efforts, and to quantify risk to the students in the 1920's high school building. 5 exploratory trenches were excavated within the high school property, 12 cone penetrometers were pushed, and 26-cored borings were drilled. Geologic logging of the trenches and borings and interpretation of the CPT data failed to confirm the presence of the mapped WBHL faults, instead showing an unfaulted, 3° NE dipping sequence of mid-Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits conformably overlying an ~1 Ma marine sand. Using 14C, OSL, and soil pedology for stratigraphic dating, the BHHS site was cleared from fault rupture hazards and the WBHL was shown to be an erosional margin of Benedict Canyon, partially buttressed by 40-200 ka alluvial deposits from Benedict Wash. The consequence of the Westside Subway's active fault maps has been the unexpected expenditure of millions of dollars for emergency fault investigations at BHHS and several other private properties within a densely developed urban highrise environment. None of these studies have found

  17. Magnetic Data Interpretation for the Source-Edge Locations in Parts of the Tectonically Active Transition Zone of the Narmada-Son Lineament in Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, G. K.

    2016-02-01

    The study has been carried out in the transition zone of the Narmada-Son lineament (NSL) which is seismically active with various geological complexities, upwarp movement of the mantle material into the crust through fault, fractures lamination and upwelling. NSL is one of the most prominent lineaments in central India after the Himalaya in the Indian geology. The area of investigation extends from longitude 80.25°E to 81.50°E and latitude 23.50°N to 24.37°N in the central part of the Indian continent. Different types of subsurface geological formations viz. alluvial, Gondwana, Deccan traps, Vindhyan, Mahakoshal, Granite and Gneisses groups exist in this area with varying geological ages. In this study area tectonic movement and crustal variation have been taken place during the past time and which might be reason for the variation of magnetic field. Magnetic anomaly suggests that the area has been highly disturbed which causes the Narmada-Son lineament trending in the ENE-WSW direction. Magnetic anomaly variation has been taken place due to the lithological variations subject to the changes in the geological contacts like thrusts and faults in this area. Shallow and deeper sources have been distinguished using frequency domain analysis by applying different filters. To enhance the magnetic data, various types of derivatives to identify the source-edge locations of the causative source bodies. The present study carried out the interpretation using total horizontal derivative, tilt angle derivative, horizontal tilt angle derivative and Cos (θ) derivative map to get source-edge locations. The results derived from various derivatives of magnetic data have been compared with the basement depth solutions calculated from 3D Euler deconvolution. It is suggested that total horizontal derivative, tilt angle derivative and Cos (θ) derivative are the most useful tools for identifying the multiple source edge locations of the causative bodies in this tectonically active

  18. Oblique reactivation of lithosphere-scale lineaments controls rift physiography - the upper-crustal expression of the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, offshore southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas B.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Bell, Rebecca E.; Duffy, Oliver B.

    2018-04-01

    Pre-existing structures within sub-crustal lithosphere may localise stresses during subsequent tectonic events, resulting in complex fault systems at upper-crustal levels. As these sub-crustal structures are difficult to resolve at great depths, the evolution of kinematically and perhaps geometrically linked upper-crustal fault populations can offer insights into their deformation history, including when and how they reactivate and accommodate stresses during later tectonic events. In this study, we use borehole-constrained 2-D and 3-D seismic reflection data to investigate the structural development of the Farsund Basin, offshore southern Norway. We use throw-length (T-x) analysis and fault displacement backstripping techniques to determine the geometric and kinematic evolution of N-S- and E-W-striking upper-crustal fault populations during the multiphase evolution of the Farsund Basin. N-S-striking faults were active during the Triassic, prior to a period of sinistral strike-slip activity along E-W-striking faults during the Early Jurassic, which represented a hitherto undocumented phase of activity in this area. These E-W-striking upper-crustal faults are later obliquely reactivated under a dextral stress regime during the Early Cretaceous, with new faults also propagating away from pre-existing ones, representing a switch to a predominantly dextral sense of motion. The E-W faults within the Farsund Basin are interpreted to extend through the crust to the Moho and link with the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, a lithosphere-scale lineament, identified within the sub-crustal lithosphere, that extends > 1000 km across central Europe. Based on this geometric linkage, we infer that the E-W-striking faults represent the upper-crustal component of the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone and that the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone represents a long-lived lithosphere-scale lineament that is periodically reactivated throughout its protracted geological history. The upper-crustal component of

  19. Off-axis volcano-tectonic activity during continental rifting: Insights from the transversal Goba-Bonga lineament, Main Ethiopian Rift (East Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Agostini, Samuele; Philippon, Melody; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Willingshofer, Ernst

    2018-03-01

    The Main Ethiopian Rift, East Africa, is characterized by the presence of major, enigmatic structures which strike approximately orthogonal to the trend of the rift valley. These structures are marked by important deformation and magmatic activity in an off-axis position in the plateaus surrounding the rift. In this study, we present new structural data based on a remote and field analysis, complemented with analogue modelling experiments, and new geochemical analysis of volcanic rocks sampled in different portions of one of these transversal structures: the Goba-Bonga volcano-tectonic lineament (GBVL). This integrated analysis shows that the GBVL is associated with roughly E-W-trending prominent volcano-tectonic activity affecting the western plateau. Within the rift floor, the approximately E-W alignment of Awasa and Corbetti calderas likely represent expressions of the GBVL. Conversely, no tectonic or volcanic features of similar (E-W) orientation have been recognized on the eastern plateau. Analogue modelling suggests that the volcano-tectonic features of the GBVL have probably been controlled by the presence of a roughly E-W striking pre-existing discontinuity beneath the western plateau, which did not extend beneath the eastern plateau. Geochemical analysis supports this interpretation and indicates that, although magmas have the same sub-lithospheric mantle source, limited differences in magma evolution displayed by products found along the GBVL may be ascribed to the different tectonic framework to the west, to the east, and in the axial zone of the rift. These results support the importance of the heterogeneous nature of the lithosphere and the spatial variations of its structure in controlling the architecture of continental rifts and the distribution of the related volcano-tectonic activity.

  20. Aerial photographic interpretation of lineaments and faults in late Cenozoic deposits in the eastern parts of the Saline Valley 1:100, 000 quadrangle, Nevada and California, and the Darwin Hills 1:100, 000 quadrangle, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reheis, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Faults and fault-related lineaments in Quaternary and late Tertiary deposits in the southern part of the Walker Lane are potentially active and form patterns that are anomalous compared to those in most other areas of the Great Basin. Two maps at a scale of 1:100,000 summarize information about lineaments and faults in the area around and southwest of the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system based on extensive aerial-photo interpretation, limited field interpretation, limited field investigations, and published geologic maps. There are three major fault zones and two principal faults in the Saline Valley and Darwin Hills 1:100,000 quadrangles. (1) The Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system and (2) the Hunter Mountain fault zone are northwest-trending right-lateral strike-slip fault zones. (3) The Panamint Valley fault zone and associated Towne Pass and Emigrant faults are north-trending normal faults. The intersection of the Hunter Mountain and Panamint Valley fault zones is marked by a large complex of faults and lineaments on the floor of Panamint Valley. Additional major faults include (4) the north-northwest-trending Ash Hill fault on the west side of Panamint Valley, and (5) the north-trending range-front Tin Mountain fault on the west side of the northern Cottonwood Mountains. The most active faults at present include those along the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, the Tin Mountain fault, the northwest and southeast ends of the Hunter Mountain fault zone, the Ash Hill fault, and the fault bounding the west side of the Panamint Range south of Hall Canyon. Several large Quaternary landslides on the west sides of the Cottonwood Mountains and the Panamint Range apparently reflect slope instability due chiefly to rapid uplift of these ranges. 16 refs

  1. Aerial photographic interpretation of lineaments and faults in late cenozoic deposits in the Eastern part of the Benton Range 1:100,000 quadrangle and the Goldfield, Last Chance Range, Beatty, and Death Valley Junction 1:100,000 quadrangles, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reheis, M.C.; Noller, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Lineaments and faults in Quaternary and late Tertiary deposits in the southern part of the Walker Lane are potentially active and form patterns that are anomalous with respect to the typical fault patterns in most of the Great Basin. Little work has been done to identify and characterize these faults, with the exception of those in the Death Valley-Furnace Creek (DVFCFZ) fault system and those in and near the Nevada Test Site. Four maps at a scale of 1:100,000 summarize the existing knowledge about these lineaments and faults based on extensive aerial-photo interpretation, limited field investigations, and published geologic maps. The lineaments and faults in all four maps can be divided geographically into two groups. The first group includes west- to north-trending lineaments and faults associated with the DVFCFZ and with the Pahrump fault zone in the Death Valley Junction quadrangle. The second group consists of north- to east-northeast-trending lineaments and faults in a broad area that lies east of the DVFCFZ and north of the Pahrump fault zone. Preliminary observations of the orientations and sense of slip of the lineaments and faults suggest that the least principle stress direction is west-east in the area of the first group and northwest-southeast in the area of the second group. The DVFCFZ appears to be part of a regional right-lateral strike-slip system. The DVFCFZ steps right, accompanied by normal faulting in an extensional zone, to the northern part of the Walker Lane a the northern end of Fish Lake Valley (Goldfield quadrangle), and appears to step left, accompanied by faulting and folding in a compressional zone, to the Pahrump fault zone in the area of Ash Meadows (Death Valley Junction quadrangle). 25 refs

  2. Mapping magnetic lineaments and subsurface basement beneath ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    studied the basement structures beneath parts of the Lower Benue Trough (LBT). Anudu et .... order vertical derivatives can be calculated respectively using the relations below: 145. ( ) ... minerals as in the case of the FVD-RTP-TMI (Figure 6).

  3. Statistical analysis of lineaments of Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Banerjee, G.; Wagle, B.G.

    statistically to obtain the nonlinear pattern in the form of a cosine wave. Three distinct peaks were found at azimuths of 40-45 degrees, 90-95 degrees and 140-145 degrees, which have peak values of 5.85, 6.80 respectively. These three peaks are correlated...

  4. Lineaments of the Pechorskaya and Mezenskaya basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashilov, V I

    1981-01-01

    Use of space and aerial methods allows interpretation of the most recent tectonic features and determination of local structures, sometimes ones low amplitude, along with large structures. Especially clear and reliable are foundation faults of various length and direction. Their position and distribution in time have a decisive influence on the distribution of oil and gas deposits of various types.

  5. Integrating GIS-based geologic mapping, LiDAR-based lineament analysis and site specific rock slope data to delineate a zone of existing and potential rock slope instability located along the grandfather mountain window-Linville Falls shear zone contact, Southern Appalachian Mountains, Watauga County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, K.A.; Wooten, R.M.; Latham, R.L.; Witt, A.W.; Douglas, T.J.; Bauer, J.B.; Fuemmeler, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Landslide hazard maps of Watauga County identify >2200 landslides, model debris flow susceptibility, and evaluate a 14km x 0.5km zone of existing and potential rock slope instability (ZEPRSI) near the Town of Boone. The ZEPRSI encompasses west-northwest trending (WNWT) topographic ridges where 14 active/past-active rock/weathered rock slides occur mainly in rocks of the Grandfather Mountain Window (GMW). The north side of this ridgeline is the GMW / Linville Falls Fault (LFF) contact. Sheared rocks of the Linville Falls Shear Zone (LFSZ) occur along the ridge and locally in the valley north of the contact. The valley is underlain principally by layered granitic gneiss comprising the Linville Falls/Beech Mountain/Stone Mountain Thrust Sheet. The integration of ArcGIS??? - format digital geologic and lineament mapping on a 6m LiDAR (Light Detecting and Ranging) digital elevation model (DEM) base, and kinematic analyses of site specific rock slope data (e.g., presence and degree of ductile and brittle deformation fabrics, rock type, rock weathering state) indicate: WNWT lineaments are expressions of a regionally extensive zone of fractures and faults; and ZEPRSI rock slope failures concentrate along excavated, north-facing LFF/LFSZ slopes where brittle fabrics overprint older metamorphic foliations, and other fractures create side and back release surfaces. Copyright 2009 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association.

  6. Statistical Lineament Analysis in South Greenland Based on Landsat Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Knut; Nilsson, Gert; Thyrsted, Tage

    1986-01-01

    showing the density of linear features for each of the ten classes indicate that many of the classes are distributed in zones defined by elongate maxima or rows of maxima. In cases where the elongate maxima and the linear feature direction of the class in question are parallel, a zone of major crustal...... discontinuity is inferred. In the area investigated, such zones coincide with geochemical boundaries and graben structures, and the intersections of some zones seem to control intrusion sites. In cases where there is no parallelism between the elongate maxima and the linear feature direction, an en echelon...

  7. Martian lineaments from Mariner 6 and 7 photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.; Ingerson, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    Mariner 6 and 7 photographs were used to investigate the nature and importance of linear surface trends on Mars. Cross correlations of frequency-azimuth distributions of linear trends from different Mariner frames indicate that lineations not recognized as topographic features have a component of pseudoforms, probably introduced during digital reconstruction of the pictures. Similar statistical tests may aid in the analysis of surface trends from future satellites and space probes. The most reliable data were separated into photometrically defined provinces. Meridiani Sinus and Margaritifer Sinus display five major trends in common, which are interpreted as extensions of crustal weaknesses related to the enormous equatorial canyon revealed in Mariner 6 and 9 pictures. Alignments of crater wall segments generally match these trends and suggest structural control of crater plan. Crater chains, however, do not match these trends and are interpreted as secondary impacts. Rose diagrams of lineations in Deucalionis Regio exhibit much more complexity and are believed to reflect a better preserved or more complex geologic history.

  8. lineament studies of rocks in omifunfun area, southwestern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Omifunfun area is situated in the southern part of Ife-Ilesa Schist Belt of the basement complex of ... The dominant one strikes in the same direction with the same Ifewara mylonitic foliation. ... fractures (joints and faults), drainage, road network,.

  9. Origin of the Easter Submarine Alignment: morphology and structural lineaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter submarine alignment corresponds to a sequence of seamounts and oceanic islands which runs from the Ahu-Umu volcanic fields in the west to its intersection with the Nazca Ridge in the east, with a total length of about 2.900 km and a strike of N85°E. Recent bathymetric compilations that include combined satellite derived and shipboard data (Global Topography and multibeam bathymetric data (from NGDC-NOAA are interpreted both qualitatively and quantitatively by using a morphological analysis, which was comprised of the determination of bathymetric patterns, trends in lineations and structures; height measurements, computation of basal areas and volumes of seamounts, in order to establish clues on the origin of this seamount chain and to establish relationships with the regional tectonics. In the study region 514 seamounts were counted, of which 334 had a basal area less than the reference seamount (Moai. In general, the largest seamounts (>1000 m in height tend to align and to have a larger volume, with an elongation of their bases along the seamount chain. On the other hand, smaller seamounts tend to be distributed more randomly with more circular bases. As a consequence of the morphological analysis, the best possible mechanism that explains the origin of the seamount chain is the existence of a localized hotspot to the west of the Salas y Gómez Island. The corresponding plume would contribute additional magmatic material towards the East Pacific Rise through canalizations, whose secondary branches would feed intermediate volcanoes. It is possible that within the Easter Island region there would be another minor contribution through fractures in the crust, due to the crustal weakening that was produced by the Easter Fracture Zone.

  10. Lineament analysis of South Jenein Area (Southern Tunisia using remote sensing data and geographic information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochdi Chaabouni

    2012-12-01

    The results will be compared with the surface data in the Mesozoic series of the Tataouine basin and the subsurface data of the northern border of the Palaeozoic Ghadames basin. The fracture measurements and their distribution provided a good opportunity to characterize the petroleum reservoir in this area.

  11. Delineation of structural lineaments from marine magnetic anomalies off Jonnalakonda, East Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Rao, T.C.S.; Rao, D.G.

    to charnockitic bodies occurring at shallow depth around 0.37 to 0.4 km and (2) the high frequency and amplitude anomalies near to the coast are trending north west-south east direction. The well developed magnetic anomaly is interpreted following automated Werner...

  12. Magnetic expression of some major lineaments and cretaceous quiet zone in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Rao, M.M.M.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Rao, T.C.S.

    anomaly due to the 85¡E ridge abutting the continental shelf of Chilka Lake in ECMI. Studies by Mukhopadhyay and Krishna (1992) and Murthy et al. (1993) indicate that the landward limit of this quite zone is bounded by the COB at the foot...

  13. Structural lineaments from the magnetic anomaly maps of the eastern continental margin of India (ECMI) and NW Bengal Fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.; Subrahmanyam, A; Rao, M.M.M.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    extension of 85 degrees E ridge, abutting the continental shelf off Chilka Lake and (3) trend 3, locted over the continental shelf/slope between Visakhapatnm and Paradip represents a folded (ridges and depressions) nature of the continental basement...

  14. Structural analysis and Miocene-to-Present tectonic evolution of a lithospheric-scale, transcurrent lineament: The Sciacca Fault (Sicilian Channel, Central Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorik, Jakub; Toscani, Giovanni; Lodolo, Emanuele; Civile, Dario; Bonini, Lorenzo; Seno, Silvio

    2018-01-01

    Seismo-stratigraphic and structural analysis of a large number of multichannel seismic reflection profiles acquired in the northern part of the Sicilian Channel allowed a 3-D reconstruction of a regional NS-trending transfer zone which displays a transcurrent tectonic regime, and that is of broad relevance for its seismotectonic and geodynamic implications. It is constituted of two major transcurrent faults delimiting a 30-km-wide, mostly undeformed basin. The western fault (Capo Granitola) does not show clear evidence of present-day tectonic activity, and toward the south it is connected with the volcanic area of the Graham Bank. The eastern fault (Sciacca) is structurally more complex, showing active deformation at the sea-floor, particularly evident along the Nerita Bank. The Sciacca Fault is constituted of a master and splay faults compatible with a right-lateral kinematics. Sciacca Fault is superimposed on an inherited weakness zone (a Mesozoic carbonate ramp), which borders to the east a 2.5-km-thick Plio-Quaternary basin, and that was reactivated during the Pliocene. A set of scaled claybox analogue models was carried out in order to better understand the tectonic processes that led to the structural setting displayed by seismic data. Tectonic structures and uplift/subsidence patterns generated by the models are compatible with the 3-D model obtained from seismic reflection profiles. The best fit between the tectonic setting deriving from the interpretation of seismic profiles and the analogue models was obtained considering a right-lateral movement for the Sciacca Fault. Nevertheless, the stress field in the study area derived from GPS measurements does not support the present-day modelled right-lateral kinematics along the Sciacca Fault. Moreover, seismic events along this fault show focal mechanisms with a left-lateral component. We ascribe the slip change along the Sciacca Fault, from a right-lateral transcurrent regime to the present-day left-lateral kinematics to a change of principal horizontal stress direction starting from Late Pliocene.

  15. Solution phase photophysics of 5,7-dimethoxy-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-1-one: Analysing the lineaments of a new fluorosensor to probe different micro-environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Amrit Krishna [Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata 700073 (India); Ghosh, Sujay; Sau, Abhishek [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Saha, Chandan [Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata 700073 (India); Basu, Samita, E-mail: samita.basu@saha.ac.in [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2015-11-15

    We present here a detailed photophysical study of a newly synthesised fluorophore 5,7-dimethoxy-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-1-one (KTHC-57). Spectroscopic investigation of the compound has been carried out in 14 different protic and aprotic solvents, as well as in different binary solvent mixtures, using absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The spectral behaviour of this compound is found to be extremely sensitive to the polarity and hydrogen bonding nature of the solvent. When considered in micelles, reverse micelles and β-cyclodextrin, KTHC-57 behaves as a reporter of its immediate microenvironment. Extent of hypsochromic shift varies as we move from cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (~40 nm) to anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (~23 nm) to non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (~37 nm). In case of anionic reverse micellar nanocavities composed of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/heptane with increasing water contents, a bathochromic shift of ~50 nm is observed. A quantitative assessment of the emission intensity data on Benesi–Hildebrand equation reveals a 1:1 stoichiometry for KTHC-57:β-CD complex. Triethylamine (TEA) is a simple aliphatic organic molecule that interacts with KTHC-57 in polar aprotic medium. Within β-CD environment, fluorescence quenching takes place along with a bathochromic shift. Interaction of (TEA) with KTHC-57 in β-CD nano-confinement is studied using absorption spectroscopy, steady-state as well as time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and laser flash photolysis in conjunction with an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • Excited state properties of KTHC-57 vary with its H-bonding environment. • KTHC-57 interacts differently in various microheterogeneous environments. • Benesi–Hildebrand equation reveals a 1:1 stoichiometry for KTHC-57:β-CD complex. • Organic base TEA quench KTHC-57 fluorescence in polar aprotic solvents. • PET takes place from TEA to KTHC-57 in β-CD confinement.

  16. Balogun et al (9)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Although, shallow crustal lineaments could not be mapped due to the resolution of the data. (5' x 5' grid), good solution clusters of mid-range and deeper lineaments were obtained. The Euler .... system for compatibility with the processing.

  17. a preliminary assessment for groundwater in a part of north central

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olabanji

    employed in lineament studies primarily due to cost and limited spectral resolution ... of the electromagnetic spectrum (Drury and Andrews-. Deller, 2002). This fact is .... with a total of 188 lineaments, and accounting for about. 14% of the total ...

  18. Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report. Appendices E through H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L.; McBride, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    These appendices include: a folio of maps showing lineaments perceived across the state; an index and critique of the Landsat images used in perceiving the lineaments; a selected bibliography on lineaments; and a discussion of area-specific assessments of geothermal resources near military bases in Bexar, Travis, and Val Verde Counties. (MHR)

  19. Expression of San Andreas fault on Seasat radar image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Blom, R.; Elachi, C.

    1980-01-01

    A Seasat image (23.5 cm wavelength) of the Durmid Hills in southern California, the San Andreas Fault was analyzed. It is shown that a prominent southeast trending tonal lineament exists that is bright on the southwest side and dark on the northeast side. The cause of the contrasting signatures on opposite sides of the lineament was determined and the geologic signficance of the lineament was evaluated.

  20. Evaulation of remote sensing, geological and geophysical data for south-central New York and northern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Pohn, H.A.; Phillips, J.D.; Krohn, M.D.; Purdy, T.L.; Merin, I.S.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made of the relationship between lineaments observed on Landsat satellite images and the geologic framework of a portion of the Allegheny Plateau of south-central New York and northern Pennsylvania. The area is underlain by a relatively thick sequence of salt and other evaporites in the Silurian Salina Group and is a potential site for deep-storage of solid nuclear waste. A combination of remote sensing techniques, detailed geologic mapping and geophysical investigations were applied to the problem. Because of the premature termination of the Department of Energy contract, only a portion of the total work was completed. The completed portion of the project included 1) digital contrast enhancement of several Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images, 2) analysis of lineament patterns from a Landsat MSS-7 mosaic, 3) field mapping of bedrock joint patterns, 4) compilation and analysis of surface and subsurface structure and isopach maps, 5) collection and digital analysis of aeromagnetic data for southern New York, 6) compilation and analysis of aeromagnetic and gravity data for much of New York and Pennsylvania, and 7) analysis of seismic reflection survey lines for selected portions of New York and Pennsylvania. We identified eight major lineaments or lineament zones and studied them in detail. They typically represent linear alignments of the most conspicuous or prominent physiographic features observable on Landsat images. The Cortland-Ithaca, Watkins Glen-Tanghannock, Seneca Lake-Elmira, Painted Post-Blossburg and Endicott-Syracuse conspicuous lineaments include the Corning-Bath, Van Etten-Towanda, Van Etten-Candor and Van Etten-Odessa lineaments. In addition, a major fault system--the West Danby fault zone--was further defined by geologic and geophysical investigations during our study; the fault zone was not recognizable on satellite images. The lineaments and lineament zones were categorized by their azimuthal trends. Those with a northerly

  1. Regional analysis of Landsat data concerning unconformity-vein uranium deposits, Pine Creek Geosyncline, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raines, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Linear features mapped from enhanced Landsat images in zones defining lineaments trending northeast and east-northeast across the uranium area of northern Australia. A model using Landsat data to select areas for uranium exploration is proposed, based on the observed spatial relation of uranium deposits and the newly defined major lineaments

  2. Tectonic reorganization in the Indian Ocean: Evidences from seafloor crenulations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kessarkar, P.M.

    these lineaments, oriented in N-S, NW-SE and E-W directions, vary in time and space. A sharp change in nature and orientation of these seafloor lineaments, as well as of magnetic anomalies, occurs along 73~'E long., which appears to act as contact between older...

  3. Paleobasin analysis and tectonic framework development of southern Zagros basin, interpreted from Landsat 4 thematic mapper image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranpanah, A.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed lineament maps produced with the digitally enhanced Landsat 4 thematic mapper in conjunction with field data provide new information on structural relations to the southern Zagros basin. Three major parallel lineaments are from north to south, Qatar-Kazern, Razak, and Oman. These lineaments trend approximately N17/sup 0/E and subdivide the Zagros basin into northern, central, and southern segments. The study area is enclosed by the Razak and Oman lineaments. Piercement salt domes (Precambrian salt) are abundant within the southern Zagros basin, absent east of the Oman lineament, and scarce in the area west of the Razak lineament. This salt dome distribution and the N17/sup 0/E trend suggest that these lineaments are surface manifestations of boundaries of basement crustal blocks that have been reactivated periodically since the Precambrian. The northern extension of this Precambrian basin is marked by salt domes (Precambrian salt) along the Oman lineament, located in the Kerman region 400 km north of Minab. Along the eastern boundary, at the juncture of the southern Zagros basin and western Makran Ranges, the trend of fold axes changes from east-west to north-south. The western basin boundary is characterized by a gradual change in the trend of the fold axis from east-west to northwest-southeast. This study provides useful information for subsurface interpretations, which will benefit hydrocarbon exploration. The Razak and Oman lineaments enclose a highly productive area, and separate the southern Zagros basin from less productive areas to the west and from a nonproductive region to the east where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that lineaments may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of the southern Zagros basin.

  4. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Detection and analysis of fracture systems can be more effectively conducted utilizing snow cover as an enhancement tool. From analysis within the Great Barrington Test Site it appears that the use of aeromagnetic data effectively supplements lineament data acquired using ERTS imagery. Coincidence of lineaments derived from aeromagnetics with lineaments interpreted from ERTS imagery apparently indicate the presence of mineralized fracture systems and dikes. Utilizing both tools can increase the speed and efficiency of mineral exploration and geological mapping in areas where bedrock is obscured by a thick unconsolidated sediment cover.

  5. Fault offsets and lateral crustal movement on Europa - Evidence for a mobile ice shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, P.M.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    An examination is conducted of Europa's cross-cutting structural relationships between various lineament types, in order to constrain the type of structure involved in each such case and, where possible, to also constrain the degree of extension across the lineaments. Evidence is adduced for significant lateral crustal movement, allowing alternative models and mechanisms for lineament formation to be discussed, as well as plausible lithospheric and crustal models. The question as to whether any of the water-ice layer has been, or currently is, liquid, is also treated in light of the evidence obtained. 53 refs

  6. an integrated exploration technique for groundwater on a part of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEYWORDS: Electrical resistivity, Groundwater, Remote sensing, Landsat TM, Lineament, Yields. INTRODUCTION ... Hence, it is in view of the quest for potable and sufficient amount of water in Akure .... and spectral enhancement techniques.

  7. International trade and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada L, Luis Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Topics are presented as economic theory and theory of the international trade, international dimension of the environmental problems, economic prosperity, environmental quality and lineament are given for an alternative, among others

  8. GIS and SBF for estimating groundwater recharge of a mountainous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    was used to integrate five contributing factors: lithology, land cover/land use, lineaments, drainage, and slope. ... cultural regions, where groundwater consumption ..... network helps assess the characteristics of a ..... The development ...

  9. The Evil Twin of Agenor: More Evidence for Tectonic Convergence on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R.; Hurford, T.

    2003-03-01

    Reconstruction along a lineament similar to Agenor, but located diametrically opposite, indicates it is a convergence site, confirming hypotheses that similar features elsewhere formed that way and helping solve the surface-area budget problem.

  10. SEISMOTECTONICS OF ZIMBABWE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: seismicity, seismic energy, hazard potential, fault lineaments. INTRODUCTION .... the South Africa and Mozambique seismograph network. Data from these ... SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF EARTHQUAKES. All 3980 events in the ...

  11. A two-stage evolution of Visakhapatnam-Paradip Shelf, east coast of India, from magnetic studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.; Rao, M.M.M.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Venkateswarlu, K.

    A detailed analysis of bathymetry and magnetic data of Visakhapatnam-Paradip shelf, east coast of India revealed three major structural lineaments over the shelf/slope of the area. Models derived from the anomalies associated with the trends...

  12. Akinwumiju et al (14)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    SPOT .... Geo-database Creation, Spatial Modeling, Vectorization, Spatial Data ... Reconnaissance Vehicle (UAV), missiles and .... direction (D8) hydrological flow model ..... Thesis. University of. Ibadan. Greenbaum, D. 1987. Lineament Studies in.

  13. Offshore structural trends from magnetic data over Cauvery Basin, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Chandrasekhar, D.V.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.

    been interpreted as due to dyke intrusions. NE-SW lineament reflects the offshore extension of a major basement depression, viz, the Pondicherry depression. E-W lineation, south of Proto Novo reveals a basement high suggesting the seaward extension...

  14. Growth constraints of the Indian Ocean seamounts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Khadge, N.H.

    lineaments and is infested with about 800 seamounts of various height ranging from 50 m to 1250 m. Statistical analysis suggests that summit height, flatness and volume primarily control shape of seamounts. The remarkable similarity in distribution, flow line...

  15. Regional tectonic trends on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    Satellite imagery and offshore magnetic data were analysed to correlate regional tectonic elements on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and the adjacent Deccan plateau. Three statistically important lineament trends N-S, WNW-ESE and ENE...

  16. Analysis of the influence of tectonics on the evolution of valley networks based on SRTM DEM, Jemma River basin, Ethiopia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kusák, Michal; Kropáček, J.; Vilímek, V.; Schillaci, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2016), 37-50 ISSN 1724-4757 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : valley network * tectonic lineaments * Jemma River basin * Ethiopian Highlands Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  17. Appraisal of the Causes of Pavement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pavement failure) or structural (deep-seated pavement failure). ... is primarily due to shallow groundwater level. Adewole et al. ... processing and interpretation of Landsat-7 ETM+ images covering the study area and it's environ for lineaments.

  18. and three-dimensional gravity modeling along western continental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    weaknesses (lineaments) along the path of Indian plate motion over the Réunion hotspot. .... Tectonic map of western and central parts of peninsular India showing the western continental ... basaltic layers and their theoretical gravitational.

  19. Use of space photography data in oil and gas prospecting in the Sylvan Basin of the Cisural trough. K ispol'zovaniyu dannykh kosmicheskoy s''yemki pri neftegazopoiskovykh rabotakh na territorii sylvenskoy vpadiny Predural'skogo progiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogatyreva, O.A.; Il' inykh, Yu.A.; Kalabin, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    As a result of interpreting space photographs, lineaments were revealed of a regional nature of northwest, northeast, sublatitudinal and submeridional directions. Individual large lineaments which were active recently correspond to faults of the latest activation belonging to deep structures. Statistical processing of the data of their extent established the main and secondary systems, and among them the screening and intersecting pools. Analysis of the arrangement of oil and gas fields, directions of lineaments and motion of groundwater made it possible to establish five main hydrodynamic types of pools, four of which belong to displaced groundwater. In selecting the direction for prospecting for oil and gas in order to determine efficient arrangement of wells, it is recommended that orientation of the promising systems of lineaments and motion of groundwater be taken into consideration.

  20. Mineral exploration with ERTS imagery. [Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolais, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Ten potential target areas for metallic mineral exploration were selected on the basis of a photo-lineament interpretation of the ERTS image 1172-17141 in central Colorado. An evaluation of bias indicated that prior geologic knowledge of the region had little, if any, effect on target selection. In addition, a contoured plot of the frequency of photo-lineament intersections was made to determine what relationships exist between the photo-lineaments and mineral districts. Comparison of this plot with a plot of the mineral districts indicates that areas with a high frequency of intersections commonly coincide with known mineral districts. The results of this experiment suggest that photo-lineaments are fractures or fracture-controlled features, and their distribution may be a guide to metallic mineral deposits in Colorado, and probably other areas as well.

  1. Report on geologic remote sensing of the Columbia Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Kimball, C.S.; Schmierer, K.E.; Lindberg, J.W.

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this remote sensing study is to identify faults or other geologic features which may have a significant bearing on the structural and tectonic character of the Hanford Site and the surrounding region. Landsat imagery, Skylab photographs, and U-2 photographs were analyzed to identify and map geologic photolineaments in the Columbia Plateau. The Landsat and Skylab imagery provided a regional perspective and allowed the identification of large-scale linear features. The U-2 photography provided much greater spatial resolution as well as a stereoscopic viewing capability. This allowed identification of smaller structural or geologic features and the identification of many cultural and nongeologic lineaments detected in the Landsat and Skylab imagery. The area studied totals, approximately 85,000 square miles, and encompasses virtually all exposures of Columbia River Basalt in the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. It also includes an area bordering the Columbia River Basalt outcrop. This border area was studied in order to identify significant structures that may extend into the plateau. Included are a description of the procedures used for image analysis, 20 lineament maps at a scale of 1:250,000, geological summaries for the areas covered by the lineament maps, and discussions of many of the lineaments shown on the maps. Comparisons of the lineament maps with available geologic maps showed that the number of detected lineaments was much greater than the number of known faults and other linear features. Approximately 70% of the faults shown on the geologic maps were detected and are characterized as lineaments. Lineament trends in the northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest directions were found to predominate throughout the study area

  2. Crustal structure across the Møre margin, mid-Norway, from wide-angle seismic and gravity data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvarven, Trond; Ebbing, Jörg; Mjelde, R.

    2014-01-01

    The Møre Margin in the NE Atlantic represents a dominantly passive margin with an unusual abrupt transition from alpine morphology onshore to a deep sedimentary basin offshore. In order to study this transition in detail, three ocean bottom seismometer profiles with deep seismic reflection and re...... by the Jan Mayen Lineament, suggesting that the lineament represents a pre-Caledonian structural feature in the basement....

  3. Mapping and analysis of geological fractures extracted by remote sensing on Landsat TM images, example of the Imilchil-Tounfite area (Central High Atlas, Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaoui, H. El; Moujahid, El; Ibouh, H.; Bachnou, A.; Babram, M. Ait; Harti, A. EI

    2016-07-01

    The use of remote sensing, in this research, can be summarized in mapping and statistical studies of lineaments on the satellites images of the Jurassic outcrops in the Imilchil-Tounfite area, Central High Atlas of Morocco. This is to apply various manual techniques for extracting lineaments from Landsat TM image. Analytical techniques used in this work are: the principal component analysis (PCA) applied to selective bands of the visible and infrared, which allows creating new images with better visual interpretation. Directional filters N0°, N45°, N90°, and N135° with a 5×5 matrix were used to enhance lineaments in the corresponding perpendicular directions, and therefore to obtain a good discrimination of those structures. Preliminary results highlight a dominant geological fracturing trending ENE/WSW with 52% of the total lineaments, a second fracture trending is WNW/ESE at 23%, a third fracture series trending NE/SW with 20% and finally, a minor series of fractures trending NW/SE with 5% of the total lineaments. Distribution and statistical relationship, between fractures and the affected surface on the one hand and the fracture length on the other hand, shows a network of well-structured fractures. The final lineament map constitutes a contribution to complete the geology and assisting the mining and hydrogeological prospection, in the Imilchil-Tounfite area. (Author)

  4. Structural analysis of the central Columbia Plateau utilizing radar, digital topography, and magnetic data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.; Johnson, L.K.; Brougher, C.W.

    1991-08-01

    Interest in the Hanford site (Washington) as a nuclear production, power, and waste disposal site has led to generation of a vast quantity of geophysical and remote sensing data sets of the central Columbia Plateau. To data, these various studies, including at least 13 independent magnetic linear and image lineament studies, have not been adequately correlated. Therefore, these studies provide a unique opportunity to compare and contrast the viability of the different geophysical and remote sensing techniques. The geology of the central Columbia Plateau is characterized by subdued topography and limited outcrop, with most of the exposure concentrated in localized folded/faulted mountains (the Yakima folds) and along river canyons. In order to efficiently compare lineament data bases, we have written an automated computer routine that correlated lineaments that are within a user specified distance of each other. The angle between their trends has to be less than an input maximum separation angle. If more than two lineament maps exist for the area, the analyst may also specify the minimum number of times each structure must be seen. The lineament correlation routine was applied to data bases of all aeromagnetic linears as well as lineaments seen on radar and a digital elevation model DEM image. Geologic structures align with a set of three-dimensional planar structures identified with our Geologic Spatial Analysis (GSA) system. The GSA analysis is based upon computer automated detection of valley bottoms as defined by a DEM

  5. Newly discovered geological features and their potential impact on Darlington and Pickering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallach, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Newly available information reveals the presence of a prominent north-northeast oriented aeromagnetic lineament and east-northeast trending, linear patterns in young sediments on the bottom of Lake Ontario. The magnetic lineament, named the Niagara-Pickering Magnetic Lineament, passes practically beneath the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (8x1600 MW reactors), and about 30 km west of the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (4x2800 MW reactors). Magnetic data suggest that the Niagara-Pickering Magnetic Lineament may be the signature of a fault and may connect with the Akron Magnetic Boundary in Ohio, with which several earthquakes appear to be associated. Geological data lend support to the fault hypothesis. A north-northwest trending belt of earthquake epicenters, which includes the Lockport, NY earthquake (est M=5.0) and the Attica, NY earthquake (M=5.8), lies just east of, and parallels, the entire length of Georgian Bay en route to Attica, New York. The proximity and parallelism of the Georgian Bay Linear Zone to this belt of earthquake epicenters implies that the Georgian Bay Linear Zone may be tectonically active. The Georgian Bay Linear Zone and the Niagara-Pickering Magnetic Lineament appear to intersect very near Pickering and within about 30 km from Darlington. This, combined with evidence of high horizontal stresses in the area and the implication that both lineaments may be seismically active, suggests that many of the ingredients necessary for an earthquake of at least M=5.0 to M=6.25 exist near both Darlington and Pickering. Therefore, it is necessary that the Niagara-Pickering Magnetic Lineament, the Georgian Bay Linear Zone and the other newly discovered structural features be properly evaluated in order to determine whether or not the current Design Basis Seismic Ground Motions for Darlington and Pickering are adequate

  6. Study of temporal sequences of LANSAT images to detect the accumulation of stress prior of strong earthquakes in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    We studied the temporal evolution of the lineaments obtained from the LANSAT-8 associated to the accumulation of stress patterns related to the seismic activity. A lineament is generally defined as a straight or a somewhat curved feature in the landscape visible in a satellite image as an aligned sequence of pixels of a contrasting intensity compared to the background. The system of lineaments extracted from the satellite images is not identical to the geological lineaments; nevertheless, it generally reflects the structure of the faults and fractures in the Earth's crust. The satellite images were processed by the ADALGEO software developed by us. We selected two areas of study with different characteristics. The first area is located near to the Diego de Almagro town in the Copiapo region, Chile. This area did not show any strong seismic activity between 2010 and 2015. However, two strong earthquakes took place later on April 16, 2016 (Mw=5.3) and July 25, 2016 (Mw=6.1). The second area located near the Illapel town in Coquimbo region shows lack of strong earthquakes between 2010 and 2012 and strong seismic activity between 2012 and 2015, culminating by the September 16, 2015 earthquake (Mw=8.3). The distance between two areas is nearly 600 km. In case of the Diego de Almagro area, very few lineaments have been observed between 2010 and 2015, showing a significant increase during the 2016. In case of the Illapel region, the number of lineaments was always much higher, showing an explosive increase at the end of 2015. For both areas the lineaments changed its orientation before strong earthquakes.

  7. Use of high-resolution satellite images for detection of geological structures related to Central Andes geothermal field, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Rivas, C. L.; Soto-Pinto, C. A.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the LANDSAT 8 satellite have been used to delineate the geological structures related to the potential geothermal reservoirs located at the northern end of the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile. It was done by applying the lineament extraction technique, using the ADALGEO software, developed by [Soto et al., 2013]. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the field. It was found that the lineament density increases in the areas of the major heat flux indicating that the lineament analysis could be a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields. A lineament is generally defined as a straight or slightly curved feature in the landscape visible satellite image as an aligned sequence of pixel intensity contrast compared to the background. The system features extracted from satellite images is not identical to the geological lineaments that are generally determined by ground surveys, however, generally reflects the structure of faults and fractures in the crust. A temporal sequence of eight Landsat multispectral images of Central Andes geothermal field, located in VI region de Chile, was used to study changes in the configuration of the lineaments during 2011. The presence of minerals with silicification, epidotization, and albitization, which are typical for geothrmal reservoirs, was also identified, using their spectral characteristics, and subsequently corroborated in the field. Both lineament analysis and spectral analysis gave similar location of the reservoir, which increases reliability of the results.

  8. Development of a technique for long-term detection of precursors of strong earthquakes using high-resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pinto, C. A.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Ouzounov, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Among a variety of processes involved in seismic activity, the principal process is the accumulation and relaxation of stress in the crust, which takes place at the depth of tens of kilometers. While the Earth's surface bears at most the indirect sings of the accumulation and relaxation of the crust stress, it has long been understood that there is a strong correspondence between the structure of the underlying crust and the landscape. We assume the structure of the lineaments reflects an internal structure of the Earth's crust, and the variation of the lineament number and arrangement reflects the changes in the stress patterns related to the seismic activity. Contrary to the existing assumptions that lineament structure changes only at the geological timescale, we have found that the much faster seismic activity strongly affects the system of lineaments extracted from the high-resolution multispectral satellite images. Previous studies have shown that accumulation of the stress in the crust previous to a strong earthquake is directly related to the number increment and preferential orientation of lineament configuration present in the satellite images of epicenter zones. This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude and can be observed approximately since one month before. To study in details this effect we have developed a software based on a series of algorithms for automatic detection of lineaments. It was found that the Hough transform implemented after the application of discontinuity detection mechanisms like Canny edge detector or directional filters is the most robust technique for detection and characterization of changes in the lineament patterns related to strong earthquakes, which can be used as a robust long-term precursor of earthquakes indicating regions of strong stress accumulation.

  9. Comparison Between Topographic Expression of RADARSAT and DEM in Simpang Pulai to Pos Selim, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.Ramli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar and digital elevation model had been utilised in many structural studies. The main objective of this study is to compare the RADARSAT and digital elevation model for lineament interpretation which probably represent the main joints or faults along the Simpang Pulai to Pos Selim highway, Malaysia. These joints and faults may influence the instability along the highway. Manual comparison in terms of topographical aspect was undertaken between RADARSAT with 25 m spatial resolution and digital elevation model derived from 20 m contour interval of the topographical map. The previously interpreted lineaments of more than 2 km in the study area was draped over the RADARSAT and digital elevation model to compared whether the lineament concurred with the topographical representation. The interpreted lineaments were derived from Landsat TM of 1990 and 2002, where the DEM had been utilised in the negative lineament determination. It is concluded that the application RADARSAT is not very useful in terms of topographical expression in the structural geological interpretation for the study area compared to DEM derived from contour data. Further work is suggested before any conclusion can be confidently derived.

  10. Recognition of a porphyry system using ASTER data in Bideghan - Qom province (central of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, F.; Mansouri, E.

    2014-07-01

    The Bideghan area is located south of the Qom province (central of Iran). The most impressive geological features in the studied area are the Eocene sequences which are intruded by volcanic rocks with basic compositions. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image processing have been used for hydrothermal alteration mapping and lineaments identification in the investigated area. In this research false color composite, band ratio, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Least Square Fit (LS-Fit) and Spectral Angel Mapping (SAM) techniques were applied on ASTER data and argillic, phyllic, Iron oxide and propylitic alteration zones were separated. Lineaments were identified by aid of false color composite, high pass filters and hill-shade DEM techniques. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing method and ASTER multi-spectral data for alteration and lineament mapping. Finally, the results were confirmed by field investigation.

  11. A geological survey of the Lac du Bonnet batholith, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrank, G.F.D.

    1985-02-01

    This report presents the results of a geological survey of the Lac du Bonnet batholith in Manitoba. The survey consisted of field mapping of the lithologies and the joint systems throughout the batholith, and the examination of lineaments identified on aerial photographs and Landsat imagery. Petrographic descriptions and a map of the lithologies, an analysis of the fracture systems and a lineament map are presented. The results of various regional geophysical surveys were used as an aid to the interpretation of the batholith's contacts and in the interpretation of lineaments as possible faults. A comparison of the Lac du Bonnet Batholith with the Eye-Dashwa Lakes Pluton near Atikokan, Ontario is also presented

  12. A remote sensing evaluation of potential for sinkhole occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, J.; Ruth, B.; Degner, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between lowering of the water table and sinkhole development in Pierson and in Hillsborough County, Florida was investigated. The locations of recently developed (1973) collapses were examined with respect to lineaments or fracture traces that are expressed in the terrain and visible in aerial photography and satellite imagery. It was anticipated that these relationships would provide the basis for establishment of criteria for mapping those land areas that have the greatest potential for sinkhole development. A very good correlation was found between mapped lineament intersections and known location of sinkhole occurrences for both study areas. This indicates that lineament and fracture trace mapping may be very useful in locating zones with the greatest potential for sinkhole development. It is further shown that this information is quite beneficial in land use planning applications.

  13. Use of high-resolution satellite images for detection of geological structures related to Calerias geothermal field, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Urzua, L.

    2011-12-01

    Chile has enormous potential to use the geothermal resources for electric energy generation. The main geothermal fields are located in the Central Andean Volcanic Chain in the North, between the Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the LANDSAT and ASTER satellites have been used to delineate the geological structures related to the Calerias geothermal field located at the northern end of the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile. It was done by applying the lineament extraction technique developed by authors. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the field. It was found that the lineament density increases in the areas of the major heat flux indicating that the lineament analysis could be a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields.

  14. Structural mapping from MSS-LANDSAT imagery: A proposed methodology for international geological correlation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Crepani, E.; Martini, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for international geological correlation studies based on LANDSAT-MSS imagery, Bullard's model of continental fit and compatible structural trends between Northeast Brazil and the West African counterpart. Six extensive lineaments in the Brazilian study area are mapped and discussed according to their regional behavior and in relation to the adjacent continental margin. Among the first conclusions, correlations were found between the Sobral Pedro II Lineament and the megafaults that surround the West African craton; and the Pernambuco Lineament with the Ngaurandere Linemanet in Cameroon. Ongoing research to complete the methodological stages includes the mapping of the West African structural framework, reconstruction of the pre-drift puzzle, and an analysis of the counterpart correlations.

  15. GOLD MINERAL PROSPECTING USING PHASED ARRAY TYPE L-BAND SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (PALSAR SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING DATA, CENTRAL GOLD BELT, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ of Peninsular Malaysia is one of the significant structural zones in Sundaland, Southeast Asia. It forms the boundary between the Gondwana-derived Sibumasu terrane in the west and Sukhothai arc in the east. The BRSZ is also genetically related to the sediment-hosted/orogenic gold deposits associated with the major lineaments and form-lines in the central gold belt Central Gold Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. In tropical environments, heavy tropical rainforest and intense weathering makes it impossible to map geological structures over long distances. Advances in remote sensing technology allow the application of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data in geological structural analysis for tropical environments. In this investigation, the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR satellite remote sensing data were used to analyse major geological structures in Peninsular Malaysia and provide detailed characterization of lineaments and form-lines in the BRSZ, as well as its implication for sediment-hosted/orogenic gold exploration in tropical environments. The major geological structure directions of the BRSZ are N-S, NNE-SSW, NE-SW and NW-SE, which derived from directional filtering analysis to PALSAR data. The pervasive array of N-S faults in the study area and surrounding terrain is mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Suture Zone. N-S striking lineaments are often cut by younger NE-SW and NW-SE-trending lineaments. Gold mineralized trends lineaments are associated with the intersection of N-S, NE-SW, NNW-SSE and ESE-WNW faults and curvilinear features in shearing and alteration zones. Lineament analysis on PALSAR satellite remote sensing data is a useful tool for detecting the boundary between the Gondwana-derived terranes and major geological features associated with suture zone especially for large inaccessible regions in tropical environments.

  16. Geomorphological and geological property of short active fault in fore-arc region of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshinori; Inoue, Daiei; Ueta, Keiichi; Miyakoshi, Katsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The important issue in the earthquake magnitude evaluation method is the classification of short active faults or lineaments. It is necessary to determine the type of active fault to be included in the earthquake magnitude evaluation. The particular group of fault is the surface earthquake faults that are presumed to be branched faults of large interplate earthquakes in subduction zones. We have classified short lineaments in two fore-arc regions of Japan through geological and geomorphological methods based on field survey and aerial photograph interpretation. The first survey is conducted at Enmeiji Fault in Boso Peninsula. The fault is known to have been displaced by 1923 Taisho Kanto earthquake. The altitude distributions of marine terrace surfaces are different on both sides of the fault. In other words, this fault has been displaced repeatedly by the large interplate earthquakes in the past. However, the recurrent interval of this fault is far longer than the large interplate earthquake calculated by the slip rate and the displacement per event. The second survey is conducted in the western side of Muroto Peninsula, where several short lineaments are distributed. We have found several fault outcrops along the few, particular lineaments. The faults in the region have similar properties to Enmeiji Fault. On the other hand, short lineaments are found to be structural landforms. The comparison of the two groups enables us to classify the short lineaments based on the geomorphological property and geological cause of these faults. Displacement per event is far larger than displacement deduced from length of the active fault. Recurrence interval of the short active fault is far longer than that of large interplate earthquake. Displacement of the short active fault has cumulative. The earthquake magnitude of the faults have these characters need to be evaluated by the plate boundary fault or the long branched seismogenic fault. (author)

  17. User's Manual Frac-Explore 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, S.A.; Guo, Genliang

    1999-03-09

    FRAC-EXPLORE 2.0, a new computer software package for oil and gas exploration using surface lineament and fracture analysis. FRAC-EXPLORE 2.0 provides a suite of tools for analyzing the characteristics and patterns of surface lineaments and fractures, as well as other surface geological features. These tools help identify priority areas of potential subsurface oil and gas traps. The package can be used in a frontier basin to initially screen the priority locations for further seismic and/or geochemical surveys. It can also be used in a mature basin to help delineate additional oil and gas reservoirs.

  18. Study of the crater deformation of the CODELCO/Andina mine using the satellite and ground data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverlotti-Silva, M. A.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    The correct monitoring of the subsidence of the craters related to the underground mine exploitation is one of the most important endeavors of the satellite remote sensing. The ASTER and LANDSAT satellite images have been used to study the deformation of the crater of the CODELCO/Andina mine, Valparaiso Region, Chile. The high-resolution satellite images were used to detect changes in the lineament patterns related to the subsidence. These results were compared with the ground deformation extracted from the GPS and topography station networks. It was found that sudden changes in the lineament patterns appear when the ground deformation overcomes a definite threshold.

  19. the limits of postfigurative technique in ignazio silone's pane e vino

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    were familiar with the rudimentary lineaments of the story of Jesus or that they were not; ... American postfigurative examples.2 ... Fascism and undergird his vision of social and economic justice. It .... Catholicism, as the official public religion, is omnipresent in Silone's ..... Enduring a crescendo of hardship, she repeatedly.

  20. Evidence of topographic disequilibrium in the Subarnarekha River ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    37

    knickpoints using a digital elevation model and correlating it with the bedrock geology and structural ..... application, allows the generation of a vector layer containing the normalized steepness index. (ksn), for each ..... Abdullah S N, Abdoh Ghaleeb A 2013 Landsat ETM-7 for lineament mapping using automatic extraction ...

  1. Solar illumination geometry and its influence on the observance of geological structures in orbital imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Eduardo; Liu, Chan Chiang

    1991-04-01

    The geology of the westernmost part of Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) is characterized by the conspicuous presence of the Alem Paraiba lineament, a large shear zone extending more than 200 km in N50-60E direction. Parts of Paraiba do Sul river and of the regional topography are strongly related to this geologic feature. Several other lineament directions complete the structural framework that can be seen on remote sensing products. According to well accepted theories of photointerpretation, LANDSAT images with low sun elevation angles should more clearly show those lineaments, because the shadow enhancement of the relief is greatest. Also, considering the high grade of relief conditionment by the Alem Paraiba lineament, it is expected that this structure could be clearly observed on LANDSAT images of all seasons. However, these hypotheses are not confirmed. The images with low sun elevation angles belong to the epoch (winter) in which the solar azimuths are nearly parallel to the regional structure, making its identification difficult. In summer, the images have high sun elevation angles but their solar azimuths, oblique to the regional structures, allow an adequate identification of the main structural trend.

  2. GIS-based integrated groundwater potential assessment of Osun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topographic parameters including surface curvatures, slope and elevation were derived from SPOT DEM and used to generate landform and relief maps for the study area. Spatial Analysis Module of ArcGIS 10.3 software was used to generate lineament proximity, hydrolineament density and drainage density maps for the ...

  3. Crustal thickness mapping in Raipur–Katni area of Narmada–Son ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Narmada–Son lineament (NSL) is one of the most prominent tectonic features which divides the .... fault at Red Sea area (Bhattacharjee and Koide. 1978). The Son and .... relationship between SI and number of infinite dimension of the ...

  4. Study of the epicentral trends and depth sections for aftershocks of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    2001-01-26

    Jan 26, 2001 ... war trend and ENE-WSW Satpura trend as shown in figure 1. The NE-SW ... and terminates in the Gulf of Kutch. A few more lineaments along this ..... mitting us to present this paper in the international seminar at New Delhi.

  5. Angular Spectral Analysis and Lowpass Filtering of Aeromagnetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Available online at http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/index ... with the trends of the deep-seated NNW-SSE, NW-SE, NNE-SSW and NE-SW regional lineaments inferred ... processes. ..... of deeper sources, interference and shallow plates.

  6. A GIS based hydrogeomorphic approach for identification of site ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a Geographical Information System (GIS) based hydrogeomorphic approach in the Bhatsa and. Kalu river basins of Thane district, in western DVP. The criteria adopted for the GIS analysis were based .... segments of the rivers. The majority of the lineaments correspond to either dyke ridges or stream channels which are of ...

  7. Geologic facts for priority site selection in the area west of Simpevarp. Reports 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Persson, Lena; Danielsson, Peter; Berglund, Johan; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans

    2003-03-01

    The area west of Simpevarp at Oskarshamn is a candidate site for the Swedish repository for high-level radioactive waste. Since the available information of geologic structures in the area is not very detailed, measurements and interpretation of existing data have been performed in order to find inhomogeneities and local lineaments. Surveys were made air and by geophysical measurements in the field

  8. Geologic facts for priority site selection in the area west of Simpevarp. Reports 1-4; Geologiskt underlag foer val av prioriterad plats inom omraadet vaester om Simpevarp. Delrapport 1-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Persson, Lena [SGU, Uppsala (Sweden); Danielsson, Peter; Berglund, Johan [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-03-01

    The area west of Simpevarp at Oskarshamn is a candidate site for the Swedish repository for high-level radioactive waste. Since the available information of geologic structures in the area is not very detailed, measurements and interpretation of existing data have been performed in order to find inhomogeneities and local lineaments. Surveys were made air and by geophysical measurements in the field.

  9. Deterministic seismic hazard macrozonation of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sesismotectonic map of the study area was prepared by considering the faults, lineaments and the shear zones which are associated with earthquakes of magnitude 4 and above. A new program was developed in MATLAB for smoothing of the point sources. For assessing the seismic hazard, the study area was divided ...

  10. Structural trends and spectral depth analysis of the residual field of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... latitude 8.63N the trend changes again to approximately NE-SW particularly at the southwest fringe of the map. A major lineament depicting the Romanche paleofracture zone was found in the area. The Pategi area has complex magnetic signature. Short to moderately long discontinuities were found in the magnetic map.

  11. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subsequently,the Ganga shifted to its present position and got incised.Near Varanasi,the Ganga river is flowing along a NW –SE tectonic lineament.The migration of Ganga river is believed to have been in response to basin expansion caused due to Himalayan tectonics during Middle Pleistocene times. Multi-storied sand ...

  12. Validation of gravity data from the geopotential field model for subsurface investigation of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (Western Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcel, Jean; Abate Essi, Jean Marcel; Nouck, Philippe Njandjock; Sanda, Oumarou; Manguelle-Dicoum, Eliézer

    2018-03-01

    Belonging to the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), the western part of Cameroon is an active volcanic zone with volcanic eruptions and deadly gas emissions. The volcanic flows generally cover areas and bury structural features like faults. Terrestrial gravity surveys can hardly cover entirely this mountainous area due to difficult accessibility. The present work aims to evaluate gravity data derived from the geopotential field model, EGM2008 to investigate the subsurface of the CVL. The methodology involves upward continuation, horizontal gradient, maxima of horizontal gradient-upward continuation combination and Euler deconvolution techniques. The lineaments map inferred from this geopotential field model confirms several known lineaments and reveals new ones covered by lava flows. The known lineaments are interpreted as faults or geological contacts such as the Foumban fault and the Pan-African Belt-Congo craton contact. The lineaments highlighted coupled with the numerous maar lakes identified in this volcanic sector attest of the vulnerability of the CVL where special attention should be given for geohazard prevention.

  13. Determining shallow aquifer vulnerability by the DRASTIC model ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N C Mondal

    2017-09-02

    Sep 2, 2017 ... Numerous schemes have been developed ... Telangana (Brindha and Elango 2015), Mysore city ... districts and Mettur region of Tamil Nadu (Srini- ... In such a case, the uncontrolled discharge of ... the model by sensitive analysis, and (3) cross-verify ... through a network of joints, faults and lineaments,.

  14. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theongoing seismicity is concentrated on southeast of Wadakkancheri and the present study concentratedfurther south of Desamangalam Fault. The present study identifies the northwestern continuity of NW–SE trending Periyar lineament, which appears to have been segmented in the area. To identify the subtlelandform ...

  15. Directional filtering for linear feature enhancement in geophysical maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sykes, M.P.; Das, U.C.

    2000-01-01

    Geophysical maps of data acquired in ground and airborne surveys are extensively used for mineral, groundwater, and petroleum exploration. Lineaments in these maps are often indicative of contacts, basement faulting, and other tectonic features of interest. To aid the interpretation of these maps, a

  16. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Tapas Acharya. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 121 Issue 2 April 2012 pp 453-462. Analysis of lineament swarms in a Precambrian metamorphic rocks in India · Tapas Acharya Sukumar Basu Mallik · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  17. Uplift along the western margin of the Deccan Basalt Province: Is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Planetary Change 58 310–334. Powar K B 1981 Lineament fabric and dyke pattern in the western part of the Deccan Volcanic Province; Geol. Soc. India Memoir 3 45–57. Powar K B 1993 Geomorphological evolution of Konkan coastal belt and adjoining Sahyadri uplands with refer- ence to Quaternary uplift; Curr. Sci.

  18. Preliminary determination of geothermal working area based on Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoes Nugroho, Indra; Kurniawahidayati, Beta; Syahputra Mulyana, Reza; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing is one of the methods for geothermal exploration. This method can be used to map the geological structures, manifestations, and predict the geothermal potential area. The results from remote sensing were used as guidance for the next step exploration. Analysis of target in remote sensing is an efficient method to delineate geothermal surface manifestation without direct contact to the object. The study took a place in District Merangin, Jambi Province, Indonesia. The area was selected due to existing of Merangin volcanic complex composed by Mounts Sumbing and Hulunilo with surface geothermal manifestations presented by hot springs and hot pools. The location of surface manifestations could be related with local and regional structures of Great Sumatra Fault. The methods used in this study were included identification of volcanic products, lineament extraction, and lineament density quantification. The objective of this study is to delineate the potential zones for sitting the geothermal working site based on Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors. The lineament-related to geological structures, was aimed for high lineament density, is using ALOS - PALSAR (Advanced Land Observing Satellite - The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) level 1.1. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis was used to predict the vegetation condition using Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS (The Operational Land Imager - Thermal Infrared Sensor). The brightness temperature was extracted from TIR band to estimate the surface temperature. Geothermal working area identified based on index overlay method from extracted parameter of remote sensing data was located at the western part of study area (Graho Nyabu area). This location was identified because of the existence of high surface temperature about 30°C, high lineament density about 4 - 4.5 km/km2 and low NDVI values less than 0.3.

  19. Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A.

    2008-05-01

    Our studies have shown that the strain energy accumulation deep in the Earth's crust that precedes a strong earthquake can be estimated by applying a lineament extraction technique to the high-resolution multispectral satellite images. A lineament is a straight or a somewhat curved feature in a satellite image, which it is possible to detect by a special processing of images based on directional filtering and or Hough transform. We analyzed tens of earthquakes occurred in the Pacific coast of the South America with the Richter scale magnitude > 4.5, using ASTER/TERRA multispectral satellite images for detection and analysis of changes in the system of lineaments previous to a strong earthquake. All events were located in the regions with small seasonal variations and limited vegetation to facilitate the tracking of features associated with the seismic activity only. It was found that the number and orientation of lineaments changed significantly about one month before an earthquake approximately, and a few months later the system returns to its initial state. This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude. It also was shown that the behavior of lineaments associated to the volcano seismic activity is opposite to that obtained previously for earthquakes. This discrepancy can be explained assuming that in the last case the main reason of earthquakes is compression and accumulation of strength in the Earth's crust due to subduction of tectonic plates, whereas in the first case we deal with the inflation of a volcano edifice due to elevation of pressure and magma intrusion. The results obtained made it possible to include this research as a part of scientific program of Chilean Remote Sensing Satellite mission to be launched in 2010.

  20. Satellite Monitoring of Accumulation of Strain in the Earth's Crust Related to Seismic and Volcanic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Our studies have shown that the strain energy accumulation deep in the Earth’s crust that precedes seismic and volcanic activity can be detected by applying a lineament extraction technique to the high-resolution multispectral satellite images. A lineament is a straight or a somewhat curved feature in a satellite image, which it is possible to detect by a special processing of images based on directional filtering and or Hough transform. We analyzed tens of earthquakes occurred in the Pacific coast of the South America with the magnitude > 4 Mw, using ASTER/TERRA multispectral satellite images for detection and analysis of changes in the system of lineaments previous to a strong earthquake. All events were located in the regions with small seasonal variations and limited vegetation to facilitate the tracking of features associated with the seismic activity only. It was found that the number and orientation of lineaments changed significantly about one month before an earthquake approximately, and a few months later the system returns to its initial state. This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude. It also was shown that the behavior of lineaments associated to the volcano seismic activity is opposite to that obtained previously for earthquakes. This discrepancy can be explained assuming that in the last case the main reason of earthquakes is compression and accumulation of strength in the Earth’s crust due to subduction of tectonic plates, whereas in the first case we deal with the inflation of a volcano edifice due to elevation of pressure and magma intrusion. The results obtained made it possible to include this research as a part of scientific program of Chilean Remote Sensing Satellite mission to be launched in 2010.

  1. Development of a software for monitoring of seismic activity through the analysis of satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pinto, C.; Poblete, A.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Sanchez, G.

    2010-12-01

    A software for extraction and analysis of the lineaments has been developed and applied for the tracking of the accumulation/relaxation of stress in the Earth’s crust due to seismic and volcanic activity. A lineament is a straight or a somewhat curved feature in a satellite image, which reflects, at least partially, presence of faults in the crust. The technique of lineament extraction is based on the application of directional filters and Hough transform. The software has been checked for several earthquakes occurred in the Pacific coast of the South America with the magnitude > 4 Mw, analyzing temporal sequences of the ASTER/TERRA multispectral satellite images for the regions around an epicenter. All events were located in the regions with small seasonal variations and limited vegetation to facilitate the tracking of features associated with the seismic activity only. It was found that the number and orientation of lineaments changes significantly about one month before an earthquake approximately, and a few months later the system returns to its initial state. This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude. It also was shown that the behavior of lineaments associated to the volcano seismic activity is opposite to that obtained previously for earthquakes. This discrepancy can be explained assuming that in the last case the main reason of earthquakes is compression and accumulation of strength in the Earth’s crust due to subduction of tectonic plates, whereas in the first case we deal with the inflation of a volcano edifice due to elevation of pressure and magma intrusion.

  2. Use of high resolution satellite images for monitoring of earthquakes and volcano activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, Alonso A.

    Our studies have shown that the strain energy accumulation deep in the Earth's crust that precedes a strong earthquake can be detected by applying a lineament extraction technique to the high-resolution multispectral satellite images. A lineament is a straight or a somewhat curved feature in a satellite image, which it is possible to detect by a special processing of images based on directional filtering and or Hough transform. We analyzed tens of earthquakes occurred in the Pacific coast of the South America with the Richter scale magnitude ˜4.5, using ASTER/TERRA multispectral satellite images for detection and analysis of changes in the system of lineaments previous to a strong earthquake. All events were located in the regions with small seasonal variations and limited vegetation to facilitate the tracking of features associated with the seismic activity only. It was found that the number and orientation of lineaments changed significantly about one month before an earthquake approximately, and a few months later the system returns to its initial state. This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude. It also was shown that the behavior of lineaments associated to the volcano seismic activity is opposite to that obtained previously for earthquakes. This discrepancy can be explained assuming that in the last case the main reason of earthquakes is compression and accumulation of strength in the Earth's crust due to subduction of tectonic plates, whereas in the first case we deal with the inflation of a volcano edifice due to elevation of pressure and magma intrusion. The results obtained made it possible to include this research as a part of scientific program of Chilean Remote Sensing Satellite mission to be launched in 2010.

  3. Advancing New 3D Seismic Interpretation Methods for Exploration and Development of Fractured Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Reeves

    2005-01-31

    In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and GeoSpectrum, Inc., new P-wave 3D seismic interpretation methods to characterize fractured gas reservoirs are developed. A data driven exploratory approach is used to determine empirical relationships for reservoir properties. Fractures are predicted using seismic lineament mapping through a series of horizon and time slices in the reservoir zone. A seismic lineament is a linear feature seen in a slice through the seismic volume that has negligible vertical offset. We interpret that in regions of high seismic lineament density there is a greater likelihood of fractured reservoir. Seismic AVO attributes are developed to map brittle reservoir rock (low clay) and gas content. Brittle rocks are interpreted to be more fractured when seismic lineaments are present. The most important attribute developed in this study is the gas sensitive phase gradient (a new AVO attribute), as reservoir fractures may provide a plumbing system for both water and gas. Success is obtained when economic gas and oil discoveries are found. In a gas field previously plagued with poor drilling results, four new wells were spotted using the new methodology and recently drilled. The wells have estimated best of 12-months production indicators of 2106, 1652, 941, and 227 MCFGPD. The latter well was drilled in a region of swarming seismic lineaments but has poor gas sensitive phase gradient (AVO) and clay volume attributes. GeoSpectrum advised the unit operators that this location did not appear to have significant Lower Dakota gas before the well was drilled. The other three wells are considered good wells in this part of the basin and among the best wells in the area. These new drilling results have nearly doubled the gas production and the value of the field. The interpretation method is ready for commercialization and gas exploration and development. The new technology is adaptable to conventional lower cost 3D seismic surveys.

  4. Innovative Methodology for Detection of Fracture-Controlled Sweet Spots in the Northern Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain; Stuart Loewenstein; Edward DeRidder; Bruce Hart

    2007-03-31

    For two consecutive years, 2004 and 2005, the largest natural gas well (in terms of gas flow/day) drilled onshore USA targeted the Ordovician Trenton/Black River (T/BR) play in the Appalachian Basin of New York State (NYS). Yet, little data were available concerning the characteristics of the play, or how to recognize and track T/BR prospects across the region. Traditional exploration techniques for entry into a hot play were of limited use here, since existing deep well logs and public domain seismic were almost non-existent. To help mitigate this problem, this research project was conceived with two objectives: (1) to demonstrate that integrative traditional and innovative techniques could be used as a cost-effective reconnaissance exploration methodology in this, and other, areas where existing data in targeted fracture-play horizons are almost non-existent, and (2) determine critical characteristics of the T/BR fields. The research region between Seneca and Cayuga lakes (in the Finger Lakes of NYS) is on strike and east of the discovery fields, and the southern boundary of the field area is about 8 km north of more recently discovered T/BR fields. Phase I, completed in 2004, consisted of integrating detailed outcrop fracture analyses with detailed soil gas analyses, lineaments, stratigraphy, seismic reflection data, well log data, and aeromagnetics. In the Seneca Lake region, Landsat lineaments (EarthSat, 1997) were coincident with fracture intensification domains (FIDs) and minor faults observed in outcrop and inferred from stratigraphy. Soil gas anomalies corresponded to ENE-trending lineaments and FIDs. N- and ENE-trending lineaments were parallel to aeromagnetic anomalies, whereas E-trending lineaments crossed aeromagnetic trends. 2-D seismic reflection data confirmed that the E-trending lineaments and FIDs occur where shallow level Alleghanian salt-cored thrust-faulted anticlines occur. In contrast, the ENE-trending FIDs and lineaments occur where Iapetan

  5. Contribution of gravity data and Sentinel-1 image for structural mapping. Case of Beni Mellal Atlas and Beni Moussa plain (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutirame, Ikram; Boukdir, Ahmed; Akhssas, Ahmed; Boutirame, Fatima; Manar, Ahmed; Aghzzaf, Brahim

    2018-05-01

    The present work is a combined study of gravity and Sentine-1 data for fracture mapping in the karstic massif of Beni Mellal Atlas and the adjacent plain of Beni Moussa. In order to locate the various faults that contribute to the study area structuring, the gravimetric contacts analysis method, based on the joint use of the horizontal gradient and the upward continuation at different altitudes, has been applied to the gravity data. To optimize the structural mapping in the study area, the gravimetric lineaments obtained were completed and correlated with the lineaments got from Sentinel-1 image. Four faults families of NE-SW; E-O; N-S and NWSE directions have been highlighted. There fault families are perfectly combined with the studied area's surface water network, moreover, they corroborate with the previous geological and structural studies.

  6. REGIONAL GEOLGICAL MAPPING IN TROPICAL ENVIRONMENTS USING LANDSAT TM AND SRTM REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM data were used to produce geological maps in tropical environments. Lineament, lithology and landform maps were produced for all states in peninsular Malaysia in this study. Kedah, Perak and Terengganu states have been selected as case studies to demonstrate the results of the data and techniques used. Directional filtering technique was applied to Landsat TM bands 4, 5 and 3 for lineament mapping. The lithology map was produced using Landsat TM bands combination consist of bands 4, 3 and 2. Digital elevation model and landform map were produced using SRTM data in 3 Dimension (3D and 2 Dimension (2D perspective views, respectively. The produced geological maps and the remote sensing data and methods applied in this study are mostly appropriate for hazard risk mapping applications and mineral exploration projects in the peninsular Malaysia and tropical environments.

  7. Landsat investigations of the northern Paradox basin, Utah and Colorado: implications for radioactive waste emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jules D.; Simpson, Shirley L.

    1978-01-01

    The first stages of a remote-sensing project on the Paradox basin, part of the USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) radioactive waste-emplacement program, consisted of a review and selection of the best available satellite scanner images to use in geomorphologic and tectonic investigations of the region. High-quality Landsat images in several spectral bands (E-2260-17124 and E-5165-17030), taken under low sun angle October 9 and 10, 1975, were processed via computer for planimetric rectification, histogram analysis, linear transformation of radiance values, and edge enhancement. A lineament map of the northern Paradox basin was subsequently compiled at 1:400,000 using the enhanced Landsat base. Numerous previously unmapped northeast-trending lineaments between the Green River and Yellowcat dome; confirmatory detail on the structural control of major segments of the Colorado, Gunnison, and Dolores Rivers; and new evidence for late Phanerozoic reactivation of Precambrian basement structures are among the new contributions to the tectonics of the region. Lineament trends appear to be compatible with the postulated Colorado lineament zone, with geophysical potential-field anomalies, and with a northeast-trending basement fault pattern. Combined Landsat, geologic, and geophysical field evidence for this interpretation includes the sinuousity of the composite Salt Valley anticline, the transection of the Moab-Spanish Valley anticline on its southeastern end by northeast-striking faults, and possible transection (?) of the Moab diapir. Similarly, northeast-trending lineaments in Cottonwood Canyon and elsewhere are interpreted as manifestations of structures associated with northeasterly trends in the magnetic and gravity fields of the La Sal Mountains region. Other long northwesterly lineaments near the western termination of the Ryan Creek fault zone. may be associated with the fault zone separating the Uncompahgre horst uplift from the Paradox basin. Implications of the

  8. Tectonic evolution of mercury; comparison with the moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.G.; Masson, P.

    1983-01-01

    With regard to the Earth or to Mars, the Moon and Mercury look like tectonicless planetary bodies, and the prominent morphologies of these two planets are due to impact and volcanic processes. Despite these morphologies, several types of tectonic activities may be shown. Statistical studies of lineaments direction indicate that Mercury, as well as the Moon, have a planet wide lineament pattern, known as a ''grid''. Statistical studies of Mercury scarps and the Moon grabens indicate an interaction between planetary lithospheric evolution and large impact basins. Detailed studies of the largest basins indicate specific tectonic motions directly or indirectly related to impacts. These three tectonic types have been compared on each planet. The first tectonic type seems to be identical for Mercury and the Moon. But the two other types seem to be different, and are consistent with the planets' thermal evolution

  9. Study geomorphology, past and present, linear trench, tectonics relationship between Pyrenees and Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 images obviously show up some large linear features trending N 80 E or N 30 E common to both Alps and Pyrenees. One of them, the Ligurian Fault, had been previously forecast by Laubscher in an interpretation of the Alps by the plate tectonic theory, but it extends westward farthest from the Alps, cutting the Pyrenees axis. These lineaments have been interpreted as reflections of deep seated wrench faults in the surficial part of the sedimentary series. A large set of such lineaments is perceptible in western Europe, such as the Guadalquivir Fault in southern Spain, Ligurian Fault, Insubrian Fault, Northern-Jura Fault, Metz Fault. Perhaps these may be interpreted as transform faults of the mid-Atlantic ridge or of a paleo-rift seated in the Rhine-Rhone graben.

  10. Geologic remote sensing over the Cottageville, West Virginia, gas field. Final report, August 15, 1977-February 15, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P. L.; Wagner, H. L.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1979-02-01

    Remote sensing of geologic features was investigated for the purpose of exploration for gas reserves in the eastern Mississippian-Devonian Shales. The Cottageville gas field in Jackson and Mason Counties, West Virginia, was used as a test site for this purpose. Available photographic and multispectral (MSS) images from Landsat were obtained; also 4-channel synthetic aperture radar and 12-channel MSS in the range between ultraviolet and far infrared were gathered by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan over the test site. The images were first interpreted visually for lineaments. Then the images were enhanced by many different digital computation techniques in addition to analysis and enhancement by optical techniques. Subtle, interpretative lineaments were found which could not be enhanced to an obvious level by the procedures used. Two new spatial enhancement procedures were developed.

  11. A study on site characterization of the deep geological environment around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kw; Kim, Gy; Koh, Yk; Kim, Ks; Choi, Jw

    2009-01-01

    KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) is a small scale research tunnel which was constructed from 2005 to 2006 at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). To understand the deep geological environment around KURT area, the surface geological surveys such as lineaments analysis and geophysical survey and borehole investigation were performed. For this study, a 3 dimensional geological model has been constructed using the surface and borehole geological data. The regional lineaments were determined using a topographical map and the surface geophysical survey data were collected for the geological model. In addition, statistical methods were applied to fracture data from borehole televiewer loggings to identify fracture zones in boreholes. For a hydro geological modeling, fixed interval hydraulic tests were carried out for all boreholes. The results of the hydraulic tests were analyzed and classified by the fracture zone data of geological model. At result, the hydrogeological elements were decided and the properties of each element were assessed around the KURT area

  12. Preliminary report on the geology and metallogenesis of uranium in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo-Leyton, E.; Barron, E.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a preliminary study of aspects of the geology and metallogenesis of uranium in Bolivia. It must be considered as a first study which will serve as a basis for possible future work of this type. Its purpose is to show the possible relationships of the uranium anomalies and prospects to the country's various mineralized belts and also to the Nazca tectonic plate and to lineaments and intrusive bodies. (author)

  13. ONR Far East Scientific Information Bulletin. Volume 15 Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    applied to signature detec- tant areas of interest are the mapping of tion, classification, and enhancement for "lineaments"-faults or fractures in the...Basic Medical Science ment of prosthetic limbs driven by myogenic Research signals. The Biology Department is only 4 years old but is flourishing with...neering Laboratory is a strong force in devel- This hospital is the second oldest in China opment of biological heart valves made from and resides in

  14. Tectolinear interpretation of a 1:5,000,000 Landsat-1 mosaic compared with the structure of central and eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutina, Jan; Carter, William D.

    1978-01-01

    The pattern of lineaments and curvilinear features interpreted from a 1:5,000,000 mosaic of satellite images (Landsat-1 was superimposed on a simplified version of the Geological Map of the United States, 1:2,500,000 scale, showing the structural scheme of Central and Eastern United States. A comparison of the above two patterns, shown in Fig. 1, is presented in this paper.

  15. The metallogenic role of east-west fracture zones in South America with regard to the motion of lithospheric plates (with an example from Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutina, J.; Carter, William D.; Lopez, F.X.

    1978-01-01

    The role of east-west fracture zones in South America is discussed with regard to global fracturing and the motion of lithospheric plates. A set of major NW-trending lineaments has been derived which show a tendency to be spaced equidistantly and may correspond to a set of east-west fractures in the "pre-drift" position of the South American plate. Statistical analysis of linears in the ERTS-mosaics shows that NW-fractures are also among the most important ones in the Andes region, suggesting that the above major lineaments extend into the basement of the Andes. Some of the old major fractures, trending east-west in the present orientation of South America, are discussed and their NE orientation in the pre-drift position of the plate is considered. An example of structural control of ore deposition in the Brazilian Shield is presented, using the maps of the RADAM Project. It is concluded that the small tin-bearing granitic bodies concentrated in the region of Sao Felix do Xingu in the state of Para represent upper parts of an unexposed granitoid massif which is controlled by the intersection of a major east-west fracture zone probably represents westward extension of the Patos Lineament of the easternmost part of Brazil, connected with the east-west fracture zone of the Para state through the basement of the Maranhao Basin (Sineclise do Maranhao-Piaui). It is expected that the proposed "Patos-Para Lineament" extends further westward and may similarly control, at intersections with fractures of other trends, some mineralization centers in the western part of the state of Para and in the state of Amazonas.

  16. The geology and mineral deposits of Tantalite Valley, Warmbad district, South West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Backstroem, J.W.

    1976-04-01

    The Tantalite Valley Complex, a poorly mineralised (Cu and Ni sulphides) body of roughly concentric peridotite-gabbroid intrusions was emplaced along a major zone of dislocation (the Tantallite Valley Lineament) into a metasedimentary sequence of migmatites and gneisses which, together with the complex, have experienced a complex metamorphic and tectonic history. A number of large mineralised pegmatites (producers of minerals of Nb, Ta, Bi, Li and Be over the past two decades), was intruded about 1000 Ma ago [af

  17. INEL environmental characterization report. Volume II. Appendices A-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This volume contains appendices: (1) a socioeconomic data base for southeastern Idaho; (2) an ecological characterization of the INEL; (3) site-specific climatology summary, NPR primary and alternate sites; (4) NPR site borehole completion; (5) an investigation of the principal lineament at the INEL; (6) an investigation of Clay Butte, Idaho; (7) Arco and Howe fault study; (8) seismology of the INEL; (9) geologic map of the INEL; and (1) geologic ages of the INEL

  18. Seismic environment of Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) and its suitability for location of new nuclear power plants in India - a few geoscientific opinions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.K.; Parihar, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    India has an ambitious programme to expand the nuclear power capacity to 60 GWe by 2032 and 655 GWe by 2050. Such an exponential growth of nuclear power generation warranty identification of suitable sites for nuclear power reactors. Perhaps the 6000 km long vast coastline is the best choice for siting new NPPs because of ready availability of sea water and a quiet seismic environment. Large inland areas with adequate water resources provide additional locations to cater the power requirements of Central and Northern India. In this perspective, the potentials of Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) for siting new NPPs is discussed. Five zones delineated as safer sites of nuclear power plants on Deccan Trap, are the first hand targets identified by this study. Two of them are situated to the north of Narmada-Son Lineament and have large areas. Chambal and Betwa river systems of Ganga Basin are perennial source of water along with several dams constructed on their course. The other three zones are located to the south of Narmada-Son Lineament and are small in size. The Konkan Coastal Lineament (N-S) in the west and Kurduwadi Lineament (NW-SE) in the east are major tectonic features bordering these zones. The Godavari and Krishna rivers are perennial water sources. Presence of reservoirs within the delineated zones stands advantageous considering their potential as ultimate heat sinks. All the five zones are devoid of any known major seismicity. Thick basalt cover provides good foundation conditions and engineerability for these zones. Considering above characteristics, proposed five zones could be good candidate sites for future NPPs, after their detailed geotechnical investigations. (author)

  19. Inversions structurales le long de la direction atlasique en Tunisie centrale : le Jebel Boudinar

    OpenAIRE

    Soyer , Christian

    1987-01-01

    The J. Boudinar is located at the junction between several of the main structural trends of Tunisia : the atlasic lineament (NE-SH), the N-S axis and the NW-SE Kasserine and Mezzouna faults . A stratigraphical and structural study of this area has been performed with detailed mapping (1 : 20 000). STRATIGRAPHY - SEDIMENTOLOGY the detailed stratigraphic analysis of several sections results in the characterisation of the thickness variation in aIl the Formations since Jurassic. Aleg Formation i...

  20. Seasonal variability of beach characteristics between Candoliam and Colva coast, Goa, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wilson, J.S.J.; Sujitha, S.B.; Shruti, V.C.; Shaeema, Z.A.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Chandrasekar, N.

    and Aguada promontory and in the south by Cabo-da-Gama promontory, 3 locations were chosen to understand the temporal variability of beach morphology. 2.1. Physiography Physiographically, Goa can be broadly divided onto four distinct morphological.... Structural features like lineament, inselbergs, laterite mesas are also noticed in the study area. Near- shore morphological features like Shore Island and salt marsh are also seen around the study area. Fig. 1 Location map of the study area 35 3...

  1. Outlook for using long-distance methods and studying oil and gas content of the East Siberian platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slorenskiy, P V; Kopylov, V Ye

    1981-01-01

    The use of remote methods marks a basically new stage in technological study of the taiga regions of East Siberia. In interpreting the multizonal space photographs of the middle flow of the Viliyu River, a number of different systems of lineaments are isolated. They reflect the common features of the deep structure of the region. Their course and the position control the position of local structures and the distribution of fractured collectors.

  2. Remote methods in geological studies. Distantsionnyye metody v geologicheskikh issldovaniyakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The article cover the use of aerial and space photographic, scanner, radar and thermal photographs in geomorphological and geological study of platform and folded regions, specialized processing of lineaments of a photo image, predicting the quality of images of linear objects, photogrammetry of scanner images and questions of photogrametric processing of aerial photographic materials. The collection is designed for a broad circle of specialists using materials of remote photographs in geological studies and investgation of natural resources.

  3. Integration of multi-source data in mineral exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Knut; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes several multivariate statistical analysis applications of geochemical, geophysical, and spectral variables in mineral exploration. Mahalanobis' distance is described in some detail and based on four multisource variables this measure is applied to produce a map that gives an ...... of automatically generated linear features based on Landsat TM data. The results indicate among other things a not previously recognized subsurface continuation of an already mapped lineament....

  4. Active Deformation of Malawi Rift's North Basin Hinge Zone Modulated by Reactivation of Preexisting Precambrian Shear Zone Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, F.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Chindandali, P. R.; Salima, J.; Kalindekafe, L.

    2018-03-01

    We integrated temporal aeromagnetic data and recent earthquake data to address the long-standing question on the role of preexisting Precambrian structures in modulating strain accommodation and subsequent ruptures leading to seismic events within the East African Rift System. We used aeromagnetic data to elucidate the relationship between the locations of the 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi, earthquake surface ruptures and buried basement faults along the hinge zone of the half-graben comprising the North Basin of the Malawi Rift. Through the application of derivative filters and depth-to-magnetic-source modeling, we identified and constrained the trend of the Precambrian metamorphic fabrics and correlated them to the three-dimensional structure of buried basement faults. Our results reveal an unprecedented detail of the basement fabric dominated by high-frequency WNW to NW trending magnetic lineaments associated with the Precambrian Mughese Shear Zone fabric. The high-frequency magnetic lineaments are superimposed by lower frequency NNW trending magnetic lineaments associated with possible Cenozoic faults. Surface ruptures associated with the 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga earthquake swarm aligned with one of the NNW-trending magnetic lineaments defining a normal fault that is characterized by right-stepping segments along its northern half and coalesced segments on its southern half. Fault geometries, regional kinematics, and spatial distribution of seismicity suggest that seismogenic faults reactivated the basement fabric found along the half-graben hinge zone. We suggest that focusing of strain accommodation and seismicity along the half-graben hinge zone is facilitated and modulated by the presence of the basement fabric.

  5. Remote sensing applied in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradsen, K.; Nilsson, G.; Thyrsted, T.

    1985-01-01

    A research project, aiming at investigation the use of remote sensing in uranium exploration, has been accomplished on data from South Greenland. During the project, analyses have been done on pure remote sensing data (Landsat MSS) and on integrated data of various types, including geochemical, aeromagnetic, radiometric and geological data in addition to the MSS data. Ratioing, factor analysis and discriminant analysis were used for enhancement of colour anomalies which correspond to oxidation zones. Some of the anomalies coincide with U and Nb mineralizations. Lineaments were mapped visually from photoprints, digitized and analysed statistically. A sinusoidal model could be applied to the general directional frequency distribution and was used to define ten classes of significant directions. Three of these directions were of major geological significance. Thus some of the major alkaline intrusions are situated at the intersections of some of the lineaments, a particular NE-SW trending lineament coincides with a geochemical boundary and pitchblende occurrences may be related to a WNW-ESE direction. The various types of data set were brought onto format of the Landsat images and collected in a data base. Representing three different types of data (Landsat MSS-band 7, aeromagnetic data and the geochemical Fe-content of stream sediments) on basis of intensity, hue and saturation revealed new features among which can be mentioned a possible indication of a subsurface continuation of one of the major alkaline intrusions. (author)

  6. Studi Pendahuluan Perubahan Garis Pantai Selama Zaman Kuarter di Daerah Kroya sampai Binangun Kabupaten Cilacap-Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmoro Widagdo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cilacap coast line is a part of southern coast of Java at Cilacap Regency, Central Java. Topographic and satellite image observation shown some ancient coast lines behind the modern coast lines. How many of the coast lines which have formed before the modern coast lines is the question to be answered. This research is the preliminary effort to determine the direction of coast line development and the amount of coast lines which have formed before the modern ones. This preliminary research of the ancient coast lines is done by two stages of work that are studio and field work. Studio work was done by observation and interpretation of topographic map, land use map, Google Earth image and SRTM image. At this stage of work was made an ancient coast lineaments map and geomorphic profiles of the research area. To the results of the interpretation which have been done then taken a field work verification by ground check. Interpretation to the coast lines of the research area has resulted 24 coast lines. Ancient coast lines lineament of the research area is in line with the modern ones which have east-west lineament and prograde from the north to southward.

  7. Geological and Structural Inferences from Satellite Images in Parts of Deccan basalt covered regions of Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinarayana, Tirumalachetty; Borra, Veeraiah; Basava, Sharana; Suryabali, Singh

    In search of new areas for hydrocarbon exploration, integrated ground geophysical studies have been taken up in Central India with seismic, magnetotellurics, deep resistivity and gravity surveys. Since the region is covered with basalt and well known for its intensive tectonic activity, remote sensing method seems to have value addition to the subsurface information derived from geophysical, geological and tectonic studies. The Narmada and Tapti rift zone and Deccan basalt covered regions of Central India, stems from its complexity. A Resourcesat-1 (IRS- P6) LISS-III satellite images covering an area of approximately 250,000 sq. km corresponding to the region in and around Baroda(Vadodara), Indore, Nandurbar, Khandwa, Akot, Nasik, Aurangabad, Pune and Latur in Central India was digitally processed and interpreted to present a schematic map of the geology and elucidate the structural fabric of the region. From our study, the disposition of the intensive dyke system, various faults and other lineaments in the region are delineated. Ground truth studies have shown good correlation with lineaments/dykes indicated in remote sensing studies and have revealed distinct ENE-WSW trending lineaments, dykes which are more prominent near the Narmada and Tapti river course. Evolution of these features with Deccan volcanism is discussed with available geochronological data set. These findings are significant in relation to structural data and form a part of the geo-structural database for ground surveys.

  8. Identification of tectonic deformations on the south polar surface of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Saumitra; Singh, Priyadarshini

    2015-07-01

    Recent extensional and contractional tectonic features present globally over the lunar surface have been studied to infer lunar crustal tectonism. Investigation of indicators of recent crustal tectonics, such as fault lines, thrust fault scarps, and dislocation of debris along the identified fault planes, primarily using data from the miniature-synthetic aperture radar (mini-SAR) aboard CHANDRAYAAN-1 mission and Narrow angle camera (NAC) images, are the focus of this study. Spatial orientation of these tectonic features helps to elucidate the change in the interior geological dynamics of any planetary body with time. The ability of microwave sensors to penetrate the lunar regolith, along with application of m-χ decomposition method on Mini-SAR data has been used to reveal unique features indicative of hidden tectonics. The m-χ decomposition derived radar images expose hidden lineaments and lobate scarps present within shadowed crater floors as well as over the illuminated regions of the lunar surface. The area around and within Cabeus B crater in the South Polar Region contains lobate scarps, hidden lineaments and debris avalanches (associated with the identified lineaments) indicative of relatively recent crustal tectonism.

  9. Remote sensing revealed drainage anomalies and related tectonics of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, SM.; Kumanan, C. J.; Selvakumar, R.; Saravanavel, J.

    2011-03-01

    Drainages have characteristic pattern and life histories with youthful stage in hilly areas, mature stage in plains and old stage in the coastal zones. The deviations from their normal life histories, especially aberrations in their flow pattern in the form of various drainage anomalies have been inferred to be the indications of dominantly the Eustatic and Isostatic changes. This, especially after the advent of Earth Observing Satellites, has attracted the geoscientists from all over the world, for studying such drainage anomalies. In this connection, a study has been undertaken in parts of South India falling south of 14° south latitude to comprehensively map some drainage anomalies like deflected drainages, eyed drainages and compressed meanders and to evolve the tectonic scenario therefrom. The mapping of such mega drainage anomalies and the related lineaments/faults from the satellite digital data and the integration of such lineaments/faults with the overall lineament map of South India showed that the study area is marked by active N-S block faults and NE-SW sinistral and NW-SE dextral strike slip faults. Such an architecture of active tectonic grains indicates that the northerly directed compressive force which has originally drifted the Indian plate towards northerly is still active and deforming the Indian plate.

  10. The palaeodelta of the ``Proto'' Vatrak and ``Proto'' Mahi rivers of northeastern Gujarat, India: A remote sensing interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, R. P.; Dotiwala, Sucheta; Mitra, D. S.; Bhoj, R.

    1996-02-01

    Detailed remote sensing studies carried out in northeastern Gujarat, India, suggest that there has been a major change in the drainage system as evidenced by the presence of a large palaeo-delta system. The area is drained by two major rivers, the Mahi and Vatrak originating from the Aravalli Hills to the east, which discharge into the Gulf of Cambay, in the Indian Ocean. Major lineaments, palaeodrainage patterns and palaeodeltas of the Vatrak and Mahi rivers were delineated. These were large rivers in the past with a high discharge and floodplains which were 5-10 km wide. Most of the palaeodrainage follows the NE-SW Precambrian lineaments/ faults indicating their structural control. Reactivation of these lineaments and differential uplift of the Aravalli Hills resulted in increased transportation of the eroded sediments and deposition of more than 5 km thick sediments into the Tarapur block of the Cambay Basin. The Gulf of Cambay extended up to the Limbasi-Sojitra-Petlad area during the Quaternary. There are implications for petroleum exploration in the sense that the results when integrated with subsurface geological and geophysical data help to delineate the reservoir facies suitable for petroleum exploration along the eastern margin of the Tarapur block.

  11. Near-surface neotectonic deformation associated with seismicity in the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, S.S.; Gold, D.P.; Gardner, T.W.; Slingerland, R.L.; Thornton, C.P.

    1989-10-01

    For the Lancaster, PA seismic zone a multifaceted investigation revealed several manifestations of near-surface, neotectonic deformation. Remote sensing data together with surface geological and geophysical observations, and recent seismicity reveal that the neotectonic deformation is concentrated in a NS-trending fault zone some 50 km in length and 10--20 km in width. Anomalies associated with this zone include distinctive lineament and surface erosional patterns; geologically recent uplift evidenced by elevations of stream terraces along the Susquehanna River; and localized contemporary travertine deposits in streams down-drainage from the inferred active fault zone. In the Moodus seismic zone the frequency of tectonically-controlled lineaments was observed to increase in the Moodus quadrangle compared to adjacent areas and dominant lineament directions were observed that are perpendicular and parallel to the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress direction (N80-85E) recently determined from in-situ stress measurements in a 1.5 km-deep borehole in the seismic zone and from well-constrained earthquake focal mechanisms. 284 refs., 33 figs

  12. Near-surface neotectonic deformation associated with seismicity in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, S.S.; Gold, D.P.; Gardner, T.W.; Slingerland, R.L.; Thornton, C.P. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA). Dept. of Geosciences)

    1989-10-01

    For the Lancaster, PA seismic zone a multifaceted investigation revealed several manifestations of near-surface, neotectonic deformation. Remote sensing data together with surface geological and geophysical observations, and recent seismicity reveal that the neotectonic deformation is concentrated in a NS-trending fault zone some 50 km in length and 10--20 km in width. Anomalies associated with this zone include distinctive lineament and surface erosional patterns; geologically recent uplift evidenced by elevations of stream terraces along the Susquehanna River; and localized contemporary travertine deposits in streams down-drainage from the inferred active fault zone. In the Moodus seismic zone the frequency of tectonically-controlled lineaments was observed to increase in the Moodus quadrangle compared to adjacent areas and dominant lineament directions were observed that are perpendicular and parallel to the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress direction (N80-85E) recently determined from in-situ stress measurements in a 1.5 km-deep borehole in the seismic zone and from well-constrained earthquake focal mechanisms. 284 refs., 33 figs.

  13. Knowledge-driven GIS modeling technique for gold exploration, Bulghah gold mine area, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Madani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to generate a favorability map for gold exploration at the Bulghah gold mine area using integration of geo-datasets within a GIS environment. Spatial data analyses and integration of different geo-datasets are carried out based on knowledge-driven and weighting technique. The integration process involves the weighting and scoring of different layers affecting the gold mineralization at the study area using the index overlay method within PCI Geomatica environment. Generation of the binary predictor maps for lithology, lineaments, faults and favorable contacts precede the construction of the favorability map. About 100 m buffer zones are generated for favorable contacts, lineaments and major faults layers. Internal weighting is assigned to each layer based on favorability for gold mineralization. The scores for lithology, major faults, lineaments and favorable contacts layers in the constructed favorability map are 50%, 25%, 10% and 15%, respectively. Final favorability map for the Bulghah gold mine area shows the recording of two new sites for gold mineralization located at the northern and southern extensions of tonalite–diorite intrusions. The northern new site is now exploited for gold from the Bulghah North mine. The southern new site is narrow and small; its rocks resemble those of the Bulghah gold mine.

  14. Grenvillean sutures zones in the northern portion of the Cuyania terrane, Republica Argentina. geophysical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernicoff, C.; Vujovich, G.

    2004-01-01

    In the northern portion of the Cuyania terrane there is geophysical evidence for the ocurrence of two ancient WNW suture zones, corresponding to the Guandacol and Vinchina lineaments. The location of these sutures is consistent with analogous structures in Laurentia, in the Ouachita embayment region, where the Grenvillean orogen trends WNW. It is argued that the WNW transform faults pertaining to the Ouachita rift would have developed as a result of a reactivation of compressional structures of identical orientation associated to the accretion of Grenvillean terranes. The Guandacol and Vinchina lineaments would have been in physical continuity with analogous megastructures in the Ouachita embayment region, and they both would have originated as compressional structures, later reactivated as transcurrent fault zones during the late Proterozoic early Paleozoic. The interpretation of the Guandacol and Vinchina lineaments as Grenvillean suture zones would add more complexity to the Cuyania terrane, with respect to what has been described up to now; they could precede the amalgamation of the Pie de Palo and Precordillera terranes (constituents of the Cuyania composite terrane) [es

  15. Uranium occurrences in the Granite Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyegaard, P.; Armour-Brown, A.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the work and results of the South Greenland Exploration Programme (Sydex) during the 1984 field season in the Granite Zone, and discusses the results and conclusions that can be drawn from them. It also contains a structural analysis of the Ivigtut-Julianehaab region, which will help in future exploration by indicating the likely directions of uraniferous faults and fractures. It also includes suggestions for future work with both exploration and scientific aspects. The project was carried out by the Geological Survey Greenland (GGU) in co-operation with Risoe National Laboratory. It was financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. The structural analysis was carried out using previous geological maps, our own field observations and an analysis of lineament frequencies taken from aerial photographs and satellite images. Major lineaments in the region are due to E-W sinistral wrench faults and NE-SW normal faults. Analysis of the minor lineaments showed that the region could be divided into three blocks which have each reacted differently to the same regional stress field which was active throughout the Gardar period. A northern block which has been influenced by an older system of faults in the Archaean gneiss, a central block dominated by a graben, and a southern block where there is a change to a less intensively faulted area. 2 maps, 27 refs. (EG)

  16. Use of high-resolution satellite images for detection of geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Chile has an enormous potential to use the geothermal resources for electric energy generation. The main geothermal fields are located in the Central Andean Volcanic Chain in the North, between the Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the LANDSAT and ASTER satellites have been used to delineate the geological structures related to the Calerias geothermal field located at the northern end of the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile and Puchuldiza geothermal field located in the Region of Tarapaca. It was done by applying the lineament extraction technique developed by author. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the fields. It was found that the lineament density increases in the areas of the major heat flux indicating that the lineament analysis could be a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields.

  17. Use of high-resolution satellite images for characterization of geothermal reservoirs in the Tarapaca Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Montenegro A., C.

    2010-12-01

    The use of renewable and clean sources of energy is becoming crucial for sustainable development of all countries, including Chile. Chilean Government plays special attention to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy, total electrical power capacity of which could reach 16.000 MW. In Chile the main geothermal fields are located in the Central Andean Volcanic Chain in the North, between the Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the Lansat satellite have been used to characterize the geothermal field in the region of the Puchuldiza geysers, Colchane, Region of Tarapaca, North of Chile, located at the altitude of 4000 m. Structure of lineaments associated to the geothermal field have been extracted from the images using the lineament detection technique developed by authors. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the field. It was found that the lineament analysis is a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields.

  18. Do geological field survey and remote sensing record the same fractures? The case of the corallian Loyalty Islands (SW Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thovert, J.; Huaman, D.; Genthon, P.; Adler, P. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Loyalty Islands are a series of corallian islands uplifted on the elastic bulge of the Australian lithosphere before its subduction at the Vanuatu (formerly New Hebrides) Trench. They are located on the non seismic Loyalty Ridge, which is starting colliding the Vanuatu Trench. The interiors of the islands are covered with dense forests and devoid of outcrops. Lineaments seen on remote sensing data (aerial photos, SPOT 3 and 4, Envisat) are compared with fractures and joints measured on a geological survey near the coasts, where corallian limestones outcrop. Lineaments observed by remote sensing in the inner Islands correspond to one main N110 direction with a large variance of nearly 15° in rms, two minor directions nearly 45° apart (N150 and N60) and no systematic evolution with distance to coasts. The three lineament families are seen near coasts as centimetric to decimetric aperture cracks without evidence of any displacement. However, an extensive geological survey of the fractures near the coast of the islands reveals a clear N135 direction and possibly an EW direction in the Lifou Island, while in the Maré island fractures present a large variance with a single N70 direction. The directions N 135, N110 and N60 are also observed regionally on the seafloor and are presumably present in the basement of the islands. It is shown that lineaments longer than 2000 m are close to the N110 direction and that the mean orientation shifts progressively to reach the N125 direction for L<400 m. Therefore, it is likely that the progressive shift in orientation continues up to the N135 direction observed in the field at the 10-50 m scale. The origin of this apparent difference between field data and remote sensing lineaments is discussed, considering (i) the intense karstification of these islands, where dissolution occurs during infiltration of rainwater, but also due to corrosion mixing at the top and the bottom of the freshwater lens and at its tips near coast. This

  19. Tectonics on Iapetus: Despinning, respinning, or something completely different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Kelsi N.; McKinnon, William B.

    2011-11-01

    Saturn's moon Iapetus is unique in that it has apparently despun while retaining a substantial equatorial bulge. Stresses arising from such a non-hydrostatic shape should in principle cause surface deformation (tectonics). As part of a search for such a tectonic signature, lineaments (linear surface features) on Iapetus were mapped on both its bright and dark hemispheres. Lineament orientations were then compared to model stress patterns predicted for spin-down from a rotation period of 16.5 h (or less) to its present synchronous period, and for a range of lithospheric thicknesses. Many lineaments are straight segments of crater rimwalls, which may be faults or joints reactivated during complex crater collapse. Most striking are several large troughs on the bright, trailing hemisphere. These troughs appear to be extensional and are distinctive on that hemisphere, because the interior floors and walls of the troughs contain dark material. Globally, no specific evidence of strike slip or thrust offsets are seen, but this could be due to the age and degraded nature of any such features. We find that observed lineament orientations do not correlate with predicted patterns due to despinning on either hemisphere (the equatorial ridge was specifically excluded from this analysis, and is considered separately). Modest evidence for preferred orientations ±40° from north could be construed as consistent with respinning, which is not necessarily far-fetched. Assuming the rigidity of unfractured ice, predicted maximum lithospheric differential stresses from despinning range from ˜1 MPa to ˜160 MPa for the elastic spheroid and thin lithosphere limits, respectively (although it is only for thicker elastic lithospheres that we expect a nonhydrostatic state to be maintained over geologic time against lithospheric failure). The tectonic signature of despinning may have been obscured over time because the surface of Iapetus is very ancient, Iapetus' thick lithosphere may have

  20. Combining outcrop, magnetic, and airborne LiDAR data in a course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE): interpretation of bedrock fracturing in the northeastern Deep River Basin and adjacent basement, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, R.; Waters-Tormey, C. L.; Styers, D.; Hurst, E.

    2017-12-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are a way for students to learn the power of combining geological, geophysical, and geodetic datasets, while also generating new results to answer real questions. A 5-week undergraduate geophysics CURE combined newly released public domain LiDAR-derived ground models with outcrop and magnetic data. The goal was to see if this approach could improve understanding of bedrock fracture sets in the NC Piedmont, which in turn would improve decisions about groundwater resources and proposed hydraulic fracturing of "tight" shale reservoirs in the 230 Ma Deep River failed rift basin. The 10 km2 study area was selected because it straddles the fault contact between crystalline basement and basin sedimentary rocks, it contains 200 Ma NW-SE trending mafic dikes related to successful rifting of Pangea common in the Piedmont, bedrock exposure is typical of the Piedmont (poor), and its land use history is representative of much of the Piedmont. Students visited representative field sites to collect observations then manually identified lineaments in several adjacent LiDAR ground model tiles. Results suggest that (1) lineaments as short as a few m are easily identified except underneath Quaternary deposits, (2) the dominant lineament set trends NW-SE with m- to 10 m-scale spacing, (3) lineaments are better expressed in sedimentary rocks and (4) do not spatially coincide with dike traces. Using field observations, map patterns, and total magnetic intensity profiles across several dikes, the lineaments are interpreted to be edges of subvertical joint fractures recording extension parallel to the dikes' dilation direction. The CURE concluded with students in small groups proposing next steps for the larger research project. The CURE introduced geology majors to the power of using geophysical and remote sensing data with geological data to address geoscience questions. Student feedback was very positive even though the learning

  1. Using focal mechanism solutions to correlate earthquakes with faults in the Lake Tahoe-Truckee area, California and Nevada, and to help design LiDAR surveys for active-fault reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.; Lindsay, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Geomorphic analysis of hillshade images produced from aerial LiDAR data has been successful in identifying youthful fault traces. For example, the recently discovered Polaris fault just northwest of Lake Tahoe, California/Nevada, was recognized using LiDAR data that had been acquired by local government to assist land-use planning. Subsequent trenching by consultants under contract to the US Army Corps of Engineers has demonstrated Holocene displacement. The Polaris fault is inferred to be capable of generating a magnitude 6.4-6.9 earthquake, based on its apparent length and offset characteristics (Hunter and others, 2011, BSSA 101[3], 1162-1181). Dingler and others (2009, GSA Bull 121[7/8], 1089-1107) describe paleoseismic or geomorphic evidence for late Neogene displacement along other faults in the area, including the West Tahoe-Dollar Point, Stateline-North Tahoe, and Incline Village faults. We have used the seismo-lineament analysis method (SLAM; Cronin and others, 2008, Env Eng Geol 14[3], 199-219) to establish a tentative spatial correlation between each of the previously mentioned faults, as well as with segments of the Dog Valley fault system, and one or more earthquake(s). The ~18 earthquakes we have tentatively correlated with faults in the Tahoe-Truckee area occurred between 1966 and 2008, with magnitudes between 3 and ~6. Given the focal mechanism solution for a well-located shallow-focus earthquake, the nodal planes can be projected to Earth's surface as represented by a DEM, plus-or-minus the vertical and horizontal uncertainty in the focal location, to yield two seismo-lineament swaths. The trace of the fault that generated the earthquake is likely to be found within one of the two swaths [1] if the fault surface is emergent, and [2] if the fault surface is approximately planar in the vicinity of the focus. Seismo-lineaments from several of the earthquakes studied overlap in a manner that suggests they are associated with the same fault. The surface

  2. Potential uranium host rocks and structures in the central Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, E.J.; Dreschhoff, G.; Angino, E.; Holdoway, K.; Hakes, W.; Jayaprakash, G.; Crisler, K.; Saunders, D.F.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary study was completed of the uranium potential of the Central Great Plains. The study area extends from longitude 99 to 104 0 W and is bounded by the North Platte River on the north and the Canadian River on the south. This region has no known commercial uranium accumulations, but is an area which contains formations with similar facies that are known to have deposits in other areas. A new method of utilizing petroleum exploration gamma-ray well log data was tested in the western Kansas portion of the survey area. Gamma activities in the Dakota and Morrison formations were computer-processed by trend surface analysis, statistically analyzed, and the anomalies were compared with regional geomorphic lineaments derived from satellite imagery as well as regional geology, to draw conclusions as to their origin and significance. Conclusions are: (1) possible uraniferous provinces have been outlined in the subsurface of western Kansas; (2) the new well log data approach can be used to define potential uraniferous provinces in any well-explored petroleum region; (3) the close spatial correlation between anomalies and regional geomorphic lineaments provides strong support for the concept that the lineaments represent vertical fracture zones which can act as preferred pathways for vertical fluid migration; and (4) the location of the strongest anomalies over impervious salt bodies indicates that any uranium bearing mineralizers must have moved down through the geologic section rather than upward. Recommendations are made to extend the application of the well-log approach, to do drilling and sampling to prove whether the anomalies are really due to uranium, and to add geobotanical and emanometric measurements during future studies

  3. Geological survey by high resolution electrical survey on granite areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Naoyuki

    2002-03-01

    As an Integral part of the geological survey in 'The study of the regions ground water flow system' that we are carrying out with Tono Geoscience Center, we proved the relation between the uncontinuation structure such as lineament in the base rock and resistivity structure (resistivity distribution), for the purpose of that confirms the efficacy of the high resolution electrical survey as geological survey, we carried out high resolution electrical survey on granite area. We obtained the following result, by the comparison of resistivity distribution with established geological survey, lineament analysis and investigative drilling. 1. The resistivity structure of this survey area is almost able to classify it into the following four range. 1) the low resistivity range of 50-800 Ωm, 2) The resistivity range like the middle of 200-2000 Ωm, 3) The high resistivity range of 2000 Ωm over, 4) The low resistivity range of depth of the survey line 400-550 section. 2. The low resistivity range of 4) that correspond with the established geological data is not admitted. 3. It was confirmed that resistivity structure almost correspond to geological structure by the comparison with the established data. 4. The small-scale low resistivity area is admitted in the point equivalent to the lineament position of established. 5. We carried out it with the simulation method about the low resistivity range of 4). As a result, it understood that it has the possibility that the narrow ratio low resistivity area is shown as the wide ratio resistivity range in the analysis section. In the survey in this time, it is conceivable that the resistivity distribution with the possibility of the unhomogeneous and uncontinuation structure of the base rock is being shown conspicuously, the efficacy of the high resolution resistivity survey as geological survey on granite was shown. (author)

  4. Geophysical exploration at Takigami geothermal field in Oita Prefecture, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, M. (Idemitsu Geothermal Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-11-10

    Remote sensing study, gravity and magneto-telluric (MT) surveys in Takigami geothermal field were carried out. A great number of E-W lineaments are easily recognized with LANDSAT and so on. These E-W lineaments might be distinguished into two groups. One group might be considered to be made simply related to N-S tensional stress, the other has circular feature enclosing mountainous body. The center part of the volcano seems to be depressed relatively. These lineaments are thought to be associated with the volcanic activity which created these volcanos, in addition to the regional tensional stress. The gravitational slope is steep and inclines to the west (-35m gal minimum), the easternmost part is almost on the gravitational high. Takigami area is positioned on the gravitational slope, probably related to the large-scale tectonic depression. There are many geothermal active manifestations. The correlation between MT data and real logging data was excellent beyond expectation. In Takigami area, surface layer is resistive and shows 30-500{Omega}-m. Intermediate layer is extremely conductive one with 1-10{Omega}-m. Bottom layer is relatively resistive and is within 30-500{Omega}-m. Intermediate layer is shallow and thin in the eastern part. On the other hand, this layer is deep and thick in the western part. This shape of structure is a common feature with gravitational structure. According to the X-ray diffraction study of hydrothermal alteration, surface layer is unaltered, but intermediate and bottom layer suffer hydrothermal alteration.

  5. Neoproterozoic Structural Evolution of the NE-trending 620-540 Ma Ad-Damm Shear Zone, Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamimi, Z.; El-Sawy, E. K.; El-Fakharan, A. S.; Shujoon, A.; Matsah, M.; El-Shafei, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ad-Damm Shear Zone (ASZ) is a NE-trending fault zone separating Jeddah and Asir tectonostratigraphic terranes in the Neoproterozoic juvenile Arabian Shield. ASZ extends ~380 km, with an average width ~2-3 km, from the eye-catching Ruwah Fault Zone in the eastern shield to the Red Sea Coastal plain. It was believed to be one of the conjugate shears of the NW- to NNW- trending sinistral Najd Shear System based on noteworthy dextral shear criteria recorded within the 620 Ma sheared granites of Numan Complex, as well as right-lateral offsets within quartz veins and dikes transected by the shear zone. The present study is an integrated field-based structural analysis and remote sensing. We utilized the ASTER data for lithologic discrimination and automatic structural lineament extraction and analysis of the Neoproterozoic basement lithologies encountered along and within the vicinity of ASZ. Various false color composite images were generated and evaluated for lithological mapping and structural lineaments. The obtained map was analyzed using GIS techniques to interpret the behavior of the existing lineaments and their spatial distribution. Based on the results of the ASTER data, two significant areas; around Bir Ad-Damm and to the south of Wadi Numan, are selected for detailed field investigation. Shear-sense indicators and overprinting relations clearly show a complicated Neoproterozoic history of ASZ, involving at least three deformations: (1) an early attenuated NE-SW sinistral shearing; followed by (2) a SE-directed thrusting phase resulted in the formation SE-verging thrusts and associated thrust-related folds; and (3) late NE-SW intensive dextral transcurrent shearing played a significant role in the creation of mesoscopic shear-zone related folds, particularly in the area near Bir Ad-Damm. Such deformation history demonstrates the same episode of Neoproterozoic deformation exhibited in the NE-trending shear zones in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS).

  6. Fault distribution in the Precambrian basement of South Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, Roy H.; Nystuen, Johan Petter; Olesen, Odleiv

    2018-03-01

    Mapping of the structural pattern by remote sensing methods (Landsat, SPOT, aerial photography, potential field data) and field study of selected structural elements shows that the cratonic basement of South Norway is strongly affected by a regular lineament pattern that encompasses fault swarms of different orientation, age, style, attitude and frequency. Albeit counting numerous fault and fracture populations, the faults are not evenly distributed and N-S to NNE-SSW/NNW-SSE and NE-SE/ENE-WSW-systems are spatially dominant. N-S to NNW-SSE structures can be traced underneath the Caledonian nappes to the Western Gneiss Region in western and central South Norway, emphasizing their ancient roots. Dyke swarms of different ages are found within most of these zones. Also, the Østfold, Oslo-Trondheim and the Mandal-Molde lineament zones coincide with trends of Sveconorwegian post-collision granites. We conclude that the N-S-trend includes the most ancient structural elements, and that the trend can be traced back to the Proterozoic (Svecofennian and Sveconorwegian) orogenic events. Some of the faults may have been active in Neoproterozoic times as marginal faults of rift basins at the western margin of Baltica. Remnants of such fault activity have survived in the cores of many of the faults belonging to this system. The ancient systems of lineaments were passively overridden by the Caledonian fold-and-thrust system and remained mostly, but note entirely inactive throughout the Sub-Cambrian peneplanation and the Caledonian orogenic collapse in the Silurian-Devonian. The system was reactivated in extension from Carboniferous times, particularly in the Permian with the formation of the Oslo Rift and parts of it remain active to the Present, albeit by decreasing extension and fault activity.

  7. Soil gases and SAR measurements reveal hidden faults on the sliding flank of Mt. Etna (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Federico, Cinzia; Giammanco, Salvatore; Guglielmino, Francesco; Liuzzo, Marco; Neri, Marco

    2013-02-01

    From October 2008 to November 2009, soil CO2, radon and structural field surveys were performed on Mt. Etna, in order to acquire insights into active tectonic structures in a densely populated sector of the south-eastern flank of the volcano, which is involved in the flank dynamics, as highlighted by satellite data (InSAR). The studied area extends about 150 km2, in a sector of the volcano where InSAR results detected several lineaments that were not well-defined from previous geological surveys. In order to validate and better constrain these features with ground data evidences, soil CO2 and soil radon measurements were performed along transects roughly orthogonal to the newly detected faults, with measurement points spaced about 100 m. In each transect, the highest CO2 values were found very close to the lineaments evidenced by InSAR observations. Anomalous soil CO2 and radon values were also measured at old eruptive fractures. In some portions of the investigated area soil gas anomalies were rather broad over transects, probably suggesting a complex structural framework consisting of several parallel volcano-tectonic structures, instead of a single one. Soil gas measurements proved particularly useful in areas at higher altitude on Mt. Etna (i.e. above 900 m asl), where InSAR results are not very informative/are fairly limited, and allowed recognizing the prolongation of some tectonic lineaments towards the summit of the volcano. At a lower altitude on the volcanic edifice, soil gas anomalies define the active structures indicated by InSAR results prominently, down to almost the coastline and through the northern periphery of the city of Catania. Coupling InSAR with soil gas prospecting methods has thus proved to be a powerful tool in detecting hidden active structures that do not show significant field evidences.

  8. The Greenland analogue project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, J.; Paananen, M. [GTK Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Klint, K.E. [GEUS Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-02-15

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP Geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice-sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two drillholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the Geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP Geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP Geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area; referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  9. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2007-09-15

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  10. DETERMINATION OF THE COVERED FAULTS BY USE OF BOUGUER ANOMALIES AND MODELLING OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE OF İSTANBUL-SİLİVRİ REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Ahmet YÜKSEL

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new method is presented for the determination of the covered vertical discontinuous whose effects can not be observed in the Bouguer's gravity anomaly map of Istanbul-Silivri region. This method is based on the second vertical derivative values as well as cross-correlation between the second derivative values for a theoretical vertical discontinuous model. The maximum or minimum values of cross-correlation function takes place on the origin points of vertical discontinuity. The proposed method is applied to modelling of covered lineament structure of Silivri region after the method is tested for one and two dimensional theoretical models.

  11. The major tectonic boundaries of the Northern Red Sea rift, Egypt derived from geophysical data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Salah; Pamukçu, Oya; Brimich, Ladislav

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we have attempted to map the plate boundary between Arabia and Africa at the Northern Red Sea rift region including the Suez rift, Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform and southeastern Mediterranean region by using gravity data analysis. In the boundary analysis method which was used; low-pass filtered gravity anomalies of the Northern Red Sea rift region were computed. Different crustal types and thicknesses, sediment thicknesses and different heat flow anomalies were evaluated. According to the results, there are six subzones (crustal blocks) separated from each other by tectonic plate boundaries and/or lineaments. It seems that these tectonic boundaries reveal complex structural lineaments, which are mostly influenced by a predominant set of NNW-SSE to NW-SE trending lineaments bordering the Red Sea and Suez rift regions. On the other side, the E-W and N-S to NNE-SSW trended lineaments bordering the South-eastern Mediterranean, Northern Sinai and Aqaba-Dead Sea transform regions, respectively. The analysis of the low pass filtered Bouguer anomaly maps reveals that the positive regional anomaly over both the Red Sea rift and South-eastern Mediterranean basin subzones are considered to be caused by the high density of the oceanic crust and/or the anomalous upper mantle structures beneath these regions whereas, the broad medium anomalies along the western half of Central Sinai with the Suez rift and the Eastern Desert subzones are attributed to low-density sediments of the Suez rift and/or the thick upper continental crustal thickness below these zones. There are observable negative anomalies over the Northern Arabia subzone, particularly in the areas covered by Cenozoic volcanics. These negative anomalies may be attributed to both the low densities of the surface volcanics and/or to a very thick upper continental crust. On the contrary, the negative anomaly which belongs to the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform zone is due to crustal thickening

  12. Системы разломов тектонической зоны Рутба-Джезира на северо-востоке Аравийской платформы (Ирак) по космогеологическим данным

    OpenAIRE

    Аль-Обайди, М. М.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of remote sensing study for the tectonic zone Rutba-Jazeera, located within the Arabian platform (Iraq), revealed a system of lineaments of their contacts with faults both in the platform cover and crystalline basement. Structure of faults controls a placement of known deposits (iron ore, kaolinite, bauxite). The structural interpretations of satellite images are informative for mineral genetic studies in the Al-Hussainiat area. = Анализируются результаты космогеологическ...

  13. The Greenland Analogue Project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Jon; Paananen, Markku (Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)); Klint, Knud Erik (The National Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark))

    2012-02-15

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two boreholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area, referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  14. Exploration methods for granitic natural stones – geological and topographical aspects from case studies in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavi Selonen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional and local geological constraints for location of natural stone deposits in glaciated terrains of southern and central Finland have been studied and applied to practical exploration for natural stone. A list of geological and topographical aspects to be considered in exploration, is presented. Important aspects refer to: 1. Regional geology of the target area. 2. Magmatism (type and structure of intrusion, relative time of pluton emplacement. 3. Metamorphism (grade, mineral composition, parent material. 4. Deformation (lineaments, shear zones, folding, fault zones, fracture zones, shape preferred mineral orientations, and 5. Topography (relative elevation, micro topography. The proposed aspects can be used as geological guidelines in exploration for granitic natural stones.

  15. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Thermal histories of Mercury and the Moon. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    To determine a planet's thermal history, a wide range of data is necessary. These data include remote sensing results, photogeologic evidence, magnetic field and remanent magnetization data, composition and ages of samples, and physical parameters of the planet and its orbit. Few of these data form unambiguous constraints for thermal models of Mercury. Igneous Chronology as the time history of the differentiation and igneous activity, is defined. Igneous Chronology is used here in the sense of the apparent igneous or relative chronology of geologic events, such as plains formation (through whatever mechanism) relative to the crater production and tectonic history (lineament and scarp formation).

  16. Neotectonic of Southern Brazilian Passive Margin: evidence from field and remote sensing studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, S. B.; Fernandes, L. A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Canyons and structured-controlled coastal lagoons along Southern Brazil show morphotectonic evidence of an active response from the compressive strain on rifted continental margins. Considering the current main stress directions (E-W) and co-axial deformation, the most likely faults to be reactivated are the N45E and N45W trending systems. The area set in the eastern limit of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province, where a fault scarp marks regressive erosion and exposes a succession of fine-grained sediments belonging to the Pelotas Offshore Basin. Extrusion of enormous volumes of lavas provoked isostatic compensation during the Lower Cretaceous followed by the break-up of the Gondwanaland and the development of a volcanic passive margin. At this latitude (29°30´S), the Paraná Basin occurs as a promontory and extends below the Pelotas Offshore Basin, which sets in a continental crust. Regionally, this area is characterized by a down-warping known as Torres Syncline, limited towards the North by the outcropping of Permian sedimentary units, whilst the Serra Geral escarpment is recessed into the interior. The abrupt scarp on acidic volcanic rocks is cut-across by lineaments produced by reactivation of pre-existing faults, resulting in one of the most remarkable sequences of canyons in South America (Aparados da Serra National Park). Along the V-shaped valleys, several sets of triangular facets and suspended valleys are common. Capture, and flow of streams are controlled by the N45-70E and N45-70W trending lineaments. Besides, fault scarps showing displacement of up to 2-3 m, alluvial fan sediments, and transported soil with several sets of fracture represent a geomorphological evidence of reactivation. At the coastal plain, four depositional episodes have developed along the last 400 ka, functioning as barrier-lagoon systems. In this region, linear NE and NW lineaments constrained the shape of Holocene lagoons and affected the distribution of wet lands and

  17. Geologic mapping of Northern Atla Regio on Venus: Preliminary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikishin, A. M.; Burba, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Northern part of Atla Regio within the frame of C1-formate Magellan photo map 15N197 was mapped geologically at scale 1:8,000,000. This is a part of Russia's contribution into C1 geologic mapping efforts. The map is reproduced here being reduced about twice. The map shows that the Northern Atla area is predominantly a volcanic plain with numerous volcanic features: shield volcanoes, domes and hills with various morphology, corona-like constructions, radar bright and dark spots often with flow-like outlines. Relatively small areas of tessera occurred in the area are mainly semi-flooded with the plain material. Tesserae are considered to be the oldest terrains within the map sheet. There are many lineated terrains in the region. They are interpreted as the old, almost-buried tesserae (those with crossed lineaments) or partly buried ridge belts (those with parallel lineaments). These lineated terrains have an intermediate age between the young volcanic plains and the old tessera areas. Two prominent high volcanic shields are located within the region - Ozza Mons and Sapas Mona. The most prominent structure in Northern Atla is Ganis Chasma rift. The rift cuts volcanic plain and is considered to be under formation during approximately the same time with Ozza Mons shield. Ganis Chasma rift valley is highly fractured and bounded with fault scarps. Rift shoulder uplifts are typical for Ganis Chasma. There are few relatively young volcanic features inside the rift valley. The analysis of fracturing and rift valley geometry shows the rift originated due to 5-10 percent crustal extention followed by the crustal subsidence. The age sequence summary for the main terrain types in the region is (from older to younger ones): tesserae; lineated terrains with crossed lineaments; lineated terrains with parallel lineaments; volcanic plains; and prominent volcanic shields and Ganis Chasma rift valley. The geologic structure of Atla Regio as it appeared now with the Magellan high

  18. Structures and lithofacies of inferred silicic conduits in the Paraná-Etendeka LIP, southernmost Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, M. S.; Lima, E. F.; Sommer, C. A.; Rossetti, L. M. M.

    2018-04-01

    Extensive silicic units in the Paraná-Etendeka LIP have been long interpreted as pyroclastic density currents (rheomorphic ignimbrites) derived from the Messum Complex in Namibia. In recent literature, however, they have been characterized as effusive lava flows and domes. In this paper we describe structures and lithofacies related to postulated silicic lava feeder conduits at Mato Perso, São Marcos and Jaquirana-Cambará do Sul areas in southern Brazil. Inferred conduits are at least 15-25 m in width and the lithofacies include variably vesicular monomictic welded and non-welded breccias in the margins to poorly vesicular, banded, spherulitic and microfractured vitrophyres in the central parts. Flat-lying coherent vitrophyres and massive obsidian are considered to be the subaerial equivalents of the conduits. Large-scale, regional tectonic structures in southern Brazil include the NE-SW aligned Porto Alegre Suture, Leão and Açotea faults besides the Antas Lineament, a curved tectonic feature accompanying the bed of Antas river. South of the Antas Lineament smaller-scale, NW-SE lineaments limit the exposure areas of the inferred conduits. NE-SW and subordinate NW-SE structures within this smaller-scale lineaments are represented by the main postulated conduit outcrops and are parallel to the dominant sub-vertical banding in the widespread banded vitrophyre lithofacies. Upper lava flows display flat-lying foliation, pipe-like and spherical vesicles and have better developed microlites. Petrographic characteristics of the silicic vitrophyres indicate that crystal-poor magmas underwent distinct cooling paths for each inferred conduit area. The vitrophyre chemical composition is defined by the evolution of trachydacitic/dacitic vitrophyres with 62-65 wt% SiO2 to rhyodacite and rhyolite with 66-68 wt% SiO2. The more evolved rocks are assigned to the latest intrusive grey vitrophyre outcropping in the center of the conduits. Degassing pathways formed during

  19. Hydrogeology of the Ramapo River-Woodbury Creek valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Orange County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system and surrounding watershed areas was investigated within a 23-mile long, fault-controlled valley in eastern Orange County, New York. Glacial deposits form a divide within the valley that is drained to the north by Woodbury Creek and is drained to the south by the Ramapo River. Surficial geology, extent and saturated thickness of sand and gravel aquifers, extent of confining units, bedrock-surface elevation beneath valleys, major lineaments, and the locations of wells for which records are available were delineated on an interactive map.

  20. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Skagius, Kristina

    2007-09-01

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  1. Sources and controls of Arsenic contamination in groundwater of Rajnandgaon and Kanker District, Chattisgarh Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dericks Praise; Dubey, C. S.; Singh, Ningthoujam P.; Tajbakhsh, M.; Chaudhry, M.

    2010-12-01

    SummaryA high concentration of Arsenic (As) contamination in ground water has been reported in the village of Kaudikasa in Rajnandgaon district, wherein around 10% of the population is suffering from As-borne diseases. The region does not share any demographic or geological similarity with the sedimentary aquifers of the Bengal Delta Plain in Eastern India, but represents an igneous terrain with elevated As concentrations in groundwater. There is limited information about the source of As in groundwater and its mobility constraints. In this area, almost all the wells are located in the granitic terrain with pegmatitic intrusions. Most of these wells are characterized by As concentration above the World Health Organization ( WHO, 1999) and the BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) standards, with the highest being found in a well with more than 250 μg/L of As. Here we report petrographic studies of the granitic host rock and X-ray diffraction results that indicate that altered realgar (α-As 4S 4), para realgar (AsS), and/or tennantite (Cu 12As 4S 13), are the main mineral that contain As. This element is leached during the weathering and water-rock interactions. Microprobe analysis of the altered realgar grains of in pegmatitic intrusions of the host granite indicate 23-27 wt.% As. Remote sensing is useful to delineate the source of this contaminant, which appears to lie at the intersection of a mineralized NW-SE and N-S lineaments associated with the Kotri rift zone. These lineaments are structurally controlled as rifting followed by thrusting and other types of faulting caused left-lateral displacement of N-S Kotri lineament along a NW-SE fault plane showing sinistral shearing. This process caused water drainage in the areas to flow along these highly mineralized weak zones. Thus, the water becomes highly contaminated due to leaching of minerals at the intersection of these lineaments, clearly visible at two areas of high contamination that lie very near to this

  2. Characterization on the Fracture system in jurassic granitic rocks: Kosung and Yusung areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Yong Kweon

    2001-03-01

    The safety of waste disposal can be achieved by a complete isolation of radioactive wastes from biosphere or by a retardation of nuclide migration to reach an acceptable dose level. For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, the potential pathways of nuclide primarily depend on the spatial distribution characteristics of conductive fractures in rock mass. Major key issues in the quantification of fracture system for a disposal site are involved in classification criteria, hydraulic parameters, geometry, field investigation methods etc. This research aims to characterize the spatial distribution characteristics of regional lineaments and background fractures in eastern and western-type granite rock mass.

  3. Unified scaling law for earthquakes in Crimea and Northern Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, A. K.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2016-10-01

    This study continues detailed investigations on the construction of regional charts of the parameters of the generalized Guttenberg-Richter Law, which takes into account the properties of the spatiotemporal seismic energy scaling. We analyzed the parameters of the law in the vicinity of the intersections of morphostructural lineaments in Crimea and Greater Caucasus. It was shown that ignoring the fractal character of the spatial distribution of earthquakes in the southern part of the Russian Federation can lead to significant underestimation of the seismic hazard in the largest cities of the region.

  4. Proximity of the Seismogenic Dog Valley Fault to Stampede and Prosser Creek Dams Near Truckee, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.; Strasser, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    The M 6.0 Truckee earthquake of 12 September 1966 caused a variety of surface effects observed over a large area, but the rupture plane of the causative fault did not displace the ground surface. The fault that generated the earthquake was named the Dog Valley fault [DVF], and its ground trace was assumed to be within a zone of subparallel drainage lineaments. The plunge and trend of the dip vector for the best fault-plane solution is 80° 134° with 0° rake, corresponding to a steep NE striking left-lateral strike-slip fault (Tsai and Aki, 1970). The Stampede Dam was completed along the trend of the Dog Valley fault in 1970, just four years after the Truckee earthquake, and impounds almost a quarter-million acre-feet of water. Failure of Stampede Dam would compromise Boca Dam downstream and pose a catastrophic threat to people along the Truckee River floodplain to Reno and beyond. Two 30 m long trenches excavated across a suspected DVF trend by the US Bureau of Reclamation in the 1980s did not find evidence of faulting (Hawkins et al., 1986). The surface trace of the DVF has remained unknown. We used the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method [SLAM] augmented with a total least squares analysis of the focal locations of known or suspected aftershocks, along with focal mechanism data from well located events since 1966, to constrain the search for the DVF ground trace. Geomorphic analysis of recently collected aerial lidar data along this composite seismo-lineament has lead to a preliminary interpretation that the DVF might extend from the Prosser Creek Reservoir near 39.396°N 120.168°W through or immediately adjacent to the Stampede Dam structure. A second compound geomorphic lineament is sub-parallel to this line 1.6 km to the northwest, and might represent another strand of the DVF. As noted by Hawkins et al. (1986), human modification of the land surface complicates structural-geomorphic analysis. Fieldwork in 2016 took advantage of drought conditions to examine

  5. The Greenland analogue project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, J.; Paananen, M.; Klint, K.E.

    2012-02-01

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP Geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice-sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two drillholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the Geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP Geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP Geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area; referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  6. Mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattman, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    The use of ERTS-1 imagery for mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys is discussed. Four categories of ERTS imagery application are defined and explained. The types of information obtained by the various multispectral band scanners are analyzed. Samples of land use maps and tectoning and metallogenic models are developed. It is stated that the most striking features visible on ERTS imagery are regional lineaments, or linear patterns in the topography, which reflect major fracture zones extending upward from the basement of the earth.

  7. Silurian to Devonian magmatism, molybdenite mineralization, regional exhumation and brittle strike-slip deformation along the Loch Shin Line, NW Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Holdsworth, R.; Dempsey, E.; Selby, D.; Darling, James Richard; Feely, M.; Costanzo, A.; Strachan, Robin A; Waters, P.; Finlay, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Loch Shin Line is a geological–geophysical lineament associated with a zone of mantle-derived appinites, granites and strike-slip faulting that runs NW–SE across the Moine Nappe, northern Scotland. U–Pb zircon and Re–Os molybdenite dating of the Loch Shin and Grudie plutons, which lie immediately SW of the NW–SE Loch Shin–Strath Fleet fault system, yield c. 427–430 Ma ages that overlap within error. They also coincide with previously obtained U–Pb zircon ages for the Rogart pluton, which ...

  8. Digital geologic map database of the Nevada Test Site area, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, R.R.; Sawyer, D.A.; Minor, S.A.; Carr, M.D.; Cole, J.C.; Swadley, W.C.; Laczniak, R.J.; Warren, R.G.; Green, K.S.; Engle, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Forty years of geologic investigations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been digitized. These data include all geologic information that: (1) has been collected, and (2) can be represented on a map within the map borders at the map scale is included in the map digital coverages. The following coverages are included with this dataset: Coverage Type Description geolpoly Polygon Geologic outcrops geolflts line Fault traces geolatts Point Bedding attitudes, etc. geolcald line Caldera boundaries geollins line Interpreted lineaments geolmeta line Metamorphic gradients The above coverages are attributed with numeric values and interpreted information. The entity files documented below show the data associated with each coverage.

  9. Mapeo de lineamientos a partir de un DEM (SRTM3: desarrollo y aplicaciones para el estudio de un área de los Andes Patagónicos Septentrionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Gallegos

    2008-12-01

    correlación entre lineamientos obtenidos con la técnica presentada y geología, fallas y fracturas sugiere que los DEM pueden ser un componente importante en el mapeo geológico. Sin embargo, los lineamientos regionales obtenidos deben ser contrastados con la información estructural obtenida en el campo.This paper explores the usefulness of mapping lineaments with shaded relief maps produced by satellite image analysis software from Digital Elevation Models (DEM of three seconds spatial resolution. The area of study is located between 39ºS and 39º30´S and between 71ºW and 71º30'W and three shaded relief maps were use with incident light at 45º from the horizontal and azimuths of 120º, 240º and 360º. Three operators mapped lineaments separately in the different images obtaining a result of nine independent maps. Reproducible lineaments were considered only those mapped in at least two shaded relief maps by at least two operators or by three operators in at least one image, in the end 23 lineaments were obtained. The tendencies observed were 55º, 106º, 140º and 153º. These lineaments were compared with lineaments mapped in a GeoCoverTM Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Imagery ortorrectified compressed mosaic, in the geologic map 1:200.000 (SEGEMAR and in topographic maps 1: 50.000 (IGM. Some lineaments that were clearly identified with the DEM were not observed in the geological and topographic maps or in the Landsat imagery. The authors consider there are certain advantages in applying digital elevation models in the mapping of regional lineaments: 1 the users can control the incident angle and its azimuth; 2 The working scale can be change as needed; 3 in contrast to aerial photography, the satellite data have no deformation and it doesn't show any kind influences with anthropologic features or interference in the interpretation due to vegetation. Another advantage of the DEM (SRTM3 V2 and the GeoCoverT image used in this procedure is that the data is for

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF SANDSTONE RESERVOIRS FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY: THE PERMIAN UPPER MINNELUSA FORMATION, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Scheffler, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Upper Minnelusa sandstones form a complex group of reservoirs because of variations in regional setting, sedimentology, and diagenetic alteration. Structural lineaments separate the reservoirs into northern and southern zones. Production in the north is from a single pay sand, and in the south from multi-pay sands due to differential erosion on top of the Upper Minnelusa. The intercalation of eolian dune, interdune, and sabkha sandstones with marine sandstones, carbonates, and anhydrites results in significant reservoir heterogeneity. Diagenetic alterations further enhance heterogeneity, because the degree of cementation and dissolution is partly facies-related.

  11. Extension of Gundlakamma River Fault over eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    –SE lineaments con- trol the Musi, Palem and Gundlakamma rivers. Since the flow pattern of these riv- ers shows probable offshore extension, it may be assumed that submerged rivers are also probably controlled by linea- ments. The epicentre data (Figure 1 a... with local and regional tec- tonic disturbances in and around Ongole. Figure 1 a shows clustered epicentre dis- turbances of earthquakes aligned in NW– SE direction along Gundlakamma River, north of Ongole, which is mostly con- trolled by a major tectonic...

  12. Application of remote sensing to the photogeologic mapping of the region of the Itatiaia alkaline complex. M.S. Thesis; [Minas Gerais, Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Itatiaia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing methods applied to geologically complex areas, through interaction of ground truth and information obtained from multispectral LANDSAT images and radar mosaics were evaluated. The test area covers parts of Minos Gerais, Rio De Janeiro and Sao Paulo states and contains the alkaline complex of Itatiaia and surrounding Precambrian terrains. Geological and structural mapping was satisfactory; however, lithological varieties which form the massif's could not be identified. Photogeological lineaments were mapped, some of which represent the boundaries of stratigraphic units. Automatic processing was used to classify sedimentary areas, which includes the talus deposits of the alkaline massifs.

  13. Characterization on the Fracture system in jurassic granitic rocks: Kosung and Yusung areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Yong Kweon

    2001-03-01

    The safety of waste disposal can be achieved by a complete isolation of radioactive wastes from biosphere or by a retardation of nuclide migration to reach an acceptable dose level. For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, the potential pathways of nuclide primarily depend on the spatial distribution characteristics of conductive fractures in rock mass. Major key issues in the quantification of fracture system for a disposal site are involved in classification criteria, hydraulic parameters, geometry, field investigation methods etc. This research aims to characterize the spatial distribution characteristics of regional lineaments and background fractures in eastern and western-type granite rock mass

  14. The Greenland Analogue Project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Jon; Paananen, Markku; Klint, Knud Erik

    2012-02-01

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two boreholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area, referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  15. Cartographie des linéaments géologiques en domaine aride par extraction semi-automatique à partir d’images satellitaires: Exemple à la région d’El Kseïbat (Sahara algérien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad, N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Geologists in charge of a detailed lineament mapping in arid and desert area, face the extent of the land and the abundance of eolian deposits. This study presents a semi-automatic approach of extraction of lineament, different from other methods, such as the automatic extraction and manual extraction, by being both fast and objective. It consists of a series of digital processing (textural and spatial filtering, binarization by thresholding and mathematic morphology ... etc. applied to a Landsat 7 ETM+scene. This semi-automatic approach has produced a detailed map of lineaments, while taking account of tectonic directions recognized in the region. It helps mitigate the effect of dune deposits meet the specifications of arid environment. The visual validation of these linear structures, by geoscientists and field data, allowed the identification of the majority of structural lineaments or at least those tried geological.[fr] Les géologues en charge d’une cartographie des linéaments détaillée en domaine aride et désertique, font face à l’étendue des terrains et la présence abondante de dépôts éoliens. La présente étude présente une approche semi-automatique différente des autres méthodes d’extraction des linéaments, à savoir l’extraction automatique et l’extraction manuelle par le fait d’être à la fois rapide et objective. Elle consiste en une succession de traitements numériques (filtrage textural et spatial, binarisation par seuillage et morphologie mathématique…etc. appliqués sur une scène LANDSAT-7 ETM+. Cette approche semi-automatique a permis d’obtenir une carte détaillée des linéaments, tout en tenant compte des directions tectoniques reconnues dans la région. Elle permet d’atténuer l’effet des dépôts dunaires répondant aux spécifications du contexte aride. La validation visuelle de ces structures linéaires, effectuée sur terrain et sur la base de la carte géologique et des données g

  16. 2D and 3D modelling of magnetic and resistivity data from Aespoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Haakan

    2011-05-01

    This report presents results from modelling of geophysical data. Ground magnetic and geo electric data were collected in 1988 as part of the pre-investigations carried out before the construction of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). The work presented in this report is an evaluation of the magnetic and geo electric data with the focus on estimating variations in geometry and dip of some of the possible deformation zones indicated in lineament interpretations presented earlier. This was done by 2D forward magnetic modelling, 2D forward resistivity modelling and 3D inversion of the magnetic data. The specific aims of this work are: 1. Produce magnetic 2D forward models across 12 selected linked lineaments. 2. Produce a 3D susceptibility model of the entire data set of Aespoe. 3. Use 2D forward resistivity modelling to produce electric anomaly response diagrams for a dipole-dipole survey across low resistivity zones with various dips. The results of the modelling work will mainly be used as supportive information for deterministic geological modelling of deformation zones and rock units in the vicinity of the Aespoe HRL. The results of the 2D forward modelling of magnetic data show geologically reasonable solutions, and in most cases it is possible to make reliable estimates of the width and orientation of the cause of the targeted lineament. The possible deformation zones generally dip steeply (80 deg-90 deg) and have a width of c. 30-50 m. In some cases the modelled lineament has a diffuse character with low amplitude, which makes the model solution uncertain. Two 3D susceptibility models were created by use of inversion of the ground magnetic data; one coarse model of the entire Island of Aespoe and one more detailed model of the south-eastern peninsula of the Island, covering the volume of the Aespoe HRL. The two models fit nicely to the measured data and they are geologically realistic. It is possible to identify well-defined bodies (rock volumes) of

  17. Evidence and theory for the prediction of tectonic activity in the Basin and Range Province of Nevada and Utah for the next one million years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, E.M.P.

    1979-01-01

    Major conclusions of the report are: Important seismic activity in the next one million years will be restricted to the Intermountain Seismic Belt. Minor seismic activity in the same period will be restricted to the Nevada Seismic Belt, Sierra Nevada front, and Reno-Yellowstone lineament. There will be seismic inactivity in the same period in the rest of the Basin and Range Province except locally along high mountain frontal fault zones. In these zones, isostatic unloading will produce slow, secular, mild seismic activity for many millions of years to come

  18. Potential site selection for radioactive waste repository using GIS (Study area: Negeri Sembilan) - Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Nazran Harun; Muhammad Fathi Sujan; Karuppiah, T.; Surip, N.; Malik, N.N.A.; Che Musa, R.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose in this paper is to create the Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis on the potential site area for near-surface radioactive waste repository in the state of Negeri Sembilan. There are several parameters should be considered related to the safety assessment in selecting the potential site. These parameters such as land-use, urban area, soil, rainfall, lithology, lineament, geomorphology, landslide potential, slope, elevation, hydrogeology and protected land need to be considered before choosing the site. In this phase, we only consider ten parameters for determining the potential suitable site. (author)

  19. The econometrics of violence, terrorism and scenarios for peace in Colombia from 1950 to 2019

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Sorzano, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper continues a research born in 1993 as a consequence of the concern regarding the increase in Colombian violence, and especially for its escalation during the 1990’s, its objective is to create an econometric model capable of forecasting the path of terrorist murder under different policy options and helping the country in the design of a state policy drawing the lineaments for reaching the pacification of the country. In the first part I use The Beveridge and Nelson decom...

  20. Study of geologic-structural situation around Semipalatinsk test site test - holes using space images automated decoding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, Eh.M.; Ivanchenko, G.N.

    2004-01-01

    Performance of underground nuclear explosions (UNE) leads to irreversible changes in geological environment around the boreholes. In natural environment it was detected inhomogeneity of rock massif condition changes, which depended on characteristics of the underground nuclear explosion, anisotropy of medium and presence of faulting. Application of automated selection and statistic analysis of unstretched lineaments in high resolution space images using special software pack LESSA allows specifying the geologic-structural features of Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), ranging selected fracture zones, outlining and analyzing post-explosion zone surface deformations. (author)

  1. Using SLAM to Look For the Dog Valley Fault, Truckee Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.; Ashburn, J. A.; Sverdrup, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Truckee earthquake (9/12/1966, ML6.0) was a left-lateral event on a previously unrecognized NW-trending fault. The Prosser Creek and Boca Dams sustained damage, and the trace of the suspected causative fault passes near or through the site of the then-incomplete Stampede Dam. Another M6 earthquake occurred along the same general trend in 1948 with an epicenter in Dog Valley ~14 km to the NW of the 1966 epicenter. This trend is called the Dog Valley Fault (DVF), and its location on the ground surface is suggested by a prominent but broad zone of geomorphic lineaments near the cloud of aftershock epicenters determined for the 1966 event. Various ground effects of the 1966 event described by Kachadoorian et al. (1967) were located within this broad zone. The upper shoreface of reservoirs in the Truckee-Prosser-Martis basin are now exposed due to persistent drought. We have examined fault strands in a roadcut and exposed upper shoreface adjacent to the NE abutment of Stampede Dam. These are interpreted to be small-displacement splays associated with the DVF -- perhaps elements of the DVF damage zone. We have used the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to help us constrain the location of the DVF, based on earthquake focal mechanisms. Seismo-lineaments were computed, using recent revisions in the SLAM code (bearspace.baylor.edu/Vince_Cronin/www/SLAM/), for the 1966 main earthquake and for the better-recorded earthquakes of 7/3/1983 (M4) and 8/30/1992 (M3.2) that are inferred to have occurred along the DVF. Associated geomorphic analysis and some field reconnaissance identified a trend that might be associated with a fault, extending from the NW end of Prosser Creek Reservoir ~32° toward the Stampede Dam area. Triangle-strain analysis using horizontal velocities of local Plate Boundary Observatory GPS sites P146, P149, P150 and SLID indicates that the area rotates clockwise ~1-2°/Myr relative to the stable craton, as might be expected because the study area is

  2. Characterization of the Cretaceous aquifer structure of the Meskala region of the Essaouira Basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanich, L.; Zouhri, L.; Dinger, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aquifer of early Cretaceous age in the Meskala region of the Essaouira Basin is defined by interpretation of geological drilling data of oil and hydrogeological wells, field measurement and analysis of in situ fracture orientations, and the application of a morphostructural method to identify lineaments. These analyzes are used to develop a stratigraphic-structural model of the aquifer delimited by fault zones of two principal orientations: NNE and WNW. These fault zones define fault blocks that range in area from 4 to 150km2. These blocks correspond either to elevated zones (horsts) or depressed zones (grabens). This structural setting with faults blocks of Meskala region is in accordance with the structure of the whole Essaouira Basin. Fault zones disrupt the continuity of the aquifer throughout the study area, create recharge and discharge zones, and create dip to the units from approximately 10?? to near vertical in various orientations. Fracture measurements and morphometric-lineament analyzes help to identify unmapped faults, and represent features important to groundwater hydraulics and water quality within fault blocks. The above geologic features will enable a better understanding of the behaviour and hydro-geo-chemical and hydrodynamics of groundwater in the Meskala aquifer. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Geology of the Sierra de los ajos (Laguna Merin basin, Rocha, Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, E.; Muzio, R.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2006-01-01

    The studied area is located between Lascano city and Sierra de los Ajos hills (department of Rocha, East Uruguay). It is represented by volcanic deposits correspondent to Puerto Gómez and Arequita Formations which are exposed as remarkable and preserved hills in areas recovered by Cenozoic sediments and wetlands. Detailed geological mapping allowed the descriptive characterization of eight volcanic facies: five coherent facies and three volcaniclastic facies. Several structural lineaments located in a constrictive framework, according to the transcurrent system represented by the northeastern portion of the Santa Lucía - Aiguá - Merín tectonic corridor (SaLAM), were identified. These lineaments (Bella Vista, India Muerta and Los Ajos) controlled the tecto-magmatic arrange in this portion of the basin, determining petrographic and structural differences in the area. Particularly, to the East of the India Muerta with structural trend Nº20 felsic lavas corrrespondent to the Sierra de los Ajos and related volcaniclastic deposits are present. On the other hand to the West, intermediate to felsic lavas occurred and no volcaniclastic deposits have been yet identified

  4. Fracture network evaluation program (FraNEP): A software for analyzing 2D fracture trace-line maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeb, Conny; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul D.; Virgo, Simon; Blum, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    Fractures, such as joints, faults and veins, strongly influence the transport of fluids through rocks by either enhancing or inhibiting flow. Techniques used for the automatic detection of lineaments from satellite images and aerial photographs, LIDAR technologies and borehole televiewers significantly enhanced data acquisition. The analysis of such data is often performed manually or with different analysis software. Here we present a novel program for the analysis of 2D fracture networks called FraNEP (Fracture Network Evaluation Program). The program was developed using Visual Basic for Applications in Microsoft Excel™ and combines features from different existing software and characterization techniques. The main novelty of FraNEP is the possibility to analyse trace-line maps of fracture networks applying the (1) scanline sampling, (2) window sampling or (3) circular scanline and window method, without the need of switching programs. Additionally, binning problems are avoided by using cumulative distributions, rather than probability density functions. FraNEP is a time-efficient tool for the characterisation of fracture network parameters, such as density, intensity and mean length. Furthermore, fracture strikes can be visualized using rose diagrams and a fitting routine evaluates the distribution of fracture lengths. As an example of its application, we use FraNEP to analyse a case study of lineament data from a satellite image of the Oman Mountains.

  5. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS-1 imagery using snow enhancement techniques. [geological fault maps of Massachusetts and Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The applications of ERTS-1 imagery for geological fracture mapping regardless of season has been repeatedly confirmed. The enhancement provided by a differential cover of snow increases the number and length of fracture-lineaments which can be detected with ERTS-1 data and accelerates the fracture mapping process for a variety of practical applications. The geological mapping benefits of the program will be realized in geographic areas where data are most needed - complex glaciated terrain and areas of deep residual soils. ERTS-1 derived fracture-lineament maps which provide detail well in excess of existing geological maps are not available in the Massachusetts-Connecticut area. The large quantity of new data provided by ERTS-1 may accelerate and improve field mapping now in progress in the area. Numerous other user groups have requested data on the techniques. This represents a major change in operating philosophy for groups who to data judged that snow obscured geological detail.

  6. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS-1 imagery utilizing snow enhancement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Snow cover in combination with low angle solar illumination has been found to provide increased tonal contrast of surface feature and is useful in the detection of bedrock fractures. Identical fracture systems were not as readily detectable in the fall due to the lack of a contrasting surface medium (snow) and a relatively high sun angle. Low angle solar illumination emphasizes topographic expressions not as apparent on imagery acquired with a higher sun angle. A strong correlation exists between the major fracture-lineament directions interpreted from multi-sensor imagery (including snow-free and snow cover ERTS) and the strike of bedrock joints recorded in the field indicating the structural origin of interpreted fracture-lineaments. A fracture-annotated ERTS-1 photo base map (1:250,000 scale) is being prepared for western Massachusetts. The map will document the utilization of ERTS-1 imagery for geological analysis in comparative snow-free and snow-covered terrain.

  7. Lateral variations in foreland flexure of a rifted continental margin: The Aquitaine Basin (SW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrand, P.; Ford, M.; Watts, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    We study the effects of the inherited Aptian to Cenomanian rift on crustal rheology and evolution of the Late Cretaceous to Neogene flexural Aquitaine foreland basin, northern Pyrenees. We use surface and subsurface geological data to define the crustal geometry and the post-rift thermal subsidence, and Bouguer gravity anomalies and flexural modeling to study the lateral variation of the elastic thickness, flexure of the European plate and controlling loads. The Aquitaine foreland can be divided along-strike into three sectors. The eastern foreland is un-rifted and is associated with a simple flexural subsidence. The central sector is affected by crustal stretching and the observed foreland base is modeled by combining topographic and buried loads, with post-rift thermal subsidence. In the western sector the foreland basin geometry is mainly controlled by post-rift thermal subsidence. These three sectors are separated by major lineaments, which affect both crustal and foreland geometry. These lineaments seem to be part of a larger structural pattern that includes the Toulouse and Pamplona Faults. The European foreland shows lateral variations in flexural behavior: the relative role of surface and sub-surface (i.e., buried) loading varies along-strike and the elastic thickness values decrease from the north-east to the south-west where the plate is the most stretched. We suggest that foreland basins are influenced by the thermal state of the underlying lithosphere if it was initiated soon after rifting and that thermal cooling can contribute significantly to subsidence.

  8. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  9. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  10. Evaluation of Logistic Regression and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline Models for Groundwater Potential Mapping Using R and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study mapped and analyzed groundwater potential using two different models, logistic regression (LR and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and compared the results. A spatial database was constructed for groundwater well data and groundwater influence factors. Groundwater well data with a high potential yield of ≥70 m3/d were extracted, and 859 locations (70% were used for model training, whereas the other 365 locations (30% were used for model validation. We analyzed 16 groundwater influence factors including altitude, slope degree, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, sediment transport index, distance from drainage, drainage density, lithology, distance from fault, fault density, distance from lineament, lineament density, and land cover. Groundwater potential maps (GPMs were constructed using LR and MARS models and tested using a receiver operating characteristics curve. Based on this analysis, the area under the curve (AUC for the success rate curve of GPMs created using the MARS and LR models was 0.867 and 0.838, and the AUC for the prediction rate curve was 0.836 and 0.801, respectively. This implies that the MARS model is useful and effective for groundwater potential analysis in the study area.

  11. Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments in the Waterberg-Erongo area, central Namibia, and correlation with the main Karoo Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzförster, Frank; Stollhofen, Harald; Stanistreet, Ian G.

    1999-07-01

    The dissected landscape of the Waterberg-Erongo area, central Namibia, exposes Karoo-equivalent strata deposited in basins that occur throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Although many are of economic interest, including coal-bearing strata, their depositional history is not well understood. This study of the Waterberg-Erongo area provides detailed lithostratigraphical data, which suggest sedimentation from the late Early Triassic to the Early Jurassic in a fault-bounded depository. Subsidence and sediment supply were controlled predominantly by the northeast-southwest trending Waterberg-Omaruru Fault Zone, which defines the northwestern margin of the depository. Facies development and thickness distribution of the Karoo strata in the Waterberg-Erongo area, perhaps the most continuous of any of the Karoo basins, indicate a northeastwardly-migrating depocentre alongside that fault, in response to major extensional movements in the early pre-South Atlantic rift zone. Periodic fault movements repeatedly caused basinward progradation of the alluvial facies, which are reflected by stacked fining-upward cycles in the lithological record. On a broader scale, the results of this study suggest that the northward propagation of the rift zone between Southern Africa and South America, was partially accommodated by transfer lineaments. Local depocentres developed along these lineaments, such as those in the Waterberg-Erongo area, with localised enhanced subsidence greater than that revealed in other Namibian onshore exposures, dominated by the rifting itself.

  12. Airborne geophysical survey, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of AEC-sponsored, high sensitivity, reconnaisance airborne gamma-ray survey of the Wind River Basin area, Wyoming. The objective of the survey was to define those areas showing surface indications of a generally higher uranium content (uraniferous provinces) and where detailed exploration for uranium would most likely be successful. For the data collection tasks, a TI high sensitivity gamma-ray system consisting of seven large-volume NaI detectors, two 400-channel analyzers, and ancillary geophysical and electronic equipment was used. Gamma-ray spectrometric data were processed to correct for variations in atmospheric and flight conditions and statistically evaluated to remove the effect of surface geologic variations. Data were then compared to regional geomorphic lineaments derived from ERTS-1 imagery. Aeromagnetic data were collected simultaneously with the airborne gamma-ray survey and interpreted in terms of regional structure. Ten major anomalous uranium areas and ten less strong anomalous areas were defined within the region surveyed. These anomalies and the known mining districts and uranium occurrences demonstrated good correlation with the ERTS lineaments. The basins were defined by the aeromagnetic data. It is suggested that gamma-ray spectrometer data be supplemented by both the ERTS and aeromagnetic data to best define the targets of greatest potential for further exploration. (U.S.)

  13. Mechanics and Partitioning of Deformation of the Northwestern Okhostk Plate, Northeast Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Mackey, K.; Fujita, K.

    2007-12-01

    The tectonic evolution and present day deformation of northeastern Russia remains one of the major challenges in plate tectonics. Arguments over the existence of at least a separate Okhotsk plate between North America and Eurasia appear to be resolved on the basis of the latest GPS studies combined with elastic modeling. The question of the mechanical behaviour of the Okhotsk plate, caught between the slowly, obliquely converging North American and Eurasian plates now becomes important. We present an analysis of geological lineaments, micro-seismicity, total seismic moment release and seismic deformation rate and GPS campaign data and global plate tectonic model data (REVEL) to estimate the likelihood of future seismicity and the relative amount of elastic and viscous deformation of the lithosphere of the northwestern Okhotsk plate. We find that it is likely that the Okhotsk plate is cracked into slivers, but that rates of relative motion of these slivers are close to indistinguishable from the behaviour of a single, rigid plate. The analysis also suggests the upper bound for large earthquakes in the region to be Mw 7-7.5 which we expect to occur only on the plate boundary fault itself. This fits geological evidence for a long term offset rate 5-10 times higher on the major plate boundary fault than other lineaments cutting the Okhotsk plate itself.

  14. Geological Structures Mapping of Bukit Bunuh using 2-D Resistivity Imaging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Amalina, M. K. A.; Nordiana, M. M.; Rahman, Nazrin; Saidin, Mokhtar; Masnan, S. S. K.

    2018-04-01

    The geological area of Bukit Bunuh is very complex due to the meteorite impact that has occurred millions years ago at Lenggong, Perak. The lithology of the study area consists of alluvium, tephra dust, and granitic rock. The geological contact, fault and fracture zone were found at the study area may indicate the geological process that undergoes at a place locally or regionally. These important features have led to the further research on 2-D resistivity imaging method (2-D RIM) to study the geological features. This method can provide the subsurface image that will delineate the geological structures. The surveys include three separate lines of different length which depend on the accessibility. The surveys were done by using Pole-Dipole array and 10 m of electrodes spacing. The objectives of this research are to determine the subsurface geological contact and to determine the existence of fault/fracture zones at the contact zone. The results from 2-D inversion profiles have successfully signified the types of geological structural such as fault, contact, and fractures. Hence, the results from 2-D RIM were used to draw the geological lineaments of Bukit Bunuh. The discontinuity of the lineaments may indicate the structures present.

  15. GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuefekci, Nesrin; Luetfi Suezen, M.; Guelec, Nilguen [Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Potential geothermal areas are identified through investigation of spatial relations between geothermal occurrences and their surrounding geological phenomena in western Anatolia, Turkey. The identification is based on only publicly available data. It is expected that the study will guide further preliminary investigations performed for large areas having limited information. Magnetic anomaly, Bouger gravity anomaly, earthquake epicenter and lineament datasets are used for the analysis. The first is used without any modification whereas the rest are utilized to extract three evidence maps; distance to major grabens, Gutenberg-Richter b-value and distance to lineaments, respectively. Predictor maps are produced from these evidence maps as well as from the unprocessed magnetic anomaly map by applying two different binarization procedures. From each binarization procedure a favorability map is produced separately using Index Overlay (IO) and Weights of Evidence (WofE) methods. The findings reveal that weighting predictor maps according to spatial association between evidence maps and training points lead to more accurate prediction in both WofE and IO methods. The potential areas in the final maps are Aydin, Denizli, Manisa, Balikesir and Kutahya of which first two have been explored and exploited, and thus found to be favorable, while the rest are nearly unexplored. (author)

  16. Structural control of the basement in the central portion of the Santos Basin-Brazil; Controle estrutural do embasamento na porcao central da Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izeli, Maira G.B.; Morales, Norberto; Souza, Iata A. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    New discoveries of oil in deep water and ultra-deep water in Santos Basin suggest that it needs to be studied to better understanding of basement structures and their role in the basin control and configuration. This study characterizes the main tectonic structures of a portion at the central area of this basin, looking for their relation to the geological basement framework. The study is based on the integration of the geological and geophysical data from subsurface (offshore) and surface of the adjacent continent. These analyses include the continental structures that continue in direction of this basin (Guapiara Lineament and Ponta Grossa Arc), checking their possible influence on the basin evolution and deformation. To achieve the proposed goals, the Precambrian basement lineaments were extracted from the offshore area using remote sensing, as result was obtained strong NW-SE structural trend. According to the interpretation of seismic sections, it is possible to observe that this portion of the basin presents main NE-SW structural trend, and most of the structures are typical of passive margin and halokintics process. It is possible to see that some recognized faults in the rift deposits may be coinciding with the main continental guidelines which are projected into the basin. (author)

  17. Structure of the subducted Cocos Plate from locations of intermediate-depth earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.; Rodríguez-Padilla, L. D.; Castaños, H.

    2013-05-01

    Locations of 3,000 earthquakes of 40 to 300 km depth are used to define the 3-D structure of the subducted Cocos Plate under central and southern Mexico. Discrepancies between deep-seated lineaments and surface tectonics are described. Features of particular interest include: (1) a belt of moderate activity at 40 to 80 km depth that parallels the southern boundary of the Mexican Volcanic Plateau; (2) an offset of 150 km across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec where all seismic activity is displaced toward the northeast; (3) three nests of frequent, deep-seated events (80 to 300 km depth) under southern Veracruz, Chiapas and the coast of Mexico-Guatemala. The active subduction process is sharply delimited along a NW-SE lineament from the Yucatan Peninsula, of insignificant earthquake activity. The focal distribution of intermediate-depth earthquakes in south-central Mexico provides evidence of stepwise deepening of the subduction angle along the Trench, starting at 15 degrees under Michoacan-Guerrero to 45 degrees under NW Guatemala. Historical evidence suggests that the hazard to Mexico City from large intermediate-depth earthquakes may have been underestimated.

  18. Soil-gas radon/helium surveys in some neotectonic areas of NW Himalayan foothills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahajan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research is aimed at accessing the relationship between variation in the soil gases radon (222Rn and helium (4He and recently developed fissures and other neotectonic features in Nurpur and Nadha areas of the NW Himalayas, India. Two soil-gas surveys were conducted on/near known faults to reconfirm their position using soil gas technique and to check their present activity. During these surveys, soil-gas samples were collected along traverses crossing the observed structures. The data analysis reveals that the concentrations of radon and helium along the Dehar lineament and the longitudinal profile (Profile D are very high compared to any other thrust/lineament of the Nurpur area. The Nadha area shows high values of radon and helium concentrations along/near the Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF as compared to the adjoining areas. This indicates the presence of some buried fault/fault zone running parallel to the HFF, not exposed to the surface and not delineated by satellite data but is geochemically active and might be tectonically active too. Hence, soil helium and radon gas patterns have been combined with morphological and geological observations to supply useful constraints for deformation of tectonic environments.

  19. Deformation patterns in the southwestern part of the Mediterranean Ridge (South Matapan Trench, Western Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikidis, Nikolaos; Kokinou, Eleni; Vafidis, Antonios; Kamberis, Evangelos; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil

    2017-12-01

    Seismic reflection data and bathymetry analyses, together with geological information, are combined in the present work to identify seabed structural deformation and crustal structure in the Western Mediterranean Ridge (the backstop and the South Matapan Trench). As a first step, we apply bathymetric data and state of art methods of pattern recognition to automatically detect seabed lineaments, which are possibly related to the presence of tectonic structures (faults). The resulting pattern is tied to seismic reflection data, further assisting in the construction of a stratigraphic and structural model for this part of the Mediterranean Ridge. Structural elements and stratigraphic units in the final model are estimated based on: (a) the detected lineaments on the seabed, (b) the distribution of the interval velocities and the presence of velocity inversions, (c) the continuity and the amplitudes of the seismic reflections, the seismic structure of the units and (d) well and stratigraphic data as well as the main tectonic structures from the nearest onshore areas. Seabed morphology in the study area is probably related with the past and recent tectonics movements that result from African and European plates' convergence. Backthrusts and reverse faults, flower structures and deep normal faults are among the most important extensional/compressional structures interpreted in the study area.

  20. Manifestation of a neuro-fuzzy model to produce landslide susceptibility map using remote sensing data derived parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Lee, Saro; Buchroithner, Manfred

    Landslides are the most common natural hazards in Malaysia. Preparation of landslide suscep-tibility maps is important for engineering geologists and geomorphologists. However, due to complex nature of landslides, producing a reliable susceptibility map is not easy. In this study, a new attempt is tried to produce landslide susceptibility map of a part of Cameron Valley of Malaysia. This paper develops an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based on a geographic information system (GIS) environment for landslide susceptibility mapping. To ob-tain the neuro-fuzzy relations for producing the landslide susceptibility map, landslide locations were identified from interpretation of aerial photographs and high resolution satellite images, field surveys and historical inventory reports. Landslide conditioning factors such as slope, plan curvature, distance to drainage lines, soil texture, lithology, and distance to lineament were extracted from topographic, soil, and lineament maps. Landslide susceptible areas were analyzed by the ANFIS model and mapped using the conditioning factors. Furthermore, we applied various membership functions (MFs) and fuzzy relations to produce landslide suscep-tibility maps. The prediction performance of the susceptibility map is checked by considering actual landslides in the study area. Results show that, triangular, trapezoidal, and polynomial MFs were the best individual MFs for modelling landslide susceptibility maps (86

  1. Shrimp and conventional U-Pb age, Sm-Nd isotopic characteristics and tectonic significance of the K-rich Itapuranga suite in Goias, Central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio M.; Dantas, Elton L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geocronologia]. E-mail: marcio@unb.br; mmp1103@terra.com.br; Armstrong, Richard A. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences

    2003-03-15

    The Itapuranga alkali granite and Uruana quartz syenite are large K-rich E W-elongated intrusions, in the central part of the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Belt, central Brazil. They are associated with Pireneus lineaments, which cut the regional NNW-SSE structures of the southern part of the belt. SHRIMP and conventional U-Pb data for the Itapuranga and Uruana intrusions indicate crystallization ages of 624 {+-} 10 Ma and 618 {+-} Ma, respectively. Three zircon cores from the Itapuranga granite yielded U-Pb ages between 1.79 and 1.49 Ga. Sm-Nd T{sub DM} ages for both intrusions are 1.44 Ga and epsilon{sub Nd}(T) values are -5.1 and -5.7, suggesting the input of material derived from older (Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic) sialic crust in the origin of the parental magmas. Magma mixing structures indicate co-existence of mafic and felsic end-members. The felsic end-member of the intrusions is dominantly represented by crust-derived melts, formed in response to the invasion of Paleo/Mesoproterozoic sialic crust by alkali-rich mafic magmas at ca. 620 Ma. These intrusions are roughly contemporaneous with, or perhaps slightly younger than, the peak of regional metamorphism in the southern Brasilia Belt. Their emplacement along the Pireneus lineament suggest a syn-tectonic origin for them, most probably in transtensional settings along these faults. (author)

  2. Shrimp and conventional U-Pb age, Sm-Nd isotopic characteristics and tectonic significance of the K-rich Itapuranga suite in Goias, Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Marcio M.; Dantas, Elton L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Armstrong, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    The Itapuranga alkali granite and Uruana quartz syenite are large K-rich E W-elongated intrusions, in the central part of the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Belt, central Brazil. They are associated with Pireneus lineaments, which cut the regional NNW-SSE structures of the southern part of the belt. SHRIMP and conventional U-Pb data for the Itapuranga and Uruana intrusions indicate crystallization ages of 624 ± 10 Ma and 618 ± Ma, respectively. Three zircon cores from the Itapuranga granite yielded U-Pb ages between 1.79 and 1.49 Ga. Sm-Nd T DM ages for both intrusions are 1.44 Ga and epsilon Nd (T) values are -5.1 and -5.7, suggesting the input of material derived from older (Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic) sialic crust in the origin of the parental magmas. Magma mixing structures indicate co-existence of mafic and felsic end-members. The felsic end-member of the intrusions is dominantly represented by crust-derived melts, formed in response to the invasion of Paleo/Mesoproterozoic sialic crust by alkali-rich mafic magmas at ca. 620 Ma. These intrusions are roughly contemporaneous with, or perhaps slightly younger than, the peak of regional metamorphism in the southern Brasilia Belt. Their emplacement along the Pireneus lineament suggest a syn-tectonic origin for them, most probably in transtensional settings along these faults. (author)

  3. Deformation of the southeast part of the Columbia Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, P.R.; Camp, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Four structural elements north of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament in the southeast part of the Columbia Plateau (Washington, Idaho, and Oregon) are (1) the offlap of progressively younger basalt units from prebasalt topographic highs; (2) east-west open folds associated with reverse faulting; (3) northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest, and north-south faults with predominantly vertical displacement; and (4) vertical north-northwest-south-southeast feeder dikes. These may be explained by (1) a regional east to west tilting of the plateau caused by the isostatic rise of older rocks on the eastern margin; (2) a stress regime with a horizontal maximum principal stress in a north-northwest-south-southeast direction, and a horizontal minimum principal stress in a west-southwest-east-northeast direction; and (3) reactivation of an older northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest, and north-south structural grain in the pre-Miocene basement. The stress regime is similar to that envisaged for the area southwest of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, and the difference in the type of deformation on either side of that feature may be attributed to differences in the thickness of the crust across the ancient boundary

  4. Weights of Evidence Method for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in Takengon, Central Aceh, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela; Sadisun, Imam A.; Arifianti, Yukni

    2018-02-01

    Takengon is an area prone to earthquake disaster and landslide. On July 2, 2013, Central Aceh earthquake induced large numbers of landslides in Takengon area, which resulted in casualties of 39 people. This location was chosen to assess the landslide susceptibility of Takengon, using a statistical method, referred to as the weight of evidence (WoE). This WoE model was applied to indicate the main factors influencing the landslide susceptible area and to derive landslide susceptibility map of Takengon. The 251 landslides randomly divided into two groups of modeling/training data (70%) and validation/test data sets (30%). Twelve thematic maps of evidence are slope degree, slope aspect, lithology, land cover, elevation, rainfall, lineament, peak ground acceleration, curvature, flow direction, distance to river and roads used as landslide causative factors. According to the AUC, the significant factor controlling the landslide is the slope, the slope aspect, peak ground acceleration, elevation, lithology, flow direction, lineament, and rainfall respectively. Analytical result verified by using test data of landslide shows AUC prediction rate is 0.819 and AUC success rate with all landslide data included is 0.879. This result showed the selective factors and WoE method as good models for assessing landslide susceptibility. The landslide susceptibility map of Takengon shows the probabilities, which represent relative degrees of susceptibility for landslide proneness in Takengon area.

  5. Using Landsat 5 imagery in the assessment of groundwater resources in the crystalline rocks around Dutsin-Ma, northwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala, A. E.; Batelaan, O.; De Smedt, F.

    2000-01-01

    Landsat's TM imagery of January 1986 covering Dustin - Ma and the surrounding areas in northwestern Nigeria was used for the assessment of groundwater resources in the crystalline rocks (Basement Complex) terrain. Employing ER Mapper (5.2), surface indicator for the occurrence of groundwater such as thriving vegetation in non - irrigated lands, and fracture were identified. These were interpreted vis - a - vis the tectonic development of the are. Lineaments interpreted as fractures show two prominent strike maxima that lie between 0000 and 0300, with the more common lying between 0000 and 0100. These strike maxima correspond to the stress axis of the Pan African orogeny. The lushness of vegetation along these strikes is higher than in the neighbouring areas and indicate the presence of groundwater. On the basis of lineament density and relative lushness of the vegetal cover, the area was divided into three main hydrogeological zones namely, the zones with the highest, intermediate, and least groundwater potential, for which ground truthing is recommended for their confirmation. Geophysical surveys for the siting of boreholes are also recommended parallel to strikes between 270 o and 300 o . It is judged that the groundwater resource for this area is low because of the general lack of moist or seepage areas, the low threshold value. (0.12) of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and the generally dispersed nature of the vegetation

  6. Report for fiscal 1982 on comprehensive survey for nationwide geothermal resources. Preparation of basic map from among maps of nationwide geothermally promising areas (south Kyushu and north Kyushu); 1982 nendo zenkoku chinetsu shigen sogo chosa hokokusho. Zenkoku chinetsu yubo chiikizu no uchi motozu sakusei (Minaikyushu oyobi Kitakyushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    With an objective to prepare the basic map from among maps of geothermally promising areas in the south Kyushu and north Kyushu, comprehensive analysis has been performed from the standpoint of geothermal analysis by combining the data derived from remote sensing with the data obtained by different physical exploration processes. The analysis has used mainly the gravity data, magnetism data, radar lineament, and Landsat lineament, as well as the latest data processing technology and analytical methods. As a result of the analysis, the area around Kirishima in south Kyushu was indicated as the most promising area for the future geothermal development. This area contains a series of new volcanoes, has the fault systems grown widely, and is expected of existence of water permeable reservoirs in deep underground. The Kagoshima bay area and the Sakurajima Island area were also regarded promising. In the north Kyushu area, such promising areas were indicated as the Futagoyama area in which highly magnetized and high-density volcanic rocks are recognized, and moreover, penetration rocks with magnetic anomaly are recognized in wide area, the area with volcanic actions from the Pliocene period to the Quarternary period, and the area at the north latitude of 33 degrees 38 minutes, and the east longitude of 131 degrees 02 minute. (NEDO)

  7. A methodology to estimate earthquake effects on fractures intersecting canister holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, P.; Wallmann, P.; Thomas, A.; Follin, S. [Golder Assocites Inc. (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    A literature review and a preliminary numerical modeling study were carried out to develop and demonstrate a method for estimating displacements on fractures near to or intersecting canister emplacement holes. The method can be applied during preliminary evaluation of candidate sites prior to any detailed drilling or underground excavation, utilizing lineament maps and published regression relations between surface rupture trace length and earthquake magnitude, rupture area and displacements. The calculated displacements can be applied to lineament traces which are assumed to be faults and may be the sites for future earthquakes. Next, a discrete fracture model is created for secondary faulting and jointing in the vicinity of the repository. These secondary fractures may displace due to the earthquake on the primary faults. The three-dimensional numerical model assumes linear elasticity and linear elastic fracture mechanics which provides a conservative displacement estimate, while still preserving realistic fracture patterns. Two series of numerical studies were undertaken to demonstrate how the methodology could be implemented and how results could be applied to questions regarding site selection and performance assessment. The first series illustrates how earthquake damage to a hypothetical repository for a specified location (Aespoe) could be estimated. A second series examined the displacements induced by earthquakes varying in magnitude from 6.0 to 8.2 as a function of how close the earthquake was in relation to the repository. 143 refs, 25 figs, 7 tabs.

  8. A methodology to estimate earthquake effects on fractures intersecting canister holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Pointe, P.; Wallmann, P.; Thomas, A.; Follin, S.

    1997-03-01

    A literature review and a preliminary numerical modeling study were carried out to develop and demonstrate a method for estimating displacements on fractures near to or intersecting canister emplacement holes. The method can be applied during preliminary evaluation of candidate sites prior to any detailed drilling or underground excavation, utilizing lineament maps and published regression relations between surface rupture trace length and earthquake magnitude, rupture area and displacements. The calculated displacements can be applied to lineament traces which are assumed to be faults and may be the sites for future earthquakes. Next, a discrete fracture model is created for secondary faulting and jointing in the vicinity of the repository. These secondary fractures may displace due to the earthquake on the primary faults. The three-dimensional numerical model assumes linear elasticity and linear elastic fracture mechanics which provides a conservative displacement estimate, while still preserving realistic fracture patterns. Two series of numerical studies were undertaken to demonstrate how the methodology could be implemented and how results could be applied to questions regarding site selection and performance assessment. The first series illustrates how earthquake damage to a hypothetical repository for a specified location (Aespoe) could be estimated. A second series examined the displacements induced by earthquakes varying in magnitude from 6.0 to 8.2 as a function of how close the earthquake was in relation to the repository. 143 refs, 25 figs, 7 tabs

  9. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Himalaya in the Kangra reentrant where the great Kangra earthquake of 1905 was located. (ii) The Aravalli Delhi Mobile Belt (ADMB) and its margin faults extend to the Western Himalayan front via Delhi where it interacts with the Delhi-Lahore ridge and further north with the Himalayan front causing seismic activity. (iii) The Shahjahanpur and Faizabad ridges strike the Himalayan front in Central Nepal that do not show any enhanced seismicity which may be due to their being parts of the Bundelkhand craton as simple basement highs. (iv) The west and the east Patna faults are parts of transcontinental lineaments, such as Narmada-Son lineament. (v) The Munghyr-Saharsa ridge is fault controlled and interacts with the Himalayan front in the Eastern Nepal where Bihar-Nepal earthquakes of 1934 has been reported. Some of these faults/lineaments of the Indian continent find reflection in seismogenic lineaments of Himalaya like Everest, Arun, Kanchenjunga lineaments. A set of NW-SE oriented gravity highs along the Himalayan front and the Ganga and the Indus basins represents the folding of the basement due to compression as anticlines caused by collision of the Indian and the Asian plates. This study has also delineated several depressions like Saharanpur, Patna, and Purnia depressions.

  10. Examples of Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations in the central part of the Lower Beskids, (the Polish Flysch Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorski, Michał

    2016-04-01

    The Lower Beskids are located between the western and eastern parts of the Carpathian flysch belt, whereas the low altitudes of passes and ridges in this region have until now been identified mainly with the differences in bedrock resistance. In the light of contemporary information regarding the geology of this area, the hypothesis of the gravitational placement of large tectonic elements has become topical again. A particularly interesting area is the ridge and foreland of the Magura Wątkowska, bordering in the north with the Sanok-Jasło Pits (a denudation valley). This edge zone of the Lower Beskids has a complicated geological structure, i.e. it constitutes a tectonic contact of the Magura Unit and the Central Carpathian Depression (the depressed part of the Silesian nappe). During the field research and analyses regarding the identification of morphostructural elements, the important role of various kinds of lineaments was observed. Some of the inventoried lineaments were, e.g. large size faults or effects of the impact of tectonic processes on bedrock. Structures in the rock (cracks, faults) accompanying them are important in determining the type of macro scale gravitational movements. The outer part of fold structures in the foreland of the Magura Wątkowska shows the rotation around the longitudinal syncline axis, and is an excellent research field for a comprehensive analysis of gravitational movements, both of the basin type and the DSGSD (Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations) type. Determining the types of tectonic lineaments was based on a review of selected directions in the context of the course of tectonic structures in the study area. On that basis, lineaments were classified into two morphogenetic groups, i.e. structures that do not result in visible movements relative to the analyzed rock massif (cracks), and those causing the displacement of the rock massif (faults, overthrust). Using the directional and contour diagrams generated by

  11. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. (Itasca Consultants SAS (France)); Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O. (Geosciences Rennes, UMR 6118 CNRS, Univ. def Rennes, Rennes (France))

    2009-11-15

    Investigations led for several years at Laxemar and Forsmark reveal the large heterogeneity of geological formations and associated fracturing. This project aims at reinforcing the statistical DFN modeling framework adapted to a site scale. This leads therefore to develop quantitative methods of characterization adapted to the nature of fracturing and data availability. We start with the hypothesis that the maximum likelihood DFN model is a power-law model with a density term depending on orientations. This is supported both by literature and specifically here by former analyses of the SKB data. This assumption is nevertheless thoroughly tested by analyzing the fracture trace and lineament maps. Fracture traces range roughly between 0.5 m and 10 m - i e the usual extension of the sample outcrops. Between the raw data and final data used to compute the fracture size distribution from which the size distribution model will arise, several steps are necessary, in order to correct data from finite-size, topographical and sampling effects. More precisely, a particular attention is paid to fracture segmentation status and fracture linkage consistent with the DFN model expected. The fracture scaling trend observed over both sites displays finally a shape parameter k{sub t} close to 1.2 with a density term (alpha{sub 2d}) between 1.4 and 1.8. Only two outcrops clearly display a different trend with k{sub t} close to 3 and a density term (alpha{sub 2d}) between 2 and 3.5. The fracture lineaments spread over the range between 100 meters and a few kilometers. When compared with fracture trace maps, these datasets are already interpreted and the linkage process developed previously has not to be done. Except for the subregional lineament map from Forsmark, lineaments display a clear power-law trend with a shape parameter k{sub t} equal to 3 and a density term between 2 and 4.5. The apparent variation in scaling exponent, from the outcrop scale (k{sub t} = 1.2) on one side, to

  12. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcel, C.; Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O.

    2009-11-01

    Investigations led for several years at Laxemar and Forsmark reveal the large heterogeneity of geological formations and associated fracturing. This project aims at reinforcing the statistical DFN modeling framework adapted to a site scale. This leads therefore to develop quantitative methods of characterization adapted to the nature of fracturing and data availability. We start with the hypothesis that the maximum likelihood DFN model is a power-law model with a density term depending on orientations. This is supported both by literature and specifically here by former analyses of the SKB data. This assumption is nevertheless thoroughly tested by analyzing the fracture trace and lineament maps. Fracture traces range roughly between 0.5 m and 10 m - i e the usual extension of the sample outcrops. Between the raw data and final data used to compute the fracture size distribution from which the size distribution model will arise, several steps are necessary, in order to correct data from finite-size, topographical and sampling effects. More precisely, a particular attention is paid to fracture segmentation status and fracture linkage consistent with the DFN model expected. The fracture scaling trend observed over both sites displays finally a shape parameter k t close to 1.2 with a density term (α 2d ) between 1.4 and 1.8. Only two outcrops clearly display a different trend with k t close to 3 and a density term (α 2d ) between 2 and 3.5. The fracture lineaments spread over the range between 100 meters and a few kilometers. When compared with fracture trace maps, these datasets are already interpreted and the linkage process developed previously has not to be done. Except for the subregional lineament map from Forsmark, lineaments display a clear power-law trend with a shape parameter k t equal to 3 and a density term between 2 and 4.5. The apparent variation in scaling exponent, from the outcrop scale (k t = 1.2) on one side, to the lineament scale (k t = 2) on

  13. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  14. Use of isotopes and geophysical techniques in studying dam leakage-case of the Afamia dams Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.; Naser, R.; Al-Fares, W.; Kadkoy, N.; Sbenati, M.R.; Al-Hilal, M.; Sleman, I.; Al-Ali, A.

    2011-08-01

    Different techniques such as: hydrochemistry, environmental isotopes, radon and geophysical surveys have been applied all together in investigating the water leakages from the Afamia (A, B and C) dams during the period 2006-2008. Groundwater movement in this area shows the existence of two major discharge cones or sinks in the vicinity of B and C reservoirs. This movement suggests a probable vertical leaking and interconnection between the shallow Neogene aquifer and the deeper Karstified water bearing system of the Upper Cretaceous. Spatial distribution patterns of major ions in the groundwater provided comprehensive arguments for the existence of an active dissolution zone of calcareous rocks at a depth of about 45 m below the land surface, facilitating hence the vertical penetration of stored surface water towards the Cretaceous aquifer. The remarkable contrasts in stable isotope compositions between the depleted and highly enriched waters nearby the B reservoir provide another support for water leaks by vertical penetration beneath or very close to the B dam body. The high radon values in the soils, linearly distributed along some tectonic lineaments, may indicate the usefulness of radon method for tracing and mapping unknown faults. Application of some selected geophysical methods (electromagnetic survey, vertical geoelectric sounding and tomography plates) revealed the presence of alternating lithological heterogeneity between permeable and impermeable layers, which may lead to subhorizontal infiltration through the geological formations of the basin. Vertical leakage which could take place in certain locations via existing faults and karst and fractures that hit the main valley may pass through the dam lake. This structure is most likely causing hydraulic connections between the superficial Neogene deposits and the underlying Cretaceous fractured and permeable carbonates rocks. The presence of clayey and silty zones, mostly of high electrical conductivity

  15. Crustal seismicity associated to rpid surface uplift at Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex, Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Carlos; Tassara, Andrés; Gil-Cruz, Fernando; Lara, Luis; Morales, Sergio; Kohler, Paulina; Franco, Luis

    2018-03-01

    Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex (LMVC, Southern Andes of Chile) has been experiencing large rates (ca. 30 cm/yr) of surface uplift as detected since 2008 by satellite geodetic measurements. Previous works have modeled the source of this deformation as an inflating rectangular sub-horizontal sill underlying LMVC at 5 km depth, which is supposedly related to an active process of magmatic replenishment of a shallow silicic reservoir. However little is known about the tectonic context on which this activity is taking place, particularly its relation with crustal seismicity that could help understanding and monitoring the current deformation process. Here we present the first detailed characterization of the seismic activity taking place at LMVC and integrate it with structural data acquired in the field in order to illuminate the possible connection between the ongoing process of surface uplift and the activation of crustal faults. Our main finding is the recognition of repetitive volcano-tectonic (VT) seismic swarms that occur periodically between 2011 and 2014 near the SW corner of the sill modeled by InSAR studies. A cross-correlation analysis of the waveforms recorded for these VT events allows identifying three different seismic families. Families F1 and F3 share some common features in the stacked waveform and its locations, which markedly differ from those of family F2. Swarms belonging to this later family are more energetic and its energy was increasing since 2011 to a peak in January 2013, which coincide with maximum vertical velocities detected by local GPS stations. This points to a common process relating both phenomena. The location of VT seismic swarms roughly coincides with the intersection of a NE-SW lineament with a WNW-ESE lineament. The former shows clear field evidences of dextral strike-slip that are fully consistent with one nodal plane of focal mechanism for well-recorded F2 events. The conjugate nodal plane of these focal mechanisms could

  16. Geological Features Mapping Using PALSAR-2 Data in Kelantan River Basin, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, A. B.; Hashim, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the recently launched Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2), remote sensing data were used to map geologic structural and topographical features in the Kelantan river basin for identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslides and flooding areas. A ScanSAR and two fine mode dual polarization level 3.1 images cover Kelantan state were processed for comprehensive analysis of major geological structures and detailed characterizations of lineaments, drainage patterns and lithology at both regional and district scales. Red-Green-Blue (RGB) colour-composite was applied to different polarization channels of PALSAR-2 data to extract variety of geological information. Directional convolution filters were applied to the data for identifying linear features in particular directions and edge enhancement in the spatial domain. Results derived from ScanSAR image indicate that lineament occurrence at regional scale was mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ) in the west and Lebir Fault Zone in the east of the Kelantan state. Combination of different polarization channels produced image maps contain important information related to water bodies, wetlands and lithological units for the Kelantan state using fine mode observation data. The N-S, NE-SW and NNE-SSW lineament trends were identified in the study area using directional filtering. Dendritic, sub-dendritic and rectangular drainage patterns were detected in the Kelantan river basin. The analysis of field investigations data indicate that many of flooded areas were associated with high potential risk zones for hydro-geological hazards such as wetlands, urban areas, floodplain scroll, meander bend, dendritic and sub-dendritic drainage patterns, which are located in flat topograghy regions. Numerous landslide points were located in rectangular drainage system that associated

  17. Geological analysis of parts of the southern Arabian Shield based on Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qari, Mohammed Yousef Hedaytullah T.

    This thesis examines the capability and applicability of Landsat multispectral remote sensing data for geological analysis in the arid southern Arabian Shield, which is the eastern segment of the Nubian-Arabian Shield surrounding the Red Sea. The major lithologies in the study area are Proterozoic metavolcanics, metasediments, gneisses and granites. Three test-sites within the study area, located within two tectonic assemblages, the Asir Terrane and the Nabitah Mobile Belt, were selected for detailed comparison of remote sensing methods and ground geological studies. Selected digital image processing techniques were applied to full-resolution Landsat TM imagery and the results are interpreted and discussed. Methods included: image contrast improvement, edge enhancement for detecting lineaments and spectral enhancement for geological mapping. The last method was based on two principles, statistical analysis of the data and the use of arithmetical operators. New and detailed lithological and structural maps were constructed and compared with previous maps of these sites. Examples of geological relations identified using TM imagery include: recognition and mapping of migmatites for the first time in the Arabian Shield; location of the contact between the Asir Terrane and the Nabitah Mobile Belt; and mapping of lithologies, some of which were not identified on previous geological maps. These and other geological features were confirmed by field checking. Methods of lineament enhancement implemented in this study revealed structural lineaments, mostly mapped for the first time, which can be related to regional tectonics. Structural analysis showed that the southern Arabian Shield has been affected by at least three successive phases of deformation. The third phase is the most dominant and widespread. A crustal evolutionary model in the vicinity of the study area is presented showing four stages, these are: arc stage, accretion stage, collision stage and post

  18. GEOLOGICAL FEATURES MAPPING USING PALSAR-2 DATA IN KELANTAN RIVER BASIN, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Pour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the recently launched Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2 onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2, remote sensing data were used to map geologic structural and topographical features in the Kelantan river basin for identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslides and flooding areas. A ScanSAR and two fine mode dual polarization level 3.1 images cover Kelantan state were processed for comprehensive analysis of major geological structures and detailed characterizations of lineaments, drainage patterns and lithology at both regional and district scales. Red-Green-Blue (RGB colour-composite was applied to different polarization channels of PALSAR-2 data to extract variety of geological information. Directional convolution filters were applied to the data for identifying linear features in particular directions and edge enhancement in the spatial domain. Results derived from ScanSAR image indicate that lineament occurrence at regional scale was mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ in the west and Lebir Fault Zone in the east of the Kelantan state. Combination of different polarization channels produced image maps contain important information related to water bodies, wetlands and lithological units for the Kelantan state using fine mode observation data. The N-S, NE-SW and NNE-SSW lineament trends were identified in the study area using directional filtering. Dendritic, sub-dendritic and rectangular drainage patterns were detected in the Kelantan river basin. The analysis of field investigations data indicate that many of flooded areas were associated with high potential risk zones for hydro-geological hazards such as wetlands, urban areas, floodplain scroll, meander bend, dendritic and sub-dendritic drainage patterns, which are located in flat topograghy regions. Numerous landslide points were located in rectangular drainage system

  19. Crustal evolution of Eocene paleo arc around Ogasawara region obtained by seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Ishizuka, O.; Tatsumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara)-Mariana (IBM) arc is known to the typical oceanic island arc, and it is the most suitable area to understand the growth process of island arc. The existence of two paleo arc which consists of Oligocene and Eocene paleo age is known in IBM forearc region by geological and geophysical studies. The Ogasawara ridge is also known to locate the initial structure of arc evolution from geologic sampling of research submersible. In this region, IODP drilling site: IBM-2 is proposed in order to understand the temporal and spatial change in arc crust composition from 50 to 40Ma magmatism. Site IBM-2 consists of two offset drilling holes (BON-1, BON-2). BON-1 designed to first encounter forearc basalt and will reach the sheeted dykes. BON-2 will start in boninites and finish in fore arc basalts. The purpose of these drilling is sampling the full volcanic stratigraphy from gabbro to boninite. There is no seismic data around BON-1 and BON-2, therefore it is need to conduct the multi-channel seismic reflection survey. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology carried out multi-channel seismic reflection survey and wide-angle reflection survey using 7,800 cu.in. air gun, 5 km streamer with 444 ch hydrophones and 40 OBSs in March 2011. We obtained two seismic reflection profiles of lines KT06 and KT07 along the paleo arc around Ogasawara ridge. Line KT06 located the north side of Ogasawara ridge. Line KT07 located the trench side of Ogasawara ridge. Lines KT06 is also deployed the OBSs every 5 km interval. Thin sediments are covered with basement in both survey lines. There are some sediment filled in depression topography. The low-frequency reflection from the top of subducting Pacific plate is recognized in line KT06. The continuity of this reflection is not clear due to the complicated bathymetry. The displacement of basement in northern side of Ogasawara ridge is identified along the lineament of bathymetry in Line 06. This structure is

  20. Diffuse Volcanism at the Young End of the Walvis Ridge - Tristan - Gough Seamount Province: Geochemical Sampling and Constraints on Plume Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, C.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Sager, W. W.; Schnur, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Walvis Ridge-Tristan/Gough seamount province in the South Atlantic represents 130 Myr of continuous intra-plate volcanism that can be connected to the once conjunct Parana-Etendeka flood basalt province. With this it represents one of the few primary hotspots consistent with the thermal plume model. However, around 60 Ma, the morphological expression of the Walvis Ridge changed drastically from a robust 200 km wide aseismic ridge into a 400 km wide region of diffuse and diminished volcanism. As a result, this part of the plume trail has been described by two subtracks, one ending at Tristan da Cunha and another at Gough Island more than 400 km to the SSE. Where the Walvis Ridge forks into these two tracks there is a center prong. There is also the 39.5°S lineament of seamounts between, but oblique to, the two subtracks, which is parallel to the local fracture zone directions. All these features are at odds with the classical definition of a narrow hotspot track although Rohde et al. (2013) showed that the Tristan and Gough subtracks retain a distinct geochemical signature over 70 Myr and are consistent with a zoned, deep-seated plume. The first Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic and trace element analyses from the detailed dredge sampling cruise MV1203 show that samples from two prominent seamounts at the western end of the 39.5°S lineament have a Gough-type signature, which makes an upper mantle source for this lineament unlikely but rather indicates that the Gough-type source stretches some 200 km NNW from Gough. Tristan track seamount samples are comparable with published data, however, one new sample has a Gough-type composition suggesting leakage of this component into the Tristan-type plume zone. Seamounts on the middle prong of the Walvis Ridge fork have compositions intermediate to Gough and Tristan domains, suggesting mixing between sources or melts of the two domains. Thus, the Gough-component in the last 60 Myr of plume activity is volumetrically much more

  1. Europa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malin, M.C.; Pieri, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Europa, the second major satellite outward from Jupiter, is a lunar-sized object in synchronous rotation about that planet. Its high albedo and spectral characteristics indicate the presence of surface water ice and/or frost. Its density suggests a substantial silicate component of at least 85 percent by volume. A limited variety of landforms is seen in Voyager images, most likely because of poor spatial resolution of these data. The absence of numerous impact craters is interpreted as indicating a youthful surface and /or surface regenerating processes. A planet-wide lineament system has been interpreted to result from tectonic stresses induced by evolution of Europa's orbit and interior. Present data do not permit unambiguous tests of such interpretations. Greater insight may come from analytical or numerical models and future spacecraft observations

  2. Enhancement of subsurface geologic structure model based on gravity, magnetotelluric, and well log data in Kamojang geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustin Kamah, Muhammad; Armando, Adilla; Larasati Rahmani, Dinda; Paramitha, Shabrina

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical methods such as gravity and magnetotelluric methods commonly used in conventional and unconventional energy exploration, notably for exploring geothermal prospect. They used to identify the subsurface geology structures which is estimated as a path of fluid flow. This study was conducted in Kamojang Geothermal Field with the aim of highlighting the volcanic lineament in West Java, precisely in Guntur-Papandayan chain where there are three geothermal systems. Kendang Fault has predominant direction NE-SW, identified by magnetotelluric techniques and gravity data processing techniques. Gravity techniques such as spectral analysis, derivative solutions, and Euler deconvolution indicate the type and geometry of anomaly. Magnetotelluric techniques such as inverse modeling and polar diagram are required to know subsurface resistivity charactersitics and major orientation. Furthermore, the result from those methods will be compared to geology information and some section of well data, which is sufficiently suitable. This research is very useful to trace out another potential development area.

  3. An overview of the regional, geological and structural setting of the uraniferous granites in the Damara Orogen, Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynard, H.J.; Andreoli, M.A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Uranium-bearing granites, comprising both potentially economic deposits and source rocks for uranium deposits in duricrustal and sedimentary sequences, occur in the Damara Orogen of Namibia. The economically important uraniferous granites are mainly confined to the Central Zone, delimited by the Omaruru and Okahandja lineaments, which demarcate the boundary between two markedly different magnetic and hence depositional and/or tectonic regimes. Various models to explain the origin and evolution of the uranium-enriched granites have been proposed to date, none of which are found to explain the observed petrological phenomena adequately. The paper critically reviews the existing literature on the origin of the granites and some criteria for exploration are discussed. (author). 24 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  4. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2018-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; colonial wars in V.; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various...... culture wars – hippies against straights, dopers versus The Man, nerds contra jocks – in Vineland and Inherent Vice; and the war on terror in Bleeding Edge. In these novels warfare occasions, illuminates and interrogates the lineaments of power, not only political or military but also social...... and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order; from the concentration camps and nuclear explosions of world war two to the ballistic missiles of the cold war, the irregular engagements of terrorism and counter-terrorism, and the digitalized fall-out of cyber-warfare....

  5. Prospecting fractured rock aquifers using radon soil gases method; Analise de radonio no solo para prospeccao de agua em aquiferos fraturados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, Paulo Henrique Prado; Roisenberg, Ari, E-mail: paulohenriquestefano@hotmail.com, E-mail: ari.roisenberg@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gallas, Jose Domingos Faraco, E-mail: jgallas@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: zildete@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Groundwater prospecting in fractured aquifers depends on the detection of tectonic lineaments, which may be difficult in urban areas. A survey was carried out using radon soil gases concentrations in four localities in the region of Granite Santana and Viamao Granite, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, in order to test the method for water prospecting in fractured aquifers. The radon data have been compared with electrical resistivity survey executed using dipole-dipole arrangement. At four studied areas, an interesting correlation was noted between the two methods. At regions of low resistivity, positive radon anomalies were found in fracture zones, reaching values up to 7 times the background of the region, starting from a concentration value of 2500 Bq/m{sup 3} in a non-fractured zones to 22187 Bq /m{sup 3} in the fractured zones. (author)

  6. Study of the application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Various data compilation and analysis activities in support of ERTS-1 imagery interpretation are in progress or are completed. These include the compilation of mine accident data, areas of mine roof instability and the analysis of high altitude color infrared photography and low altitude color and color infrared photography which was acquired by NASA in support of the project. The photography reveals that many fracture lineaments are detectable through a varied thickness of glacial till. These data will be compiled on a series of 1:250,000 scale base maps and evaluated for a correlation between fracture zones and mine accidents and rooffalls. Due to high occurrence of cloud cover in the project area and to the delay in imagery shipments, little progress has been made in the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery.

  7. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques. [geological mapping of New England test area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, F. J.; Martin, K. R. (Principal Investigator); Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The procedure for conducting a regional geological mapping program utilizing snow-enhanced ERTS-1 imagery has been summarized. While it is recognized that mapping procedures in geological programs will vary from area to area and from geologist to geologist, it is believed that the procedure tested in this project is applicable over a wide range of mapping programs. The procedure is designed to maximize the utility and value of ERTS-1 imagery and aerial photography within the initial phase of geological mapping programs. Sample products which represent interim steps in the mapping formula (e.g. the ERTS Fracture-Lineament Map) have been prepared. A full account of these procedures and products will be included within the Snow Enhancement Users Manual.

  8. Atomic mineral resources and geotectonics of it's deposits in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    The necessity of nuclear power in the electric generation is increased yearly in the oil-importing nations. Accordingly it is very important and essential to investigate and develop the uranium resources in Korea. Prospecting of the uranium deposits in south Korea was started in 1960 and for twenty years, the survey of Kangneum, Chungnam and Honam coal fields, Kapyong-Chuncheon metamorphis zone and Taejeon, Boeon-Hwenam caboni-ferous slate have been made. I have studied the geologic structure, mainly the lineaments of Okcheon, Kwesan and Kapyong uranium deposits. The lieaments are not related to uranium reserves and grade but important to exploration. In future it is also necessary to study the thorium, heavy sand deposits and to determine the feasibility for developments. (Author)

  9. The study of ground water movements about Guarani Aquifer system through Parana, Sao Paulo isotopes and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rosa Filho, E.; Lima Bittendourt, A.; Chemas Hindt, E.; Duarte, U.; Montano, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study relates tectonic features to hydrochemistry properties in order to show an example where the Guarany Aquifer behaves like a closed compartiment. This situation can be used as a model to other localities with similar geological structures where the aquifer is not recharged by modern waters, therefore, groundwater withdrawal from deep wells depletes the aquifer turning its exploitation not recommended. This study area was located inside the limits of the Ponta Grossa Arch, especially by the the Rio Alonzo and Sao Jeronimo-Curiuva lineaments. Among the waters that had been already classified in Sao Paulo and Parana States (Brazil), predominate the calcium-bicarbonate and sodiumbicarbonate types and the characteristic of the water in this particular case is sodiumsulfate- chloride type with TDS above 1000 mg/L

  10. Geo-electrical and geological strikes of the Mount Lamongan geothermal area, East Java, Indonesia – preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraheni, L. R.; Niasari, S. W.; Nukman, M.

    2018-04-01

    Geothermal manifestations located in the Tiris, Mount Lamongan, Probolinggo, consist of warm springs. These warm springs have temperature from 35° until 45°C. Tiris fault has NW-SE dominant orientation, similar to some lineaments of maars and cinder cones around Mount Lamongan. The Mount Lamongan geothermal area is situated between Bromo and Argapura volcanoes. This study aims to map the geo-electrical and geological strikes in the study area. Phase tensor analysis has been performed in this study to determine geo-electrical strike of study area. Geological field campaign has been conducted to measure geological strikes. Then, orientation of geo-electrical strike was compared to geological strike. The result presents that the regional geological strike of study area is NW-SE while the orientation of geo-electrical strike is N-S.

  11. Geographical information system (GIS) suitability analysis of radioactive waste repository site in Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizal Azrin Abd Razalim; Noraini Surip; Ahmad Hasnulhadi; Nazran Harun; Nurul Nadia Abd Malek; Roziah Che Musa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project is to identify a suitable site for radioactive waste repository in Pahang using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) technologies. There are ten parameters considered in the analysis, which divided into Selection Criteria and Exclusion Criteria. The Selection Criteria parameters consists of land use, rainfall, lineament, slope, groundwater potential and elevation while Exclusion Criteria parameters consist of urban, protected land and island. Furthermore, all parameters were integrated, given weight age and ranked for site selection evaluation in GIS environment. At the first place, about twelve sites have been identified as suitable sites for radioactive waste repository throughout the study area. These sites were further analysed by ground checking on the physical setting including geological, drainage, and population density in order to finalise three most suitable sites for radioactive waste repository. (author)

  12. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Chronology of surface history of Mercury. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Phases in the history of the planet Mercury include: (1) condensation and accretion; (2) heating; (3) planetary expansion during heavy bombardment; (4) tidal spin-down and lineament formation; (5) P5 plains emplacement; (6) P4 plains emplacement; (7) peak planetary volume in P3 period; (8) scarp formation; (9) Caloris Basin formation, late class 3; (10) scarp formation and P2 plains formation; (11) smooth plains formation in and around large basins; (12) late or local tectonic stress; and (13) quiescent class 1 period. Although the cooling and contraction of the lithosphere are complete, the core remains molten as an active dynamo, producing the magnetic fields detected by Mariner 10. Plains produced since core formation (P3 to P-1) should record its magnetic activity. Cratering during the Class 2 and Class 1 periods is probably not enough to distribute ballistic materials and homogenize any color differences.

  13. Assessment of subsidence in karst terranes at selected areas in East Tennessee and comparison with a candidate site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.G.; Tanner, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    Work in the respective areas included assessment of conditions related to sinkhole development. Information collected and assessed involved geology, hydrogeology, land use, lineaments and linear trends, identification of karst features and zones, and inventory of historical sinkhole development and type. Karstification of the candidate, Rhea County, and Morristown study areas, in comparison to other karst areas in Tennessee, can be classified informally as youthful, submature, and mature, respectively. Historical sinkhole development in the more karstified areas is attributed to the greater degree of structural deformation by faulting and fracturing, subsequent solutioning of bedrock, thinness of residuum, and degree of development by man. Sinkhole triggering mechanisms identified are progressive solution of bedrock, water-level fluctuations, piping, and loading. 68 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  14. Changing concepts of geologic structure and the problem of siting nuclear reactors: examples from Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The conflict between regulation and healthy evolution of geological science has contributed to the difficulties of siting nuclear reactors. On the Columbia Plateau in Washington, but for conservative design of the Hanford reactor facility, the recognition of the little-understood Olympic-Wallowa lineament as a major, possibly still active structural alignment might have jeopardized the acceptability of the site for nuclear reactors. On the Olympic Peninsula, evolving concepts of compressive structures and their possible recent activity and the current recognition of a subducting Juan de Fuca plate and its potential for generating great earthquakes - both concepts little-considered during initial site selection - may delay final acceptance of the Satsop site. Conflicts of this sort are inevitable but can be accommodated if they are anticipated in the reactor-licensing process. More important, society should be increasing its store of geologic knowledge now, during the current recess in nuclear reactor siting

  15. An approach to delineate groundwater recharge potential sites in Ambalantota, Sri Lanka using GIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Senanayake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for fresh water in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka is rapidly increasing with the enormous amount of ongoing development projects in the region. Nevertheless, the district experiences periodic water stress conditions due to seasonal precipitation patterns and scarcity of surface water resources. Therefore, management of available groundwater resources is critical, to fulfil potable water requirements in the area. However, exploitation of groundwater should be carried out together with artificial recharging in order to maintain the long term sustainability of water resources. In this study, a GIS approach was used to delineate potential artificial recharge sites in Ambalantota area within Hambantota. Influential thematic layers such as rainfall, lineament, slope, drainage, land use/land cover, lithology, geomorphology and soil characteristics were integrated by using a weighted linear combination method. Results of the study reveal high to moderate groundwater recharge potential in approximately 49% of Ambalantota area.

  16. The global distribution of giant radiating dike swarms on Venus: Implications for the global stress state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosfils, Eric B.; Head, James W.

    1994-01-01

    Magellan radar data of Venus reveal 163 large radial lineament systems composed of graben, fissure, and fracture elements. On the basis of their structure, plan view geometry, and volcanic associations, at least 72% are interpreted to have formed primarily through subsurface dike swarm emplacement, the remainder through uplift or a combination of these two mechanisms. The population of swarms is used to determine regional and global stress orientation. The stress configuration recorded from 330-210 deg E (Aphrodite Terra) is best explained by isostatic compensation of existing long wavelength topography or coupling between mantle flow and the lithosphere. The rest are correlated with concentrations of rifting and volcanism in the Beta-Atla-Themis region. The global stress field on Venus is different than that of Earth, where plate boundary forces dominate.

  17. Block scale interpretation on the spatial distribution of the fracture system in the study sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Koh, Yong Kweon; Kim, Geon Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    The safety of waste disposal can be achieved by a complete isolation of radioactive wastes from biosphere or by a retardation of nuclide migration to reach an acceptable dose level. For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, the potential pathways of nuclide primarily depend on the spatial distribution characteristics of conductive fractures in rock mass. This study aims to characterize the spatial distribution characteristics of regional lineaments and background fracture system in eastern and western-type granite rock mass. The spatial distribution characteristics of the fracture system around 500m depth has been estimated based on the homogeneous discontinuity domain except for the highly fractured upper zone. 6 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  18. Database system of geological information for geological evaluation base of NPP sites(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C. B.; Choi, K. R.; Sim, T. M.; No, M. H.; Lee, H. W.; Kim, T. K.; Lim, Y. S.; Hwang, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to provide database system for site suitability analyses of geological information and a processing program for domestic NPP site evaluation. This database system program includes MapObject provided by ESRI and Spread 3.5 OCX, and is coded with Visual Basic language. Major functions of the systematic database program includes vector and raster farmat topographic maps, database design and application, geological symbol plot, the database search for the plotted geological symbol, and so on. The program can also be applied in analyzing not only for lineament trends but also for statistic treatment from geologically site and laboratory information and sources in digital form and algorithm, which is usually used internationally

  19. Contribution of space platforms to a ground and airborne remote sensing programme over active Italian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinis, R. (Principal Investigator); Lechi, G. M.; Marino, C. M.; Tonelli, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A method has been suggested for the forecasting of the lateral eruptions of Mount Etna, through the multispectral analysis of the vegetation behavior. Unknown geological lineaments which seem to be related to deep crustal movements have been discovered using the ERTS-1 imagery. Results in the geological field were obtained in the study of the general structure of the Alpine range. In the field of official vegetation classification, ERTS-1 images were used for a preliminary study of rice fields in northern Italy. Very good experimental results have been obtained using the Skylab multispectral photographs. In the field of hydrogeology and soil type discrimination discoveries of unknown paleoriver beds have been made in the northeastern part of the Po Valley using the multispectral imagery of SL3. The superior resolution of Skylab was a fundamental element for the success of this investigation.

  20. An integrated study of remotely sensed and geophysical data for mineral exploration in Lincoln county, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, H.; Levandowsk, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    The mineral belts of Lincoln County were studied using geophysical and remote sensing data. Digital Thematic Mapper (TM) data was processed in a new normalization technique that discriminates hydrothermal alteration from the other cover types in the area. This technique is robust, appears to be scene independent, and resulted in the discovery of previously unknown areas of hydrothermal alteration. Lineament analysis was carried out using a variety of filters on the TM data. Gamma-ray, as well as aeromagnetic and gravity data were used, along with the TM data, to identify the specific attributes of known mineral deposits in order to outline other potential target areas. In this paper color pseudo-three-dimensional plot of gamma-ray data is used to identify areas that have high Potassium and Thorium counts and are also characterized by significant K/Th ratio values

  1. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Institue, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  2. Significance of Airborne Gamma-ray spectrometric data of Umm bisilla Area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabie, S I [Nuclear materials authority, Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Umm bisilla area, located in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt, consists mainly of basement rocks. The present investigation of the airborne spectrometric data is to define the meaningful anomalies from the raw data by applying the significance factor techniques, by calculating the significant radioactive provinces. Determination of the gross structural pattern and broad variations in composition of the crystalline basement, to define the relationships between the tectonic features of the area as interpreted from aeromagnetic data, with the significant anomalies revealed from spectrometric data was carried out through the application of different magnetic techniques. Five significant uraniferous zones were detected associated with Umm Bisilla granite, amphibolite, and grey granite. The intersection of the structural lineaments interpreted from aeromagnetic data illustrated good correlation with the significant uranium anomalous zones interpreted from spectrometric data, and indicated that the concentration is structurally. 15 figs.

  3. Neotectonics of the Vajont dam site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Franco; Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2003-08-01

    The disastrous Vajont landslide (NE Italy) of 9 October 1963 is generally thought to have occurred on an existing failure surface. Reassessment of the morphological and structural evidence suggests that movement was on a normal fault plane which had juxtaposed Cretaceous limestone and highly fractured rock debris, thus rendering the dam site unusually susceptible to massive sliding. The proposed fault is consistent in strike with the regional lineament pattern. Although movement was triggered by the combined effects of heavy rainfall and changes in reservoir level, there is circumstantial evidence that seismicity played a contributory part in mobilising the slide by increasing pore pressure at the base of the slide as well as by any associated shaking.

  4. Geomorphology and seismic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Mario

    1991-07-01

    The author analyses the contributions provided by geomorphology in studies suited to the assessment of seismic risk: this is defined as function of the seismic hazard, of the seismic susceptibility, and of the vulnerability. The geomorphological studies applicable to seismic risk assessment can be divided into two sectors: (a) morpho-neotectonic investigations conducted to identify active tectonic structures; (b) geomorphological and morphometric analyses aimed at identifying the particular situations that amplify or reduce seismic susceptibility. The morpho-neotectonic studies lead to the identification, selection and classification of the lineaments that can be linked with active tectonic structures. The most important geomorphological situations that can condition seismic susceptibility are: slope angle, debris, morphology, degradational slopes, paleo-landslides and underground cavities.

  5. Linear geologic structure and magic rock discrimination as determined from infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offield, T. W.; Rowan, L. C.; Watson, R. D.

    1970-01-01

    Color infrared photographs of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana show the distribution of mafic dikes and amphibolite bodies. Lineaments that cross grassy plateaus can be identified as dikes by the marked constrast between the dark rocks and the red vegetation. Some amphibolite bodies in granitic terrain can also be detected by infrared photography and their contacts can be accurately drawn due to enchanced contrast of the two types of rock in the near infrared. Reflectance measurements made in the field for amphibolite and granite show that the granite is 25% to 50% more reflective in the near infrared than in the visible region. Further enhancement is due to less atmospheric scattering than in the visible region. Thermal infrared images of the Mill Creek, Oklahoma test site provided information on geologic faults and fracture systems not obtainable from photographs. Subtle stripes that cross outcrop and intervening soil areas and which probably record water distribution are also shown on infrared photographs.

  6. Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W., III

    2009-01-01

    Geological mapping of the V-56 quadrangle (Fig. 1) reveals various tectonic and volcanic features and processes in Lada Terra that consist of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, volcanic plains and impact craters. This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different material units, deformational features or lineament patterns and impact crater materials. In addition, we also establish the relative age relationships (e.g., overlapping or cross-cutting relationship) between them, in order to reconstruct the geologic history. Basically, this quadrangle addresses how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts, in addition to evolution of tesserae, regional plains and impact craters, which are also significant geological units of Lada Terra.

  7. Conceptual model of a logical system processor of selection to electrical filters for correction of harmonics in low voltage lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastre, Arlys; Torriente, Ives; Méndez, Erik F.; Cordovés, Alexis

    2017-06-01

    In the present investigation, the authors propose a conceptual model for the analysis and the decision making of the corrective models to use in the mitigation of the harmonic distortion. The authors considered the setting of conventional models, and such adaptive models like the filters incorporation to networks neuronal artificial (RNA's) for the mitigating effect. In addition to the present work is a showing of the experimental model that learns by means of a flowchart denoting the need to use artificial intelligence skills for the exposition of the proposed model. The other aspect considered and analyzed are the adaptability and usage of the same, considering a local reference of the laws and lineaments of energy quality that demands the Department of Electricity and Energy Renewable (MEER) of Equator.

  8. Geophysical exploration for uranium in Champaner group of rocks, Panchmahals district, Gujarat, India: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimha Rao, R.L.; Sethuram, S.; Markandeyulu, A.; Chakraborty, K.; Tiku, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Geophysical investigations comprising gravity, magnetic, resistivity and induced polarization methods were carried out at Garumal, Panchmahals district, Gujarat, where uranium mineralisation occurs in Champaner group of rocks as fracture controlled veins along the axial zone of a WNW-ESE plunging fold. The distinct break in the Bouguer gravity contour map signifies a lineament within the Champaner group of rocks and this probably represents a mega-fracture. Sharp magnetic anomalies forming a ring and the associated high resistivity characterize an acidic intrusive body, the probable source for the uranium mineralisation occurring in this area. Resistivity contour map delineates the lithic boundaries distinctly. The linear magnetic feature observed over a strike length of 2.5 km represents a small scale skarn-type iron ore deposit. (author)

  9. Potential of semiautomated, synoptic geologic studies for characterization of hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Beaver, D.E.; Glennon, M.A.; Eliason, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Siting studies for licensing hazardous facilities require three-dimensional characterization of site geology including lithology, structure, and tectonics. The scope of these studies depends on the type of hazardous facility and its associated regulations. This scope can vary from a pro forma literature review to an extensive, multiyear research effort. Further, the regulatory environment often requires that the credibility of such studies be established in administrative and litigative proceedings, rather than solely by technical peer review. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a technology called remote geologic analysis (RGA). This technology provides reproducible photogeologic maps, determinations of three- dimensional faults and fracture sets expressed as erosional lineaments or planar topographic features, planar feature identification in seismic hypocenter data, and crustal- stress/tectonic analyses. Results from the RGA establish a foundation for interpretations that are defensible in licensing proceedings

  10. Application of the ERTS system to the study of Wyoming resources with emphasis on the use of basic data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, R. S.; Marrs, R. W.; Breckenridge, R. M.; Blackstone, D. L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Many potential users of ERTS data products and other aircraft and satellite imagery are limited to visual methods of analyses of these products. Illustrations are presented from Wyoming studies that have employed these standard data products for a variety of geologic and related studies. Possible economic applications of these studies are summarized. Studies include regional geologic mapping for updating and correcting existing maps and to supplement incomplete regional mapping; illustrations of the value of seasonal images in geologic mapping; specialized mapping of such features as sand dunes, playa lakes, lineaments, glacial features, regional facies changes, and their possible economic value; and multilevel sensing as an aid in mineral exploration. Examples of cooperative studies involving botanists, plant scientists, and geologists for the preparation of maps of surface resources that can be used by planners and for environmental impact studies are given.

  11. Discrete fracture network for the Forsmark site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. [Itasca Consultants, Ecully (France); Davy, P.; Bour, O.; Dreuzy, J.R. de [Geosciences, Rennes (France)

    2006-08-15

    In this report, we aim at defining a self-consistent method for analyzing the fracture patterns from boreholes, outcrops and lineaments. The objective was both to point out some variations in the fracture network parameters, and to define the global scaling fracture models that can encompass all the constraints brought by the different datasets. Although a full description of the DFN model variability is obviously fundamental for the future, we have put emphasis on the determination of mean parameters. The main parameters of the disc-shaped DFN model are the fracture size, orientations and spatial density distribution. The scaling model is defined as an extrapolation of existing i) observations at specific scales and ii) local fitting models to the whole range of scales. The range of possible models is restricted to the power-law scaling models. During the project we have put emphasize on the definition of the theory and methodology necessary to assess a sound comparison between data taken at different scales, with different techniques. Both 'local' and 'global' models have been investigated. Local models are linked exactly to the dataset they represent. Then, the global DFN models arise from the association of local models, different scales and different sample support shapes. Discrepancies between local and global model illustrate the variability associated to the DFN models. We define two possible Global Scaling Models (GSM). The first one is consistent with the scaling measured in the outcrops (Model A). Its scaling exponent is a{sub 3d}=3.5 (eq. to k{sub r}=2.5); it overestimates the fracture densities observed in the lineament maps. The second one assumes that both lineaments and outcrops belong to the same distribution model (Model B), which entails a scaling exponent a{sub 3d}=3.9 (eq. to k{sub r}=2.9). Both models have been tested by looking for the best consistency in the fracture density-dip relationships, between boreholes data at

  12. A review of the sedimentology of the Early Proterozoic Pretoria Group, Transvaal Sequence, South Africa: implications for tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, P. G.; Schreiber, U. M.; van der Neut, M.

    The sedimentary rocks of the Early Proterozoic Pretoria Group form the floor rocks to teh 2050 M.a. Bushveld Complex. An overall alluvial fan-fan-delta - lacustrine palaeoenvironmental model is postulated for the Pretoria Group. This model is compatible with a continental half-graben tectonic setting, with steep footwall scarps on the southern margin and a lower gradient hanging wall developed to the north. The latter provided much of the basin-fill detritus. It is envisaged that the southern boundary fault system migrated southwards by footwall collapse as sedimentation continued. Synsedimentary mechanical rifting, associated with alluvial and deltaic sedimentation (Rooihoogte-Strubenkop Formations) was followed by thermal subsidence, with concomitant transgressive lacustrine deposition (Daspoort-Magaliesberg Formations). The proposed half-graben basin was probably related to the long-lived Thabazimbi-Murchison and Sugarbush-Barberton lineaments, which bound the preserved outcrops of the Pretoria Group.

  13. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the proterozoic granites from Jhabua and Dhar districts, Madhya Pradesh, India and their bearing on uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, P.C.; Goyal, Navin; Rawal, Neeru

    2004-01-01

    In the western part of Madhya Pradesh a number of small plutonic granites occur as intrusive into the gneisses and Aravalli metasediments. Granites are of grey, pink colour and gneissic varieties. Mineralogically, the granites are two mica bearing. Chemically they are K 2 O rich, calc-alkaline, metaluminous to peraluminous and differentiated in nature. Tectonically they are volcanic arc types with an affinity to syn-collisional setup. Basement reactivation may be the cause of the emplacement of these granites as the area is traversed by a number of basement lineaments. They are enriched in light REE with Ce/Yb ratio ranging from 1.4 to 8.4. Negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* 0.2 to 0.8) suggests that they are fractionated. High Th/U ratio (1-18) indicates that uranium has been leached out. Hence the overlying infratrappeans hold potential for litho/structural controlled uranium mineralisation.(author)

  14. Work Report 1994-1995 Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Electrical Research Institute)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas.

    1995-01-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Electrical Research Institute) collaborates with the Comision Federal de Electricidad (Electricity Federal Commission) and with the public and private entities of the electric sector in the solution of scientific and technological problems. The activity of the Institute follows the lineaments of the Secretaria de Energia (Energy Secretariat) and is inside the frame of the programs of national modernization. This two-year report presents in seven sections the activities of the Institute; the sections are: 1. Importance of the IIE in the economic context of the Governmental sector. 2. Orientations of sectorial structural policy and main operation results. 3. Structural change, 1994-1995. 4. Research and Development, advances and results. 5. Budget and financial situation. 6. Statistical Annex. 7. Glossary

  15. Discrete fracture network for the Forsmark site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcel, C.; Davy, P.; Bour, O.; Dreuzy, J.R. de

    2006-08-01

    In this report, we aim at defining a self-consistent method for analyzing the fracture patterns from boreholes, outcrops and lineaments. The objective was both to point out some variations in the fracture network parameters, and to define the global scaling fracture models that can encompass all the constraints brought by the different datasets. Although a full description of the DFN model variability is obviously fundamental for the future, we have put emphasis on the determination of mean parameters. The main parameters of the disc-shaped DFN model are the fracture size, orientations and spatial density distribution. The scaling model is defined as an extrapolation of existing i) observations at specific scales and ii) local fitting models to the whole range of scales. The range of possible models is restricted to the power-law scaling models. During the project we have put emphasize on the definition of the theory and methodology necessary to assess a sound comparison between data taken at different scales, with different techniques. Both 'local' and 'global' models have been investigated. Local models are linked exactly to the dataset they represent. Then, the global DFN models arise from the association of local models, different scales and different sample support shapes. Discrepancies between local and global model illustrate the variability associated to the DFN models. We define two possible Global Scaling Models (GSM). The first one is consistent with the scaling measured in the outcrops (Model A). Its scaling exponent is a 3d =3.5 (eq. to k r =2.5); it overestimates the fracture densities observed in the lineament maps. The second one assumes that both lineaments and outcrops belong to the same distribution model (Model B), which entails a scaling exponent a 3d =3.9 (eq. to k r =2.9). Both models have been tested by looking for the best consistency in the fracture density-dip relationships, between boreholes data at depth (based on boreholes KFM02A, KFM

  16. Use of the high-resolution satellite images for detection of fractures related to the ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Mondaca, M.; Soto-Pinto, C. A.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Aster and GeoEye satellite high-resolution images were used to detect the structures related to the fracturing of the upper crust in the North of Chile. In particular, lineament analysis has been applied to detect the presence of epithermal fluids of low sulfurization associated with the Paleozoic ore deposits. These results have been compared with the location of the minerals altered by the presence of geothermal fluids detected using the spectral libraries. Later, the presence of fractures has been corroborated during recognition of fractures in situ and the geochemical analysis of samples of minerals altered by the presence of fluids. It was shown that the results obtained are relevant for the gold vein detection.

  17. Tectonic inheritage from adjacent basement, north of the Campos Basin; Heranca tectonica no embasamento adjacente no norte da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Felipe R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Geologia Aplicada; Souza, Iata A. de; Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of the Atlantic Brazilian basins is a target of researches since the firth discovery of oil deposits. With the advance of the geophysical methods the understanding of the structures in depth became possible. The objective of this paper is to determine if the adjacent basement in the north of Campos Basin has significant influence in the identification of areas that can contain hydrocarbons. Therefore, lineaments had been extracted with SRTM images of continental basement and the main alignment was correlated with gravimetric anomalies map and seismic data. Eight levels on seismic data had been interpreted (basement, top rift, shallow water Albian, Albian, mid-Oligocene and mid-Miocene). In all levels were identified a fault normal system, which cut sediments since basement until the Recent. The main direction of the basement is NE-SW, and the alignments formed for basin basement faults coincide with this direction, what indicates that the system is active and also genetically related. (author)

  18. Assessment of groundwater recharge potential zone using GIS approach in Purworejo regency, Central Java province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanto, Daniel Eko; Hardiman, Gagoek

    2018-02-01

    Floods and droughts in Purworejo regency are an indication of problems in groundwater management. The current development progress has led to land conversion which has an impact on the problem of water infiltration in Purworejo regency. This study aims to determine the distribution of groundwater recharge potential zones by using geographic information system as the basis for ground water management. The groundwater recharge potential zone is obtained by overlaying all the thematic maps that affect the groundwater infiltration. Each thematic map is weighted according to its effect on groundwater infiltration such as land-use - 25%, rainfall - 20%, litology - 20%, soil - 15%, slope - 10%, lineament - 5%, and river density - 5% to find groundwater recharge potential zones. The groundwater recharge potential zones thus obtained were divided into five categories, viz., very high, high, medium, low and very low zones. The results of this study may be useful for better groundwater planning and management.

  19. Fluid flow in crystalline rocks: Relationships between groundwater spring alignments and other surface lineations at Altnabreac, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, N.R.; McEwen, T.J.; Lee, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    The Strath Halladale Granite in the region around Altnabreac, northern Scotland, United Kingdom, has been studied with a view to establishing a relationship between the regional distribution of faults and fracture zones, surface discharges of groundwater, and groundwater flow systems. A major component of the groundwater flow is through the rock fractures. Because of the extensive superficial cover the surface expression of major fractures was difficult to identify from the limited surface exposures. Geophysical surveys and aerial photography enabled the authors to define lineations which could be related to the presence of fractures. The areal distribution of groundwater spring discharges was mapped using thermal infrared line scan techniques. The distribution of these springs has been studied to assess their relationships to surface lineaments and to correlations with geophysical and fracture mapping data. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  20. Tectonic contact beetwen Paleozoic and Triassic rocks south of Podolševa (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Celarc

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Tectonic contact between Paleozoic and Triassic rocks south of Podolševa, which passes prominent cliffs over the left bank of Savinja river (Klemenča peč, Jamnikova peč, Golerjeva peč, Strevčeva peč and Huda peč, is on the basis of the new mapping a steep fault, dipping to the north. In the last phase, the fault was dextral strike – slip active, before was probably reverse, and can represent accompanying structure of Periadriatic lineament. It was under transpresive tectonic regime and complies with model of positive flower structure.We named it Podol{evski prelom (Podol{eva fault.

  1. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  2. William Blake's visions and the Unio Artistica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo H. Lindberg

    1970-02-01

    Full Text Available To Blake art was a vision of the spiritual world, as he could talk about "Poetry, Painting & Music, the three Powers in Man of conversing with Paradise, which the flood did not Sweep away." Every work of art is an open window into eternity. God appears to man in art. Artistic inspiration is the same as the union with God. There is an unio artistica, a sister to the unio mystica. Blake accepts that reason cannot grasp the divine vision and understand it. That is why he always talks of the vision as appearing in stronger and better lineaments, and a stronger and better light than nature can produce or mortal and perishing organs can apprehend. But art can grasp it. The central conception of mysticism, the undescribable unio mystica, is present in Blake. He is a mystic. The only difference between Blake and the classical mystics is in terminology. When they say "God" Blake very often says "Art".

  3. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado, using Skylab EREP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Prost, G. L.; Knepper, D. H.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Huntley, D.; Weimer, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photographs are superior to ERTS images for photogeologic interpretation, primarily because of improved resolution. Lithologic contacts can be detected consistently better on Skylab S190A photos than on ERTS images. Color photos are best; red and green band photos are somewhat better than color-infrared photos; infrared band photos are worst. All major geologic structures can be recognized on Skylab imagery. Large folds, even those with very gentle flexures, can be mapped accurately and with confidence. Bedding attitudes of only a few degrees are recognized; vertical exaggeration factor is about 2.5X. Mineral deposits in central Colorado may be indicated on Skylab photos by lineaments and color anomalies, but positive identification of these features is not possible. S190A stereo color photography is adequate for defining drainage divides that in turn define the boundaries and distribution of ground water recharge and discharge areas within a basin.

  4. Mapping erosion susceptibility by a multivariate statistical method: A case study from the Ayvalık region, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Aykut; Türk, Necdet

    2011-09-01

    Erosion is one of the most important natural hazard phenomena in the world, and it poses a significant threat to Turkey in terms of land degredation and desertification. To cope with this problem, we must determine which areas are erosion-prone. Many studies have been carried out and different models and methods have been used to this end. In this study, we used a logistic regression to prepare an erosion susceptibility map for the Ayvalık region in Balıkesir (NW Turkey). The following were our assessment parameters: weathering grades of rocks, slope gradient, structural lineament density, drainage density, land cover, stream power index (SPI) and profile curvature. These were processed by Idrisi Kilimanjaro GIS software. We used logistic regression analysis to relate predictor variables to the occurrence or non-occurrence of gully erosion sites within geographic cells, and then we used this relationship to produce a probability map for future erosion sites. The results indicate that lineament density, weathering grades of rocks and drainage density are the most important variables governing erosion susceptibility. Other variables, such as land cover and slope gradient, were revealed as secondary important variables. Highly weathered basalt, andesite, basaltic andesite and lacustrine sediments were the units most susceptible to erosion. In order to calculate the prediction accuracy of the erosion susceptibility map generated, we compared it with the map showing the gully erosion areas. On the basis of this comparison, the area under curvature (AUC) value was found to be 0.81. This result suggests that the erosion susceptibility map we generated is accurate.

  5. Structural control on arc volcanism: The Caviahue Copahue complex, Central to Patagonian Andes transition (38°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Daniel; Folguera, Andrés; Ramos, Victor A.

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes the volcanostratigraphy, structure, and tectonic implications of an arc volcanic complex in an oblique subduction setting: the Caviahue caldera Copahue volcano (CAC) of the Andean margin. The CAC is located in a first-order morphotectonic transitional zone, between the low and narrow Patagonian and the high and broad Central Andes. The evolution of the CAC started at approximately 4-3 Ma with the opening of the 20 × 15 km Caviahue pull-apart caldera; Las Mellizas volcano formed inside the caldera and collapsed at approximately 2.6 Ma; and the Copahue volcano evolved in three stages: (1) 1.2-0.7 Ma formed the approximately 1 km thick andesitic edifice, (2) 0.7-0.01 Ma erupted andesitic-dacitic subglacial pillow lavas, and (3) 0.01-0 Ma erupted basaltic-andesites and pyroclastic flows from fissures, aligned cones, and summit craters. Magma ascent has occurred along planes perpendicular to the least principal horizontal stress, whereas hydrothermal activity and hot springs also occur along parallel planes. At a regional scale, Quaternary volcanism concentrates along the NE-trending, 90 km long Callaqui-Copahue-Mandolegüe lineament, the longest of the southern volcanic zone, which is here interpreted as an inherited crustal-scale transfer zone from a Miocene rift basin. At a local scale within the CAC, effusions are controlled by local structures that formed at the intersection of regional fault systems. The Central to Patagonian Andes transition occurs at the Callaqui-Copahue-Mandolegüe lineament, which decouples active deformation from the intra-arc strike-slip Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone to the south and the backarc Copahue-Antiñir thrust system.

  6. Snake River Plain Play Fairway Analysis – Phase 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shervais, John W. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology; Glen, Jonathan M. [US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Liberty, Lee M. [Boise State Univ., ID (United States). Center for Geophysical Investigation of the Shallow Subsurface; Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gasperikova, Erika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Snake River volcanic province (SRP) overlies a thermal anomaly that extends deep into the mantle; it represents one of the highest heat flow provinces in North America. Our goals for this Phase 1 study are to: (1) adapt the methodology of Play Fairway Analysis for geothermal exploration to create a formal basis for its application to geothermal systems, (2) assemble relevant data for the SRP from publicly available and private sources, and (3) build a geothermal play fairway model for the SRP and identify the most promising plays, using software tools that are standard in the petroleum industry. The success of play fairway analysis in geothermal exploration depends critically on defining a systematic methodology that is grounded in theory (as developed within the petroleum industry over the last two decades) and within the geologic and hydrologic framework of real geothermal systems. Our preliminary assessment of the data suggests that important undiscovered geothermal resources may be located in several areas of the SRP, including the western SRP (associated with buried lineaments defined by gravity or magnetic anomalies, and capped by extensive deposits of lacustrine sediment), at lineament intersections in the central SRP (along the Banbury-Hagerman trend NW of Twin Falls, and along the northern margin of the Mt Bennett Hills-Camas Prairie area), and along the margins of the eastern SRP. Additional high temperature resources are likely associated with rhyolite domes and crypto-domes in the eastern SRP, but are masked by shallow groundwater flow leading to low upper crustal heat flow values. These blind resources may be exploitable with existing deep drilling technology. Groundwater modeling planned for later phases of the PFA project will address whether temperatures at viable producing depths are sufficient to support electricity production.

  7. Evidence for an east-west regional gravity trend in northern Tunisia: Insight into the structural evolution of northern Tunisian Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallouli, Chokri; Mogren, Saad; Mickus, Kevin; Turki, Mohamed Moncef

    2013-11-01

    The Atlas orogeny in northern Algeria and Tunisia led to the destruction of Tethys oceanic lithosphere and cumulated in a collision of microplates rifted off the European margin with the North African continental margin. The location of the boundary between African plate and Kabylian microplate is expressed in northern Algeria by a crustal wedge with double vergence of thrust sheets, whereas in northern Tunisia the geologic environment is more complex and the location of the plate boundary is ambiguous. In this study, we analyzed gravity data to constrain the crustal structure along the northern margin of Tunisia. The analysis includes a separation of regional and residual gravity anomalies and the application of gradient operators to locate density contrast boundaries. The horizontal gradient magnitude and directional gradient highlight a prominent regional E-W gravity gradient in the northern Tunisian Atlas interpreted as a deep fault (active since at least the Early Mesozoic) having a variable kinematic activity depending on the tectonic regime in the region. The main E-W gravity gradient separates two blocks having different gravitational and seismic responses. The southern block has numerous gravity lineaments trending in different directions implying several density variations within the crust, whereas the northern block shows a long-wavelength negative gravity anomaly with a few lineaments. Taking into account the geologic context of the Western Mediterranean region, we consider the E-W prominent feature as the boundary between African plate and Kabylian microplate in northern Tunisia that rifted off Europe. This hypothesis fits most previous geological and geophysical studies and has an important impact on the petroleum and mineral resource prospection as these two blocks were separated by an ocean and they did not belong to the same margin.

  8. Linenament analysis on LANDSAT imagery in the central Badajoz-Córdoba Shear Zone. Arguments for brittle stain partitioning and block rotation under transpression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Torres, L. M.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we deal with the statistical study oC the lineaments drawn by three different analysts on the same LANDSAT image on a geologically well-known portion oC the southem lberian Massif: the Badajoz-Córdoba Shear Zone. The results obtained let us establish the presence of two structural domains separated by a central band coinciding with the outcrop of the most metamorphic rocks of the central Badajoz-Córdoba Shear Zone. Each of these domains hold a distinctive lineament distribution arrangement, the whole being ascribable to a scheme of transpressive sinistral shearing within a band which rather fits a Bouguer gravity anomaly and a set of late-hercynian wrench faults.Se realiza un estudio estadístico de los tecto-lineamientos observados por tres analistas diferentes sobre una fotografía de satélite de la porción central de la Zona de Cizalla de Badajoz-Córdoba (Macizo Ibérico Meridional. Los resultados alcanzados permiten establecer la presencia de dos dominios estructurales separados entre sí por una banda central que coincide con el afloramiento de las rocas más metamórficas de la Zona de Cizalla. Cada uno de estos tres dominios tiene una distribución particular de lineamientos estructurales, explicándose el conjunto en el marco de un cizallamiento sinistroso en régimen transpresivo en una banda que se ajusta bastante a la distribución conocida para ese área de fallas y accidentes tardi-hercínicos de desgarre y a la posición de una anomalía gravimétrica de Bouguer.

  9. Geological and structural interpretation of Peninsular Malaysia by marine and aeromagnetic data: Some preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrudin, Nurul Fairuz Diyana Binti; Hamzah, Umar

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic data were processed to interpret the geology of Peninsular Malaysia especially in delineating the igneous bodies and structural lineament trends by potential field geophysical method. A total of about 32000 magnetic intensity data were obtained from Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) covering an area of East Sumatra to part of South China Sea within 99° E to 105° E Longitude and 1° N to 7°N Latitude. These data were used in several processing stages in generating the total magnetic intensity (TMI), reduce to equator (RTE), total horizontal derivative (THD) and total vertical derivative (TVD). Values of the possible surface and subsurface magnetic sources associated to the geological features of the study area. The magnetic properties are normally corresponding to features like igneous bodies and faults structures. The anomalies obtained were then compared to the geological features of the area. In general, the high magnetic anomalies of the TMI-RTE are closely matched with major igneous intrusion of Peninsular Malaysia such as the Main Range, Eastern Belt and the Mersing-Johor Bahru stretch. More dense lineaments of magnetic structures were observed in the THD and TVD results indicating the presence of more deep and shallow magnetic rich geological features. The positions of Bukit Tinggi, Mersing and Lepar faults are perfectly matched with the magnetic highs while the presence of Lebir and Bok Bak faults are not clearly observed in the magnetic results. The high magnetic values of igneous bodies may have concealed and obscured the magnetic values representing these faults.

  10. Radon emanations: a tectonic indicator in the Dharamsala area of Himalayan Frontal Zone, Himachal Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    While throughout the length of Himalayas good exposures of the tertiary and the pre-Tertiary occurs occur, but in the Dharamsala and its adjoining areas of Himalayan Frontal Zone, tertiary and the pre-Tertiary rocks are present within a short aerial distance. This diverse lithology within a short span of distance along with the structural heterogeneity has made this region of Himalayas tectonically significant. This unique tectano-stratigraphic configuration of this area is primarily attributed to the major faults and folds which are either along the Himalayan trend or transverse to it. Interestingly the area is seismically active and falls in the High Seismic Zone-V of seismic atlas of India. It has been observed that regional thrusts systems and lineaments, control seismo-tectonic activity in the region. Contemporary geomorphological re-adjustments in the form of erosion intensity (meandering/drainage pattern or river incision) as a result of active nature of lineaments have been observed. In addition, due to the rampant seismic activity in the region especially in year 2013, the area has witnessed a sequence of landslides. The study further reveals these the signatures of morphological adjustment coincide with zones which have deciphered higher proportions of radon activity. Because radon transport through rocks is largely dependent on the geology of the area, which includes lithology, compaction, porosity structural/tectonic features like thrusts, faults, joints and fractures. Occurrences of landslide the thrust zones, coupled with high emanations of radon (both in soil and water) alludes attention towards dominant role of neo-tectonic activity in the area. (author)

  11. Remote sensing and GIS-based landslide hazard analysis and cross-validation using multivariate logistic regression model on three test areas in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the cross-validation of a multivariate logistic regression model using remote sensing data and GIS for landslide hazard analysis on the Penang, Cameron, and Selangor areas in Malaysia. Landslide locations in the study areas were identified by interpreting aerial photographs and satellite images, supported by field surveys. SPOT 5 and Landsat TM satellite imagery were used to map landcover and vegetation index, respectively. Maps of topography, soil type, lineaments and land cover were constructed from the spatial datasets. Ten factors which influence landslide occurrence, i.e., slope, aspect, curvature, distance from drainage, lithology, distance from lineaments, soil type, landcover, rainfall precipitation, and normalized difference vegetation index (ndvi), were extracted from the spatial database and the logistic regression coefficient of each factor was computed. Then the landslide hazard was analysed using the multivariate logistic regression coefficients derived not only from the data for the respective area but also using the logistic regression coefficients calculated from each of the other two areas (nine hazard maps in all) as a cross-validation of the model. For verification of the model, the results of the analyses were then compared with the field-verified landslide locations. Among the three cases of the application of logistic regression coefficient in the same study area, the case of Selangor based on the Selangor logistic regression coefficients showed the highest accuracy (94%), where as Penang based on the Penang coefficients showed the lowest accuracy (86%). Similarly, among the six cases from the cross application of logistic regression coefficient in other two areas, the case of Selangor based on logistic coefficient of Cameron showed highest (90%) prediction accuracy where as the case of Penang based on the Selangor logistic regression coefficients showed the lowest accuracy (79%). Qualitatively, the cross

  12. Prediction of Exploration Target Areas for GEM Deposits in Mogok Stone Tract, Northern Myanmar by Integrating Remote Sensing and Geoscience Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Tin Ko

    2011-07-01

    The Mogok Stone Tract area has long been known for world famous finest ruby since 1597. The Mogok area lies in northern Myanmar and is located at about 205.99km northeast from Mandalay, the second largest city of Myanmar. The Mogok Group of metasedimentary rocks is divided into four units: (1) Wabyudaung Marble, (2) Ayenyeinchantha Calc-silicate, (3) Gwebin Quartzite, and (4) Kabe Gneiss. Igneous rocks in the Mogok area are classified into two units: (1) Kabaing Granite and (2) Pingutaung Leucogranite. The Mogok area has a complex structure involving several folds and faults. Using marbles and calc-silicates as marker horizons, a series of anticline and syncline can be identified such as Mogok syncline, Ongaing anticline, Bawpadan syncline, and Kyatpyin anticline. All the foldings show a low-angle plunge to the south. The main precious stones of the Mogok area are ruby and sapphire; and the other important semi-precious stones are spinel, topaz, peridot, garnet, apatite, beryl, tourmaline (rubellite), quartz, diopside, fluorite, and enstatite. Geological and remote sensing data are processed to extract the indicative features of gem mineralized areas: lithology, structure, and hydrothermal alteration. Density slice version of Landsat ETM band ratios 5/7 is used to map clay alterations. Filtering Landsat ETM band 5 by using edge detection filter is applied for lineament mapping. Spatial integration of various geoscience and remote sensing data sets such as geological maps, Landsat ETM images, and the location map of gem mines show the distribution of alteration zones associated with the gem mineralization in the study area. Geographic Information System (GIS) model has been designed and implemented by ARCVIEW software package based on the overlay of lithologic, lineament, and alteration vector maps. This process has resulted in delineation of most promising areas of probable gem mineralized zones as on the output map.

  13. Rome in its setting. Post-glacial aggradation history of the Tiber River alluvial deposits and tectonic origin of the Tiber Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Laura; Brock, Andrea L.; Macrì, Patrizia; Florindo, Fabio; Sadori, Laura; Terrenato, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    The Tiber valley is a prominent feature in the landscape of ancient Rome and an important element for understanding its urban development. However, little is known about the city’s original setting. Our research provides new data on the Holocene sedimentary history and human-environment interactions in the Forum Boarium, the location of the earliest harbor of the city. Since the Last Glacial Maximum, when the fluvial valley was incised to a depth of tens of meters below the present sea level, 14C and ceramic ages coupled with paleomagnetic analysis show the occurrence of three distinct aggradational phases until the establishment of a relatively stable alluvial plain at 6–8 m a.s.l. during the late 3rd century BCE. Moreover, we report evidence of a sudden and anomalous increase in sedimentation rate around 2600 yr BP, leading to the deposition of a 4-6m thick package of alluvial deposits in approximately one century. We discuss this datum in the light of possible tectonic activity along a morpho-structural lineament, revealed by the digital elevation model of this area, crossing the Forum Boarium and aligned with the Tiber Island. We formulate the hypothesis that fault displacement along this structural lineament may be responsible for the sudden collapse of the investigated area, which provided new space for the observed unusually large accumulation of sediments. We also posit that, as a consequence of the diversion of the Tiber course and the loss in capacity of transport by the river, this faulting activity triggered the origin of the Tiber Island. PMID:29590208

  14. Hydrogeological framework and geometry modeling via joint gravity and borehole parameters, the Nadhour-Sisseb-El Alem basin (central-eastern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souei, Ali; Atawa, Mohamed; Zouaghi, Taher

    2018-03-01

    The Nadhour-Sisseb-El Alem basin, in the central-eastern part of Tunisia, is characterized by the scarcity of surface and subsurface water resources. Although the aquifer systems of this basin are not well understood, the scarce water resources are subject to a high rate of exploitation leading to a significant drop in the level of the water table. This work presents correlation of gravity data with hydrogeological data in order to improve the knowledge of the deep structures and aquifer systems. Various geophysical filtering techniques (e.g., residual anomaly, upward continuation, horizontal gradient, and Euler deconvolution) applied to the complete Bouguer anomaly, deduce the deep structures and geometry of the basin and highlight gravity lineaments that correspond to the tectonic features. The structural framework of the Nadhour-Sisseb-El Alem hydrogeological basin shows N-S to NNE-SSW and E-W oriented structures that should be related to tectonic deformations. In addition to the faults, previously recognized, new lineaments are highlighted by the present work. They correspond to NE-, NW-, E- and N- trending faults that have controlled structuring and geometry of the basin. 2D gravity forward modeling, based on the interpretation of geophysical, geological and hydrogeological data, led to a better understanding of the basin geometry and spatial distribution of the Campanian-Maastrichtian and Cenozoic potential aquifers. Three hydrogeological sub-basins identified include the Nadhour sub-basin in the north, the El Alem sub-Basin in the South and the Etrabelsia sub-Basin in the East. These sub-basins are marked by a thickening of deposits, are separated by the Sisseb-Fadeloun raised structure of Neogene and Quaternary thinned series. The results allow the determination of limit conditions for the basin hydrodynamic evolution and explain some anomalies on the quantity and quality of the groundwater. They provide a management guide for water resources prospection in

  15. Role of satellite and geophysical data for evaluation of site for nuclear power plants - a case study from Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, A.K.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Srivastava, P.K.; Sunil, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing imageries and seismotectonic maps were studied in the light of recently published regional gravity data jointly by NGRI, OIL, GSI and SOl (2006) for accessing the structural fabric of the area to locate suitable site for nuclear power plant. Entire analysis of the data sets has been carried out in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) environment. The study area, Rawatbhata falls well within the Vindhyan Basin bounded by the towns Bundi in the North, Chittaurgarh in the West, Jhalwar in the Southeast and Kota in the Northeast. Interpretation of the arcuate shaped gravity low in the southeast reveals the probable extension of Hindoli Group of Rocks below the Vidhyans and Traps. The selected location is sitting on the gravity high. A gravity gradient of 5 mGal is observed within the 10km buffer zone which is marked in yellow on all the maps. Earlier workers interpreted the thickness of the Vindhyan sediments as 6-7km, based on the deep seismic and gravity surveys, conducted along the Kunjer-Nagaur transect. Study of the seismotectonic maps published by GSI doesn't indicate any seismic activity over the decades. NE-SW trending neotectonic faults and few thermal springs are noticed far away from the study area around 100 km NW of Great Boundary Fault (GBF). Numbers of NE-SW, NW-SE trending major and minor lineaments/faults are present in the region. However, analysis of the geophysical data sets doesn't reflect any such lineaments/faults within 25 km radius. Integrated study of the area helped in evaluating the existing nuclear power plant site. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the indexes of income yield capacity of energetic projects; Evaluacion de los indices de rentabilidad de proyectos energeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva M, C. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    An economic-financial model to evaluate in the class living room those indexes of profitability of projects of productive infrastructure of the energy sector was developed, as for example: generation projects, transmission and electric energy distribution; projects of transport and distribution of natural gas; projects of cogeneration of vapor and electricity; projects of refinement of petroleum; and other industrial projects. It is described the structure and operation of the pattern, which has been implemented in an Excel calculation sheet that the students use in their personal computers to apply it to the evaluation of the indexes of profitability, specified by the Secretaria de Hacienda y Credito Publico (SHCP) in their limits for the elaboration and presentation of the cost and benefit analysis of the programs and projects of investment of the public sector. The indicators are: present net value VPN, quotient benefits cost B/C, return internal rate TIR, and equivalent annual cost CAE, which should be calculated with methodological rigor according to the SHCP lineaments. The pattern uses the pre-programmed financial functions in the Excel calculation sheet to carry out the compute of the indicators starting from the effective flow of the projects. It is described the technician-economic configuration and the effective flows during the useful life of three power stations of electric power generation that are designed, builds and operated to sell electric power to the national interconnected system in a nodal marginal prices market: a hydroelectric one, a combined cycle power station that uses natural gas, and a nucleo electric. The effective flows are developed and the central profitability of three centrals are evaluated and they are also carried out the corresponding sensitivity analyses and indifference required by the SHCP in their lineaments. Finally, the conditions in that the projects should operate and the prices in those that should sell their

  17. Paleoseismology of a possible fault scarp in Wenas Valley, central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Brian L.; Barnett, Elizabeth A.; Knepprath, Nichole; Foit, Franklin F.

    2013-01-01

    In October 2009, two trenches excavated across an 11-kilometer-long scarp at Wenas Valley in central Washington exposed evidence for late Quaternary deformation. Lidar imagery of the Wenas Valley illuminated the west-northwest-trending, 2- to 8-meter-high scarp as it bisected alluvial fans developed at the mouths of canyons along the south side of Umtanum Ridge. The alignment of the scarp and aeromagnetic lineaments suggested that the scarp may be a product of and controlled by the same tectonic structure that produced the magnetic lineaments. Several large landslides mapped in the area demonstrated the potential for large mass-wasting events in the area. In order to test whether the scarp was the result of an earthquake-generated surface rupture or a landslide, trenches were excavated at Hessler Flats and McCabe Place. The profiles of bedrock and soil stratigraphy that underlie the scarp in each trench were photographed, mapped, and described, and a sequence of depositional and deformational events established for each trench. The McCabe Place trench exposed a sequence of volcaniclastic deposits overlain by soils and alluvial deposits separated by three unconformities. Six normal faults and two possible reverse faults deformed the exposed strata. Crosscutting relations indicated that up to five earthquakes occurred on a blind reverse fault, and a microprobe analysis of lapilli suggested that the earliest faulting occurred after 47,000 years before present. The Hessler Flat trench exposure revealed weathered bedrock that abuts loess and colluvium deposits and is overlain by soil, an upper sequence of loess, and colluvium. The latter two units bury a distinctive paloesol.

  18. Evaluation of the indexes of income yield capacity of energetic projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva M, C.

    2008-01-01

    An economic-financial model to evaluate in the class living room those indexes of profitability of projects of productive infrastructure of the energy sector was developed, as for example: generation projects, transmission and electric energy distribution; projects of transport and distribution of natural gas; projects of cogeneration of vapor and electricity; projects of refinement of petroleum; and other industrial projects. It is described the structure and operation of the pattern, which has been implemented in an Excel calculation sheet that the students use in their personal computers to apply it to the evaluation of the indexes of profitability, specified by the Secretaria de Hacienda y Credito Publico (SHCP) in their limits for the elaboration and presentation of the cost and benefit analysis of the programs and projects of investment of the public sector. The indicators are: present net value VPN, quotient benefits cost B/C, return internal rate TIR, and equivalent annual cost CAE, which should be calculated with methodological rigor according to the SHCP lineaments. The pattern uses the pre-programmed financial functions in the Excel calculation sheet to carry out the compute of the indicators starting from the effective flow of the projects. It is described the technician-economic configuration and the effective flows during the useful life of three power stations of electric power generation that are designed, builds and operated to sell electric power to the national interconnected system in a nodal marginal prices market: a hydroelectric one, a combined cycle power station that uses natural gas, and a nucleo electric. The effective flows are developed and the central profitability of three centrals are evaluated and they are also carried out the corresponding sensitivity analyses and indifference required by the SHCP in their lineaments. Finally, the conditions in that the projects should operate and the prices in those that should sell their

  19. Theoretical models for crustal displacement assessment and monitoring in Vrancea-Focsani seismic zone by integrated remote sensing and local geophysical data for seismic prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran, Maria; Ciobanu, Mircea; Mitrea, Marius Gabriel; Talianu, Camelia; Cotarlan, Costel; Mateciuc, Doru; Radulescu, Florin; Biter Mircea

    2002-01-01

    considered as an intermediate step between the material response of the Earth surface to seismic activity due to its physical properties and geological understanding of the regional lithology, structure and stratigraphy, interpreting the data is essential for analysis of seismic areas.The quantitative data sets are transformed into plots or are exhibited as images, figures or diagrams. The seismic response is given as a Green function and path integral over D in terms of material density, compressibility and attenuation. D is the domain of all paths traversed by the ray from shot point s to the receiver point r, and θ(x,s,r) is the angle at x between the rays connecting x to s and r. Complete knowledge of these parameters and nature of the seismic activity could reproduce the seismic section synthetically. Our model suggests three ways to reduce the size of a data set for seismic section analysis for automatic interpretation. The evaluation of seismic sections may be considered a two-step process: processing the data and interpreting the new image. Location and dip of faults, sense of motion along them and boundaries all based in seismic facies, amplitude data, frequency, reflection geometry as well as the degree of continuity can be identified. c) Multifractal analysis which is applied to tectonic faults lineaments. The expert knowledge for the interpretation of the lineaments was used against algorithms and other automatic methods in order to increase the qualitative accuracy of the methods for refined lineament map extraction. The proposed theoretical multifractal analysis examined and classified landcover and every lineament based on different sets of predefined criteria. The classification system consists of four classes: active faults (potentially capable to trigger an earthquake), possible active fault, inactive fault and lineaments. For risk degree evaluation it is very useful to draw up a map of lineaments, select tectonic blocks of various sizes and separate these

  20. Calculation of displacements on fractures intersecting canisters induced by earthquakes: Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaPointe, P.R.; Cladouhos, T. [Golder Associates Inc. (Sweden); Follin, S. [Golder Grundteknik KB (Sweden)

    1999-01-01

    This study shows how the method developed in La Pointe and others can be applied to assess the safety of canisters due to secondary slippage of fractures intersecting those canisters in the event of an earthquake. The method is applied to the three generic sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. Estimation of secondary slippage or displacement is a four-stage process. The first stage is the analysis of lineament trace data in order to quantify the scaling properties of the fractures. This is necessary to insure that all scales of fracturing are properly represented in the numerical simulations. The second stage consists of creating stochastic discrete fracture network (DFN) models for jointing and small faulting at each of the generic sites. The third stage is to combine the stochastic DFN model with mapped lineament data at larger scales into data sets for the displacement calculations. The final stage is to carry out the displacement calculations for all of the earthquakes that might occur during the next 100,000 years. Large earthquakes are located along any lineaments in the vicinity of the site that are of sufficient size to accommodate an earthquake of the specified magnitude. These lineaments are assumed to represent vertical faults. Smaller earthquakes are located at random. The magnitude of the earthquake that any fault could generate is based upon the mapped surface trace length of the lineaments, and is calculated from regression relations. Recurrence rates for a given magnitude of earthquake are based upon published studies for Sweden. A major assumption in this study is that future earthquakes will be similar in magnitude, location and orientation as earthquakes in the geological and historical records of Sweden. Another important assumption is that the displacement calculations based upon linear elasticity and linear elastic fracture mechanics provides a conservative (over-)estimate of possible displacements. A third assumption is that the world

  1. Integrated geographic information systems (IGIS) analysis and definition of the tectonic framework of northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Pina, Carlos Manuel

    Crustal rupture structures reactivated in the course of the tectonic history of northern Mexico are the surface expressions of planes of weakness, in the form of simple or composite rectilinear features or slightly curved, defined as lineaments. Unless otherwise defined as strike-slip faults, lineaments are part of parallel and sub-parallel oblique convergent or oblique divergent tectonic zones cross cutting the Sierra Madre Occidental and northern Mexico, in a NW trend. These shear zones are the response to the oblique subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Kinematic analysis of five selected sites in northern Mexico, three basins and two compressional shear zones, proved possible a combination of shear mechanism diagram and models from analogue materials, with satellite imagery and geographic information systems, as an aid to define strike-slip fault motion. This was done using a reverse engineering process by comparing geometries. One of the sites assessed, involving the Parras Basin, Coahuila Block (CB), San Marcos fault, a postulated PBF-1 fault, allowed for palinpastic reconstruction of the CB that corroborated the results of the vector motion defined, in addition to an extension of ˜25% in a northwest southeast direction. A GIS-based compilation and georeferenced regional structural studies by several researchers were used as ground control areas (GCA); their interpolation and interpretation, resulted in a tectonic framework map of northern Mexico. In addition, shaded relief models overlaid by the lineaments / fault layer allowed structural analyses of basins related to these major structures. Two important results were obtained from this study: the Tepehuanes-San Luis-fault (TSL) and the Guadalupe fault, named herein, displaces the Villa de Reyes graben, and the Aguascalientes graben, respectively, to the SE, confirming their left lateral vector motion; afterwards TSL was displaced south by the right lateral strike slip Taxco-San Miguel de

  2. Geothermal Exploration of the Winston Graben, Central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophy, M. J.; Kelley, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    We are assessing the geothermal potential of the Winston Graben of central New Mexico using borehole temperature logs and geophysical data. The Winston Graben is a late Cenozoic rift basin, part of the larger Rio Grande rift, which is 5 to 10 km wide and 56 km long with northern and southern termini occurring at accommodation zones that coincide with late Cenozoic volcanic lineaments. The graben is interpreted to be symmetric based on geologic mapping, with 2 km of stratigraphic offset on both the western and eastern margins. The graben is bordered by the Black Range to the west and is separated from the Rio Grande valley by the Sierra Cuchillo, a horst block made of Paleozoic rocks intruded by a laccolith. Geothermal and geophysical data, including water table measurements, well temperature logs, thermal conductivity samples, bottom hole temperatures, water chemistry, and gravity data have been extracted from the New Mexico Geothermal Database, part of the National Geothermal Database, and the Geonet Gravity and Magnetic Dataset Repository. Combined with existing geologic maps of the Winston Graben and surroundings, these data help to identify spatial relationships between geologic structures and groundwater parameters and distribution. Geothermal gradients from industry temperature-depth well profiles range from 20°C/km to 60°C/km with a spatial distribution of higher gradients located on the eastern side of the Sierra Cuchillo horst, which is where a mapped warm spring is located. Lower thermal gradients were observed to the west in the groundwater recharge area of the basin. Analysis of Bouguer gravity data indicate a gravity low coinciding with the center of the Winston Graben, which is attributed to be the deepest part of the basin, symetrically surrounded by gravity highs. Gravity highs coincide with the middle Cenozoic Morenci and Chise volcanic lineaments along the northern and southern ends of the graben. The mapped warm spring occurs at the

  3. Integrated geophysical imaging of the Aluto-Langano geothermal field (Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Daniele; Armadillo, Egidio; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasqua, Claudio; Kebede, Solomon; Mengiste, Andarge; Hailegiorgis, Getenesh; Abera, Fitsum; Mengesha, Kebede; Meqbel, Naser

    2017-04-01

    alteration layer, pinpointed as the 80-Ohm-m isosurface, shows two dome-shape highs. The first is NNE-trending, and may be interpreted as an upflow zone along a fault of the Wonji belt. Two productive wells are located along the borders of this area, as well as the alignements of fumaroles and altered grounds. The second is linked to a wide resistive area, located at shallow depth, where no clay cap was detected. It could be interpreted as a fossil high-temperature alteration zone reaching shallow depths, and it is associated to several fumaroles. Modeling of 2D/3D gravity data shows that the anomalies are due to shallow density variations likely related to lithology. The deep lateral variations due to structural lineaments inferred from well stratigraphy have no detectable signature. However, the trend analysis performed on the residual Bouguer anomaly (via horizontal and tilt derivative computations), allowed to identify five lineaments. Three of them exhibit NNE-SSW strike, corresponding to the Wonji Fault Belt Trend, whereas two have NNW-SSE strike, corresponding to the Red Sea Rift trend, which in this area is of minor evidence. The signature of shallow structures is then indicative of major regional structures. One of the lineaments marks the presence of a major fumarolic zone.

  4. Remote Sensing as a First Step in Geothermal Exploration in the Xilingol Volcanic Field in NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, F.; Huang, S.; Xiong, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable and low-carbon energy source independent of climate change. It is most abundant in Cenozoic volcanic areas where high temperature can be obtained within a relatively shallow depth. Geological structures play an important role in the transfer and storage of geothermal energy. Like other geological resources, geothermal resource prospecting and exploration require a good understanding of the host media. Remote sensing (RS) has the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution and broad spatial coverage over the conventional geological and geophysical prospecting techniques, while geographical information system (GIS) has intuitive, flexible, and convenient characteristics. In this study, RS and GIS techniques are utilized to prospect the geothermal energy potential in Xilingol, a Cenozoic volcanic area in the eastern Inner Mongolia, NE China. Landsat TM/ETM+ multi-temporal images taken under clear-sky conditions, digital elevation model (DEM) data, and other auxiliary data including geological maps of 1:2,500,000 and 1:200,000 scales are used in this study. The land surface temperature (LST) of the study area is retrieved from the Landsat images with a single-channel algorithm. Prior to the LST retrieval, the imagery data are preprocessed to eliminate abnormal values by reference to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the improved normalized water index (MNDWI) on the ENVI platform developed by ITT Visual Information Solutions. Linear and circular geological structures are then inferred through visual interpretation of the LST maps with references to the existing geological maps in conjunction with the computer automatic interpretation features such as lineament frequency, lineament density, and lineament intersection. Several useful techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), image classification, vegetation suppression, multi-temporal comparative analysis, and 3D Surface View based on DEM data are

  5. Oskarshamn site investigation. Searching for evidence of late- or post-glacial faulting in the Oskarshamn region. Results from 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, Robert; Sundh, Martin; Svantesson, Sven-Ingemund; Svedlund, Jan-Olov

    2005-11-01

    In connection with previous aerial photo interpretation, a number of prominent escarpments, hypothetically indicative of late- or postglacial faulting, were noted in the mainland part of the investigation area. Most of these scarps were field-checked in 2004 and found to be more or less intensely glacially abraded, i.e. formed prior to the last deglaciation. On the island of Oeland a very distinct, straight lineament was likewise noticed in connection with aerial photo interpretation. In the field the lineament was identified as a step in the ground surface or as a very distinct vegetational boundary, the latter due to a difference in thickness of the soil cover on either side of the lineament. The step in the ground surface clearly derives from a bedrock scarp but it was not possible to determine its nature or age in the absence of stratigraphical information. No systematic search for unstable boulders, tentatively refuting the occurrence of major earthquakes in the vicinity, was carried out, but a few specimens were encountered during minor excursions in different parts of the investigation area. However, without estimating how much earthquake-induced ground motion these boulders could withstand before they would topple over, it is difficult to judge their significance as palaeo-earthquake indicators. Stratigraphical investigations in machine-dug trenches were carried out at three localities along the Faarbo esker, all situated west of the candidate area at Simpevarp. A total of some 170 m of trenches were excavated and investigated. Deposits of loosely packed sand and coarse silt were encountered in almost all the trenches and in some of them a clayey bed covered the sandy-silty deposits. When shaken by strong earthquakes in a water saturated state, such deposits are highly likely to liquefy but no significant features related to liquefaction were noted in any of the trenches. However, as the excavation sites are situated some 30-100 m above the present sea

  6. Application of Landsat-8 and ALOS-2 data for structural and landslide hazard mapping in Kelantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2017-07-01

    Identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones for natural hazards of geological origin is one of the most important applications of advanced remote sensing technology. Yearly, several landslides occur during heavy monsoon rainfall in Kelantan River basin, Peninsular Malaysia. Flooding and subsequent landslide occurrences generated significant damage to livestock, agricultural produce, homes and businesses in the Kelantan River basin. In this study, remote sensing data from the recently launched Landsat-8 and Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) on board the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) were used to map geologic structural and topographical features in the Kelantan River basin for identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslides and flooding areas. The data were processed for a comprehensive analysis of major geological structures and detailed characterizations of lineaments, drainage patterns and lithology at both regional and district scales. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach was used for landslide susceptibility mapping. Several factors such as slope, aspect, soil, lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land cover, distance to drainage, precipitation, distance to fault and distance to the road were extracted from remote sensing satellite data and fieldwork to apply the AHP approach. Directional convolution filters were applied to ALOS-2 data for identifying linear features in particular directions and edge enhancement in the spatial domain. Results indicate that lineament occurrence at regional scale was mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ) in the west and Lebir Fault Zone in the east of the Kelantan state. The combination of different polarization channels produced image maps that contain important information related to water bodies, wetlands and lithological units. The N-S, NE-SW and NNE-SSW lineament trends and

  7. Oskarshamn site investigation. Searching for evidence of late- or post-glacial faulting in the Oskarshamn region. Results from 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerbaeck, Robert; Sundh, Martin; Svantesson, Sven-Ingemund; Svedlund, Jan-Olov [Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-11-15

    In connection with previous aerial photo interpretation, a number of prominent escarpments, hypothetically indicative of late- or postglacial faulting, were noted in the mainland part of the investigation area. Most of these scarps were field-checked in 2004 and found to be more or less intensely glacially abraded, i.e. formed prior to the last deglaciation. On the island of Oeland a very distinct, straight lineament was likewise noticed in connection with aerial photo interpretation. In the field the lineament was identified as a step in the ground surface or as a very distinct vegetational boundary, the latter due to a difference in thickness of the soil cover on either side of the lineament. The step in the ground surface clearly derives from a bedrock scarp but it was not possible to determine its nature or age in the absence of stratigraphical information. No systematic search for unstable boulders, tentatively refuting the occurrence of major earthquakes in the vicinity, was carried out, but a few specimens were encountered during minor excursions in different parts of the investigation area. However, without estimating how much earthquake-induced ground motion these boulders could withstand before they would topple over, it is difficult to judge their significance as palaeo-earthquake indicators. Stratigraphical investigations in machine-dug trenches were carried out at three localities along the Faarbo esker, all situated west of the candidate area at Simpevarp. A total of some 170 m of trenches were excavated and investigated. Deposits of loosely packed sand and coarse silt were encountered in almost all the trenches and in some of them a clayey bed covered the sandy-silty deposits. When shaken by strong earthquakes in a water saturated state, such deposits are highly likely to liquefy but no significant features related to liquefaction were noted in any of the trenches. However, as the excavation sites are situated some 30-100 m above the present sea

  8. Alternative DFN model based on initial site investigations at Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. [Itasca Consultants, Ecully (France); Davy, S.A.P.; Bour, O.; Dreuzy, J.R. de [Geosciences, Rennes (France)

    2004-12-01

    In this report, we provide a first-order analysis of the fracture network at the Simpevarp site. The first order model is the fracture distribution function, noted, fdf, which provides the number of fractures having a given orientation and length, and belonging to a given volume of observation. The first-order distribution model does not describe higher-order correlation between fracture parameters, such as a possible dependency of fracture length distribution with orientations. We also check that most of the information is contained in this 1st-order distribution model, and that dividing the fracture networks into different sets do not bring a better statistical description. The fracture distribution function contains 3 main distributions: the probability distribution of fracture orientations, the dependency on the size of the sampling domain that may exhibit non-trivial scaling in case of fractal correlations, and the fracture-length density distribution, which appears to be well fitted by a power law. The main scaling parameters are the fractal dimension and the power-law exponent of the fracture length distribution. The former was found to be about equal to the embedding dimension, meaning that fractal correlations are weak and can be neglected in the DFN model. The latter depends on geology, that is either lithology or grain size, with values that ranges from 3.2 for granite-like outcrops to 4 for diorite or monzodiorite outcrops, as well as for the large-scale lineament maps. When analyzing the consistency of the different datasets (boreholes, outcrops, lineament maps), we found that two different DFNs can be described: the first one is derived from the fdf of the outcrop with fine-grained size lithology, and is valid across all scales investigated in this study, from the highly-fractured cores to large-scale maps; the second one is derived from the fdf of the outcrops with coarse-grained size lithology, and is found consistent with cores that present the

  9. Discriminations of Younger Granitic Masses at Gabal Qattar Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasfi, S.A.; Lliase, E.L.; Mousa, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Gabal Qattar area is located in the north Eastern Desert of Egypt between Latitudes 26 degree 52 and 27 degree 08 N, and Longitudes 33 degree 13 and 33 degree 25 E. The exposed rock units, there, from the oldest to the youngest, are meta volcanics; granodiorites- diorite complex; Hammamat sediments and younger granites. Most of the area is densely traversed by felsic and mafic dykes. The Qattarian younger granites are divided into seven granitic areas according to their spectral characters to facilitate the studying and delineating physical characteristic differences between these areas as well as to throw a light about the best conditions of exploration for radioactive mineralizations. This study is based on brightness Digital Number values (DNs) of the granitic areas, predominant trends and densities of the structural lineaments, shape and type of weathering products. Three areas of these seven younger granite areas form Gabal (G.) Qattar, and designated Gr 1, Gr 3 and Gr 4, where the other granite areas which form the G. Urn Dissi (Gr 2), G. Thelma (Gr 5), G. Abu Samyuk (Gr 6) and G. Ayn AI Ruwayshed (Gr 7). Photo geologically, these seven granite areas show some differences in shape, texture, predominant trends and densities of structural lineaments and ability of weathering. This study shows that the seven granite areas could be gathered into three main groups according to their DNs values of Landsat ETM+ spectral bands especially of band 5, where these three main groups representing different, and mainly coincide with the three granite phases previously delineated according to chronological field relation, petrographic and geochemical studies. The Gr 1 area contains all uranium occurrences from locations I to V. This area is characterized by semi circular shape of NW trend, massive appearance with high relief peaks, and high fracture density, where the N 55 degree E, N 5 degree E, N 45 degree E and N 45 degree W are the predominant trends. Some of the N 55

  10. Earthquake and volcanic risks: issues for the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solidum, Dr. Renato U.

    2009-01-01

    The proposed re-commissioning of the mothballed Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) has raised objections that include the perceived unsafe siting of the BNPP on Mt. Natib, a potentially active volcano, in an earthquake-prone region. This concern must be evaluated through thorough seismological, paleo-seismic, volcanological and engineering studies. The BNPP sits on Napot Point on the southwest foot slope of Mt. Natib, an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano just 30 kms south of Mt. Pinatubo. Natib's evolution is poorly known, but involved at least 3 explosive summit eruptions that formed a 6 km-diameter coalescent caldera and a younger 2-km diameter caldera. Pyroclastic flows define the cone surface, and available age dating includes a ±27 ka 14C age for a deposit on the eastern flanks and an 11-18 ka relative dating for suspected pyroclastic deposits in Subic Bay (1). Whether these represent the most recent eruptions is uncertain. A detailed magmatic/eruptive history defining magmatic recharge and eruption recurrence rates, from which probabilities for future eruptive activity can be analyzed, will be necessary for quantifying volcanic risk. Furthermore, Natib,Pinatubo and adjacent Mariveles are part of the Luzon Arc and associated with ongoing subduction along the Manila Trench. Subduction earthquakes are common, but apart from these, seismic risk is also being attributted to tectonic structures inland that include reported on site faults inferred from drilling, basin faults seen in reflection profiles (1), the Subic Bay Fault Zone delineated by magmatic studies (2) and various lineaments inferred from satellite imageries. These, plus seismicity in the region are being argued as indicators of earthquake threat. However, much emphasis is given maximum seismic magnitudes rather than peak ground accelerations (PGAs), epicentral rather than focal sources,and the inference of faults/lineaments rather than paleoseismic evidence of recent faulting. Paleoseismic studies of

  11. INTERPRETATION OF AIRBORNE ELECTROMAGNETIC AND MAGNETIC DATA IN THE 600 AREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CUMMINS GD

    2010-11-11

    As part of the 200-PO-1 Phase I geophysical surveys, Fugro Airborne Surveys was contracted to collect airborne electromagnetic (EM) and magnetic surveys of the Hanford Site 600 Area. Two helicopter survey systems were used with the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} time domain portion flown between June 19th and June 20th, 2008, and the RESOLVE{reg_sign} frequency domain portion was flown from June 29th to July 1st, 2008. Magnetic data were acquired contemporaneously with the electromagnetic surveys using a total-field cesium vapor magnetometer. Approximately 925 line kilometers (km) were flown using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} II system and 412 line kilometers were flown using the RESOLVE{reg_sign} system. The HeliGEOTEM system has an effective penetration of roughly 250 meters into the ground and the RESOLVE system has an effective penetration of roughly 60 meters. Acquisition parameters and preliminary results are provided in SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site. Airborne data are interpreted in this report in an attempt to identify areas of likely preferential groundwater flow within the aquifer system based on the presence of paleochannels or fault zones. The premise for the interpretation is that coarser-grained intervals have filled in scour channels created by episodic catastrophic flood events during the late Pleistocene. The interpretation strategy used the magnetic field anomaly data and existing bedrock maps to identify likely fault or lineament zones. Combined analysis of the magnetic, 60-Hz noise monitor, and flight-altitude (radar) data were used to identify zones where EM response is more likely due to cultural interference and or bedrock structures. Cross-sectional and map view presentations of the EM data were used to identify more electrically resistive zones that likely correlate with coarser-grained intervals. The resulting interpretation identifies one major northwest-southeast trending

  12. Geophysical reassessment of the role of ancient crustal structures on the development of western Laurentia and Selwyn Basin, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, N.

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the western margin of the North American craton (Laurentia) in the northern Canadian Cordillera and its role in the development of the Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic Selwyn Basin are reassessed through 3D inversion of a new compilation of aeromagnetic data and archival Bouguer gravity data. The region's tectonic history is obscured by partial burial beneath Selwyn Basin, and a tectonic overprint that includes terrane accretion, regional plutonism, and strike-slip faults with displacements of 100s and perhaps 1000s of kilometers. Despite the implied complexity, preliminary geological and geophysical based interpretations of the structure of the western margin of Laurentia, have been adopted with few refinements in over two decades. Regionally continuous, NE-trending, crustal lineaments, including the Fort Norman line and Leith Ridge fault, were interpreted as having had long-standing influence on the craton development, its western margin, and overlapping sedimentary basin. New results reveal limited evidence for the regional continuity of the NE-trending lineaments. Instead, models suggest that the structure of the Laurentian margin is characterised by segmentation on numerous shorter structures of varied strike. The western margin of the craton and its structures are bound by a NW-trending structure that connects with the Richardson Trough to the north and may have been active during rifting of the Misty Creek embayment. This boundary also marks the easternmost limit of both granitic intrusions in Selwyn Basin, which gravity models suggest are of greater extent than reflected on geological maps, and SEDEX occurrences. An ENE-trending structure beneath northern Selwyn Basin is interpreted as marking the southern edge of a previously unidentified cratonic promontory, akin to the Liard line that marks a transfer fault that bounds the promontory of the Macdonald Platform, south of Selwyn Basin. The ENE-trending structure is traced from the Tintina

  13. Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehls, John F.

    2006-04-01

    It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km 2 . Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of errors

  14. Geomorphic domains and linear features on Landsat images, Circle Quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    A remote sensing study using Landsat images was undertaken as part of the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP). Geomorphic domains A and B, identified on enhanced Landsat images, divide Circle quadrangle south of Tintina fault zone into two regional areas having major differences in surface characteristics. Domain A is a roughly rectangular, northeast-trending area of relatively low relief and simple, widely spaced drainages, except where igneous rocks are exposed. In contrast, domain B, which bounds two sides of domain A, is more intricately dissected showing abrupt changes in slope and relatively high relief. The northwestern part of geomorphic domain A includes a previously mapped tectonostratigraphic terrane. The southeastern boundary of domain A occurs entirely within the adjoining tectonostratigraphic terrane. The sharp geomorphic contrast along the southeastern boundary of domain A and the existence of known faults along this boundary suggest that the southeastern part of domain A may be a subdivision of the adjoining terrane. Detailed field studies would be necessary to determine the characteristics of the subdivision. Domain B appears to be divisible into large areas of different geomorphic terrains by east-northeast-trending curvilinear lines drawn on Landsat images. Segments of two of these lines correlate with parts of boundaries of mapped tectonostratigraphic terranes. On Landsat images prominent north-trending lineaments together with the curvilinear lines form a large-scale regional pattern that is transected by mapped north-northeast-trending high-angle faults. The lineaments indicate possible lithlogic variations and/or structural boundaries. A statistical strike-frequency analysis of the linear features data for Circle quadrangle shows that northeast-trending linear features predominate throughout, and that most northwest-trending linear features are found south of Tintina fault zone. A major trend interval of N.64-72E. in the linear

  15. Geophysical constraints for terrane boundaries in southern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Alexandra; Schulmann, Karel; Munschy, Marc; Miehe, Jean-Marc; Edel, Jean-Bernard; Lexa, Ondrej; Fairhead, Derek

    2014-05-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is a typical accretionary orogen divided into numerous lithostratigraphic terranes corresponding to magmatic arcs, back arcs, continental basement blocks, accretionary wedges and metamorphic blocks. These terranes should be in theory characterized by contrasting magnetic and gravity signatures thanks to their different petrophysical properties. To test this hypothesis, the stratigraphically defined terranes in southern Mongolia were compared with potential field data to constrain their boundaries and extent. The existence of terranes in southern Mongolia cannot be attested by the uniform geophysical fabrics due to the lack of systematic correspondence between the high/low amplitude and high/low frequency geophysical domains and major terranes. Processed magnetic and gravity grids show that both gravity and magnetic lineaments are E-W trending in the west and correlate with direction of some geological units. In the east, both magnetic and gravity lineaments are disrupted by NE-SW trending heterogeneities resulting in complete blurring of the geophysical pattern. Correlation of magnetic signal with geological map shows that the magnetic highs coincide with late Carboniferous-early Permian volcanic and plutonic belts. The matched-filtering shows good continuity of signal to the depth located along the boundaries of these high magnetic anomalies which may imply presence of deeply rooted tectono-magmatic zones. The axes of high density bodies in the western and central part of the studied CAOB are characterized by periodic alternations of NW-SE trending high frequency and high amplitude gravity anomalies corresponding to late Permian to Triassic cleavage fronts up to 20 km wide. The matched-filtering analysis shows that the largest deformation zones are deeply rooted down to 20 km depth. Such a gravity signal is explained by the verticalization of high density mantle and lower crustal rocks due to localized vertical shearing

  16. Morphology and segmentation of the western Galápagos Spreading Center, 90.5°-98°W: Plume-ridge interaction at an intermediate spreading ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, John; Detrick, Robert; Canales, J. Pablo; Ito, Garrett; Behn, Mark

    2003-12-01

    Complete multibeam bathymetric coverage of the western Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC) between 90.5°W and 98°W reveals the fine-scale morphology, segmentation and influence of the Galápagos hot spot on this intermediate spreading ridge. The western GSC comprises three morphologically defined provinces: A Western Province, located farthest from the Galápagos hot spot west of 95°30'W, is characterized by an axial deep, rift valley morphology with individual, overlapping, E-W striking segments separated by non-transform offsets; A Middle Province, between the propagating rift tips at 93°15'W and 95°30'W, with transitional axial morphology strikes ˜276°; An Eastern Province, closest to the Galápagos hot spot between the ˜90°50'W Galápagos Transform and 93°15'W, with an axial high morphology generally less than 1800 m deep, strikes ˜280°. At a finer scale, the axial region consists of 32 individual segments defined on the basis of smaller, mainly lower overall magma supply and larger offset distance at the latter. The structure of the Eastern Province is complicated by the intersection of a series of volcanic lineaments that appear to radiate away from a point located on the northern edge of the Galápagos platform, close to the southern limit of the Galápagos Fracture Zone. Where these lineaments intersect the GSC, the ridge axis is displaced to the south through a series of overlapping spreading centers (OSCs); abandoned OSC limbs lie even farther south. We propose that southward displacement of the axis is promoted during intermittent times of increased plume activity, when lithospheric zones of weakness become volcanically active. Following cessation of the increased plume activity, the axis straightens by decapitating southernmost OSC limbs during short-lived propagation events. This process contributes to the number of right stepping offsets in the Eastern Province.

  17. Plate boundary deformation in North Iceland during 1992–2009 revealed by InSAR time-series analysis and GPS

    KAUST Repository

    Metzger, Sabrina

    2014-08-20

    In North Iceland, extensional plate motion is accommodated by the Northern Volcanic Zone, a set of en-echelon volcanic systems, and the Tjörnes Fracture Zone, a transform offset in the mid-Atlantic Ridge consisting of two parallel transform lineaments. The southern lineament, the Húsavík–Flatey fault, is a 100 km-long right-lateral strike slip fault that has not ruptured for more than 140 years and poses a significant seismic hazard to Húsavík, a fishing town located by the fault, and to other coastal communities. We present results of InSAR time-series analysis data spanning almost two decades (1992–2009) that show extensional and interseismic deformation within the Northern Volcanic Zone and the on-shore part of the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. The results also exhibit transient inflation at Theistareykir volcano, deflation at Krafla central volcano and a broad uplift north of Krafla. The current plate extension is not uniform across the Northern Volcanic Zone, but concentrated at the western fissures of the Theistareykir volcanic system and the outermost fissures of the Krafla fissure swarm. We combine a back-slip plate boundary model with a set of point pressure sources representing volcanic changes to describe the current extensional plate boundary deformation and update the previous estimations of the locking depth and slip rate of the Húsavík–Flatey fault that were based on GPS data alone. Using different combinations of input data, we find that the Húsavík–Flatey fault has a locking depth of 6–10 km and, with a slip rate of 6–9 mm/yr, is accommodating about a third of the full transform motion. We furthermore show that while the InSAR data provide important constraints on the volcanic deformation within the NVZ, they do not significantly improve the model parameter estimation for the HFF, as the dense GPS network appears to better capture the deformation across the fault.

  18. Magnetic mapping for structural geology and geothermal exploration in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier de Lépinay, jeanne; munschy, marc; geraud, yves; diraison, marc; navelot, vivien; verati, christelle; corsini, michel; lardeaux, jean marc; favier, alexiane

    2017-04-01

    This work is implemented through the GEOTREF program which benefits from the support of both the ADEME and the French public funds "Investments for the future". The program focuses on the exploration for geothermal resources in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, where a geothermal power plant is in production since 1986 (Bouillante, Basse Terre). In Les Saintes archipelago, in the south of Guadeloupe, the outcrop analysis of Terre-de-Haut Island allows to point out an exhumed geothermal paleo-system that is thought to be an analogue of the Bouillante active geothermal system. We show that a detailed marine magnetic survey with a quantitative interpretation can bring information about the offshore structures around Les Saintes archipelago in order to extend the geological limits and structural elements. A similar survey and workflow is also conducted offshore Basse-Terre where more geophysical data is already available. In order to correctly link the offshore and onshore structures, the magnetic survey must be close enough to the shoreline and sufficiently detailed to correctly outline the tectonic structures. An appropriate solution for such a survey is to use a three component magnetometer aboard a speedboat. Such a boat allows more navigation flexibility than a classic oceanic vessel towing a magnetometer; it can sail at higher speed on calm seas and closer to the shoreline. This kind of magnetic acquisition is only viable because the magnetic effect of the ship can be compensated using the same algorithms than those used for airborne magnetometry. The use of potential field transforms allows a large variety of structures to be highlighted, providing insights to build a general understanding of the nature and distribution of the magnetic sources. In particular, we use the tilt angle operator to better identify the magnetic lineaments offshore in order to compare them to the faults identified onshore during the outcrop analysis. All the major faults and fractures

  19. Miocene Tectonics at the Pannonian - Carpathian Transition: The Bogdan Voda - Dragos Voda fault system, northern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, M.; Gröger, H.; Marin, M.; Schmid, S. M.; Fügenschuh, B.

    2003-04-01

    Tertiary tectonics in the Pannonian-Carpathian transition zone was dominated by opposed rotations of Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia, separated by the Mid-Hungarian lineament (MHL). While in the Pannonian basin the MHL is well known from geophysical and borehole data, its northeastern continuation remains a matter of discussion. Our field based study, located in the Maramures mountains of northern Romania, provides new kinematic data from the Bogdan Voda fault, a first order candidate for the prolongation of the MHL to the northeast. In the Burdigalian, the Pienides (unmetamorphic flysch nappes) were emplaced onto the autochthonous Paleogene flysch units. Kinematic data consistently indicate top to the SE-directed thrusting of the Pienides and selected imbrications in the autochthonous units. Between Langhian and Tortonian these thrust contacts were offset by the E-W trending Bogdan Voda fault and its eastern continuation, the Dragos-Voda fault. These two faults share a common polyphase history, at least since the Burdigalian. Kinematic data derived from mesoscale faults indicate sinistral strike-slip displacement, in good agreement with kinematics inferred from map view. The NE-SW trending Greben fault, another fault of regional importance, was coevally active as a normal fault. From stratigraphic arguments major activity of this fault system is constrained to the time interval between 16.4-10 Ma. While deformation is strongly concentrated in the sedimentary units, the easterly located basement units are affected by abundant minor faults of similar kinematics covering a wide area. These SW-NE trending strike slip faults feature a normal component and resemble an imbricate fan geometry. Since Burdigalian thrusting is consistently SE-directed on either side of the Bogdan-Dragos Voda fault, major post-Burdigalian differential rotations can be excluded for the northern and southern block respectively. Hydrothermal veins within Pannonian volcanic units are aligned along the

  20. LANDSAT TM and SAR - ERS1 data for analysis of Vrancea seismic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is aimed to present the results of the application of LANDSAT TM and SAR- ERS1 satellite data for Vrancea seismic area investigation, in order to emphasize geomorphological features as well as to identify faulting zones responsible of seismic events generation. Remote sensing analysis and field studies of active faults can provide a geologic history that overcomes many of the shortcomings of instrumental and historic records. Vrancea - Focsani is structurally and seismically complex area, bounded by latitudes 45.6 angle N and 46.0 angle N and longitudes 26.5 angle E and 27.5 angle E. The Peceneaga -Camena Fault, a deep crustal fracture with dextral slip, is considered to be North-Eastern boundary of the Moesian Platform. The Eastern unit of the Moesian Sub-Plate is characterized by a series of principal faults with a North-Western orientation and by a secondary system of faults orientated NE-SW. NW trending crustal fractures are also evidenced East of the Peceneaga-Camena Fault, within our test area. A SAR- ERS1 image and a multispectral Landsat TM data set were used and processed with EASI/PACE image processing software package as well as with developed algorithms. In order to a better management all the information available on the study area, data acquired have been integrated in a unique database. This information consists of thematic maps from cartography, land use map from classification of remotely sensed data. This study revealed that satellite data used are excellent for recognizing the continuity and regional relationships of faults. Linear features in TM images appear shorter and denser distributed, whereas ERS1 images are dominated by the principal structures. In certain cases they complete the lineaments and lineament patterns derived from TM data. Higher spatial resolution satellite data and SAR interferometric data are needed for mapping of these features. Remote sensing techniques provide a means for locating, identifying and mapping

  1. Landslide susceptibility mapping using a neuro-fuzzy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Choi, J.; Oh, H.

    2009-12-01

    This paper develops and applied an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based on a geographic information system (GIS) environment using landslide-related factors and location for landslide susceptibility mapping. A neuro-fuzzy system is based on a fuzzy system that is trained by a learning algorithm derived from the neural network theory. The learning procedure operates on local information, and causes only local modifications in the underlying fuzzy system. The study area, Boun, suffered much damage following heavy rain in 1998 and was selected as a suitable site for the evaluation of the frequency and distribution of landslides. Boun is located in the central part of Korea. Landslide-related factors such as slope, soil texture, wood type, lithology, and density of lineament were extracted from topographic, soil, forest, and lineament maps. Landslide locations were identified from interpretation of aerial photographs and field surveys. Landslide-susceptible areas were analyzed by the ANFIS method and mapped using occurrence factors. In particular, we applied various membership functions (MFs) and analysis results were verified using the landslide location data. The predictive maps using triangular, trapezoidal, and polynomial MFs were the best individual MFs for modeling landslide susceptibility maps (84.96% accuracy), proving that ANFIS could be very effective in modeling landslide susceptibility mapping. Various MFs were used in this study, and after verification, the difference in accuracy according to the MFs was small, between 84.81% and 84.96%. The difference was just 0.15% and therefore the choice of MFs was not important in the study. Also, compared with the likelihood ratio model, which showed 84.94%, the accuracy was similar. Thus, the ANFIS could be applied to other study areas with different data and other study methods such as cross-validation. The developed ANFIS learns the if-then rules between landslide-related factors and landslide

  2. Near N-S paleo-extension in the western Deccan region, India: Does it link strike-slip tectonics with India-Seychelles rifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Achyuta Ayan; Bhattacharya, Gourab; Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Bose, Narayan

    2014-09-01

    This is the first detailed report and analyses of deformation from the W part of the Deccan large igneous province (DLIP), Maharashtra, India. This deformation, related to the India-Seychelles rifting during Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene, was studied, and the paleostress tensors were deduced. Near N-S trending shear zones, lineaments, and faults were already reported without significant detail. An E-W extension was envisaged by the previous workers to explain the India-Seychelles rift at ~64 Ma. The direction of extension, however, does not match with their N-S brittle shear zones and also those faults (sub-vertical, ~NE-SW/~NW-SE, and few ~N-S) we report and emphasize in this work. Slickenside-bearing fault planes, brittle shear zones, and extension fractures in meso-scale enabled us to estimate the paleostress tensors (directions and relative magnitudes). The field study was complemented by remote sensing lineament analyses to map dykes and shear zones. Dykes emplaced along pre-existing ~N-S to ~NE-SW/~NW-SE shears/fractures. This information was used to derive regional paleostress trends. A ~NW-SE/NE-SW minimum compressive stress in the oldest Kalsubai Subgroup and a ~N-S direction for the younger Lonavala, Wai, and Salsette Subgroups were deciphered. Thus, a ~NW/NE to ~N-S extension is put forward that refutes the popular view of E-W India-Seychelles extension. Paleostress analyses indicate that this is an oblique rifted margin. Field criteria suggest only ~NE-SW and ~NW-SE, with some ~N-S strike-slip faults/brittle shear zones. We refer this deformation zone as the "Western Deccan Strike-slip Zone" (WDSZ). The observed deformation was matched with offshore tectonics deciphered mainly from faults interpreted on seismic profiles and from magnetic seafloor spreading anomalies. These geophysical findings too indicate oblique rifting in this part of the W Indian passive margin. We argue that the Seychelles microcontinent separated from India only after much of

  3. Uranium exploration in albitised rocks of North Delhi Fold Belt in Rajasthan and Haryana, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, P.; Khandelwal, M.; Bhairam, C.; Parihar, P.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium deposits in Na-metasomatised granites and metasediments are reported from several places in the world. In India, uranium mineralization associated with soda metasomatic activity has been recognized at a number of places in North Delhi Fold Belt (NDFB) in Rajasthan and adjoining Haryana. Exploration activities for uranium in Khetri Sub Basin (KSB) of North Delhi Fold Belt (NDFB) in last six decades have resulted in locating number of uranium occurrences in the albitites and albitised metasediments at Sior, Siswali, Maonda, Hurra ki Dhani, Diara, Saladipura, Khandela, Rohil, Ghateshwar, Bichun, Sakhun, Ladera and Chota Udaipur in parts of Rajasthan and Dhancholi, Raghunathpura, Rambas and Gorir, in parts of Haryana. Incidentally, the occurrences fall along a NNE-SSW trending “Albitite line”, which comprises a 170 km long, structurally weak zone/lineament and axial trace of major folds in the KSB extending from Raghunathpura in Mahendragarh district of southern Haryana to Ladera-Sakun-Bichun in Rajasthan. Lithounits of KSB comprise lower Alwar Group consisting quartzite, amphibole quartzite, subordinate phyllite and schist and upper Ajabgarh Group consisting schist, phyllite, marble, quartzite and carbon phyllite. The post-Delhi magmatic activity in NDFB is represented by alkali granites, pegmatites, aplites and albitites. The rocks of Delhi supergroup have undergone low to medium grade metamorphism (amphibolite facies) and polyphase deformation. First two deformations with N-S to NNE-SSW axial plane are coaxial while the third phase have E-W axial plane. Prominent shear zones are developed along the N-S to NNE-SSW axial planes, characterized by intense silicification, brecciation and ferruginisation. The NE-SW trending disposition of albitised granites indicate that the metasomatic fluids originated during reactivation of the NE-SW trending Khetri lineament, caused pervasive albitisation of the preexisting rocks, the deformed lithounits providing conduits

  4. A reassessment of the Archean-Mesoproterozoic tectonic development of the southeastern Chhattisgarh Basin, Central India through detailed aeromagnetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, M.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Markandeyulu, A.; Raju, B. V. S. N.; Chaturvedi, A. K.; Roy, M. K.

    2017-08-01

    We constrained the geological framework over polydeformed Paleoproterozoic Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and addressed the tectonic evolution of Singhora basin in the fringes of Bastar Craton, central India by utilizing aeromagnetic data interpretation, 2.5D forward modelling and 3D magnetic susceptibility inversions. The Sonakhan Greenstone Belt exposes volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Sonakhan Group within NNW-SSE to NW-SE trending linear belts surrounded by granite gneisses, which are unconformably overlain by sedimentary rocks of Chhattisgarh Basin. The orientations of aeromagnetic anomalies are coincident with geological trends and appear to correlate with lithology and geologic structure. Regional magnetic anomalies and lineaments reveal both NNW-SSE and NE-SW trends. Prominent E-W trending linear, high amplitude magnetic anomalies are interpreted as the Trans-Chhattisgarh Aeromagnetic Lineament (TCAL). NW-SE trending aeromagnetic signatures related to Sonakhan Greenstone Belt extends below the Singhora sedimentary rocks and forms the basement in the west. The analysis suggests that TCAL is a block fault with northern block down-thrown and affected the basement rocks comprising the Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and Samblapur Granitoids. The episode of faulting represented by the TCAL is pre-Singhora sedimentation and played a vital role in basin evolution. The basement configuration image generated by estimates of depth to magnetic basement suggests a complex pattern of NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending depressions separated by a linear N-S trending basement ridge. It is inferred from the 3D magnetic susceptibility inversion that the thickness of sediments is more towards the eastern basin margin and the N-S ridge is a manifestation of post sedimentary faulting. Results of 2.5D modelling of a WNW-ESE profile across the Singhora Basin combined with results from 3D inversion suggest suggests the basin subsidence was controlled by NE-SW trending regional faults in an active

  5. Comparison of γ-ray intensity distribution around Hira fault with spatial pattern of major and/or sub fault system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tatsuya; Mino, Kazuo; Ogasawara, Hiroshi; Katsura, Ikuo

    1999-01-01

    Major active faults generally consist of systems of a number of fractures with various dimensions, and contain a lot of ground water. Rn gas, moving with underground water, tends to accumulate along faults and emit γ-ray while it decays down to Pb through Bi. Therefore, it has been shown by a number of works that γ-ray intensity is generally high near the core of the major active fault and the γ-ray survey is one of the effective methods to look for the core of the major active fault. However, around the area near the tips of faults, a number of complicated sub-fault systems and the corresponding complicated geological structures are often seen and it has not been investigated well about what can be the relationship between the intensity distribution of γ-ray and the fault systems. In order to investigate the relationship in an area near the tips of major faults well, therefore, we carried out the γ-ray survey at about 1,100 sites in an area of about 2 km x 2 km that has the tips of the two major right lateral faults with significant thrusting components. We also investigated the lineaments by using the topographic map published in 1895 when artificial construction was seldom seen in the area and we can easily see the natural topography. In addition, we carried out the γ-ray survey in an area far from the fault tip to compare with the results in the area with the fault tips. Then: (1) we reconfirmed that in the case of the middle of the major active fault, γ-ray intensity is high in the limited area just adjacent to the core of the fault. (2) However, we found that in the case of the tip of the major active fault, high γ-ray intensity is seen in much wider area with clear lineaments that is inferred to be developed associated with the movement of the major faults. (author)

  6. Plate boundary deformation in North Iceland during 1992–2009 revealed by InSAR time-series analysis and GPS

    KAUST Repository

    Metzger, Sabrina; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2014-01-01

    In North Iceland, extensional plate motion is accommodated by the Northern Volcanic Zone, a set of en-echelon volcanic systems, and the Tjörnes Fracture Zone, a transform offset in the mid-Atlantic Ridge consisting of two parallel transform lineaments. The southern lineament, the Húsavík–Flatey fault, is a 100 km-long right-lateral strike slip fault that has not ruptured for more than 140 years and poses a significant seismic hazard to Húsavík, a fishing town located by the fault, and to other coastal communities. We present results of InSAR time-series analysis data spanning almost two decades (1992–2009) that show extensional and interseismic deformation within the Northern Volcanic Zone and the on-shore part of the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. The results also exhibit transient inflation at Theistareykir volcano, deflation at Krafla central volcano and a broad uplift north of Krafla. The current plate extension is not uniform across the Northern Volcanic Zone, but concentrated at the western fissures of the Theistareykir volcanic system and the outermost fissures of the Krafla fissure swarm. We combine a back-slip plate boundary model with a set of point pressure sources representing volcanic changes to describe the current extensional plate boundary deformation and update the previous estimations of the locking depth and slip rate of the Húsavík–Flatey fault that were based on GPS data alone. Using different combinations of input data, we find that the Húsavík–Flatey fault has a locking depth of 6–10 km and, with a slip rate of 6–9 mm/yr, is accommodating about a third of the full transform motion. We furthermore show that while the InSAR data provide important constraints on the volcanic deformation within the NVZ, they do not significantly improve the model parameter estimation for the HFF, as the dense GPS network appears to better capture the deformation across the fault.

  7. Spatial organization of seismicity and fracture pattern at the boundary between Alps and Dinarides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Gianni; Ponton, Maurizio; Rossi, Giuliana; Urban, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    The paper affords the study of the spatial organization of seismicity in the easternmost region of the Alps (Friuli, in NE Italy and W Slovenia), dominated by the interference between the Alpine and the Dinaric tectonic systems. Two non-conventional methods of spatial analysis are used: fractal analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). The fractal analysis helps to discriminate the cases in which hypocentres clearly define a plane, from the ones in which hypocenter distribution tends to the planarity, without reaching it. The PCA analysis is used to infer the orientation of planes fitting through earthquake foci, or the direction of propagation of the hypocentres. Furthermore, we study the spatial seismicity pattern at the shallow depths in the context of a general damage model, through the crack density distribution. The results of the three methods concur to a complex and composite model of fracturing in the region. The hypocentre pattern fills only partially a plane, i.e. has a fractal dimension close to 2. The three exceptions regard planes with Dinaric trend, without interference with Alpine lineaments. The shallowest depth range (0-10 km depth) is characterized by the activation of planes with variable orientations, reflecting the interference between the Dinaric and the Alpine tectonic structures, and closely bound to the variation of the mechanical properties of the crust. The seismicity occurs mostly in areas characterized by a variation from low to moderate crack density, indicating the sharp transition from zones of low damage to zones of moderate damage. Low crack density indicates the presence of more competent rocks capable of sustaining high strain energy while high crack density areas pertain to highly fractured rocks that cannot store high strain energy. Brittle failure, i.e. seismic activity, is favoured within the sharp transitions from low to moderate crack density zones. The orientation of the planes depicting the seismic activity

  8. Modeling impacts of change in Landuse/ Landcover on groundwater system in Shiwaliks of Punjab using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C. K.; Mukherjee, S.; Shashtri, S.

    2009-04-01

    increasing influence of green revolution is continuously being manifested in the form of escalating area under salinization; the total increase being registered is around 94%. The areas lying within the vicinity of river have shown concentrations of several heavy metals to be higher than the desirable limits. Impact of agriculture has also shown alarming increase in nitrate concentration in some of the areas. Thematic maps for geology, geomorphology, slope, drainage, lineament density, distance from the lineaments, soil type, were prepared using GIS platform and a suitability analysis was performed for quantitative variation of groundwater in the study area. Several water quality parameters were analyzed and to observe spatial variation of suitability of groundwater in terms of quality a water quality index (WQI) was generated. Parameters such as relative humidity, temperature and rainfall for the last two decades were also analyzed in relation to decline in level of groundwater.

  9. Interpretation of aeromagnetic survey in Eurajoensalmi, Olkiluoto (2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehman, I.; Ahokas, T.; Lahti, M.

    2009-06-01

    In 2001, Olkiluoto was selected as the site for the final disposal of spent nuclear waste in Finland. Current construction of the underground research facility, ONKALO, is occurring at the Olkiluoto site. During the past three decades, detailed geological and geophysical investigations have been carried out on Olkiluoto Island and in the Olkiluoto vicinity in order to define its bedrock properties and structures that affect the final nuclear waste disposal. In April 2008, a high resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in the Eurajoensalmi inlet in order to investigate the sea and coastal areas north and west of Eurajoensalmi. Measured parameter was total magnetic field. The main goal of the survey was to improve the magnetic image of Eurajoensalmi area, to locate the area's most significant magnetic features, and by magnetic modelling find the best geological explanations for them. Some preliminary lineament interpretations were also performed to compare the accuracy of location data between lineaments interpreted in earlier surveys versus the new 2008 data. Data acquired during earlier magnetic surveys was used as reference data. Interpretation was conducted using measured total magnetic field, derivatives computed from the total field and various visualisation techniques. Comparison of data from the 1988 aeromagnetic survey conducted by GTK and the 2008 survey proves that a more detailed survey configuration sharpens anomalies and increases reliability in the interpretation of subtle features. Positioning techniques have improved significantly since the 1980's, which improves positioning accuracy and increases consistency. It can be concluded that the 2008 data is significantly more detailed and brings interpretation to a new level. Four areas, including well known bedrock structures HZ21, which corresponds to brittle deformation zone OL-BFZ002, and Liikla and Selkaenummi shear zones, were modelled. Modelling was intentionally kept relatively simple using

  10. Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehls, John F [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km{sup 2}. Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of

  11. The uranium potential of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, P.R.

    1986-04-01

    This paper presents a summary on much of the existing geochemical data on the siliceous components of the Bushveld Complex (i.e., the felsites, granophyres and granites) with a view to establishing the U potential of the district. Although very few U analyses are actually available, sophisticated normalised data plots are utilized to estimate the probable U contents of the rock types. The members of the siliceous suite exhibit a gradual chemical evolution through time and illustrates that the most evolved members of the suite probably contained the highest primary U contents. It is emphasized that most known Bushveld Sn and F occurrences, with which U is likely to be associated, and most of the recognized radiometric anomalies in the complex, are concentrated along major lineaments. In this respect the Murchison and Franspoort directions are considered to be particularly important. In conclusion the argument follows that the potential for undiscovered hydrothermal U ores in the Bushveld Complex is high, and that five factors will probably control the location of such deposits. These factors include: 1. Sn, F and LIL-enriched source granite; 2. High post-emplacement heat production to promote the development of post-emplacement mineralizing systems; 3. A tectonically unstable source region with major fracture zones; 4. Suitable trap environments in the granites and their country rocks; 5. A source of fluids from aquifers in the granite aureole

  12. U-Th/He ages of fluorite mineralizations of the Tangua alkaline intrusion; Idades U-Th/He das mineralizacoes de fluorita da intrusao alcalina de Tangua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, M.C.; Vargas, T., E-mail: geraldes@uerj.br, E-mail: vargas@uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia; Evans, N., E-mail: Noreen.Evans@csiro.au [CSIRO and Curtin University for Technology, Western Australia (Australia); Nummer, A.R., E-mail: nummer@ufrrj.br [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (DEGEOC/IA/UFRRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The Tangua massif is part of a group of alkaline complexes that occurs in an extensive zone of faults and E-W lineaments and includes the Brazilian Southeastern Rift. This work presents U-He ages of the fluorite mineralization. The Tangua alkaline massif is emplaced in coarse-grained biotite gneiss (Oriental Domain, central portion of the Ribeira belt). Cataclastic gneiss with intense weathering are restricted to the intrusion contacts. The alkaline body is comprised of pulaskites and umptekites, nephelinesyenites, foiaites, and pseudoleucite foiaites and is cut by phonolite dykes, trachytes and alkaline lamprophyres. In the locality of Barbosao, veins of fluorite occur, accompanied by silica and pyrite within trachyte dykes. These veins are parallel to the gneiss foliation (N 50 - 70 E) with an average thickness of 30 cm and the fluorite contains limonite and manganese oxides inclusions. The U-He ages range from <2Ma to 73Ma. The older age is coherent with 80-65 ma range of K-Ar ages reported in the literature. The veins of fluorite crosscut the lithologies associated with shear zones, and are important to economic exploration in the region. The petrographic and U-Th/He sating studies indicate the fluorite formation coeval to alkaline intrusion and meteoric water fluid circulation recently. (author)

  13. Isotopic signature of Pan-African rejuvenation in the Kerala Khondalite belt, southern India: implications for east Gondwana reassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan Warrier, C.

    1997-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotope systematics on mineral separates from sillimanite-and cordierite-bearing metapelite (khondalite), and garnet-and biotite-bearing gneiss (leptynite) from the Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India, yielded mineral isochron ages (wr-feld-bio-gar) of 537±27 Ma (MSWD=0.9) and 534±26 Ma (MSWD=1.23) respectively. Rb-Sr systematics in the same samples gave wr-feld-bio mineral isochron ages of 437±9 Ma (MSWD=0.67) and 467±9 Ma (MSWD=0.76). These results provide the first mineral isochron ages for the regional metasedimentaries in the KKB. The ε (Nd T) values at 550 Ma for khondalite and leptynite are -22.7 and -21.8 respectively. These results demonstrate a complete rejuvenation of the crust during Pan-African times. Coeval alkaline plutons emplaced along fault-lineaments in this area suggest an extensional tectonic regime. Geochronologic correlations with the Lutzow-Holm bay complexes in east Antarctica, and the highland and southwestern complex of Sri Lanka show that a similar Pan-African tectono-thermal event manifested in all the east Gondwana crustal fragments. (author)

  14. Geochemical mapping of radioactive elements using helicopter-borne gamma-ray spectrometry (Tiouit, Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Or occurrence and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftah, Abdelhalim; El Azzab, Driss; Attou, Ahmed; Manar, Ahmed; Rachid, Ahmed; Ramhy, Haytam

    2018-03-01

    The spectrometric prospection is a direct geophysical method based on the analysis of the radioactive elements spectra, due to three principal radioactive elements 40K, 238U and 232Th. In order to measure the content of radioactive elements a geophysical helicopter survey was carried out to a flight altitude of 60 m from the subsoil, covering the geological map of Tiouit 1/50,000 with an extent of 45.5 × 29 km2. In this paper, we propose an application in the environment and or occurrence by the production of maps concentration in K, U and Th to delimit the areas with purely natural radioactive risk by the calculation of the dose rate in mSv, the found values show a variation of 0,3 with 1649 mSv with a median value of 0,831 mSv. Moreover, data processing as the horizontal gradient filter which allowed to amplify the spectrometric signatures, this one coupled to the upward continuation, lead us to a better location of the abrupt changes, which materialize by spectrometric lineaments, reflecting the change of the geochemical properties of the basement.

  15. AIC-based diffraction stacking for local earthquake locations at the Sumatran Fault (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriyana, Andri; Bauer, Klaus; Muksin, Umar; Weber, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We present a new workflow for the localization of seismic events which is based on a diffraction stacking approach. In order to address the effects from complex source radiation patterns, we suggest to compute diffraction stacking from a characteristic function (CF) instead of stacking the original waveform data. A new CF, which is called in the following mAIC (modified from Akaike Information Criterion) is proposed. We demonstrate that both P- and S-wave onsets can be detected accurately. To avoid cross-talk between P and S waves due to inaccurate velocity models, we separate the P and S waves from the mAIC function by making use of polarization attributes. Then, the final image function is represented by the largest eigenvalue as a result of the covariance analysis between P- and S-image functions. Results from synthetic experiments show that the proposed diffraction stacking provides reliable results. The workflow of the diffraction stacking method was finally applied to local earthquake data from Sumatra, Indonesia. Recordings from a temporary network of 42 stations deployed for nine months around the Tarutung pull-apart basin were analysed. The seismic event locations resulting from the diffraction stacking method align along a segment of the Sumatran Fault. A more complex distribution of seismicity is imaged within and around the Tarutung basin. Two lineaments striking N-S were found in the centre of the Tarutung basin which support independent results from structural geology.

  16. To evaluate ERTS-1 data for usefulness as a geological sensor in the diverse geological terraines of New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isachsen, Y. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Linear anomalies dominate the new geological information derived from ERTS-1 imagery, total lengths now exceeding 6000 kms. Experimentation with a variety of viewing techniques suggests that conventional photogeologic analyses of band 7 results in the location of more than 97 percent of all linears found. Bedrock lithologic types are distinguishable only where they are topographically expressed or govern land use signatures. The maxima on rose diagrams for ERTS-1 anomalies correspond well with those for mapped faults and topographic lineaments, despite a difference in relative magnitudes of maxima thought due to solar illumination direction. A multiscale analysis of linears showed that single topographic linears at 1:2,500,000 became dashed jugate linears at 1:500,000, and shorter linears lacking any conspicuous zonal alignment at 1:250,000. Most circular features found were explained away by U-2 airphoto analysis but several remain as anomalies. Visible glacial features include individual drumlins, best seen in winter imagery, drumlinoids, eskers, ice-marginal drainage channels, glacial lake shorelines and sand plains, and end moraines.

  17. Uranium and REE potential of the albitite-pyroxenite-microclinite belt of Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Govind; Sharma, D.K.; Yadav, O.P.; Jain, Rajan B.; Singh, Rajendra

    1998-01-01

    A number of radioactive albitite, pyroxenite and microclinite occurrences have been identified in north and central Rajasthan, along or in close proximity to major lineaments, from Dancholi - Mewara in the NE to Tal in the SW. With these new findings the total extent of Albitite belt of Rajasthan now stands at over 320 km. These occurrences have been evaluated on the basis of their U, Th and REE content to identify the potential areas for the second phase of uranium exploration programme. Further, based on the various characteristic features of radioactive host rocks, the Albitite Belt has been divided into five sectors. The U 3 O 8 content of albitites varies from 0.008 to 0.44% and of pyroxenites from 0.022 to 2.0% whereas ThO 2 varies from < 0.005 to 0.83% in albitites and <0.005 to 0.033% in pyroxenities. These albitites, microclinites and pyroxenites are also characterised by anomalous concentration of REEs. Uranium and REE bearing phases are represented by uraninite, brannerite, davidite, fergusonite, monazite, anatase, rutile, zircon, allanite and britholite. The data accrued so far suggest that U and REE potential of the Mewara-Maonda and Hurra Ki Dhani-Rohil sectors are very high and hence needs further detailed integrated exploration. (author)

  18. Identification of areas of recharge and discharge using Landsat-TM satellite imagery and aerial photography mapping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, R. B.; Tapley, I.; Ishii, T.; Hawkes, G.

    1994-10-01

    Aerial photographs (AP) and Landsat (TM) colour composites were used to map the geomorphology, geology and structures of the Salt River System of Western Australia. Geomorphic features identified are sand plains, dissected etchplain, colluvium, lateritic duricrust and rock outcrops. The hydrogeomorphic units include streams, lakes and playas, palaeochannels and palaeodeltas. The structural features are linear and curvilinear lineaments, ring structures and dolerite dykes. Suture lines control the course of the main river channel. Permeable areas around the circular granitic plutons were found to be the main areas of recharge in the uplands. Recharge was also found to occur in the highly permeable areas of the sandplains. Discharge was shown to be primarily along the main drainage lines, on the edge of the circular sandplains, in depressions and in lakes. The groundwater occurrence and hydrogeological classification of the recharge potential of the different units were used to classify the mapped areas into recharge and discharge zones. The results also show that TM colour composites provide a viable source of data comparable with AP for mapping and delineating areas of recharge and discharge on a regional scale.

  19. Quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication on the inspection basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes S, A.

    1997-01-01

    Every plant productive of electric power requires the use of energetics for the transformation to electricity. In the nucleo electric plant the energetic is the uranium, in which it makes ensembles and is used as fuel in the reactor. To assure that the fuel ensembles fulfill the specifications and requirements of design stipulated in the nucleo electric plant is that under a quality control through inspections during the fabrication process. The purpose of this work is to study and verify that the lineaments of the standard 10 CFR 50 appendix B 'Quality assurement for nuclear plants' specially in the criteria 'Inspections' that is used to guarantee the quality of the ensembles. This standard is the one that rules every activity and operation inside the pilot plant and its established in the quality program in the production of nuclear fuel for the Laguna Verde plant. The quality of the assemble is verified through each one of the tests or inspections due to the importance of it in the fabrication of fuel. (Author)

  20. A ''model'' geophysics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993, I tested a radio-controlled airplane designed by Jim Walker of Brigham Young University for low-elevation aerial photography. Model-air photography retains most of the advantages of standard aerial photography --- the photographs can be used to detect lineaments, to map roads and buildings, and to construct stereo pairs to measure topography --- and it is far less expensive. Proven applications on the Oak Ridge Reservation include: updating older aerial records to document new construction; using repeated overflights of the same area to capture seasonal changes in vegetation and the effects of major storms; and detecting waste trench boundaries from the color and character of the overlying grass. Aerial photography is only one of many possible applications of radio-controlled aircraft. Currently, I am funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development to review the state of the art in microavionics, both military and civilian, to determine ways this emerging technology can be used for environmental site characterization. Being particularly interested in geophysical applications, I am also collaborating with electrical engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design a model plane that will carry a 3-component flux-gate magnetometer and a global positioning system, which I hope to test in the spring of 1994

  1. The influence of tectonic and volcanic processes on the morphology of the Iberian continental margins; Influencia de los procesos tectonicos y volcanicos en la morfologia de los margenes continentales ibericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestro, A.; Bohoyo, F.; Lopez-Martinez, J.; Acosta, J.; Gomez-Ballesteros, M.; Llaave, E.; Munoz, A.; Terrinha, P. G.; Dominguez, M.; Fernandez-Saez, F.

    2015-07-01

    The Iberian continental margins are mainly passive margins. Nevertheless, the northern sector of the margin was active during some stages of its geological evolution. The southern sector is considered as a transformed margin, which defines the boundary between the Iberian and African plates. This margin was also an active margin in the past. The different types, origins and intensities of the endogenic processes that have affected he Iberian continental margins have led to the development of various tectonic and volcanic morphologies. The North Atlantic rifting allowed the development of large marginal platforms in the Cantabrian and Galician margins the North-Atlantic Ocean spreading. The reactivation of Variscan faults during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic controlled the strike of some of the largest canyons in the Iberian margins. The Gulf of Cadiz margin is characterized by the development of morphologies related to salt tectonic, fluid seepage, thrust fronts and strike-slip fault lineaments hundreds of kilometres long. The Alboran basin and the Betic margin show morphologies connected with the Miocene rift phase, which generated volcanic edifices and various structural reliefs, and with the subsequent compressive phase, when folds and strike-slip, reverse faults, diapirs and mud volcanoes were developed. Finally, the Catalan-Valencian margin and the Balearic promontory are characterized by the presence of horst and graben structures related to the development of the Valencia trough during the Paleogene. The morphological features of endogenic origin have largely controlled the location and extent of the sedimentary processes and morphological products along the Iberian margins. (Author)

  2. Security aspects and radiological protection analyzed in the Semi-industrial irradiation plant in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Valle O, C.

    1996-01-01

    The safety aspects and the radiological protection analyzed on regular and emergency operation of a multipurpose irradiation plant PIMU are shown. All its design requirements are described following a strict safety philosophy. The plant is classified into the generic category IV for storage in pool panoramic irradiators. This paper studies every aspect related to a safety operation of the gamma's facility, PIMU, being used as reference in order to obtain the corresponding licensing. Aspects related to the regular and safety operation of the whole plant are taken into account, so all the possible emergency cases and their respective answers will be known, analyzing cases and causes of accidents, as well as references to the program of radiological protection. Registers and documents are written in order to be used at the plant, all the lineament for the development of a good preventive and corrective maintenance are given, observing all the necessary adjustments. A list of the principal examinations of the technical condition of the plant is presented. (author). 2 refs

  3. Focused seismicity triggered by flank instability on Kīlauea's Southwest Rift Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Josiah; Thelen, Weston A.; Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2018-03-01

    Swarms of earthquakes at the head of the Southwest Rift Zone on Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai´i, reveal an interaction of normal and strike-slip faulting associated with movement of Kīlauea's south flank. A relocated subset of earthquakes between January 2012 and August 2014 are highly focused in space and time at depths that are coincident with the south caldera magma reservoir beneath the southern margin of Kīlauea Caldera. Newly calculated focal mechanisms are dominantly dextral shear with a north-south preferred fault orientation. Two earthquakes within this focused area of seismicity have normal faulting mechanisms, indicating two mechanisms of failure in very close proximity (10's of meters to 100 m). We suggest a model where opening along the Southwest Rift Zone caused by seaward motion of the south flank permits injection of magma and subsequent freezing of a plug, which then fails in a right-lateral strike-slip sense, consistent with the direction of movement of the south flank. The seismicity is concentrated in an area where a constriction occurs between a normal fault and the deeper magma transport system into the Southwest Rift Zone. Although in many ways the Southwest Rift Zone appears analogous to the more active East Rift Zone, the localization of the largest seismicity (>M2.5) within the swarms to a small volume necessitates a different model than has been proposed to explain the lineament outlined by earthquakes along the East Rift Zone.

  4. MHD Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in a Casson Liquid Film Towards an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mostafa A. A.; Megahed, Ahmed M.

    2017-10-01

    Theoretical and numerical outcomes of the non-Newtonian Casson liquid thin film fluid flow owing to an unsteady stretching sheet which exposed to a magnetic field, Ohmic heating and slip velocity phenomena is reported here. The non-Newtonian thermal conductivity is imposed and treated as it vary with temperature. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the non-Newtonian Casson thin film fluid are simplified into a group of highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using an adequate dimensionless transformations. With this in mind, the numerical solutions for the ordinary conservation equations are found using an accurate shooting iteration technique together with the Runge-Kutta algorithm. The lineaments of the thin film flow and the heat transfer characteristics for the pertinent parameters are discussed through graphs. The results obtained here detect many concern for the local Nusselt number and the local skin-friction coefficient in which they may be beneficial for the material processing industries. Furthermore, in some special conditions, the present problem has an excellent agreement with previously published work.

  5. Knickpoint finder: A software tool that improves neotectonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, G. L.; Salamuni, E.; Nascimento, E. R.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents a new software tool for morphometric analysis of drainage networks based on the methods of Hack (1973) and Etchebehere et al. (2004). This tool is applicable to studies of morphotectonics and neotectonics. The software used a digital elevation model (DEM) to identify the relief breakpoints along drainage profiles (knickpoints). The program was coded in Python for use on the ArcGIS platform and is called Knickpoint Finder. A study area was selected to test and evaluate the software's ability to analyze and identify neotectonic morphostructures based on the morphology of the terrain. For an assessment of its validity, we chose an area of the James River basin, which covers most of the Piedmont area of Virginia (USA), which is an area of constant intraplate seismicity and non-orogenic active tectonics and exhibits a relatively homogeneous geodesic surface currently being altered by the seismogenic features of the region. After using the tool in the chosen area, we found that the knickpoint locations are associated with the geologic structures, epicenters of recent earthquakes, and drainages with rectilinear anomalies. The regional analysis demanded the use of a spatial representation of the data after processing using Knickpoint Finder. The results were satisfactory in terms of the correlation of dense areas of knickpoints with active lineaments and the rapidity of the identification of deformed areas. Therefore, this software tool may be considered useful in neotectonic analyses of large areas and may be applied to any area where there is DEM coverage.

  6. Spectral image analysis of the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Arizona, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabelman, J.W.; Wescott, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of economic deposits, the semi-arid environment and the youth of applied remote-sensing technology suit the Hopi Buttes volcanic field as a test site for the application of multispectral image analysis to geologic interpretation and uranium evaluation. All possible enhancements of seasonal images were created in the General Electric interactive multispectral analyzer, model 100, and photographed for study. Contrast and directional edge-enhancement excellently delineated the patterns of megafractures and lineaments which are obscure to ground observation, but may control vent positions. Two sets of orthogonal groups of megafractures are oriented in the cardinal and diagonal directions; they suggest rotation of the stress ellipsoid, or the overlap of stresses from a differently oriented ellipsoid in a neighboring region. A megacircle of vents suggests a deep cylindrical fracture zone and possible incipient cauldron. Other circular areas with unusually abundant travertine maars or volcanic-material-free pipes suggest incipient collapse. Band ratios, density slices and histogram stretches selectively enhanced and differentiated stratigraphic formations, limburgite, tuff, travertine, gypsum-argillized rock and Fe-enriched rock. These were portrayed successfully on thematic map-images. A signature was derived for uraniferous travertine-marl and used to map its distribution. 30 refs.; 24 figs

  7. Contribution for geochronological evolution study of the Pianco-Alto Brigida fold belt system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito Neves, B.B. de; Basei, M.A.S.; Van Schmus, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Proterozoic Painco-Alto Fold Belt is situated in the central portion of the Borborema Province and it probably is just a segment of a longer structural development encompassed between the Patos (N) and Pernambuco (S) lineaments. The geochronological study was carried out along a cross section in the central part of the belt (Paraiba State) where biotite-muscovite quartz schists are the predominating rock types, including intercalations of bi-modal volcanics, marbles and quartzites. These rocks were metamorphosed in the amphibolite facies, and they display a complex history of folding. Zircons of the acid volcanics (meta-rhyolytes where analysed through U/Pb method and they plot in a discordia diagram with superior intercept indicating ages around 1100 Ma. Whole rocks Rb/Sr analyses on the same meta-volcanics are indicating isochrons of 950Ma. These data are being respectively interpreted as ages of sedimentation (and volcanism) and regional metamorphism associated to the main (D sub(2)) phase of folding. One of the main purpose of this paper is to stress the importance of the ages around 950Ma, in the central domain of the Borborema Province, as result of regional folding and metamorphism. Some other occurence of ages in the 1000-900Ma range will be discussed as support for this interpretation from now on adopted. (author)

  8. Ultrapotassic rocks geology from Salgueiro region, Pernambuco state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, A.F. da; Guimaraes, I.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt has Proterozoic age and is located in the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. The ultrapotassic rocks from Salgueiro region intrudes the Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt rocks. The ultrapotassics from Salgueiro region constitutes of three units; Serra do Livramento pluton, and two dyke swarms called respectively beige alkali feldspar granites and green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite. The Serra do Livramento pluton shows E-W direction, boudin shape, width between 0,15 and 2,10 km, and it is intruded into metamorphic rocks and into the Terra Nova complex. Detailed geological mapping at the Serra das Duas Irmas allowed us to establish the dyke swarm chronology. The mapping reveals seven intrusion episodes, into the Terra Nova pluton, of green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite and five episodes of bege alkali feldspar granite. They alternate between them in space and time, and there are evidence that they were intruded under the tectonic control of the Pernambuco lineament. A systematic whole-rock Rb-Sr geochronology was done in the green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite, and an age of 514,8 ± 20,3 Ma was obtained. The initial ratio is 0,710615 + 0,000441. The age obtained shows small error and an initial ratio compatible with a strong crustal contamination. (author)

  9. Integrated geophysical and geological study and petroleum appraisal of Cretaceous plays in the Western Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhaili, Noomen; Bey, Saloua; El Abed, Mahmoud; Gasmi, Mohamed; Inoubli, Mohamed Hedi

    2015-09-01

    An integrated study of available seismic and calibrated wells has been conducted in order to ascertain the structural development and petroleum potential of the Cretaceous Formations of the Western Gulf of Gabes. This study has resulted in an understanding of the controls of deep seated Tethyan tectonic lineaments by analysis of the Cretaceous deposits distribution. Three main unconformities have been identified in this area, unconformity U1 between the Jurassic and Cretaceous series, unconformity U2 separating Early from Late Cretaceous and known as the Austrian unconformity and the major unconformity U3 separating Cretaceous from Tertiary series. The seismic analysis and interpretation have confirmed the existence of several features dominated by an NE-SW extensive tectonic regime evidenced by deep listric faults, asymmetric horst and graben and tilted blocks structures. Indeed, the structural mapping of these unconformities, displays the presence of dominant NW-SE fault system (N140 to N160) bounding a large number of moderate sized basins. A strong inversion event related to the unconformity U3 can be demonstrated by the mapping of the unconformities consequence of the succession of several tectonic manifestations during the Cretaceous and post-Cretaceous periods. These tectonic events have resulted in the development of structural and stratigraphic traps further to the porosity and permeability enhancement of Cretaceous reservoirs.

  10. Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained

  11. A seismological overview of the induced earthquakes in the Duvernay play near Fox Creek, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ryan; Wang, Ruijia; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Haug, Kristine; Atkinson, Gail

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current state of understanding regarding the induced seismicity in connection with hydraulic fracturing operations targeting the Duvernay Formation in central Alberta, near the town of Fox Creek. We demonstrate that earthquakes in this region cluster into distinct sequences in time, space, and focal mechanism using (i) cross-correlation detection methods to delineate transient temporal relationships, (ii) double-difference relocations to confirm spatial clustering, and (iii) moment tensor solutions to assess fault motion consistency. The spatiotemporal clustering of the earthquake sequences is strongly related to the nearby hydraulic fracturing operations. In addition, we identify a preference for strike-slip motions on subvertical faults with an approximate 45° P axis orientation, consistent with expectation from the ambient stress field. The hypocentral geometries for two of the largest-magnitude (M 4) sequences that are robustly constrained by local array data provide compelling evidence for planar features starting at Duvernay Formation depths and extending into the shallow Precambrian basement. We interpret these lineaments as subvertical faults orientated approximately north-south, consistent with the regional moment tensor solutions. Finally, we conclude that the sequences were triggered by pore pressure increases in response to hydraulic fracturing stimulations along previously existing faults.

  12. Litho-structural and geophysics features of the Alto Paranaiba Uplift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasui, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Alto Paranaiba Uplift (APU) is an almost elliptical tectonic feature of the Western Minas Gerais/Southern Goias region, which was active mostly during the Cretaceous. It separated the Parana Basin, during the formation of the Sao Bento, Uberaba and Bauru sequences, from the Alto-Sanfranciscana Basin, at the time of formation of the Areado, Patos, Capacete and Urucuia sequences. The Bouguer anomaly data indicate that the APU developed at the southwestern border of the ancient Brasilia crustal block and is represented by an almost elliptical gravity high of 15 mgal, locally disturbed by positive and negative the presence of important lineaments of a NW-SE set, mostly crossing the southwestern half of the APU. The APU development, the magmatism and the lateral basin formation involved reactivation of preexisting discontinuities and are related to a mantle plume. The tectonic development was aborted at the uplift stage during Cretaceous, after the deposition of the Bauru and Urucuia sequences, as is indicated by the Pratinha peneplane, now elevated at about 1.100 m altitude, which sculpture ended at the beginning of the Tertiary. The APU is one tectonic feature like other similar anomalies also aborted in the uplift stage or in the rift stage, which developed in Southern Brazil during the time of Atlantic Ocean opening. (author)

  13. Nemaha Uplift seismotectonic study: regional tectonics and seismicity of eastern Kansas. Technical progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, F.W.

    1979-11-01

    Progress and results of all work on this project to the end of its second year, or September 30, 1978, were reported in NUREG/CR-0666, published March 1979. Project third-year activites and results include the following: continued operation of a regional microearthquake monitoring network which detected and located 26 regional events between October 1, 1978, and August 2, 1979; designing and building a triggering system to allow digitized recording of microearthquakes by a modified exploration seismography; continued surface and subsurface studies of selected areas along the Nemaha Uplift-Keweenanan Mafic belt trend; continued study of Precambrian rock types from recently drilled wells; beginning compilation of a fault catalog; terrain analysis and lineament studies which indicate that the alignment of stream drainages and divides are strongly controlled by basement and subsurface structure; continued reduction of gravity data for northeastern Kansas (a Bouguer gravity map probably will be available late Fall 1979); modification of the exploration seismograph system to a more efficient 12-channel Mini-Sosie system and completion of several line-miles of reflection profiling; and beginning integration of data from Oklahoma, Nebraska, and Iowa co-investigators. All major goals for FY 1979 were accomplished. 2 figures

  14. Thematic mapping of basement-related cross-strike structural discontinuities and their relationship to potential oil-bearing structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranpanah, A. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Pittsburg at Bradford, Bradford, PA (US))

    1989-10-01

    This paper reports how a digitally enhanced Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper mosaic (TM) data, a hand-held color space photograph from one of the early NASA satellite missions (Gemini), and field data were used to delineate three major basement-structural discontinuities (CSDs) with the Zagros Basin of southwestern Iran. Three major subparallel CSDs are, from north to south, Kazerun-Qatar (N05{sup {degrees}W} trend), Razak (N17{degrees}E trend), and Oman (N18{degrees}E). These subparallel CSDs subdivide the Zagros Basin into northern, central, and southern sub-basins. The Razak and Oman CSD enclose a relatively nonproductive area, separating the southern Zagros sub-basin from more productive regions to the northwest and the nonproductive Makran Ranges to the southeast where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that CSD may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of sedimentary basins. The results of this investigation also prove that lineament analysis is a potentially effective method for interpreting the basement-related CSD within a basin setting.

  15. Development of a technical scheme for the management of chemical dangerous substances in hospitable environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja Amador, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical substances that are used in the hospitals, and their remainders, represent risks for the environment, the health and security of those who work in these establishments, and of the civil population. The deficiency of a norm that establishes the directives for the handling responsible for such products in the hospitals that our country has motivated the elaboration of a technical scheme that serves as it guides for the correct manipulation, storage and safe disposition of chemical substances in the twenty-nine hospitals of the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, establishing Procedures of Standard Operation for its management. To development of the guideline proposal it took a sample of hospitals that includes three levels of comple complexity: national, regional and peripheral. Applying a methodology of evaluation of risks two factors of risk of hospitable were determined, the zones and the population but affected by the existence of chemical substances, which allowed to identify some operative deficiencies in the product handling diverse. The qualitative analysis of the results lead to the elaboration of a technical scheme that includes an instrument for the identification of risks, guideline for the management responsible for hospitable chemical substances, a friendly tool computations like complementary source of intelligence and the proposal of a governing group in charge of the monitoring of the fulfillment of these lineament. (Author) [es

  16. Radionuclide transport in fractured rock: quantifying releases from final disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Claudia S. da; Alvim, Antonio C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline rock has been considered as a potentially suitable matrix for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository because it is found in very stable geological formations and may have very low permeability. In this study the adopted physical system consists of the rock matrix containing a discrete horizontal fracture in a water saturated porous rock and a system of vertical fractures as a lineament. The transport in the fractures - horizontal and vertical, is assumed to obey a relation convection-diffusion, while the molecular diffusion is considered dominant mechanism of transport in porous rock. In this model the decay chain is considered. We use a code in Fortran 90, where the partial differential equations that describe the movement of radionuclides were discretized by finite differences methods. We use the fully implicit method for temporal discretization schemes. The simulation was performed with relevant data of nuclides in spent fuel for performance assessment in a hypothetical repository, thus quantifying the radionuclides released into the host rock. (author)

  17. Mapping and characterization from aeromagnetic data of the Foum Zguid dolerite Dyke (Anti-Atlas, Morocco) a member of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouiflane, Mustapha; Manar, Ahmed; Medina, Fida; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Rimi, Abdelkrim

    2017-06-01

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in the Anti- Atlas, Morocco covering the main areas traversed by the Great CAMP Foum Zguid dyke (FZD). This ;doleritic; dyke belongs to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), a Large Igneous Province which is associated with the fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangaea and the initial stages of rifting of the Central Atlantic Ocean. It also coincides in time with the mass extinction of the Triassic - Jurassic boundary. Based on the study of geological maps and Google Earth satellite images, it appears that the FZD is poorly exposed and, often covered by Quaternary deposits. This work proposes aeromagnetic modelling and interpretation of the FZD in order to better constrain its structural extent. The data have allowed (i) mapping of the dyke over great distances, under the Quaternary deposits and through areas where it was poorly characterized on the geological map; (ii) identifying major tectonic lineaments interpreted as faults; (iii) recognizing magnetic anomalies related to mafic intrusive bodies; and (iv) informing about regional structural context.

  18. Application of multi-criteria decision analysis in prediction of groundwater resources potential: A case of Oke-Ana, Ilesa Area Southwestern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Akinlalu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater Potential of Oke-Ana area southwestern Nigeria have been evaluated using the integration of electrical resistivity method, remote sensing and geographic information systems. The effect of five hydrogeological indices, namely lineament density, drainage density, lithology, overburden thickness and aquifer layer resistivity on groundwater occurrence was established. Multi-criteria decision analysis technique was employed to assign weight to each of the index using the concept of analytical hierarchy process. The assigned weight was normalized and consistency ratio was established. In order to evaluate the groundwater potential of Oke-Ana, sixty-seven (67 vertical electrical sounding points were occupied. Ten curve types were delineated in the study area. The curve types vary from simple three layer A and H-type curves to the more complex four, five and six layer AA, HA, KH, QH, AKH, HKH, KHA and KHKH curves. Four subsurface geo-electric sequences of top soil, weathered layer, partially weathered/fractured basement and the fresh basement were delineated in the area. The analytical process assisted in classifying Oke-Ana into, low, medium and high groundwater potential zones. Validation of the model from well information and two aborted boreholes suggest 70% agreement.

  19. Late Quaternary drainage dynamics in northern Brazil based on the study of a large paleochannel from southwestern Marajó Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Dilce F; Góes, Ana M

    2008-09-01

    Marajó Island shows an abundance of paleochannels easily mapped in its eastern portion, where vegetation consists mostly of savannas. SRTM data make possible to recognize paleochannels also in western Marajó, even considering the dense forest cover. A well preserved paleodrainage network from the adjacency of the town of Breves (southwestern Marajó Island) was investigated in this work combining remote sensing and sedimentological studies. The palimpsest drainage system consists of a large meander connected to narrower tributaries. Sedimentological studies revealed mostly sharp-based, fining upward sands for the channelized features, and interbedded muds and sands for floodplain areas. The sedimentary structures and facies successions are in perfect agreement with deposition in channelized and floodplain environments, as suggested by remote sensing mapping. The present study shows that this paleodrainage was abandoned during Late Pleistocene, slightly earlier than the Holocene paleochannel systems from the east part of the island. Integration of previous studies with the data available herein supports a tectonic origin, related to the opening of the Pará River along fault lineaments. This would explain the disappearance of large, north to northeastward migrating channel systems in southwestern Marajó Island, which were replaced by the much narrower, south to southeastward flowing modern channels.

  20. Delineation of groundwater potential zones in Theni district, Tamil Nadu, using remote sensing, GIS and MIF techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Magesh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Integration of remote sensing data and the geographical information system (GIS for the exploration of groundwater resources has become a breakthrough in the field of groundwater research, which assists in assessing, monitoring, and conserving groundwater resources. In the present paper, various groundwater potential zones for the assessment of groundwater availability in Theni district have been delineated using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Survey of India toposheets and IRS-1C satellite imageries are used to prepare various thematic layers viz. lithology, slope, land-use, lineament, drainage, soil, and rainfall were transformed to raster data using feature to raster converter tool in ArcGIS. The raster maps of these factors are allocated a fixed score and weight computed from multi influencing factor (MIF technique. Moreover, each weighted thematic layer is statistically computed to get the groundwater potential zones. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into four categories, viz., very poor, poor, good, and very good zones. The result depicts the groundwater potential zones in the study area and found to be helpful in better planning and management of groundwater resources.

  1. Integrating geospatial and ground geophysical information as guidelines for groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrains of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mehnaz; Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2012-08-01

    The increasing demand of water has brought tremendous pressure on groundwater resources in the regions were groundwater is prime source of water. The objective of this study was to explore groundwater potential zones in Maheshwaram watershed of Andhra Pradesh, India with semi-arid climatic condition and hard rock granitic terrain. GIS-based modelling was used to integrate remote sensing and geophysical data to delineate groundwater potential zones. In the present study, Indian Remote Sensing RESOURCESAT-1, Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-4) digital data, ASTER digital elevation model and vertical electrical sounding data along with other data sets were analysed to generate various thematic maps, viz., geomorphology, land use/land cover, geology, lineament density, soil, drainage density, slope, aquifer resistivity and aquifer thickness. Based on this integrated approach, the groundwater availability in the watershed was classified into four categories, viz. very good, good, moderate and poor. The results reveal that the modelling assessment method proposed in this study is an effective tool for deciphering groundwater potential zones for proper planning and management of groundwater resources in diverse hydrogeological terrains.

  2. Deciphering groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain using geospatial technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Imran A; Sankar, K; Dar, Mithas A

    2011-02-01

    Remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) has become one of the leading tools in the field of groundwater research, which helps in assessing, monitoring, and conserving groundwater resources. This paper mainly deals with the integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS to delineate groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain. Digitized vector maps pertaining to chosen parameters, viz. geomorphology, geology, land use/land cover, lineament, relief, and drainage, were converted to raster data using 23 m×23 m grid cell size. Moreover, curvature of the study area was also considered while manipulating the spatial data. The raster maps of these parameters were assigned to their respective theme weight and class weights. The individual theme weight was multiplied by its respective class weight and then all the raster thematic layers were aggregated in a linear combination equation in Arc Map GIS Raster Calculator module. Moreover, the weighted layers were statistically modeled to get the areal extent of groundwater prospects with respect to each thematic layer. The final result depicts the favorable prospective zones in the study area and can be helpful in better planning and management of groundwater resources especially in hard rock terrains.

  3. Assessment of integrated electrical resistivity data on complex aquifer structures in NE Nuba Mountains - Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, N. E.; Yaramanci, U.; Kheiralla, K. M.; Abdelgalil, M. Y.

    2011-07-01

    Two geophysical techniques were integrated to map the groundwater aquifers on complex geological settings, in the crystalline basement terrain in northeast Nuba Mountains. The water flow is structurally controlled by the northwest-southeast extensional faults as one of several in-situ deformational patterns that are attributed to the collision of the Pan-African oceanic assemblage of the Nubian shield against the pre-Pan African continental crust to the west. The structural lineaments and drainage systems have been enhanced by the remote sensing technique. The geophysical techniques used are: vertical electrical soundings (VES) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), in addition to hydraulic conductivity measurements. These measurements were designed to overlap in order to improve the producibility of the geophysical data and to provide a better interpretation of the hydrogeological setting of the aquifer complex structure. Smooth and Block inversion schemes were attempted for the observed ERT data to study their reliability in mapping the different geometries in the complex subsurface. The VES data was conducted where ERT survey was not accessible, and inverted smoothly and merged with the ERT in the 3D resistivity grid. The hydraulic conductivity was measured for 42 water samples collected from the distributed dug wells in the study area; where extremely high saline zones were recorded and have been compared to the resistivity values in the 3D model.

  4. The protogine zone. Geology and mobility during the last 1.5 Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasson, P.G.; Rodhe, A.

    1992-09-01

    This report treats the Protogine Zone (PZ) as the western boundary of the Southeastern Megablock (SEM), and summarizes scientific aspects of different geological and geophysical functions of the zone. A systematic inventory and a technical description of shear zones and faults in the type area of the 'Schistosity Zone' are presented. The report then reviews observed and infrared activity of the zone during the last 1500 million years. This calendar includes at least eight different periods of compression or extension, tilting, uplift, magmatism etc. along the zone, in harmony with the common experience that old zones of weakness in the crust seldom heal. The network of major structures of southern Sweden is described, and the function of the PZ within this network is discussed with particular attention to east-west running lineaments within the SEM, like the Noemmen-Oskarshamn and Hoernebo-Hoegsby fault and shear zones. Future work should inter alia investigate if these two zones are connected with the PZ, and if movements along the PZ can reactivate the zones. A bibliography comprising c. 100 titles is included as an appendix. (au)

  5. Compilation of data used for the analysis of the geological and hydrogeological DFN models. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanson, Jan; Fox, Aaron; Oehman, Johan; Rhen, Ingvar

    2008-08-01

    This report provides an overview and compilation of the various data that constitutes the basis for construction of the geological and hydrogeological discrete feature network (DFN) models as part of model version SDM-Site Laxemar. This includes a review of fracture data in boreholes and in outcrop. Furthermore, the basis for the construction of lineament maps is given as well as a review of the hydraulic test data from cored and percussion-drilled boreholes. An emphasis is put on graphical representation of borehole logs in the form of composites of geological, hydrogeological and even hydrogeochemical data in the case of cored boreholes. One major contribution is a compilation of characteristics of minor local deformation zones (MDZs) identified in cored boreholes. Basic orientation data and fracture intensity data are presented as a function of depth for individual boreholes. The coupling between hydrogeological data and geological data is further refined in plots of Posiva flow log (PFL) data vs. geological single hole interpretation data

  6. Application of remote-sensing data to groundwater exploration: A case study of the Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edet, A. E.; Okereke, C. S.; Teme, S. C.; Esu, E. O.

    The Cross River State, Nigeria, is underlain by the Precambrian-age crystalline basement complex and by rocks of Cretaceous to Tertiary age. The exploration for groundwater in this area requires a systematic technique in order to obtain optimum results, but the non-availability of funds and facilities has made it extremely difficult to carry out site investigations prior to the drilling of water wells. Therefore, the failure rate is as high as 80%. In order to delineate areas that are expected to be suitable for future groundwater development, black and white radar imagery and aerial photographs were used to define some hydrological and hydrogeological features in parts of the study area. Lineament and drainage patterns were analysed using length density and frequency. Lineament-length density ranges from 0.04-1.52 lineament frequency is 0.11-5.09 drainage-length density is 0.17-0.94, and the drainage frequency is 0.16-1.53. These range of values reflect the differences in the probability of groundwater potentials. Results were then used to delineate areas of high, medium, and low groundwater potential. Study results also indicate that correlations exist between lineament and drainage patterns, lithology, water temperature, water conductivity, well yield, transmissivity, longitudinal conductance, and the occurrence of groundwater. Résumé La géologie de l'Etat de Cross River (Nigéria) est constituée d'un socle cristallin d'âge précambrien et de roches datées du Crétacé au Tertiaire. Dans cette région, l'exploration des eaux souterraines nécessite une analyse systématique pour obtenir les meilleurs résultats ; cependant le manque de moyens a rendu particulièrement difficile les recherches de sites de forage destinés au captage de l'eau. C'est pourquoi le taux d'échec a atteint 80%. Afin de délimiter les zones susceptibles de permettre la future mise en valeur des eaux souterraines, des images radar et des photos aériennes en noir et blanc ont

  7. Monitoring the turbidity and surface temperature changes and effects of the 17 August 1999 earthquake in the Izmit Gulf, Turkey by the Landsat TM/ETM data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüfekçi, Kenan; Akman, A Unal

    2005-09-01

    The temporal turbidity and surface temperature changes and effects of the 17 August 1999 earthquake in the Izmit Gulf, Turkey have been investigated using Landsat TM/ETM data. The gulf is in the Mediterranean-Black Sea transition climatic zone and is partially surrounded by green vegetation cover and degraded and densely urbanized-industrialized areas. Landsat TM/ETM data acquired in 1990-1999 confirms increase in turbidity. Turbidity is always low in the southern part and high in the northern part of the gulf, because the more urbanized and industrialized areas are located in the northern part. The Landsat-7 ETM data acquired in the same year (1999) shows seasonal changes in turbidity. Moreover, the two high turbidity and surface temperature anomalies, one of which is parallel to the 17 August 1999 earthquake surface rupture (east-west) and the other which is in the northwest-southeast direction were mapped from Landsat-5 TM data acquired the day (18.08.1999) following the earthquake in the east end of the gulf. On the basis of turbidity implying the sea bottom movement, it is possible to state that a second rupture in the northwest and southeast direction could have occurred at the sea bottom during the earthquake. The distribution of the seismicity centers and the orientation of the lineaments in the area support this finding.

  8. Constraints and prospects of uranium exploration in Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rajendra

    1994-01-01

    Exploration for uranium in the Himalaya over the last thirty years has brought to light five distinct types of mineralisation, namely, vein-type, hydrothermal shear controlled-type, disseminated-type, syngenetic-type, and sandstone-type. The first three are associated with lower to middle proterozoic metasedimentary rocks, metabasic rocks, and granitoids of the lesser Himalaya in close proximity to the main central thrust (MCT). The carbonaceous slates of Haimanta group (late proterozoic to eocambrian) and the Mussoorie phosphorites (eocambrian) represent the syngenetic types. The sandstone-type is associated with the late tertiary Siwaliks of the northwestern Himalaya. The constraints in geology and uranium exploration in the Himalaya have been briefly discussed and principal uranium occurrences in relation to their tectonic environment and genesis listed. The need for geochemical characterization of the Himalayan granitoids and the metabasics related to known uranium mineralisation and new areas have been suggested. Integrated application of radiometric, geochemical and geophysical methods of prospecting and remote sensing techniques in regional geological correlation, identification of subtle rock alterations associated with mineralized zones, geologic structures, and deep crustal lineaments have been advocated. A case for the exploration of the areas of lesser Himalaya outside the MCT has been made out so as to locate hitherto unknown types of uranium deposits including, strata bound, metamorphic, and intra granitic types, possibly with better depth persistence. (author). 57 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Integrated Remote Sensing and Geophysical Investigations of the Geodynamic Activities at Lake Magadi, Southern Kenyan Rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinola Adesuji Komolafe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tectonic lineaments and thermal structure of Lake Magadi, southern Kenyan rift system, were investigated using ASTER data and geophysical methods. Five N-S faults close to known hot springs were identified for geoelectric ground investigation. Aeromagnetic data were employed to further probe faults at greater depths and determine the Curie-point depth. Results indicate a funnel-shaped fluid-filled (mostly saline hydrothermal zone with relatively low resistivity values of less than 1 Ω-m, separated by resistive structures to the west and east, to a depth of 75 m along the resistivity profiles. There was evidence of saline hydrothermal fluid flow toward the surface through the fault splays. The observed faults extend from the surface to a depth of 7.5 km and are probably the ones that bound the graben laterally. They serve as major conduits for the upward heat flux in the study area. The aeromagnetics spectral analysis also revealed heat source emplacement at a depth of about 12 km. The relative shallowness implies a high geothermal gradient evidenced in the surface manifestations of hot springs along the lake margins. Correlation of the heat source with the hypocenters showed that the seismogenetic zone exists directly above the magmatic intrusion, forming the commencement of geodynamic activities.

  10. Integration of geothermal data along the Balcones/Ouachita trend, central Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Gever, C.; Snyder, Fred R.; Wuerch, David Robert

    1983-01-01

    This report presents data that address possible controls on warm-water resources. Data are presented on a series of maps, and interpretations appear in the brief text accompanying the maps. It is thought that structural controls provided by the Balcones Fault Zone on the west and by the Luling-Mexia-Talco Fault Zone on the east localize the warm waters. The ultimate controlling attribute is the foundered Ouachita structural belt, which, in turn, has controlled the orientation and magnitude of displacement of the superjacent normal fault systems. This thesis is supported by maps (in pocket) showing the following: distribution of thermal waters measured in wells along the Balcones/Ouachita structural trend showing water temperature in /sup 0/F, total depth of the well measured, water salinity in parts per million, and the geologic formation producing the water; structural contours on the base of the Cretaceous System showing the configuration of the Paleozoic Ouachita basement; structural configuration of the Balcones and Luling Fault Zone, Mexia and Talco Fault Zone, and foreland areas adjacent to the Ouachita Orogen using data from the Buda Limestone, Sligo Formation, and Ellenburger Group; Landsat lineaments and Bouguer gravity contours; and geothermal gradient contours of the Balcones/Ouachita trend based on thermal values from Paleozoic and selected Mesozoic formations.

  11. Analysis of the influence of the Colatina Belt in the Campos and Espirito Santo Basins-Brazil; Analise da influencia da Faixa Colatina nas Bacias de Campos e Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gustavo Henrique Teixeira da; Simoes, Luiz Sergio Amarante; Souza, Iata Anderson de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    Recent discoveries in the Espirito Santo Basin confirm the importance of it in the national exploratory scenery (oil and gas production). The new fields like Carapo and Camarupim, beyond others, next to already known Golfinho and Canapu, totalize an addition of 560 million barrels. In this way, studies in the area add importance, as the case of the present research, where if it looked to analyze the influence of Colatina Belt in Espirito Santo Basin and secondarily in Campos Basin. The results had been gotten through the integration of diverse data, such as lineaments extracted from images SRTM, potential maps and analyze of seismic lines. It was concluded that the Colatina Belt if projects for the interior of the basins, but that the same one seems to be dislocated in relation to the direct projection of the continental features, being that its influence can be felt with bigger emphasis in the Campos Basin, while in the Espirito Santo it look like to have low importance with regard to the exploration aspects. Also it was verified the presence of numerous halo kinetic structures that affect all the mapped horizons, this element determine great importance in the generation of structural traps. (author)

  12. To reactivate or not to reactivate: nature and varied behavior of structural inheritance in the Proterozoic basement of the Eastern Colorado mineral belt over 1.7 billion years of earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Ridley, John; Wessel, Zachary R.

    2010-01-01

    The eastern central Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado has long been a region of geologic interest because of Laramide-age hydrothermal polymetallic vein-related ores. The region is characterized by a well-exposed array of geologic structures associated with ductile and brittle deformation, which record crustal strain over 1.7 billion years of continental growth and evolution. The mineralized areas lie along a broad linear zone termed the Colorado Mineral Belt. This lineament has commonly been interpreted as following a fundamental boundary, such as a suture zone, in the North American Proterozoic crust that acted as a persistent zone of weakness localizing the emplacement of magmas and associated hydrothermal fluid flow. However, the details on the controls of the location, orientation, kinematics, density, permeability, and relative strength of various geological structures and their specific relationships to mineral deposit formation are not related to Proterozoic ancestry in a simple manner. The objectives of this field trip are to show key localities typical of the various types of structures present, show recently compiled and new data, offer alternative conceptual models, and foster dialogue. Topics to be discussed include: (1) structural history of the eastern Front Range; (2) characteristics, kinematics, orientations, and age of ductile and brittle structures and how they may or may not relate to one another and mineral deposit permeability; and (3) characteristics, localization, and evolution of the metal and non–metal-bearing hydrothermal systems in the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt.

  13. Modeling of groundwater potential of the sub-basin of Siriri river, Sergipe state, Brazil, based on Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Franca Rocha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing for modeling groundwater potential give support for the analysis and decision-making processes about water resource management in watersheds. The objective of this work consisted in modeling the groundwater water potential of Siriri river sub-basin, Sergipe state, based on its natural environment (soil, land use, slope, drainage density, lineament density, rainfall and geology using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System as an integration environment. The groundwater potential map was done using digital image processing procedures of ENVI 4.4 software and map algebra of ArcGIS 9.3®. The Analytical Hierarchy Method was used for modeling the weights definition of the different criteria (maps. Loads and weights of the different classes were assigned to each map according to their influence on the overall objective of the work. The integration of these maps in a GIS environment and the AHP technique application allowed the development of the groundwater potential map in five classes: very low, low, moderate, high, very high. The average flow rates of wells confirm the potential of aquifers Sapucari, Barriers and Maruim since they are the most exploited in this sub-basin, with average flows of 78,113 L/h, 19,332 L/h and 12,085 L/h, respectively.

  14. Latur earthquake and its impact on the aseismic design of structures in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Latur earthquake occurred on September 30, 1995. The epicentre was located near the Killari village of Latur District which is situated in the stable continental region of Southern Peninsular India. The earthquake caused a wide range of damage though its magnitude (MS) was 6.4. Intensive damage survey was carried out and a number of geophysical and seismological studies had been undertaken. It has been concluded from the results, available so far from these studies, that the hypocentre of the earthquake was on the lineament dipping NW-SE. The rock matrix in the hypocentral region was weakened due to the presence of fluid and rupture of this weak region caused the event. The ground motion produced by the earthquake was of complex nature comprising of horizontal and vertical component. The ground acceleration in the epicentral region was estimated as 0.2 g. Latur earthquake raised several issues with respect to aseismic design of structures in India which need further deliberation. These issues are related to seismic zoning of India, determination of design basis ground motion, design/detailing of structures, etc. (author)

  15. 3D Imaging of Dead Sea Area Using Weighted Multipath Summation: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemer Keydar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of sinkholes along the Dead Sea is caused by the rapid decline of the Dead Sea level, as a possible result of human extensive activity. According to one of the geological models, the sinkholes in several sites are clustered along a narrow coastal strip developing along lineaments representing faults in NNW direction. In order to understand the relationship between a developing sinkhole and its tectonic environment, a high-resolution (HR three-dimensional (3D seismic reflection survey was carried out at the western shoreline of the Dead Sea. A recently developed 3D imaging approach was applied to this 3D dataset. Imaging of subsurface is performed by a spatial summation of seismic waves along time surfaces using recently proposed multipath summation with proper weights. The multipath summation is performed by stacking the target waves along all possible time surfaces having a common apex at the given point. This approach does not require any explicit information on parameters since the involved multipath summation is performed for all possible parameters values within a wide specified range. The results from processed 3D time volume show subhorizontal coherent reflectors at approximate depth of 50–80 m which incline on closer location to the exposed sinkhole and suggest a possible linkage between revealed fault and the sinkholes.

  16. A workflow for sub-/seismic structure and deformation quantification of 3-D reflection seismic data sets across different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawczyk, C.M.; Lohr, T.; Oncken, O. [GFZ Potsdam (Germany); Tanner, D.C. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). GZG; Endres, H. [RWTH Aachen (Germany)]|[TEEC, Isernhagen (Germany); Trappe, H.; Kukla, P. [TEEC, Isernhagen (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    The evolution of a sedimentary basin is mostly affected by deformation. Large-scale, subsurface deformation is typically identified by seismic data, sub-seismic small-scale fractures by well data. Between these two methods, we lack a deeper understanding of how deformation scales. We analysed a 3-D reflection seismic data set in the North German Basin, in order to determine the magnitude and distribution of deformation and its accumulation in space and time. A five-step approach is introduced for quantitative deformation and fracture prediction. An increased resolution of subtle tectonic lineaments is achieved by coherency processing, allowing to unravel the kinematics in the North German Basin from structural interpretation. Extensional events during basin initiation and later inversion are evident. 3-D retrodeformation shows major-strain magnitudes between 0-20% up to 1.3 km away from a fault trace, and variable deviations of associated extensional fractures. Good correlation of FMI data, strain distribution from retro-deformation and from geostatistic tools (see also Trappe et al., this volume) allows the validation of the results and makes the prediction of small-scale faults/fractures possible. The temporal component will be gained in the future by analogue models. The suggested workflow is applicable to reflection seismic surveys and yields in great detail both the tectonic history of a region as well as predictions for hydrocarbon plays or deep groundwater or geothermal reservoirs. (orig.)

  17. Report of the panel on evaluation of ground-water flow in fractures at the Palo Duro Basin, Texas: Unanalyzed data: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A peer review group of hydrologists assessed the importance and availability of data on fracture-controlled ground-water flow at the Palo Duro Basin sites in the Permian Basin in Texas. After hearing presentations by US Department of Energy staff and consultants, and reviewing existing literature, they formed a conceptual model of basin flow that is downward across the salt facies and downdip in permeable formation in the lower hydrostratigraphic unit. Flow volumes and rates are very low. The panel examined several possible fracture-flow scenarios and concluded that flow within the salt section is probably porous-media-dominated with some fracture-flow influence in brittle zones. Fracture flow in the salt itself is rejected as a possibility based on current evidence. However, the panel recommended that fracture flow in the system should be included as a low-probability variable in any hydrogeologic modeling. They also concluded that many more data on lineament features and subsurface structures are needed to accurately characterize the system and to refine the modeling effort. 9 refs., 2 figs

  18. Spatial distribution of soil radon as a tool to recognize active faulting on an active volcano: the example of Mt. Etna (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Marco, E-mail: marco.neri@ct.ingv.it [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Piazza Roma, 2 - 95123 Catania (Italy); Giammanco, Salvatore [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Piazza Roma, 2 - 95123 Catania (Italy); Ferrera, Elisabetta; Patane, Giuseppe [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dip. Scienze della Terra, Corso Italia, 52 - 95129 Catania (Italy); Zanon, Vittorio [Centro de Vulcanologia e Avaliacao de Riscos Geologicos - Universidade dos Acores, Rua Mae de Deus, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    This study concerns measurements of radon and thoron emissions from soil carried out in 2004 on the eastern flank of Mt. Etna, in a zone characterized by the presence of numerous seismogenic and aseismic faults. The statistical treatment of the geochemical data allowed recognizing anomaly thresholds for both parameters and producing distribution maps that highlighted a significant spatial correlation between soil gas anomalies and tectonic lineaments. The seismic activity occurring in and around the study area during 2004 was analyzed, producing maps of hypocentral depth and released seismic energy. Both radon and thoron anomalies were located in areas affected by relatively deep (5-10 km depth) seismic activity, while less evident correlation was found between soil gas anomalies and the released seismic energy. This study confirms that mapping the distribution of radon and thoron in soil gas can reveal hidden faults buried by recent soil cover or faults that are not clearly visible at the surface. The correlation between soil gas data and earthquakes depth and intensity can give some hints on the source of gas and/or on fault dynamics. - Highlights: > We performed measurements of radon from soil carried out on Mt. Etna. > The sampled zone is characterized by the presence of numerous active faults. > Radon mapping reveal dangerous hidden faults buried by recent soil cover. > Our study gives some hints on the source of gas and on fault dynamics. > We recognized areas where radon activity represents a hazard to the population.

  19. Contributions of gravity and field data on the structural scheme updating of the Tellian domain and its foreland (Nefza-Bizerte region, northern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essid, El Mabrouk; Kadri, Ali; Balti, Hadhemi; Gasmi, Mohamed; Zargouni, Fouad

    2018-03-01

    The Nefza-Bizerte region, eastern part of the Tunisian Alpine chain, covers the thrust sheets domain called the Tell and its Atlassic foreland. The deep structures under the Tellian thrust sheets are not enough explored. The structural interpretation of magmatic rocks, Triassic outcrops and the depressions are still a subject of discussion. In this work, we intend to investigate deep faults and their eventual role in magmatism and Triassic salt setting up and to explain the depression genesis. Analysis of the Bouguer anomaly map and its derivatives reveals the main gravity lineaments, organized in major NE- and NW-trending systems. The NE-trending system, dipping towards the NW, is the main component of the structural scheme and has controlled the tectonic evolution of this area. After the immobilization of the Tellian thrust sheets during the uppermost Langhian, the Tell and its Atlassic foreland were affected by the Tortonian compressive event with a NW-trending maximum horizontal stress. The reverse kinematics of the NE-trending deep-seated faults created at their front continental environments filled later by post-nappes Neogene deposits. After the early Pleistocene, a NNW-directed compressional stress regime deformed the post-nappes Neogene series and generated NW-trending grabens. This coexistence of compression-extension continues until present day.

  20. Integrating knowledge-based multi-criteria evaluation techniques with GIS for landfill site selection: A case study using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagbohun B.J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in most growing urban areas of developing countries, without a pre-existing land use plan is the sustainable and efficient management of solid wastes. Siting a landfill is a complicated task because of several environmental regulations. This challenge gives birth to the need to develop efficient strategies for the selection of proper waste disposal sites in accordance with all existing environmental regulations. This paper presents a knowledge-based multi-criteria decision analysis using GIS for the selection of suitable landfill site in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. In order to identify suitable sites for landfill, seven factors - land use/cover, geology, river, soil, slope, lineament and roads - were taken into consideration. Each factor was classified and ranked based on prior knowledge about the area and existing guidelines. Weights for each factor were determined through pair-wise comparison using Saaty’s 9 point scale and AHP. The integration of factors according to their weights using weighted index overlay analysis revealed that 39.23 km2 within the area was suitable to site a landfill. The resulting suitable area was classified as high suitability covering 6.47 km2 (16.49%, moderate suitability 25.48 km2 (64.95% and low suitability 7.28 km2 (18.56% based on their overall weights.

  1. INTEGRATION OF PALSAR AND ASTER SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOLOGICAL MAPPING IN TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the integration of the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER satellite data for geological mapping applications in tropical environments. The eastern part of the central belt of peninsular Malaysia has been investigated to identify structural features and mineral mapping using PALSAR and ASTER data. Adaptive local sigma and directional filters were applied to PALSAR data for detecting geological structure elements in the study area. The vegetation, mineralogic and lithologic indices for ASTER bands were tested in tropical climate. Lineaments (fault and fractures and curvilinear (anticline or syncline were detected using PALSAR fused image of directional filters (N-S, NE-SW, and NW-SE.Vegetation index image map show vegetation cover by fusing ASTER VNIR bands. High concentration of clay minerals zone was detected using fused image map derived from ASTER SWIR bands. Fusion of ASTER TIR bands produced image map of the lithological units. Results indicate that data integration and data fusion from PALSAR and ASTER sources enhanced information extraction for geological mapping in tropical environments.

  2. A practical methodology of radiological protection for the reduction of hot particles in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez G, G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work, in general form, is to describe a practical method for reduction of hot particles generated as consequence of the operational activities of BWR nuclear reactors. This methodology provides a description of the localizations and/or probable activities of finding particles highly radioactive denominated hot particles. For this purpose it was developed a strategy based on the decontamination lineaments, as well as the manipulation, gathering, registration, contention, documentation, control and final disposition of the hot particles. In addition, some recommendations are reiterated and alternative, in order to gathering the hot particles in a dynamic way given to the activities of the personal occupationally exposed in highly radioactive areas. The structure of the methodology of hot particles is supported in the radiological controls based on the Code of Federal Regulation 10 CFR 20 as well as the applicable regulatory documents. It provides an idea based on administrative controls of radiological protection, in order to suggesting the responsibilities and necessary directing for the control of the hot particles required in nuclear plants of the BWR type. (author)

  3. Orogeny, shear zones, Continental break-Up And 3-D strain relationships. The tectonic history of the Almada sedimentary Basin, Bahia, Brazil; Relacoes entre orogenos, zonas de cisalhamento, quebra continental e deformacoes 3-D. A historia tectonica da Bacia Sedimentar de Almada, Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa-Gomes, Luiz Cesar [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Aplicadas; Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mails: gomes@cefetba.br, lccgomes@ufba.br; Dominguez, Jose Maria Landim; Barbosa, Johildo Salomao Figueiredo; Silva, Idney Cavalcanti da; Pinto, Moises Vieira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Campus de Ondina, Salvador (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mails: jose_landim@uol.com.br; johildo@cpgg.ufba.br; idney25@ig.com.br; geofisica.ufba@gmail.com

    2005-12-15

    The Almada Basin is a geometric out-pattern member in the group the onshore coastline sedimentary basins of the Bahia State and neighborhoods. This basin differs from the traditional elongated-shape trending Camamu and Reconcavo-Tucano-Jatoba basins, and shows a compact rhombohedral arrangement following N45 deg, N90 deg, N120 deg e N-S structural lineaments. This shape directly or indirectly reflects a specific geological history influenced by the paleoproterozoic and neo proterozoic orogeny, neo proterozoic shear zones and mesozoic super continent break-up. Several sets of fault and fractures were kinematically studied inside and around the basin, and the main stress tensors obtained using inversion methods. The structural study of the Almada Basin allowed to recognize that: the initial tectonic activity was controlled by normal faults, with orthorhombic-rhombohedral 3-D extensional strain pattern, followed by trans tensional ones characterizing the Almada Basin as a poly phasic tectonic basin, and during the transtensive phase this basin was affected by at least two almost orthogonal extensional events, indicating a possible {sigma}{sub 1} orientation inversion during its formation and tectonic evolution. These data are crucial for prospecting groundwater and hydrocarbon in the basin onshore and offshore areas. (author)

  4. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  5. MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS APPLIED TO LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Madruga de Brito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a multi-criteria analysis (MCA tool for landslide susceptibility assessment in Porto Alegre municipality, southern Brazil. A knowledge driven approach was used, aiming to ensure an optimal use of the available information. The landslide conditioning factors considered were slope, lithology, flow accumulation and distance from lineaments. Standardization of these factors was done through fuzzy membership functions, and evaluation of their relative importance for landslide predisposition was supported by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, based on local expert knowledge. Finally, factors were integrated in a GIS environment using the weighted linear combination (WLC method. For validation, an inventory, including 107 landslide points recorded between 2007 and 2013 was used. Results indicated that 8.2% (39.40 km² of the study area are highly and very highly susceptible to landslides. An overall accuracy of 95% was found, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of 0.960. Therefore, the resulting map can be regarded as useful for monitoring landslide-prone areas. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the proposed method is effective for susceptibility assessment since it yielded meaningful results and does not require extensive input data.

  6. Mimas: Tectonic structure and geologic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Mimas, the innermost of the major saturnian satellites, occupies an important place in comparative studies of icy satellites. It is the smallest icy satellite known to have a mostly spherical shape. Smaller icy objects like Hyperion and Puck are generally irregular in shape, while larger ones like Miranda and Enceladus are spherical. Thus Mimas is near the diameter where the combination of increasing surface gravity and internal heating begin to have a significant effect on global structure. The nature and extent of endogenic surface features provide important constraints on the interior structure and history of this transitional body. The major landforms on Mimas are impact craters. Mimas has one of the most heavily cratered surfaces in the solar system. The most prominent single feature on Mimas is Herschel, an unrelaxed complex crater 130 km in diameter. The only other recognized landforms on Mimas are tectonic grooves and lineaments. Groove locations were mapped by Schenk, but without analysis of groove structures or superposition relationships. Mimas' tectonic structures are remapped here in more detail than previously has been done, as part of a general study of tectonic features on icy satellites.

  7. Application of seismic attributes in structural study and fracture analysis of DQ oil field, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahoo Maleki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the most unstable areas in oil fields is critical for addressing engineering problems of wellbore and sand production as well as geologic problems such as understanding dynamic constraints on hydrocarbon migration and fracture permeability. In this research work, coherency seismic attribute has been used for the determination of the most critical areas in terms of drilling stabilities in the DQ oil field, Iran. The results obtained have shown that the (1 predominant features are the SSE–NNW and N–S trends (2 the central part of the DQ structure shows the highest concentration of segment bundles, (3 the segment bundles seem to be aligned along some lineaments oriented SE–NW and SSE–NNW, and (4 on the eastern and western margins of the map there is an anomalous concentration of segments oriented E–W. It can be concluded that coherency attribute is a valuable tool for structural analysis highlighting those areas containing unstable features.

  8. Klusen und verwandte Formen im Schweizer Jura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hantke

    4th, in view of the fact that the joints are known to have been caused by recent plate-tectonic processes, the same must be assumed for the kluses: the latter owe their genesis to complicated geologic lineaments, folds and shear faults. This fact has practical consequences: During the construction of tunnels underneath a klus one has to take into consideration that the disturbance in the landscape represented by a klus my well reach geologically far into the basement. 5th,the erosion of the kluses oecurred in parallel to the direction of the joints. In this instance, the debris produced by the tectonic processes and by frost action was removed by the mechanical and chemical action of the water. During the cold times and cold spells during warm times this water was mainly melt-water. 6th, special studies are necessary for the determination of the quantity of debris that was removed. The time-span available for this removal is much longer than commonly assumed: it begins with the first tectonic foldnig, in the Jura mountains already in mid-Miocene, 15 Ma ago.

  9. An appraisal of the geologic structure beneath the Ikogosi warm spring in south-western Nigeria using integrated surface geophysical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S Ojo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated surface geophysical investigation involving resistivity and magnetic methods was carried out in the immediate vicinity of the Ikogosi warm spring situated in south-western Nigeria with a view to delineating its subsurface geological sequence and evaluating the structural setting beneath the warmspring. Total field magnetic measurements and vertical electrical sounding (VES data were acquired along five N-S traverses. Magnetic and VES data interpretation
    involved inverse modelling. The inverse magnetic models delineated fractured quartzite/faulted areas within fresh massive quartzite at varying depths and beneath all traverses. The geoelectrical sections developed from VESinterpretation results also delineated a subsurface sequence consisting of a topsoil/weathered layer, fresh quartzite, fractured/faulted quartzite and fresh quartzite bedrock. It was deduced that the fractured/faulted quartzite may have acted as conduit for the
    movement of warm groundwater from profound depths to the surface while the spring outlet was located on a geological interface  (lineament.

  10. Application of plate tectonics to the location of new mineral targets in the Appalachians. Progress report no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutina, J.

    1979-01-01

    This report is concerned with the application of plate tectonics to the location of new mineral targets in the U.S. It reviews analyses presented in previous reports which suggest that the basement of the Central and Eastern U.S. consists of large crustal blocks separated by major zones of tectonic weakness. The curvature of the Appalachian Fold Belt appears to be related to the east-west boundaries caused by subsiding and uplifting at these zones. A plot of epigenetic uranium occurrences reveals that they tend to cluster along the greater curvatures of the Appalachian orogeny. These findings have led to a systematic study of the regularities in the distribution of ore deposits in the Appalachians presented in this report. They include a description of geologic and geographic base maps, preparation of maps showing distribution of individual minerals, and regularities in the distribution of uranium in the Appalachians. Comments on the segmentation of the Appalachian orogeny by transverse lineaments are presented. The report contains seventeen maps of the eastern half of the U.S. showing specific mineral deposits in relation to geologic formations

  11. Late quaternary dynamics in the Madeira river basin, southern Amazonia (Brazil, as revealed by paleomorphological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericson H. Hayakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient drainage systems are being increasingly documented in the Amazon basin and their characterization is crucial for reconstructing fluvial evolution in this area. Fluvial morphologies, including elongate belts, are well preserved along the Madeira River. Digital Elevation Model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission favored the detection of these features even where they are covered by dense rainforest. These paleomorphologies are attributed to the shifting position of past tributaries of the Madeira River through avulsions. These radial paleodrainage networks produced fan-shaped morphologies that resemble distributary megafans. Distinguishing avulsive tributary systems from distributary megafans in the sedimentary record is challenging. Madeira´s paleodrainage reveals the superposition of tributary channels formed by multiple avulsions within a given time period, rather than downstream bifurcation of coexisting channels. Channel avulsion in this Amazonian area during the late Quaternary is related to tectonics due to features as: (i straight lineaments coincident with fault directions; (ii northeastward tilting of the terrain with Quaternary strata; and (iii several drainage anomalies, including frequent orthogonal drainage inflections. These characteristics altogether lead to propose that the radial paleodrainage present at the Madeira River margin results from successive avulsions of tributary channels over time due to tectonics.

  12. Seismicity and neotectonic uplift in the Augrabies Falls National Park, Namaqualand, Northern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Kakaba

    2016-10-01

    Gneissic rocks in the Augrabies Falls National Park are part of the Proterozoic Namaqua-Natal mobile belt. Finding neotectonic evidence in old terranes is always not an easy task. In South Africa, the mid-Miocene is believed to be the beginning of neotectonics. This study investigated the occurrence and recurrence of earthquake activity, occurrence of faulting, jointing, uplift, and potholes in the gneisses cropping out around the Augrabies Falls area that may account for neotectonics. A historic seismic event obtained from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and seismic epicenters downloaded in October 2015 from IRIS earthquake browser and overlaid on a satellite image with digitised faults and lineaments, indicates that the area is seismically active and is a zone of seismic risk. Potholes occurring today on a dry surface at approximately 613 m above sea level are a direct consequence of the Griqualand-Transvaal neotectonic uplift, which generated a major fault along which water flows continuously. It is concluded that the Augrabies Falls National Park area is a zone of neotectonics. This zone should not be considered for the storage of nuclear wastes.

  13. Mapping Potential Areas For Gold And Base Metals Mineralization In Southeastern Desert, Egypt: An Approach By Using Remote Sensing And GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElFouly, A.; Salem, H.

    2003-01-01

    Integration of Landsat-Thematic Mapper (TM), aero magnetic data, structural geology along with the known mineralization occurrences in the area are mainly the factors used to recognize favorable sites for structurally controlled mineralization at the northern part of the southeastern Desert of Egypt. Two knowledge-driven models were constructed based on a conceptual gold exploration model. The Density of Lineament Intersection (DLI) results from this study along with Dempster-Shafer (D-S) Belief approach show good results in delineating favorable mineralization areas. The basic assignment probability maps for the heat source, strong magnetism, hydrothermal alteration, geologic structure, and known mineralization occurrences in the area are the main D-S Belief approach recognition criteria component used for mineral exploration in the study area. The DLI method is maximizing the use of Landsat remote sensing data that could be used efficiently in the exploration for structurally controlled hydrothermal related mineralization. The DLI method results show higher resolution and accurate results for gold and base metals exploration. The high favorability areas by using the DLI method is 2196 Km 2 which are concise area than the D-S Belief approach for about 3976.5 Km 2 . These results are useful to be a strong base for planning accurate exploration program. The potential favorability maps of gold and base metals ore deposits from the northern part of the South Eastern Desert predicted the known areas of mineralization as well as identified high potential areas not known before with mineralization for future exploration

  14. Morphological analysis of Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico): new insights into the structure and evolution of an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca; Capra, Lucia; De Beni, Emanuela

    2004-09-01

    We present a morphological analysis of Nevado de Toluca volcano located 80 km WSW of Mexico City based on digital elevation model study, where slope and aspect maps have been generated and analysed. Aerial photograph and satellite image observations improve the morphological analysis. The synoptic view which is offered by this analysis allowed for recognition and localization of the main volcanic and tectonic features of the area. On the basis of digital elevation model value distribution and surface textures, five morphological domains were defined. The most interesting domain, south of the crater, reflects the occurrence of an ancient complex volcano distinct from the adjacent areas. Interaction between the volcanic and volcano-tectonic evolution and the basement produced the other domains. Single volcanic edifices, like lava domes and scoria cones, and eruptive fractures were recognized. Finally, flank collapse scarps opened to the east and to the north were identified and four relevant morphostructural lineaments and their possible role in the Nevado de Toluca geological and structural evolution are discussed.

  15. Seismic Hazard of the Uttarakhand Himalaya, India, from Deterministic Modeling of Possible Rupture Planes in the Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents use of semiempirical method for seismic hazard zonation. The seismotectonically important region of Uttarakhand Himalaya has been considered in this work. Ruptures along the lineaments in the area identified from tectonic map are modeled deterministically using semi empirical approach given by Midorikawa (1993. This approach makes use of attenuation relation of peak ground acceleration for simulating strong ground motion at any site. Strong motion data collected over a span of three years in this region have been used to develop attenuation relation of peak ground acceleration of limited magnitude and distance applicability. The developed attenuation relation is used in the semi empirical method to predict peak ground acceleration from the modeled rupture planes in the area. A set of values of peak ground acceleration from possible ruptures in the area at the point of investigation is further used to compute probability of exceedance of peak ground acceleration of values 100 and 200 gals. The prepared map shows that regions like Tehri, Chamoli, Almora, Srinagar, Devprayag, Bageshwar, and Pauri fall in a zone of 10% probability of exceedence of peak ground acceleration of value 200 gals.

  16. Remote Sensing for Mineral Exploration in Central Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Manuel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Portugal is well known for the existence of Sn-W and Au-Ag mineral occurrences primarily associated with hydrothermal processes. Despite the economic and strategic importance of such occurrences, the detailed geology of this particular region is poorly known and there is an obvious absence of geological mapping at an adequate scale. Remote sensing techniques were used in order to increase current geological knowledge of the Góis–Castanheira de Pêra area (600 km2 and to guide future exploration stages by targeting and prioritising potential locations. Digital image processing algorithms, such as Red, Green, Blue (RGB colour composites, digital spatial filters, band ratios and Principal Components Analysis, were applied to Landsat 8 imagery and elevation data. Lineaments were extracted relying on geological photointerpretation criteria, allowing the identification of new geological–structural elements. Fieldwork was carried out in order to validate the remote sensing interpretations. Integration of remote sensing data with other information sources led to the definition of locations possibly suitable for hosting Sn-W and Au-Ag mineral occurrences. These areas were ranked according to their mineral potential. Targeting the most promising locations resulted in a reduction to less than 10% of the original study area (50.5 km2.

  17. Robust satellite techniques (RST for the thermal monitoring of earthquake prone areas: the case of Umbria-Marche October, 1997 seismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tramutoli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Several authors claim a space-time correlation between increases in Earth’s emitted Thermal Infra-Red (TIR radiation and earthquake occurrence. The main problems of such studies regard data analysis and interpretation, which are often done without a validation/confutation control. In this context, a robust data analysis technique (RST, i.e. Robust Satellite Techniques is proposed which permits a statistically based definition of TIR «anomaly » and uses a validation/confutation approach. This technique was already applied to satellite TIR surveys in seismic regions for about twenty earthquakes that occurred in the world. In this work RST is applied for the first time to a time sequence of seismic events. Nine years of Meteosat TIR observations have been analyzed to characterize the unperturbed TIR signal behaviour at specific observation times and locations. The main seismic events of the October 1997 Umbria-Marche sequence have been considered for validation, and relatively unperturbed periods (no earthquakes with Mb ? 4 were taken for confutation purposes. Positive time-space persistent TIR anomalies were observed during seismic periods, generally overlapping the principal tectonic lineaments of the region and sometimes focusing on the vicinity of the epicentre. No similar (in terms of relative intensity and space-time persistence TIR anomalies were detected during seismically unperturbed periods.

  18. Engineering Geology Maps for Planning and Management of Natural Parks: “Las Batuecas-Sierra de Francia” and “Quilamas” (Central Spanish System, Salamanca, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Yenes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented herein is a cartographic procedure that is easy to utilise and at low-cost, which facilitates the first stages of planning and management of a naturally protected space and considers the geotechnical parameters that influence human activity. This procedure uses geographical information systems technology by combining the cartographies for the most influential parameters on the stability of the area (lithology, hydrogeology, geomorphology, slopes, lineament/fractures and seismicity with geomechanical mapping generated from geotechnical parameters obtained through field and laboratory tests. This geotechnical mapping facilitates the division of a territory into zones according to each type of problem and generates a cartography for natural hazards. Using this information, it is possible to produce a cartography of constructive conditions or geotechnical hazards. This methodology has been validated by application to two natural protected spaces, “Las Batuecas-Sierra de Francia” and “Quilamas”. The validation confirmed that the cartography procedure described herein is a preventive, and not a structural measure. It is a tool that delimits areas with different constructive use recommendations and limitations, and therefore, is useful for natural space managers.

  19. Identification of groundwater potential zones in the Machuca River in the Central Pacific of Costa Rica using a GIS-Multi-criteria analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, J. P.; Stefan, C.

    2015-12-01

    Water supply systems in the Machuca River basin in the Central Pacific of Costa Rica are subject to fluctuations in their production capacity at the end of the dry season; especially in the lower part of the basin. The urban development - and water demand -- is expected to increase because of a newly build highway. In order to understand the actual water resources and to asses new ones, the identification of groundwater potential zones is done using a geographical information system (GIS) based on thematic raster using fixed score and weight computed by the multi influencing factor (MIF) technique. The thematic layers used in the analysis are lithology, slope, land-use, lineament, drainage, soil and rainfall. The results were compared with the results of the Modified Thornthwaite-Mather model used to perform the water balance on a monthly scale. The groundwater potential was divided into three categories: no suitable, suitable, and very suitable zones. The resulting map is a decision support tool for the planning and management of groundwater resources in the Machuca River basin.

  20. Discontinuities and sequences in the Tarat formation (Upper Visean) and the Arlit Unit (Namurian-Westphalian) at Arlit (Niger). Sedimentary climatic and tectonic evolution of the area during Carboniferous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sempere, T.; Beaudoin, B.

    1984-01-01

    The Tarat Formation is composed at Arlit of three sequences consisting of sandstones and black mudstones rich in organic matter of continental origin. The three of them are interpreted as estuarine sediments deposited in different tectonic frameworks. The Arlit Unit consists of motley argillaceous sandstones deposited in a very flat lacustrine or alluvial environment and under an arid climate. These formations are separated by a fundamental discontinuity linked to the structuration of the Tim Mersoi Trough. At regional scale, the sediments lying below this discontinuity are grouped in tectono-sedimentary supersequences, which are interpreted as biorhexistasic rhythms; their deposition was horizontally directed by complex evolving synsedimentary tectonics controlled by the N-S In Azawa Lineament, and was influenced by the permanent proximity of a northern sea. The sediments lying above the fundamental discontinuity belong to the ''Continental Intercalaire'' Supergroup; their deposition was influenced by the Tim Mersoi Trough. The whole Carboniferous sedimentation took place in a climatic context which evolved from cold (Lower Visean) to warm and arid (Upper Carboniferous) through temperate climates [fr

  1. Latur earthquake and its impact on the aseismic design of structures in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, P C [Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (India)

    1995-07-01

    The Latur earthquake occurred on September 30, 1995. The epicentre was located near the Killari village of Latur District which is situated in the stable continental region of Southern Peninsular India. The earthquake caused a wide range of damage though its magnitude (MS) was 6.4. Intensive damage survey was carried out and a number of geophysical and seismological studies had been undertaken. It has been concluded from the results, available so far from these studies, that the hypocentre of the earthquake was on the lineament dipping NW-SE. The rock matrix in the hypocentral region was weakened due to the presence of fluid and rupture of this weak region caused the event. The ground motion produced by the earthquake was of complex nature comprising of horizontal and vertical component. The ground acceleration in the epicentral region was estimated as 0.2 g. Latur earthquake raised several issues with respect to aseismic design of structures in India which need further deliberation. These issues are related to seismic zoning of India, determination of design basis ground motion, design/detailing of structures, etc. (author)

  2. A special issue devoted to gold deposits in northern Nevada: Part 2. Carlin-type Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Theodore, Ted G.

    2003-01-01

    This is the second of two special issues of Economic Geology devoted to gold deposits in northern Nevada. Readers interested in a general overview of these deposits, their economic significance, their context within the tectonic evolution of the region, and synoptic references on each gold deposit type are directed to the preface of the first special issue (John et al., 2003). Volume 98, issue 2, contains five papers that address regional aspects important to the genesis of gold deposits in northern Nevada and five papers that present detailed studies of epithermal deposits and districts. All of the regional papers are pertinent to Carlin-type gold deposits, because they address the age of mineralization (Arehart et al., 2003), origin and evolutionary history of the northwest-striking mineral belts that localize many deposits (Grauch et al., 2003), nature of the middle and lower crust below these mineral belts (Howard, 2003), district- to deposit-scale stream sediment and lithogeochemical anomalies (Theodore et al., 2003), and stratigraphy and structure of a district located along a northeast-striking lineament (Peters et al., 2003).

  3. Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is one of the more remote KGRAs in Idaho. The chemistry of Vulcan Hot Springs indicates a subsurface resource temperature of 147/sup 0/C, which may be high enough for power generation. An analysis of the limited data available on climate, meteorology, and air quality indicates few geothermal development concerns in these areas. The KGRA is located on the edge of the Idaho Batholith on a north-trending lineament which may be a factor in the presence of the hot springs. An occasional earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater may be expected in the region. Subsidence or elevation as a result of geothermal development in the KGRA do not appear to be of concern. Fragile granitic soils on steep slopes in the KGRA are unstable and may restrict development. The South fork of the Salmon River, the primary stream in the region, is an important salmon spawning grounds. Stolle Meadows, on the edge of the KGRA, is used as a wintering and calving area for elk, and access to the area is limited during this period. Socioeconomic and demographic surveys indicate that facilities and services will probably not be significantly impacted by development. Known heritage resources in the KGRA include two sites and the potential for additional cultural sites is significant.

  4. Remote sensing approach to structural modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ghawaby, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are quite dependable tools in investigating geologic problems, specially those related to structural aspects. The Landsat imagery provides discrimination between rock units, detection of large scale structures as folds and faults, as well as small scale fabric elements such as foliation and banding. In order to fulfill the aim of geologic application of remote sensing, some essential surveying maps might be done from images prior to the structural interpretation: land-use, land-form drainage pattern, lithological unit and structural lineament maps. Afterwards, the field verification should lead to interpretation of a comprehensive structural model of the study area to apply for the target problem. To deduce such a model, there are two ways of analysis the interpreter may go through: the direct and the indirect methods. The direct one is needed in cases where the resources or the targets are controlled by an obvious or exposed structural element or pattern. The indirect way is necessary for areas where the target is governed by a complicated structural pattern. Some case histories of structural modelling methods applied successfully for exploration of radioactive minerals, iron deposits and groundwater aquifers in Egypt are presented. The progress in imagery, enhancement and integration of remote sensing data with the other geophysical and geochemical data allow a geologic interpretation to be carried out which become better than that achieved with either of the individual data sets. 9 refs

  5. Application of remote sensing, GIS and MCA techniques for delineating groundwater prospect zones in Kashipur block, Purulia district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S. K.; Kundu, Anindita

    2018-03-01

    Demand of groundwater resources has increased manifold with population expansion as well as with the advent of modern civilization. Assessment, planning and management of groundwater resource are becoming crucial and extremely urgent in recent time. The study area belongs to Kashipur block, Purulia district, West Bengal. The area is characterized with dry climate and hard rock terrain. The objective of this study is to delineate groundwater potential zone for the assessment of groundwater availability using remote sensing, GIS and MCA techniques. Different thematic layers such as hydrogeomorphology, slope and lineament density maps have been transformed to raster data in TNT mips pro2012. To assign weights and ranks to different input factor maps, multi-influencing factor (MIF) technique has been used. The weights assigned to each factor have been computed statistically. Weighted index overlay modeling technique was used to develop a groundwater potential zone map with three weighted and scored parameters. Finally, the study area has been categorized into four distinct groundwater potential zones—excellent 1.5% (6.45 sq. km), good 53% (227.9 sq. km), moderate 45% (193.5 sq. km.) and poor 0.5% (2.15 sq. km). The outcome of the present study will help local authorities, researchers, decision makers and planners in formulating proper planning and management of groundwater resources in different hydrogeological situations.

  6. Geologic evolution of the Jemez Mountains and their potential for future volcanic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    Geophysical and geochemical data and the geologic history of the Rio Grande rift and the vicinity of the Jemez Mountains are summarized to determine the probability of future volcanic activity in the Los Alamos, New Mexico area. The apparent cyclic nature of volcanism in the Jemez Mountains may be related to intermittent thermal inputs into the volcanic system beneath the region. The Jemez lineament, an alignment of late Cenozoic volcanic centers that crosses the rift near Los Alamos, has played an important role in the volcanic evolution of the Jemez Mountains. Geophysical data suggest that there is no active shallow magma body beneath the Valles caldera, though magma probably exists at about 15 km beneath this portion of the rift. The rate of volcanism in the Jemez Mountains during the last 10 million years has been 5 x 10 -9 /km 2 /y. Lava or ash flows overriding Laboratory radioactive waste disposal sites would have little potential to release radionuclides to the environment. The probability of a new volcano intruding close enough to a radioactive waste disposal site to effect radionuclide release is 2 x 10 -7 /y

  7. New data on neotectonic contractional structures in Precordillera, south of Río de La Flecha: Structural setting from gravity and magnetic data. San Juan, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucca, Laura P.; Ruiz, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    The Central and Eastern Precordillera form oppositely verging thrust systems on the western and eastern sides of the Matagusanos-Maradona-Acequión valley, establishing a thick-skinned triangle zone with significant changes in the axis position along strike. Between the del Agua and the de La Fecha rivers, the axis of this triangular zone is located in the eastern portion of the depression. Changes in the position of the triangle zone axis along strike, whether to the east or to the west, took place during Pliocene-Pleistocene times. Geophysical and geodetic data indicate a subsurface structure striking NE, oblique to the general direction of the foreland with dextral displacement. Accordingly, the change in the location of the triangular area could be attributed to stress transfer controlled by heterogeneities in the basement. By analytic signal analysis of magnetic anomalies, it is possible to assess the regional structural coupling between Pie de Palo and Eastern Precordillera. The oblique arrangement of basement blocks could explain transverse lineaments and the sigmoidal geometry of the Eastern Precordillera. Geophysical and geological evidence shows that the depression is crossed by several E-W strike-slip faults. These faults possibly controlled the position of the triangle zone axis until Neogene-Pleistocene times by transferring displacements and provoking its jump along strike.

  8. Integrating 3D seismic curvature and curvature gradient attributes for fracture characterization: Methodologies and interpretational implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dengliang

    2013-03-01

    In 3D seismic interpretation, curvature is a popular attribute that depicts the geometry of seismic reflectors and has been widely used to detect faults in the subsurface; however, it provides only part of the solutions to subsurface structure analysis. This study extends the curvature algorithm to a new curvature gradient algorithm, and integrates both algorithms for fracture detection using a 3D seismic test data set over Teapot Dome (Wyoming). In fractured reservoirs at Teapot Dome known to be formed by tectonic folding and faulting, curvature helps define the crestal portion of the reservoirs that is associated with strong seismic amplitude and high oil productivity. In contrast, curvature gradient helps better define the regional northwest-trending and the cross-regional northeast-trending lineaments that are associated with weak seismic amplitude and low oil productivity. In concert with previous reports from image logs, cores, and outcrops, the current study based on an integrated seismic curvature and curvature gradient analysis suggests that curvature might help define areas of enhanced potential to form tensile fractures, whereas curvature gradient might help define zones of enhanced potential to develop shear fractures. In certain fractured reservoirs such as at Teapot Dome where faulting and fault-related folding contribute dominantly to the formation and evolution of fractures, curvature and curvature gradient attributes can be potentially applied to differentiate fracture mode, to predict fracture intensity and orientation, to detect fracture volume and connectivity, and to model fracture networks.

  9. Holocene faulting in the Bellingham forearc basin: upper-plate deformation at the northern end of the Cascadia subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Blakely, Richard J.; Haugerud, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Cascadia forearc takes up most of the strain transmitted northward via the Oregon Coast block from the northward-migrating Sierra Nevada block. The north-south contractional strain in the forearc manifests in upper-plate faults active during the Holocene, the northern-most components of which are faults within the Bellingham Basin. The Bellingham Basin is the northern of four basins of the actively deforming northern Cascadia forearc. A set of Holocene faults, Drayton Harbor, Birch Bay, and Sandy Point faults, occur within the Bellingham Basin and can be traced from onshore to offshore using a combination of aeromagnetic lineaments, paleoseismic investigations and scarps identified using LiDAR imagery. With the recognition of such Holocene faults, the northernmost margin of the actively deforming Cascadia forearc extends 60 km north of the previously recognized limit of Holocene forearc deformation. Although to date no Holocene faults are recognized at the northern boundary of the Bellingham Basin, which is 15 km north of the international border, there is no compelling tectonic reason to expect that Holocene faults are limited to south of the international border.

  10. The geomorphology of Rhea - Implications for geologic history and surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. M.; Horner, V. M.; Greeley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Morphological analyses of landforms on Rhea are used to define three physiographic provinces: cratered terrain 1 undifferentiated; cratered terrain 1 lineated; and cratered terrain 2. The important statigraphic relationships between the different provinces are examined with respect to major impact basins and tectonic features. It is shown that the formation of multiringed basins may have caused, or at least controlled the locations of major resurfacing and mantling events. The diameters of the central peaks relative to the impact crater diameters are found to be significantly larger than those within the craters of the moon or Mercury. Both cratered and noncrater lineaments have regional orientations which do not fit current global or regional stress models. On the basis of the morphological analysis, a chronological order is established for the origin of the three provinces: the cratered terrain 1 province was formed first; and cratered terrain 1 lineated and cratered terrain 2 were formed second, and last, respectively. It is shown that the chronological order is generally consistent with current theoretical models of the evolution of Rhea.

  11. GEOLGICAL STRUCTURE MAPPING OF THE BENTONG-RAUB SUTURE ZONE, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA USING PALSAR REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ of peninsular Malaysia was selected as case study to evaluate the capability of the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR satellite remote sensing data for structural geology mapping in tropical environments. The structural elements in the BRSZ were enhanced using multi-polarization configuration of PALSAR data at a regional scale. Adaptive local sigma and directional filters were applied to PALSAR data for detailed structural mapping. Numerous tectonic lineaments with consistent variation in trend, length and density were detected in the study area. Structural analysis of the BRSZ reveals that two distinct parts can be defined, a western part affected mainly by ductile fabrics in the Cameron Highlands and an eastern part affected mainly by brittle deformation in the BRSZ. Ductile deformation indicates several generation of folding in the Cameron Highlands. Several faults, joints and fractures represent brittle deformation events in the BRSZ. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of PALSAR satellite remote sensing data for mapping geological structures in tropical environments.

  12. Geodynamics of the Amirante Ridge and Trench Complex, Western Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Ghosh, A.K.

      fault,  or  a  fracture  zone  or  a  tensional  rift  as  a  result  of  seafloor  spreading,  or  wrench  faulting  caused  due  to  plate  rotation and reorganization.   Some...  north  to  south,  a  Late  Cretaceous  transform  fault,  an  Early  Cretaceous  lineament,  and  an  Early  Tertiary tensional rift (Damuth and Johnson 1989).  (b) Subduction: The  second  hypothesis  argues  in  favour  of  ARTC  representing  a...

  13. Local geological sections and regional stratigraphy based on physical geology and chemical stratigraphy of the Serra Geral Group from Araraquara to Avaré, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia João Fernandes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: From Araraquara to Avaré, in the Serra Geral Group outcropping area, 22 detailed geological sections were elaborated. The stratigraphic relationships and the chemical analysis allowed the identification of seven [P2O5] basalt classes, all of them pertaining to the Pitanga type, showing a consistent stacking order across the studied region. Thus, each class is considered to correspond to a specific lava flow, allowing a general stratigraphic column to be proposed. Besides the stacking order, the validation of P2O5 as a tool for lava correlation at great distances was also based on the values obtained from samples collected at different positions in a single flow, and on the remarkable [P2O5] contrast between adjacent flows. Minimum lateral extensions range from 75 to 185 km, and thickness from 20 to 80 m. Vertical tectonic displacements, which took place in different periods, were inferred from the altitude of specific flows, and also from the Botucatu and Piramboia formations. They are noticeable in a region bounded by EW drainage lineaments, which contains a large area where Piramboia and Botucatu formations crop out, probably due to the tectonic activity causing this region to be a generalized structural high.

  14. The evolution of groundwater flow and mass transport in Canadian shield flow domains: a methodology for numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, J.F.; Sudicky, E.A.; Normani, S.D.; Park, Y.J.; Cornaton, F.; McLaren, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Deep Geologic Repository Technology Programme (DGRTP) of Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is developing numerous approaches and methodologies for integrated and multidisciplinary site characterisation. A principal element involves the use and further development of state-of-the-art numerical simulators, and immersive visualisation technologies, while fully honouring multi-disciplinary litho-structural, hydrogeologic, paleo-hydrogeologic, geophysical, hydrogeochemical and geomechanical field data. Paleo-climate reconstructions provide surface boundary conditions for numerical models of the subsurface, furthering the understanding of groundwater flow in deep geologic systems and quantifying the effects of glaciation and deglaciation events. The use of geo-statistically plausible fracture networks conditioned on surface lineaments within the numerical models results in more physically representative and realistic characterizations of the repository site. Finally, immersive three-dimensional visualisation technology is used to query, investigate, explore and understand both the raw data, and simulation results in a spatially and temporally consistent framework. This environment allows multi-disciplinary teams of geoscience professionals to explore each other's work and can significantly enhance understanding and knowledge, thereby creating stronger linkages between the geo-scientific disciplines. The use of more physically representative and realistic conceptual models, coupled with immersive visualisation, contributes to an overall integrated approach to site characterisation, instilling further confidence in the understanding of flow system evolution. (authors)

  15. South Atlantic pale oceanography and evolution during the Albian; Paleoceanografia e a evolucao do Atlantico Sul no Albiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Ricardo Latge Milward de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Exploracao e Producao]. E-mail: ricardolatge@petrobras.com.

    2004-11-01

    A vast array of geochemical, geophysical, sedimentological and paleontological data, together with modern environmental analogues in the Red Sea, support the view that the South Atlantic maintained its bi partitioned condition from latest Aptian to the middle Albian. The lineament comprising the Florianopolis High and Sao Paulo Dorsal formed an effective barrier to sea-water circulation between the Southern South Atlantic (SSA) and Central South Atlantic (CSA) until late Albian times. During that time, the latter communicated mainly with the North Atlantic, which in turn was connected to the Tethys Sea. The CSA was then entirely located within an arid climatic belt, and subject to a negative hydric balance, whereas an estuarine circulation pattern prevailed in the SSA. The comparison of carbon and oxygen stable isotope results from limestones in various parts of the world demonstrates that the CSA waters were warmer than those of the Malvinas in the South, and the Tethyan Sea to the North. The CSA sedimentary evolution was coeval with profound paleoceanographic changes. These were mainly induced by global tectonic phenomena related to the dynamics of oceanic crustal accretion, culminating with the definitive interconnection of the Tethyan and Indian oceanic waters by the end-Albian. Halokynetic movements and orbital variations brought about oscillations in accommodation space, which permitted the stacking of tens of shallowing-upward cycles with varied magnitudes. (author)

  16. Development of multiple source data processing for structural analysis at a regional scale. [digital remote sensing in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrere, Veronique

    1990-01-01

    Various image processing techniques developed for enhancement and extraction of linear features, of interest to the structural geologist, from digital remote sensing, geologic, and gravity data, are presented. These techniques include: (1) automatic detection of linear features and construction of rose diagrams from Landsat MSS data; (2) enhancement of principal structural directions using selective filters on Landsat MSS, Spacelab panchromatic, and HCMM NIR data; (3) directional filtering of Spacelab panchromatic data using Fast Fourier Transform; (4) detection of linear/elongated zones of high thermal gradient from thermal infrared data; and (5) extraction of strong gravimetric gradients from digitized Bouguer anomaly maps. Processing results can be compared to each other through the use of a geocoded database to evaluate the structural importance of each lineament according to its depth: superficial structures in the sedimentary cover, or deeper ones affecting the basement. These image processing techniques were successfully applied to achieve a better understanding of the transition between Provence and the Pyrenees structural blocks, in southeastern France, for an improved structural interpretation of the Mediterranean region.

  17. Quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication on the inspection basis; Control de calidad para fabricacion de combustible nuclear en base a inspecciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes S, A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Toluca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Every plant productive of electric power requires the use of energetics for the transformation to electricity. In the nucleo electric plant the energetic is the uranium, in which it makes ensembles and is used as fuel in the reactor. To assure that the fuel ensembles fulfill the specifications and requirements of design stipulated in the nucleo electric plant is that under a quality control through inspections during the fabrication process. The purpose of this work is to study and verify that the lineaments of the standard 10 CFR 50 appendix B `Quality assurement for nuclear plants` specially in the criteria `Inspections` that is used to guarantee the quality of the ensembles. This standard is the one that rules every activity and operation inside the pilot plant and its established in the quality program in the production of nuclear fuel for the Laguna Verde plant. The quality of the assemble is verified through each one of the tests or inspections due to the importance of it in the fabrication of fuel. (Author)

  18. Geology, petrology, and petrogenesis of Little Barrier Island, Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, J.M.; Worthington, T.J.; Smith, I.E.M.; Black, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Little Barrier Island is the emergent part of a large, isolated, dacite-rhyodacite volcano in the active Hauraki Rift, 80 km northeast of Auckland. Two volcanic episodes are recognised: Waimaomao Formation was emplaced as a rhyodacite dome at 3 Ma, whereas the more extensive dacitic lavas of Haowhenua Formation were erupted between 1.2 and 1.6 Ma. All Little Barrier lavas are strongly porphyritic and contain phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and hornblende. Geochemically, they are subduction related and distinct from the older lavas of the Coromandel Volcanic Group, being Zr rich but Rb and Ba poor. Their Sr and Nd isotope ratios are similar to those of the Tonga-Kermadec arc volcanoes. Modelling of the dacite supports petrographic evidence that recharge and mixing were important in the magmatic system. Little Barrier and two dacite domes of similar age and composition near Whangarei form a northwest-trending lineament subparallel to the Alexandra Volcanics and the Vening Meinesz Fracture Zone. (author). 49 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using GIS-based Vector Grid File (VGF Validating with InSAR Techniques: Three Gorges, Yangtze River (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Kıncal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A landslide susceptibility assessment for the Three Gorges (TG region (China was performed in a Geographical Information System (GIS environment and Persistent Scatterer (PS InSAR derived displacements were used for validation purposes. Badong County of TG was chosen as case study field. Landslide parameters were derived from two datasets. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER Global Digital Elevation Map (GDEM was used to calculate slope geometry parameters (slope, aspect, drainage, and lineament, while geology and vegetation cover were obtained from Landsat and ASTER data. The majority of historical landslides occurred in the sandstone-shale-claystone intercalations. It appears that slope gradients are more critical than other parameters such as aspect and drainage. The susceptibility assessment was based on a summation of assigned susceptibility scores (points for each 30×30 m unit in a database of a Vector Grid File (VGF composed of ‘vector pixels’. A landslide susceptibility map (LSM was generated using VGF and classified with low, moderate and high landslide susceptibility zones. The comparison between the LSM and PS InSAR derived displacements suggests that landslides only account for parts of the observed surface movements.

  20. Geological remote sensing-evaluation of image data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatani, H

    1977-01-01

    During the nationwide geothermal investigation program (Japan) begun in 1973, five districts were chosen for evaluation of the effectiveness and limitations of aerial thermography. Using thermal images of Ibusuki City and Yamakawa-cho, geothermal resource areas were detected and related fracture zones were established by combining the thermal imagery and geological maps. At Ibusuki City, it was determined that the heat source was the Ata caldera, and that a fracture system connecting it to Lake Ikeda provides a conduit for geothermal fluids. Image plotting of thermal anomalies in the Hachimantai geothermal field was found to be an effective method for monitoring variation in thermal activity. LANDSAT imagery was anlayzed and lineament systems were detected in the mountains of the Kanto district. Followup of LANDSAT data by mapping teams confirmed a fault which intersects the major Kamitsuna fault in that district. This successful use of remote sensing data is encouraging but it is possible to draw only limited conclusions from it at present. Further refinement of analytical techniques is required.

  1. Environmental geology of Nampo, Puyo, Sochon, Hamyol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Young; Han, Dae Suk; Kim, Yoon Jong; Yu, Il Hyun; Lee, Bong Joo; Jeong, Gyo Cheol; Kim, Kyeong Su [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    An environmental geology map at a scale of 1:100,000 was produced to provide information on land use potential within the area of over 1,300 km{sup 2} consisting of Nampo, Puyo , Sochon and Hamyol. Land use potentiality was quantitatively assigned in accordance with the environmental geologic index(EI) derived from such factors as landslide frequency, engineering geological unit, topography and density of lineament length, being classified into 4 units. Also produced was a landslide susceptibility map at the same scale as the above map, showing five different grades of susceptibility based on hazard index(HI). Besides the above mentioned mapping, an investigation on the soils, rocks and natural aggregates throughout the study area was undertaken to assess their utilization potential as construction materials. Also carried out were the analysis of erosion and sedimentation in/around the Keum river, a geotechnical engineering investigation on the reclaimed tidal zone south of the Taechon beach, and the stability analysis of the cut slopes along the national roads. All the results of the investigations and analyses are presented in the paper. It is expected that the maps and accompanying information could be utilized in formulating regional land-use planning for variable projects. (author). 51 refs., 60 figs., 62 tabs., 3 maps.

  2. A GIS/Remote Sensing-based methodology for groundwater potentiality assessment in Tirnavos area, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidis, D.; Dimogianni, S.; Kazakis, N.; Voudouris, K.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the groundwater potentiality combining Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing with data obtained from the field, as an additional tool to the hydrogeological research. The present study was elaborated in the broader area of Tirnavos, covering 419.4 km2. The study area is located in Thessaly (central Greece) and is crossed by two rivers, Pinios and Titarisios. Agriculture is one of the main elements of Thessaly's economy resulting in intense agricultural activity and consequently increased exploitation of groundwater resources. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) were used in order to create a map that depicts the likelihood of existence of groundwater, consisting of five classes, showing the groundwater potentiality and ranging from very high to very low. The extraction of this map is based on the study of input data such as: rainfall, potential recharge, lithology, lineament density, slope, drainage density and depth to groundwater. Weights were assigned to all these factors according to their relevance to groundwater potential and eventually a map based on weighted spatial modeling system was created. Furthermore, a groundwater quality suitability map was illustrated by overlaying the groundwater potentiality map with the map showing the potential zones for drinking groundwater in the study area. The results provide significant information and the maps could be used from local authorities for groundwater exploitation and management.

  3. Application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most important result to date is the demonstration of the special value of repetitive ERTS-1 multiband coverage for detecting previously unknown fracture lineaments despite the presence of a deep glacial overburden. The Illinois Basin is largely covered with glacial drift and few rock outcrops are present. A contribution to the geological understanding of Illinois and Indiana has been made. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery has provided useful information to the State of Indiana concerning the surface mined lands. The contrast between healthy vegetation and bare ground as imaged by Band 7 is sharp and substantial detail can be obtained concerning the extent of disturbed lands, associated water bodies, large haul roads, and extent of mined lands revegetation. Preliminary results of analysis suggest a reasonable correlation between image-detected fractures and mine roof fall accidents for a few areas investigated. ERTS-1 applications to surface mining operations appear probable, but further investigations are required. The likelihood of applying ERTS-1 derived fracture data to improve coal mine safety in the entire Illinois Basin is suggested from studies conducted in Indiana.

  4. Correlation of Crustal Structures and Seismicity Patterns in Northern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Gao, H.

    2017-12-01

    The earthquake distributions in northern Appalachians are bounded by major geologically-defined terrane boundaries. There is a distinct seismic gap within Taconic Belt between the Western Quebec Seismic Zone (WQSZ) to the west and the seismically active Ganderia terrane to the east. It is not clear, however, what crustal structures control the characteristics of earthquake clustering in this region. Here we present a newly constructed crustal shear velocity model for the northern Appalachians using Rayleigh wave data extracted from ambient noises. Our tomographic model reveals strongly heterogeneous seismic structures in the crust. We observe multiple NW-dipping patches of high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust beneath the southeastern WQSZ. The upper crust shear velocities in the Ganderia and Avalonia region are generally lower than those beneath the WQSZ. The middle crust has relatively lower velocities in the study area. The earthquakes in the study area are constrained within the upper crust. Most of the earthquake hypocenters within the WQSZ are concentrated along the NW-dipping boundaries separating the high-velocity anomalies. In contrast, most of the earthquake hypocenters in the Ganderia and Avalonia region are diffusely distributed without clear vertical lineaments. The orientations of maximum compressive stresses change from W-E in the Ganderia and Avalonia region to SW-NE in the WQSZ. The contrasts in seismicity, velocity, and stress field across the Taconic Belt indicate that the Taconic Belt terrane may act as a seismically inactive buffer zone in northern Appalachians.

  5. Quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication on the inspection basis; Control de calidad para fabricacion de combustible nuclear en base a inspecciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes S, A [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Toluca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Every plant productive of electric power requires the use of energetics for the transformation to electricity. In the nucleo electric plant the energetic is the uranium, in which it makes ensembles and is used as fuel in the reactor. To assure that the fuel ensembles fulfill the specifications and requirements of design stipulated in the nucleo electric plant is that under a quality control through inspections during the fabrication process. The purpose of this work is to study and verify that the lineaments of the standard 10 CFR 50 appendix B `Quality assurement for nuclear plants` specially in the criteria `Inspections` that is used to guarantee the quality of the ensembles. This standard is the one that rules every activity and operation inside the pilot plant and its established in the quality program in the production of nuclear fuel for the Laguna Verde plant. The quality of the assemble is verified through each one of the tests or inspections due to the importance of it in the fabrication of fuel. (Author)

  6. Validation of an analytical method for determining halothane in urine as an instrument for evaluating occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Chamorro, Rita Maria; Jaime Novas, Arelis; Diaz Padron, Heliodora

    2010-01-01

    The occupational exposure to harmful substances may impose the apparition of determined significative changes in the normal physiology of the organism when the adequate security measures are not taken in time in a working place where the risk may be present. Among the chemical risks that may affect the workers' health are the inhalable anesthetic agents. With the objective to take the first steps for the introduction of an epidemiological surveillance system to this personnel, an analytical method for determining this anesthetic in urine was validated with the instrumental conditions created in our laboratory. To carry out this validation the following parameters were taken into account: specificity, lineament, precision, accuracy, detection limit and quantification limit, and the uncertainty of the method was calculated. In the validation procedure it was found that the technique is specific and precise, the detection limit was of 0,118 μg/L, and of the quantification limit of 0,354 μg/L. The global uncertainty was of 0,243, and the expanded of 0,486. The validated method, together with the posterior introduction of the biological exposure limits, will serve as an auxiliary means of diagnosis which will allow us a periodical control of the personnel exposure

  7. A practical methodology of radiological protection for the reduction of hot particles in BWR type reactors; Una metodologia practica de proteccion radiologica para la reduccion de particulas calientes en reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez G, G [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia del Proyecto Nucleoelectrico Laguna Verde, Disciplina de Fisica Aplicada (Mexico)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this work, in general form, is to describe a practical method for reduction of hot particles generated as consequence of the operational activities of BWR nuclear reactors. This methodology provides a description of the localizations and/or probable activities of finding particles highly radioactive denominated hot particles. For this purpose it was developed a strategy based on the decontamination lineaments, as well as the manipulation, gathering, registration, contention, documentation, control and final disposition of the hot particles. In addition, some recommendations are reiterated and alternative, in order to gathering the hot particles in a dynamic way given to the activities of the personal occupationally exposed in highly radioactive areas. The structure of the methodology of hot particles is supported in the radiological controls based on the Code of Federal Regulation 10 CFR 20 as well as the applicable regulatory documents. It provides an idea based on administrative controls of radiological protection, in order to suggesting the responsibilities and necessary directing for the control of the hot particles required in nuclear plants of the BWR type. (author)

  8. Fluid inclusion study of radioactive granite and cherty cataclasite in the Southeastern part of Nanded district, Maharashtra: implications for the uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Rahul; Shivkumar, K.; Thomas, Tresa; Thomas, Jugina; Pandian, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Southeastern part of Nanded district, Maharashtra exposes Palaeoproterozoic granitoids, representing the younger phase of Peninsular Gneissic Complex (PGC), mark the northeastern extension of Eastern Dharwar Craton. These granitoids are predominantly pink/grey granites, which are traversed by younger phosphatic cherty cataclasites close to the Deccan Trap capping. They are also affected by profuse pegmatitic/quartzo-feldspathic, quartz and epidote venations, especially close to fault/shear zones. A number of N-S to NNE-SSW, NE-SW, NW-SE and E-W trending lineaments marked by faults/fractures/shear zones and dykes are delineated in this granitic terrain. Among these, NE-SW and NNE-SSW faults/shear zones affecting granitoids and cherty cataclasites in Shahpur-Sujayatpur and Thadisaoli area have recorded significant uranium anomalies (Granitoids: upto 1% U 3 O 8 and 0.20% ThO 2 ; Cherty cataclasites upto 0.11% U 3 O 8 and <0.005% ThO 2 ) and enrichment in rare metal and rare earth element content (Nb-77ppm, Y-111 ppm, Zr-432ppm; n=9 and total REE-1167ppm; n=3). Presence of discrete uranium/thorium minerals (uraninite, b-uranophane and thorite) and high content of resistates viz., apatite, zircon, allanite, sphene, cerianite, monazite and ilmenite are responsible for radioactivity in granitoids while phosphatic material accounts for radioactivity in cherty cataclasites

  9. Late Quaternary paleoseismology of the Milin fault: Implications for active tectonics along the Yarlung Zangbo Suture, Southeastern Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Xu, Xiwei; Kirby, Eric; Tang, Fangtou; Kang, Wenjun

    2018-04-01

    How the eastward motion of crust in the central Tibetan Plateau is accommodated in the remote regions of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis remains uncertain. Although the Yarlung Zangbo suture (YZS) forms a striking lineament in the topography of the region, evidence for recent faulting along this zone has been equivocal. To understand whether faults along the YZS are active, we performed a geological investigation along the eastern segments of the YZS. Geomorphic observations suggest the presence of active faulting along several segments of the YZS, which we collectively refer to as the "Milin fault". Paleoseismologic data from trenches reveal evidence for one faulting event, which is constrained to occur between 5620 and 1945 a BP. The latest faulting event displaced alluvial surface T2 by 7 m. The offset on this earthquake place the minimum value on the vertical slip rate of 0.3 mm/yr. Empirical relationships between surface rupture length, displacement and magnitude, suggest that magnitude of the latest event could have been Mw 7.3-7.7. On the basis of this slip rate and the elapsed time since the last event, it is estimated that a seismic moment equivalent to Mw 7.0 has been accumulated on the Milin fault. It is pose a threat to the surrounding region. Our results suggest that shortening occurs in the vicinity of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, and part of eastward motion of crust from the central Tibetan Plateau is absorbed by uplift of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis.

  10. Structural contour, isopach and feature maps of quaternary sediments in Western Lake Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.F.M.; King, E.L.; Todd, B.J.; Blasco, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    A systematic high-resolution acoustic reconnaissance survey of Quaternary sediments (> 50 m thick, in places) and the underlying bedrock surface was completed for western Lake Ontario between Burlington and Port Hope, Ontario, to determine if geophysical lineaments through the area of Pickering and Darlington nuclear power stations are potentially seismically active. A total of 2530 line-km of data were obtained along N-S and E-W lines spaced 10 and 5 km respectively, using a high-resolution subbottom profiler (boomer and IKB-SEISTEC), a 100 kHz sidescan sonar (150-m range) with 3.5 kHz profiler, a 10 or 40 cu. in. sleeve gun seismic reflection system, and, intermittently, a marine magnetometer. Six piston cores up to 15-m long were collected to compare sediment lithology with key regional seismic reflectors. Sediments deposited over the past 13,000 years were imaged with vertical resolution in the order of 10-30 cm just below the lakebed and less than 1 m at the bedrock surface; resolution for the sleeve gun system is approximately 3-5 m. Digital processing and rescaling of selected seismic profiles aided interpretation. Structural contour maps for three Quaternary sequence boundaries and the bedrock surface were generated together with the related sequence isopach maps. Three additional maps portray lakebed features identified on sidescan sonar records and subsurface features identified on seismic profiles. All maps are at 1:250,000 scale. (author). 2 tabs., 48 figs., 12 maps

  11. Mineralogical, petrological and geochemical aspects of alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite associations from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, L.; Gomes, C. B.; Beccaluva, L.; Brotzu, P.; Conte, A. M.; Ruberti, E.; Traversa, G.

    1995-12-01

    A general description of Mesozoic and Tertiary (Fortaleza) Brazilian alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite districts is presented with reference to mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and geochronology. It mainly refers to scientific results obtained during the last decade by an Italo-Brazilian research team. Alkaline occurrences are distributed across Brazilian territory from the southern (Piratini, Rio Grande do Sul State) to the northeastern (Fortaleza, Ceará State) regions and are mainly concentrated along the borders of the Paraná Basin generally coinciding with important tectonic lineaments. The most noteworthy characteristics of these alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite suites are: (i) prevalence of intrusive forms; (ii) abundance of cumulate assemblages (minor dunites, frequent clinopyroxenites and members of the ijolite series) and (iii) abundance of evolved rock-types. Many data demonstrate that crystal fractionation was the main process responsible for magma evolution of all Brazilian alkaline rocks. A hypothesis is proposed for the genesis of carbonatite liquids by immiscibility processes. The incidence of REE and trace elements for different major groups of lithotypes, belonging both to carbonatite-bearing and carbonatite-free districts, are documented. Sr and preliminary Nd isotopic data are indicative of a mantle origin for the least evolved magmas of all the studied occurrences. Mantle source material and melting models for the generation of the Brazilian alkaline magma types are also discussed.

  12. The use of technology of separating horizontal wells into sections by packers in conjunction with a new geological structure concept of deposits 302-302 of the Romashkino Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.A. Loscheva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The work considers deposits 302-303 of the Bashkirian and Serpukhovian stages. The Kuakbashsky deposits 302-303 are confined to the carbonate layer of the Bashkirian and Serpukhovian sediments of the Middle and Lower Carboniferous, with various types of voids: intergranular, fractured and cavernous. Based on the analysis of seismic data, aerospace and geophysical data, a new model of the geological structure of deposits 302-303 was created, taking into account faults and lineaments. An analysis was made of the dynamics of horizontal wells operation, depending on the location of decompression zones, which confirmed the geological model of the deposit structure proposed by the authors. Based on the geological structure, solutions are proposed for optimization of deposits development: - During the establishment and operation of wells, it is necessary to take into account the faults location, their type, strike, predicted locations of high fracturing and cavitation zones to improve well performance; - The production mode should be developed with the obligatory observance of a balance between the filtration rate of oil from caverns into cracks and the flow of liquid from the production well. - The conducted analysis shows the complete absence of dependence of the development efficiency on the implementation of various technological measures. A comprehensive approach to the deposit blocks (limited by tectonic faults is required, starting with the selection of the block (the direct drilling site, ending with the selection modes, sequence, type and complex of geological and technical measures, individually for each well of the block.

  13. Petrology and geochemistry of dolerite dykes of Dharmapuri and Salem districts of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, M.; Umamaheswaran, O.; Suresh, A.

    2012-01-01

    Dolerite dyke sets occur distributed in the Dharmapuri and Salem districts of northern Tamil nadu. These dykes have been emplaced in the older basement composed of granulite and gneissic rocks and cut across the later formed lineament controlled alkaline complexes. They are composed of medium to coarse calcic plagioclase and clinopyroxene with biotite, amphibole, uralite, olivine, orthopyroxene, and anhedral quartz as accessories. Based on geochemical characters, the olivine bearing dykes are classed as Type I and the quartz bearing dykes as Type II. The Type I dykes resemble basalt and the Type II dykes, basaltic andesite. They display LILE> HFSE in terms of abundance. The REE values indicate enrichment of LREE relative to MREE and HREE and an E-MORB or Plume MORB signature. The geochemistry of the sampled dykes suggests derivation from a mantle plume. This plume was emplaced into the garnet lherzolite layer and subsequently into the shallower spinel lherzolite layer in the mantle. Polybaric melting of lherzolite protoliths with varying proportions of garnet and spinel occurred with subsequent fractionation to produce a source melts with E-MORB characteristics. Emplacement of these dykes was aided by crustal extension and associated fracturing to develop a dyke swarm. (author)

  14. Geology of the Nine Canyon Map Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.G.; Landon, R.D.

    1978-09-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and structure of a 175-square kilometer area (the Nine Canyon Map Area) along the southern margin of the Pasco Basin have been studied to help assess the feasibility of a nuclear waste terminal storage facility. Detailed mapping shows that uplift of the Horse Heaven Hills began prior to extrusion of the Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt, Columbia River Basalt Group. Both the Pomoma and the Elephant Mountain members (Saddle Mountains Basalt, Columbia River Basalt Group) are wide-spread throughout the basin, but thin considerably along the Horse Heaven Hills in the vicinity of Wallula Gap. The Ice Harbor Member is present only along the northern margin of the map area and possibly occupies a paleo-channel. The Rattlesnake Hills-Wallula Gap Lineament trends north 60 degrees west and intersects the older Horse Heaven Hills anticline in Wallula Gap. Four faults of short length and small vertical displacement are located along this structure. Within the map area, the intensity of folding increases, and the style of faulting changes from normal to reverse with proximity to the Wallula Gap area. No evidence for Quaternary deformation was found

  15. Meso-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the SE Brazilian continental margin: Petrographic, kinematic and dynamic analysis of the onshore Araruama Lagoon Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pricilla Camões Martins de; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Stanton, Natasha

    2017-09-01

    The Ararauama Lagoon Fault System composes one of the most prominent set of lineaments of the SE Brazilian continental margin. It is located onshore in a key tectonic domain, where the basement inheritance rule is not followed. This fault system is characterized by ENE-WSW silicified tectonic breccias and cataclasites showing evidences of recurrent tectonic reactivations. Based on field work, microtectonic, kinematic and dynamic analysis, we reconstructed the paleostresses in the region and propose a sequence of three brittle deformational phases accountable for these reactivations: 1) NE-SW dextral transcurrence; 2) NNW-SSE dextral oblique extension that evolved to NNW-SSE "pure" extension; 3) ENE-WSW dextral oblique extension. These phases are reasonably correlated with the tectonic events responsible for the onset and evolution of the SE onshore rift basins, between the Neocretaceous and Holocene. However, based on petrographic studies and supported by regional geological correlations, we assume that the origin of this fault system is older, related to the Early Cretaceous South Atlantic rifting. This study provides significant information about one of the main structural trends of the SE Brazilian continental margin and the tectonic events that controlled its segmentation, since the Gondwana rifting, and compartmentalization of its onshore sedimentary deposits during the Cenozoic.

  16. Shallow to intermediate resistivity features of the Colfiorito Fault System inferred by DC and MT survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siniscalchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade electromagnetic (EM measurements have provided new constraints on the upper-crustal structure of the major fault zones in the world, both when they act as conduit and as a barrier, due to strong sensitivity of resistivity to fluids circulation and mineralization. On the track of a high impact magnetotelluric (MT study performed across the San Andreas Fault, high resolution EM data were collected in the Colfiorito epicentral area along profiles crossing some main fault lineaments. Being the study focussed both on shallow that on intermediate resistivity distribution in the brittle upper-crust, a MT profile was integrated by several electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT. The latter were successful in locating faults even where the structures are buried by a wide covering of Quaternary deposits and in the recognition of different electrical signatures of the faults. MT resistivity model crossing Mt. Prefoglio normal fault clearly imaged the typical thrust structures of the area and a high conductive zone spatially related to the fault. Seismicity seems to be located outside such conductive area, whose behaviour suggests a fluidised and altered zone incapable of supporting significant stress internally.

  17. Holocene deposition and megathrust splay fault geometries within Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, S.; Liberty, L. M.; Haeussler, P. J.; Pratt, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    New high resolution sparker seismic reflection data, in conjunction with reprocessed legacy seismic data, provide the basis for a new fault, fold, and Holocene sediment thickness database for Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, legacy airgun seismic data in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska tie features on these new sparker data to deeper portions of megathrust splay faults. We correlate regionally extensive bathymetric lineaments within Prince William Sound to megathrust splay faults, such as the ones that ruptured in the 1964 M9.2 earthquake. Lastly, we estimate Holocene sediment thickness within Prince William Sound to better constrain the Holocene fault history throughout the region. We identify three seismic facies related to Holocene, Quaternary, and Tertiary strata that are crosscut by numerous high angle normal faults in the hanging wall of the megathrust splay faults. The crustal-scale seismic reflection profiles show splay faults emerging from 20 km depth between the Yakutat block and North American crust and surfacing as the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults. A change in exhumation rates, slip rates, and fault orientation appears near Hinchinbrook that we attribute to differences in subducted slab geometry. Based on our slip rate analysis, we calculate average Holocene displacements of 20 m and 100 m in eastern and western Prince William Sound, respectively. Landward of two splay faults exposed on Montague Island, we observe subsidence, faulting, and landslides that record deformation associated with the 1964 and older megathrust earthquakes.

  18. Earthquake-induced deformations on ice-stream landforms in Kuusamo, eastern Finnish Lapland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutinen, Raimo; Hyvönen, Eija; Middleton, Maarit; Airo, Meri-Liisa

    2018-01-01

    Kuusamo in eastern Finnish Lapland is characterized by ice-streamlined landforms as well as clusters of historical and recent earthquakes (Mw landslides, earth flows as well as kettle holes (craters), on the fluted surfaces within the Kuusamo ice-stream fan. We found these deformations to be a common feature on the Archean granitoid gneisses and within a 20 km wide and NW-SE oriented corridor between the major intrusives, the Iivaara nepheline syenite and the Näränkävaara gabbro. Of the paleolandslides, liquefaction morphologies were generally developed on the distal slopes (1.3-2.8%; 0.75-1.6°) of the streamlined forms. Sedimentary anisotropy, obtained with azimuthal electrical conductivity (σa; skin depth down to 3-6 m), of the deformed flutes significantly deviated from the non-deformed (clean) ones. The fields of the Pulju moraine, a subglacial landform, formed a grounding zone for the ice-streaming SW of the paleolandslide cluster. We therefore propose that both subglacial and postglacial earthquake-induced landforms are present in Kuusamo. No PGFs could be verified in the Kuusamo area, yet gravity, airborne magnetic, and LiDAR morphological lineaments suggest that the old Paleoproterozoic structures have been reactivated as strike-slip faults, due to the lithospheric plate stresses and glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA).

  19. Aeromagnetometry and aeroradiometry of Gabal El Kahfa ring complex, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleik, M.L.; Ammar, A.A.; Fouad, K.M.; Rabie, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    The existence of Gabal El Kahfa ring complex, located in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, has been ascertained from aeromagnetic and aeroradiometric survey data as well as by aerial photography. Two maps for the net aerial radiometric measurements reduced to ground level and aerial magnetic data corrected for the regional normal gradient of the earth's magnetic field have been constructed. The aeroradioactivity data have been interpreted geologically and analyzed statistically to outline various radiometric units and compute their characteristic statistics. The ring complex showed a circular radiometric feature and yielded a radiometric mean background and a standard deviation of 6.48 and 0.89 μR/h respectively. Besides, the observations showed a normal distribution. The aeromagnetic data have been reduced to the north magnetic pole, then filtered to produce the regional-and residual-component maps. Statistical trend analysis was conducted for the tectonic lineaments resulting from the three magnetic maps, to define the structural framework of the area under study. This statistical study proved the existence of trends in the east-west, northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest and north-south directions. The ring complex is characterized by a circular magnetic feature, whose average relief is 2150 nT. It is included within a high east-west trending magnetic zone. The latter represents a deep-seated uplift or anticline which is bordered from all sides by some faults of different trends. 14 refs., 14 figs

  20. Geophysical techniques for exploration of concealed uranium deposits in the Gwalior basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, Kalpan; Singh, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    There is no direct geophysical method for the exploration of concealed uranium ore. Scope of geophysics for this in the Gwalior basin comprises delineating the basement topography, demarcation or zones of intense fracturing intersecting the unconformities and to identify the presence of carbonaceous rocks, specially in the graben-like structures. These geophysical problems have been successfully solved in other places by employing IP, resistivity, SP and gravity techniques for basement mapping, identification of fracture zone/shear zone, delineation of electrical conductors like carbonaceous rocks and sulphides. Three such case histories are presented here that include: a). basement and shear/fracture zone mapping in the Vindhyan basin north of Son-Narmada lineament, b). delineation of conductive zone (proved to be carbon phyllite) in the Mahakoshal Group of Kanhara area of Sonbhadra district, UP and c). Identification of a conductive zone, proved to be sulphide body, within the Mahakoshal group in the Gurharpahar area of Sidhi and Sonbhadra districts of MP and UP respectively. In the context of exploration for concealed uranium in the Gwalior basin, it is suggested to employ IP, resistivity, SP, gravity and magnetic methods for delineation of conductive zones like carbonaceous rocks, basement topography, including the graben like structures, fracture zone, geological boundaries and demarcation of the basin boundary. (author)

  1. Pan-African reactivation of the Lurio segment of the Kibaran Belt system: a reappraisal from recent age determinations in northern Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, R.; Cadoppi, P.; Costa, M.

    2000-04-01

    The role of the Lurio Belt in northern Mozambique, and the geological evolution of its foreland in the Proterozoic are discussed in the light of recent, single zircon age determinations showing Pan-African age for the granulite-facies metamorphism. The following tentative conclusions are reached, and evidence for and against them is reviewed. The Lurio Belt had a two-fold history, as a crust-forming orogen during the Kibaran and as a transpressive suture in Pan-African times. Together with the Zambezi Belt and the Schlesien-Mwembeshi Lineament, it formed a 3000 km discontinuity which underwent an embryonic oceanic development before being sutured during the Pan-African collisional event. The Lurio Belt foreland had a tectonic-metamorphic evolution at ca 1000 Ma, prior to major, Pan-African overprinting and was probably continuous with the basement of Queen Maud Land (Antarctica) and Natal. In Pan-African times, clockwise transpressive movements along the Lurio Belt brought about emplacement of granulite klippen in its foreland. If there is a southward continuation of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt beyond Mozambique, it is probably to be found in Antarctica.

  2. A new tectonic model for the Cameroon Line, Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, C.; Regnoult, J.-M.; Déruelle, B.; Robineau, B.

    1987-10-01

    The Cameroon Line, a major geological feature in Central Africa, has been considered successively as a series of horsts and grabens, a continental rift and a mega-shear zone. It is marked out by about 60 anorogenic complexes and a dozen volcanic centres, all of which have alkaline affinity. Remote sensing allows us recognition of the main lineament trends: N70°, N-S, N135° and E-W, while autocorrelation analysis reveals a major fault zone striking N30° in western Cameroon and N15° in the northern region. A mega left-lateral shear zone is the model that best accounts for the fracture pattern and associated features such as linear and circular structures alignment of subvolcanic complexes, syntectonic leucogranites marking out older shear zones and vein dykes. The N70° Adamawa fault zone, a Pan-African fracture reworked during Albian-Aptian times, is the only shear zone of continental scale that could have initiated "en echelon" mega-tension gashes within the Cameroon Line during a Cainozoic left-lateral transcurrent movement.

  3. Radiometric, magnetic, and gravity study of the Quixadá batholith, central Ceará domain (NE Brazil): evidence for Pan-African/Brasiliano extension-controlled emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes de Castro, David; Mariano Gomes Castelo Branco, Raimundo; Martins, Guttenberg; Araújo de Castro, Neivaldo

    2002-10-01

    A geophysical survey was conducted in the central Ceará domain of the Borborema Province (NE Brazil). The aim of this investigation was to find geophysical evidence for the emplacement of the Quixadá batholith, which is a granitic body probably situated in the local extensional site in the oblique collisional regime of the Pan-African/Brasiliano collage. Remote sensing and airborne geophysical data provided information on the regional deformation that affected the intrusion and surrounding country rocks. In addition, a gravity study was used to determine the three-dimensional geometry and constrain the emplacement model of the Quixadá granite at depth. The trajectories of structural and magnetic lineaments suggest that the regional deformation is strongly influenced by dextral transcurrent movements of the major shear zones. The batholith, which shows an unusual positive gravity anomaly and a low U counts, displays a subhorizontal floor with several gently dipping areas, which are interpreted as magma feeder channels. The 2300 m thick root zones are roughly aligned with NE-SW-trending shear zones. Finally, the internal architecture of the pluton suggests that the Quixadá batholith was emplaced in a dilational shear zone tip area at the north end of Quixeramobim shear zone.

  4. The hydraulic connectivity, perennial warming and relationship to seismicity of the Davis-Schrimpf Seep Field, Salton Trough, California from new and recent temperature time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amar P.

    The Davis-Schrimpf Seep Field is a cluster of about 50 transtension-related geothermal seeps in the Imperial Valley, southeastern California. Five temperature time-series were collected from four features and compared to one another, against prior time-series, and to local seismicity. Loggers placed in separate vents within one seep returned moderate anti-correlation. Vents may selectively clog and unclog. Clogging frequencies explaining the observed level of negative correlation were given. Loggers placed in the same vent produced 87-92% positive correlation. It is therefore likely that the vast majority of temperature data measured with loggers possesses meaningful accuracy. Loggers placed in separate seeps exhibited correlation close to or greater than the statistically significant 60% threshold. I propose two lineaments provide a hydraulic connection between these seeps. Two Mw>3.0 earthquake swarms, including one Mw>4.0 event, within 24 kilometers showed possible linkage with >5 degree Celsius temperature perturbations. Seepage warmed 14.5-36.8 degrees Celsius over 5-7 years.

  5. Evaluation of the CSD of the national report of Colombia presented in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saavedra Sandra; Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Parra, Ernesto

    1996-01-01

    In the annual meeting of the CSD an analysis and a diagnosis are elaborated on the world situation of the sustainable development in the regional themes, the program 21 is divided, starting from the national reports that all the countries should present. For the analysis work and pursuit of each one of the sectors that the program 21 contemplate, it was necessary to create special groups of work denominated AD HOC Open-Ended working Groups on regional Issues. These they met between February 27 and March 3 1995 to discuss and to analyze the six regional reports: integral handling of the resources of the earth, sustainable agriculture and rural development, fights against the desertification, sustainable development of mountains, forests and biodiversity, that the secretary of the commission of sustainable development elaborated with base in the national reports sent by the countries members. During the last years, Colombia, one of the countries agents of the CSD, it has conferred the biggest importance to the development and execution of an environmental national politics that it responds to their development necessities and at the same time consult the lineaments and parameters worldwide settled down in the program 21

  6. Modeling of 3d Space-time Surface of Potential Fields and Hydrogeologic Modeling of Nuclear Waste Disposal Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestopalov, V.; Bondarenko, Y.; Zayonts, I.; Rudenko, Y.

    Introduction After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) disaster (04.26.1986) a huge amount (over 2000 sq. km) of nuclear wastes appeared within so-called "Cher- nobyl Exclusion Zone" (CEZ). At present there are not enough storage facilities in the Ukraine for safe disposal of nuclear wastes and hazardous chemical wastes. The urgent problem now is safe isolation of these dangerous wastes. According to the developed state program of radioactive waste management, the construction of a na- tional storage facility of nuclear wastes is planned. It is also possible to create regional storage facilities for hazardous chemical wastes. The region of our exploration cov- ers the eastern part of the Korosten Plutone and its slope, reaching the CNPP. 3D Space-Time Surface Imaging of Geophysical Fields. There are only three direct meth- ods of stress field reconstruction in present practice, namely the field investigations based on the large-scale fracturing tests, petrotectonic and optical polarization meth- ods. Unfortunately, all these methods are extremely laborious and need the regular field tests, which is difficult to conduct in the areas of anisotropic rock outcrops. A compilation of magnetic and gravity data covering the CNPP area was carried out as a prelude to an interpretation study. More than thirty map products were generated from magnetic, gravity and geodesy data to prepare the 3D Space-Time Surface Images (3D STSI). Multi-layer topography and geophysic surfaces included: total magnetic intensity, isostatically-corrected Bouguer gravity, aspect and slope, first and second derivatives, vertical and horizontal curvature, histogram characteristics and space cor- relation coefficients between the gradient fields. Many maps shows the first and sec- ond derivatives of the potential fields, with the results of lineament (edge) structure detection superimposed. The lineament or edges of the potential fields are located from maximal gradient in many directions

  7. Grabens on Io: Evidence for Extensional Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Schenk, P.

    2012-12-01

    Io may well be the most geologically active body in the solar system. A variety of volcanic features have been identified, including a few fissure eruptions, but tectonism is generally assumed to be limited to compression driven mountain formation (Schenk et al., 2001). A wide range of structural features can also be identified including scarps, lineaments, faults, and circular depressions (pits and patera rims). Narrow curvilinear graben (elongated, relatively depressed crustal unit or block that is bounded by faults on its sides) are also scattered across Io's volcanic plains. These features are dwarfed by the more prominent neighboring volcanoes and mountains, and have been largely ignored in the literature. Although they are likely to be extensional in origin, their relationship to local or global stress fields is unknown. We have mapped the locations, length and width of graben on Io using all available Voyager and Galileo images with a resolution better than 5 km. We compare the locations of graben with existing volcanic centers, paterae and mountain data to determine the degree of correlation between these geologic features and major topographic variations (basins/swells) in our global topographic map of Io (White et al., 2011). Graben are best observed in > 1-2 km low-sun angle images. Approximately 300 images were converted from ISIS to ArcMap format to allow easy comparison with the geological map of Io (Williams et al., 2012) along with previous higher resolution structural mapping of local areas (e.g. Crown et al., 1992). We have located >45 graben to date. Typically 1-3 kilometers across, some of these features can stretch for over 500 kilometers in length. Their formation may be related to global tidal stresses or local deformation. Io's orbit is eccentric and its solid surface experiences daily tides of up to ˜0.1 km, leading to repetitive surface strains of 10-4 or greater. These tides flex and stress the lithosphere and can cause it to fracture

  8. ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF MODERN CRUSTAL MOVEMENTS AND THE RECENTLY ACTIVATED PRECAMBRIAN STRUCTURAL PLAN ON THE RELIEF OF THE LAKE LADOGA REGION (THE SOUTHEASTERN BALTIC SHIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Agibalov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence of modern crustal movements and the recently activated Precambrian structural plan on the relief of theLakeLadogaregion. It presents the results of comprehensive studies, including processing of the regional geological and geomorphological data by the modern methods, as the major novelty of our work. The solutions of earthquake focal mechanisms suggest the current subhorizontal NW compression in the study area. Based on the computer simulation by the Roxar software, we have identified areas wherein new fractures are most likely to occur, determined the dominant directions of such fractures, and revealed the areas of intense vertical movements in the given stress state. The input database included a digital model of the relief and the spatial patterns of ancient faults represented by large-size inhomogeneities influencing the stress field. Strain values were estimated from the horizontal displacements recorded by the International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS and the GPS networks in theRepublicofKareliaand the southeastern regions ofFinland. Using the LESSA software, we have estima­ted the relief orientation characteristics: the density of lineaments, and elongation lines, which are indicative of the changes in the dominant directions of the strike of the lineaments (‘hatches’ in the study area. By interpreting the satellite images and the topographic maps (scale 1:20000, we reveal a number of geological structures, such as gra­nite-gneiss domes and large-size faults, which are directly reflected in the relief. The study results give grounds to establish an indirect relationship between the relief and the modern field of deformation: the areas with high strain values correspond to the areas with steep slopes. The computer simulation data show a NE-trending linear zone with the increased amplitudes of vertical movements. This zone occupies the region along the NW shoreLakeLadoga. In the block

  9. Interpreting gravity anomalies in south Cameroon, central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadjou Jean Marie

    2012-10-01

    characterised by elongated SW-NE negative gravity anomaly corresponding to a collapsed structure associated with a granitic intrusion beneath the region, limited by fault systems; this was clearly evident on an isostatic residual gravity map. High gravity anomaly within the northern part of the area was interpreted as a result of dense bodies put in place at the root of the crust. Positive anomalies in the northern part of the area were separated from southern negative anomalies by a prominent E-W lineament; this was interpreted on the gravity maps as a suture zone between the south Congo craton and the Pan-African formations. Gravity anomalies’ total horizontal derivatives generally reflect faults or compositional changes which can describe structural trends. The local maxima of the Bouguer gravity data’s horizontal gradient grid and its upward continuation at various altitudes were used to highlight the deepest lineament faults and their dip and direction. These features led to producing a structural map of the study area.

  10. Report of the seismic activity at the Cerro Prieto B.C., Mexico, geothermal field during 1996; Reporte de la actividad sismica registrada en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico, durante 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escamilla Hernandez, Abelardo [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-05-01

    In February 1996 started the operation of the Seismic Network of Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (RESICP). It is constituted by five digital stations with velocity sensors of three components and a natural period of one second. The network worked continuously until December 2, 1996. During this period, we located 270 events in the field area and its neighborhood, with coda-length magnitude 1lineament nearly N-S; Zone B.- Located between the exploitation zones of Cerro Prieto Dos and Cerro Prieto Tres. The recorded activity is less than in Zone A, focal depths are between five and seven km, and the coda- length magnitude is 1lineament NW- SE; Zone E locate NW of the field in the outskirts of the Cerro Prieto volcano and to the NW of it. The activity was of swarm type mainly, and inside this zone was recorded the greater event for the region (M{sub c}=4.21, 30 August at 06:245 Universal Time), coda-length magnitude 1

  11. High-resolution electrical resistivity and aeromagnetic imaging reveal the causative fault of the 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, F.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Chindandali, P. R.; Salima, J.; Kalindekafe, L.

    2018-05-01

    Seismic events of varying magnitudes have been associated with ruptures along unknown or incompletely mapped buried faults. The 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi earthquake caused a surface rupture length of 14-18 km along a single W-dipping fault [St. Mary Fault (SMF)] on the hanging wall of the North Basin of the Malawi Rift. Prior to this earthquake, there was no known surface expression or knowledge of the presence of this fault. Although the earthquake damage zone is characterized by surface ruptures and coseismic liquefaction-induced sand blows, the origin of the causative fault and the near-surface structure of the rupture zone are not known. We used high-resolution aeromagnetic and electrical resistivity data to elucidate the relationship between surface rupture locations and buried basement structures. We also acquired electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles along and across the surface rupture zone to image the near-surface structure of the damaged zone. We applied mathematical derivative filters to the aeromagnetic data to enhance basement structures underlying the rupture zone and surrounding areas. Although several magnetic lineaments are visible in the basement, mapped surface ruptures align with a single 37 km long, 148°-162°—striking magnetic lineament, and is interpreted as the ruptured normal fault. Inverted ERT profiles reveal three regional geoelectric layers which consist of 15 m thick layer of discontinuous zones of high and low resistivity values, underlain by a 27 m thick zone of high electrical resistivity (up to 100 Ω m) and a basal layer of lower resistivity (1.0-6.0 Ω m) extending from 42 m depth downwards (the maximum achieved depth of investigation). The geoelectric layers are truncated by a zone of electrical disturbance (electrical mélange) coinciding with areas of coseismic surface rupturing and sediment liquefaction along the ruptured. Our study shows that the 2009 Karonga earthquake was associated with the partial

  12. Geologic map of the Rusalka Planitia Quadrangle (V-25), Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Duncan A.; Hansen, Vicki L.

    2003-01-01

    associated lava flows, as well as fields of volcanic shields. Within each basin, the local geologic histories are relatively well constrained; correlations between the planitiae are difficult without making assumptions. The region between the two basins contains large volcanoes, corona fragments, deformation belts, and shield fields embedded within a topographically higher heterogeneous expanse of rolling plains. V-25's most prominent structural grain is a suite of wrinkle ridges that arc around the southwest corner of the quadrangle. A patchy suite of northeast-trending assorted lineaments underlies much of the map area. Although these lineaments originally were narrow fractures, this structural suite appears to have subsequently opened up along extensional troughs near Corpman crater in the southwest corner of the map area and been reactivated as wrinkle ridges at Ran Colles in the middle of the southern boundary of V-25. Nineteen impact craters dot the quadrangle. Craters Yazruk, du Chatelet, and Caccini contribute large geology- obscuring ejecta halos. Crater densities are too low for either relative or absolute age dating. Ten splotches, presumably associated with meteor airbursts, also occur across V-25.

  13. Post-rift deformation of the Red Sea Arabian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Davide; Schettino, Antonio; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Rasul, Najeeb

    2017-04-01

    Starting from the Oligocene, the Red Sea rift nucleated within the composite Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian shield. After about 30 Ma-long history of continental lithosphere thinning and magmatism, the first pulse of oceanic spreading occurred at around 4.6 Ma at the triple junction of Africa, Arabia, and Danakil plate boundaries and propagated southward separating Danakil and Arabia plates. Ocean floor spreading between Arabia and Africa started later, at about 3 Ma and propagated northward (Schettino et al., 2016). Nowadays the northern part of the Red Sea is characterised by isolated oceanic deeps or a thinned continental lithosphere. Here we investigate the deformation of thinned continental margins that develops as a consequence of the continental lithosphere break-up induced by the progressive oceanisation. This deformation consists of a system of transcurrent and reverse faults that accommodate the anelastic relaxation of the extended margins. Inversion and shortening tectonics along the rifted margins as a consequence of the formation of a new segment of ocean ridge was already documented in the Atlantic margin of North America (e.g. Schlische et al. 2003). We present preliminary structural data obtained along the north-central portion of the Arabian rifted margin of the Red Sea. We explored NE-SW trending lineaments within the Arabian margin that are the inland continuation of transform boundaries between segments of the oceanic ridge. We found brittle fault zones whose kinematics is consistent with a post-rift inversion. Along the southernmost transcurrent fault (Ad Damm fault) of the central portion of the Red Sea we found evidence of dextral movement. Along the northernmost transcurrent fault, which intersects the Harrat Lunayyir, structures indicate dextral movement. At the inland termination of this fault the evidence of dextral movement are weaker and NW-SE trending reverse faults outcrop. Between these two faults we found other dextral transcurrent

  14. Field Investigation of Surface Deformation Induced by the 2016 Meinong Earthquake and its Implications to Regional Geological Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, De-Cheng; Chuang, Ray Y.; Lin, Ching-Weei

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate mapping results of a newly-identified active folding-associated fault in southwestern Taiwan, which was triggered by the distant ML 6.6 Meinong earthquake in 2016. The 14.6-km-deep main shock occurred in Meinong at 3:57 (GMT +08) on February 6th while a series of 21-27 km deep aftershocks were induced after 160 seconds in Guanmiao, where is 25km NW away from the epicenter of the main shock. The focal mechanism of the Meinong main shock shows a westward oblique thrust with the fault plane of 275°/42°/17° (strike/dip/rake) but Guanmiao aftershocks show the N-S striking eastward normal movement. The study area locates at an on-going fold-and-thrust belt close to the deformation front of Taiwan orogeny with high rates of convergence, uplift and erosion. The geology of SW Taiwan is characterized by the 3-km-thick mudstones with high fluid pressure underlying the loose sedimentary rocks forming mud diapirs or mud-core anticlines. The significance of the Meinong earthquake is (1) aftershocks are far away from the main shock, and (2) the surface cracks partially distributed systematically along lineaments observed from InSAR, which has never been recognized as geological structures before. This study aims to establish possible kinematic processes of shallow deformation induced by the Meinong earthquake. We mapped surface cracks around the lineaments by using hand-held GPS and measured surface cracks by the compass and vernier. Among 249 kinematic data measured from 244 observed surface cracks and ruptures, the type of deformation was mostly identified as dilation or lateral translation and only 4 data were compressional deformation. The overall surface displacement moved to the northwest and west, consistent with the regional coseismic movement. The opening of the surface cracks range from 0.5 to 105 mm and 85% of them are less than 10 mm. Preseismic deformed features such as failure of the retaining wall were also observed along the western and eastern

  15. APLICAÇÃO DO MÉTODO DE CLASSIFICAÇÃO CONTÍNUA FUZZY PARA O MAPEAMENTO DA FRAGILIDADE DO TERRENO EM RELAÇÃO À OCORRÊNCIA DE RAVINAS NO PARQUE NACIONAL DA SERRA DA CANASTRA - APPLICATION OF CONTINUOUS FUZZY CLASSIFICATION METHOD FOR MAPPING TERRAIN FRAGILITY REGARDING THE OCCURRENCE OF GULLIES IN THE SERRA DA CANASTRA NATIONAL PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Gustavo Messias

    2017-04-01

    maps, as follows: vegetation index, structural lineaments density, roads density and terrain slope. Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS statistical test was used to evaluate adherence between spatial distribution of environmental variables values and spatial distribution of ravines sites. Environmental fragility was mapped using linear membership fuzzy function, and evaluated upon third and fourth orders hydrographic basins. The results showed that ravine sites are mainly associated to the structural lineaments density, followed by vegetation index, road density and terrain slope. The most of higher environmental fragility hydrographic basins are located in the Chapadão da Babilônia landscape unit.

  16. Precambrian terranes of African affinities in the southeastern part of Brazil and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S; Junior, Siga; Harara, O.M; Preciozzi, F; Sato, K; Kaufuss, G

    2001-01-01

    The interest in correlating terranes at opposite margins of the South Atlantic Ocean reflects a natural curiosity of both researchers who work in the eastern South-America and who study southwestern Africa. On a large scale scenario the geology of this region is characterized by a central portion composed of Neo proterozoic-Cambrian belts (Dom Feliciano, Kaoko, Damara, Gariep, Saldania) having on each side old gneissic-migmatitic terrains on both continents (Luis Alves, Rio de La Plata, Kalahari and Congo). In South America the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB) predominates in the eastern part of the region and is internally organized according to three different crustal segments characterized, from southeast to northwest, by a Granite belt (deformed I-type medium to high calc-alkaline granites and alkaline granitoid rocks; a Schist belt (volcano-sedimentary rocks metamorphosed from greenschist to amphibolite facies and intrusive granitoids), and a Foreland basin (anchimetamorphic sedimentary and volcanic rocks), the latter situated between the Schist belt and the Archean-Paleoproterozoic foreland. Despite discontinuously covered by younger sediments, the NS continuity of these three crustal segments is suggested by similar lithotypes, structural characteristics, ages and isotopic signature, as well as by the gravimetric data. The Major Gercino, Cordilheira, and Sierra Ballena shear zones are part of the major NE-SW lineaments that affect all southern Brazilian and Uruguayan Precambrian terrains. They separate the Dom Feliciano Schist Belt (supracrustal rocks of the Brusque-Porongos and Lavalleja groups), to the West, from the granitoids of the Granite belt, to the East. The shear zones are characterized by a regional NE trend and a resultant oblique direction of movement where ductile-brittle structures predominate. It is here postulated, as discussed later on, that this lineament separates terranes that are geologically, geo chronologically and isotopically

  17. Groundwater potential zonation by Remote Sensing and GIS techniques and its relation to the Groundwater level in the Coastal part of the Arani and Koratalai River Basin, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Suganthi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is being pumped extensively from the coastal part of the Arani and Koratalai River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India for irrigation and water supply to the city of Chennai. The objective of this study is to delineate the groundwater potential zones of this area using Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques. Weighted overlay analysis was used to demarcate the ground- water potential zones. Various thematic layers such as geology, geomorphology, soil, lineament density, drainage density, rainfall and landuse maps were prepared. The geological map was prepared using a Geological Survey of India (GSI district resource map. Indian Remote Sensing System Linear Imaging Self-scanning Sensor III (IRS-1D LISS III satellite imagery was used to prepare the geomorphology, soil, lineament density, drainage density, and landuse maps. The final groundwater potential map was prepared by assigning appropriate weightage to different thematic maps and adding them to the final groundwater potential map. The derived groundwater potential map was overlaid with the groundwater level and location of well fields for validation. The map prepared will help in systematic and proper development of groundwater resources in this area to meet the growing water requirements of the city of Chennai.  Resumen Aguas subterráneas se bombean en gran cantidad desde la parte costera en las cuencas de los ríos Arani, en Tamil Nadu, India, para el riego y el aprovisionamiento de agua a la ciudad de Chennai. El objetivo de este estudio es delinear las zonas potenciales de aguas subterráneas en esta área a través de sistemas de Teledeteción (RS y de Información Geográfica (GIS. Se hizo un análisis sobrepuesto compensado para demarcar las zonas con posibilidad de tener aguas subterráneas. Se prepararon mapas de uso de la tierra con varios elementos temáticos como geología, geomorfología, terreno, densidad de lineamiento, densi- dad de drenaje y

  18. Surface-Water, Water-Quality, and Ground-Water Assessment of the Municipio of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Guzman-Rios, Senen; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Oliveras-Feliciano, Mario L.

    2004-01-01

    five hydrogeologic terranes. This integrated database then was used to evaluate the ground-water potential of each hydrogeologic terrane. Lineament-trace analysis was used to help assess the ground-water development potential in the hydrogeologic terranes containing igneous rocks. Analyses suggest that areas with slopes greater than 15 degrees have relatively low ground-water development potential. The presence of fractures, independent of the topographic slope, may locally enhance the water-bearing properties in the hydrogeologic terranes containing igneous rocks. The results of this study indicate that induced streamflow generally is needed to sustain low to moderate ground-water withdrawal rates in the five hydrogeologic terranes. The ground-water flow systems in the hydrogeologic terranes are only able to sustain small withdrawal rates that rarely exceed 50 gallons per minute. Areas with a high density of fractures, as could be the case at the intersection of lineament traces in the upper parts of the Rio Ca?as and Rio Yaguez watersheds, are worthy of exploratory drilling for ground-water development.

  19. Linking orogen and peripheral foreland basin: conceptual model and application to the Southalpine-Dinaric (Friuli) orocline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz

    2010-05-01

    Surface uplift and rock exhumation within an orogen are generally a consequence of convergence, and can often be linked with subsidence in a peripheral foreland. Since vertical loads act on the entire lithosphere, these processes can, therefore, be considered as plate-scale processes. Here, we propose a conceptual model for this linkage for the Friuli orocline and its surrounding units. The Friuli orocline stretches from the ENE-trending Southern Alps to the SE-trending Dinarides. There, two Neogene stages of convergence and associated deformation can be differentiated: (1) a Mid-Late Miocene phase of increased surface uplift and intra-orogenic subsidence of sedimentary basins reflecting intra-orogenic crustal-scale folding. Depocentres are e.g. the flexural Belluno, Ljubljana and Klagenfurt basins. (2) A second stage of convergence during Late Pliocene-Pleistocene times led to overall surface uplift in the orogen and contemporaneous pronounced subsidence in the peripheral foreland basin (Venetian platform and the northern Adriatic Sea). We propose, that the spatially variable extent of subsidence originates in variably strong orogen-basin coupling, i.e. weak coupling during stage 1 vs. strong coupling during stage 2. This interpretation is based on the apatite fission track age pattern, the distribution of intra-orogenic Neogene sediment basins and subsidence analyses in the foreland basin (Barbieri et al., 2007). Available low-temperature thermochronological data for the Southern Alps and the NW Dinarides are sparse, in contrast to a dense network of primarily apatite fission track ages north of the Periadriatic lineament (e.g. summarized by Luth & Willingshofer, 2008). AFT ages adjacent to the eastern Periadriatic Lineament mainly range from 15 to 25 Ma (Hejl, 1997; Fodor et al., 2008). Detrital studies on Oligocene to Miocene sediments from the Venetian foreland basin yielded dominant age groups clustering roughly around 20 and 30 Ma (Stefani et al., 2008

  20. Shrimp and conventional U-Pb age, Sm-Nd isotopic characteristics and tectonic significance of the K-rich Itapuranga suite in Goiás, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÁRCIO M. PIMENTEL

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The Itapuranga alkali granite and Uruana quartz syenite are large K-rich EW-elongated intrusions, in the central part of the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt, central Brazil. They are associated with Pireneus linea