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Sample records for line-c proton radiography

  1. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Faivre, J.C.; Garreta, D.

    1982-10-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: direct 3- dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore, it is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving systems. Results obtained on different objects (light and heavy materials) are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiography faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  2. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudinos, J.

    1982-04-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: 3-dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore the nuclear scattering radiography (NSR) is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving objects. Results obtained on phantoms, formalin fixed head and moving object are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiograph faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  3. Apparatus for proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors. 10 claims, 7 drawing figures

  4. Proton Radiography (pRad)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose more than 300 dynamic experiments in support...

  5. Proton Radiography at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos National Lab uses high energy protons to acquire multiple frame flash radiographic sequences at megahertz speeds: that is, it can make movies of the inside of explosions as they happen. The facility is primarily used to study the damage to and failure of metals subjected to the shock forces of high explosives as well as to study the detonation of the explosives themselves. Applications include improving our understanding of the underlying physical processes that drive the performance of the nuclear weapons in the United States stockpile and developing novel armor technologies in collaboration with the Army Research Lab. The principle and techniques of pRad will be described, and examples of some recent results will be shown.

  6. Proton radiography using highpower femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Il

    2010-08-01

    A femtosecond laser emits pulses whose width is between few and few hundreds femtoseconds (10 -15 s). The production mechanism of the high energy protons generated by the femtosecond laser is not clear so far, but the technologies have been improving. The applications using the generated protons are the proton therapy, proton radiography, nuclear physics, security inspection, and so on. Especially in the radiography, the laser-generated protons are very useful to obtain high quality images of thin objects, because protons are able to penetrate an object following an almost straight path and give a depth distribution information of various elements in a subject. Since the laser-driven protons require lower cost and smaller facility than accelerator-based protons, the radiography using laser-driven protons have been of interest. In this research, we have performed the radiography experiments by using protons generated by the 100 TW titanium sapphire femtosecond laser facility of Advanced Photonics Research Institute (APRI) of Gwangju Institute of Science Technology (GIST). A CR-39 Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) has been used as radiography screen. The radiography digital images have been obtained by using an optical microscope and a CCD camera. Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) has been derived from analyzing the obtained images, and the spatial resolution of the images have been evaluated. And, we have performed the radiography experiments of monoenergetic proton from the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator of Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). We have obtained and compared the radiography images from other proton production methods which are the laser and the accelerator, respectively. And also, we have found out the optimized chemical etching condition, in order to improve the spatial resolution of the radiography images. Finally, the evaluated maximum spatial resolution of the images are 2.09 μm

  7. Application of proton radiography to medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Martin, R.L.; Moffett, D.R.; Colton, E.

    1977-12-01

    The use of charged particles for radiographic applications has been considered for some time, but progress has been impeded by the cost and availability of suitable accelerators. However, recent developments in technology could overcome these problems. A review is presented of the physical principles leading to an improvement in mass resolution per unit of absorbed dose for charged particle radiography relative to x-ray radiography. The quantitative comparisons between x-ray and proton radiographs presented here confirm this advantage. The implications of proton radiography on cancer detection, as well as future plans for developing a proton tomographic system, are discussed

  8. Proton radiography to improve proton therapy treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takatsu, J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; van Beuzekom, M.; Klaver, T.; Visser, Jan; Brandenburg, S.; Biegun, A. K.

    The quality of cancer treatment with protons critically depends on an accurate prediction of the proton stopping powers for the tissues traversed by the protons. Today, treatment planning in proton radiotherapy is based on stopping power calculations from densities of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT)

  9. Proton Radiography for the Diagnostics of a Dense Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barminova, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The possibility of using high-energy proton radiography for dense plasma diagnostics is discussed. The designed telescopic ion optical system for a proton radiography installation with a 1 GeV beam is presented. The schematic diagram of the proton microscope is given. It is shown that the estimate of spatial resolution for the installation obtained with consideration of chromatic aberrations of magnetic quadrupole lenses is limited from below.

  10. Magnifying lens for 800 MeV proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, F. E.; Campos, E.; Espinoza, C.; Hogan, G.; Hollander, B.; Lopez, J.; Mariam, F. G.; Morley, D.; Morris, C. L.; Murray, M.; Saunders, A.; Schwartz, C.; Thompson, T. N.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the design and performance of a magnifying magnetic-lens system designed, built, and commissioned at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for 800 MeV flash proton radiography. The technique of flash proton radiography has been developed at LANL to study material properties under dynamic loading conditions through the analysis of time sequences of proton radiographs. The requirements of this growing experimental program have resulted in the need for improvements in spatial radiographic resolution. To meet these needs, a new magnetic lens system, consisting of four permanent magnet quadrupoles, has been developed. This new lens system was designed to reduce the second order chromatic aberrations, the dominant source of image blur in 800 MeV proton radiography, as well as magnifying the image to reduce the blur contribution from the detector and camera systems. The recently commissioned lens system performed as designed, providing nearly a factor of three improvement in radiographic resolution.

  11. Proton radiography of magnetic field in laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pape, S.; Patel, P.; Chen, S.; Town, R.; Mackinnon, A.

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields generated by the interaction with plasmas of long-pulse laser beams relevant to inertial confinement fusion have been measure. A proton beam generated by the interaction of an ultra intense laser with a thin metallic foil is used to probe the B-fields. The proton beam then generated is temporally short (of the order of a ps), highly laminar and hence equivalent to a virtual point which makes it an ideal source for radiography. We have investigated, using face-on radiography, B fields at intensity around 10 14 W/cm 2 due to the non co-linearity of temperature and density gradients. (authors)

  12. Pencil beam proton radiography using a multilayer ionization chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Meijers, Arturs

    2016-01-01

    A pencil beam proton radiography (PR) method, using a commercial multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) integrated with a treatment planning system (TPS) was developed. A Giraffe (IBA Dosimetry) MLIC (+/- 0.5 mm accuracy) was used to obtain pencil beam PR by delivering spots uniformly positioned at a

  13. From 2D to 3D: Proton Radiography and Proton CT in proton therapy: A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takatsu, J.; van der Graaf, E.R.; van Goethem, M.-J.; Brandenburg, S.; Biegun, Aleksandra

    (1) Purpose In order to reduce the uncertainty in translation of the X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) image into a map of proton stopping powers (3-4% and even up to 10% in regions containing bones [1-8]), proton radiography is being studied as an alternative imaging technique in proton therapy. We

  14. Review of medical radiography and tomography with proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert P.

    2018-01-01

    The use of hadron beams, especially proton beams, in cancer radiotherapy has expanded rapidly in the past two decades. To fully realize the advantages of hadron therapy over traditional x-ray and gamma-ray therapy requires accurate positioning of the Bragg peak throughout the tumor being treated. A half century ago, suggestions had already been made to use protons themselves to develop images of tumors and surrounding tissue, to be used for treatment planning. The recent global expansion of hadron therapy, coupled with modern advances in computation and particle detection, has led several collaborations around the world to develop prototype detector systems and associated reconstruction codes for proton computed tomography (pCT), as well as more simple proton radiography, with the ultimate intent to use such systems in clinical treatment planning and verification. Recent imaging results of phantoms in hospital proton beams are encouraging, but many technical and programmatic challenges remain to be overcome before pCT scanners will be introduced into clinics. This review introduces hadron therapy and the perceived advantages of pCT and proton radiography for treatment planning, reviews its historical development, and discusses the physics related to proton imaging, the associated experimental and computation issues, the technologies used to attack the problem, contemporary efforts in detector and computational development, and the current status and outlook.

  15. Medium range energy proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.

    1982-02-01

    This thesis is concerned with a new application of the strong nuclear interaction aiming to radiographic analysis. In this work, some physical processes have been analyzed with detail; these processes play a fundamental role in method quality and limitations; they have been detailed to facilitate comprehension to scientists who are not nuclear physicists. To better appreciate specific qualities of the RDN (Radiography par Diffusion Nucleaire), a chapter reviews strong nuclear interaction properties. Then, the experimental device is described, processing and acquisition system. Spatial resolution and sensitivity limits are studied. Results are presented [fr

  16. High-energy test of proton radiography concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, J.F.; Atencio, L.G.; Espinoza, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this work was to demonstrate the use of high energy protons to produce radiographs of heavy metal test objects. The authors executed a proof-of-principle experiment using GeV proton beams available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The experiment produced proton radiographs of a suitably dense, unclassified test object. The experiment tested capabilities in data collection, image reconstruction, and hydro-code simulation and validated models of high-energy proton radiography. A lens was designed using existing quadrupole magnets, constructed on the A1 beam line of the AGS and used to image 10-GeV protons. The results include: (1) images made with an integrating detector, (2) measurements of the background and measurements of the resolution functions, and (3) forward model fits to the transmission data. In all cases the results agree with initial estimates and provide strong support for the utility of proton radiography as a new hydrotest diagnostic

  17. PROTON RADIOGRAPHY WITH THE PIXEL DETECTOR TIMEPIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Olšanský

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the processing of radiographic data acquired using the position-sensitive hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix. Measurements were made on thin samples at the medical ion-synchrotron HIT [1] in Heidelberg (Germany with a 221 MeV proton beam. The charge is energy by the particles crossing the sample is registered for generation of image contrast. Experimental data from the detector were processed for derivation of the energy loss of each proton using calibration matrices. The interaction point of the protons on the detector were determined with subpixel resolution by model fitting of the individual signals in the pixelated matrix. Three methods were used for calculation of these coordinates: Hough transformation, 2D Gaussian fitting and estimate the 2D mean. Parameters of calculation accuracy and calculation time are compared for each method. The final image was created by method with best parameters.

  18. Proton Radiography: Cross Section Measurements and Detector Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 The physics goal of this project is to measure forward production of neutrons and photons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. This will provide data essential to proton radiography. This work is being carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab Experiment 907 (MIPP) collaboration including physicists from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Our group is responsible for the E907 forward neutron/photon calorimeter. The project is on track to meet its technical milestones, though the overall schedule at Fermilab has slipped. The electromagnetic calorimeter and the hadron calorimeter were both assembled and ready for testing with beam in December 2003

  19. Proton Radiography: Cross Section Measurement and Detector Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Proton radiography offers significant advantages over conventional X-ray radiography, including the capability of looking into thick, dense materials, better contrast for a wide range of materials, sensitivity to different materials of similar density, and better resolution because of the ability to focus beams. In order to achieve this capability it is crucial to understand the background due to neutrons and photons and to develop techniques to reduce it to tolerable levels. The physics goal of this project is to measure forward production of neutrons and photons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. This work is being carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab Experiment 907 (MIPP) collaboration including physicists from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Our group is responsible for the E907 forward neutron/photon calorimeters. These are the only detectors in the experiment that provide information on neutrons and photons. We are taking a leading role in obtaining and analyzing the for-ward production data and in developing an optimal detector for proton radiography. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grant, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. E-907 officially started physics running at Fermilab in January 2005, and data taking continued through February 2006. Data were taken on a range of targets, from liquid hydrogen to uranium, at beam energies from 5 GeV/c to 120 GeV/c. The analysis of the data is challenging because data from many different detector systems must be understood and merged and over 31 million events were accumulated. Our recent efforts have been devoted to the calibration of the neutron and photon detectors, to track and shower reconstruction, identification of forward-going neutrons, and simulation of the calorimeters in a Monte Carlo. Reconstruction of the data with improved tracking is underway

  20. Proton Radiography with CR-39 by Using the Protons from High Power Femto-second Laser System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Il; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Byoung Hwi; Kim, Yong Kyun; Choi, Il Woo; Ko, Do Kyeong; Lee, Jong Min

    2008-01-01

    Proton radiography techniques are useful to obtain a high quality image of a thin object, because protons travel straight in matter. Generation of the high energy proton using conventional accelerator costs high and requires large accelerating facility. But proton radiography using high power femto-second(10-15 second) laser has been interested, because it can generate high energy protons at lower price than the conventional accelerator like a cyclotron. For this study, we used the CR-39 SSNTD (Solid State Nuclear Track Detector) as the proton radiography screen. Commonly, CR-39 is used to detect the tracks of energetic charged particles. Incident energetic charged particles left latent tracks in the CR-39, in the form of broken molecular chains and free radicals. These latent tracks show high chemical reactivity. After chemical etching with the caustic alkali solution such as NaOH or KOH, tracks are appeared to forms of hole. If protons with various energies enter the two targets with another thickness, number of protons passed through the target per unit area is different each other. Using this feature of protons, we can a proton radiographic image with CR-39. We studied proton radiography with CR-39 by using energetic protons from high power femto-second laser and evaluated potentiality of femto-second laser as new energetic proton generator for radiography

  1. Proton-counting radiography for proton therapy: a proof of principle using CMOS APS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poludniowski, G; Esposito, M; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Anaxagoras, T; Green, S; Parker, D J; Price, T; Manolopoulos, S; Nieto-Camero, J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the early recognition of the potential of proton imaging to assist proton therapy (Cormack 1963 J. Appl. Phys. 34 2722), the modality is still removed from clinical practice, with various approaches in development. For proton-counting radiography applications such as computed tomography (CT), the water-equivalent-path-length that each proton has travelled through an imaged object must be inferred. Typically, scintillator-based technology has been used in various energy/range telescope designs. Here we propose a very different alternative of using radiation-hard CMOS active pixel sensor technology. The ability of such a sensor to resolve the passage of individual protons in a therapy beam has not been previously shown. Here, such capability is demonstrated using a 36 MeV cyclotron beam (University of Birmingham Cyclotron, Birmingham, UK) and a 200 MeV clinical radiotherapy beam (iThemba LABS, Cape Town, SA). The feasibility of tracking individual protons through multiple CMOS layers is also demonstrated using a two-layer stack of sensors. The chief advantages of this solution are the spatial discrimination of events intrinsic to pixelated sensors, combined with the potential provision of information on both the range and residual energy of a proton. The challenges in developing a practical system are discussed. (paper)

  2. Proton-counting radiography for proton therapy: a proof of principle using CMOS APS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poludniowski, G; Allinson, N M; Anaxagoras, T; Esposito, M; Green, S; Manolopoulos, S; Nieto-Camero, J; Parker, D J; Price, T; Evans, P M

    2014-06-07

    Despite the early recognition of the potential of proton imaging to assist proton therapy (Cormack 1963 J. Appl. Phys. 34 2722), the modality is still removed from clinical practice, with various approaches in development. For proton-counting radiography applications such as computed tomography (CT), the water-equivalent-path-length that each proton has travelled through an imaged object must be inferred. Typically, scintillator-based technology has been used in various energy/range telescope designs. Here we propose a very different alternative of using radiation-hard CMOS active pixel sensor technology. The ability of such a sensor to resolve the passage of individual protons in a therapy beam has not been previously shown. Here, such capability is demonstrated using a 36 MeV cyclotron beam (University of Birmingham Cyclotron, Birmingham, UK) and a 200 MeV clinical radiotherapy beam (iThemba LABS, Cape Town, SA). The feasibility of tracking individual protons through multiple CMOS layers is also demonstrated using a two-layer stack of sensors. The chief advantages of this solution are the spatial discrimination of events intrinsic to pixelated sensors, combined with the potential provision of information on both the range and residual energy of a proton. The challenges in developing a practical system are discussed.

  3. Proton Radiography to Improve Proton Radiotherapy : Simulation Study at Different Proton Beam Energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, Aleksandra; Takatsu, Jun; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; van der Graaf, Emiel; van Beuzekom, Martin; Visser, Jan; Brandenburg, Sijtze

    To improve the quality of cancer treatment with protons, a translation of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images into a map of the proton stopping powers needs to be more accurate. Proton stopping powers determined from CT images have systematic uncertainties in the calculated proton range in a

  4. Pencil beam proton radiography using a multilayer ionization chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Meijers, Arturs

    2016-06-01

    A pencil beam proton radiography (PR) method, using a commercial multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) integrated with a treatment planning system (TPS) was developed. A Giraffe (IBA Dosimetry) MLIC (±0.5 mm accuracy) was used to obtain pencil beam PR by delivering spots uniformly positioned at a 5.0 mm distance in a 9  ×  9 square of spots. PRs of an electron-density (with tissue-equivalent inserts) phantom and a head phantom were acquired. The integral depth dose (IDD) curves of the delivered spots were computed by the TPS in a volume of water simulating the MLIC, and virtually added to the CT at the exit side of the phantoms. For each spot, measured and calculated IDD were overlapped in order to compute a map of range errors. On the head-phantom, the maximum dose from PR acquisition was estimated. Additionally, on the head phantom the impact on the range errors map was estimated in case of a 1 mm position misalignment. In the electron-density phantom, range errors were within 1 mm in the soft-tissue rods, but greater in the dense-rod. In the head-phantom the range errors were  -0.9  ±  2.7 mm on the whole map and within 1 mm in the brain area. On both phantoms greater errors were observed at inhomogeneity interfaces, due to sensitivity to small misalignment, and inaccurate TPS dose computation. The effect of the 1 mm misalignment was clearly visible on the range error map and produced an increased spread of range errors (-1.0  ±  3.8 mm on the whole map). The dose to the patient for such PR acquisitions would be acceptable as the maximum dose to the head phantom was  <2cGyE. By the described 2D method, allowing to discriminate misalignments, range verification can be performed in selected areas to implement an in vivo quality assurance program.

  5. Pencil beam proton radiography using a multilayer ionization chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Meijers, Arturs

    2016-06-07

    A pencil beam proton radiography (PR) method, using a commercial multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) integrated with a treatment planning system (TPS) was developed. A Giraffe (IBA Dosimetry) MLIC (±0.5 mm accuracy) was used to obtain pencil beam PR by delivering spots uniformly positioned at a 5.0 mm distance in a 9  ×  9 square of spots. PRs of an electron-density (with tissue-equivalent inserts) phantom and a head phantom were acquired. The integral depth dose (IDD) curves of the delivered spots were computed by the TPS in a volume of water simulating the MLIC, and virtually added to the CT at the exit side of the phantoms. For each spot, measured and calculated IDD were overlapped in order to compute a map of range errors. On the head-phantom, the maximum dose from PR acquisition was estimated. Additionally, on the head phantom the impact on the range errors map was estimated in case of a 1 mm position misalignment. In the electron-density phantom, range errors were within 1 mm in the soft-tissue rods, but greater in the dense-rod. In the head-phantom the range errors were  -0.9  ±  2.7 mm on the whole map and within 1 mm in the brain area. On both phantoms greater errors were observed at inhomogeneity interfaces, due to sensitivity to small misalignment, and inaccurate TPS dose computation. The effect of the 1 mm misalignment was clearly visible on the range error map and produced an increased spread of range errors (-1.0  ±  3.8 mm on the whole map). The dose to the patient for such PR acquisitions would be acceptable as the maximum dose to the head phantom was  <2cGyE. By the described 2D method, allowing to discriminate misalignments, range verification can be performed in selected areas to implement an in vivo quality assurance program.

  6. Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radiography is discussed as a method for nondestructive evaluation of internal flaws of solids. Gamma ray and X-ray equipment are described along with radiographic film, radiograph interpretation, and neutron radiography.

  7. Registration of pencil beam proton radiography data with X-ray CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffet, Sylvain; Macq, Benoît; Righetto, Roberto; Vander Stappen, François; Farace, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    Proton radiography seems to be a promising tool for assessing the quality of the stopping power computation in proton therapy. However, range error maps obtained on the basis of proton radiographs are very sensitive to small misalignment between the planning CT and the proton radiography acquisitions. In order to be able to mitigate misalignment in postprocessing, the authors implemented a fast method for registration between pencil proton radiography data obtained with a multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) and an X-ray CT acquired on a head phantom. The registration was performed by optimizing a cost function which performs a comparison between the acquired data and simulated integral depth-dose curves. Two methodologies were considered, one based on dual orthogonal projections and the other one on a single projection. For each methodology, the robustness of the registration algorithm with respect to three confounding factors (measurement noise, CT calibration errors, and spot spacing) was investigated by testing the accuracy of the method through simulations based on a CT scan of a head phantom. The present registration method showed robust convergence towards the optimal solution. For the level of measurement noise and the uncertainty in the stopping power computation expected in proton radiography using a MLIC, the accuracy appeared to be better than 0.3° for angles and 0.3 mm for translations by use of the appropriate cost function. The spot spacing analysis showed that a spacing larger than the 5 mm used by other authors for the investigation of a MLIC for proton radiography led to results with absolute accuracy better than 0.3° for angles and 1 mm for translations when orthogonal proton radiographs were fed into the algorithm. In the case of a single projection, 6 mm was the largest spot spacing presenting an acceptable registration accuracy. For registration of proton radiography data with X-ray CT, the use of a direct ray-tracing algorithm to compute

  8. Proton Radiography of Laser-Plasma Interactions with Picosecond Time Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A J; Patel, P K; Town, R J; Hatchett, S P; Hicks, D; Phillips, T H; Wilks, S C; Price, D; Key, M H; Lasinski, B; Langdon, B; Borghesi, M; Romagnani, L; Kar, S

    2005-01-01

    Radiography of laser-produced plasmas with MeV protons has the potential to provide new information on plasma conditions in extreme states of matter. Protons with energies up to many hundreds MeV, produced by large scale accelerators have been recently been used to obtain mass density radiographs of the behavior of large samples which have been shocked on microsecond timescales with approximately mm spatial resolution. The recent discovery of laminar proton beams accelerated to multi-MeV energies by picosecond duration laser beams has provided the opportunity to probe dense plasmas with hitherto unparalleled temporal and spatial resolution

  9. The optimal balance between quality and efficiency in proton radiography imaging technique at various proton beam energies : A Monte Carlo study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, A K; van Goethem, M-J; van der Graaf, E R; van Beuzekom, M; Koffeman, E N; Nakaji, T; Takatsu, J; Visser, J; Brandenburg, S

    Proton radiography is a novel imaging modality that allows direct measurement of the proton energy loss in various tissues. Currently, due to the conversion of so-called Hounsfield units from X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) into relative proton stopping powers (RPSP), the uncertainties of RPSP are

  10. WE-EF-303-10: Single- Detector Proton Radiography as a Portal Imaging Equivalent for Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolan, P [University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Bentefour, E [Ion Beam Applications, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Testa, M; Cascio, E; Lu, H [Massachussetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Royle, G [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Gottschalk, B [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In proton therapy, patient alignment is of critical importance due to the sensitivity of the proton range to tissue heterogeneities. Traditionally proton radiography is used for verification of the water-equivalent path length (WEPL), which dictates the depth protons reach. In this work we propose its use for alignment. Additionally, many new proton centers have cone-beam computed tomography in place of beamline X-ray imaging and so proton radiography offers a unique patient alignment verification similar to portal imaging in photon therapy. Method: Proton radiographs of a CIRS head phantom were acquired using the Beam Imaging System (BIS) (IBA, Louvain-la-Neuve) in a horizontal beamline. A scattered beam was produced using a small, dedicated, range modulator (RM) wheel fabricated out of aluminum. The RM wheel was rotated slowly (20 sec/rev) using a stepper motor to compensate for the frame rate of the BIS (120 ms). Dose rate functions (DRFs) over two RM wheel rotations were acquired. Calibration was made with known thicknesses of homogeneous solid water. For each pixel the time width, skewness and kurtosis of the DRFs were computed. The time width was used to compute the object WEPL. In the heterogeneous phantom, the excess skewness and excess kurtosis (i.e. difference from homogeneous cases) were computed and assessed for suitability for patient set up. Results: The technique allowed for the simultaneous production of images that can be used for WEPL verification, showing few internal details, and excess skewness and kurtosis images that can be used for soft tissue alignment. These latter images highlight areas where range mixing has occurred, correlating with phantom heterogeneities. Conclusion: The excess skewness and kurtosis images contain details that are not visible in the WET images. These images, unique to the time-resolved proton radiographic method, could be used for patient set up according to soft tissues.

  11. WE-EF-303-04: An Advanced Image Processing Method to Improve the Spatial Resolution of Proton Radiographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, I; Parodi, K; Krah, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We present an optimization method to improve the spatial resolution and the water equivalent thickness accuracy of proton radiographies. Methods: The method is designed for imaging systems measuring only the residual range of protons without relying on tracker detectors to determine the beam trajectory before and after the target. Specifically, the method was used for an imaging set-up consisting of a stack of 61 parallel-plate ionization chambers (PPIC) working as a range telescope. The method uses a decomposition approach of the residual range signal measured by the PPIC and constructs subimages with small size pixels geometrically rearranged and appropriately averaged to be merged into a final single radiography. The method was tested using Monte Carlo simulated and experimental proton radiographies of a PMMA step phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom. Results: For the step phantom, the effective spatial resolution was found to be 4 and 3 times higher than the nominal resolution for the simulated and experimental radiographies, respectively. For the head phantom, a gamma index was calculated to quantify the conformity of the simulated proton radiographies with a digitally reconstructed X-ray radiography convolved with a Gaussian kernel equal to the proton beam spot-size. For DTA=2.5 mm and RD=2.5%, the passing ratio was 100%/85% for the optimized/non-optimized case, respectively. An extension of the method allows reducing the dose given to the patient during radiography acquisition. We show that despite a dose reduction of 25 times (leading to a dose of 0.016 mGy for the current imaging set-up), the image quality of the optimized radiographies remains fairly unaffected for both the simulated and experimental results. Conclusion: The optimization method leads to a significant increase of the spatial resolution allowing recovering image details that are unresolved in non-optimized radiographies. These results represent a major step towards clinical

  12. Energy deposition in a thin copper target downstream and off-axis of a proton-radiography target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.; Finfrock, C.C.; Snead, C.L.; Hanson, A.L.; Murray, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A series of proton energy-deposition experiments was conducted to measure the energy deposited in a copper target located downstream and off-axis of a high-energy proton-radiography target. The proton/target interactions involved low-intensity bunches of protons at 24 GeV/c onto a spherical target consisting of concentric shells of tungsten and copper. The energy-deposition target was placed at five locations downstream of the proton-radiography target, off-axis of the primary beam transport, and was either unshielded or shielded by 5 or 10 cm of lead. Maximum temperature rises measured in the energy-deposition target due to single bunches of 5x10 10 protons on the proton-radiography target were approximately 20 mK per bunch. The data indicated that the scattered radiation was concentrated close to the primary transport axis of the beam line. The energy deposited in the energy-deposition target was reduced by moving the target radially away from the primary transport axis. Placing lead shielding in front of the target further reduced the energy deposition. The measured temperature rises of the energy-deposition target were empirically correlated with the distance from the source, the number of protons incident on the proton-radiography target, the thickness of the lead shielding, and the angle of the energy-deposition target off-axis of the beam line from the proton-radiography target. The correlation of the experimental data that was developed provides a starting point for the evaluation of the shielding requirements for devices downstream of proton-radiography targets such as superconducting magnets

  13. Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor for proton radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, Joao; Depauw, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    development and use of CMOS in proton radiography could allow in vivo proton range checks, patient setup QA, and real-time tumor tracking.

  14. FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT - PROTON RADIOGRAPHY: CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS AND DETECTOR DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Michael J.; Gustafson, H. Richard.; Rajaram, Durga; Nigmanov, Turgun

    2007-01-01

    Proton radiography offers significant advantages over conventional X-ray radiography, including the capability of looking into thick, dense materials, better contrast for a wide range of materials, sensitivity to different materials of similar density, and better resolution because of the ability to focus beams. In order to achieve this capability it is crucial to understand the background due to neutrons and photons and to develop techniques to reduce it to tolerable levels. The physics goal of this project is to measure forward production of neutrons and photons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. This work is being carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab Experiment 907 (MIPP) collaboration including physicists from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Our group is responsible for the E907 forward neutron/photon calorimeters. These are the only detectors in the experiment that provide information on neutrons and photons. We are taking a leading role in obtaining and analyzing the for-ward production data and in developing an optimal detector for proton radiography. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grant, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. E-907 officially started physics running at Fermilab in January 2005, and data taking continued through February 2006. Data were taken on a range of targets, from liquid hydrogen to uranium, at beam energies from 5 GeV/c to 120 GeV/c. The analysis of the data is challenging because data from many different detector systems must be understood and merged and over 31 million events were accumulated. Our recent efforts have been devoted to the calibration of the neutron and photon detectors, to track and shower reconstruction, identification of forward-going neutrons, and simulation of the calorimeters in a Monte Carlo. Reconstruction of the data with improved tracking is underway

  15. Improvement of single detector proton radiography by incorporating intensity of time-resolved dose rate functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongxiao; Jee, Kyung-Wook; Cascio, Ethan; Sharp, Gregory C.; Flanz, Jacob B.; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2018-01-01

    Proton radiography, which images patients with the same type of particles as those with which they are to be treated, is a promising approach to image guidance and water equivalent path length (WEPL) verification in proton radiation therapy. We have shown recently that proton radiographs could be obtained by measuring time-resolved dose rate functions (DRFs) using an x-ray amorphous silicon flat panel. The WEPL values were derived solely from the root-mean-square (RMS) of DRFs, while the intensity information in the DRFs was filtered out. In this work, we explored the use of such intensity information for potential improvement in WEPL accuracy and imaging quality. Three WEPL derivation methods based on, respectively, the RMS only, the intensity only, and the intensity-weighted RMS were tested and compared in terms of the quality of obtained radiograph images and the accuracy of WEPL values. A Gammex CT calibration phantom containing inserts made of various tissue substitute materials with independently measured relative stopping powers (RSP) was used to assess the imaging performances. Improved image quality with enhanced interfaces was achieved while preserving the accuracy by using intensity information in the calibration. Other objects, including an anthropomorphic head phantom, a proton therapy range compensator, a frozen lamb’s head and an ‘image quality phantom’ were also imaged. Both the RMS only and the intensity-weighted RMS methods derived RSPs within  ±  1% for most of the Gammex phantom inserts, with a mean absolute percentage error of 0.66% for all inserts. In the case of the insert with a titanium rod, the method based on RMS completely failed, whereas that based on the intensity-weighted RMS was qualitatively valid. The use of intensity greatly enhanced the interfaces between different materials in the obtained WEPL images, suggesting the potential for image guidance in areas such as patient positioning and tumor tracking by proton

  16. A survey of high explosive-induced damage and spall in selected metals using proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtkamp, D.B.; Clark, D.A.; Ferm, E.N.; Gallegos, R.A.; Hammon, D.; Hemsing, W.F.; Hogan, G.E.; Holmes, V.H.; King, N.S.P.; Lopez, R.P.; Merrill, F.E.; Morris, C.L.; Morley, K.B.; Murray, M.M.; Pazuchanics, P.D.; Prestridge, K.P.; Quintana, J.P.; Saunders, A.; Shinas, M.A.; Stacy, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple spall and damage layers can be created in metal when the free surface reflects a Taylor wave generated by high explosives. These phenomena have been explored in different thicknesses of several metals (tantalum, copper, 6061 T6-aluminum, and tin) using high-energy proton radiography. Multiple images (up to 21) can be produced of the dynamic evolution of damaged material on the microsecond time scale with a <50 ns 'shutter' time. Movies and multiframe still images of areal and (Abel inverted) volume densities are presented. An example of material that is likely melted on release (tin) is also presented

  17. The scrounge-atron: a phased approach to the advanced hydrotest facility utilizing proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, O.J.; Barnes, P.D. Jr.; Chargin, A.K.; Dekin, W.D.; Hartouni, E.P.; Hockman, J.; Hockman, J.N.; Ladran, A.S.; Libkind, M.A.; Moore, T.L.; Ohnuma, S.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Pico, R.E.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Souza, R.J.; Stoner, J.M.; Wilson, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy has initiated its Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program (SSMP) to provide a single, integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear testing. Consistent with the SSMP, the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) has been conceived to provide improved radiographic imaging with multiple axes and multiple time frames. The AHF would be used to better understand the evolution of nuclear weapon primary implosion shape under normal and accident scenarios. There are three fundamental technologies currently under consideration for use on the AHF. These include linear induction acceleration, inductive-adder pulsed-power technology (both technologies using high current electron beams to produce an intense X-ray beam) and high-energy proton accelerators to produce a proton beam. The Scrounge-atron (a proton synchrotron) was conceived to be a relatively low cost demonstration of the viability of the third technology using bursts of energetic protons, magnetic lenses, and particle detectors to produce the radiographic image. In order for the Scrounge-atron to provide information useful for the AHF technology decision, the accelerator would have to be built as quickly and as economically as possible. These conditions can be met by scrounging parts from decommissioned accelerators across the country, especially the Main Ring at Fermilab. The Scrounge-atron is designed to meet the baseline parameters for single axis proton radiography: a 20 GeV proton beam of ten pulses, 10 11 protons each, spaced 250 ns apart

  18. Neutron radiography characterization of an operating proton exchange membrane fuel cell with localized current distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardo, J.J.; Owejan, J.P.; Trabold, T.A.; Tighe, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron radiography has proven to be a powerful tool to study and understand the effects of liquid water in an operating fuel cell. In the present work, this experimental method is coupled with locally resolved current and ohmic resistance measurements, giving additional insight into water management and fuel cell performance under a variety of conditions. The effects of varying the inlet humidification level and the current density of the 50 cm 2 cell are studied by simultaneously monitoring electrochemical performance with a 10x10 matrix of current sensors, and liquid water volumes are measured using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) neutron imaging facility. A counter flow, straight channel proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is used to demonstrate localized performance loss corresponds to water-filled channels that impede gas transport to the catalyst layer, thereby creating an area that has low current density. Furthermore, certain operating conditions causing excess water accumulation in the channels can result in localized proton resistance increase, a result that can only be accurately observed with combined radiography and distributed electrochemical measurements.

  19. Development of an interpretive simulation tool for the proton radiography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, M. C., E-mail: levymc@stanford.edu [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Ryutov, D. D.; Wilks, S. C.; Ross, J. S.; Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Martinez, D. A.; Park, H.-S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Kugland, N. L. [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Proton radiography is a useful diagnostic of high energy density (HED) plasmas under active theoretical and experimental development. In this paper, we describe a new simulation tool that interacts realistic laser-driven point-like proton sources with three dimensional electromagnetic fields of arbitrary strength and structure and synthesizes the associated high resolution proton radiograph. The present tool’s numerical approach captures all relevant physics effects, including effects related to the formation of caustics. Electromagnetic fields can be imported from particle-in-cell or hydrodynamic codes in a streamlined fashion, and a library of electromagnetic field “primitives” is also provided. This latter capability allows users to add a primitive, modify the field strength, rotate a primitive, and so on, while quickly generating a high resolution radiograph at each step. In this way, our tool enables the user to deconstruct features in a radiograph and interpret them in connection to specific underlying electromagnetic field elements. We show an example application of the tool in connection to experimental observations of the Weibel instability in counterstreaming plasmas, using ∼10{sup 8} particles generated from a realistic laser-driven point-like proton source, imaging fields which cover volumes of ∼10 mm{sup 3}. Insights derived from this application show that the tool can support understanding of HED plasmas.

  20. Development of an interpretive simulation tool for the proton radiography technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M. C.; Ryutov, D. D.; Wilks, S. C.; Ross, J. S.; Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Martinez, D. A.; Kugland, N. L.; Baring, M. G.; Park, H.-S.

    2015-03-01

    Proton radiography is a useful diagnostic of high energy density (HED) plasmas under active theoretical and experimental development. In this paper, we describe a new simulation tool that interacts realistic laser-driven point-like proton sources with three dimensional electromagnetic fields of arbitrary strength and structure and synthesizes the associated high resolution proton radiograph. The present tool's numerical approach captures all relevant physics effects, including effects related to the formation of caustics. Electromagnetic fields can be imported from particle-in-cell or hydrodynamic codes in a streamlined fashion, and a library of electromagnetic field "primitives" is also provided. This latter capability allows users to add a primitive, modify the field strength, rotate a primitive, and so on, while quickly generating a high resolution radiograph at each step. In this way, our tool enables the user to deconstruct features in a radiograph and interpret them in connection to specific underlying electromagnetic field elements. We show an example application of the tool in connection to experimental observations of the Weibel instability in counterstreaming plasmas, using ˜108 particles generated from a realistic laser-driven point-like proton source, imaging fields which cover volumes of ˜10 mm3. Insights derived from this application show that the tool can support understanding of HED plasmas.

  1. The mechanical design of a proton microscope for radiography at 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdiviez, R.; Sigler, F.E.; Barlow, D.B.; Blind, B.; Jason, A.J.; Mottershead, C.T.; Gomez, J.J.; Espinoza, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    A proton microscope has been developed for radiography applications using the 800-MeV linear accelerator at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The microscope provides a magnified image of a static device, or of a dynamic event such as a high-speed projectile impacting a target. The microscope assembly consists primarily of four Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQ's) that are supported on movable platforms. The platform supports, along with the rest of the support structure, are designed to withstand the residual dynamic loads that are expected from the dynamic tests. This paper covers the mechanical design of the microscope assembly, including the remote positioning system that allows for fine-tuning the focus of an object being imaged.

  2. Direct Observation of the Phenomenology of a Solid Thermal Explosion Using Time-Resolved Proton Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Romero, J. J.; Asay, B. W.; Schwartz, C. L.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Hogan, G.; Nedrow, P.; Murray, M. M.; Thompson, T. N.; McNeil, W.; Rightley, P.; Marr-Lyon, M.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new phenomenology for burn propagation inside a thermal explosion based on dynamic radiography. Radiographic images were obtained of an aluminum cased solid cylindrical sample of a plastic bonded formulation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The phenomenology observed is ignition followed by cracking in the solid accompanied by the propagation of a radially symmetric front of increasing proton transmission. This is followed by a further increase in transmission through the sample, ending after approximately 100 μs. We show that these processes are consistent with the propagation of a convective burn front followed by consumption of the remaining solid by conductive particle burning

  3. Theoretical and experimental comparison of proton and helium-beam radiography using silicon pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, T.; Amato, C.; Berke, S.; Martišíková, M.

    2018-02-01

    Ion-beam radiography (iRAD) could potentially improve the quality control of ion-beam therapy. The main advantage of iRAD is the possibility to directly measure the integrated stopping power. Until now there is no clinical implementation of iRAD. Topics of ongoing research include developing dedicated detection systems to achieve the desired spatial resolution (SR) and investigating different ion types as imaging radiation. This work focuses on the theoretical and experimental comparison of proton (pRAD) and helium-beam radiography (αRAD). The experimental comparison was performed with an in-house developed detection system consisting of silicon pixel detectors. This system enables the measurement of energy deposition of single ions, their tracking, and the identification of the ion type, which is important for αRAD due to secondary fragments. A 161 mm-thick PMMA phantom with an air gap of 1 mm placed at different depths was imaged with a 168 MeV u-1 proton/helium-ion beam at the Heidelberg ion-beam therapy center. The image quality in terms of SR and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated. After validating MC simulations against experiments, pRAD and αRAD were compared to carbon-beam radiography (cRAD) in simulations. The theoretical prediction that the CNR of pRAD and αRAD is equal at similar imaging doses was experimentally confirmed. The measured SR of αRAD was 55% better compared to pRAD. The simulated cRads showed the expected improvement in SR and the decreased CNR at the same dose compared to the αRads, however only at dose levels exceeding typical doses of diagnostic x-ray projections. For clinically applicable dose levels, the cRads suffered from an insufficient number of carbon ions per pixel (220 μm  ×  220 μm). In conclusion, it was theoretically and experimentally shown that αRAD provides a better SR than pRAD without any disadvantages concerning the CNR. Using carbon ions instead of helium ions leads to a better SR at the

  4. Proton radiography of petawatt-driven channel formation in a plasma gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Matthew; Sircombe, Nathan; Ramsay, Martin; Brown, Colin; Hobbs, Lauren; Allan, Peter; James, Steven; Norreys, Peter; Ratan, Naren; Ceurvorst, Luke

    2015-11-01

    Channel formation by ultra-intense laser pulses in underdense plasmas is a challenging simulation problem with direct relevance to many areas of current research. Recent experiments at the Orion laser facility have used high-energy proton radiography (>40 MeV) driven by a 1 ω petawatt beam to directly probe the interaction of another petawatt beam with a well-characterized plasma density gradient. The interaction plasma was generated using a 3 ω long-pulse beam and diagnosed using a 2 ω optical probe, simultaneously imaged onto four gated optical imagers and two streak cameras. The unique capabilities of the Orion facility allowed a comparison of the channels generated by intense 1 ω (1 μm, 100-500 J, 0.6 ps, 1021 W/cm2, f/3 parabola) and 2 ω (0.5 μm, 100 J, 0.6 ps, 1020 W/cm2, f/6 parabola) pulses. Proton radiographs of these channels are presented along with PIC simulations performed using the EPOCH code, supported by K- α measurements of hot electron beam divergence and magnetic spectrometer data. Together these provide a solid foundation for improvements to hydrodynamic and PIC simulations, further developing the predictive capabilities required to optimize future experiments.

  5. Micromachining of commodity plastics by proton beam writing and fabrication of spatial resolution test-chart for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Yasuda, R.; Iikura, H.; Nojima, T.; Matsubayashi, M.; Kada, W.; Kohka, M.; Satoh, T.; Ohkubo, T.; Ishii, Y.; Takano, K.

    2013-01-01

    Proton beam writing is a direct-write technique and a promising method for the micromachining of commodity plastics such as acrylic resins. Herein, we describe the fabrication of microscopic devices made from a relatively thick (∼75 μm) acrylic sheet using proton beam writing. In addition, a software package that converts image pixels into coordinates data was developed, and the successful fabrication of a very fine jigsaw puzzle was achieved. The size of the jigsaw puzzle pieces was 50 × 50 μm. For practical use, a prototype of a line and space test-chart was also successfully fabricated for the determination of spatial resolution in neutron radiography

  6. SU-E-J-158: Experimental Investigation of Proton Radiography Based On Time-Resolved Dose Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, M; Paganetti, H; Lu, H-M [Massachusetts General Hospital ' Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Doolan, P [University College London (United Kingdom); H, Bentefour E [IBA, Warrenville, IL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To use proton radiography for i) in-vivo range verification of the brain fields of medulloblastoma patients in order to reduce the exit dose to the cranial skin and thus the risk of permanent alopecia; ii) for performing patient specific optimization of the calibration from CT-Hounsfield units to proton relative stopping power in order to minimize uncertainties of proton rang Methods: We developed and tested a prototype proton radiography system based on a single-plane scintillation screen coupled with a fast CCD camera (1ms sampling rate, 0.29x0.29 mm{sup 2} pixel size, 30×30 cm{sup 2} field of view). The method is based on the principle that, for passively scattered beams, the radiological depth of any point in the plateau of a spread-out Bragg-Peak (SOBP) can be inferred from the time-pattern of the dose rate measurements. We performed detector characterization measurements using complex-shape homogeneous phantoms and an Alderson phanto Results: Detector characterization tests confirmed the robustness of the technique. The results of the phantom measurements are encouraging in terms of achievable accuracy of the water equivalent thickness. A technique to minimize the degradation of spatial resolution due to multiple Coulomb scattering is discussed. Our novel radiographic technique is rapid (100 ms) and simultaneous over the whole field. The dose required to produce one radiograph, with the current settings, is ∼3 cG Conclusion: The results obtained with this simple and innovative radiography method are promising and motivate further development of technique. The system requires only a single-plane 2D dosimeter and it uses the clinical beam for a fraction of second with low dose to the patient.

  7. Contrast-Enhanced Proton Radiography for Patient Set-up by Using X-Ray CT Prior Knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadea, Maria Francesca, E-mail: mfspadea@unicz.it [Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro (Italy); Fassi, Aurora [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Zaffino, Paolo [Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro (Italy); Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bioengineering Unit—CNAO Foundation, Pavia (Italy); Depauw, Nicolas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong (Australia); Seco, Joao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To obtain a contrasted image of the tumor region during the setup for proton therapy in lung patients, by using proton radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT) prior knowledge. Methods and Materials: Six lung cancer patients' CT scans were preprocessed by masking out the gross tumor volume (GTV), and digitally reconstructed radiographs along the planned beam's eye view (BEV) were generated, for a total of 27 projections. Proton radiographies (PR) were also computed for the same BEV through Monte Carlo simulations. The digitally reconstructed radiograph was subtracted from the corresponding proton image, resulting in a contrast-enhanced proton radiography (CEPR). Michelson contrast analysis was performed both on PR and CEPR. The tumor region was then automatically segmented on CEPR and compared to the ground truth (GT) provided by physicians in terms of Dice coefficient, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: Contrast on CEPR was, on average, 4 times better than on PR. For 10 lateral projections (±45° off of 90° or 270°), although it was not possible to distinguish the tumor region in the PR, CEPR offers excellent GTV visibility. The median ± quartile values of Dice, precision, and accuracy indexes were 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.86 ± 0.06, and 0.88 ± 0.02, respectively, thus confirming the reliability of the method in highlighting tumor boundaries. Sensitivity and specificity analysis demonstrated that there is no systematic over- or underestimation of the tumor region. Identification of the tumor boundaries using CEPR resulted in a more accurate and precise definition of GTV compared to that obtained from pretreatment CT. Conclusions: In most proton centers, the current clinical protocol is to align the patient using kV imaging with bony anatomy as a reference. We demonstrated that CEPR can significantly improve tumor visualization, allowing better patient set-up and permitting image guided proton therapy (IGPT)

  8. Dose ratio proton radiography using the proximal side of the Bragg peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolan, P. J., E-mail: paul.doolan.09@ucl.ac.uk; Royle, G.; Gibson, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lu, H.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Prieels, D.; Bentefour, E. H. [Ion Beam Applications (IBA), 3 Chemin du Cyclotron, Louvain la Neuve B-1348 (Belgium)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In recent years, there has been a movement toward single-detector proton radiography, due to its potential ease of implementation within the clinical environment. One such single-detector technique is the dose ratio method in which the dose maps from two pristine Bragg peaks are recorded beyond the patient. To date, this has only been investigated on the distal side of the lower energy Bragg peak, due to the sharp falloff. The authors investigate the limits and applicability of the dose ratio method on the proximal side of the lower energy Bragg peak, which has the potential to allow a much wider range of water-equivalent thicknesses (WET) to be imaged. Comparisons are made with the use of the distal side of the Bragg peak. Methods: Using the analytical approximation for the Bragg peak, the authors generated theoretical dose ratio curves for a range of energy pairs, and then determined how an uncertainty in the dose ratio would translate to a spread in the WET estimate. By defining this spread as the accuracy one could achieve in the WET estimate, the authors were able to generate lookup graphs of the range on the proximal side of the Bragg peak that one could reliably use. These were dependent on the energy pair, noise level in the dose ratio image and the required accuracy in the WET. Using these lookup graphs, the authors investigated the applicability of the technique for a range of patient treatment sites. The authors validated the theoretical approach with experimental measurements using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor active pixel sensor (CMOS APS), by imaging a small sapphire sphere in a high energy proton beam. Results: Provided the noise level in the dose ratio image was 1% or less, a larger spread of WETs could be imaged using the proximal side of the Bragg peak (max 5.31 cm) compared to the distal side (max 2.42 cm). In simulation, it was found that, for a pediatric brain, it is possible to use the technique to image a region with a

  9. SU-G-TeP2-13: Patient-Specific Reduction of Range Uncertainties in Proton Therapy by Proton Radiography with a Multi-Layer Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffet, S; Macq, B; Farace, P; Righetto, R; Vander Stappen, F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The conversion from Hounsfield units (HU) to stopping powers is a major source of range uncertainty in proton therapy (PT). Our contribution shows how proton radiographs (PR) acquired with a multi-layer ionization chamber in a PT center can be used for accurate patient positioning and subsequently for patient-specific optimization of the conversion from HU to stopping powers. Methods: A multi-layer ionization chamber was used to measure the integral depth-dose (IDD) of 220 MeV pencil beam spots passing through several anthropomorphic phantoms. The whole area of interest was imaged by repositioning the couch and by acquiring a 45×45 mm"2 frame for each position. A rigid registration algorithm was implemented to correct the positioning error between the proton radiographs and the planning CT. After registration, the stopping power map obtained from the planning CT with the calibration curve of the treatment planning system was used together with the water equivalent thickness gained from two proton radiographs to generate a phantom-specific stopping power map. Results: Our results show that it is possible to make a registration with submillimeter accuracy from proton radiography obtained by sending beamlets separated by more than 1 mm. This was made possible by the complex shape of the IDD due to the presence of lateral heterogeneities along the path of the beam. Submillimeter positioning was still possible with a 5 mm spot spacing. Phantom specific stopping power maps obtained by minimizing the range error were cross-verified by the acquisition of an additional proton radiography where the phantom was positioned in a random but known manner. Conclusion: Our results indicate that a CT-PR registration algorithm together with range-error based optimization can be used to produce a patient-specific stopping power map. Sylvain Deffet reports financial funding of its PhD thesis by Ion Beam Applications (IBA) during the confines of the study and outside the

  10. SU-G-TeP2-13: Patient-Specific Reduction of Range Uncertainties in Proton Therapy by Proton Radiography with a Multi-Layer Ionization Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffet, S; Macq, B [Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Farace, P; Righetto, R [Trento Hospital / APSS, Trento (Italy); Vander Stappen, F [Ion Beam Applications (IBA), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The conversion from Hounsfield units (HU) to stopping powers is a major source of range uncertainty in proton therapy (PT). Our contribution shows how proton radiographs (PR) acquired with a multi-layer ionization chamber in a PT center can be used for accurate patient positioning and subsequently for patient-specific optimization of the conversion from HU to stopping powers. Methods: A multi-layer ionization chamber was used to measure the integral depth-dose (IDD) of 220 MeV pencil beam spots passing through several anthropomorphic phantoms. The whole area of interest was imaged by repositioning the couch and by acquiring a 45×45 mm{sup 2} frame for each position. A rigid registration algorithm was implemented to correct the positioning error between the proton radiographs and the planning CT. After registration, the stopping power map obtained from the planning CT with the calibration curve of the treatment planning system was used together with the water equivalent thickness gained from two proton radiographs to generate a phantom-specific stopping power map. Results: Our results show that it is possible to make a registration with submillimeter accuracy from proton radiography obtained by sending beamlets separated by more than 1 mm. This was made possible by the complex shape of the IDD due to the presence of lateral heterogeneities along the path of the beam. Submillimeter positioning was still possible with a 5 mm spot spacing. Phantom specific stopping power maps obtained by minimizing the range error were cross-verified by the acquisition of an additional proton radiography where the phantom was positioned in a random but known manner. Conclusion: Our results indicate that a CT-PR registration algorithm together with range-error based optimization can be used to produce a patient-specific stopping power map. Sylvain Deffet reports financial funding of its PhD thesis by Ion Beam Applications (IBA) during the confines of the study and outside the

  11. Technical Note : A direct ray-tracing method to compute integral depth dose in pencil beam proton radiography with a multilayer ionization chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Deffet, Sylvain; Meijers, Arturs; Vander Stappen, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a fast ray-tracing algorithm in pencil proton radiography (PR) with a multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) for in vivo range error mapping. Methods: Pencil beam PR was obtained by delivering spots uniformly positioned in a square (45x45 mm(2) field-of-view) of 9x9 spots capable

  12. Proton radiography of dynamic electric and magnetic fields in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Manuel, M.; Casey, D.; Sinenian, N.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Delettrez, J.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F.; Sangster, T. C.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Soures, J. M.; Shvarts, D.

    2009-01-01

    Time-gated, monoenergetic-proton radiography provides unique measurements of the electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields produced in laser-foil interactions and during the implosion of inertial-confinement-fusion capsules. These experiments resulted in the first observations of several new and important features: (1) observations of the generation, decay dynamics, and instabilities of megagauss B fields in laser-driven planar plastic foils, (2) the observation of radial E fields inside an imploding capsule, which are initially directed inward, reverse direction during deceleration, and are likely related to the evolution of the electron pressure gradient, and (3) the observation of many radial filaments with complex electromagnetic field striations in the expanding coronal plasmas surrounding the capsule. The physics behind and implications of such observed fields are discussed.

  13. TH-C-BRD-05: Reducing Proton Beam Range Uncertainty with Patient-Specific CT HU to RSP Calibrations Based On Single-Detector Proton Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolan, P [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sharp, G; Testa, M; Lu, H-M [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bentefour, E [Ion Beam Applications (IBA), Louvain la Neuve (Belgium); Royle, G [University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Beam range uncertainty in proton treatment comes primarily from converting the patient's X-ray CT (xCT) dataset to relative stopping power (RSP). Current practices use a single curve for this conversion, produced by a stoichiometric calibration based on tissue composition data for average, healthy, adult humans, but not for the individual in question. Proton radiographs produce water-equivalent path length (WEPL) maps, dependent on the RSP of tissues within the specific patient. This work investigates the use of such WEPL maps to optimize patient-specific calibration curves for reducing beam range uncertainty. Methods: The optimization procedure works on the principle of minimizing the difference between the known WEPL map, obtained from a proton radiograph, and a digitally-reconstructed WEPL map (DRWM) through an RSP dataset, by altering the calibration curve that is used to convert the xCT into an RSP dataset. DRWMs were produced with Plastimatch, an in-house developed software, and an optimization procedure was implemented in Matlab. Tests were made on a range of systems including simulated datasets with computed WEPL maps and phantoms (anthropomorphic and real biological tissue) with WEPL maps measured by single detector proton radiography. Results: For the simulated datasets, the optimizer showed excellent results. It was able to either completely eradicate or significantly reduce the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) in the WEPL for the homogeneous phantoms (to zero for individual materials or from 1.5% to 0.2% for the simultaneous optimization of multiple materials). For the heterogeneous phantom the RMSE was reduced from 1.9% to 0.3%. Conclusion: An optimization procedure has been designed to produce patient-specific calibration curves. Test results on a range of systems with different complexities and sizes have been promising for accurate beam range control in patients. This project was funded equally by the Engineering and Physical Sciences

  14. Proton radiography of intense-laser-irradiated wire-attached cone targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuuchi, T.; Sawada, H.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F.N.; Batani, D.; Gizzi, L.A.; Key, M.H.; Mackinnon, A.J.; McLean, H.S.; Patel, P.K.; Norreys, P.A.; Spindloe, C.; Stephens, R.B.; Wei, M.S.; Theobald, W.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of extreme electrostatic and magnetic fields are of interest for the study of high-energy-density plasmas. Results of proton deflectometry of cone-wire targets that are of interest to fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion are presented. (authors)

  15. SU-F-J-201: Validation Study of Proton Radiography Against CT Data for Quantitative Imaging of Anatomical Changes in Head and Neck Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammi, A; Weber, D; Lomax, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In clinical pencil-beam-scanned (PBS) proton therapy, the advantage of the characteristic sharp dose fall-off after the Bragg Peak (BP) becomes a disadvantage if the BP positions of a plan’s constituent pencil beams are shifted, eg.due to anatomical changes. Thus, for fractionated PBS proton therapy, accurate knowledge of the water equivalent path length (WEPL) of the traversed anatomy is critical. In this work we investigate the feasibility of using 2D proton range maps (proton radiography, PR) with the active-scanning gantry at PSI. Methods: We simulated our approach using Monte Carlo methods (MC) to simulate proton beam interactions in patients using clinical imaging data. We selected six head and neck cases having significant anatomical changes detected in per-treatment CTs.PRs (two at 0°/90°) were generated from MC simulations of low-dose pencil beams at 230MeV. Each beam’s residual depth-dose was propagated through the patient geometry (from CT) and detected on exiting the patient anatomy in an ideal depth-resolved detector (eg. range telescope). Firstly, to validate the technique, proton radiographs were compared to the ground truth, which was the WEPL from ray-tracing in the patient CT at the pencil beam location. Secondly, WEPL difference maps (per-treatment – planning imaging timepoints) were then generated to locate the anatomical changes, both in the CT (ground truth) and in the PRs. Binomial classification was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the technique relative to CT. Results: Over the projections simulated over all six patients, 70%, 79% and 95% of the grid points agreed with the ground truth proton range to within ±0.5%, ±1%, and ±3% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy were high (mean±1σ, 83±8%, 87±13%, 95±10%, 83±7% respectively). Conclusion: We show that proton-based radiographic images can accurately monitor patient positioning and in vivo range verification, while providing

  16. Moderator/collimator for a proton/deuteron linac to produce a high-intensity, high-quality thermal neutron beam for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; Imel, G.R.; McMichael, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    Reactor based high resolution neutron radiography facilities are able to deliver a well-collimated (L/D ≥100) thermal flux of 10 6 n/cm 2 ·sec to an image plane. This is well in excess of that achievable with the present accelerator based systems such as sealed tube D-T sources, Van der Graaff's, small cyclotrons, or low duty factor linacs. However, continuous wave linacs can accelerate tens of milliamperes of protons to 2.5 to 4 MeV. The MCNP code has been used to analyze target/moderator configurations that could be used with Argonne's Continuous Wave Linac (ACWL). These analyses have shown that ACWL could be modified to generate a neutron beam that has a high intensity and is of high quality

  17. SU-C-207A-05: Feature Based Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) Determination for Proton Radiography by the Technique of Time Resolved Dose Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R; Jee, K; Sharp, G; Flanz, J; Lu, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Studies show that WEPL can be determined from modulated dose rate functions (DRF). However, the previous calibration method based on statistics of the DRF is sensitive to energy mixing of protons due to scattering through different materials (termed as range mixing here), causing inaccuracies in the determination of WEPL. This study intends to explore time-domain features of the DRF to reduce the effect of range mixing in proton radiography (pRG) by this technique. Methods: An amorphous silicon flat panel (PaxScan™ 4030CB, Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) was placed behind phantoms to measure DRFs from a proton beam modulated by a specially designed modulator wheel. The performance of two methods, the previously used method based on the root mean square (RMS) and the new approach based on time-domain features of the DRF, are compared for retrieving WEPL and RSP from pRG of a Gammex phantom. Results: Calibration by T_8_0 (the time point for 80% of the major peak) was more robust to range mixing and produced WEPL with improved accuracy. The error of RSP was reduced from 8.2% to 1.7% for lung equivalent material, with the mean error for all other materials reduced from 1.2% to 0.7%. The mean error of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of retrieved inserts was decreased from 25.85% to 5.89% for the RMS and T_8_0 method respectively. Monte Carlo simulations in simplified cases also demonstrated that the T_8_0 method is less sensitive to range mixing than the RMS method. Conclusion: WEPL images have been retrieved based on single flat panel measured DRFs, with inaccuracies reduced by exploiting time-domain features as the calibration parameter. The T_8_0 method is validated to be less sensitive to range mixing and can thus retrieve the WEPL values in proximity of interfaces with improved numerical and spatial accuracy for proton radiography.

  18. New medical application: nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudinos, J.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear scattering of 1 GeV protons is used to obtain three dimensional radiographies with a volume resolution of about 1 mm 3 . The information is different from the one given by X-ray radiographies and in particular one may get radiographies of the hydrogen included in objects. Results on a vertebral column and a 'sella turcica' are presented [fr

  19. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 01: On the use of proton radiography to reduce beam range uncertainties and improve patient positioning accuracy in proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins-Fekete, Charles-Antoine; Beaulieu, Luc; Seco, Joao [Université Laval/ CHU de Québec, Université Laval/CHU de Québec, Massachussetts General Hospital/ Harvard Medical School (United States)

    2016-08-15

    To present two related developments of proton radiography (pRad) to minimize range uncertainty in proton therapy. The first combines a pRad with an X-ray CT to produce a patient-specific relative stopping power (RSP) map. The second aims to improve the pRad spatial resolution for accurate registration prior to the first. The enhanced-pRad can also be used in a novel proton-CT reconstruction algorithm. Monte Carlo pRad were computed from three phantoms; the Gammex, the Catphan and an anthropomorphic head. An optimized cubic-spline estimator derives the most likely path. The length crossed by the protons voxel-by-voxel was calculated by combining their estimated paths with the CT. The difference between the theoretical (length×RSP) and measured energy loss was minimized through a least squares optimization (LSO) algorithm yielding the RSP map. To increase pRad spatial resolution for registration with the CT, the phantom was discretized into voxels columns. The average column RSP was optimized to maximize the proton energy loss likelihood (MLE). Simulations showed precise RSP (<0.75%) for Gammex materials except low-density lung (<1.2%). For the head, accurate RSP were obtained (µ=−0.10%1.5σ=1.12%) and the range precision was improved (ΔR80 of −0.20±0.35%). Spatial resolution was increased in pRad (2.75 to 6.71 lp/cm) and pCT from MLE-enhanced pRad (2.83 to 5.86 lp/cm). The LSO decreases the range uncertainty (R80σ<1.0%) while the MLE-enhanced pRad spatial resolution (+244%) and is a great candidate for pCT reconstruction.

  20. TU-FG-BRB-04: A New Optimization Method for Pre-Treatment Patient-Specific Stopping-Power by Combining Proton Radiography and X-Ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins-Fekete, C; Schulte, R; Beaulieu, L; Seco, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The relative stopping power (RSP) uncertainty is the largest contributor to the range uncertainty in proton therapy. The purpose of this work is to develop a robust and systematic method that yields accurate patient specific RSPs by combining pre-treatment X-ray CT and daily proton radiography. Methods: The method is formulated as a penalized least squares optimization (PLSO) problem min(|Ax-B|). The matrix A represents the cumulative path-length crossed in each material computed by calculating proton trajectories through the X-ray CT. The material RSPs are denoted by x and B is the pRad, expressed as water equivalent thickness. The equation is solved using a convex-conic optimizer. Geant4 simulations were made to assess the feasibility of the method. RSP extracted from the Geant4 materials were used as a reference and the clinical HU-RSP curve as a comparison. The PLSO was first tested on a Gammex RMI-467 phantom. Then, anthropomorphic phantoms of the head, pelvis and lung were studied and resulting RSPs were evaluated. A pencil beam was generated in each phantom to evaluate the proton range accuracy achievable by using the optimized RSPs. Finally, experimental data of a pediatric head phantom (CIRS) were acquired using a recently completed experimental pCT scanner. Results: Numerical simulations showed precise RSP (<0.75%) for Gammex materials except low-density lung (LN-300) (1.2%). Accurate RSP have been obtained for the head (µ=−0.10%, 1.5σ=1.12%), lung (µ=−0.33, 1.5σ=1.02%) and pelvis anthropomorphic phantoms (µ=0.12, 1.5σ=0,99%). The range precision has been improved with an average R80 difference to the reference (µ±1.5σ) of −0.20±0.35%, −0.47±0.92% and −0.06±0.17% in the head, lung and pelvis phantoms respectively, compared to the 3.5% clinical margin. Experimental HU-RSP curve have been produced on the CIRS pediatric head. Conclusion: The proposed PLSO with prior knowledge X-ray CT shows promising potential (R80 σ<1.0% over

  1. Computer radiography - indirect digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezierski, G.

    2008-01-01

    Implementation of the new European standards for industrial radiography with the use of storage phosphor imaging plates will result in the arousing of interest among numerous laboratories in non-destructive testing with application of the new method of testing to replace conventional radiography used so far, i.e. film radiography. Computer radiography is quite commonly used for medical radiography, where the fundamental problem consists in reduction of the radiation dose during the examination of a patient. However, it must be kept in mind that industrial applications have a little bit different requirements when compared with medical radiography. The article describes only new method for radiographic testing. (author)

  2. Charged Particle Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Coulomb multiple scattering of charged particles as they pass through material allows them to be used as a radiographic probe. This forms the basis for a new kind of radiography that is finding application where conventional x-ray radiography is limited by flux or backgrounds. Charged-particle radiography is providing a versatile new probe that has advantages over conventional x-ray radiography for some unique application. Proton radiography has been used to make quantitative motion pictures of high explosive driven experiments and proves to be of great value for radiographing experiments that mock up nuclear weapon primaries for stockpile certification. By taking advantage of magnetic lens to magnify images and by using the very bright beams that can be made with electrons, charged-particle radiography may be useful for studying the fine spatial detail and very fast motion in laser driven implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Finally, radiographs can be made using cosmic-ray muons for searching vehicles and cargo containers for surreptitious cargo of high z materials such as uranium or plutonium.

  3. The evolution of solid density within a thermal explosion II. Dynamic proton radiography of cracking and solid consumption by burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Romero, J. J.; Asay, B. W.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Grim, G.; Mariam, F.; Schwartz, C. L.; Hogan, G.; Nedrow, P.; Murray, M. M.; Thompson, T. N.; Espinoza, C.; Lewis, D.; Bainbridge, J.; McNeil, W.; Rightley, P.

    2012-01-01

    We report proton transmission images obtained subsequent to the laser assisted thermal ignition of a sample of PBX 9501 (a plastic bonded formulation of the explosive nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)). We describe the laser assisted thermal ignition technique as a means to synchronize a non-linear thermal ignition event while preserving the subsequent post-ignition behavior. We have obtained dynamic proton transmission images at two spatial magnifications and viewed both the radial and transverse axis of a solid cylindrical sample encased in aluminum. Images have been obtained with 3 to 15 μs temporal resolution and approximately 100 μm spatial resolution at the higher magnification. We observe case expansion from very early in the experiment, until case fragmentation. We observe spatially anisotropic features in the transmission which we attribute to cracking in the solid explosive, in agreement with previous measurements conducted on two dimensional samples with optical viewing. Digital analysis of the images also reveals spatially isotropic features which we attribute to the evolution of the loss of density by burning subsequent to thermal ignition.

  4. Evaluating the ONEBFP transport code for possible use in the proton radiography program. Final report, Task 47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marr, D.R.; Prael, R.E.; Adams, K.J.

    1996-10-01

    This is notification of the completion of Task 47 and a summary of the fulfillment of the requirements thereof. Deliverables for Task 47 include the data test files and a final report. The test files have been delivered to the customer and the attached paper satisfies the requirements for a final report. Detail on the completion of each of the subtasks described in the Statement of Work follow. The author repeats the complete list of subtasks for Task 47: (1) The software engineer will modify the ONEBFP code to generate a logarithmic distribution of discrete angles and an associated set of quadrature weights; (2) The software engineer will work with Group XTM personnel to obtain the required cross-section data for protons/nuclear cascade particles; and (3) The software engineer will perform 5 test calculations using the modified ONEBFP code to assess its accuracy and efficiency for proton transport problems. The test calculations will be documented in a brief report. Appendix C of the paper describes the quadrature set capability installed in the ONEBFP code pertinent to the fulfillment of subtask 1. A portion of the body of the paper describes the source and modeling and Appendix A describes the extraction of the cross section data used in this study, fulfilling subtask 2. The bulk of the attached report describes the test problems, states the modeling used for each problem, shows the results in both graphical and tabular form, and discusses the implications of the results. This fulfills the requirements of subtask 3

  5. The evolution of solid density within a thermal explosion II. Dynamic proton radiography of cracking and solid consumption by burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Romero, J. J.; Asay, B. W.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Grim, G.; Mariam, F.; Schwartz, C. L.; Hogan, G.; Nedrow, P.; Murray, M. M.; Thompson, T. N.; Espinoza, C.; Lewis, D.; Bainbridge, J.; McNeil, W.; Rightley, P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); and others

    2012-05-15

    We report proton transmission images obtained subsequent to the laser assisted thermal ignition of a sample of PBX 9501 (a plastic bonded formulation of the explosive nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)). We describe the laser assisted thermal ignition technique as a means to synchronize a non-linear thermal ignition event while preserving the subsequent post-ignition behavior. We have obtained dynamic proton transmission images at two spatial magnifications and viewed both the radial and transverse axis of a solid cylindrical sample encased in aluminum. Images have been obtained with 3 to 15 {mu}s temporal resolution and approximately 100 {mu}m spatial resolution at the higher magnification. We observe case expansion from very early in the experiment, until case fragmentation. We observe spatially anisotropic features in the transmission which we attribute to cracking in the solid explosive, in agreement with previous measurements conducted on two dimensional samples with optical viewing. Digital analysis of the images also reveals spatially isotropic features which we attribute to the evolution of the loss of density by burning subsequent to thermal ignition.

  6. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrdlicka, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron radiography is a radiographic method using a neutron beam of a defined geometry. The neutron source usually consists of a research reactor, a specialized neutron radiography reactor or the 252 Cf radioisotope source. There are two types of the neutron radiography display system, viz., a system producing neutron radiography images by a photographic process or a system allowing a visual display, eg., using a television monitor. The method can be used wherever X-ray radiography is used except applications in the radiography of humans. The neutron radiography unit at UJV uses the WWR-S reactor as the neutron source and both types of the above mentioned display system. (J.P.)

  7. Proton Radiography of Spontaneous Fields, Plasma Flows and Dynamics in X-Ray Driven Inertial-Confinement Fusion Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Back, C. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2010-11-01

    Backlighting of x-ray-driven implosions in empty hohlraums with mono-energetic protons on the OMEGA laser facility has allowed a number of important phenomena to be observed. Several critical parameters were determined, including plasma flow, three types of spontaneous electric fields and megaGauss magnetic fields. These results provide insight into important issues in indirect-drive ICF. Even though the cavity is effectively a Faraday cage, the strong, local fields inside the hohlraum can affect laser-plasma instabilities, electron distributions and implosion symmetry. They are of fundamental scientific importance for a range of new experiments at the frontiers of high-energy-density physics. Future experiments designed to characterize the field formation and evolution in low-Z gas fill hohlraums will be discussed.

  8. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    X-ray radiography is a very common technique used to check the homogeneity of a material or the inside of a mechanical part. Generally the radiation that goes through the material to check, produced an image on a sensitized film. This method requires time because the film needs to be developed, digital radiography has no longer this inconvenient. In digital radiography the film is replaced by digital data and can be processed as any computer file. This new technique is promising but its main inconvenient is that today its resolution is not so good as that of film radiography. (A.C.)

  9. Military radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Historic military uses of radiography are discussed in this chapter: Battle of Adowa in 1986 was the first. Besides describing the early campaigns in which radiography was used, the author discusses the problems faced: a reliable source of electricity; the problems of extreme heat; moving and breakage of equipment. Numerous historical photographs are included. 9 refs

  10. Technical Note: A direct ray-tracing method to compute integral depth dose in pencil beam proton radiography with a multilayer ionization chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Deffet, Sylvain; Meijers, Arturs; Vander Stappen, Francois

    2016-12-01

    To introduce a fast ray-tracing algorithm in pencil proton radiography (PR) with a multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) for in vivo range error mapping. Pencil beam PR was obtained by delivering spots uniformly positioned in a square (45 × 45 mm 2 field-of-view) of 9 × 9 spots capable of crossing the phantoms (210 MeV). The exit beam was collected by a MLIC to sample the integral depth dose (IDD MLIC ). PRs of an electron-density and of a head phantom were acquired by moving the couch to obtain multiple 45 × 45 mm 2 frames. To map the corresponding range errors, the two-dimensional set of IDD MLIC was compared with (i) the integral depth dose computed by the treatment planning system (TPS) by both analytic (IDD TPS ) and Monte Carlo (IDD MC ) algorithms in a volume of water simulating the MLIC at the CT, and (ii) the integral depth dose directly computed by a simple ray-tracing algorithm (IDD direct ) through the same CT data. The exact spatial position of the spot pattern was numerically adjusted testing different in-plane positions and selecting the one that minimized the range differences between IDD direct and IDD MLIC . Range error mapping was feasible by both the TPS and the ray-tracing methods, but very sensitive to even small misalignments. In homogeneous regions, the range errors computed by the direct ray-tracing algorithm matched the results obtained by both the analytic and the Monte Carlo algorithms. In both phantoms, lateral heterogeneities were better modeled by the ray-tracing and the Monte Carlo algorithms than by the analytic TPS computation. Accordingly, when the pencil beam crossed lateral heterogeneities, the range errors mapped by the direct algorithm matched better the Monte Carlo maps than those obtained by the analytic algorithm. Finally, the simplicity of the ray-tracing algorithm allowed to implement a prototype procedure for automated spatial alignment. The ray-tracing algorithm can reliably replace the TPS method in MLIC PR for in

  11. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Shoichi

    1993-01-01

    Firstly, from an historic point of view, fundamental concepts on digital imaging were reviewed to provide a foundation for discussion of digital radiography. Secondly, this review summarized the results of ongoing research in computed radiography that replaces the conventional film-screen system with a photo-stimulable phosphor plate; and thirdly, image quality, radiation protection, and image processing techniques were discussed with emphasis on picture archiving and communication system environment as our final goal. Finally, future expansion of digital radiography was described based on the present utilization of computed tomography at the National Defense Medical College Hospital. (author) 60 refs

  12. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayon, G.

    1989-01-01

    Neutronography or neutron radiography, a non-destructive test method which is similar in its principle to conventional X-ray photography, presently occupies a marginal position among non-destructive test methods (NDT) (no source of suitable performance or cost). Neutron radiography associated with the ORPHEE reactor permits industrial testing; it can very quickly meet a cost requirement comparable to that of conventional test methods. In 1988, 2500 parts were tested on this unit [fr

  13. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Health and Safety Executive Information Sheet on industrial radiography aims to inform directors and managers of industrial radiography companies on the safety precautions necessary to ensure that their personnel do not exceed dose guidelines for exposure to ionizing radiation. The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR85) require that exposure doses for radiographers are kept as low reasonably practicable. Equipment maintenance, and the employment of proper emergency procedures will help to ensure personnel safety. (UK)

  14. Neutron radiography by using JSW baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Yojiro

    1995-01-01

    At present, JSW baby cyclotrons are mostly used for the production of the radioisotopes for medical use. The attempt to use this baby cyclotron for neutron radiography began already in 1981. The feasibility of the neutron radiography for the explosives in metallic cases which are used for H1 rockets was investigated. In 1983, it was shown that the neutron radiography by using the baby cyclotron in Muroran Works, Japan Steel Works, Ltd. was able to be carried out as a routine work. Since then, the nondestructive inspection by neutron radiography has been performed for rocket pyrotechnic articles, and contributed to heighten their reliability. Further, the radiography by using fast neutrons was developed and put to practical use for recent large H2 rockets. The JSW baby cyclotron BC 168 which has been used for neutron radiography can accelerate 16 MeV protons or 8 MeV deuterons up to 50 μA. The principle of thermal neutron radiography is the generation of fast neutrons by irradiating a Be target with the proton beam accelerated by a baby cyclotron, the moderation of the fast neutrons, the formation of the thermal neutron flux of uniform distribution with a collimator, the thermal neutron flux hitting the Gd plate in a film cassette through an object, and the exposure of an X-ray film to electrons from the Gd plate. Fast neutron radiography apparatus, and commercial neutron radiography are described. (K.I.)

  15. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Industrial radiography is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method which allows components to be examined for flaws without interfering with their usefulness. It is one of a number of inspection methods which are commonly used in industry to control the quality of manufactured products and to monitor their performance in service. Because of its involvement in organizing training courses in all the common NDT methods in regional projects in Asia and the Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean and in many country programmes, the Agency is aware of the importance of standardizing as far as possible the syllabi and training course notes used by the many experts who are involved in presenting the training courses. IAEA-TECDOC-628 ''Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing'' presents syllabi which were developed by an Agency executed UNDP project in Latin America and the Caribbean taking into account the developmental work done by the International Committee for Non-destructive Testing. Experience gained from using the radiography syllabi from TECDOC-628 at national and regional radiography training courses in the Agency executed UNDP project in Asia and the Pacific (RAS/86/073) showed that some guidance needed to be given to radiography experts engaged in teaching at these courses on the material which should be covered. The IAEA/UNDP Asia and Pacific Project National NDT Coordinators therefore undertook to prepare Radiography Training Course Notes which could be used by experts to prepare lectures for Level 1,2 and 3 radiography personnel. The notes have been expanded to cover most topics in a more complete manner than that possible at a Level 1, 2 or 3 training course and can now be used as source material for NDT personnel interested in expanding their knowledge of radiography. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhdar, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dental radiography must comply with the same regulations with which conventional radiography complies. Radiation doses to individual patients are low but, because of the large number of patients X-rayed, the collective dose to the population is not negligible. Care in siting and regular maintenance of the equipment will reduce doses to both staff and patients. To produce X-ray films with a good image quality using a low radiation dose requires attention to film processing; this is often a neglected area. (Author)

  17. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloni, A.; Magal, O.

    1992-02-01

    This publication is meant to be a manual for industrial radiography. As such the manual concentrates on the practical aspects, presenting existing radiographic system and techniques of operation to satisfy specified quality requirements. The manual also reviews the safety aspect of performing radiographic work. (author) systems

  18. Radiography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panaiotov, L N

    1951-10-23

    A new method of hollow articles radiography is presented enabling to eliminate shortcomings coupled with medical personnel irradiation when the ampoule incorporating radioactive substance is removed from the protective container and adjusted in the article. The method presented permits to transport the ampoule from the protective container immediately into the inner cavity of the article.

  19. Skull Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    What you need to know about… Skull Radiography X-ray images of the skull are taken when it is necessary to see the cranium, facial bones or jaw bones. ... Among other things, x-ray exams of the skull can show fractures. Patient Preparation Before the examination, ...

  20. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaa eldin, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    The digital processing of the neutron radiography images gives the possibility for data quantification. In this case an exact relation between the measured neutron attenuation and the real macroscopic attenuation coefficient for every point of the sample is required. The assumption that the attenuation of the neutron beam through the sample is exponential is valid only in an ideal case where a monochromatic beam, non scattering sample and non background contribution are assumed. In the real case these conditions are not fulfilled and in dependence on the sample material we have more or less deviation from the exponential attenuation law. Because of the high scattering cross-sections of hydrogen (σs=80.26 barn) for thermal neutrons, the problem with the scattered neutrons at quantitative radiography investigations of hydrogenous materials (as PE, Oil, H 2 O, etc) is not trivial. For these strong scattering materials the neutron beam attenuation is no longer exponential and a dependence of the macroscopic attenuation coefficient on the material thickness and on the distance between the sample and the detector appears. When quantitative radiography (2 D) or tomography investigations (3 D) are performed, some image correction procedures for a description of the scattering effect are required. This thesis presents a method that can be used to enhance the neutron radiography image for objects with high scattering materials like hydrogen, carbon and other light materials. This method uses the Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, to simulate the neutron radiography process and get the flux distribution for each pixel of the image and determine the scattered neutrons distribution that causes the image blur and then subtract it from the initial image to improve its quality.

  1. Progress in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelle, A.

    2016-01-01

    Because of its practical aspect digital radiography is more and more used in the industrial sector. There are 2 kinds of digital radiography. First, the 'computed radiography' that uses a photon-stimulated screen, and after radiation exposure this screen must be read by an analyser to get a digit image. The second type is the 'direct radiography' that allows one to get a digit radiograph of the object directly. Digital radiography uses the same radioactive nuclides as radiography with silver films: cobalt, iridium or selenium. The spatial resolution of digital radiography is less good than with classical silver film radiography but digital radiography offers a better visual contrast. (A.C.)

  2. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Digital Radiography begins with an orderly introduction to the fundamental concepts of digital imaging. The entire X-ray digital imagining system is described, from an overall characterization of image quality to specific components required for a digital radiographic system. Because subtraction is central to digital radiographic systems, the author details the use of various subtraction methods for image enhancement. Complex concepts are illustrated with numerous examples and presented in terms that can readily be understood by physicians without an advanced mathematics background. The second part of the book discusses implementations and applications of digital imagining systems based on area and scanned detector technologies. This section includes thorough coverage of digital fluoroscopy, scanned projection radiography, and film-based digital imaging systems, and features a state-of-the-art synopsis of the applications of digital subtraction angiography. The book concludes with a timely assessment of anticipated technological advances

  3. Ambulating radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, K.

    1989-01-01

    Strong gamme or X-ray sources are utilized for non-destructive testing of i.e. bridges. The activities involve certain risks of accident that might lead to serious injuries caused by radiation. The National Institute of Radiation Protection has during the laste decade greatly yhe inspection rate in this area. It has today made controls of most enterprieses running ambulating radiography. (O.S.)

  4. Computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupchek, G.

    2004-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is an image acquisition process that is used to create digital, 2-dimensional radiographs. CR employs a photostimulable phosphor-based imaging plate, replacing the standard x-ray film and intensifying screen combination. Conventional radiographic exposure equipment is used with no modification required to the existing system. CR can transform an analog x-ray department into a digital one and eliminates the need for chemicals, water, darkrooms and film processor headaches. (author)

  5. Magnification radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genant, H.K.; Resnick, D.

    1988-01-01

    The relative clinical value of magnification compared with conventional radiography for skeletal applications is presented qualitatively. The presentation is based on the authors' experience with over 25,000 cases in which magnification has been used. For most areas in which magnification (optical or geometric) proves useful, subtle abnormalities of clinical importance are present at bone surfaces or at host-lesion interfaces. This is particularly true for arthritis and metabolic and infectious disorders of bone. In additional instances, serial assessment of the progression of disease or its response to therapy is enhanced by magnification. When gross abnormalities are present, as in most instances of trauma and bone dysplasia, the findings are obvious on conventional radiography, and magnification is not necessary. Thus, the magnification techniques appear to provide important diagnostic information, depending upon the anatomic part that is studied and the clinical question that is posed. It is also apparent that the demonstration of subtle skeletal abnormalities to clinical colleagues for educational purposes is greatly enhanced by magnification radiography

  6. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulomb, M.; Dal Soglio, S.; Pittet-Barbier, L.; Ranchoup, Y.; Thony, F.; Ferretti, G.; Robert, F.

    1992-01-01

    Digital projection radiography may replace conventional radiography some day, provided it can meet several requirements: equal or better diagnostic effectiveness of the screen-film systems; reasonable image cost; real improvement in the productivity of the Departments of Imaging. All digital radiographic systems include an X-ray source, an image acquisition and formatting sub-system, a display and manipulation sub-system, and archiving subsystem and a laser editing system, preferably shared by other sources of digital images. Three digitization processes are available: digitization of the radiographic film, digital fluorography and phospholuminescent detectors with memory. The advantages of digital fluoroscopy are appealing: real-time image acquisition, suppression of cassettes; but its disadvantages are far from negligible: it cannot be applied to bedside radiography, the field of examination is limited, and the wide-field spatial resolution is poor. Phospholuminescent detectors with memory have great advantages: they can be used for bedside radiographs and on all the common radiographic systems; spatial resolution is satisfactory; its current disadvantages are considerable. These two systems, have common properties making up the entire philosophy of digital radiology and specific features that must guide our choice according to the application. Digital fluorography is best applied in pediatric radiology. However, evaluation works have showed that it was applicable with sufficient quality to many indications of general radiology in which a fluoroscopic control and fast acquisition of the images are essential; the time gained on the examination may be considerable, as well as the savings on film. Detectors with memory are required for bedside radiographs, in osteoarticular and thoracic radiology, in all cases of traumatic emergency and in the resuscitation and intensive care departments

  7. In situ observation of self-propagating high temperature syntheses of Ta5Si3, Ti5Si3 and TiB2 by proton and X-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernert, T.; Winkler, B.; Haussühl, E.; Trouw, F.; Vogel, S. C.; Hurd, A. J.; Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Mariam, F. G.; Saunders, A.; Juarez-Arellano, E. A.

    2013-08-01

    Self-propagating high temperature reactions of tantalum and titanium with silicon and titanium with boron were studied using proton and X-ray radiography, small-angle neutron scattering, neutron time-of-flight, X-ray and neutron diffraction, dilatometry and video recording. We show that radiography allows the observation of the propagation of the flame front in all investigated systems and the determination of the widths of the burning zones. X-ray and neutron diffraction showed that the reaction products consisted of ≈90 wt% of the main phase and one or two secondary phases. For the reaction 5Ti + 3Si → Ti5Si3 flame front velocities of 7.1(3)-34.2(4) mm/s were determined depending on the concentration of a retardant added to the starting material, the geometry and the green density of the samples. The flame front width was determined to be 1.17(4)-1.82(8) mm and depends exponentially on the flame front velocity. Similarly, for the reaction Ti + 2B → TiB2 flame front velocities of 15(2)-26.6(4) mm/s were determined, while for a 5Ta + 3Si → Ta5Si3 reaction the flame front velocity was 7.05(4) mm/s. The micro structure of the product phase Ta5Si3 shows no texture. From SANS measurements the dependence of the specific surface of the product phase on the particle sizes of the starting materials was studied.

  8. Radiography shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.

    1985-11-27

    Apparatus for the inspection of a pipe weld by radiography comprises a radiation source contained in a housing having a first collimator for defining the exit beam and a second collimator mountable on the pipe in the region of the weld to define with the first collimator a predetermined volume enclosing the radiation beam passing through the second collimator when the housing is in a predetermined position relative to the second collimator. The arrangement is such that if the housing is slightly displaced from the predetermined position the radiation beam still falls within the predetermined volume.

  9. Radiography shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for the inspection of a pipe weld by radiography comprises a radiation source contained in a housing having a first collimator for defining the exit beam and a second collimator mountable on the pipe in the region of the weld to define with the first collimator a predetermined volume enclosing the radiation beam passing through the second collimator when the housing is in a predetermined position relative to the second collimator. The arrangement is such that if the housing is slightly displaced from the predetermined position the radiation beam still falls within the predetermined volume. (author)

  10. Digital Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.

  11. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elander, S.; Hellesnes, J.; Reitan, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The technology of radiography is developing rapidly, both regarding imaging technology and data hardware, and software technology. More and more advanced systems are marketed by the radiological companies. The wide product range makes it difficult to get an overview over principles and components. By closer inspection, however, the number of basic components and technologies is limited. Moreover, the components seem rather well known from other technologies, due to the long times of development in radiology. This report gives a survey of some new principles and components in the video chain. As components may deteriorate or age fast by irradiation, the radiation levels in the chain are evaluated. 13 refs

  12. Radiography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sashin, D.; Sternglass, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention provides radiography apparatus wherein the use of a flat, generally rectangular beam or a fan-shaped beam of radiation in combination with a collimator, scintillator and device for optically coupling a self-scanning array of photodiodes to the scintillator means will permit production of images or image data with high contrast sensitivity and detail. It is contemplated that the self-scanning array of photodiodes may contain from about 60 to 2048, and preferably about 256 to 2048, individual photodiode elements per inch of object width, thereby permitting maximum data collection to produce a complete image or complete collection of image data

  13. neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron radiography (or radiology) is a diverse filed that uses neutrons of various energies, subthermal, thermal, epithermal or fast in either steady state or pulsed mode to examine objects for industrial, medical, or other purposes, both microscopic and macroscopic. The applications include engineering design, biological studies, nondestructive inspection and materials evaluation. In the past decade, over 100 different centers in some 30 countries have published reports of pioneering activities using reactors, accelerators and isotopic neutron sources. While film transparency and electronic video are most common imaging methods for static or in motion objects respectively, there are other important data gathering techniques, including track etch, digital gauging and computed tomography. A survey of the world-wide progress shows the field to be gaining steadily in its diversity, its sophistication and its importance. (author)

  14. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  15. Filmless Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Technology initially prototyped under a Small Business Innovation Research contract between Quantex Corporation and Langley Research Center was licensed to Liberty Technology and incorporated into RADView, a new filmless radiography technology. The NASA-sponsored work involved the investigation of Electron Trapping, which led to a solid-state film that uses a special class of photoluminescent materials to capture radiographic images. RadView is a total imaging solution for the conversion of radiographic film records to digital format and digital acquisitions of radiographs. With the RADView technology, there is a reduction of exposure times and errors; film waste is eliminated; and the efficiency of data management and precise image analysis is boosted. The solid-state film can be exposed, read, erased, and re- exposed indefinitely until mechanical replacement is required. Digital images can be stored to optical media for up to 100 years and beyond without information loss.

  16. Industrial radiographies

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Radiation Protection group wishes to remind CERN staff responsible for contractors performing X-ray inspections on the CERN sites that the firms must apply the legislation in force in their country of origin, in particular with regard to the prevention of risks relating to ionizing radiation. Industrial radiography firms called on to work on the CERN sites must also comply with the rules laid down in CERN's Radiation Safety Manual and be registered in the relevant CERN database. Since CERN is responsible for safety on its own site, a number of additional rules have been laid down for this kind of work, as set out in Radiation Protection Procedure PRP30 https://edms.cern.ch/file/346848/LAST_RELEASED/PRP30.pdf The CERN Staff Member responsible for the contract shall register the company and issue notification that an X-ray inspection is to be performed via the web interface at the following address: http://cern.ch/rp-radio

  17. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Eiichi

    1988-01-01

    The thermal neutron absorption coefficient is essentially different from the X-ray absorption coefficient. Each substance has a characteristic absorption coefficient regardless of its density. Neutron deams have the following features: (1) neutrons are not transmitted efficiently by low molecular weight substances, (2) they are transmitted efficiently by heavy metals, and (3) the transmittance differs among isotopes. Thus, neutron beams are suitable for cheking for foreign matters in heavy metals and testing of composites consisting of both heavy and light materials. A neutron source generates fast neutrons, which should be converted into thermal neutrons by reducing their energy. Major neutron souces include nuclear reactors, radioisotopes and particle accelerators. Photographic films and television systems are mainly used to observe neutron transmission images. Computers are employed for image processing, computerized tomography and three-dimensional analysis. The major applications of neutron radiography include inspection of neclear fuel; evaluation of material for airplane; observation of fuel in the engine and oil in the hydraulic systems in airplanes; testing of composite materials; etc. (Nogami, K.)

  18. International Neutron Radiography Newsletter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    At the First World Conference on Neutron Radiography i t was decided to continue the "Neutron Radiography Newsletter", published previously by J.P. Barton, as the "International Neutron Radiography Newsletter" (INRNL), with J.C. Doraanus as editor. The British Journal of Non-Destructive Testing...

  19. PROTON MICROSCOPY AT FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, F. E.; Mariam, F. G.; Golubev, A. A.; Turtikov, V. I.; Varentsov, D.

    2009-01-01

    Proton radiography was invented in the 1990's at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as a diagnostic to study dynamic material properties under extreme pressures, strain and strain rate. Since this time hundreds of dynamic proton radiography experiments have been performed at LANL and a facility has been commissioned at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Russia for similar applications in dynamic material studies. Recently an international effort has investigated a new proton radiography capability for the study of dynamic material properties at the Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) located in Darmstadt, Germany. This new Proton microscope for FAIR(PRIOR) will provide radiographic imaging of dynamic systems with unprecedented spatial, temporal and density resolution, resulting in a window for understanding dynamic material properties at new length scales. It is also proposed to install the PRIOR system at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung before installation at FAIR for dynamic experiments with different drivers including high explosives, pulsed power and lasers. The design of the proton microscope and expected radiographic performance is presented.

  20. Evidence-based radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafslund, Bjorg; Clare, Judith; Graverholt, Birgitte; Wammen Nortvedt, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) offers the integration of the best research evidence with clinical knowledge and expertise and patient values. EBP is a well known term in health care. This paper discusses the implementation of EBP into radiography and introduces the term evidence-based radiography. Evidence-based radiography is radiography informed and based on the combination of clinical expertise and the best available research-based evidence, patient preferences and resources available. In Norway, EBP in radiography is being debated and radiographers are discussing the challenges of implementing EBP in both academic and clinical practice. This discussion paper explains why EBP needs to be a basis for a radiography curriculum and a part of radiographers' practice. We argue that Norwegian radiographers must increase participation in research and developing practice within their specific radiographic domain

  1. JRR-3 neutron radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, M.; Tsuruno, A.

    1992-01-01

    JRR-3 neutron radiography facility consists of thermal neutron radiography facility (TNRF) and cold neutron radiography facility (CNRF). TNRF is installed in JRR-3 reactor building. CNRF is installed in the experimental beam hall adjacent to the reactor building. (author)

  2. Specific radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Beside radiography testing using x-ray machine and gamma source, there are several technique that developed specifically to complete the testing that cannot be done with the two earlier. This technique was specific based on several factor, for the example, the advantages of neutron and electron using to show the image was unique compare to x-ray and gamma. Besides that, these special radiography techniques maybe differ in how to detect the radiation get through the object. These technique can used to inspect thin or specimen that contained radioactive material. There are several technique will discussed in this chapter such as neutron radiography, electron radiography, fluoroscopy and also autoradiography.

  3. Proton energy and scattering angle radiographs to improve proton treatment planning : a Monte Carlo study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, Aleksandra; Takatsu, Jun; Nakaji, Taku; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; van der Graaf, Emiel; Koffeman, E.; Visser, Jan; Brandenburg, Sijtze

    2016-01-01

    The novel proton radiography imaging technique has a large potential to be used in direct measurement of the proton energy loss (proton stopping power, PSP) in various tissues in the patient. The uncertainty of PSPs, currently obtained from translation of X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) images,

  4. Radiography - A conceptual approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, Sanna-Mari [Department of Nursing Science and Health Administration, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 (Finland)], E-mail: sanna-mari.ahonen@oulu.fi

    2008-11-15

    Aim: The purpose of this article is to describe interdisciplinary comparison of the attributes of the concept of radiography in health sciences, physics and technology on the grounds of concept analysis. Background: The concept of radiography is widely used in health sciences, physics and technology. However, the content of the concept may vary. In order to clarify the concept of radiography, the concept must be systematically examined and defined in linguistic form. Method: The concept of radiography was analysed by using the evolutionary method of concept analysis. The data were collected through discretionary sampling and consisted of literature and Internet pages. Qualitative content analysis was employed for analysing the data. Findings: As a result of concept analysis, the concept of radiography in health sciences was determined as expertise of radiographers in the use of radiation, which is dual, dynamic, social and situation-related in nature, and typically based on versatile synthesis. Regarding the attributes identified, the concept of radiography has both similarities and differences between health sciences, physics and technology. Conclusions: The concept of radiography was found to be more abstract, wider, more complex and more radiographer-centred in health sciences than in other disciplines. The content of the concept of radiography seems to vary according to the discipline.

  5. Radiography - A conceptual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, Sanna-Mari

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this article is to describe interdisciplinary comparison of the attributes of the concept of radiography in health sciences, physics and technology on the grounds of concept analysis. Background: The concept of radiography is widely used in health sciences, physics and technology. However, the content of the concept may vary. In order to clarify the concept of radiography, the concept must be systematically examined and defined in linguistic form. Method: The concept of radiography was analysed by using the evolutionary method of concept analysis. The data were collected through discretionary sampling and consisted of literature and Internet pages. Qualitative content analysis was employed for analysing the data. Findings: As a result of concept analysis, the concept of radiography in health sciences was determined as expertise of radiographers in the use of radiation, which is dual, dynamic, social and situation-related in nature, and typically based on versatile synthesis. Regarding the attributes identified, the concept of radiography has both similarities and differences between health sciences, physics and technology. Conclusions: The concept of radiography was found to be more abstract, wider, more complex and more radiographer-centred in health sciences than in other disciplines. The content of the concept of radiography seems to vary according to the discipline

  6. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Thomsen, Henrik

    on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years...

  7. Neutron radiography, techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1987-10-01

    After describing the principles of the ''in pool'' and ''dry'' installations, techniques used in neutron radiography are reviewed. Use of converter foils with silver halide films for the direct and transfer methods is described. Advantages of the use of nitrocellulose film for radiographying radioactive objects are discussed. Dynamic imaging is shortly reviewed. Standardization in the field of neutron radiography (ASTM and Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group) is described. The paper reviews main fields of use of neutron radiography. Possibilities of use of neutron radiography at research reactors in various scientific, industrial and other fields are mentioned. Examples are given of application of neutron radiography in industry and the nuclear field. (author)

  8. Recent developments in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Harold

    1982-01-01

    Advances in radiography are reviewed and eighty-one references are cited to provide additional information. The review includes information on x-ray sources in terms of output, portability and imaging geometry and detectors in terms of films and screens, electrostatic methods, real-time techniques and solid state devices. Inspection methods utilizing radiations other than x-rays, neutrons and charged particles, expand the inspection problems suitable for radiography. Techniques such as tomography, digital radiography and image enhancement are described. Tomography, in particular, provides excellent capability to characterize materials and discontinuities

  9. Transitioning to digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, F., E-mail: Francisco.Miranda@pwc.ca [Pratt & Whitney Canada, Longueuil, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    This article provides insight on the technical and business considerations necessary to implement or to transition to digital radiography Continued refinements in digital radiography technology have resulted in significant improvements in image quality and detectability of indications. These improvements have resulted in the acceptance of the technology by users and aerospace primes for final product inspection and disposition. Digital radiography has also been identified as an interesting cost reduction initiative with the potential of providing gains in productivity through increased throughput and decreased inspection lead-times and resulting costs. (author)

  10. Qualitative discussion of quantitative radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Motz, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Since radiography yields an image that can be easily related to the tested object, it is superior to many nondestructive testing techniques in revealing the size, shape, and location of certain types of discontinuities. The discussion is limited to a description of the radiographic process, examination of some of the quantitative aspects of radiography, and an outline of some of the new ideas emerging in radiography. The advantages of monoenergetic x-ray radiography and neutron radiography are noted

  11. Neutron radiography in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rant, J.; Ilic, R.

    1977-01-01

    The review surveys microneutronographic and neutron-induced autoradiographic techniques and their applications in metallurgy. A brief survey of applications of neutron radiography as a method of non-destructive testing to some macroscopic problems in metallurgy is included. (author)

  12. High energy neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos

  13. A system for fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klann, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this sytem, objects as small as a coin or as large as a waste drum can be radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3x10 10 neutrons/second with an average energy of 14.5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to convert neutrons to protons through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9x10 7 to 3.8x10 8 n/cm 2 depending on the type of screen and film

  14. Radiography at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    What is industrial radiography? It is a non-destructive method with a wide variety of applications, such as inspecting the quality of a weld. It uses high-energy radioactive sources or an X-ray generator.   Is this inspection technique used at CERN? Yes, it is widely used at CERN by the EN-MME Group, which outsources the work to one or more companies, depending on the workload. Is it possible to carry out radiography anywhere at CERN? Yes, it is possible to carry out radiography in any building/accelerator/experiment area at CERN (including in areas which are not normally subject to radiological hazards). When is radiography carried out? It normally takes place outside of working hours (7 p.m. to 6 a.m.). How will I know if radiography is taking place in my building? If this activity is planned in a CERN building, notices will be affixed to all of its main entrance doors at least 24 hours in advance. What are the risks? There is a risk of exposure to very high levels of radiation, dep...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  16. Digital radiography in NDT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprins, E.

    2004-01-01

    A lot of film radiography could be replaced by today's technologies in the field of digital radiography. Only few of these applications have indeed replaced film. The choice to go digital depends on cost, quality requirement, workflow and throughput. Digital images offer a lot of advantages in terms of image manipulation and workflow. But despite the many advantages, a lot of considerations are needed before someone can decide to convert his organization from conventional to digital radiography. This paper gives an overview of all different modalities that can be used in digital radiography with today's technologies, together with the experiences of the pioneers of digital radiography. Film Scanning, Computed Radiography and Digital Radiography by using of different kinds of flat panel detectors all have their specific application fields and customers. What is the status of the technology today, which advantages brings digital radiography, and which are the limitations radiographers have to consider when replacing film by digital systems. (author)

  17. Are radiography lecturers, leaders?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, Julie Anne

    2013-01-01

    This review article aims to explore the concept of radiography lecturers acting as leaders to their student followers. Through a brief review of the literature, a definition of leadership is suggested and some leadership theories explored. The path-goal theory, leader–member exchange theory and the contemporary theory of transformational leadership are examined more closely. Links between lecturer-leader behaviour and student motivation and learning are tentatively suggested with transformational leadership appearing to offer the optimal leadership style for lecturers to adopt. The paucity of literature relating directly to radiography is acknowledged and areas for further research are suggested. The article concludes with some of the author's practical ideas for incorporating transformational leadership styles and behaviours into radiography education today

  18. Broadening the radiography spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waswa, L.; Mutwasi, O.; Kioko, J.

    2006-05-01

    The text discuses the mammography in breast screening and evaluation of breast cancer; Small parts ultrasounds at plaza imaging solutions; role of a Radiographer in mammography-new perspective; Medical imaging education in africa; Caring for the paediatric patient as to broaden radiotherapy spectrum; Problems and challenges in care for children undergoing radiotherapy; Paediatric radiotherapy, management and side effects; The principles of pattern recognition of skeletal structures; the place of distance learning education in broadening the radiography spectrum; the curriculum and budgeting image; sonographer's guide; Computed radiography- X-Ray with vision; digital Radiography in Kenya today; Particle Therapy at Ithemba Labs; The role of lung perfusion and ventilation study in the evaluation of the pulmonary embolism and lastly, an overview of Head and neck treatment at Kenyatta National hospital radiotherapy

  19. Spatially coded backscatter radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, S.; Hussein, E.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional radiography requires access to two opposite sides of an object, which makes it unsuitable for the inspection of extended and/or thick structures (airframes, bridges, floors etc.). Backscatter imaging can overcome this problem, but the indications obtained are difficult to interpret. This paper applies the coded aperture technique to gamma-ray backscatter-radiography in order to enhance the detectability of flaws. This spatial coding method involves the positioning of a mask with closed and open holes to selectively permit or block the passage of radiation. The obtained coded-aperture indications are then mathematically decoded to detect the presence of anomalies. Indications obtained from Monte Carlo calculations were utilized in this work to simulate radiation scattering measurements. These simulated measurements were used to investigate the applicability of this technique to the detection of flaws by backscatter radiography

  20. Computed radiography in paediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, C.

    1996-01-01

    Computed radiography has also been called storage phosphor technology, digital luminescence radiography and scintillation phosphor technology, since it relies on phosphor imaging plate as an alternative to screen-film. One of the major advantages in the use of computed radiography (CR) is the consistent image quality independence of the radiographer and exposure used. And secondly a marked reduction in the need for repeat films was achieved and thus a decrease in dose to the patient. In some cases, dose was able to be reduced further due to the fact that the plates respond to lower doses and still provide adequate image quality. Digitalising the Cr image allows it to be transmitted to an imaging console. The images can then be stored on optical disc. 7 refs

  1. Real-time radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components

  2. SIMPLE for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Azmi; Abd Nassir Ibrahim; Siti Madiha Muhammad Amir; Glam Hadzir Patai Mohamad; Saidi Rajab

    2004-01-01

    The first thing industrial radiographers have to do before commencing radiography works is to determine manually the amount of correct exposure that the film need to be exposed in order to obtain the right density. The amount of exposure depends on many variables such as type of radioisotope, type of film, nature of test-object and its orientation, and specific arrangement related to object location and configuration. In many cases radiography works are rejected because of radiographs fail to meet certain reference criteria as defined in the applicable standard. One of the main reasons of radiograph rejection is due to inadequate exposure received by the films. SIMPLE is a software specially developed to facilitate the calculation of gamma-radiography exposure. By using this software and knowing radiographic parameters to be encountered during the work, it is expected that human error will be minimized, thus enhancing the quality and productivity of NDT jobs. (Author)

  3. Practical radiography. 11. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoxter, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    After a brief explanation of the basics of electricity, the fundamentals of radiography are dealt with in more detail - the discovery of X-rays, their nature and properties, the production of the X-ray image and ways of improving the image. A chapter is devoted to the important subject of radiation protection. Explanations are given of the use of the Siemens exposure tables, which make it simpler to modify exposures from the values given in the tables. There is also a section on some of the standard radiographic positioning for patients. The most common medical terms used in radiography and fluoroscopy are listed and an Appendix gives details of the major items of Siemens X-ray equipment. There is a list of literature recommended for further study. Theoretical explanations have been kept to a minimum so that information that is important to radiography can be emphasized. (orig./MG)

  4. Radiography of pressure ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstroem, P.S.; Ekberg, O.; Lasson, A.

    1988-01-01

    In patients with longstanding and/or deep pressure ulcers radiology is usually consulted. Survey radiography and sinography in 14 patients with pressure ulcers (6 over the tuber ischii and 8 over the femoral trochanter) were evaluated. Osteomyelitic involvement of adjacent bone was revealed in 9 patients on survey radiography. However, it was usually impossible to assess whether or not bony involvement represents healed or active osteomyelitis. Sinography did not contribute to the assessment of whether or not adjacent cortical bone was involved. However, when a fistulation to an adjacent joint was revealed this contributed substantially to the preoperative planning of resection. We therefore recommend that survey radiography and sinography should be included in the evaluation of these patients but that the results from such examinations are critically evaluated. Joint involvement should be taken seriously as progression of septic arthritis usually occurs rapidly. (orig.)

  5. Radiography Capabilities for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstrom, Peter Lowell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garnett, Robert William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chapman, Catherine A. B [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Salazar, Harry Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Otoole, Joseph Alfred [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barber, Ronald L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gomez, Tony Simon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-28

    The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) experimental facility will be used to discover and design the advanced materials needed to meet 21st century national security and energy security challenges. This new facility will provide the new tools scientists need to develop next-generation materials that will perform predictably and on-demand for currently unattainable lifetimes in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility is based on upgrades to the existing LANSCE 800-MeV proton linac and a new 12-GeV electron linac and associated X-ray FEL to provide simultaneous multiple probe beams, and new experimental areas. In addition to the high-energy photon probe beam, both electron and proton radiography capabilities will be available at the MaRIE facility. Recently, detailed radiography system studies have been performed to develop conceptual layouts of high-magnification electron and proton radiography systems that can meet the experimental requirements for the expected first experiments to be performed at the facility. A description of the radiography systems, their performance requirements, and a proposed facility layout are presented.

  6. Compton radiography, 4. Magnification compton radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, S; Sera, K; Shishido, F; Fukuda, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer; Mishina, H

    1978-03-01

    Compton radiography permits an acquisition of direct magnification Compton radiograms by use of a pinhole collimator, rendering it feasible to overcome the resolution of the scinticamera being employed. An improvement of resolution was attained from 7 mm to 1 mm separation. Usefulness of its clinical application can be seen in orientation of puncture and biopsy in deep structures and detection of various foreign bodies penetrated by blasts and so on under the ''magnification Compton fluoroscopy'' which can be developed on this principle in the near future.

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  12. Comparative study between computed radiography and conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorhazleena Azaman; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Sapizah Rahim; Shaharudin Sayuti; Arshad Yassin; Abdul Razak Hamzah

    2010-01-01

    In Industrial Radiography, there are many criteria that need to be considered based on established standards to accept or reject the radiographic film. For conventional radiography, we need to consider the optical density by using the densitometer when viewing the film on the viewer. But in the computed radiography (CR) we need to evaluate and performed the analysis from the quality of the digital image through grey value. There are many factors that affected the digital image quality. One of the factors which are affected to the digital image quality in the image processing is grey value that related to the contrast resolution. In this work, we performed grey value study measurement on digital radiography systems and compared it with exposed films in conventional radiography. The test sample is a steel step wedge. We found out the contrast resolution is higher in Computed Radiography compared with Conventional Radiography. (author)

  13. The stationary neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, A.A.; Newell, D.L.; Heidel, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    To provide the high intensity neutron beam and support systems necessary for radiography, the Stationary Neutron Radiography System was constructed at McClellan Air Force Base. The Stationary Neutron Radiography System utilizes a one megawatt TRIGA reactor contained in an Aluminium tank surrounded by eight foot thick concrete walls. There are four neutron beam tubes at inclined angles from the reactor core to separate radiography bays. In three of the bays, robotic systems manipulate aircraft components in the neutron beam, while real-time imaging systems provide images concurrent with the irradiation. Film radiography of smaller components is performed in the remaining bay

  14. Neutron radiography using a transportable superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.A. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Hawkesworth, M.R. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Beynon, T.D. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Green, S. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Rogers, J.D. (Rolls-Royce, Derby (United Kingdom)); Allen, M.J. (Rolls-Royce, Derby (United Kingdom)); Plummer, H.C. (Rolls-Royce, MatEval, Derby (United Kingdom)); Boulding, N.J. (Oxford Instruments (United Kingdom)); Cox, M. (Oxford Instruments (United Kingdom)); McDougall, I. (Oxford Instruments (United Kingdom))

    1994-12-30

    A thermal neutron radiography system based on a compact 12 MeV superconducting proton cyclotron is described. Neutrons are generated using a thick beryllium target and moderated in high density polyethylene. Monte Carlo computer simulations have been used to model the neutron and photon transport in order to optimise the performance of the system. With proton beam currents in excess of 100 [mu]A, it can provide high thermal neutron fluxes with L/D ratios of between 50 and 300 for various applications. Both film and electronic imaging are used to produce radiographs. The electronic imaging system consists of a [sup 6]Li-loaded ZnS intensifier screen, and a low light CCD or SIT camera. High resolution images can be recorded and computer-controlled data processing, analysis and display are possible. ((orig.))

  15. Ultrasonography X gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Campos, A.M. de

    1989-01-01

    The accumulated experience in the last ten years of substitution to essays by gamma radiography to essay by ultrasonography, starting of the systematic comparison and tabulation of the results obtained by both essays applied in welding joints, in field, in steel pipelines of the SABESP. (V.R.B.)

  16. Manual on industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    This manual is intended as a source of educational material to personnel seeking certification as industrial radiographers, and as a guide and reference text for educational organizations that are providng courses in industrial radiography. It covers the basic principles of x-ray and gamma radiation, radiation safety, films and film processing, welding, casting and forging, aircraft structures and components, radiographic techniques, and records

  17. Compton radiography, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Shinichi; Sera, Koichiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Shishido, Fumio; Mishina, Hitoshi.

    1977-01-01

    Compton radiography, a tomographic technic with Compton-scattered rays of a monochromatic gamma ray beam, was feasible of tomographing a chest phantom. The result suggested that the technic could be extended to imaging of the lung and the surrounding structures of the chest wall, mediastinum and liver in Compton tomographic mode. (auth.)

  18. Neutron radiography in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Neutron radiography studies being carried out in reactor centres in Brazil are discussed. These research projects are under way using the 5 MW swimming pool reactor at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) in Sao Paulo and the Argonaut reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) in Rio de Janeiro. (Auth.)

  19. Neutron induced electron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Marcos Leandro Garcia

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper a new radiography technique, the 'Neutron Induced Electron Radiography' - NIER, to inspect low thickness samples on the order of micra, has been developed. This technique makes use of low energy electrons as penetrating radiation generated from metallic gadolinium screens when irradiated by thermal neutrons. The conditions to obtain the best image for the conventional X-ray film Kodak-AA were determined by using a digital system to quantify the darkening level of the film. The irradiations have been performed at a radiography equipment installed at the beam-hole no. 8 of the 5 MW IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The irradiation time to obtain the best radiography was 100 seconds and for such condition the technique was able to discern 1 μm in 24 μm of aluminum at a resolution of 32 μm. By visual comparison the images obtained by the NIER shown a higher quality when compared with the ones from other usual techniques the make use of electrons a penetrating radiation and films for image registration. Furthermore the use of the digital system has provided a smaller time for data acquisition and data analysis as well as an improvement in the image visualization. (author)

  20. Basic principles of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestbier, P.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray radiography and gamma radiography are used in industrial radiography. X-rays and gamma rays have the ability to penetrate materials and be absorbed by different densities. This characteristic makes them useful tools in industrial and medical radiography. The sources used for the generation of x-rays, gamma rays and radioisotopes are discussed. Films are one of the recording methods of x-radiography. The article also deals with advantages and disadvantages of radiography. Factors governing radiation exposure includes: the type of radiation source, material to be radiographed, distance, film, and the method for development. International specifications are also responsible for strict control over the standard of workmanship in industrial radiography

  1. Proton microscope design for 9 GeV pRad facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barminova, H.Y.; Turtikov, V.I.

    2016-01-01

    The proton microscope design for 9 GeV proton radiography facility is described. Basic principles of proton microscope development are discussed. Two variants of microscope optical scheme are proposed. Simulation of the proton beam dynamics is carried out, the results showing the possibility to obtain the microscope spatial resolution not worse than 10 μ m.

  2. Artifacts in digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shin Gu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Beakseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Digital Radiography is a big part of diagnostic radiology. Because uncorrected digital radiography image supported false effect of Patient’s health care. We must be manage the correct digital radiography image. Thus, the artifact images can have effect to make a wrong diagnosis. We report types of occurrence by analyzing the artifacts that occurs in digital radiography system. We had collected the artifacts occurred in digital radiography system of general hospital from 2007 to 2014. The collected data had analyzed and then had categorize as the occurred causes. The artifacts could be categorized by hardware artifacts, software artifacts, operating errors, system artifacts, and others. Hardware artifact from a Ghost artifact that is caused by lag effect occurred most frequently. The others cases are the artifacts caused by RF noise and foreign body in equipments. Software artifacts are many different types of reasons. The uncorrected processing artifacts and the image processing error artifacts occurred most frequently. Exposure data recognize (EDR) error artifacts, the processing error of commissural line, and etc., the software artifacts were caused by various reasons. Operating artifacts were caused when the user did not have the full understanding of the digital medical image system. System artifacts had appeared the error due to DICOM header information and the compression algorithm. The obvious artifacts should be re-examined, and it could result in increasing the exposure dose of the patient. The unclear artifact leads to a wrong diagnosis and added examination. The ability to correctly determine artifact are required. We have to reduce the artifact occurrences by understanding its characteristic and providing sustainable education as well as the maintenance of the equipments.

  3. Artifacts in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Whan; Kim, Jung Min; Jeong, Hoi Woun

    2015-01-01

    Digital Radiography is a big part of diagnostic radiology. Because uncorrected digital radiography image supported false effect of Patient’s health care. We must be manage the correct digital radiography image. Thus, the artifact images can have effect to make a wrong diagnosis. We report types of occurrence by analyzing the artifacts that occurs in digital radiography system. We had collected the artifacts occurred in digital radiography system of general hospital from 2007 to 2014. The collected data had analyzed and then had categorize as the occurred causes. The artifacts could be categorized by hardware artifacts, software artifacts, operating errors, system artifacts, and others. Hardware artifact from a Ghost artifact that is caused by lag effect occurred most frequently. The others cases are the artifacts caused by RF noise and foreign body in equipments. Software artifacts are many different types of reasons. The uncorrected processing artifacts and the image processing error artifacts occurred most frequently. Exposure data recognize (EDR) error artifacts, the processing error of commissural line, and etc., the software artifacts were caused by various reasons. Operating artifacts were caused when the user did not have the full understanding of the digital medical image system. System artifacts had appeared the error due to DICOM header information and the compression algorithm. The obvious artifacts should be re-examined, and it could result in increasing the exposure dose of the patient. The unclear artifact leads to a wrong diagnosis and added examination. The ability to correctly determine artifact are required. We have to reduce the artifact occurrences by understanding its characteristic and providing sustainable education as well as the maintenance of the equipments

  4. Z-petawatt driven ion beam radiography development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schollmeier, Marius; Geissel, Matthias; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Sefkow, Adam B.

    2013-09-01

    Laser-driven proton radiography provides electromagnetic field mapping with high spatiotemporal resolution, and has been applied to many laser-driven High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments. Our report addresses key questions about the feasibility of ion radiography at the Z-Accelerator (%E2%80%9CZ%E2%80%9D), concerning laser configuration, hardware, and radiation background. Charged particle tracking revealed that radiography at Z requires GeV scale protons, which is out of reach for existing and near-future laser systems. However, it might be possible to perform proton deflectometry to detect magnetic flux compression in the fringe field region of a magnetized liner inertial fusion experiment. Experiments with the Z-Petawatt laser to enhance proton yield and energy showed an unexpected scaling with target thickness. Full-scale, 3D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, coupled to fully explicit and kinetic 2D particle-in-cell simulations running for over 10 ps, explain the scaling by a complex interplay of laser prepulse, preplasma, and ps-scale temporal rising edge of the laser.

  5. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearing, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize some of the information about the nucleon-nucleon force which has been obtained by comparing recent calculations of proton-proton bremsstrahlung with cross section and analyzing power data from the new TRIUMF bremsstrahlung experiment. Some comments are made as to how these results can be extended to neutron-proton bremsstrahlung. (Author) 17 refs., 6 figs

  6. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  7. Radiography – How do students understand the concept of radiography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, S.M.; Lundén, M.; Andersson, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiography as a concept has mainly been associated with the functional role of the radiographer. The concept has been studied from a theoretical point of view. However, there is a lack of a theoretical foundation and research on the actual substance of the term radiography used in education. It is therefore important to undertake an investigation in order to determine how students after three years education understand the subject of radiography. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse how students in the Swedish radiographers' degree program understand the concept of radiography. Method: A concept analysis was made according to the hybrid model, which combines theoretical, fieldwork and analytical phases. A summative content analysis was used to identify the number and content of statements. The empirical data were collected from questionnaires answered by radiography students at four universities in Sweden. Findings: All radiography students' exemplified radiography with statements related to the practical level although some of them also identified radiography at an abstract level, as a subject within a discipline. The attribute ‘An interdisciplinary area of knowledge’ emerged, which is an attribute on the abstract level. The practical level was described by four attributes: Mastering Medical Imaging’, ‘To accomplish images for diagnosis and interventions’, ‘Creating a caring environment’ and ‘Enabling fruitful encounters’. Conclusion: The hybrid model used was a versatile model of concept development. The results of this study have increased the understanding of what characterizes the concept of radiography in a Swedish context. - Highlights: • This concept analysis of radiography was undertaken according to a hybrid model. • In radiography humanistic aspects are emphasized, a shift from the technological perspective. • The attributes demonstrate the essence and interdisciplinary nature of radiography. • This

  8. Heavy-ion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Holley, W.R.; Benton, E.V.

    1981-01-01

    Heavy-particle radiography has clinical potential as a newly developed noninvasive low-dose imaging procedure that provides increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high-energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program for medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low-dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures, brain and spinal neoplasms, and the heart. The potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, is now proving to be an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, and for the early detection of small soft-tissue tumors at low radiation dose

  9. Projection radiography and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Benton, E.V.; Holley, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Our program on heavy-ion radiography began soon after heavy ions were accelerated to high energies. Heavy ions are capable of very high electron density discrimination combined with good radial image resolution and low dose. Since heavy-ion beams produce many secondries, plastic nuclear detectors have an advantage for recording heavy-ion images. Projection imaging is now a practical technique that can resolve density differences between normal tissue and tumor tissue in some cases in which X rays could not make a distinction. Initial attempts at heavy-ion tomography also indicate potential for high resolution in this field. The physical basis for heavy-ion radiography and tomographic reconstruction studies are discussed in detail

  10. Dose in conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna D, E.; Padilla R, Z. P.; Escareno J, E.; Vega C, H. R.

    2011-10-01

    It has been pointed out that medical exposures are the most significant sources of exposure to ionizing radiation for the general population. Inside the medical exposures the most important is the X-ray use for diagnosis, which is by far the largest contribution to the average dose received by the population. From all studies performed in radiology the chest radiography is the most abundant. In an X-ray machine, voltage and current are combined to obtain a good image and a reduce dose, however due to the workload in a radiology service individual dose is not monitored. In order to evaluate the dose due to chest radiography in this work a plate phantom was built according to the ISO recommendations using methylmethacrylate walls and water. The phantom was used in the Imaging department of the Zacatecas General Hospital as a radiology patient asking for a chest study; using thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD 100 the kerma at the surface entrance was determined. (Author)

  11. Quantitative film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects

  12. Patient care in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, R.A.; McCloskey, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on patient care procedures for radiographers. The authors focus on the role of the radiographer as a member of the health care team. The authors report on such topics as communication in patient care: safety, medico-legal considerations, transfer and positioning; physical needs; infection control; medication; CPR standards, acute situations; examination of the GI tract; contrast media; special imaging techniques and bedside radiography

  13. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian; Thomsen, Henrik

    ,3 mAs and SID SID of 180 centimetres using a phantom and lithium fluoride thermo luminescence dosimeter (TLD). Dose to risk organs mamma, thyroid and colon are measured at different collimations with one-centimetre steps. TLD results are used to estimate dose reduction for different collimations...... at the conference. Conclusion: Collimation improvement in basic chest radiography can reduce the radiation to female patients at chest x-ray examinations....

  14. Digital radiography in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Rob; Campbell, Mark R

    2002-06-01

    With the permanent habitation of the International Space Station, the planning of longer duration exploration missions, and the possibility of space tourism, it is likely that digital radiography will be needed in the future to support medical care in space. Ultrasound is currently the medical imaging modality of choice for spaceflight. Digital radiography in space is limited because of prohibitive launch costs (in the region of $20,000/kg) that severely restrict the volume, weight, and power requirements of medical care hardware. Technological increases in radiography, a predicted ten-fold decrease in future launch costs, and an increasing clinical need for definitive medical care in space will drive efforts to expand the ability to provide medical care in space including diagnostic imaging. Normal physiological responses to microgravity, in conjunction with the high-risk environment of spaceflight, increase the risk of injury and could imply an extended recovery period for common injuries. The advantages of gravity on Earth, such as the stabilization of patients undergoing radiography and the drainage of fluids, which provide radiographic contrast, are unavailable in space. This creates significant difficulties in patient immobilization and radiographic positioning. Gravity-dependent radiological signs, such as lipohemarthrosis in knee and shoulder trauma, air or fluid levels in pneumoperitoneum, pleural effusion, or bowel obstruction, and the apical pleural edge in pneumothorax become unavailable. Impaired healing processes such as delayed callus formation following fracture will have implications on imaging, and recovery time lines are unknown. The confined nature of spacecraft and the economic impossibility of launching lead-based personal protective equipment present significant challenges to crew radiation safety. A modified, free-floating radiographic C-arm device equipped with a digital detector and utilizing teleradiology support is proposed as a

  15. Panoramic dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.H.; Kircher, D.R.; Hart, F.W.; Ciavattoni, A.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for improving the handling rate of patients in panoramic dental radiography when tube head-camera assembly of a low silhouette panoramic dental X-ray machine is rotated for a scan in one direction only. This is effected by fast return of the tube head-camera assembly with its simultaneous elevation, thus facilitating the radiographed patient's exit from the machine and the entrance of another patient. Fast speed is about twice the scanning speed. (author)

  16. Compton radiography, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Shinichi; Sera, Koichiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Shishido, Fumio; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1977-01-01

    Tomographic images of an object are obtainable by irradiating it with a collimated beam of monochromatic gamma rays and recording the resultant Compton rays scattered upward at right angles. This is the scattered-ray principle of the formation of a radiation image that differs from the traditional ''silhouette principle'' of radiography, and that bears prospects of stereopsis as well as cross-section tomography. (Evans, J.)

  17. An overview of digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aweligiba, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    The medical application of radiography has gained wider study since diagnostic radiology plays a very important role in modern medicine for fast diagnosis and therapy. Digital radiography is a relatively new technology that promises greater accuracy, lesser dose and better manipulation of patient radiology images in hospitals. In this study, a general discussion on digital radiography has been presented. The presentation focuses on the optimisation of doses to patients in the medical application of digital radiography, quality control and quality assurance. A brief presentation on performance indicators in digital radiography has also been presented. The advantages of digital radiography over the conventional film/screen system have been elaborated and its limitations are also outlined. (author)

  18. Preliminary examination of the applicability of imaging plates to fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, Masahito; Hibiki, Takashi; Mishima, Kaichiro; Yoshii, Koji; Okamoto, Koji

    2001-01-01

    Fast neutron radiography is an attractive non-destructive inspection technique because of the excellent penetration characteristics of fast neutrons in matter. However, the difficulty of detecting fast neutrons reduces this attractive feature. As an experiment to overcome the difficulty, imaging plates were applied to fast neutron radiography. A simple combination of two sheets of imaging plates and a sheet of polyethylene as a proton emitter was examined with the (fast neutron, thermal neutron and gamma ray) FTG discriminator proposed by Yoneda et al. . The experimental results showed that the method could be applicable to fast neutron radiography with effective discrimination of γ-rays

  19. Introduction to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    For the first topic in this book, more on introduction to nondestructive testing, also a little bit on another technique such as magnetic testing, liquid penetrated, ultrasonic testing and others. This book mentions more on radiographic testing and for that, more details on this topic such as history, definition and devices that use in this technique. This radiography testing firstly started with the discovering of x-ray by Wilhelm Roentgen (1895). So, on 1913, David Coolidge successfully invented and developed x-ray tube that could made x-ray more intensified and produced highly penetration forces. Radiography in Malaysia firstly started two years after the discovery made by Wilhelm Roentgen when one hospital here used the x-ray machine for medical purposes. Besides using x-ray, radiography also used gamma rays, and for these purpose, they used Co-60 and Ir-192. Now, more company based on NDT established to provide a service on inspection pipe and others. For filled these requirement, radiographer must take an exam to make them expert and trained well to work in this field. There is no advantage using this technique or other technique. So that's why this book was published to make people understand what is radiographic testing truly.

  20. Apparatus for gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The aim of the present standard is to fix the rules for the construction of gamma radiography instrumentation without prejudice to the present regulations. These apparatus have to be fitted with only sealed sources conformable to the experimental standard M 61-002. The present standard agrees with the international standard ISO 3999 of 1977 dealing with the same subject. Nevertheless, it is different on the three main following points: it does not accept the same limits of absorbed dose rates in the air calculated on the external surface of projectors; it precribes tightness, bending, crushing and tensile tests for some components of the gamma radiography it prescribes tests of endurance and resistance to breaking for the locking systems of the gamma radiography apparatus. The present standard also specifies the following points: symbols and indications to put on projectors and on the source-holder; identification of the source contained in the projector; and, accompanying documents. The regulation references are given in annexe [fr

  1. First experience with digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmann, F.

    1987-01-01

    The digital radiogram is explained, its advantages being the various possibilities of image processing, loss-free transmission, recording and storage capabilities, and in special cases, prompt availability of processed images. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and the high-resolution method of digital, luminescent radiography, which replaced the conventional film-foil radiography, are explained as the first developments for the introduction of digital radiography, which today already is an applicable technique. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Neutron radiography of Apollo ordnance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golliher, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    Neutron radiography played an important role in the successful Apollo missions. Neutron radiography was used, for the first time, on a production basis to examine the internal details of ordnance devices employed in the Apollo Program. Ordnance devices ranged from charges which separated the massive booster stages to those which triggered the release of re-entry parachutes. Discussed are the early developments in neutron radiography and the conversion of this infant nondestructive technology into production capabilities. (Auth.)

  3. Double beam neutron radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1977-09-01

    The DR1 reactor at Risoe is used as a neutron source for neutron radiography. In the double-beam neutron radiography facility a neutron flux of an intensity of 1.4 and 1.8 x 10 6 n. cm -2 . s -1 reaches the object to be radiographed. The transport and exposure container used for neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel rods is described, and the exposure technique and procedure are reviewed. The mode by which single neutron radiographs are assembled and assessed is described. This report will be published in the ''Neutron Radiography Newsletter''. (author)

  4. Quality assurance in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, H.P.; Lehmann, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    At present, there is no standard way of evaluating performance characteristics of digital radiography systems. Continuous measurements of performance parameters are necessary in order to obtain images of high quality. Parameters of quality assurance in digital radiography, which can be evaluated with simple, quick methods, are spatial resolution, low-contrast detectability, dynamic range and exposure dose. Spatial resolution was determined by a lead bar pattern, whereas the other parameters were measured by commercially available phantoms. Performance measurements of 10 digital subtraction angiography (DSA) units and one digital radiography system for unsubtracted digital radiography were assessed. From these results, recommendations for performance parameter levels will be discussed. (author)

  5. Gamma radiography and its technological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.

    1962-01-01

    After the presentation of gamma radiography and X-ray radiography, the author compare both techniques showing, in particular, the greater utility of gamma radiography in industrial diagnostic and more particularly on works site diagnostic. Problem of using radiography and safety consideration will be studied. Figures shows two radiography equipment which have been designed for gamma radiography respecting the safety regulations required by the Radioisotope Inter-ministerial Commission. In the second part, different techniques and uses of gamma radiography are briefly described : xerography, neutron radiography, fluoroscopy and imaging amplifier, tomography, betatrons and linear accelerators. Cost analysis will discussed in conclusion. (M.P.)

  6. Mass chest radiography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavasiliou, C.

    1987-01-01

    In Greece mass chest radiography has been performed regularly on various population groups as a measure to control tuberculosis. Routine chest radiography is performed in most Greek hospitals on admission. In this report available data-admittedly inadequate-directly or indirectly addressing the problem of benefit versus the risk or cost associated with this examination is presented

  7. Student Incivility in Radiography Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin R

    2017-07-01

    To examine student incivility in radiography classrooms by exploring the prevalence of uncivil behaviors along with the classroom management strategies educators use to manage and prevent classroom disruptions. A survey was designed to collect data on the severity and frequency of uncivil student behaviors, classroom management strategies used to address minor and major behavioral issues, and techniques to prevent student incivility. The participants were educators in radiography programs accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology. Findings indicated that severe uncivil student behaviors in radiography classrooms do not occur as often as behaviors classified as less severe. Radiography educators in this study used a variety of strategies and techniques to manage and prevent student incivility; however, radiography educators who received formal training in classroom management reported fewer incidents of student incivility than those who had not received formal training. The participants in this study took a proactive approach to addressing severe behavioral issues in the classroom. Many radiography educators transition from the clinical environment to the classroom setting with little to no formal training in classroom management. Radiography educators are encouraged to attend formal training sessions to learn how to manage the higher education classroom effectively. Student incivility is present in radiography classrooms. This study provides a foundation for future research on incivility. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  8. Functioning of industrial radiography services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.; Costa, H.M. da; Bianchini, F.G.; Arrieta, L.A.I.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this norm is establish the necessary requirements for the functioning of industrial radiography services, as well as the procedures for acquisition and transfer of radioactive sources and/or X-ray equipments used in industrial radiography [pt

  9. Radiography with polarised neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Michael L.

    2010-08-20

    In this thesis I present a new technique for the spatially resolved investigation of the magnetic properties of bulk samples. Standard one dimensional neutron depolarisation analysis is combined with neutron radiography to a method we call Neutron Depolarisation Imaging (NDI). The experimental setup which was installed at the neutron radiography beam line ANTARES at FRM II consists of a double crystal monochromator, neutron polariser, spin flipper, polarisation analyser and a position sensitive CCD detector. A comprehensive discussion of the requirements for these components is given and the limitations of the method are shown. The maximum spatial resolution which can be achieved with a neutron radiography setup is determined by the collimation of the neutron beam and the distance between sample and detector. Different types of polarisers have been tested and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A double crystal monochromator and a new type of polariser employing polarising neutron supermirrors based on the principle of an optical periscope were developed and tested during this work. Furthermore, NDI measurements on various samples of the weakly ferromagnetic materials Pd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} and Ni{sub 3}Al are presented. Neutron depolarisation radiography and tomography measurements were conducted with a spatial resolution as high as 0.3 mm on Pd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} and Ni{sub 3}Al samples. The feasibility of NDI experiments under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 kbar was shown on a sample of Ni{sub 3}Al using a modified Cu:Be clamp cell. A decrease of the ordering temperature by 2 K under hydrostatic pressure was determined from the NDI measurements and shows the potential of the method for further high pressure experiments. Additionally a method was developed which in principle allows to obtain the intrinsic dependence of the ordering temperature T{sub C} on the ordered moment Ms from NDI measurements on inhomogeneous samples containing regions with

  10. Radiography with polarised neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis I present a new technique for the spatially resolved investigation of the magnetic properties of bulk samples. Standard one dimensional neutron depolarisation analysis is combined with neutron radiography to a method we call Neutron Depolarisation Imaging (NDI). The experimental setup which was installed at the neutron radiography beam line ANTARES at FRM II consists of a double crystal monochromator, neutron polariser, spin flipper, polarisation analyser and a position sensitive CCD detector. A comprehensive discussion of the requirements for these components is given and the limitations of the method are shown. The maximum spatial resolution which can be achieved with a neutron radiography setup is determined by the collimation of the neutron beam and the distance between sample and detector. Different types of polarisers have been tested and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A double crystal monochromator and a new type of polariser employing polarising neutron supermirrors based on the principle of an optical periscope were developed and tested during this work. Furthermore, NDI measurements on various samples of the weakly ferromagnetic materials Pd 1-x Ni x and Ni 3 Al are presented. Neutron depolarisation radiography and tomography measurements were conducted with a spatial resolution as high as 0.3 mm on Pd 1-x Ni x and Ni 3 Al samples. The feasibility of NDI experiments under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 kbar was shown on a sample of Ni 3 Al using a modified Cu:Be clamp cell. A decrease of the ordering temperature by 2 K under hydrostatic pressure was determined from the NDI measurements and shows the potential of the method for further high pressure experiments. Additionally a method was developed which in principle allows to obtain the intrinsic dependence of the ordering temperature T C on the ordered moment Ms from NDI measurements on inhomogeneous samples containing regions with different ordering temperatures. This

  11. Digital radiography of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kenji; Hachiya, Junichi; Korenaga, Tateo; Nitatori, Toshiaki; Miyasaka, Yasuo; Furuya, Yoshiro

    1984-01-01

    Initial clinical experience in digital chest radiography utilizing photostimulable phosphor and scanning laser stimulated luminescence was reported. Image quality of conventional film/screen radiography and digital radiography was compared in 30 normal cases. Reflecting wide dynamic range of the system, improved image quality was confirmed in all 30 cases, particularly in visibility of various mediastinal structures and pulmonary vessels. High sensor sensitivity of the system enabled digital radiography to reduce radiation dose requirement significantly. Diagnostically acceptable chest images were obtained with approximately 1/5 of routine dose for conventional radiography without significant image quality degradation. Some artifact created by digital processing were mostly overcome by a routine use of simultaneous display of two different types of image processing and therefore was not an actual drawback from diagnostic standpoint. Further technical advancement of the system to be seen for digital storage, retrieval and tranceference of images. (author)

  12. A system for fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klann, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this system, objects as small as a coin and as large as a 19 liter container have been radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3 x 10[sup 10] neutrons/second with an average energy of 14. 5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available light-tight cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to produce protons from the neutron beam through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9 x 10[sup 7] n/cm[sup 2] to 3.8 x 10[sup 8] n/cm[sup 2] depending on the type of screen and film. The optimum source-to-film distance was found to be 150 cm. At this distance, the geometric unsharpness was determined to be approximately 2.2-2.3 mm and the smallest hole that could be resolved in a 1.25 cm thick sample had a diameter of 0.079 cm

  13. Digital radiography: study of an alternative technique to conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchet, J.; Tisseur, D.; Thomas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Digital radiography, already in use in many industrial applications, appears as a potential alternative technique to conventional radiography in the nuclear field (and more especially to the inspection of welded joints). The advantages of digital radiography are a reduced explosion risk (due to the use of lower energy and activity sources), a lower installation time, a reduced exclusion zone, and the absence of effluents. However, to the contrary of the US case, this technique may not be used in France as it is not referenced in the regulating codes (RCCM, etc.). Areva has launched a R and D study in order to characterize the equivalencies between digital and conventional radiography. First results of this study are given

  14. Radiography geometry principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    If one object placed in the field under the sun, we can see the shadow of that object in two dimensional where that object was placed. Nevertheless, the sun cannot penetrate deeply so that it will produce the shadow with same object. This principal also same as radiography, however, with ionizing radiation, it can penetrate through the object so that the image that produced not only the shadow of the object but also what are inside the object. So this can give advantages for the radiographer to make inspection what are inside this object. The images that produce depend with the shape, density, thickness and distance between the object, film and source. The reader also will introduce with some term such as Distance source to film, distance source to object, and distance object to film also some basic on DIN standard and API 1104 Standard.

  15. Improvements relating to radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, R.H.; Vandenabeele, H.

    1977-01-01

    An improved combination of photosensitive materials suitable for use in radiography is described, with particular reference to a combination for an X-ray intensifying screen of the fluorescent type and a silver halide recorder. The intensifying material comprises a phosphor consisting wholly or mainly of a rare earth metal activated lanthanum oxyhalide, having more than half its spectral energy emission > 410 nm wavelength, more than half its visible light spectral energy emission in the range 400 to 500 nm, and its maximum energy emission peak in the range 400 to 450 nm. The phosphor should have a coverage of at least 200 to 800 g of the oxyhalide per sq. m. The screen material also contains a dye or pigment that absorbs light within the emission spectrum of the phosphor. The photosensitive recording material incorporates at least one silver halide emulsion layer. The combination should give a screen intensification factor of at least 20 to 40 kV. (U.K.)

  16. Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    reactor fuel as well as establish standards for radiographic image quality of neutron radiographs. The NRWG meets once a year in each of the neutron radiography centers to review the progress made and draw plans for the future. Besides, ad-hoc sub-groups or. different topics within the field of neutron......In 1979 a Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) was constituted within Buratom with the participation of all centers within the European Community at which neutron facilities were available. The main purpose of NRWG was to standardize methods and procedures used in neutron radiography of nuclear...... radiography are constituted. This paper reviews the activities and achievements of the NRWG and its sub-groups....

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  20. Radiation Effects in Paediatric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutwasi, O.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging has evolved from single technique to a field which we have a choice from many modalities. Some without radiation. Radiation producing modalities include plain films (low dose), Fluoroscopy (mid range dose), Computed tomography (high dose). Radiography dose can significantly be influenced in plain radiography by varying speed of screens, cassette construction and type of radiography. E.g. digital or computed. In computed or digital radiography we are no longer able to tell h igh dose b y the quality of images. The final image is by great extend a product of post processing algorithms. It's for this reasons that the basic understanding of the sensitivity and specifying of various types of examinations and of specifically radiation effects is mandatory for a paediatric imager

  1. Digital luminescent radiography: A substitute for conventional chest radiography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufang, K.F.R.; Krug, B.; Lorenz, R.; Steinbrich, W.

    1990-01-01

    The image quality of digital luminescent radiography (DLR) is sufficient for routine biplane chest radiography and for follow-up studies of heart size, pulmonary congestion, coin lesions, infiltrations, atelectasis, pleural effusions, and mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement. Chest radiography in the intensive care unit may in most cases be performed using the DLR technique. there is no need for repeat shots because of incorrect exposure, and the position of catheters, tubes, pacemakers, drains and artificial heart valves, the mediastinum, and the retrocardiac areas of the left lung are more confidently assessed on the edge-enhanced DLR films than on conventional films. Nevertheless, DLR is somewhat inferior to conventional film-screen radiography of the chest as it can demonstrate or rule out subtle pulmonary interstitial disease less confidently. There is no reduction of radiation exposure of the chest in DLR compared with modern film-screen systems. As a consequence, DLR is presently not in a position to replace traditional film-screen radiography of the chest completely. (orig.) [de

  2. Heavy-ion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Holley, W.R.; Benton, E.V.; Woodruff, K.H.; MacFarland, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    High energy, heavy-ion beams offer superior discrimination of tissue electron densities at very low radiation doses. This characteristic has potential for diagnostic medical imaging of neoplasms arising in the soft tissues and organs because it can detect smaller inhomogeneities than x rays. Heavy-ion imaging may also increase the accuracy of cancer radiotherapy planning involving use of accelerated charged particles. In the current physics research program of passive heavy-ion imaging, critical modulation transfer function tests are being carried out in heavy-ion projection radiography and heavy-ion computerized tomography. The research goal is to improve the heavy-ion imaging method until it reaches the limits of its theoretical resolution defined by range straggling, multiple scattering, and other factors involved in the beam quality characteristics. Clinical uses of the imaging method include the application of heavy-ion computerized tomography to heavy-ion radiotherapy planning, to the study of brain tumors and other structures of the head, and to low-dose heavy-ion projection mammography, particularly for women with dense breasts where other methods of diagnosis fail. The ions used are primarily 300 to 570 MeV/amu carbon and neon ions accelerated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac

  3. Line C17: alpha and medium-level beta-gamma laboratory pilot facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calor, J.N.; Mauborgne, B.; Montuir, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Process Development Laboratory (LDP) uses the ATALANTE C17 line for integral testing in order to develop and validate spent fuel reprocessing methods and for overall qualification of calculation codes. Line C 17 comprises shielded cells and glove boxes, equipped with centrifugal extractors and laboratory-scale mixer-settlers to test liquid-liquid extraction processes in an alpha and medium-level beta-gamma environment. The high reliability and precision of the process instrumentation and control system allow full control of operating parameters and comprehensive operating data recording, meeting the experimentation quality requirements necessary for qualifying calculation codes. Direct online spectrophotometric analysis at various points in the process provides real-time concentration data for vital elements, some of which are difficult to analyze offline because of their poor chemical stability. Online analyses, supplemented when necessary by gamma spectrometry, provide valuable process control input for reaching stabilized operating conditions. Fifteen radioactive test campaigns have been successfully completed since line C 17 was commissioned in June 1995. (authors)

  4. Portable digital electronic radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    Radiography is a standard nondestructive technique in the industrial testing of materials and components. It is routinely used during the construction, maintenance and repair of nuclear plants. Traditionally, radiography is performed using photographic film (film radiography, FR). Recent developments in solid-state area imaging radiation detectors, miniature electronics and computer software/hardware techniques have brought electronic alternatives to FR. In recent years various electronic radiography (ER) techniques have served as alternatives to FR, these proved beneficial in some applications. While originally developed to provide real time imaging, ER may offer other advantages over FR, depending on the application. Work was undertaken at CRL to review progress in ER techniques and evaluate the possibility of constructing a portable DER (digital electronic radiography) system, for the inspection of power plant components. A suitable DER technique has been developed and a proof of principle portable system constructed. As this paper demonstrates, a properly designed ER system can be small and compact, while providing radiographic examination with acceptable image quality and the benefits of ER imaging. The CRL DER system can operate with radioactive sources typical of FR. While it does not replace FR, our DER system is expected to be beneficial in specific applications for Candu maintenance, reducing cost, labour and time. Practical, cost saving applications of this system are expected to include valve monitoring and foreign object location during maintenance at Candu reactors

  5. Computed radiography in NDT application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprins, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Computed Radiography, or digital radiography by use of reusable Storage Phosphor screens, offers a convenient and reliable way to replace film. In addition to the reduced cost on consumables, the return on investment of CR systems is strongly determined by savings in exposure time, processing times and archival times. But also intangible costs like plant shutdown, environment safety and longer usability of isotopes are increasingly important when considering replacing film by Storage Phosphor systems. But mote than in traditional radiography, the use of digital images is a trade-off between the speed and the required quality. Better image quality is obtained by longer exposure times, slower phosphor screens and higher scan resolutions. Therefore, different kinds of storage phosphor screens are needed in order to cover every application. Most operations have the data, associated with the tests to be performed, centrally stored in a database. Using a digital radiography system gives not only the advantages of the manipulation of digital images, but also the digital data that is associated with it. Smart methods to associate cassettes and Storage screens with exposed images enhance the workflow of the NDT processes, and avoid human error. Automated measurements tools increase the throughput in different kinds of operations. This paper gives an overview of the way certain operations have decided to replace film by Computed Radiography, and what the major benefits for them have been.

  6. Digital Radiography in Kenya today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omenta, E.N.

    2006-01-01

    Its nearly one year and a half since digital imaging/radiography was introduced in Kenya mainly in Nairobi. the technology is becoming an increasingly effective and acceptable modality of producing radiographs from the traditional conventional radiography in use to date. the digital radiography offers numerous advantages that have been noted for the short period over the conventional way. For instance radiographs are produced in real time (less than 3 minutes), by so doing the technology has eliminated the wait for the processing period. the radiation exposure to the patient under the radiological examination is reduced as much as 90% from the traditional conventional film taking. The cost, labour and record-keeping necessary to maintain a chemical processor and darkroom operations are as well eliminated. The cost of purchasing and disposing of film wastes/darkroom processing chemicals, which are environmentally hazardous, also become unnecessary.digital radiography technology makes the digital images comparable to other images on the screen at that instant making both the patient and the clinician easily access images when needed. digital receptors have also replaced the cassette containing intensifying screens and film that is used in conventional radiography

  7. Computed radiography for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tatsuya; Muramatsu, Yukio

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possibility of using computed radiographic mammography in mass surveys of the breast, we have retrospectively examined 71 breast cancer lesions in 71 patients using computed radiographic and conventional non-screen mammographies and have carried out comparative studies on tumor detection rate and calcification. A 95.8% detection rate was obtained for the tumor image (n 71) using computed radiography (CR) and one of 93.0% using non-screen techniques. Three lesions remained undetected by either study. A 100% detection rate was obtained for calcification associated with cancer (n 33) from each method. No significant differences in either detection rate or calcification were seen between the two images. On the other hand, the ability to recognize tumor images (n 66) was as follows; CR superior to non-screen radiography in 53 lesions (80.3%), equal in eight lesions (12.1%) and inferior in five lesions (7.6%). For the calcification images (n 18), CR was superior to non-screen radiography in all 18 lesions. Obviously, CR gives better results than non-screen radiography. Furthermore, an adequate image can be obtained using CR even although the X-ray dosage is only a twentieth of that required for non-screen radiography. It can therefore be applied not only to mass surveys for breast cancer but also to routine clinical diagnoses. (author)

  8. Industrial Radiography | Radiation Protection | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Manufacturers use a method called industrial radiography to check for cracks or flaws in materials. Radiation is used in industrial radiography to show problems not visible from the outside without damaging the material.

  9. Pediatric radiation dose management in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, U.

    2004-01-01

    Direct digital radiography (DR) systems based on flat-panel detectors offer improved dose management in pediatric radiography. Integration of X-ray generation and detection in one computer-controlled system provides better control and monitoring

  10. Image Acquisition and Quality in Digital Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Shannon

    2016-09-01

    Medical imaging has undergone dramatic changes and technological breakthroughs since the introduction of digital radiography. This article presents information on the development of digital radiography and types of digital radiography systems. Aspects of image quality and radiation exposure control are highlighted as well. In addition, the article includes related workplace changes and medicolegal considerations in the digital radiography environment. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  11. Neutron radiography for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron radiography is similar to X-ray inspection in that both depend upon use of radiation that penetrates some materials and is absorbed by others to provide a contrast image of conditions not readily available for visual inspection. X-rays are absorbed by dense materials, such as metals, whereas neutrons readily penetrate metals, but are absorbed by materials containing hydrogen. The neutron radiography has been successfully applied to a number of inspection situations. These include the inspection of explosives, advanced composites, adhesively bonded structures and a number of aircraft engine components. With the availability of Californium-252, it has become feasible to construct mobile neutron radiography systems suitable for field use. Such systems have been used for in-situ inspection of flight line aircraft, particularly to locate and measure hidden corrosion

  12. Neutron radiography of fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.N. Jr.; Powers, H.G.; Burgess, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron radiography performed with a reactor source has been shown to be a superior radiographic method for the examination of unirradiated mixed oxide fuel pins at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. Approximately 1,700 fuel pins were contained in a sample that demonstrated the capability of the method for detecting laminations, structural flaws, fissile density variation, hydrogenous inclusions and voids in assembled fuel pins. The nature, extent, and importance of the detected conditions are substantiated by gamma autoradiography and by destructive analysis employing alpha autoradiography, electron microprobe and visual inspection. Also, a series of radiographs illustrate the response of neutron radiography as compared to low voltage and high voltage x-ray and gamma source Iridium 192 radiography. (U.S.)

  13. Neutron-induced alpha radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marco Antonio Stanojev

    2008-01-01

    A new radiography technique to inspect thin samples was developed. Low energy alpha particles, generated by a boron based screen under thermal neutron irradiation, are used as penetrating radiation. The solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 has been used to register the image. The interaction of the α - particles with the CR-39 gives rise to damages which under an adequate chemical etching became tracks the basic units forming the image. A digital system was developed for data acquisition and data analysis as well as for image processing. The irradiation and etching conditions to obtain the best radiography are 1,3 hours and 25 minutes at 70 deg C respectively. For such conditions samples having 10 μm in thickness can be inspected with a spatial resolution of 32 μm. The use of the digital system has reduced the time spent for data acquisition and data analysis and has improved the radiography image visualization. Furthermore, by using the digital system, it was possible to study several new parameters regarding the tracks which are very important to understand and study the image formation theory in solid state nuclear track detectors, the one used in this thesis. Some radiography images are also shown which demonstrate the potential of the proposed radiography technique. When compared with the other radiography techniques already in use to inspect thin samples, the present one developed in the present paper allows a smaller time to obtain the image, it is not necessary to handle liquid radioactive substances, the detector is insensitive to β, γ, X-ray and visible light. (author)

  14. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very small dose ... Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the most commonly performed diagnostic ...

  15. A range of equipment for dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, G.P.M.; Clement, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review of the history of dental radiography is followed by a description of the latest Philips equipment, ranging from compact units for intra-oral radiography to advanced systems for panoramic techniques and skull radiography. The advantages of automatic exposure control and automatic film processing are also discussed. In conclusion, some probable future trends are forecast. (Auth.)

  16. Development of tungsten collimators for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varkey, P.A.; Verma, P.B.; Jayakumar, T.K.; Mammachan, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    Collimators are essential components of industrial radiography set up as it provides radiation safety to persons involved in the radiography work. A collimator with optimum design features also helps in reducing the scattered radiation which in turn results in radiographs having better sensitivity. This papers describes the salient design features of the tungsten collimators developed by the BRIT, for industrial radiography. (author)

  17. Radioisotopes - their applications in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, H.R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The nature of radioisotopes and their industrial applications with special reference to industrial radiography are outlined. The various aspects of industrial radiography such as source size, source containers, films, density of radiography, radiographic quality and applications are discussed in brief. (M.G.B.)

  18. TREAT neutron-radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    The TREAT reactor was built as a transient irradiation test reactor. By taking advantage of built-in system features, it was possible to add a neutron-radiography facility. This facility has been used over the years to radiograph a wide variety and large number of preirradiated fuel pins in many different configurations. Eight different specimen handling casks weighing up to 54.4 t (60 T) can be accommodated. Thermal, epithermal, and track-etch radiographs have been taken. Neutron-radiography service can be provided for specimens from other reactor facilities, and the capacity for storing preirradiated specimens also exists

  19. Radiation protection in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozani, F.; Parnianpour, H.

    1976-08-01

    In considering the special provisions required in dental radiography, investigations were conducted in Iran. Radiation dose levels in dental radiography were found to be high. Patient exposure from intraoral radiographic examination was calculated, using 50kV X-ray. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were fastened to the nasion, eyes, lip, philtrum, thyroid, gonads and to the right and left of the supra-orbital, infra-orbital temporomandibular joints of live patients. The highest exposure value was for the lower lip. Recommendations concerning educational training and protection of staff and patients were included

  20. Use of radiography in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetin, M.; Ekinci, Sh.; Aksu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : Radiography is a versatile technique with many applications to archaeological and art historical artefacts. It can be used to assess the condition of objects before conservation treatment, to gain insight into materials used and methods of construction and to reveal the secrets of the embalmers art, hidden within mummified remains. X-ray radiography is an invaluable investigative technique that is non-destructive, quick and cost effective. The study described below covers the investigations of the archaeological artefacts in order to determine their corrosion conditions and production histories which are important for restoration, conservation, replica, dating and inventory works

  1. Educational aspects of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.; Wamorkar, R.R.; Singh, G.

    1979-01-01

    The state of art of training and education in non-destructive testing in India, with special reference to industrial radiography is reviewed. Basic requirement of industry and potential of radioisotopes in industrial inspection are also described. Need for an organised training programme in industrial isotope radiography to exploit potentials for benefit of industry concurrent with the safety is stressed. A comprehensive training programme tailored to meet the needs of Indian industry is outlined. Benefits obtained from the course to the industry since the beginning of the training programme are briefly reviewed. (auth.)

  2. Control and data acquisition system for Beam Line C and HRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naivar, F.J.; Rogers, W.L.; Simmonds, D.D.; Spencer, J.E.; Spencer, N.C.; Stark, C.F.

    1977-03-01

    The High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) at LAMPF is a multimillion dollar facility intended for the study of proton induced reactions and scattering with 100 to 800 MeV protons. It will be used by research scientists from universities and other national laboratories throughout the United States. The design resolution of +-1.5:10 -5 is better than any similar system ever attempted in this energy range. To obtain this quality as well as fully realize the research potential of the facility, a rather sophisticated computer control and data acquisition system is required. The facility, based on a general multiuser, multitask, multiprocessor system, is described

  3. Radiological safety aspects of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanekom, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    Industrial radiography and especially gamma-radiography, has established itself as a very powerful tool in non-destructive testing. Unfortunately there is an amount of risk attached to the use of industrial radiography. The primary causes of radiography accidents include: working conditions, equipment failure and lack of supervisory control. To alleviate the radiological risks involved with gamma-radiography, the Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) has imposed various conditions for the possession, use, and conveyance of radioactive material. This includes personnel training and equipment specifications

  4. Radiation protection in technical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, H.

    1980-01-01

    In on-site inspections, e.g. double-plate radiography of circumferential pipe welds Ir-192 is most frequently used. Methods, controlled area, possible personnel doses, and radiation protection measures for the inspection and construction personnel are briefly discussed. (HP) [de

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  6. Image quality in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, H.

    1986-01-01

    The contribution deals with the potentials of digital radiography and critically evaluates the advantages of drawbacks of the image intensifier-tv-digital system; digitalisation of the X-ray film and scanning of luminescent storage foils. The evaluation is done in comparison with the image quality of the traditional, large-size X-ray picture. (orig.) [de

  7. Endobronchial Tuberculosis and Chest Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sasani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial tuberculosis and chest radiography I read, with interest, the article entitled “Clinical and Para-clinical Presentations of Endobronchial Tuberculosis” by Ahmadi Hoseini H. S. et al. (1 published in this journal. I would like to focus on some details about the chest X-ray of patients as elaborated by the authors in the results section. Accordingly, the findings of chest radiography in the available patients were as follows: pulmonary consolidation (75%, reduced pulmonary volume (20%, and hilar adenopathy (10%. This is an incomplete statement because the authors did not explain whether there was any normal chest radiography in the study population. In addition, it is not clear whether the X-ray examinations of the patients were normal, how many abnormal plain films yielded the presented data. On the other hand, the fact that the studied patients had no normal chest radiography is  controversial since in the literature, 10-20% of the patients with endobronchial tuberculosis are reported to have normal chest X-ray (2, 3. In fact, this is one of the problems in the diagnosis of the disease, as well as a potential cause of delayed diagnosis and treatment of the patients. Therefore, the absence of normal chest radiographs is in contrast to the available literature, and if not an error, it could be a subject of further investigation.

  8. Industrial Radiography: Principle and Practical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The successful and effectiveness of radiography method as a tool to increase quality level and safety of the engineering system and processing plants depend with the level of radiographer knowledge as service provider and also as supervisor. This book was published as effort several local experts to give their knowledge, theory and practical related to radiography technique to the involved public directly or indirectly. This book started with basic physic knowledge that becomes a root to radiography technology. Then, followed by discussion on tools and device that used in radiography work including x-ray machine, gamma projector, film, dark room, and others. Each aspect of radiograph quality also mentioned here to guide the reader on how to produce good radiograph that filled the specification wanted. The good radiograph does not mean anything if it failed to be interpreted correctly. Because of that, this book also explain how to choose good radiograph that qualified to be interpreted and after that how interpretation and evaluation process of object quality inspected was implemented based on image digestion that showed in radiograph. Several code and standard that usually applied in this country also will be referred as well for this work.

  9. Safety procedures for radiography works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Work preparation: before exposure, during exposure, after work completion. Radiographic work at the open site: types of open sites, establishment of radiographic boundary, storage of radiographic equipment at sites. Safety procedures for radiography works; radiographic works in exposure room

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? ...

  12. Neutron radiography of osteopetrotic rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, B.; Renard, G.; Le Gall, J.; Laporte, A.

    1983-01-01

    The osteopetrotic disease is characterized by bone and cartilage tissue coexistence in the medullary space of long bones. The authors have studied ''congenital osteopetrosis'' of ''op'' rats. Comparing radiography, neutrography and histology, the evolution of the ''osteopetrotic disease'' and the healing of the ill rats by a single injection of bone marrow from normal animals is shown. (Auth.)

  13. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  14. Practical radiation protection for radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, S.K.; Proudfoot, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Nondestructive Testing Applications and Radiological Engineering at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory have developed radiation protection procedures, radiation work procedures, and safe practice procedures to assure safe operation for all radiographic work. The following topics are discussed: training in radiation safety; radiation exposure due to operations at Hanford; safeguards employed in laboratory radiography; field radiographic operations; and problems

  15. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Alfred R

    2006-01-01

    Proton therapy has become a subject of considerable interest in the radiation oncology community and it is expected that there will be a substantial growth in proton treatment facilities during the next decade. I was asked to write a historical review of proton therapy based on my personal experiences, which have all occurred in the United States, so therefore I have a somewhat parochial point of view. Space requirements did not permit me to mention all of the existing proton therapy facilities or the names of all of those who have contributed to proton therapy. (review)

  16. Industrial Radiography Safety in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockings, Colin

    2006-01-01

    The first applications of the imaging capability of X-rays were non-medical. Roentgen produced images of his shotgun, a compass and a set of weights in a closed box to show his colleagues. Prior to 1912, X-rays were used little outside the realms of medicine and dentistry because the X-ray tubes failed under the higher voltages required for industrial purposes. However, that changed in 1913 when high vacuum X-ray tubes designed by Coolidge became available. In 1922, industrial radiography took another step forward with the advent of the 200,000-volt X-ray tube that allowed radiographs of thick steel parts to be produced in a reasonable amount of time. In 1931 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) permitted approval of fusion welded pressure vessels by x-ray, which promoted an acceptance and use of the method. That application continues. Radium became the initial gamma ray source for industrial radiography. The material allowed radiography of castings up to 30cm thick. During World War II, industrial radiography grew significantly as part of the US Navy's shipbuilding-program, and in 1946 gamma ray sources such as cobalt 60 and iridium 192 became available. These new sources gained rapid popularity because they emitted more intense radiation than radium and were less expensive. Present state: the majority of industrial radiography techniques have changed little since their inception. An image is captured, processed and analysed for evidence of fault or defect. Today however, the images are of higher quality and greater sensitivity, through the use of better quality films, smaller radiation sources and automated processing. Developments in electronics and computers now allow technicians to create a digital image, enhance it, transmit it or store it indefinitely. The most noticeable change in industrial radiography equipment from the technician's view would be the reduction in weight of the equipment for a given kV output. Never the less it remains

  17. Dose optimisation in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner-Karoussou, A.

    2005-01-01

    After the installation of computed radiography (CR) systems in three hospitals in Luxembourg a patient dose survey was carried out for three radiographic examinations, thorax, pelvis and lumbar spine. It was found that the patient doses had changed in comparison with the patient doses measured for conventional radiography in the same three hospitals. A close collaboration between the manufacturers of the X-ray installations, the CR imaging systems and the medical physicists led to the discovery that the speed class with which each radiographic examination was to be performed, had been ignored, during installation of the digital imaging systems. A number of procedures were carried out in order to calibrate and program the X-ray installations in conjunction with the CR systems. Following this optimisation procedure, a new patient dose survey was carried out for the three radiographic examinations. It was found that patient doses for the three hospitals were reduced. (authors)

  18. System for uncollimated digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Hall, James M.; McCarrick, James F.; Tang, Vincent

    2015-08-11

    The inversion algorithm based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) removes unwanted effects in high energy imaging resulting from an uncollimated source interacting with a finitely thick scintillator. The algorithm takes as input the image from the thick scintillator (TS) and the radiography setup geometry. The algorithm then outputs a restored image which appears as if taken with an infinitesimally thin scintillator (ITS). Inversion is accomplished by numerically generating a probabilistic model relating the ITS image to the TS image and then inverting this model on the TS image through MEM. This reconstruction technique can reduce the exposure time or the required source intensity without undesirable object blurring on the image by allowing the use of both thicker scintillators with higher efficiencies and closer source-to-detector distances to maximize incident radiation flux. The technique is applicable in radiographic applications including fast neutron, high-energy gamma and x-ray radiography using thick scintillators.

  19. Industrial radiography X and Gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres M, Nelson; Torres B, Miguel; Montanez, Juan.

    1986-04-01

    This publication gives a practical orientation on industrial radiography. The first chapters deal with basic facts that are useful for professional work in this field. It comprises topics such as generation of X-rays, equipment being used, radiographic films, sensibility, and the penetrameters used. This publication also describes the most used radiographic techniques and the processing of the radiographic film. It contains practical recommendations on how to obtain a good radiographic inspection. It states the reasons for defects in the radiographies. Two annexes are attached which include tables for the selection of penetrameters according to the ASME and DIN codes as well as the time needed for development and fixing according to the temperature

  20. Vertebral Fracture Assessment in Supine Position : Comparison by Using Conventional Semiquantitative Radiography and Visual Radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Ilone C.; van der Laan, Johan G.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Nieboer, Patrick; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Kreeftenberg, Herman G.; Jager, Pieter L.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) performed with the patient in the supine position and conventional semiquantitative radiography of the spine by using conventional visual radiography of the spine as the reference standard. Materials and

  1. Industrial radiography with phosphor screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, P.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental system that comprises a film of low silver content and a pair of high resolution phosphor intensifying screens and a commercial industrial X-ray film of similar speed are compared for image quality. It is concluded that the use of phosphor screens offers an increase in image quality when the information is limited by the graininess or quantum mottle of a radiograph which is frequently the case in practical radiography. (author)

  2. Radiological security for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya G, Manuel.

    1985-04-01

    This report comprises the basic notions of nucleonics, simple calculations for point sources, X-rays, calculations for coatings, standards for radiation protection and industrial radiography instruments. The preceding sums up with the biological effects of ionizing radiation. This is a guide for people who wish to pass examinations, to get the license for radiological safety, for operators on gamma-graphic sources, which work in the country. It is a requirement for work with this kind of radioactive sources

  3. Digital radiography using scintillating screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvini, E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the technical features of a digital radiographic system based on the principle of scanning laser stimulated luminescence. Such aspects as the physics of the stimulable phosphor detector are dealt with, and image acquisition, processing, and hard-copy output. Automatic analysis of pixel histograms is described, in a qualitative way, together with contrast modifications and spatial filtering. Physical image characteristics are reported. The overall performance of digital radiography is examined, together with the current requirements and its eventual developments

  4. Exposure reduction in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapa, S.F.; Platin, E.

    1990-01-01

    Increased receptor speed in panoramic radiography is useful in reducing patient exposure if it doesn't substantially decrease the diagnostic quality of the resultant image. In a laboratory investigation four rare earth screen/film combinations were evaluated ranging in relative speed from 400 to 1200. The results indicated that an exposure reduction of approximately 15 percent can be achieved by substituting a 1200 speed system for a 400 speed system without significantly affecting the diagnostic quality of the image

  5. Radiation safety for site radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This guidance is an update of the 1975 Code of Practice for Site Radiography and is for the use of employers and their radiographers who carry out site work. The subject is discussed under the following headings: Administrative organization, Personnel requirements, Equipment (x-ray and gamma-ray equipment, security, pipeline crawler equipment and safety equipment) Work methods and monitoring, Carriage of sources, Contingency plans, Legal considerations. (U.K.)

  6. Radiography using californium-252 neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The current status in the technology of neutron radiography using californium-252 neutron sources is summarized. Major emphasis is on thermal neutron radiography since it has the widest potential applicability at the present time. Attention is given to four major factors which affect the quality and useability of thermal neutron radiography: source neutron thermalization, neutron beam extraction geometry, neutron collimator dimensions, and neutron imaging methods. Each of these factors has a major effect on the quality of the radiographs which are obtained from a californium source neutron radiography system and the exposure times required to obtain the radiographs; radiograph quality and exposure time in turn affect the practicality of neutron radiography for specific nondestructive inspection applications. A brief discussion of fast neutron radiography using californium-252 neutron sources is also included. (U.S.)

  7. New prospect in neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluzeau, S.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron radiography is a very useful non-destructive testing (NDT) method which frequently complements classical X-ray inspection. Numerous inspections in some fields are currently performed at reactor-based neutron radiography facilities but many other interesting applications in different fields are at present not considered because the objects to be tested cannot be moved to a reactor. It is the goal of the DIANE project, to allow the utilization of this NDT method in industrial facilities by developing a safe and convenient neutron radiography equipment using an ''on-off'' neutron source. As a result of the efforts of the four European partners, a first laboratory demonstration model is currently in operation in Germany and a fully mobile second one is expected by the end of 1992. Good radiographs are obtained with exposure times in the range of a few seconds to ten minutes using an electronic imaging system. The fast neutron generator uses a sealed neutron tube delivering 5.10 11 neutrons.cm -2 .s -1 in 4 π steradian; with a collimator ratio of about 12, the fluence rate onto the object is then close to 1,5.10 5 thermal neutrons.cm -2 .s -1 . (author)

  8. Medical radiography with fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duehmke, E.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron radiography is important in medicine for two reasons. On the one hand, macroradiographical findings are different from X-ray findings, i.e. new information may be gained on the morphology of humans and animals. On the other hand, there is a direct practical application in the radiotherapy of malignant tumours if one considers the assessment of the growth of malignant processes. Fast neutrons are required for neutron radiographies of biological objects with a diameter of more than 2 cm. In addition sensitive, two-dimensional detectors must be used which are selective for fast neutrons. The book describes the optimisation and sensitisation of a detector using the example of cellulose nitrate foil for fast reactor neutrons. Images of human spinal chords with tumours proved by pathological and anatomical examinations give a better picture of the dimensions of the tumour than comparative X-ray pictures. For examinations of living patients, neutron radiography should be applied only in those tumour-bearing parts of the bodies in which radiation treatment is required for therapeutical purposes anyway. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Portable radiography using linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    There are numerous instances where the availability of a portable high-energy radiography machine that could be transported to the inspection site with relative ease would save time, money, and make radiography of permanent installations, such as bridges, possible. One such machine, the Minac built by Schoenberg Radiation Inc., is commercially available. It operates at 9.3 GHz, has an electron energy on target of 3.5 MeV, and an output dose rate of 100 R/min. A second portable accelerator, recently completed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, operates at 2.998 GHz, has electron energies on target of 6, 8, and 10 MeV, and an output dose rate of 800 R/min at 8 MeV. This paper discusses the need for and applications of portable accelerators for radiography. Physical characteristics and beam parameters of both machines are examined in detail. Problems of operating at higher frequencies to further minimize size and weight are discussed

  10. Neutron radiography at the Risoe National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.; Gade-Nielsen, P.; Knudsen, P.; Olsen, J.

    1981-11-01

    In this report six papers are collected which will be presented at the First World Conference on Neutron Radiography in San Diego, U.S.A., 7 - 10 December 1981. They are preceded by a short description of the activities of Risoe National Laboratory in the field of post-irradiation examination of nuclear fuel. One of the nondestructive methods used for this examination is neutron radiography. In the six conference papers different aspects of neutron radiography performed at Risoe are presented. (author)

  11. Industrial radiography techniques and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamorkar, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Various aspects of industrial radiography are discussed. These include: radiation sources, geometrical unsharpness of image, radiation attenuation in the specimen, radiation effect of film, types of film, intensifying screens, exposure time calculations, source to film distance and sensivitity. Radiography techniques for examination of welded joints on flat plate and pipes or cylindrical objects, and castings are indicated. Applications of radiography in various industries are mentioned. (M.G.B.)

  12. Chest radiography after minor chest trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossen, B.; Laursen, N.O.; Just, S.

    The results of chest radiography in 581 patients with blunt minor thoracic trauma were reviewed. Frontal and lateral views of the chest indicated pathology in 72 patients (12.4%). Pneumothorax was present in 16 patients; 4 had hemothorax. The physical examination and the results of chest radiography were not in accordance because in 6(30%) of the 20 patients with hemo/-pneumothorax the physical examination was normal. Consequently there is wide indication for chest radiography after minor blunt chest trauma.

  13. A Neutron Radiography System for Field Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    provoked a major renewal of interest in neutron radiography because it promises to bring neutron radiography to the workplace , a convenience provided...II I~F I C II i IiH i ii MTL TR 89-52 I-AD A NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY SYSTEM N FOR FIELD USE e~m JOHN J. ANTAL and ALFRED S. MAROTTA, and LOUIS J. FARESE...COVERED A NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY SYSTEM FOR FIELD USE Final Report 6. PERFORMING OR1. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) John J

  14. Fracture healing: direct magnification versus conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, T.M.; Kessler, T.; Lange, T.; Overbeck, J.; Fiebich, M.; Peters, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of magnification radiography in diagnosing fracture healing and assessing its complications. Seventy-three patients with fractures or who had undergone osteotomy were radiographed with both conventional (non-magnified) and magnification (5-fold) techniques. Since 10 patients were radiographed twice and 1 three times, 83 radiographs using each technique were obtained. All radiographs were analysed and the findings correlated with the patients' follow-up studies. The microfocal X-ray unit used for magnification radiography had a focal spot size of 20-130 μm. As an imaging system, digital luminescence radiography was employed with magnification, while normal film-screen systems were used with conventional radiography. Magnification radiography proved superior to conventional radiography in 47% of cases: endosteal and periosteal callus formations were seen earlier and better in 26 cases, and osseous union could be evaluated with greater certainty in 33 cases. In 49% of cases magnification radiography was equal and in 4% inferior to conventional radiography. Additionally an ''inter-observer analysis'' was carried out. Anatomical and pathological structures were classified into one of four grades. Results were significantly (P < 0.01) better using magnification radiography. We conclude that the magnification technique is a good method for monitoring fracture healing in its early stages. (orig.)

  15. Digital and analogue industrial radiography, application fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, Peter; Millord, Erik Yardin

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Reusable phosphor screens for computer radiography (CR), amorphous selenium screens for direct radiography (DR), film digitalisation (FD) constitute imaging methods accepted by industry and are used for non-destructive radiographic testing (RT). Economic pressures are involving and affecting digital RT technology. Standards and codes for film radiography and radioscopy qualification do no longer cover the wide range of digital RT applications. It will be our task to optimise the performance of digital RT characterisation and to create appropriate examination methods to use all these new and existent technologies. In the meantime, an increasing automation and control of manual methods of analogue radiography can as well be expected. (author)

  16. Neutron radiography at the HFR Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markgraf, J.F.W.

    1990-03-01

    This report contains the five papers on neutron radiography activities at the Petten High Flux Reactor (HFR) presented at the Third World Conference on Neutron Radiography which was held in May 1989 in Osaka, Japan. In addition, a survey on neutron radiography in Europe for industry and research as presented at the SITEF NDT symposium 1989 on European Advances in Non-Destructive Testing, held in Toulouse/France in October 1989 is included. The papers compiled here are concerned with: the neutron radiography services available in Petten; the experience with and applications of neutron radiography at Petten; image evaluation and analysis techniques at Petten; the practical utilization of nitrocellulose film in neutron radiography in Europe; an introduction into the basic principles of neutron radiography; an overview of the neutron radiography facilities in Europe for industry and research; and a survey of typical applications of neutron radiography in industry, research and sciences. It is the intention of this compilation to provide a comprehensive overview of the present Petten activities and European facilities in this young and promising field of non-destructive testing of materials and components from the nuclear and the non-nuclear industries and research organizations, and from the sciences

  17. Gamma radiography and its technological application; Gammagraphie et techniques annexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    After the presentation of gamma radiography and X-ray radiography, the author compare both techniques showing, in particular, the greater utility of gamma radiography in industrial diagnostic and more particularly on works site diagnostic. Problem of using radiography and safety consideration will be studied. Figures shows two radiography equipment which have been designed for gamma radiography respecting the safety regulations required by the Radioisotope Inter-ministerial Commission. In the second part, different techniques and uses of gamma radiography are briefly described : xerography, neutron radiography, fluoroscopy and imaging amplifier, tomography, betatrons and linear accelerators. Cost analysis will discussed in conclusion. (M.P.)

  18. Note: A monoenergetic proton backlighter for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rygg, J. R.; LePape, S.; Bachmann, B.; Khan, S. F.; Sayre, D. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Zylstra, A. B.; Séguin, F. H.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Lahmann, B. J.; Petrasso, R. D.; Sio, H. W. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Craxton, R. S.; Garcia, E. M.; Kong, Y. Z.; McKenty, P. W. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Rinderknecht, H. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Rosenberg, M. J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    A monoenergetic, isotropic proton source suitable for proton radiography applications has been demonstrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A deuterium and helium-3 gas-filled glass capsule was imploded with 39 kJ of laser energy from 24 of NIF’s 192 beams. Spectral, spatial, and temporal measurements of the 15-MeV proton product of the {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He nuclear reaction reveal a bright (10{sup 10} protons/sphere), monoenergetic (ΔE/E = 4%) spectrum with a compact size (80 μm) and isotropic emission (∼13% proton fluence variation and <0.4% mean energy variation). Simultaneous measurements of products produced by the D(d,p)T and D(d,n){sup 3}He reactions also show 2 × 10{sup 10} isotropically distributed 3-MeV protons.

  19. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (French Edition); Surete radiologique en radiographie industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in Horizontal-Ellipsis shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  20. Application of computed radiography to ERCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shigeki; Mochizuki, Fukuji; Fujita, Naotaka; Itoh, Shoichiro; Ikeda, Takashi; Toyohara, Tokiaki; Matsumoto, Kyoichi

    1984-01-01

    Computed radiography technic was applied to ERCP. Fuji Computed Radiography System was used. The pancreatogram obtained by this method was compared with that of conventional screen-film radiograph. The much finer changes of the pancreatogram can be delineated by the new method. The diagnostic ability of ERCP is thus enhanced by the introduction of FCR. (author)

  1. Radiography of steel castings by radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    The salient features of isotope radiography techniques in the inspections of alloy castings are described. Some of the typical radiographic tests conducted in the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., Bhopal and the problems encountered are described in detail. Specific examples are cited to enlighten the benefits of isotope radiography in heavy industries. (author)

  2. Better imaging: the advantages of digital radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stelt, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years, but it has not replaced conventional film-based radiography completely. This could be because of the costs involved in replacing conventional radiographic equipment with a digital imaging system, or because

  3. Computed Radiography Exposure Indices in Mammography | Koen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computed Radiography Exposure Indices in Mammography. L Koen, C Herbst, W Rae. Abstract. Background. Studies indicate that computed radiography (CR) can lead to increased radiation dose to patients. It is therefore important to relate the exposure indicators provided by CR manufacturers to the radiation dose ...

  4. Radiological protection in equine radiography and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoxall, A.T.

    1977-10-01

    The principles of radiological protection are summarised and consideration is then given to problems, which may confront the equine practitioner, in the fulfillment of these principles during diagnostic radiography of the limbs, head, and spine of the horse. The place of anaesthesia in such procedures is discussed and the special problems associated with therapeutic radiography of the horse are considered.

  5. Application of neutron radiography in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Wada, N.; Sekita, J.; Sanno-cho, Ota-ku, Tokyo, Japan)

    1983-01-01

    The history and the present state of neutron radiography in Japan are reviewed. Three types of neutron sources, namely nuclear reactors, accelerators and radioisotopes are now used. The interests on the application on neutron radiography become greater and greater in the industries, such as atomic energy, aeronautics and space etc. (Auth.)

  6. Radiography of the chest and upper airway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharko, G.A.; Wilmot, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The techniques of radiography of the chest in all pediatric-age groups differ only slightly from those used in adult radiography. The technologist's principal challenge, however, relates to optimum handling of the patient with respect to positioning and radiation protection. The hints provided in this chapter should permit the conscientious radiographer to obtain high quality radiographs on all pediatric patients

  7. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY STUDENT GUIDE AND LABORATORY EXERCISES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE TO AN 80-HOUR COURSE IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY IS COORDINATED WITH LESSONS IN THE STUDENT GUIDE AND LABORATORY EXERCISES AND IS BASED ON MATERIAL IN THE COURSE MANUAL, INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY. THE COURSE IS INTENDED TO TRAIN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES AS BEGINNING RADIOGRAPHERS WHO ARE EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO EXTEND THEIR…

  8. Patient risk from interproximal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, S.J.; Pujol, A. Jr.; Chen, T.S.; Malcolm, A.W.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Computer simulation methods for determining patient dose from dental radiography have demonstrated that patient risk from a two-film interproximal examination ranges from 1.1 X 10(-8) to 3.4 X 10(-7) using 90-kVp beams, depending on film speed, projection technique, and age and sex of the patient. Further, changing from a short-cone round-beam to a long-cone technique with rectangular collimation reduces risk by a factor of 2.9, independent of other factors

  9. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloschek, Ph.; Nemec, S.; Widhalm, P.; Donner, R.; Birngruber, E.; Thodberg, H.H.; Kainberger, F.; Langs, G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  10. Patient dosimetry during chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Kosutic, D.; Markovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    Reasons for the variation in patient doses from chest radiography procedure were investigated by assessing entrance skin doses from kerma-area product measurements. Data were collected from seven x-ray tubes in five hospitals involving 259 adult patients. The third quartile value was 0.81 mGy compared to general reference level of 0.30 mGy. The applied tube potential was main contributor to patient dose variation. If department use at least 90 k Vp, the mean entrance surface dose would be reduced ut to factor six. Modification of departmental procedure is correct approach for dose reduction in diagnostic radiology. (author) [sr

  11. Quality assurance in film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Non-destructive testing in the form of radiography is an inherent part of the manufacturing process. In the development stage - it helps locating physical discontinuities of the component and provides a feedback to specify suitable process, and balanced acceptance criteria, keeping in view the cost of manufacture and demands of specification and performance. In the manufacturing stage - it locates the discontinuities occurring at various stages of manufacture, ensuring timely intervention to prevent the production of scrap and/or rework and loss of energy. In the operation stage, it helps in-service and on-line monitoring of components and plants to avert and ensure planned minimum shutdowns

  12. Process waste assessment for the Radiography Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1994-07-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate the Radiography Laboratory, located in Building 923. It documents the processes, identifies the hazardous chemical waste streams generated by these processes, recommends possible ways to minimize waste, and serves as a reference for future assessments of this facility. The Radiography Laboratory provides film radiography or radioscopy (electronic imaging) of weapon and nonweapon components. The Radiography Laboratory has six x-ray machines and one gamma ray source. It also has several other sealed beta- and gamma-ray isotope sources of low microcurie (μCi) activity. The photochemical processes generate most of the Radiography Laboratory's routinely generated hazardous waste, and most of that is generated by the DuPont film processor. Because the DuPont film processor generates the most photochemical waste, it was selected for an estimated material balance

  13. Direct detector radiography versus dual reading computed radiography: feasibility of dose reduction in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Michael; Uffmann, Martin; Weber, Michael; Balassy, Csilla; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Prokop, Mathias

    2006-01-01

    The image quality of dual-reading computed radiography and dose-reduced direct radiography of the chest was compared in a clinical setting. The study group consisted of 50 patients that underwent three posteroanterior chest radiographs within minutes, one image obtained with a dual read-out computed radiography system (CR; Fuji 5501) at regular dose and two images with a flat panel direct detector unit (DR; Diagnost, Philips). The DR images were obtained with the same and with 50% of the dose used for the CR images. Images were evaluated in a blinded side-by-side comparison. Eight radiologists ranked the visually perceivable difference in image quality using a three-point scale. Then, three radiologists scored the visibility of anatomic landmarks in low and high attenuation areas and image noise. Statistical analysis was based on Friedman tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests at a significance level of P<0.05. DR was judged superior to CR for the delineation of structures in high attenuation areas of the mediastinum even when obtained with 50% less dose (P<0.001). The visibility of most pulmonary structures was judged equivalent with both techniques, regardless of acquisition dose and speed level. Scores for image noise were lower for DR compared with CR, with the exception of DR obtained at a reduced dose. Thus, in this clinical preference study, DR was equivalent or even superior to the most modern dual read-out CR, even when obtained with 50% dose. A further dose reduction does not appear to be feasible for DR without significant loss of image quality. (orig.)

  14. Optimizing digital radiography of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric projection imaging differs from imaging of the adult patient. Children are smaller, more radiosensitive, and less compliant than their adult counterparts. Their characteristics affect the way projection imaging is practiced and how dose is optimized. Computed radiography (CR) and digital radiography (DR) have been embraced by pediatric practitioners in order to reduce dose and improve image quality. Unfortunately, dose optimization with CR and DR has been hampered by a lack of definition of appropriate exposure levels, a lack of standardization in exposure factor feedback, and a lack of understanding of the fundamentals of CR and DR technology. The potential for over-exposure exists with both CR and DR. Both the Society for Pediatric Radiology and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine recognize the promise and shortcomings of CR and DR technology and have taken steps to join with manufacturers in improving the practice of CR and DR imaging. Although the risks inherent in pediatric projection imaging with CR and DR are low, efforts to reduce dose are worthwhile, so long as diagnostic quality is maintained. Long-standing recommendations for limiting radiation dose in pediatric projection imaging are still applicable to CR and DR.

  15. Survey of neutron radiography facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imel, G.R.; McClellan, G.G.

    1996-01-01

    A directory of neutron radiography facilities around the world was informally compiled about ten years ago under the auspices of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Subcommittee E7.05 (Radiology, Neutron). The work lay dormant for a number of years, but was revived in earnest in the fall of 1995. At that time, letters were mailed to all the facilities with available addresses in the original directory, requesting updated information. Additionally, information was gathered at the Second Topical meeting on neutron Radiography Facility System Design and Beam Characterization (November, 1995, Shonan Village, Japan). A second mailing was sent for final confirmation and updates in January, 1996. About 75% of the information in the directory has now been confirmed by the facility management. This paper presents a summary of the information contained in the facility directory. An electronic version of the directory in Wordperfect 6.1, uuencode, or rtf format is available by sending e-mail to the authors at imel at sign anl.gov or imel at sign baobab.cad.cea.fr. A WWW site for the directory is presently under construction

  16. Image characterization of computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candeias, Janaina P.; Saddock, Aline; Oliveira, Davi F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2007-01-01

    The digital radiographic image became a reality as of the 80's decade. Since then, several works have been developed with the aim of reducing the exposure time to ionizing radiation obtaining in this way an excellent image quality with a minimum exposure. In the Computerized Radiography, the conventional film is substituted for Image Plate (IP) which consists of a radiosensitive layer of phosphor crystals on a polyester backing plate. The unique design makes it reusable and easy to handle. When exposed, the IP accumulates and stores the irradiated radioactive energy. In order to qualify a computerized radiography system it is necessary to evaluate the Image Plate. In this work it was performed a series of experimental procedures with the aim of evaluating the responses characteristics for different plates. For this purpose it was used a computerized radiographic system CR Tower Scanner - GE, with three different types of IPs, all of them manufactured by GE, whose nomenclatures are IPC, IPX and IPS. It was used the Rhythm Acquire and Review programs for image acquisition and treatment, respectively. (author)

  17. Radiation exposure during equine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, N.; Spencer, C.P.; Hager, D.A.; Poulos, P.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    All personnel present in the X-ray examination room during equine radiography were monitored using low energy direct reading ionization chambers (pockets dosimeters) worn outside the lead apron at neck level. The individuals' task and dosimeter readings were recorded after each examination. Average doses ranged from 0 to 6 mrad per study. The greatest exposures were associated with radiography of the shoulder and averaged less than 4 mrad. The individual extending the horse's limb was at greatest risk although the individual holding the horse's halter and the one making the X-ray exposure received similar exposures. A survey of the overhead tube assembly used for some of the X-ray examinations also was performed. Meter readings obtained indicated an asymetric dose distribution around the tube assembly, with the highest dose occurring on the side to which the exposure cord was attached. Although the exposures observed were within acceptable limits for occupational workers, we have altered our protocol and no longer radiograph the equine shoulder unless the horse is anesthetized. Continued use of the pocket dosimeters and maintenance of a case record of radiation exposure appears to make the technologists more aware of radiation hazards

  18. Radiation protection in equine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.K.W.; Reynolds, K.M.; Leith, I.S.; Burns, P.A.

    1974-01-01

    During radiography of the carpus of horses calcium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters were used to measure the radiation exposure to the hand of an assistant positioning the x-ray film. Three portable x-ray machines and a mobile machine were used during the recordings. The effects of x-ray machine, radiographic technique, and lead rubber gloves upon radiation exposure to the hand were investigated. The size of the primary beam of the x-ray machine was found to be the major factor in determining the dose of radiation received by the hand. The highest radiation exposures were recorded when using two portable machines which were fitted with beam limiting devices that permitted only one primary beam size. The lowest exposures were measured when radiographs were taken with the mobile machine that was fitted with a light beam diaphragm. The control of primary beam size with a light beam diaphragm was found to be the most effective method of reducing radiation dosage to the hand. It is strongly recommended that for equine radiography a light beam diaphragm be fitted to and used on all x-ray machines, and a cassette holder be used to keep the hands out of the primary beam. (author)

  19. Personnel exposures in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, K.S.; Patel, P.H.

    1979-01-01

    The manifold increase in production, and ease of availability of radioisotopes in India have been responsible for a tremendous increase in use of radioisotopes in industrial radiography during past fifteen years. Among various applications of radioisotopes the industrial radiography involves a large potential risk of occupational radiation exposures. The dose records of past fifteen years in respect of all radiation workers maintained by the Personnel Monitoring Group of Division of Radiological Protection of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have been analysed. Analysis of excessive exposure (exceeding 400 mrem/fortnight) reveals that this figure is increasing at an alarming rate among the radiation workers of this category. In spite of various regulatory controls the dose per person per week has remained higher as compared to the same in other categories. This combined with the increase in number of radiation workers every year would soon contribute significantly to the per capita dose for radiation workers. Use of adequately shielded fool-proof remote control equipment and training of all personnel in safe handling of radiation sources seem to be the only solution to arrest the rate of increase in personnel exposures of this category. (auth.)

  20. Low material budget floating strip Micromegas for ion transmission radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, J., E-mail: jonathan.bortfeldt@cern.ch [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Biebel, O.; Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Klitzner, F.; Lösel, Ph. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Magallanes, L. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 672, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Müller, R. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Parodi, K. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlüter, T. [LMU Munich, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Voss, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Zibell, A. [JMU Würzburg, Sanderring 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    Floating strip Micromegas are high-accuracy and discharge insensitive gaseous detectors, able to track single particles at fluxes of 7 MHz/cm{sup 2} with 100 μm resolution. We developed low-material-budget detectors with one-dimensional strip readout, suitable for tracking at highest particle rates as encountered in medical ion transmission radiography or inner tracker applications. Recently we additionally developed Kapton-based floating strip Micromegas with two-dimensional strip readout, featuring an overall thickness of 0.011 X{sub 0}. These detectors were tested in high-rate proton and carbon-ion beams at the tandem accelerator in Garching and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, operated with an optimized Ne:CF{sub 4} gas mixture. By coupling the Micromegas detectors to a new scintillator based range detector, ion transmission radiographies of PMMA and tissue-equivalent phantoms were acquired. The range detector with 18 layers is read out via wavelength shifting fibers, coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier. We present the performance of the Micromegas detectors with respect to timing and single plane track reconstruction using the μTPC method. We discuss the range resolution of the scintillator range telescope and present the image reconstruction capabilities of the combined system.

  1. A novel cytochrome P450 gene from Catharanthus roseus cell line C20hi: cloning and characterization of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong He

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An expressed sequence tag (EST obtained from a subtractive-suppression hybridization cDNA library constructed using Catharanthus roseus cell line C20hi and its parental cell line C20D was used to clone a full-length cytochrome P450 cDNA of cyp71d1. The encoded polypeptide contained 507 amino acids with 39–56% identity to other CYP71D subfamily members at the amino acid level. Expression characteristics of cyp71d1 were determined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The cyp71d1 transcript was expressed in all three cell lines with the highest level in the cell line C20hi. In the mature C. roseus plant, the cyp71d1 cDNA was highly expressed in petals, roots and stems, but very weakly expressed in young leaves. Its transcription level increased with the development of flowers. 2,4-D could down-regulate the transcription of cyp71d1, as did KT, but only to a minor degree. Neither light nor yeast elicitor could induce the transcription of cyp71d1.

  2. Filmless radiography - present possibilities and direction of future developing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wocial, A.; Wojciechowski, Z.A.; Rozenblicki, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents introduction for new filmless radiography like CR Computed Radiography and DR Digital Radiography direct and non direct. The main factors are considered, which determine classification to different type of radiography. For each technique authors describe advantages and disadvantages supporting by practice examples. Paper contains a lot of practical information about a most of existing radiographic equipment at the NDT market. (author)

  3. Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hounsfield, G.N.

    1976-01-01

    Radiographic apparatus is described in which a thin planar slice of the body is examined by a swath of penetrating radiation such as X-rays. Collimators are provided for collimating the radiation after it has passed through the body into a set of beams which are directed into respective detectors. The swath of radiation, the collimeters and the detectors are orbited in the plane of the slice so that the beams pass through the body from many different angular directions. Means are provided for additionally displacing at least the collimators relative to the source so that the relative position of the beams and gaps between the beams are changed during the orbital movement

  4. Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    A mechanical arrangement for use in computerized tomographic apparatus so as to permit the examination of volumetric body slices and body slices tilted with respect to the examination axis is described. The radiation source is mounted on an inner tilt frame which can rotate, by way of a lockable bearing, in an outer tilt frame which can be tilted relative to a sub frame which can be locked or free relative to the main frame of the apparatus. The outer tilt frame can also rotate, relative to the main frame, in a lockable bearing

  5. Digital radiography is promising in industrial testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Fabbro, F.

    2015-01-01

    Digital radiography has recently entered the industrial world as a tool for non-destructive testing. There are 3 types of digital radiography: computed radiography (CR), direct radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT). In computed radiography, traditional silver-halide films are replaced by photostimulable phosphor imaging plates that are activated through laser scanning and digitized. Direct radiography uses a flat panel detector (FPD) composed of X-ray detectors that performs an immediate digital conversion of the image that can be read by a computer. DR is a perfect tool for industrial testing but the fragility of the FPD panels reduces its uses. Computed tomography is based on the principle of DR to get data corresponding to successive cross-section images of the object. These data are processed by a software to get a 3-dimensional image of the object. CT was first developed for medical use but requires some improvement to become more accurate, faster, particularly for big objects. In recent years DR has enjoyed the highest growth rate in digital radiography. (A.C.)

  6. Security of radioactive sources in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, Andrew; Murray, Allan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the need and new requirements to ensure the security of radioactive sources used in the practice of industrial radiography. We describe the discussions and issues arising during the september 2010 regional workshop held in Sydney on the application of security measures to industrial radiography practices. The workshop provided the perspectives of both radiation regulators and industry practitioners, including those from the Philippines. We describe the outputs of the workshop, and how they were developed, and make suggestions for further consideration and applications of security measures in the practice of industrial radiography. (author)

  7. Direct magnification radiography of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presacco, D.; Pellegrini, A.; Di Maggio, C.

    1987-01-01

    The value of direct magnification radiography of the hand and the wrist has been studied in 128 patients affected by rheumatic diseases. Only in a small group (3.17%) magnification determined a higher percentage of correct diagnosis; in the 17.06% of cases direct magnification radiography provided useful increase in information but did not change the diagnisis correctly reached by conventional techniques. In most cases (79.76%) magnification provided only a better image quality but no more information helpful for the diagnosis, because of the high level achieved by convetional techniques. Therefore direct magnification radiography must be used only in selected cases and not as routine radiographyc technique

  8. Equipment for x- and gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following topics related to the equipment for x - and gamma ray radiography are discussed in this chapter. The topics are x-ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of x-ray, generation of x-ray, mechanism of x-ray production, x-ray equipment, power supply, distribution of x-ray intensity along the tube: gamma ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of gamma rays, gamma ray sources, gamma ray projectors on cameras, source changing. Care of Radiographic Equipments: Merits and Demerits of x and Gamma Rays

  9. Corrosion Surveillance In Pipe By Computed Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen The Man; Dao Duy Dung; Dang Thu Hong; Le Duc Thinh; Ha Hong Thu; Nguyen Trong Nghia

    2014-01-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) is a technique of digital industrial radiology which is developed to replace conventional radiography. With a CR system, the detection of the outer and inner wall surface of the pipe is done usually by edge detection and filter algorithms of the profile line at the position under investigation. Applying in industries, radiographic examination shall be performed in accordance with a written procedure. This paper summarizes collected knowledge and experimental results to establish a procedure for radiography applications in monitoring corrosion in small bore pipes. (author)

  10. Charter of good practices in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document describes good practices in the field of industrial radiography. After having presented the main prevention and radiation protection principles, the actors inside and outside of the company, and actors intervening during an operation subcontracting in industrial radiography, this report analyzes the activity: prerequisites for work preparation, prevention coordination, work preparation, transportation, work achievement, return on experience. It addresses personnel training and information, and the dosimetric and medical monitoring of technicians in industrial radiography. Some aspects are addressed in appendix: principles (justification, optimization, and limitation), regulations, intervention form, exposure form, and so on

  11. Chest radiography after minor chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossen, B.; Laursen, N.O.; Just, S.

    1987-01-01

    The results of chest radiography in 581 patients with blunt minor thoracic trauma were reviewed. Frontal and lateral views of the chest indicated pathology in 72 patients (12.4%). Pneumothorax was present in 16 patients; 4 had hemothorax. The physical examination and the results of chest radiography were not in accordance because in 6(30%) of the 20 patients with hemo/-pneumothorax the physical examination was normal. Consequently there is wide indication for chest radiography after minor blunt chest trauma. (orig.)

  12. Workshop on industrial isotope radiography: Programme and lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The booklet contains the texts of lectures delivered in the Workshop on Industrial Radiography held at Bombay during 24-25 July 1979. The lectures cover some topics of relevance to industrial radiography. The topics are radiation protection and legislative aspects in industrial radiography; problems in field radiography in fertilizer industry, petrochemical industry and heavy engineering industry; occupational exposures in industrial radiography; and a review of the progress and recent trends in industrial radiographic techniques and equipment. (M.G.B.)

  13. Computed radiography systems performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Clarice C.; Nersissian, Denise Y.; Furquim, Tania A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a computed radiography system was evaluated, according to the AAPM Report No. 93. Evaluation tests proposed by the publication were performed, and the following nonconformities were found: imaging p/ate (lP) dark noise, which compromises the clinical image acquired using the IP; exposure indicator uncalibrated, which can cause underexposure to the IP; nonlinearity of the system response, which causes overexposure; resolution limit under the declared by the manufacturer and erasure thoroughness uncalibrated, impairing structures visualization; Moire pattern visualized at the grid response, and IP Throughput over the specified by the manufacturer. These non-conformities indicate that digital imaging systems' lack of calibration can cause an increase in dose in order that image prob/ems can be so/ved. (author)

  14. Neutron radiography with the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazawa, Shuichi; Asada, Yorihisa; Yano, Munehiko; Nakanii, Takehiko.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiography is well recognized as a powerful tool in nondestructive testing, but not widely used yet owing to lack of high intense thermal neutron source convenient for practical use. This article presents a new neutron radiograph facility, utilizing a sub-compact cyclotron as neutron source and is equipped with vertical and horizontal irradiation ports. The article describes a series of experiments, we conducted using beams of a variable energy cyclotron at Tohoku University to investigate the characteristics of thermal neutron obtained from 9 Be(p, n) reaction and thermalized by elastic scattering process. The article also describes a computer simulation of neutron moderator to analyze conditions getting maximal thermal neutron flux. Further, some of practical neutron radiograph examinations of aero-space components and museum art objects of classic bronze mirror and an attempt realizing real time imaging technique, are introduced in the article. (author)

  15. Industrial radiography on radiographic paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1977-11-01

    An investigation was performed to compare the quality of radiographic paper with that of X-ray film, after a review had been made of the rather scarce literature on the subject. The equipment used throughout the investigation is described, and characteristic curves for Agfa-Gevaert and Kodak papers exposed with different intensifying screens in the low and intermediate voltage range are reproduced. The relative speed, contrast and exposure latitude were computed from these curves. The quality of the radiographic image was checked on U/Al blocks and plates, Al and Fe blocks, and fiber-reinforced composites. Exposure charts for Al and Fe were made for various paper and screen combinations. Both the sharpness of the radiographic image as well as the influence of processing on speed and contrast were checked. Examples are given of the practical application of the paper for radiography of castings, weldings, solderings, assemblies, etc. (author)

  16. Standard guide for computed radiography

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides general tutorial information regarding the fundamental and physical principles of computed radiography (CR), definitions and terminology required to understand the basic CR process. An introduction to some of the limitations that are typically encountered during the establishment of techniques and basic image processing methods are also provided. This guide does not provide specific techniques or acceptance criteria for specific end-user inspection applications. Information presented within this guide may be useful in conjunction with those standards of 1.2. 1.2 CR techniques for general inspection applications may be found in Practice E2033. Technical qualification attributes for CR systems may be found in Practice E2445. Criteria for classification of CR system technical performance levels may be found in Practice E2446. Reference Images Standards E2422, E2660, and E2669 contain digital reference acceptance illustrations. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the st...

  17. Multidimensional analysis in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavayssiere, B.; Georgel, B.

    1992-01-01

    EDF uses non-destructive testing by X or gamma-ray radiography for routine nozzle inspection in nuclear power plants. The images obtained are examined by radiographic specialists in order to detect, identify and quantify any defects, but the quality of the radiograms and the small size of the defects make their work extremely difficult. It is for these reasons that EDF developed ENTRAIGUES, a digital package for the processing and aid in interpretation of images generated by radiographical inspections, aimed at: -digitizing the radiographic films to be appraised, - facilitating analysis of the digitized radiograms. Defect orientation is estimated by 3D reconstruction of the component being inspected, based on a limited number of its projections. (authors). 11 figs., 6 refs

  18. Problems associated with digital luminescence radiography in the neonate and young infant. Problems with digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R J; Pease, J N

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of the Siemens Digiscan has been undertaken to determine whether digital luminescence radiography (DLR) could replace conventional radiography in the examination of the neonate and young infant. Whilst the overall image quality of the digital radiograph was consistently higher than for conventional radiography the difference was less marked than we had expected. Furthermore, the potential for reduction in radiation dose by reducing the repeat rate due to incorrect exposure was limited. The potential advantages of DLR have been critically examined in relationship to neonatal radiography and a number of problems encountered during the evaluation have been highlighted.

  19. neutron radiography. Report prepared from contributions by members of the MOD Working Party on Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halmshaw, R.

    1977-03-01

    Radiography with thermal or cold neutrons has some special advantages over X-rays and gamma rays, and some facilities for neutron radiography exist in the Ministry of Defence. This report gives a brief and simple description of the technique, its advantages and disadvantages, and is illustrated with a number of Ordnance applications taken from MOD work, to show examples where neutron radiographs provided extra important information not available from X- or gamma radiography. The facilities available in the UK for neutron radiography are listed. (author)

  20. Electronic imaging applied to neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, D.A.; Bracher, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    A commercially - available image intensifier was used with a scan conversion memory and a mobile 252 Cf based neutron radiography system to obtain neutron radiographs on a television monitor in 0.5 minutes to 10.0 minutes

  1. Information extraction from muon radiography data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borozdin, K.N.; Asaki, T.J.; Chartrand, R.; Hengartner, N.W.; Hogan, G.E.; Morris, C.L.; Priedhorsky, W.C.; Schirato, R.C.; Schultz, L.J.; Sottile, M.J.; Vixie, K.R.; Wohlberg, B.E.; Blanpied, G.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering muon radiography was proposed recently as a technique of detection and 3-d imaging for dense high-Z objects. High-energy cosmic ray muons are deflected in matter in the process of multiple Coulomb scattering. By measuring the deflection angles we are able to reconstruct the configuration of high-Z material in the object. We discuss the methods for information extraction from muon radiography data. Tomographic methods widely used in medical images have been applied to a specific muon radiography information source. Alternative simple technique based on the counting of high-scattered muons in the voxels seems to be efficient in many simulated scenes. SVM-based classifiers and clustering algorithms may allow detection of compact high-Z object without full image reconstruction. The efficiency of muon radiography can be increased using additional informational sources, such as momentum estimation, stopping power measurement, and detection of muonic atom emission.

  2. Transmission and archiving of digitalised radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zscherpel, U.; Rose, P.; Kaestner, R.; Mayer, R.; Heinrich, W.; Petesch, M.

    1995-01-01

    The 'TRENDT' research project is concerned with the transmission and archiving of digitalised radiography and with the application of wide band transmission networks in nondestructive material testing. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Examination of welds by digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, S.

    2004-01-01

    Industrial radiography is the oldest and most reliable non-destructive test method in the examination and two dimensional evaluation of weld defects. Digital radiographic methods provide more sensitive, faster and more reliable evaluation of defect images. One of the most important factors influencing the contrast and consequently the image quality is the noise on the film caused by scattered radiation. The digital image processing technique can eliminate the noise and improve the image quality. Digital radiography also enables three dimensional evaluation of weld defects. This work describes the use of digital radiography in the evaluation of defects in welds of different configurations by using a laser film digitizing system and an appropriate software programme. Advantages and limitations of the digital technique and conventional film radiography were discussed. (author)

  4. Neutron radiography at the SCK/CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourwe, H.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron radiography has become in recent years a very important method of nondestructive testing in industry and research. The earliest practical application of neutron radiography has probably been the inspection of highly radioactive material: originally irradiated reactor fuels. Applications then progressed to other nuclear and industrial inspection problems. Neutron radiography and the conventional X-ray or gamma techniques are complementary. Some of the most important application fields of neutron radiography are: the detection of light elements (H, Li, B,...) with a very high scattering of absorption cross section for thermal neutrons; the nondestructive control of fuel before and after irradiation; controls where a distinction has to be made between isotopes of the same element ( 235 U and 238 U, 10 B and 11 B,...) and between components of a similar atomic number (Fe and Zn); the control of materials with a high density; the study of corrosion in closed structures; the control of the homogeneity of foreign materials in alloys,.... (author)

  5. Examination of welds by digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Industrial radiography is the oldest and most reliable non-destructive test method in the examination and two dimensional evaluation of weld defects. Digital radiographic methods provide more sensitive, faster and more reliable evaluation of defect images. One of the most important factors influencing the contrast and consequently the image quality is the noise on the film caused by scattered radiation. The digital image processing technique can eliminate the noise and improve the image quality. Digital radiography also enables three dimensional evaluation of weld defects. This work describes the use of digital radiography in the evaluation of defects in welds of different configurations by using a laser film digitizing system and an appropriate software programme. Advantages and limitations of the digital technique and conventional film radiography were discussed

  6. A picture of radiography education across Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, J.P.; Rainford, L.; Bezzina, P.; Henner, A.; Kukkes, T.; Pronk-Larive, D.; Vandulek, C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To establish an understanding of radiography education across Europe by surveying higher education institutions registered as affiliate members of the European Federation of Radiography Societies (EFRS). Method: An online survey was developed to ascertain data on: curricula, duration, credit load, accreditation requirements, staff qualifications, staff and student exchange opportunities, and availability of postgraduate programmes. Responses were identifiable in terms of educational institution and country. All 46 affiliated educational institutions were invited to participate in the survey. Descriptive and thematic analyses are reported. Results: A response rate of 89.1% (n = 41) was achieved from educational institutions representing 21 countries. The majority of institutions (63.4%) offer a combined Medical Imaging, Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine programme; dedicated Medical Imaging programmes are offered by 14 institutions (34.2%); dedicated Radiotherapy programme by one institution (2.4%), and a dedicated Nuclear Medicine programme by only three institutions (6.5%). The Bologna (Bachelor) cycle has been adopted by 90.2% of responding institutions. The majority of institutions (53.7%) indicated programmes of 3 years in duration, others stated 3.5–4 years. Only 14.6% of institutions require ‘International Level’ accreditation for the Bachelors radiography programme. Postgraduate programmes were not offered by 26.8% of institutions and a deficit in Doctoral status for radiography educators was identified. Conclusions: The Bologna (Bachelor) cycle for radiography education has been adopted across the majority of institutions, however, full alignment remains a priority. Postgraduate radiography education opportunities across Europe appear to be insufficient and further investigation of radiography accreditation processes is justified to ensure harmonisation of practice. - Highlights: • The majority of institutions are compliant with the

  7. NDE of ceramic insulator blanks by radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvanan, S.; Venkatraman, B.; Jayakumar, T.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    The production of ceramic insulators in electrical industry involves a number of steps, one of which is the green blank. The defects such as voids and crack can be present in the extruded green blank. One of the best non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique radiography. This paper deals with the development of methodology based on theoretical modeling for the examination of ceramics by high sensitivity radiography. (author)

  8. Proton decay theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Topics include minimal SU(5) predictions, gauge boson mediated proton decay, uncertainties in tau/sub p/, Higgs scalar effects, proton decay via Higgs scalars, supersymmetric SU(5), dimension 5 operators and proton decay, and Higgs scalars and proton decay

  9. Diagnostic radiography: A study in distancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Pauline J.; Decker, Sola

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This article aims to explore the ways in which diagnostic radiographers use distancing as a tool for emotional management in radiography practice. Methods: This review utilises data from oral history interviews undertaken as part of a larger study documenting the oral history of the diagnostic radiography profession in the United Kingdom as recounted by 24 participants. Results: The results are presented as illustrative of various aspects of the role of the diagnostic radiographer including the initial choice of diagnostic radiography as a profession, the endemic use of particular terminology, the nature of the encounter in diagnostic radiography (including that of sectional imaging) and whether the role is really patient-centred. Conclusions: The article concludes by suggesting that distancing from the patient is mediated by the need for physical touch in order to position the patient for radiography and also makes the suggestion that those opting for diagnostic radiography as a career may do so because they want a profession which is more distanced from the patient and that, even where this is not the case initially, individuals are socialised into adopting the ‘feeling rules’ of the profession. The article concludes by outlining potential areas for further research.

  10. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Ideal radiotherapy deposits a large amount of energy in the tumour volume, and none in the surrounding healthy tissues. Proton therapy comes closer to this goal because of a greater concentration of dose, well defined proton ranges and points of energy release which are precisely known - the Bragg peak1. In the past, the development of clinical proton therapy has been hampered by complexity, size, and cost. To be clinically effective, energies of several hundred MeV are required; these were previously unavailable for hospital installations, and pioneering institutions had to work with complex, inadequate equipment originally intended for nuclear physics research. Recently a number of specialist organizations and commercial companies have been working on dedicated systems for proton therapy. One, IBA of Belgium, has equipment for inhouse hospital operation which encompasses a complete therapy centre, delivered as a turnkey package and incorporating a compact, automated, higher energy cyclotron with isocentric gantries. Their system will be installed at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. The proton therapy system comprises: - a 235 MeV isochronous cyclotron to deliver beams of up to 1.5 microamps, but with a hardware limitation to restrict the maximum possible dose; - variable energy beam (235 to 70 MeV ) with energy spread and emittance verification; - a beam transport and switching system to connect the exit of the energy selection system to the entrances of a number of gantries and fixed beamlines. Along the beam transport system, the beam characteristics are monitored with non-interceptive multiwire ionization chambers for automatic tuning; - gantries fitted with nozzles and beamline elements for beam control; both beam scattering and beam wobbling techniques are available for shaping the beam;

  11. Specialism in radiography - a contemporary history of diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Aim and method: Specialism is relative comparing the unusual to a norm. Origins of radiographers' perceptions of what is a specialism are identified. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 practitioners and 10 leading voices whose combined practice span 1932-2001. Findings: Findings show that the exclusive nature of practice is influential on what is perceived as a specialism. Radiographers held career aspirations that included greater recognition, clinical involvement, autonomy and challenging work. Career aspirations were clinical rather than managerial and extended across modality boundaries. A key barrier to career progression was inequality of opportunity as local medical career requirements were dominant. Characteristics of specialism of diagnostic radiography are identified. Factors influencing the formation of specialism are also identified. Summary: Specialisation was dominant but not necessarily constructive to career progression or additional autonomy. Specialism relates to new areas of practice and is facilitated by service need, clear practice boundaries, visionary management, medical support, role development leading to increased autonomy and additional training and education.

  12. Specialism in radiography - a contemporary history of diagnostic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, Christine [Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Robert Winston Building, Sheffield, S10 2BP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.m.ferris@shu.ac.uk

    2009-12-15

    Aim and method: Specialism is relative comparing the unusual to a norm. Origins of radiographers' perceptions of what is a specialism are identified. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 practitioners and 10 leading voices whose combined practice span 1932-2001. Findings: Findings show that the exclusive nature of practice is influential on what is perceived as a specialism. Radiographers held career aspirations that included greater recognition, clinical involvement, autonomy and challenging work. Career aspirations were clinical rather than managerial and extended across modality boundaries. A key barrier to career progression was inequality of opportunity as local medical career requirements were dominant. Characteristics of specialism of diagnostic radiography are identified. Factors influencing the formation of specialism are also identified. Summary: Specialisation was dominant but not necessarily constructive to career progression or additional autonomy. Specialism relates to new areas of practice and is facilitated by service need, clear practice boundaries, visionary management, medical support, role development leading to increased autonomy and additional training and education.

  13. Digital radiography versus conventional radiography during excretory urography: our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervi, P.M.; Bighi, S.; Merlo, L.; Lupi, L.; Vita, G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe a computed radiographic system employed to generate and archive digital images in intravenous urography. For each exposure the system produces two digital images: the first (left image) simulates a conventional screen-film radiograph, the second (right image); enhances some spatial frequencies and emphasizes the margins of the structures. These images can be modified in their chief parameters and then printed by a laser-printer and archived on optical disks. Four experienced radiologists evaluated digital images with regard to some chief diagnostic parameters and, in 50 patients, they compared digital images with conventional screen-film radiographs and submitted the results to statistical analysis. For some of the chosen parameters, particularly for the evaluation of renal margins before and after contrast medium injection, digital images gave statistically better results than conventional films, while, no statistically significant different was observed for the other parameters. From the results of this preliminary study digital radiography was found to be useful in intravenous urography by reducing the patient's exposition dose, by always obtaining images of good quality, and by enhancing some particular features of the standard image; on the other hand there were many unsolved problems regarding the communicating and archiving system (PACS), because of the slowness of the image transfer procedure, difficulties in data transmission and complexity of referential procedures

  14. Digital radiography and caries diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, A

    1998-01-01

    Direct digital acquisition of intra-oral radiographs has been possible only in the last decade. Several studies have shown that, theoretically, there are a number of advantages of direct digital radiography compared with conventional film. Laboratory as well as controlled clinical studies are needed to determine whether new digital imaging systems alter diagnosis, treatment and prognosis compared with conventional methods. Most studies so far have evaluated their diagnostic performance only in laboratory settings. This review concentrates on what evidence we have for the diagnostic efficacy of digital systems for caries detection. Digital systems are compared with film and those studies which have evaluated the effects on diagnostic accuracy of contrast and edge enhancement, image size, variations in radiation dose and image compression are reviewed together with the use of automated image analysis for caries diagnosis. Digital intra-oral radiographic systems seem to be as accurate as the currently available dental films for the detection of caries. Sensitivities are relatively high (0.6-0.8) for detection of occlusal lesions into dentine with false positive fractions of 5-10%. A radiolucency in dentine is recognised as a good predictor for demineralisation. Radiography is of no value for the detection of initial (enamel) occlusal lesions. For detection of approximal dentinal lesions, sensitivities, specificities as well as the predictive values are fair, but are very poor for lesions known to be confined to enamel. Very little documented information exists, however, on the utilization of digital systems in the clinic. It is not known whether dose is actually reduced with the storage phosphor system, or whether collimator size is adjusted to fit sensor size in the CCD-based systems. There is no evidence that the number of retakes have been reduced. It is not known how many images are needed with the various CCD systems when compared with a conventional bitewing

  15. Mobile real time radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  16. Radiography of the equine stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dik, K.J.; Kalsbeek, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    To obtain radiographic information concerning the equine stomach, a gastrographic contrast examination is required. This study describes this procedure in detail. A powerful radiographic unit, the tubehead linked to an image intensifier and suspended by an electromechanical overhead gantry system, is required. To obtain accurately positioned radiographs during the fluoroscopic examination, a cassette holder with a stationary grid is mounted at the entrance window of the image intensifier. The examination is performed in the unsedated standing horse after 24 hours of starvation, using a combination of survey radiography and fluoroscopic viewing after the inflation of air, followed by the administration of barium sulphate suspension by stomach tube. The gastrographic contrast examination is performed in three experimental animals and 23 abnormal horses. Pneumogastrophy appeared to be valuable to diagnose gastric tumors, to differentiate between gastric tumors and other masses in the cranial abdomen, and to visualize gastric parasites, even in large horses. The use of barium sulphate suspension does not result in an adequate double contrast of the stomach, but it may aid to diagnose esophagogastric or pyloric stenosis and gastric or duodenal ulcers

  17. Mobile real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights ∼38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility

  18. Interprofessional working in diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, Ruth M.; Day, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers interprofessional working within one diagnostic imaging department. The literature is still divided about the long-term impact of interprofessional learning in pre-registration health and social care education, and its impact on the quality of care provided. When reading the literature about interprofessional working the main topics considered by other authors are team working, communication between professionals, stereotyping and tribalism. The results presented are from an ethnographic study in one department with participant observation and semi-structured interviews. The three main aspects discussed in this paper are; tribalism and culture within the diagnostic radiography profession, communication between different professional groups, and a lack of understanding of the roles of other professional groups. It was evident from the results of this study that tribalism and culture, and a lack of understanding were significant barriers to interprofessional working. It was felt by the authors that pre-registration and post-registration interprofessional education could be significant in changing the culture of the NHS in the future as more professionals learn from and about one another

  19. Radiography of the equine stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dik, K.J.; Kalsbeek, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    To obtain radiographic information concerning the equine stomach, a gastrographic contrast examination is required. This study describes this procedure in detail. A powerful radiographic unit, the tubehead linked to an image intensifier and suspended by an electromechanical overhead gantry system, is required. To obtain accurately positioned radiographs during the fluoroscopic examination, a cassette holder with a stationary grid is mounted at the entrance window of the image intensifier. The examination is performed in the unsedated standing horse after 24 hours of starvation, using a combination of survey radiography and fluoroscopic viewing after the inflation of air, followed by the administration of barium sulphate suspension by stomach tube. The gastrographic contrast examination is performed in three experimental animals and 23 abnormal horses. Pneumogastrophy appeared to be valuable to diagnose gastric tumors, to differentiate between gastric tumors and other masses in the cranial abdomen, and to visualize gastric parasites, even in large horses. The use of barium sulphate suspension does not result in an adequate double contrast of the stomach, but it may aid to diagnose esophagogastric or pyloric stenosis and gastric or duodenal ulcers

  20. Apparatus for gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Enomoto, Shigemasa; Oga, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    This is the standard of Japan Non-Destructive Inspection Society, NDIS 1101-79, which stipulates on the design, construction and testing method of the apparatuses for gamma ray radiography used for taking industrial radiograms. The gamma ray apparatuses stipulated in this standard are those containing sealed radioactive isotopes exceeding 100 μCi, which emit gamma ray. The gamma ray apparatuses are classified into three groups according to their movability. The general design conditions, the irradiation dose rate and the sealed radiation sources for the gamma ray apparatuses are stipulated. The construction of the gamma ray apparatuses must be in accordance with the notification No. 52 of the Ministry of Labor, and safety devices and collimators must be equipped. The main bodies of the gamma ray apparatuses must pass the vibration test, penetration test, impact test and shielding efficiency test. The method of each test is described. The attached equipments must be also tested. The tests according to this standard are carried out by the makers of the apparatuses. The test records must be made when the apparatuses have passed the tests, and the test certificates are attached. The limit of guarantee by the endurance test must be clearly shown. The items to be shown on the apparatuses are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  1. Estimation of Absorbed Dose in Occlusal Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Young Ah; Choi, Karp Shick; Lee, Sang Han

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate absorbed dose of each important anatomic site of phantom (RT-210 Head and Neck Section R, Humanoid Systems Co., U.S.A.) head in occlusal radiography. X-radiation dosimetry at 12 anatomic sites in maxillary anterior topography, maxillary posterior topography, mandibular anterior cross-section, mandibular posterior cross-section, mandibular anterior topographic, mandibular posterior topographic occlusal projection was performed with calcium sulfate thermoluminescent dosimeters under 70 Kvp and 15 mA, 1/4 second (8 inch cone ) and 1 second (16 inch cone) exposure time. The results obtained were as follows: Skin surface produced highest absorbed dose ranged between 3264 mrad and 4073 mrad but there was little difference between projections. In maxillary anterior topographic occlusal radiography, eyeballs, maxillary sinuses, and pituitary gland sites produced higher absorbed doses than those of other sites. In maxillary posterior topographic occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site produced high absorbed doses. In mandibular anterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, all sites were produced relatively low absorbed dose except eyeball sites. In Mandibular posterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site were produced relatively higher absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular anterior topographic occlusal radiography, maxillary sinuses, submandibular glands, and thyroid gland sites produced high absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular posterior topographic occlusal radiography, submandibular gland site of the exposed side produced high absorbed dose than other sites and eyeball site of the opposite side produced relatively high absorbed dose.

  2. Proton radiographic characteristics of thin CR-39 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, A.; Manzoor, S.; Khan, H.A.; Urlep, I.; Ilic, R.

    1991-01-01

    Two parameters, track registration sensitivity and densitometric response, were measured in radiography with a low energy (∼4.5 MeV) proton beam and a stack of thin (100μm) CR-39 detector foils. The optimum image quality was obtained at a layer removal thickness of about 1 μm. The image obtained under these conditions is characterized by a high track registration sensitivity (∼60%), high image contrast (the maximum value of the net optical density is ∼0.7) and high spatial resolution (∼1 μm). The application of the technique in biomedicine is illustrated by proton radiographs of botanical samples. (author)

  3. Algorithm for optimisation of paediatric chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostova-Lefterova, D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the current practice and patient doses in paediatric chest radiography in a large university hospital. The X-ray unit is used in the paediatric department for respiratory diseases. Another purpose was to recommend and apply optimized protocols to reduce patient dose while maintaining diagnostic image quality for the x-ray images. The practice of two different radiographers was studied. The results were compared with the existing practice in paediatric chest radiography and the opportunities for optimization were identified in order to reduce patient doses. A methodology was developed for optimization of the x-ray examinations by grouping children in age groups or according to other appropriate indication and creating an algorithm for proper selection of the exposure parameters for each group. The algorithm for the optimisation of paediatric chest radiography reduced patient doses (PKA, organ dose, effective dose) between 1.5 and 6 times for the different age groups, the average glandular dose up to 10 times and the dose for the lung between 2 and 5 times. The resulting X-ray images were of good diagnostic quality. The subjectivity in the choice of exposure parameters was reduced and standardization has been achieved in the work of the radiographers. The role of the radiologist, the medical physicist and radiographer in the process of optimization was shown. It was proven the effect of teamwork in reducing patient doses at keeping adequate image quality. Key words: Chest Radiography. Paediatric Radiography. Optimization. Radiation Exposure. Radiation Protection

  4. Collaboration in radiography: A bibliometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing research activity is an aim of the radiography profession, but there is a lack of knowledge of how this can be achieved. Collaboration between clinical and academic centres as well as between individuals has increased productivity in other professions and has been suggested as a strategy for radiography. This bibliometric study maps the current contribution to the radiography evidence base through a single journal. Method: All articles published in Radiography from 1997 to 2011 were reviewed to identify collaboration trends together with article type and subject. Analysis also enabled comparison of research and publication patterns. Results: 706 articles were published by 1205 individual authors. 63.0% were written by UK based authors, although this varied over time. Over 80% of authors published only single article. Two thirds of articles were collaborative with an increase in clinical-academic co-authorship over the 15 years of the study. Although the majority of articles were diagnostic imaging based, the pattern mirrors the UK workforce profile. Clinicians, including clinical-academic co-authors, tend to write about clinical practice and roles, whereas academics write about a broader range of topics. Conclusions: There has been a growth in research and scholarship within the UK radiography journal and both clinical and academic radiographers are contributing to the evidence base through increased collaboration.

  5. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kedar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays to image the interior of large-scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  6. National reference doses for dental cephalometric radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, J R

    2011-12-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important tool in the optimisation of clinical radiography. Although national DRLs are provided for many diagnostic procedures including dental intra-oral radiography, there are currently no national DRLs set for cephalometric radiography. In the absence of formal national DRLs, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) has previously published National Reference Doses (NRDs) covering a wide range of diagnostic X-ray examinations. The aim of this study was to determine provisional NRDs for cephalometric radiography. Measurements made by the Dental X-ray Protection Service (DXPS) of the HPA, as part of the cephalometric X-ray equipment testing service provided to dentists and dental trade companies throughout the UK, were used to derive provisional NRDs. Dose-area product measurements were made on 42 X-ray sets. Third quartile dose-area product values for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiography were found to be 41 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm², respectively, with individual measurements ranging from 3 mGy cm² to 108 mGy cm². This report proposes provisional NRDs of 40 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm² for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiographs, respectively; these doses could be considered by employers when establishing their local DRLs.

  7. Radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation, particularly in medicine and industry, is growing throughout the world, with further expansion likely as technical developments result from research. One of the longest established applications of ionizing radiation is industrial radiography, which uses both X radiation and gamma radiation to investigate the integrity of equipment and structures. Industrial radiography is widespread in almost all Member States. It is indispensable to the quality assurance required in modern engineering practice and features in the work of multinational companies and small businesses alike. Industrial radiography is extremely versatile. The equipment required is relatively inexpensive and simple to operate. It may be highly portable and capable of being operated by a single worker in a wide range of different conditions, such as at remote construction sites, offshore locations and cross-country pipelines as well as in complex fabrication facilities. The associated hazards demand that safe working practices be developed in order to minimize the potential exposure of radiographers and other persons who may be in the vicinity of the work. The use of shielded enclosures (fixed facilities), with effective safety devices, significantly reduces any radiation exposures arising from the work. This Safety Report summarizes good and current state of the art practices in industrial radiography and provides technical advice on radiation protection and safety. It contains information for Regulatory Authorities, operating organizations, workers, equipment manufacturers and client organizations, with the intention of explaining their responsibilities and means to enhance radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

  8. Which technologies to replace gamma radiography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani-Demange, M.L.; Chauveau, D.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma radiography with iridium source is largely used in the industrial sector for the control of welds, tubes and pressure vessels as well as for monitoring corrosion. Hazards due to the handling of ionizing radiation sources (Ir 192 ) and constraints due to a more and more demanding regulations call for alternative methods. The French 'Institut de soudure' has led a 4-year long study (Alter-X project) and has identified 3 alternative methods for the iridium gamma radiography: -) the TOFD (Time Of Flight Diffraction) which is based on the analysis of the diffraction of ultrasound waves on the edges of defects; -) phased array ultrasound which is based on a series of elementary sensors that can be handled in an individual manner by specific electronics, the sweeping is no more manual but electronic and enables the operator to localize and size defects deep under the surface; -) digit radiography that is a common radiography in which the film is replaced by a re-usable phosphorus screen that is more sensitive and can be easily digitalized and has no need for a chemical treatment to be read. Digit radiography used with Se 75 (another gamma emitter) gives comparable or even better results than with Ir 192 but with a dose rate cut by half at least. (A.C.)

  9. PEM Water Electrolysis: Preliminary Investigations Using Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Frikkie; van der Merwe, Jan-Hendrik; Bessarabov, Dmitri

    The quasi-dynamic water distribution and performance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer at both a small fuel cell's anode and cathode was observed and quantitatively measured in the in-plane imaging geometry direction(neutron beam parallel to membrane and with channels parallel to the beam) by applying the neutron radiography principle at the neutron imaging facility (NIF) of NIST, Gaithersburg, USA. The test section had 6 parallel channels with an active area of 5 cm2 and in-situ neutron radiography observation entails the liquid water content along the total length of each of the channels. The acquisition was made with a neutron cMOS-camera system with performance of 10 sec per frame to achieve a relatively good pixel dynamic range and at a pixel resolution of 10 x 10 μm2. A relatively high S/N ratio was achieved in the radiographs to observe in quasi real time the water management as well as quantification of water / gas within the channels. The water management has been observed at increased steps (0.2A/cm2) of current densities until 2V potential has been achieved. These observations were made at 2 different water flow rates, at 3 temperatures for each flow rate and repeated for both the vertical and horizontal electrolyzer orientation geometries. It is observed that there is water crossover from the anode through the membrane to the cathode. A first order quantification (neutron scattering correction not included) shows that the physical vertical and horizontal orientation of the fuel cell as well as the temperature of the system up to 80 °C has no significant influence on the percentage water (∼18%) that crossed over into the cathode. Additionally, a higher water content was observed in the Gas Diffusion Layer at the position of the channels with respect to the lands.

  10. Safety guide of safe use of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this guidance is to present general regulations for the safe use and radiation protection of industrial radiography. Storage and inspection of apparatus, personal instructions for working in radiography facilities are offered

  11. Muon radiography method for fundamental and applied research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, A. B.; Vladymyrov, M. S.; Galkin, V. I.; Goncharova, L. A.; Grachev, V. M.; Vasina, S. G.; Konovalova, N. S.; Malovichko, A. A.; Managadze, A. K.; Okat'eva, N. M.; Polukhina, N. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Shchedrina, T. V.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on the basic principles of the muon radiography method, reviews the major muon radiography experiments, and presents the first results in Russia obtained by the authors using this method based on emulsion track detectors.

  12. Development of dosimetry tools for proton therapy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Dogyun

    2010-01-01

    Dosimetry tools for proton therapy research have been developed to measure the properties of a therapeutic proton beam. A CCD camera-scintillation screen system, which can verify the 2D dose distribution of a scanning beam and can be used for proton radiography, was developed. Also developed were a large area parallel-plate ionization chamber and a multi-layer Faraday cup to monitor the beam current and to measure the beam energy, respectively. To investigate the feasibility of locating the distal dose falloff in real time during patient treatment, a prompt gamma measuring system composed of multi-layer shielding structures was then devised. The system worked well for a pristine proton beam. However, correlation between the distal dose falloff and the prompt gamma distribution was blurred by neutron background for a therapy beam formed by scattering method. We have also worked on the design of a Compton camera to image the 2D distribution of prompt gamma rays.

  13. New north beam tube for the neutron radiography reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruett, D.P.; Richards, W.J.; Heidel, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron radiography of the fuel undergoing examination in the argon cell is performed in the NRAD Facility and is one of many examinations performed on the fuel. The reactor and examination procedure are described. The new radiography system, developed to expand the present radiography capabilities to radiograph both irradiated and unirradiated specimens and to provide for the development of new radiography techniques without interfering with the argon cell production schedule is presented

  14. Liquid metal flow measurement by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, N.; Ono, A.; Matsubayashi, M.; Tsuruno, A.

    1996-01-01

    Visualization of a liquid metal flow and image processing methods to measure the vector field are carried out by real-time neutron radiography. The JRR-3M real-time thermal neutron radiography facility in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was used. Lead-bismuth eutectic was used as a working fluid. Particles made from a gold-cadmium intermetallic compound (AuCd 3 ) were used as the tracer for the visualization. The flow vector field was obtained by image processing methods. It was shown that the liquid metal flow vector field was obtainable by real-time neutron radiography when the attenuation of neutron rays due to the liquid metal was less than l/e and the particle size of the tracer was larger than one image element size digitized for the image processing. (orig.)

  15. Dynamic neutron radiography of a combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, J.; Hillenbach, A.; Schillinger, B.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic neutron radiography is a non-destructive testing method, which made big steps in the last years. Depending on the neutron flux, the object and the detector a time resolution down to 50 ms is possible. In the case of repetitive processes the object can be synchronized with the detector and better statistics in the image can be obtained by adding radiographies of the same phase. By delaying the trigger signal a radiography movie can be composed with a time resolution down to 100 μs. A combustion engine is an ideal sample for the explained technique, because the motor block of metal is relatively easy to penetrate, while oil and fuel attenuate the thermal neutron beam much stronger. Various experiments were performed at ILL and PSI. Soon the tomography station ANTARES at FRM-II will be ready for measurements. (author)

  16. Problems associated with veterinary dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Veterinarians have been radiographing animal skulls for many years, but sophisticated dentistry was not widely used until the 1970s. Elevated awareness of veterinary dental techniques has led to the need for producing accurate radiographic images of the teeth and periodontal structures. Many problems arise for the clinician who treats small animals who has, before this time, radiographed the skull of dogs and cats solely for the purpose of assessing neoplastic, infectious, or traumatic disease of the mandible, maxilla, or calvarium and now desires to perform dental radiography. This chapter will describe the advantages and disadvantages of some of the more common types of radiographic equipment and supplies, discuss extraoral and intraoral radiographic positioning and technique, identify anatomic landmarks and diagnostic features of intraoral radiography, and offer suggestions concerning the art of using dental radiography in veterinary practice

  17. Quantitative neutron radiography using neutron absorbing honeycomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masayoshi; Oda, Masahiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kohei; Tasaka, Kanji; Tsuruno, Akira; Matsubayashi, Masahito.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation concerns quantitative neutron radiography and computed tomography by using a neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator. By setting the neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator between object and imaging system, neutrons scattered in the object were absorbed by the honeycomb material and eliminated before coming to the imaging system, but the neutrons which were transmitted the object without interaction could reach the imaging system. The image by purely transmitted neutrons gives the quantitative information. Two honeycombs were prepared with coating of boron nitride and gadolinium oxide and evaluated for the quantitative application. The relation between the neutron total cross section and the attenuation coefficient confirmed that they were in a fairly good agreement. Application to quantitative computed tomography was also successfully conducted. The new neutron radiography method using the neutron-absorbing honeycomb collimator for the elimination of the scattered neutrons improved remarkably the quantitativeness of the neutron radiography and computed tomography. (author)

  18. Current and future applications of protons in medical imaging and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Reinhard W. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine

    2011-07-01

    Protons have a more than 50-year history of applications in medical therapy and more recently also in imaging. Therapy with protons became possible after proton accelerators capable of accelerating protons to energies higher than 150 MeV had been built during the 1940s in a few places around the world. Proton radiography experiments started at the Harvard Cyclotron in the early 1960s. Physicist Allan Cormack, who shared the Nobel Prize for laying the foundation of computed tomography together with Sir Godfrey Hounsfield in 1979, suggested that protons can be used for tomographic imaging for the first time in 1963. Proton CT requires a rotating proton gantry, which did not become available until 1991, at our institution. The interest in proton CT has been renewed due to the fact that exact proton treatment planning is only possible with accurate knowledge of the relative proton stopping power distribution (with respect to water) of the patient, which is best derived by using protons for imaging. Early attempts to do proton CT were hampered by the lack of high-resolution particle trackers, fast data acquisition electronics, and sufficient computing power. Also, efficient proton CT reconstruction algorithms had to be developed that can handle reconstruction based on a large number of proton histories, taking into account the non-straight probabilistic paths of multiply scattered protons. Most of these challenges have been or are about to be solved with the help of high-energy and particle physicists, computer science engineers, and applied mathematicians. In this talk, I will give an update on the development of proton CT for applications in proton therapy. This is an update from a talk I gave at the Annual Brazilian Physics Meeting in 2001, when I first suggested that physicists should contribute to the development of modern proton CT. Brazilian physicists have provided many valuable ideas and discussions for this exciting development. (author)

  19. Current and future applications of protons in medical imaging and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, Reinhard W.

    2011-01-01

    Protons have a more than 50-year history of applications in medical therapy and more recently also in imaging. Therapy with protons became possible after proton accelerators capable of accelerating protons to energies higher than 150 MeV had been built during the 1940s in a few places around the world. Proton radiography experiments started at the Harvard Cyclotron in the early 1960s. Physicist Allan Cormack, who shared the Nobel Prize for laying the foundation of computed tomography together with Sir Godfrey Hounsfield in 1979, suggested that protons can be used for tomographic imaging for the first time in 1963. Proton CT requires a rotating proton gantry, which did not become available until 1991, at our institution. The interest in proton CT has been renewed due to the fact that exact proton treatment planning is only possible with accurate knowledge of the relative proton stopping power distribution (with respect to water) of the patient, which is best derived by using protons for imaging. Early attempts to do proton CT were hampered by the lack of high-resolution particle trackers, fast data acquisition electronics, and sufficient computing power. Also, efficient proton CT reconstruction algorithms had to be developed that can handle reconstruction based on a large number of proton histories, taking into account the non-straight probabilistic paths of multiply scattered protons. Most of these challenges have been or are about to be solved with the help of high-energy and particle physicists, computer science engineers, and applied mathematicians. In this talk, I will give an update on the development of proton CT for applications in proton therapy. This is an update from a talk I gave at the Annual Brazilian Physics Meeting in 2001, when I first suggested that physicists should contribute to the development of modern proton CT. Brazilian physicists have provided many valuable ideas and discussions for this exciting development. (author)

  20. Charter of good practices in industrial radiography; Charte de bonnes pratiques en radiographie industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document describes good practices in the field of industrial radiography. After having presented the main prevention and radiation protection principles, the actors inside and outside of the company, and actors intervening during an operation subcontracting in industrial radiography, this report analyzes the activity: prerequisites for work preparation, prevention coordination, work preparation, transportation, work achievement, return on experience. It addresses personnel training and information, and the dosimetric and medical monitoring of technicians in industrial radiography. Some aspects are addressed in appendix: principles (justification, optimization, and limitation), regulations, intervention form, exposure form, and so on

  1. Opportunities for TRIGA reactors in neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, John P.

    1978-01-01

    In this country the two most recent installations of TRIGA reactors have both been for neutron radiography, one at HEDL and the other at ANL. Meanwhile, a major portion of the commercial neutron radiography is performed on a TRIGA fueled reactor at Aerotest. Each of these installations has different primary objectives and some comparative observations can be drawn. Another interesting comparison is between the TRIGA reactors for neutron radiography and other small reactors that are being installed for this purpose such as the MIRENE slow pulse reactors in France, a U-233 fueled reactor for neutron radiography in India and the L88 solution reactor in Denmark. At Monsanto Laboratory, in Ohio, a subcritical reactor based on MTR-type fuel has recently been purchased for neutron radiography. Such systems, when driven by a Van de Graaff neutron source, will be compared with the standard TRIGA reactor. Future demands on TRIGA or competitive systems for neutron radiography are likely to include the pulsing capability of the reactor, and also the extraction of cold neutron beams and resonance energy beams. Experiments recently performed on the Oregon State TRIGA Reactor provide information in each of these categories. A point of particular current concern is a comparison made between the resonance energy beam intensity extracted from the edge of the TRIGA core and from a slot which penetrated to the center of the TREAT reactor. These results indicate that by using such slots on a TRIGA, resonance energy intensities could be extracted that are much higher than previously predicted. (author)

  2. Digital radiography: a survey of pediatric dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Julie M; Russo, James A; Guelmann, Marcio

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine the popularity of digital radiography among members of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD); and (2) report the most common systems in use. An AAPD-approved, voluntary, and anonymous electronic survey was developed and sent to 923 board certified pediatric dentists. Years in practice and in-office x-ray technology (digital or conventional) were inquired about initially. If negative for the use of digital radiography, future consideration for converting to digital radiography was ascertained. For positive responses, more in-depth information was requested. Information on type of system (sensor or phosphor plate), user friendliness, diagnostic ability, patient's comfort, general costs, durability, and parental and overall satisfaction was collected. For most of the questions, a 5-point assessment scale was used. Opportunity for additional comments was provided upon survey completion. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. A 32% (296/923) response rate was obtained. Twenty-six percent of practitioners (78/296) implemented digital radiography in their practices, whereas 71% considered future acquisition. Similar distribution for sensor and phosphor plate users was found. Sensor technology was reported to produce faster images, but was less tolerable by young children due to size and thickness. Phosphor plates were considered more children friendly, less expensive, and less durable. Parental satisfaction was very high with great marketing value. Picture quality was comparable to conventional film. Overall, digital radiography users would recommend it to other pediatric dentists. Digital radiography is not yet popular among pediatric dentists. Cost reduction and technology advancement may enhance utilization.

  3. The industrial radiography of defects inside the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeper, Burkhardt; Kaempf, B.

    1976-03-01

    The concept of the industrial radiography applied to defect invesigation is defined. The following topics are successively discussed: the development of the industrial 'defect radiography', apparatus and auxiliary equipments used in the field, the market, the constructors, trade currents in 'defect radiography' inside the Community and in the outer market; prognostics on future requirements in the fields

  4. Chest radiography: new technological developments and their applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, S.; Ginneken, B. van; Karssemeijer, N.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Digital chest radiography is still the most common radiological examination. With the upcoming three-dimensional (3D) acquisition techniques the value of radiography seems to diminish. But because radiography is inexpensive, readily available, and requires very little dose, it is still being used

  5. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific license for industrial radiography. 34.13 Section 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... industrial radiography. An application for a specific license for the use of licensed material in industrial...

  6. Development of techniques for furthering the use of isotope radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamorkar, R.R.; Singh, G.; Kalurkar, A.R.; Jagasia, N.S.; Malhotra, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    Isotope radiography techniques in the non-conventional applications such as : (a) hot radiography - a method for examination of radioactive materials, and (b) thin section radiography for inspection of biological specimen and non-metallic specimen are described. Also, a process used for the reproduction of gamma-graphs of welds and castings has been discussed in detail. (author)

  7. Industrial radiography in the Philippines: safety concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jocelyn L.; Artificio, Thelma P.; Cerbolles, Justina S.; Caseria, Estrella S.; Agron, Inocencio A.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial radiography utilizes the highest activity (5.55 tera becquerel (TBq) to 7.4 TBq) among the various mobile application of radioisotopes. It is highly possible that radiographers exceed the annual dose limits for workers occupationally exposed to radiation (as prescribed in the Code of PNRI Regulations part 3) if they do not give cautious consideration to the factors that determine the radiation dose, namely: the gamma source dose rates, time distance and shielding. To enhance the safety culture among radiographers, various strategies are recommended to be undertaken by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as well as the licensed companies undertaking activities in industrial radiography. (Authors)

  8. Advantages of digital radiography: The DSI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouillard, J.

    1990-01-01

    The experience gained over a period of several months, applying the digital and image-enhanced radiography with the DSI system for examination of some hundreds of patients, has confirmed in our eyes the system's diagnostic and economic efficiency, and the important achievement of radiation dose abatement. Looking at the current results and improvements under way (Release 2), there is reason enough to support an extension of the range of indications, especially regarding arteriography and interventional radiography. According to our experience, the DSI system meets the requirements of a modern radiology department: reduction of operating costs, limitation of radiation dose, efficiency enhancement by digital imaging. (orig.) [de

  9. New developments in radiography. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Orphan, V.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for radiographic inspection are undergoing change. Changes in X-ray sources include higher voltage and current, pulse techniques, smaller focal spots, portability, ease-of-use, and high reliability. Detector improvements include better films, screens and scintillators, real-time methods, electrostatic methods and solid state detectors. We now use many radiation for radiography (X-rays, gamma rays, neutrons and charged particles) and can process radiographic information to accomplish such things as image enhancement, tomography and digital radiography. In this review, the authors discuss some of these developments, many of which have not been applied - or widely applied in the nuclear industry

  10. Cold neutron radiography using low power accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki; Iwasa, Hirokatu

    1993-01-01

    A cold neutron source which can be adopted at a low power accelerator was studied. Time-of-flight radiography using the cold neutron source was performed. It is suggested that time-of-flight cold neutron radiography has possibility to distinguish the materials more clearly than the traditional film method since large contrast differences can be obtained by using digital data of the neutron intensity at different energies from thermal to cold region. Material will be identified at the same time by this method. (author)

  11. Gonadal dose reduction in lumbar spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moilanen, A.; Kokko, M.L.; Pitkaenen, M.

    1983-01-01

    Different ways to minimize the gonadal dose in lumbar spine radiography have been studied. Two hundred and fifty lumbar spine radiographs were reviewed to assess the clinical need for lateral L5/S1 projection. Modern film/screen combinations and gonadal shielding of externally scattered radiation play a major role in the reduction of the genetic dose. The number of exposures should be minimized. Our results show that two projections, anteroposterior (AP) and lateral, appear to be sufficient in routine radiography of the lumbar spine. (orig.)

  12. Mobile waste inspection real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.; Mendez, J.

    1995-01-01

    The 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography System was designed and purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Mobile Real Time Radiography System has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from 5-gal. buckets to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). The fact that this unit is mobile makes it an attractive alternative to the costly road closures associated with moving waste from the waste generator to storage or disposal facilities

  13. Supervision of radiography licensees - using electronic questionnaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Aa. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-09-15

    The results from this questionnaire gave a general view of the state of the radiography practices in Sweden, and the questionnaire hopefully contributed to improve the knowledge of these regulations for the licensees. The largest deficiencies were found in the documentation of the radiation protection organisation as well as documentation of quality assurance and operational statistics. The results of the questionnaire constitute a useful basis for selecting companies for future inspections by SSI. Those who has not answered the questionnaire and are working with site radiography can expect a visit in the near future.

  14. Method and apparatus for laser-controlled proton beam radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carol J.

    1998-01-01

    A proton beam radiology system provides cancer treatment and proton radiography. The system includes an accelerator for producing an H.sup.- beam and a laser source for generating a laser beam. A photodetachment module is located proximate the periphery of the accelerator. The photodetachment module combines the H.sup.- beam and laser beam to produce a neutral beam therefrom within a subsection of the H.sup.- beam. The photodetachment module emits the neutral beam along a trajectory defined by the laser beam. The photodetachment module includes a stripping foil which forms a proton beam from the neutral beam. The proton beam is delivered to a conveyance segment which transports the proton beam to a patient treatment station. The photodetachment module further includes a laser scanner which moves the laser beam along a path transverse to the cross-section of the H.sup.- beam in order to form the neutral beam in subsections of the H.sup.- beam. As the scanning laser moves across the H.sup.- beam, it similarly varies the trajectory of the proton beam emitted from the photodetachment module and in turn varies the target location of the proton beam upon the patient. Intensity modulation of the proton beam can also be achieved by controlling the output of the laser.

  15. Proton diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Besten, J.L.; Jamieson, D.N.; Allen, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Lindhard theory on ion channeling in crystals has been widely accepted throughout ion beam analysis for use in simulating such experiments. The simulations use a Monte Carlo method developed by Barret, which utilises the classical 'billiard ball' theory of ions 'bouncing' between planes or tubes of atoms in the crystal. This theory is not valid for 'thin' crystals where the planes or strings of atoms can no longer be assumed to be of infinite proportions. We propose that a theory similar to that used for high energy electron diffraction can be applied to MeV ions, especially protons, in thin crystals to simulate the intensities of transmission channeling and of RBS spectra. The diffraction theory is based on a Bloch wave solution of the Schroedinger equation for an ion passing through the periodic crystal potential. The widely used universal potential for proton-nucleus scattering is used to construct the crystal potential. Absorption due to thermal diffuse scattering is included. Experimental parameters such as convergence angle, beam tilt and scanning directions are considered in our calculations. Comparison between theory and experiment is encouraging and suggests that further work is justified. (authors)

  16. Radiation shielding in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, B.; Rehnmark-Larsson, S.; Julin, P.; Richter, S.

    1983-01-01

    The protective effect in the thyroid region from different types of radiation shieldings at intraoral radiography has been studied as well as the reduction of the absorbed dose to the sternal and the gonadal regions. The shieldings tested were five different types of leaded aprons, of which three had an attached leaded collar and the other two were used in combination with separate soft leaded collars. Furthermore one of the soft leaded collars and an unflexible horizontal leaded shield were tested separately. Two dental x-ray machines of 60 and 65 kVp with rectangular and circular tube collimators were used. The exposure time corresponded to speed group E film. The absorbed doses were measured with two ionization chambers. No significant difference in the protective effect in the thyroid gland could be found between the different types of radiation shieldings. There was a dose reduction by approximately a factor of 2 to the thyroid region down to 0.08 mGy per full survey using parallelling technique, and below 0.001 mGy per single bitewing exposure. The shieldings reduced the thyroid dose using bisecting-angle technique by a factor of 5 down to 0.15 mGy per full survey (20 exposures). In the sternal region the combinations of apron and collar reduced the absorbed dose from a full survey to below 2 μGy compared with 18 μGy (parallelling) and 31 μGy (biscting-angle) without any shielding. With the horizontal leaded shield a reduction by a factor of 6 was obtained but no significant sternal dose reduction could be detected from the soft collar alone. The gonadal dose could be reduced by a factor of 10 with the horizontal leaded shield, parallelling technique and circular collimator. Using leaded aprons the gonadal dose was approximately one per cent of the dose without any shielding, i.e. below 0.01 μGy per single intraoral exposure. (Authors)

  17. Comparison of the quality of the chest film between digital radiography and conventional high kV radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qingsi; Cen Renli; Chen Ling; He Jianxun; Lin Hanfei

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the quality and usefulness of direct digital radiography system in roentgenogram of chest in clinical practice. Methods: 1000 cases of chest roentgenograms with digital radiography and high kV conventional radiography were selected for analysis by 3 senior radiologists. Results: 1. With digital radiography system, the quality of chest film was assessed as grade A in 50.6%, grade B in 38.5%, grade C in 10.9%, and no waste film. 2. With conventional high kV radiography, the quality of chest film was assessed as grade A in 41.1%, grade B in 44.1%, grade C in 13.3%, and waste film in 1.5%. The direct digital radiography was statistically superior to the conventional high kV radiography. 3. The fine structure of the lungs could be revealed in 100.0% of chest roentgenogram with direct digital radiograph system, which was significantly higher than that acquired with the conventional high KV radiography (78.6%, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Direct digital radiography could provide the chest film with better quality than that with the conventional high kV radiography. The direct digital radiography system is easy to operate, fast in capturing imaging and could provide post-processing techniques, which will facilitate the accurate diagnosis of chest radiography

  18. Inspection reliability comparison of digital radiography, film radiography and radioscopy for inspection of Inconel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, W.; Kidwell, C.; Warren, G.

    2004-01-01

    Digital Radiography offers the promise of economic and environmental advantages over traditional film based inspection. Boeing Commercial Aircraft Group has an on-going effort to evaluate this emerging radiographic method for production of aerospace hardware. Included in this effort was a program to evaluate the potential for utilizing amorphous silicon based digital radiography for the inspection of inconel weldments in engine ducting. For this particular program, probability of detection (POD) studies were conducted to compare the reliability of digital radiography with the existing production processes that utilize film radiography and image-intensifier based radioscopy. Cycle time studies were also conducted to determine the potential economic benefit for switching to the new process. The methodology and findings of this comparison are presented. (author)

  19. Inspection reliability comparison of digital radiography, film radiography and radioscopy for inspection of Inconel welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, W.; Kidwell, C.; Warren, G. [Boeing Commercial Aircraft Group, Renton, Washington (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Digital Radiography offers the promise of economic and environmental advantages over traditional film based inspection. Boeing Commercial Aircraft Group has an on-going effort to evaluate this emerging radiographic method for production of aerospace hardware. Included in this effort was a program to evaluate the potential for utilizing amorphous silicon based digital radiography for the inspection of inconel weldments in engine ducting. For this particular program, probability of detection (POD) studies were conducted to compare the reliability of digital radiography with the existing production processes that utilize film radiography and image-intensifier based radioscopy. Cycle time studies were also conducted to determine the potential economic benefit for switching to the new process. The methodology and findings of this comparison are presented. (author)

  20. PREFACE: Transport phenomena in proton conducting media Transport phenomena in proton conducting media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikerling, Michael

    2011-06-01

    , charge-bearing species at interfaces and porous host materials on proton transport properties. As a common thread, articles in this special issue contribute to understanding the functionality provided by complex materials, beyond hydrogen bond fluctuations in water. The first group of articles (Smirnov et al, Henry et al, Medvedev and Stuchebrukhov) elucidates various aspects of the impact of local structural fluctuations, hydrogen bonding and long-range electrostatic forces on proton transfer across and at the surface of mitochondrial membranes. The second group of articles (Ilhan and Spohr, Allahyarov et al and Idupulapati et al) employ molecular dynamics simulations to rationalize vital dependencies of proton transport mechanisms in aqueous-based polymer electrolyte membranes on the nanoporous, phase-separated ionomer morphology, and on the level of hydration. The articles by Gebel et al, Boillat et al, and Aleksandrova et al employ small angle neutron scattering, neutron radiography, and electrochemical atomic force microscopy, respectively, to obtain detailed insights into the kinetics of water sorption, water distribution, water transport properties, as well as spatial maps of proton conductivity in fuel cell membranes. The contribution of Paschos et al provides a comprehensive review of phosphate-based solid state protonic conductors for intermediate temperature fuel cells. The topic of proton conductive materials for high-temperature, water-free operation of fuel cells is continued in the article of Verbraeken et al which addresses synthesis and characterization of a proton conducting perovskite. The guest editor wishes to acknowledge and thank all contributing authors for their commitment to this special issue. Moreover, I would like to thank the staff at IOP Publishing for coordinating submission and refereeing processes. Finally, for the readers, I hope that this special issue will be a valuable and stimulating source of insights into the versatile and

  1. Standing of industrial radiography in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    In this article a look is taken at industrial radiography in South Africa to determine where radiographic testing is being used, and for what reasons. The status of training of industrial radiographers is considered and it is compared to radiographic techniques used in South Africa

  2. Feline dental radiography and radiology: A primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2014-11-01

    Information crucial to the diagnosis and treatment of feline oral diseases can be ascertained using dental radiography and the inclusion of this technology has been shown to be the best way to improve a dental practice. Becoming familar with the techniques required for dental radiology and radiography can, therefore, be greatly beneficial. Novices to dental radiography may need some time to adjust and become comfortable with the techniques. If using dental radiographic film, the generally recommended 'E' or 'F' speeds may be frustrating at first, due to their more specific exposure and image development requirements. Although interpreting dental radiographs is similar to interpreting a standard bony radiograph, there are pathologic states that are unique to the oral cavity and several normal anatomic structures that may mimic pathologic changes. Determining which teeth have been imaged also requires a firm knowledge of oral anatomy as well as the architecture of dental films/digital systems. This article draws on a range of dental radiography and radiology resources, and the benefit of the author's own experience, to review the basics of taking and interpreting intraoral dental radiographs. A simplified method for positioning the tubehead is explained and classic examples of some common oral pathologies are provided. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  3. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, F.J. [School of Healthcare Professions, University of Salford, Salford M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.j.murphy@salford.ac.uk; Yielder, J. [Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Unitec, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-02-15

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  4. Radiography of oral cavity disorders [dentistry, stomatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennet, P.

    1995-01-01

    Radiographic examination in odonto-stomatology can he made easier by using intra-oral dental films and a dental X-ray machine. Parallel and bissecting angle techniques allow X-ray pictures to be taken with intra-and extra-oral films. Radiography provides information for diagnosis but it also allows the evaluation of dental treatments

  5. Safety culture in industrial radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent-Furo, Evelyn

    2015-02-01

    This project reviewed published IAEA materials and other documents on safety culture with specific references to industrial radiography. Safety culture requires all duties important to safety to be carried out correctly, with alertness, due thought and full knowledge, sound judgment and a proper sense of accountability. The development and maintenance of safety culture in an operating organization has to cover management systems, policies, responsibilities, procedures and organizational arrangements. The essence is to control radiation hazard, optimize radiation protection to prevent or reduce exposures and mitigate the consequences of accidents and incidents. To achieve a high degree of safety culture appropriate national and international infrastructure should exist to ensure effective training of workers and management system that supports commitment to safety culture at all level of the organization; management, managers and workforce. The result of the review revealed that all accidents in industrial radiography facilities were due to poor safety culture practices including inadequate regulatory control oversight. Some recommendations are provided and if implemented could improve safety culture leading to good safety performance which will significantly reduce accidents and their consequences in industrial radiography. These examples call for a review of safety culture in Industrial radiography. (au)

  6. Monte Carlo code for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milczarek, Jacek J.; Trzcinski, Andrzej; El-Ghany El Abd, Abd; Czachor, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    The concise Monte Carlo code, MSX, for simulation of neutron radiography images of non-uniform objects is presented. The possibility of modeling the images of objects with continuous spatial distribution of specific isotopes is included. The code can be used for assessment of the scattered neutron component in neutron radiograms

  7. Monte Carlo code for neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milczarek, Jacek J. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland)]. E-mail: jjmilcz@cyf.gov.pl; Trzcinski, Andrzej [Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland); El-Ghany El Abd, Abd [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Nuclear Research Center, PC 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Czachor, Andrzej [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland)

    2005-04-21

    The concise Monte Carlo code, MSX, for simulation of neutron radiography images of non-uniform objects is presented. The possibility of modeling the images of objects with continuous spatial distribution of specific isotopes is included. The code can be used for assessment of the scattered neutron component in neutron radiograms.

  8. The Delphi technique in radiography education research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John-Matthews, J.St.; Wallace, M.J.; Robinson, L.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe and review the Delphi technique as a tool for radiographers engaged in mixed-methods research whereby agreement is required on the proficiencies needed by educational programmes for pre- and post- registration radiographers. This is achieved through a description offering a brief history of the technique. Through a literature search, radiography education research using this technique is identified. A protocol for a research project using the technique is presented. Using this worked example, advantages and disadvantages of the method are explored including sampling of participants, sample size, number of rounds and methods of feedback. Key findings: There are limited examples of the use of the Delphi technique in radiography literature including considerations on how to select experts and panel size. Conclusion: The Delphi technique is a suitable method for establishing collective agreement in the design of radiography educational interventions. Additional research is needed to deepen this evidence-based knowledge. - Highlights: • The Delphi Technique is used to gain collective agreement in forecasting healthcare education priorities. • There is increase of the use of the technique in healthcare education literature. • There are some examples of the technique in radiography education research. • A worked example of this technique is provided to critically evaluate this tool.

  9. Radiography journals 1935-1940: '1937'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H. Brian

    2009-01-01

    This is the third of the series 1935-1937, two years before the Second World War and sixty-one years ago. There is much to indicate the contribution of physicists, radiologists and radiographers to the under pinning of the science of radiography. We shall continue the series with the period from 1938-1940.

  10. Detection unit for X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svobodova, B.; Hamouz, J.; Pavlicek, Z.; Jursova, L.; Pohanka, J.

    1987-01-01

    The detection field consists of a carrier accommodating detection elements with Umaplex light pipes connected to photomultipliers with level converters. The detection field and the photomultipliers are placed in a light-proof cover. The configuration improves the hygiene conditions of work with radiation. It makes possible the use of pulsed fluoroscopy instead of continuous radiography. (M.D.). 1 fig

  11. Satisfaction of Search in Chest Radiography 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbaum, Kevin S; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Schartz, Kevin M; Caldwell, Robert T; Madsen, Mark T; Hur, Seung; Laroia, Archana T; Thompson, Brad H; Mullan, Brian F; Franken, Edmund A

    2015-11-01

    Two decades have passed since the publication of laboratory studies of satisfaction of search (SOS) in chest radiography. Those studies were performed using film. The current investigation tests for SOS effects in computed radiography of the chest. Sixty-four chest computed radiographs half demonstrating various "test" abnormalities were read twice by 20 radiologists, once with and once without the addition of a simulated pulmonary nodule. Receiver-operating characteristic detection accuracy and decision thresholds were analyzed to study the effects of adding the nodule on detecting the test abnormalities. Results of previous studies were reanalyzed using similar modern techniques. In the present study, adding nodules did not influence detection accuracy for the other abnormalities (P = .93), but did induce a reluctance to report them (P chest radiography (P chest radiography has changed, but it is not clear why. SOS may be changing as a function of changes in radiology education and practice. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiography With the Patient in the centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The health care system is becoming more technological, and at the same time, it is verbalized that the patient should be in the center. The purpose of this study was to illucidate how radiography with the patient in the center is performed and what patients and radiographers understand about center...

  13. Code of practice in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karma, S. E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this research is to developing a draft for a new radiation protection code of practice in industrial radiography without ignoring that one issued in 1998 and meet the current international recommendation. Another aim of this study was to assess the current situation of radiation protection in some of the industrial radiography department in Sudan. To achieve the aims of this study, a draft of a code of practice has been developed which is based on international and local relevant recommendations. The developed code includes the following main issues: regulatory responsibilities, radiation protection program and design of radiation installation. The practical part of this study includes scientific visits to two of industrial radiography departments in Sudan so as to assess the degree of compliance of that department with what state in the developed code. The result of each scientific visits revealed that most of the department do not have an effective radiation protection program and that could lead to exposure workers and public to unnecessary dose. Some recommendations were stated that, if implemented could improve the status of radiation protection in industrial radiography department. (Author)

  14. Radiography Student Participation in Professional Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Kimberly; Tran, Xuan; Keller, Shelby; Sayles, Harlan; Custer, Tanya

    2017-09-01

    To gather data on educational program requirements for student membership in a state or national professional society, organization, or association. A 10-question online survey about student involvement in professional societies was emailed to 616 directors of Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT)-accredited radiography programs. A total of 219 responses were received, for a 36% response rate. Of these, 89 respondents (41%) answered that their programs require students to join a professional organization. The society respondents most often required (70%) was a state radiography society. Sixty respondents (68%) answered that students join a society at the beginning of the radiography program (from matriculation to 3 months in). Of programs requiring student membership in professional societies, 42 (49%) reported that their students attend the state or national society annual conference; however, participation in activities at the conferences and in the society throughout the year is lower than conference attendance. Some directors stated that although their programs' policies do not allow membership mandates, they encourage students to become members, primarily so that they can access webinars and other educational materials or information related to the profession. Survey data showed that most JRCERT-accredited radiography programs support but do not require student membership in professional organizations. The data reveal that more programs have added those requirements in recent years. Increased student participation could be realized if programs mandated membership and supported it financially. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  15. Neutron radiography devices and their own applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farny, G.

    1975-04-01

    Three kinds of neutron radiography devices were developed by the Saclay Reactor Department: underwater facilities for active rig or loop examination; extracted beam without γ for industrial applications; a special unit for the examination of spent fuels several meters long from power plants. These devices are described and their applications and performances discussed [fr

  16. Neutron Radiography at the RP-10 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinostrosa, H.; Ravello, Y.; Cornejo, N.; Mendoza, M.; Montoya, M.

    1992-01-01

    The facility of neutron radiography at the RP-10 peruvian research reactor is described. The factor of collimation L/D is 149; the Cadmium ratio for the gold in the inspection's area is 4.5, and the thermal neutrons flux on the sample is 3,14 x 10 6 n/cm 2 s (author). 5 refs. 5 fig

  17. Safety Testing of Industrial Radiography Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapp, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted the Savannah River Technology Center to verify the relevancy of the 10 CFR Part 34 requirements for the normal use of portable gamma radiography systems and to propose recommendations for changes or modifications to the requirements

  18. Neutron radiography at the Paul Scherrer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleinert, H.; Lehmann, E.; Hammer, J.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron radiography provides an efficient tool of measurement for many applications in fundamental research as well as in industrial non-destructive testing (NDT). A neutron radiography program has been initiated at the Paul Scherrer Institute and implemented since 1992. From the beginning of 1992 until the end of 1993, a neutron facility has been in operation at the SAPHIR research reactor. Several applications have been tested and programs on two main fields of application have been established, focusing on the study of porous materials, especially concrete and granitic rock. The investigations on concrete and other building materials are carried out in cooperation with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. The experimental activities are currently carried out at the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities in Vienna, in the framework of a cooperation program with the Atominstitute. The continuation of the activities on a new radiography facility at the spallation source SINQ is planned at the Paul Scherrer Institute. In the following an overview of the method, of the actual and potential applications of neutron radiography at the Paul Scherrer Institute is given. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  19. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTORS' GUIDE. VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Engineering Extension Service.

    INFORMATION RELATIVE TO THE LESSON PLANS IN "INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, VOLUME I" (VT 003 565) IS PRESENTED ON 52 INFORMATION SHEETS INCLUDING THE SUBJECTS SHIELDING EQUATIONS AND LOGARITHMS, METAL PROPERTIES, FIELD TRIP INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS, WELDING SYMBOLS AND SIZES, SAMPLE REPORT FORMS, AND TYPICAL SHIPPING…

  20. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, F.J.; Yielder, J.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  1. Optimal radiography of the horsetoe in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellhelm, B.; Fritsch, R.; Reckels, F.-J.

    1988-01-01

    Requirements for optimal radiography of the horsetoe are described. Examples are given for getting X-rays of high quality under practice conditions, by using special intensifying screens and all the possibilities of radiological technique to guarantee a short exposure time

  2. Regulations for radiation protection in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    These Regulations specify that responsibility for applying radiation protection regulations in industrial radiography rests with the owner of the establishment who will designate a radiation protection officer to this effect. They provide for the organisation of radiation protection, including the measures to be observed, exposure limits, etc. The competent authority for these questions is the State Institute of Radiation Hygiene [fr

  3. Efficacy of daily bedside chest radiography as visualized by digital luminescence radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.; Stueckle, C.A.; Schilling, E.M.; Peters, J.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic impact of daily bedside chest radiography in comparison with digital luminescence technique (DLR; storage phosphor radiography) and conventional film screen radiography, a prospective randomized study was completed in 210 mechanically ventilated patients with a total of 420 analysed radiographs. The patients were allocated to two groups: 150 patients underwent DLR, and 60 patients underwent conventional film screen radiography. Radiological analysis was performed consensually and therapeutic efficacy was assessed by the clinicians. There was no statistical significant difference between the frequency of abnormal findings seen on DLR and conventional film screen radiography. In total, 448 abnormal findings were present in 249 of 300 DLR and 97 of 120 conventional film screen radiographs. The most common findings were signs of overhydration (41 %), pleural effusion (31%), partial collapse of the lung (11%) and pneumothorax (2%). One hundred and twenty-three of 448 (27%) of these abnormal findings were thought to have a considerable impact on patient management. The high rate of abnormal findings with significant impact on patient management suggests that the use of daily bedside chest radiography may be reasonable. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  4. Comparison of the efficacy of conventional radiography, digital radiography, and ultrasound in diagnosing periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Namita; Reddy, Sujatha S; Giridhar, A G; Murthy, Srinivas; Yashodha Devi, B K; Santana, N; Rakesh, N; Kaushik, Atul

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional radiography, digital radiography and ultrasound imaging in diagnosing periapical lesions. Twenty-one patients aged between 15 and 45 years with well defined periapical radiolucency associated with anterior maxillary or mandibular teeth requiring endodontic surgery or extraction were selected and consented to the study. Preoperative intraoral periapical radiographs and digital images using charge-coupled device obtained by paralleling technique were assessed by 3 specialist observers who gave their diagnosis of the periapical lesions. Then ultrasound examination was performed and the images were assessed for size, contents, and vascular supply by 3 ultrasonographers. It was followed by curettage of periapical tissues to enable histopathologic investigation, which is the gold standard in diagnosis. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS, analysis of variance, and kappa statistics. The percentage accuracy of diagnosing periapical lesions using conventional radiography was 47.6%, digital radiography 55.6%, and ultrasound 95.2%. Ultrasound had the highest sensitivity and specificity: 0.95 and 1.00, respectively. Conventional and digital radiography enable diagnosis of periapical diseases, but not their nature, whereas ultrasound provides accurate information on the pathologic nature of the lesions, which is of importance in predicting the treatment outcome. Therefore ultrasound can be used as an adjunct to conventional or digital radiography in diagnosing periapical lesions. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiography - A new field among health sciences in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakarinen, Ritva; Jussila, Aino-Liisa

    2007-01-01

    In order to secure high quality X-ray services and efficient operation of clinical radiography, a study programme in radiography science was implemented at the University of Oulu in 1999. The need for a specific field of science has emerged as a result of social changes, such as the aging population, and the fast development of technology that has caused significant changes in the radiological working environment and clinical radiography. A need for a new, research-based informational foundation of clinical radiography is the basis for the programme. As service producers, radiographers need vast knowledge as well as specific expertise. The research object of radiography science is clinical radiography. If it was studied from the viewpoint of other sciences, the key professional skills of a radiographer would remain unexplored. Implementing an own field of science has enabled the development of radiography from its own bases. Basic research in the field is represented, for example, by the concept analysis of radiography in health sciences. Radiography science should produce research results for both clinical radiography and the instruction of radiography. So far, research results have dealt with the professional decision-making of a radiographer, the influences of computer technology on a radiographer's work and measuring the radiation exposure of a population

  6. Proton imaging apparatus for proton therapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipala, V.; Lo Presti, D.; Brianzi, M.; Civinini, C.; Bruzzi, M.; Scaringella, M.; Talamonti, C.; Bucciolini, M.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Randazzo, N.; Stancampiano, C.; Tesi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy with protons, due to the physical properties of these particles, offers several advantages for cancer therapy as compared to the traditional radiotherapy and photons. In the clinical use of proton beams, a p CT (Proton Computer Tomography) apparatus can contribute to improve the accuracy of the patient positioning and dose distribution calculation. In this paper a p CT apparatus built by the Prima (Proton Imaging) Italian Collaboration will be presented and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  7. Proton radioactivity from proton-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, F.; Goncalves, M.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B.; Garcia, F.; Rodriguez, O.

    1999-03-01

    Half-lives for proton emission from proton-rich nuclei have been calculated by using the effective liquid drop model of heavy-particle decay of nuclei. It is shown that this model is able to offer results or spontaneous proton-emission half-life-values in excellent agreement with the existing experimental data. Predictions of half-life-values for other possible proton-emission cases are present for null orbital angular momentum. (author)

  8. The advantages of digital radiography in department of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Lijuan; Luo Xiaomei; Wu Tengfang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the advantages of digital radiography in department of radiology by comparing digital radiography with common radiography. Methods: Test card was used for testing the spatial resolution of DR and common radiography. 1000 films of chest by DR and 1000 films of chest by common radiography were compared in image quality, dose of radiation, the rate of waste film, and the advantages of DR was analyzed. Results: Compared to common radiography, DR had a high sensitivity, high DQE (quantum detection efficiency), high spatial resolution and density resolution. The speed of acquisition and X-ray conversion efficiency were fast. The function of post-processing was strong and the rate of disease detection was high. Conclusion: DR is better than common radiography in all respects, it will be widely applied. (authors)

  9. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography

  10. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  11. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in … shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography

  12. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  13. Radiography and bone scintigraphy in multiple myeloma: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, H.; Kumpan, W.; Sinzinger, H.

    1982-01-01

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging for detecting skeletal lesions was compared with that of radiography by evaluating 573 different anatomical sites in 41 patients with multiple myeloma. Radiography revealed a significantly greater number of myeloma-related bone lesions than did radionuclide imaging. Of the 179 myeloma-related bone lesions detected when both techniques were applied, 163 were seen by radiography and 82 by radionuclide imaging. Ninety-seven lesions were detected by radiography alone and 16 lesions seen by scintiscanning only, yielding a sensitivity of 91% for the former and of 46% for the latter technique. Radionuclide imaging proved superior to radiography only occasionally in the rib cage, and rarely in other anatomical sites. These findings suggest that radiography is the method of first choice in obtaining a skeletal survey in patients with multiple myeloma. In cases with continued pain, unexplained by standard radiography, the skeletal survey should be supplemented by tomography and radionuclide imaging. (author)

  14. Standardization activities of the Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.

    1982-06-01

    In 1979 a working group on neutron radiography was formed at Euratom. The purpose of this group is the standardization of neutron radiographic methods in the field of nuclear fuel. Activities of this Neutron Radiography Working Group are revised. Classification of defects revealed by neutron radiography is illustrated in a special atlas. Beam purity and sensitivity indicators are tested together with a special calibration fuel pin. All the Euratom neutron radiography centers will perform comparative neutron radiography with those items. The measuring results obtained, using various measuring aparatus will form the basis to formulate conclusions about the best measuring methods and instruments to be used in that field. Besides the atlas of neutron radiographic findings in light water reactor fuel, the Euratom Neutron Radiogrphy Working Group has published a neutron radiography handbook in which the neutron radiography installations in the European Community are also described. (author)

  15. An application of neutron radiography to archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugrul, B.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron radiography is more useful for certain materials than are the other radiographic techniques. Some neutrons are attenuated by light materials such as water, hydrocarbons and boron, but penetrate through heavy materials such as steel, lead and uranium. The object must be irradiated by neutrons for neutron radiography. The neutron irradiation can take place in a reactor or with a neutron source. The transfer technique relies on the build-up of radioactivity in a foil due to neutron absorption. In this way an activation image is formed in the foil. For this technique, dysprosium ( 164 Dy) and indium ( 115 In) foils can be used. After this irradiation, foils are transferred to a film in the dark-room, the latent image being formed in the film by decay radiation from the foil. The neutron radiography technique has been applied to a sword together with its sheath (inventory number 83/173) (Tugrul and Erdal 1987); a piece of cloth was visible on the handle of the sword. Sword and sheath had become corroded together. The artefact is from the Ikiztepe excavation near the city of Samsun in north Anatolia and belongs to the Early Bronze Age. First, X-ray radiography showed that the sword had been destroyed in large part and was not suitable for conservation and restoration procedures. Second, neutron radiography was carried out. Dysprosium-164 was used for the transfer method as a foil screen and irradiated in the reactor at 100 kW for half an hour. The dysprosium foil remained against the radiographic (Structurix, D-7) film for approximately three half-lives after the irradiation. The neutron radiograph shows the cloth layer continuing towards the bottom of the sheath. Through the cloth, water would have been introduced to the inside of the sheath and this was the main cause of corrosion to the artefact and so of the sword's destruction. (author)

  16. The change of p16 gene expression in glioma cell line C6 after radiation with gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xingli; Zhao Conghai; Tian Yu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: T observe the change of expression of p16 gene product, P16 protein, after treated by gamma knife on glioma cell line C6. Methods: Glioma C6 cells proliferated in vitro, treated by γ-knife in dose of 5.00 and 6.22 Gy, respectively. P16 protein was detected by immunohistochemical technique and image analysis. Results: The P16 protein in glioma C6 cells was notably increased after treatment with γ knife (P < 0.01). The grey number in C6 group (control group) was 167.1 +- 6.2 and was 155.4 +- 2.0 and 124.9 +- 7.1, respectively, in 5.00 Gy and 6.22 Gy gamma knife treated group. Conclusion: It is suggests that one of the mechanisms of glioma cell C6 apoptosis induced by γ-knife radiation may be associated with activation of p16 gene and increase of P16 protein expression

  17. Construction and test of the PRIOR proton microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Philipp-Michael

    2015-01-01

    The study of High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) in the laboratory makes great demands on the diagnostics because these states can usually only be created for a short time and usual diagnostic techniques with visible light or X-rays come to their limit because of the high density. The high energy proton radiography technique that was developed in the 1990s at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is a very promising possibility to overcome those limits so that one can measure the density of HEDM with high spatial and time resolution. For this purpose the proton microscope PRIOR (Proton Radiography for FAIR) was set up at GSI, which not only reproduces the image, but also magnifies it by a factor of 4.2 and thereby penetrates matter with a density up to 20 g/cm 2 . Straightaway a spatial resolution of less than 30 μm and a time resolution on the nanosecond scale was achieved. This work describes details to the principle, design and construction of the proton microscope as well as first measurements and simulations of essential components like magnetic lenses, a collimator and a scintillator screen. For the latter one it was possible to show that plastic scintillators can be used as converter as an alternative to the slower but more radiation resistant crystals, so that it is possible to reach a time resolution of 10 ns. Moreover the characteristics were investigated for the system at the commissioning in April 2014. Also the changes in the magnetic field due to radiation damage were studied. Besides that an overview about future applications is given. First experiments with Warm Dense Matter created by using a Pulsed Power Setup have already been performed. Furthermore the promising concept of combining proton radiography with particle therapy has been investigated in context of the PaNTERA project. An outlook on the possibilities with future experiments at the FAIR accelerator facility is given as well. Because of higher beam intensity an energy one can expect even

  18. Proton movies

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A humorous short film made by three secondary school students received an award at a Geneva film festival. Even without millions of dollars or Hollywood stars at your disposal, it is still possible to make a good science fiction film about CERN. That is what three students from the Collège Madame de Staël in Carouge, near Geneva, demonstrated. For their amateur short film on the LHC, they were commended by the jury of the video and multimedia festival for schools organised by the "Media in education" service of the Canton of Geneva’s Public Education Department. The film is a spoof of a television news report on the LHC start-up. In sequences full of humour and imagination, the reporter conducts interviews with a very serious "Professor Sairne", some protons preparing for their voyage and even the neutrons that were rejected by the LHC. "We got the idea of making a film about CERN at the end of the summer," explains Lucinda Päsche, one of the three students. "We did o...

  19. Genetic Analysis of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in CIMMYT Bread Wheat Line C615 Using Traditional and Conditional QTL Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xin; Cheng, Jingye; Jiang, Zhengning; Hu, Wenjing; Bie, Tongde; Gao, Derong; Li, Dongsheng; Wu, Ronglin; Li, Yuling; Chen, Shulin; Cheng, Xiaoming; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Shunhe

    2018-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive wheat disease present throughout the world, and host resistance is an effective and economical strategy used to control FHB. Lack of adequate resistance resource is still a main bottleneck for FHB genetics and wheat breeding research. The synthetic-derived bread wheat line C615, which does not carry the Fhb1 gene, is a promising source of FHB resistance for breeding. A population of 198 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) produced by crossing C615 with the susceptible cultivar Yangmai 13 was evaluated for FHB response using point and spray inoculations. As the disease phenotype is frequently complicated by other agronomic traits, we used both traditional and multivariate conditional QTL mapping approaches to investigate the genetic relationships (at the individual QTL level) between FHB resistance and plant height (PH), spike compactness (SC), and days to flowering (FD). A linkage map was constructed from 3,901 polymorphic SNP markers, which covered 2,549.2 cM. Traditional and conditional QTL mapping analyses found 13 and 22 QTL for FHB, respectively; 10 were identified by both methods. Among these 10, three QTL from C615 were detected in multiple years; these QTL were located on chromosomes 2AL, 2DS, and 2DL. Conditional QTL mapping analysis indicated that, at the QTL level, SC strongly influenced FHB in point inoculation; whereas PH and SC contributed more to FHB than did FD in spray inoculation. The three stable QTL ( QFhbs-jaas.2AL, QFhbp-jaas.2DS , and QFhbp-jaas.2DL ) for FHB were partly affected by or were independent of the three agronomic traits. The QTL detected in this study improve our understanding of the genetic relationships between FHB response and related traits at the QTL level and provide useful information for marker-assisted selection for the improvement of FHB resistance in breeding.

  20. Genetic Analysis of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in CIMMYT Bread Wheat Line C615 Using Traditional and Conditional QTL Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xin; Cheng, Jingye; Jiang, Zhengning; Hu, Wenjing; Bie, Tongde; Gao, Derong; Li, Dongsheng; Wu, Ronglin; Li, Yuling; Chen, Shulin; Cheng, Xiaoming; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Shunhe

    2018-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive wheat disease present throughout the world, and host resistance is an effective and economical strategy used to control FHB. Lack of adequate resistance resource is still a main bottleneck for FHB genetics and wheat breeding research. The synthetic-derived bread wheat line C615, which does not carry the Fhb1 gene, is a promising source of FHB resistance for breeding. A population of 198 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) produced by crossing C615 with the susceptible cultivar Yangmai 13 was evaluated for FHB response using point and spray inoculations. As the disease phenotype is frequently complicated by other agronomic traits, we used both traditional and multivariate conditional QTL mapping approaches to investigate the genetic relationships (at the individual QTL level) between FHB resistance and plant height (PH), spike compactness (SC), and days to flowering (FD). A linkage map was constructed from 3,901 polymorphic SNP markers, which covered 2,549.2 cM. Traditional and conditional QTL mapping analyses found 13 and 22 QTL for FHB, respectively; 10 were identified by both methods. Among these 10, three QTL from C615 were detected in multiple years; these QTL were located on chromosomes 2AL, 2DS, and 2DL. Conditional QTL mapping analysis indicated that, at the QTL level, SC strongly influenced FHB in point inoculation; whereas PH and SC contributed more to FHB than did FD in spray inoculation. The three stable QTL (QFhbs-jaas.2AL, QFhbp-jaas.2DS, and QFhbp-jaas.2DL) for FHB were partly affected by or were independent of the three agronomic traits. The QTL detected in this study improve our understanding of the genetic relationships between FHB response and related traits at the QTL level and provide useful information for marker-assisted selection for the improvement of FHB resistance in breeding. PMID:29780395

  1. Dysphagia following stroke: evaluation with digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Sung Nam; Kang, Heoung Keun; Joo, Jung Hyun; Kim, Chang Il; Park, Soo Min; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Seo, Jeong Jin; Chung, Tae Woong

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of digital radiography in the assessment of dysphagia following stroke. Eighteen stroke patients (8 men, 10 women) referred for dysphagia and ten controls without known pharyngeal swallowing difficulty underwent digital radiography using a 1:1 mixture of barium and water. We evaluated oropharyngeal transit time and the location and severity of dysphagia; transit time was defined as the time from the first movement of the bolus to the return of the epiglottis to its original position. We sought to observe specific patterns of oropharyngeal dysfunction; dysphagia was classified as mild, moderate, or severe. The dynamic image of the pharynx, as seen on a digital radiograph, may be diagnostically useful for defining the location and severity of dysphagia; in order to make feeding recommendations, this information is essential. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs

  2. Deflection evaluation using time-resolved radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, D.A.; Lucero, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Time-resolved radiography is the creation of an x-ray image for which both the start-exposure and stop-exposure times are known with respect to the event under study. The combination of image and timing are used to derive information about the event. The authors have applied time-resolved radiography to evaluate motions of explosive-driven events. In the particular application discussed in this paper, the author's intent is to measure maximum deflections of the components involved. Exposures are made during the time just before to just after the event of interest occurs. A smear or blur of motion out to its furthest extent is recorded on the image. Comparison of the dynamic images with static images allows deflection measurements to be made

  3. Engineering applications of microfocal radiography. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, R.S.; Parish, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The engineering applications of microfocal radiography are reviewed in detail. After describing the terminology used, the types of application are identified where the advantages of the reduced focal spot size are utilised e.g. finer detail, dynamic radiography of temporally changing events, lower background in the film and superior depth of focus. The quality of the images obtained with microfocal techniques is also discussed in detail. Finally various types of microfocal equipment which are commercially available are described and explicit examples of the areas of application are given, e.g. non-destructive testing in the nuclear industry, microporosity in aero-engine gas turbine blades and inspection of miniaturised electronic components such as integrated circuits. (U.K.)

  4. Dysphagia following stroke: evaluation with digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Sung Nam; Kang, Heoung Keun; Joo, Jung Hyun; Kim, Chang Il; Park, Soo Min; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Seo, Jeong Jin; Chung, Tae Woong [Chonnam Univ., Kwanju (Korea, Republic of). Medical School

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of digital radiography in the assessment of dysphagia following stroke. Eighteen stroke patients (8 men, 10 women) referred for dysphagia and ten controls without known pharyngeal swallowing difficulty underwent digital radiography using a 1:1 mixture of barium and water. We evaluated oropharyngeal transit time and the location and severity of dysphagia; transit time was defined as the time from the first movement of the bolus to the return of the epiglottis to its original position. We sought to observe specific patterns of oropharyngeal dysfunction; dysphagia was classified as mild, moderate, or severe. The dynamic image of the pharynx, as seen on a digital radiograph, may be diagnostically useful for defining the location and severity of dysphagia; in order to make feeding recommendations, this information is essential. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Current and future neutron radiography standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenizer, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Only two organizations are actively producing standards which are used in neutron radiology (NR): the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Six ASTM standards exist that address the neutron radiography method. Two of the ASTM standards have been extensively used world-wide. ISO has a working group which is developing three standards that also address the neutron radiography method. Two of these are currently making their way through the ISO approval system. No ASTM or ISO standards exist for the neutron radioscopic method. Future ASTM standards will address the neutron radioscopic method and neutron radiologic system characterization. It is expected that similar efforts will be undertaken in ISO. Given the relatively small community providing neutron radiologic services, international cooperation and the need for ISO standards will most likely continue to grow.(author)

  6. Computed Radiography: An Innovative Inspection Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, William A.; Councill, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Florida Power and Light Company's (FPL) Nuclear Division combined two diverse technologies to create an innovative inspection technique, Computed Radiography, that improves personnel safety and unit reliability while reducing inspection costs. This technique was pioneered in the medical field and applied in the Nuclear Division initially to detect piping degradation due to flow-accelerated corrosion. Component degradation can be detected by this additional technique. This approach permits FPL to reduce inspection costs, perform on line examinations (no generation curtailment), and to maintain or improve both personnel safety and unit reliability. Computed Radiography is a very versatile tool capable of other uses: - improving the external corrosion program by permitting inspections underneath insulation, and - diagnosing system and component problems such as valve positions, without the need to shutdown or disassemble the component. (authors)

  7. Panoramic radiography and its diagnostic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Yonoshin

    1971-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a term that is applied to the radiographic techniques which record is the dental arches and related structures on one or two extraoral films. It consists of two methods, one using the intraoral anode, and the other employing tomography. Because of an increase in practical application, about 10 kinds of panoramic dental X-ray units were commercially available in U.S.A.

  8. Digital radiography: Present detectors and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1990-08-01

    Present detectors for digital radiography are of two classes: real time detectors and storage (non real time) types. Present real time detectors consist of image intensifier tubes with an internal cesium iodide layer x-ray converter. Non real time detectors involve linear sweep arrays or storage detectors such as film. Future detectors discussed here can be of both types utilizing new technologies such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode arrays coupled to thin film transistor arrays. 17 refs., 10 figs

  9. Mobile radiography at a music festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A; Brenchley, J; Hughes, N

    2009-08-01

    Limb injuries are common at music festival sites and traditionally patients seen by on-site medical services require referral to hospital emergency departments for radiographic exclusion of bony injury. This takes clinical personnel off site, increases demand on local emergency departments and is inconvenient for revellers. This is an audit of the use of a portable digital radiography system at the Virgin music festival in Staffordshire over a 3-year period.

  10. Quantitative analysis of boron by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayuelken, A.; Boeck, H.; Schachner, H.; Buchberger, T.

    1990-01-01

    The quantitative determination of boron in ores is a long process with chemical analysis techniques. As nuclear techniques like X-ray fluorescence and activation analysis are not applicable for boron, only the neutron radiography technique, using the high neutron absorption cross section of this element, can be applied for quantitative determinations. This paper describes preliminary tests and calibration experiments carried out at a 250 kW TRIGA reactor. (orig.) [de

  11. Mathematics and physics of neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.; Wyman, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides detailed descriptions and analyses of selected experiments and their mathematical characterization. Also included are illustrative and quantitative procedures for applications. This book also discusses the radiography, nondestructive testing and nuclear reactor utilization. The contents discussed are: I: Introduction. II: Component Characterization. III: Object-Image Relations. IV: Rectangular Geometry. V: Cylindrical Geometry. VI: Two-Dimensional Analysis. VII: Object Scattering. VIII: Linear Systems Formulation. IX: Selected Topics. X: Neutron Radiographs. XI: Bibliography and References. Subject Index

  12. Digital detection systems for projection radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    This article gives a survey of digital X-ray detection systems for projection radiography. The different principles are compared and some general characteristics are derived. The basic conversion mechanisms in the absorption layers are described. The basic principles of solid state X-ray detectors and their general characteristics are elucidated as well as some similarities with detectors for computed tomography. Some important application and system aspects are considered. An outlook on further possible developments in this field is given. (orig.) [de

  13. Digital chest radiography: collimation and dose reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian

    ,3 mAs and SID SID of 180 centimetres using a phantom and lithium fluoride thermo luminescence dosimeter (TLD). Dose to risk organs mamma, thyroid and colon are measured at different collimations with one-centimetre steps. TLD results are used to estimate dose reduction for different collimations...... at the conference. Conclusion: Collimation improvement in basic chest radiography can reduce the radiation to female patients at chest x-ray examinations....

  14. Radiography student perceptions of clinical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Starla L

    2006-01-01

    Technological change and the increasingly rapid pace of life in the United States and globally have contributed to increased levels of stress and burnout experienced by workers and their families. Although studies are available on the levels of workplace stress and burnout affecting radiographers, little to no research has been conducted to assess the stressors encountered by radiography students in the clinical environment. This study was designed to pinpoint the primary sources of stress for radiography students and to determine the most effective measures to alleviate the stress that students experience in the clinical environment. It also sought to identify the clinical activities and practices that enhance learning. A convenience sample of radiography students attending an Association of Collegiate Educators in Radiologic Technology meeting was surveyed. Students were asked to rank their greatest stressors in the clinical environment, the most desired qualities in a clinical instructor and clinical environment, and the clinical practices and activities that best enhance their learning. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results. Data were collected for 82 first-year and second-year students. Students identified 7 primary clinical stressors: fear of making a mistake/repeat, feeling unprepared/inexperienced, intimidation by staff and by instructors, difficult/critical patients, hurtful criticism, too much supervision and negative responses to questions/requests for help. Students indicated that more frequent feedback, availability of the clinical instructor and other staff, assurance that mistakes happen and the opportunity to make mistakes were clinical practices that eased stress. The majority of students cited hands-on learning and repetition as the clinical activities that most reinforced their learning. Summary Radiography students in this survey experience some of the same clinical stressors as radiographers and other allied health workers

  15. Source of scattering in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruault, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Variations concerning emission and detection of ionizing radiations in industrial radiography are reviewed. Sources of errors come from emulsion and emulsion processing (fabrication, aging, processing, chemicals, temperature, development time, shaking down, drying, delay for processing), from emission (X ray generators, emission spectra, voltage, angular repartition of photon fluence, radioactive sources) and also from radiation measurement (dosimetry and spectrometry). Influence of all these parameters on sensitivity is examined [fr

  16. Quality assessment of orthodontic radiography in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Ekholm, Marja; Haukka, Jari; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna

    2016-02-01

    Numbers of dental panoramic tomographs (DPTs) and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LCRs) outweigh other radiographic examinations in 7- to 12-year-old Finns. Orthodontists and general practitioners (GPs) involved in orthodontics hold therefore the highest responsibility of the exposure of children to ionising radiation with its risks. Against this background, lack of reports on the quality of orthodontic radiography is surprising. The purpose of our study was to shed some light and draw the awareness of the orthodontic community on the subject by analyzing the quality of orthodontic radiography in Oral Healthcare Department of City of Helsinki, in the capital of Finland. We analyzed randomly selected 241 patient files with DPTs and 118 patient files with LCRs of 7- to 12-year-olds for the indications of radiography, quality of referrals, status of interpretation, and number of failed radiographs. The majority of DPTs (95%) and all LCRs had been ordered for orthodontic reasons. Of the DPTs, 60% were ordered by GPs, and of the LCRs, 64% by orthodontists. The referrals were adequate for most DPTs (78%) and LCRs (73%), orthodontists being responsible for the majority of inadequate referrals. Of the DPTs, 80% had been interpreted. Of the LCRs, 65% lacked interpretation, but 67% had been analysed cephalometrically. Failed radiographs, leading to repeated exposure, were found in 2-3%. The quality assessment revealed that orthodontic radiography may not completely fulfill the criteria of good practice. Our results stress further need of continuing education in radiation protection among both orthodontists and GPs involved in orthodontics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Radiological protection procedures for industrial applications of computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Josilto Oliveira de

    2009-03-01

    Due to its very particular characteristics, industrial radiography is responsible for roughly half of the relevant accidents in nuclear industry, in developed as well as in developing countries, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Thus, safety and radiological protection in industrial gamma radiography have been receiving especial treatment by regulatory authorities of most Member States. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate, from the radioprotection point of view, the main advantages of computed radiography (CR) for filmless industrial radiography. In order to accomplish this, both techniques, i.e. conventional and filmless computed radiography were evaluated and compared through practical studies. After the studies performed at the present work it was concluded that computed radiography significantly reduces the inherent doses, reflecting in smaller restricted areas and costs, with consequent improvement in radiological protection and safety. (author)

  18. Bacteriological research for the contamination of equipment in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung Gu; Song, Woon Heung; Kweon, Dae Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the degree of contamination of the equipment for infection control in chest radiography of the radiology department. We confirmed by chemical and bacterial identification of bacteria of the equipment and established a preventive maintenance plan. Chest X-ray radiography contact area on the instrument patients shoulder, hand, chin, chest lateral radiography patient contact areas with a 70% isopropyl alcohol cotton swab were compared to identify the bacteria before and after sterilization on the patient contact area in the chest radiography equipment of the department. The gram positive Staphylococcus was isolated from side shoots handle before disinfection in the chest radiography equipment. For the final identification of antibiotic tested that it was determined by performing the nobobiocin to the sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Chest radiography equipment before disinfecting the handle side of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria were detected using a disinfectant should be to prevent hospital infections

  19. Representability of metastatic bone lesions in magnification radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Magnification radiography, bone scintigraphy, and normal roentgenography were performed on patients with malignant tumors to detect their bone metastases, and from the results obtained, these diagnostic procedures were evaluated for the detectability and representability of metastatic bone lesions. Bone scan and normal roentgenography were performed on 90 metastatic bone lesions in 37 patients, and magnification radiography was done on 14 bone lesions noted in 10 of the 37 and another with benign osseous change. Among the three, bone scintigraphy was best, and magnification radiography and normal roentgenography did not differ significantly in detectability. In magnification radiography, some metastatic bone lesions were represented more clearly than by normal roentgeography, but some were not. As regards the representability of the ribs, magnification radiography was very useful. One case of bone destruction was detected by magnification radiography, but not by normal roentgenography. (author)

  20. Bacteriological research for the contamination of equipment in chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Gu; Song, Woon Heung; Kweon, Dae Cheol [Shinhan University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose is to determine the degree of contamination of the equipment for infection control in chest radiography of the radiology department. We confirmed by chemical and bacterial identification of bacteria of the equipment and established a preventive maintenance plan. Chest X-ray radiography contact area on the instrument patients shoulder, hand, chin, chest lateral radiography patient contact areas with a 70% isopropyl alcohol cotton swab were compared to identify the bacteria before and after sterilization on the patient contact area in the chest radiography equipment of the department. The gram positive Staphylococcus was isolated from side shoots handle before disinfection in the chest radiography equipment. For the final identification of antibiotic tested that it was determined by performing the nobobiocin to the sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Chest radiography equipment before disinfecting the handle side of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria were detected using a disinfectant should be to prevent hospital infections.

  1. The technological development of neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, D.A.; Berger, H.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron radiography is a relatively recent technological development in the annals of non-destructive evaluation. It promises to play a role of increasing importance as the technology is further developed. The technique is placed in prospective with regard to other non-destructive evaluation methods in this paper. The history of the development of neutron radiography is traced to the early work of Becker, Bothe and the Joliot-Curies in Europe, and to the work of Chadwick in Great Britain. Details of the experiments which led to the discovery of the neutron by Chadwick in 1932, nuclear properties and energy classifications of neutrons, and the various interactions of neutrons with matter are discussed in detail. A history of neutron radiography is presented which outlines the early experiments by Kallmann and Kuhn; these experiments led to the production of the first neutron radiograph in Germany in 1938. The paper continues with a description of the general techniques that are characteristic of the neutron radiographic process. The breadth and extent of present neutron radiographic technology is discussed as a conclusion of the paper. (author)

  2. Application of neutron radiography to plant research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko

    1995-01-01

    Neutron radiography was used to image plant roots in soils. Soybeans were used as experimental plants. When the length of the soybean root was 3-5 cm, the plant was transferred to an alminum foil and cultivated by adding polyvinyl alcoholic polymer (polymer A) and pulm-derived polymer (polymer B) as water absorbing polymers to soils. Plant samples were removed sequentially and irradiated with neutrons for 19 seconds at the JRR-3M neutron radiography facility. After irradiation, X-ray film images were obtained to observe water dynamics of roots and soils. Neutron images of soybean roots showed that secondary roots had grown on the side of water absorbing polymer-added soils in the case of polymer A, but on the side of non-added soils in the case of polymer B. When polymer B was added just below the soils where roots were grown, root growth was restricted only to the soil surface, and plant growth condition and dry weight were similar to those in the control plants. Thus the design of root shape may be possible by using polymer B. Similar experiment was made on 5 kinds of trees. Images of cross section of Japanese Cypress revealed that water contained in the tree is not always present along with growth ring of the tree. These findings may have an important implication for the potential application of neutron radiography in plant research. (N.K.)

  3. Digital radiography: description and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthel, A.; Bonin, Th.; Cadilhon, S.; Thiery, Ch.; Chatellier, L.; Kaftandjian, V.; Honorat, Ph.; Torrent, J.; Le Brun, A.; Maglaive, J.C.; Moreau, Ph.; Pettier, J.L.; Rebuffel, V.; Roenelle, P.; Roussilhe, J.; Staat, St.; Tahon, M.

    2007-01-01

    The presented document arises from the work of the group 'Digital Radiography and sensors' of COFREND. It is a collective work of synthesis aimed to analyze the quality parameters of digital images influencing the answer and the diagnosis brought to a given industrial problem. Five families of digital sensors have been studied: 1. Image Intensifier coupled with CCD devices - 2. scintillators coupled with a CCD device- 3. Flat Panels with indirect conversion - 4. Flat Panels with direct electric conversion - 5. Photostimulable Storage Phosphor Screens). In particular, concerning a complete imaging chain, it deals with the notions of magnification, blur (unsharpness) (geometrical, kinetic or internal to the very sensor), noises, scattered radiation, spatial resolution, which is different from the one of analog detectors such as films, Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR), sensitivity using IQIs, dynamic range, detection quantum efficiency, persistence and temporal resolution. This document is not a standard; it must be understood as a user's guide, and it approaches some essentials corrections to bring to a sensor in order to optimize his efficiency without losing information during the pre-processing phase in the radiographic acquisition. It also introduces some image processing tools commonly used. It can be used as a source document to the future elaboration of a standardisation document. It augurs not at all of the choice of a digital sensor with regard to the traditional radiographic film, but gives bases of reflection to a radio user for a sensible transfer from the classic radiography to the digital radiography. (authors)

  4. Assessment of cold neutron radiography capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Roberts, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors goals were to demonstrate and assess cold neutron radiography techniques at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Manual Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center), and to investigate potential applications of the capability. The authors have obtained images using film and an amorphous silicon detector. In addition, a new technique they have developed allows neutron radiographs to be made using only a narrow range of neutron energies. Employing this approach and the Bragg cut-off phenomena in certain materials, they have demonstrated material discrimination in radiography. They also demonstrated the imaging of cracks in a sample of a fire-set case that was supplied by Sandia National Laboratory, and they investigated whether the capability could be used to determine the extent of coking in jet engine nozzles. The LANSCE neutron radiography capability appears to have applications in the DOE stockpile maintenance and science-based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) programs, and in industry

  5. Proton-air and proton-proton cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different attempts to measure hadronic cross sections with cosmic ray data are reviewed. The major results are compared to each other and the differences in the corresponding analyses are discussed. Besides some important differences, it is crucial to see that all analyses are based on the same fundamental relation of longitudinal air shower development to the observed fluctuation of experimental observables. Furthermore, the relation of the measured proton-air to the more fundamental proton-proton cross section is discussed. The current global picture combines hadronic proton-proton cross section data from accelerator and cosmic ray measurements and indicates a good consistency with predictions of models up to the highest energies.

  6. Visualization of frosting phenomena by using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Umekawa, Hisashi; Ami, Takeyuki; Saito, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the frost formation on the fin-tube heat exchanger using neutron radiography. The visualization of the frost formation was estimated by the attenuation of the neutron beam through the water. The visualization image of the neutron radiography shows clearly the frost formation phenomena on the fin-tube heat exchanger. The rapid frost formation was observed at the fin and tube edges. Local mass transfer coefficient can be calculated from the differential images of the neutron radiography. (author)

  7. Krohne Flow Indicator and High Flow Alarm - Local Indicator and High Flow Alarm of Helium Flow from the SCHe Purge Lines C and D to the Process Vent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Flow Indicators/alarms FI/FSH-5*52 and -5*72 are located in the process vent lines connected to the 2 psig SCHe purge lines C and D. They monitor the flow from the 2 psig SCHe purge going to the process vent. The switch/alarm is non-safety class GS

  8. Fast neutron radiography using photoluminescent imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rant, J.; Kristof, E.; Balasko, M.; Stade, J.

    1999-01-01

    Fast neutron radiography (FNR) and resonance neutron radiography (RNR) are complementary to the conventional radiography with high energy gamma-rays or brems-strahlung radiation used for the inspection of thick metal objects. In both non-destructive methods, the contrast sensitivity and the penetration power can be improved by using higher energy neutrons. At present direct techniques based either n Solid State Nuclear Track detectors (SSNTDs) or scintillating screens and transfer techniques using activation threshold detectors and radiographic films are applied for the detection of fast neutron images. Rather low detection sensitivity of film and SSNTD based fast neutron imaging methods and also rather poor inherent image contrast of SSNTD pose a problem for FNR in the fast neutron energy region 1-15 MeV interesting for NDT. For more efficient detection of fast neutron images the use of novel highly sensitive photoluminescent imaging plates (IP) in combination with threshold at the KFKI research reactor. The conventional IP produced by FUJI Photo Film Co. for the detection of beta and X-ray radiation were used. The threshold activation detectors were the reactions 115 In(n, n') 115m In, 64 Zn(n,p) 64 Cu, 56 Fe(n, p) 56 Mn, 24 Mg(n, p) 24 Na and 27 Al(n, α) 24 Na. These threshold reactions cover the fast neutron energy region between 0,7 MeV and 12 MeV. Pure, commercially available metals 0,1 mm to 0,25 mm thick made of In, Zn, Fe, Mg and Al were used as converter screens. The very high sensitivity of IP, the linearity of their response over 5 decades of exposure dose and the high dynamic digitalisation latitude enabled fast neutron radiography of image quality comparable to the quality of thermal NR. In our experimental conditions (φ n ∼ 10 8 n/cm 2 s, R Cd ∼ 2) the neutron exposure and IP exposure periods were still practical and comparable to the half life of the corresponding reaction products (half an hour to several hours). Even with the 27 Al(n.α) 24

  9. New development of neutron radiography with a small cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yasushi; Ohkubo, Kohei; Kato, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Tomihisa; Fuji, Takayoshi.

    1990-01-01

    A series of neutron radiography testing has been performed for several years by using a small accelerator called 'Baby Cyclotron' manufactured by Japan Steel Works, Ltd. The Baby Cyclotron produces fast neutrons at the rate of 4x10 12 n/cm 2 s, and enables to perform neutron radiography imaging by various techniques. The most important application of this Baby Cyclotron radiography system is the non-destructive testing (NDT) of various explosive devices prepared for space launch vehicles. It is assured that thermal neutron radiography testing is a very useful means for the NDT. Also fast neutron radiography testing is in progress. The fast neutron radiography with a CR39 track-etch image recorder was developed, and it was shown to be the very useful NDT means when the thicker objects used for new H-2 launch vehicles had to be examined. Because thermal neutron radiography has the high detectability of hydrogenous materials, organic elastomers such as O-rings and explosive powder are clearly observable through the opaque steel walls of containers. The Baby Cyclotron and the neutron radiography facility, thermal neutron and fast neutron radiography testings and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Heavy-ion radiography applied to charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.T.Y.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Holley, W.R.; Tobias, C.A.; Castro, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the heavy-ion radiography research program applied to the clinical cancer research program of charged particle radiotherapy have a twofold purpose: (1) to explore the manner in which heavy-ion radiography and CT reconstruction can provide improved tumor localization, treatment planning, and beam delivery for radiotherapy with accelerated heavy charged particles; and (2) to explore the usefulness of heavy-ion radiography in detecting, localizing, and sizing soft tissue cancers in the human body. The techniques and procedures developed for heavy-ion radiography should prove successful in support of charged particle radiotherapy

  11. Proton therapy device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1994-01-01

    The invention concerns a proton therapy device using a proton linear accelerator which produces a proton beam with high energies and intensities. The invention lies in actual fact that the proton beam which is produced by the linear accelerator is deflected from 270 deg in its plan by a deflecting magnetic device towards a patient support including a bed the longitudinal axis of which is parallel to the proton beam leaving the linear accelerator. The patient support and the deflecting device turn together around the proton beam axis while the bed stays in an horizontal position. The invention applies to radiotherapy. 6 refs., 5 figs

  12. Elastic proton-proton scattering at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, K.

    2011-09-03

    Here we describe elastic proton+proton (p+p) scattering measurements at RHIC in p+p collisions with a special optics run of {beta}* {approx} 21 m at STAR, at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV during the last week of the RHIC 2009 run. We present preliminary results of single and double spin asymmetries.

  13. Baryon production in proton-proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.M.; Werner, K.

    2002-01-01

    Motivated by the recent rapidity spectra of baryons and antibaryons in pp collisions at 158 GeV and the Ω-bar/Ω ratio discussion, we reviewed string formation mechanism and some string models. This investigation told us how color strings are formed in ultrarelativistic proton-proton collisions

  14. Direct digital radiography versus storage phosphor radiography in the detection of wrist fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peer, Siegfried; Neitzel, Ulrich; Giacomuzzi, Salvatore M.; Pechlaner, Sigurd; KUenzel, Karl Heinz; Peer, Regina; Gassner, Eva; Steingruber, Iris; Gaber, O.; Jaschke, Werner

    2002-04-01

    AIM: To define the value of digital radiography with a clinical flat panel detector system for evaluation of wrist fractures in comparison with state of the art storage phosphor radiography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hard copy images of 26 fractured wrist specimens were acquired with the same exposure dose on a state of the art storage phosphor radiography system and a clinical flat panel detector. Image features like cortical bone surface, trabecular bone, soft tissues and fracture delineation were independently analysed by 4 observers using a standardised protocol. Image quality ratings were evaluated with an analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: Flat panel detector radiographs were rated superior with respect to cortical and trabecular bone representation as well as fracture evaluation, while storage phosphor radiographs produced better soft tissue detail. CONCLUSION: In some of the observed image quality aspects, the performance of caesium iodide/amorphous silicon flat panel detector exceeds state of the art storage phosphor radiography. This makes it well suited for skeletal imaging particularly in trauma as seen in the detection of wrist fractures. Peer, S. et al. (2002)

  15. Direct digital radiography versus storage phosphor radiography in the detection of wrist fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peer, Siegfried; Neitzel, Ulrich; Giacomuzzi, Salvatore M.; Pechlaner, Sigurd; KUenzel, Karl Heinz; Peer, Regina; Gassner, Eva; Steingruber, Iris; Gaber, O.; Jaschke, Werner

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To define the value of digital radiography with a clinical flat panel detector system for evaluation of wrist fractures in comparison with state of the art storage phosphor radiography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hard copy images of 26 fractured wrist specimens were acquired with the same exposure dose on a state of the art storage phosphor radiography system and a clinical flat panel detector. Image features like cortical bone surface, trabecular bone, soft tissues and fracture delineation were independently analysed by 4 observers using a standardised protocol. Image quality ratings were evaluated with an analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: Flat panel detector radiographs were rated superior with respect to cortical and trabecular bone representation as well as fracture evaluation, while storage phosphor radiographs produced better soft tissue detail. CONCLUSION: In some of the observed image quality aspects, the performance of caesium iodide/amorphous silicon flat panel detector exceeds state of the art storage phosphor radiography. This makes it well suited for skeletal imaging particularly in trauma as seen in the detection of wrist fractures. Peer, S. et al. (2002)

  16. Compton radiography, 2. Clinical significance of Compton radiography of a chest phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, S; Sera, K; Fukuda, H; Shishido, F [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer; Mishina, H

    1977-09-01

    Compton radiography, a tomographic technic with Compton-scattered rays of a monochromatic gamma ray beam, was feasible of tomographing a chest phantom. The result suggested that the technic could be extended to imaging of the lung and the surrounding structures of the chest wall, mediastinum and liver in Compton tomographic mode.

  17. Proton: the particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Proton: The Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10{sup 80}. Protons were created at 10{sup −6} –1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10{sup 10} years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10{sup 34} years; that is, the age of the universe is 10{sup −24}th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W{sup +}, W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}, and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  19. Effects of IGFBP-2 on proliferation and differentiation in neural stem cell line C17.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Y

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yujia Deng,1 Lei Wang,1,2 Lite Ge,1,3 Da Duan,1 Yi Zhuo,1 Ting Yuan,1 Weiping Yan,1 Peiqi Huang,1 Xiaohua Teng,1 Ming Lu1,3 1Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University (163 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army, Changsha, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Haikou Hospital, Xiangya School of Central South University, Haikou, 3Key Laboratory of Protein Chemistry and Developmental Biology of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China Objective: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2, a member of a highly conserved family of six insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs, can regulate several cellular processes through IGF-dependent or IGF-independent pathway. Recent studies have provided solid evidence for the importance to delineate that olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC-conditioned medium (OCM can not only facilitate the differentiation of neural stem cell line (C17.2 into neurons, but also promote the survival and proliferation. We have previously reported that IGFBP-2 was detected in OCM. This study is designed to investigate the roles of IGFBP-2 for the regulation of C17.2 differentiation and proliferation.Methods and results: IGFBP-2 was identified and upregulated in OCM to compare with astrocytes-conditioned medium by shotgun proteomics and semiquantitative proteomic analysis. In order to investigate whether exogenous IGFBP-2 could stimulate proliferation in C17.2 cells and differentiate it into glia or neuron, we used various concentrations of IGFBP-2 to induce C17.2 cells which were cultured in DMEM/F12. The results showed that exogenous IGFBP-2 can promote proliferation in C17.2 cells, but had little effect on differentiation. Interestingly, we also found that IGFBP-2 could induce C17.2 cells to differentiate into astrocytes, while inhibiting their differentiation into neurons in a dose

  20. Neutron radiography using neutron imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chankow, Nares; Wonglee, Sarinrat

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aims of this research are to study properties of neutron imaging plate, to obtain a suitable condition for neutron radiography and to use the neutron imaging plate for testing of materials nondestructively. The experiments were carried out by using a neutron beam from the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 at a power of 1.2 MW. A BAS-ND 2040 FUJI neutron imaging plate and a MX125 Kodak X-ray film/Gadolinium neutron converter screen combination were tested for comparison. It was found that the photostimulated light (PSL) read out of the imaging plate was directly proportional to the exposure time. It was also found that radiography with neutron using the imaging plate was approximately 40 times faster than the conventional neutron radiography using x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination. The sensitivity of the imaging plate to gamma-rays was investigated by using gamma-rays from an 192 Ir and a 60 Co radiographic sources. The imaging plate was found to be 5-6 times less sensitive to gamma-rays than a FUJI BAS-MS 2040 gamma-ray imaging plate. Finally, some specimens were selected to be radiographed with neutrons using the imaging plate and the x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination in comparison to x-rays. Parts containing light elements could be clearly observed by the two neutron radiographic techniques. It could be concluded that the image quality from the neutron imaging plate was comparable to the conventional x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination but the exposure time could be approximately reduced by a factor of 40

  1. Dual energy radiography using active detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.A.; Poage, T.F.; Alvarez, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    A new technology has been implemented using an open-quotes active-detectorclose quotes comprised of two computed radiography (CR) imaging plates in a sandwich geometry for dual-energy radiography. This detector allows excellent energy separation, short exposure time, and high signal to noise ratio (SNR) for clinically robust open-quotes bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images with minimum patient motion. Energy separation is achieved by two separate exposures at widely different kVp's: the high energy (120 kVp + 1.5 mm Cu filter) exposure is initiated first, followed by a short burst of intense light to erase the latent image on the front plate, and then a 50 kVp (low energy) exposure. A personal computer interfaced to the x-ray generator, filter wheel, and active detector system orchestrates the acquisition sequence within a time period of 150 msec. The front and back plates are processed using a CR readout algorithm with fixed speed and wide dynamic range. open-quotes Bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images are calculated by geometric alignment of the two images and application of dual energy decomposition algorithms on a pixel by pixel basis. Resultant images of a calibration phantom demonstrate an increase of SNR 2 / dose by ∼73 times when compared to a single exposure open-quotes passive-detectorclose quotes comprised of CR imaging plates, and an ∼8 fold increase compared to a screen-film dual-energy cassette comprised of different phosphor compounds. In conclusion, dual energy imaging with open-quotes active detectorclose quotes technology is clinically feasible and can provide substantial improvements over conventional methods for dual-energy radiography

  2. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C.; Tilly Junior, Joao G.

    2014-01-01

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  3. Proceeding of 6th short conference on neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsurayama, Kohsuke; Hiraoka, Eiichi; Tsujimoto, Tadashi

    1984-01-01

    The 6th short conference on neutron radiography was held on August 30 and 31, 1983, at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto niversity, as a part of the joint research program of the Institute. During the period since the first meeting in November, 1970, steady development was made in both research and practical use of neutron radiography in Japan owing to the persistent effort of the persons concerned. In the conference, 70 persons participated, and 21 papers were presented. The problems treated were the apparatuses of neutron television, neutron radiography and neutron photography, the various application of neutron radiography, the standard of neutron radiography and others. The high value of neutron radiography and the increasing demand to use this technique were shown in this meeting. Considering the recent rapid development of new technology, it is expected that neutron radiography will find the wide varieties of application in the near future. The proceedings of the conference are published by collecting the gists of papers, hoping to enhance joint effort and the exchange of information to develop neutron radiography. (Kako, I.)

  4. Imaging of bone tumors: evaluation of direct magnification radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, T.M.; Hillmann, A.; Erlemann, R.; Groenefeld, A.; Haeussler, M.; Heppe, A.E.; Vestring, T.; Peters, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the potentials of magnification radiography as compared with conventional radiography in diagnosing bone tumors. Design and patients. Sixty-two patients with primary bone tumors and tumorlike lesions underwent radiography with both conventional (non-magnified) and magnification (fivefold) techniques. All radiographs were analyzed by four radiologists and the findings correlated with the histopathology findings. The microfocal X-ray unit used for magnification radiography had a focal spot size of 20-130 μm. Digital luminescence radiography was employed with magnification, while normal film-screen systems were used with conventional radiography. Results. The diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions as well as the individual tumor diagnosis were determined with higher accuracy using magnification compared with conventional radiography (88% vs 75% and 71% vs 52%, p<0.01). Margins of destruction, periosteal reactions and matrix patterns were evaluated with higher certainty by all of the radiologists (p<0.01). Conclusion. Magnification radiography may improve the evaluation and diagnosis of bone tumors. (orig.). With 6 tabs

  5. Quality control in radiography: a primary responsibility of the technologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, G.F.

    1973-01-01

    The relationship between quality control in radiography and radiation protection is emphasized. Methods of dose reduction discussed are the 0.1 mm fractional focal spot, the use of high speed intensifying screens, and automatic exposure control. The need for recommendations for the establishment of improved systems of radiography is discussed. The development of revised educational concepts for radiologists is considered. (U.S.)

  6. Reproducible positioning in chest X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A device is described that can be used to ensure reproducibility in the positioning of the patient during X-ray radiography of the thorax. Signals are taken from an electrocardiographic monitor and from a device recording the respiratory cycle. Radiography is performed only when two preselected signals coincide

  7. Learning Styles of Radiography Students during Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L. Patrice

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. Quantitative, descriptive research methodology identified the learning styles of radiography students. A single self-report questionnaire, developed to assess learning styles in clinical practice, was administered…

  8. The profile of indications for radiography in the Neonatal Intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Radiography is a key diagnostic tool in paediatric care. A pro-active approach (including the use of radiography) is required to ensure e.ective management of these patients. Taking into account the widely documented harmful e.ects of ionising radiation and the small organ masses of neonates, the number of ...

  9. Computed radiography imaging plates and associated methods of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nathaniel F.; Moses, Alex K.

    2015-08-18

    Computed radiography imaging plates incorporating an intensifying material that is coupled to or intermixed with the phosphor layer, allowing electrons and/or low energy x-rays to impart their energy on the phosphor layer, while decreasing internal scattering and increasing resolution. The radiation needed to perform radiography can also be reduced as a result.

  10. Proceedings of 7th short conference on neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Eiichi; Katsurayama, Kousuke; Tsujimoto, Tadashi

    1986-10-01

    The first short period conference on neutron radiography was held in 1970, and now the 7th meeting was held. The works to develop neutron radiography in Japan are as active as those in western countries, and the research is in progress by using neutrons from reactors, radioisotopes and accelerators in order to achieve the technology of high standard. In this conference, 26 papers and six comments were presented, and the themes covered the equipment for radiography, the practical application, and the related research. The second World Conference on Neutron Radiography will be held in Paris in June, 1986, and the further promotion of the spread of neutron radiography can be expected. The proceedings of the conference is published with the hope that joint effort and information exchange are further enhanced in coming years to develop the neutron radiography in Japan. The neutron radiography using the Kinki University reactor, the Rikkyo Triga-2 reactor, the Musashi reactor, the Kyoto research reactor, a 3MV Van de Graaff accelerator in Toyota, a subcompact cyclotron in Sumitomo, a baby cyclotron-dual collimator in National Space Development Agency and so on, Cf-252 based thermal neutron radiography, CT with Sb-124/Be neutrons, pulse power neutron source, imaging converters, neutron radiographic image processing, computed tomography using neutron television systems and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  11. Digital Radiography Qualification of Tube Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Project will be directing Lockheed Martin to perform orbital arc welding on commodities metallic tubing as part of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle assembly and integration process in the Operations and Checkout High bay at Kennedy Space Center. The current method of nondestructive evaluation is utilizing traditional film based x-rays. Due to the high number of welds that are necessary to join the commodities tubing (approx 470), a more efficient and expeditious method of nondestructive evaluation is desired. Digital radiography will be qualified as part of a broader NNWG project scope.

  12. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  13. Reduction of patient exposure during dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulek, G.G.; Soydan, E.; Ugur, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of using additional accessories with a conventional X-ray machine to reduce patient exposure during full-mouth dental radiography was investigated. LiF extruded-rod thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed in 23 anatomical sites of a Randophantom and the phantom was exposed to a Turkish dental X-ray machine operated at 60 kV, 10 mA for 0.5 sec periods. Maximum reductions were observed at the eyes (80%), in the thyroid (70.6%), under the collar bone (59.9% average) and the gonads (44.5%). (author)

  14. Applicaton of fluorometallic screens for paper radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.D.

    1983-07-01

    After the description of the fluorometallic screens and their spectral sensitivity their sensitometric properties are reviewed. Characteristic curves and exposure charts were computed for the structurix IC paper, exposed with ordinary fluorescent IC 2 as well as luorometallic RCF screens. From them relative speed, contrast and exposure latitude were computed. Radiographic image quality was investigated using ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrometers and the constant exposure methods. The investigation has shown that it is possible and advantageous to use fluorometallic screens for paper radiography, especially above the low kilovoltage range. (author)

  15. System and apparatus for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a neutron radiography apparatus. It comprises an imaging plane; a neutron moderator having a cavity defining a convergent collimator, the cavity having a base and converging walls of neutron moderating material terminating at an aperture; a divergent collimator coaxially joined to the cavity at the aperture, the divergent collimator having diverging walls of radiation- absorbing material extending from the aperture to an expanded distal opening for irradiating the imaging plane; sources of neutrons disposed symmetrically about the base of the cavity; a neutron moderating material disposed for maximum neutron thermalization between the sources and the base of the cavity; and means for substantially shielding the plane from electromagnetic energy

  16. Improvements in or relating to radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, A.B.; Marsh, R.G.; Fleming, I.A.

    1980-01-01

    Tomographic apparatus for use in biomedical radiography is described in detail. The radiation source and detectors are capable of rotating around the axis of the body under investigation to measure the absorption coefficients of a particular slice. Additionally, the detectors and source are capable of lateral motion across the body slice. Detailed suggestions of the number and optimum angular size of the detectors are given as well as the various angular steps of rotation of the source and detectors. Rotations in excess of 180 0 may be performed since the direction of travel of the X-radiation is not significant for constructing the absorption picture. (UK)

  17. Qality assurance program for biomedical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolyuk, I.P.; Gurvich, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Essence and purposes of quality assurance program (QAP) in biomedical radiography of population are considered. This program can be determined as organizational and executive activity of radiological service personnel providing the necessary for diagnosis quality of investigation at minimum radiation loads to patients and personnel and the lowest cost of the investigation. QAP includes quality control of technical means and of investigation implementation. Attention is paid to means and methods of quality control. QAP organizational problems are discussed. Necessity of further investigations and technical developments in this direction is noted

  18. Radiography of the bovine cranioventral abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partington, B.P.; Biller, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This study consists of a review of 115 consecutively accrued bovine cranial abdomial radiographs. The sensitivity and specificity of radiography in detecting traumatic reticuloperitonitis or pericarditis was 83% and 90%, respectively. Increased reticular size was associated with vagal indigestion. Increased reticulo-diaphragmatic separation did not correlate with a specific disease process, 25/35 (71%) cattle presented for radiographic examination with a 1 cm or longer metallic reticular foreign body unattached to a magnet had traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Standing lateral abdominal radiographs were determined to be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of cranial abdominal disorders in the bovine

  19. An alternative approach to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, P.

    1981-01-01

    An alternative to industrial X-ray film for industrial radiography is described. The experimental system uses film containing approximately 35% of the silver in an industrial type film, which makes the film easier to process, and uses high resolution phosphor screens, which improves the absorption of X-ray photons. Those properties that affect image quality, namely contrast, modulation transfer function and granularity, are discussed in detail for both types of system. A study of low contrast detail in radiographs indicates that for noise limited information the experimental system offers a higher quality than industrial X-ray film of similar speed. (author)

  20. Gravity sag view of lateral radiography of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Kuniyuki; Yanagawa, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Kiyosumi; Maeda, Daisuke; Komizu, Mitsuru

    2007-01-01

    The gravity sag view (GSV) is a lateral radiograph taken in the same position when the posterior sag sign is observed. The purpose of this study was to standardize the radiography technique for GSV by adjusting lateral rotation. To confirm the benchmark and correction angle (CA) for the GSV position, we assessed three-dimensional (3D) CT of the GSV position of the knee using normal volunteers. The benchmark is established at the 3-point of the leg and adjusting the CA of the knee is established by estimating from Rosenberg technique radiography. This helped not only to correct external rotation in the initial radiography but also to correct rotation for repeat radiography. Our method is quantitative and highly reproducible, and it increases the success rate in adjusting lateral radiography of the knee. (author)

  1. Investigation of physical imaging properties in various digital radiography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Hwan [Dept. of Radiological technology, Shingu University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yong Su [Dept. of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Kyushu (Japan); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Health and Environmental Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We aimed to evaluate the physical imaging properties in various digital radiography systems with charged coupled device (CCD), computed radiography (CR), and indirect flat panel detector (FPD). The imaging properties measured in this study were modulation transfer function (MTF) wiener spectrum (WS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) to compare the performance of each digital radiography system. The system response of CCD were in a linear relationship with exposure and that of CR and FPD were proportional to the logarithm of exposure. The MTF of both CR and FPD indicated a similar tendency but in case of CCD, it showed lower MTF than that of CR and FPD. FPD showed the lowest WS and also indicated the highest DQE among three systems. According to the results, digital radiography system with different type of image receptor had its own image characteristics. Therefore, it is important to know the physical imaging characteristics of the digital radiography system accurately to obtain proper image quality.

  2. Digital Radiography of a Drop Tested 9975 Radioactive Materials Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of radiography as a tool for evaluating damage to radioactive material packaging subjected to regulatory accident conditions. The Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 71, presents the performance based requirements that must be used in the development (design, fabrication and testing) of a radioactive material packaging. The use of various non-destructive examination techniques in the fabrication of packages is common. One such technique is the use of conventional radiography in the examination of welds. Radiography is conventional in the sense that images are caught one at a time on film stock. Most recently, digital radiography has been used to characterize internal damage to a package subjected to the 30-foot hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) drop. Digital radiography allows for real time evaluation of the item being inspected. This paper presents a summary discussion of the digital radiographic technique and an example of radiographic results of a 9975 package following the HAC 30-foot drop

  3. Qualitative comparison of bremsstrahlung X-rays and 800 MeV protons for tomography of urania fuel pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C. L.; Bourke, M.; Byler, D. D.; Chen, C. F.; Hogan, G.; Hunter, J. F.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Mariam, F. G.; McClellan, K. J.; Merrill, F.; Morley, D. J.; Saunders, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present an assessment of x-rays and proton tomography as tools for studying the time dependence of the development of damage in fuel rods. We also show data taken with existing facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that support this assessment. Data on surrogate fuel rods have been taken using the 800 MeV proton radiography (pRad) facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), and with a 450 keV bremsstrahlung X-ray tomography facility. The proton radiography pRad facility at LANSCE can provide good position resolution (<70 {mu}m has been demonstrate, 20 {mu}m seems feasible with minor changes) for tomography on activated fuel rods. Bremsstrahlung x-rays may be able to provide better than 100 {mu}m resolution but further development of sources, collimation, and detectors is necessary for x-rays to deal with the background radiation for tomography of activated fuel rods.

  4. Qualitative comparison of bremsstrahlung X-rays and 800 MeV protons for tomography of urania fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C. L.; Bourke, M.; Byler, D. D.; Chen, C. F.; Hogan, G.; Hunter, J. F.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Mariam, F. G.; McClellan, K. J.; Merrill, F.; Morley, D. J.; Saunders, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an assessment of x-rays and proton tomography as tools for studying the time dependence of the development of damage in fuel rods. We also show data taken with existing facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that support this assessment. Data on surrogate fuel rods have been taken using the 800 MeV proton radiography (pRad) facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), and with a 450 keV bremsstrahlung X-ray tomography facility. The proton radiography pRad facility at LANSCE can provide good position resolution (<70 μm has been demonstrate, 20 μm seems feasible with minor changes) for tomography on activated fuel rods. Bremsstrahlung x-rays may be able to provide better than 100 μm resolution but further development of sources, collimation, and detectors is necessary for x-rays to deal with the background radiation for tomography of activated fuel rods.

  5. Computed radiography versus mobile direct radiography for bedside chest radiographs: impact of dose on image quality and reader agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boo, D. W.; Weber, M.; Deurloo, E. E.; Streekstra, G. J.; Freling, N. J.; Dongelmans, D. A.; Schaefer-Prokop, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    To asses the image quality and potential for dose reduction of mobile direct detector (DR) chest radiography as compared with computed radiography (CR) for intensive care unit (ICU) chest radiographs (CXR). Three groups of age-, weight- and disease-matched ICU patients (n=114 patients; 50 CXR per

  6. Proton acceleration: new developments for focusing and energy selection, and applications in plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, P.

    2007-11-01

    In the last few years, intense research has been conducted on laser-accelerated ion sources and their applications. These sources have exceptional properties, i.e. high brightness and high spectral cut-off, high directionality and laminarity, short burst duration. We have shown that for proton energies >10 MeV, the transverse and longitudinal emittance are respectively example point-projection radiography with unprecedented resolution. We will show example of such time and space-resolved radiography of fast evolving fields, either of associated with the expansion of a plasma in vacuum [*] or with the propagation of a ICF-relevant laser beam in an underdense plasma. These proton sources also open new opportunities for ion beam generation and control, and could stimulate development of compact ion accelerators for many applications.

  7. Spherical proton emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, S.; Semmes, P.B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1997-01-01

    Various theoretical approaches to proton emission from spherical nuclei are investigated, and it is found that all the methods employed give very similar results. The calculated decay widths are found to be qualitatively insensitive to the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential, i.e., changing the potential parameters over a fairly large range typically changes the decay width by no more than a factor of ∼3. Proton half-lives of observed heavy proton emitters are, in general, well reproduced by spherical calculations with the spectroscopic factors calculated in the independent quasiparticle approximation. The quantitative agreement with experimental data obtained in our study requires that the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential be chosen carefully. It also suggests that deformed proton emitters will provide invaluable spectroscopic information on the angular momentum decomposition of single-proton orbitals in deformed nuclei. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Proton therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also exami...

  9. Mature students' perspectives of studying radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Decker, S.

    2009-01-01

    The study set out to explore the experiences of all final year mature students on a diagnostic radiography course, in one United Kingdom University. The aims were to identify any difficulties they may have had and to make recommendations to improve mature students' learning experiences with the hope of lowering attrition rates in this group. A qualitative study involving one-to-one audio recorded interviews was utilised. Analysis of the transcripts of interviews suggested that the group believed that their maturity and previous experiences helped them in the clinical environment and put them in a good position, when asked, to counsel younger students. However for some of the mature students these experiential skills did not extend fully into seeking appropriate support for themselves. The mature students were found to be highly motivated but there was a conflict between balancing clinical and academic aspects of studying as well as balancing studying with home life. The group was found to be unprepared for the volume of academic work and its detrimental effect on family life as they sacrificed other aspects of their lives in order to complete the course. It is recommended that forewarning and forearming prospective mature students be considered by radiography education providers. Setting up and utilising an on-line forum providing a 24/7 peer support environment would aid in coping with academic, clinical or personal problems

  10. Ecological and economical solutions for film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marstboom, K.

    2004-01-01

    Film radiography may be perceived as technology with environmental concerns, involving the application of chemicals and the discharge of drained waters with high silver levels. Ecological legislation concerning silver content of the wash water differs from country to country. GE Inspection Technologies now offers industrial radiographers several ways to address regulatory limits silver in drained waters. First, two brand new film processors, the Agfa NDT Si and M eco, are introduced to the NDT market. Both machines are equipped with Cascade Fixing Technology, which reduces silver content in the wash water and increases the ability to comply with stricter discharge standards. Next the new eco Film System is presented. This system is based on the new machines, specially adapted films and carefully developed new chemicals. Eco stands for ecological and economic performance. The customer can now process films in a very short cycle, saving money while increasing its ability to comply with environmental limits on discharges of silver into drained waters. This paper will also address other means to reduce the silver freight in the wash water. Opportunities but most of all issues involved in the application of these technologies will be highlighted. Thus the presenter of this paper will demonstrate how film radiography responds to environmental concerns without causing extra financial burdens for the user. (author)

  11. Nuclear track radiography of 'hot' aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Kievitskaja, A.I.; Kievets, M.K.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Zhuk, I.V.; Yaroshevich, O.I.; Perelygin, V.P.; Petrova, R.; Brandt, R.; Vater, P.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear track radiography was applied to identify aerosol 'hot' particles which contain elements of nuclear fuel and fallout after Chernobyl NPP accident. For the determination of the content of transuranium elements in radioactive aerosols the measurement of the α-activity of 'hot' particles by SSNTD was used in this work, as well as radiography of fission fragments formed as a result of the reactions (n,f) and (γ,f) in the irradiation of aerosol filters by thermal neutrons and high energy gamma quanta. The technique allowed the sizes and alpha-activity of 'hot' particles to be determined without extracting them from the filter, as well as the determination of the uranium content and its enrichment by 235 U, 239 Pu and 241 Pu isotopes. Sensitivity of determination of alpha activity by fission method is 5x10 -6 Bq per particle. The software for the system of image analysis was created. It ensured the identification of track clusters on an optical image of the SSNTD surface obtained through a video camera and the determination of size and activity of 'hot' particles

  12. Clinical Applications of Reverse Panoramic Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha S Reddy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The essence of oral and maxil-lofacial radiology is not only to be an important tool in the diagnostic assessment of dental patients but also to equip the clinician with the ability to interpret images of certain maxillocraniofacial structures of importance to dental, medical and surgical practices. Although combinations of several conven-tional x-ray projections can be adequate in a number of clinical situations, radiographic assessment of certain craniofacial structures some-times needs to be facilitated by other imaging modalities. A not-so-recent development called reverse panoramic radiography may be a useful adjuvant to such a situation, at least in the near future. It is essentially a technique where the patient is placed backwards in the panoramic machine in a reverse position in such a way that x-ray beam is directed through the patient’s face and the exit beam then passes through the patient’s head on the opposite side where it is captured on the receptor. The following manuscript is an attempt to throw light on this technique and the impact it may have on dental, medical and surgical practices. The advantages and disadvantages of reverse panoramic radiography and it’s comparison to conventional panoramic radiographs and other skull views are also dis-cussed.

  13. Neutron radiography working group test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1989-03-01

    Scope and results of the Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group Test Program are described. Seven NR centers from six European Community countries have performed this investigation using eleven NR facilities. Four test items were neutron radiographed using 30 different film/converter combinations. From film density measurements neutron beam components were determined. Radiographic sensitivity was assessed from visual examinations of the radiographs. About 25,000 dimensional measurements were made and were used for the assessment of accuracies of dimensional measurements from neutron radiographs. The report gives a description of the test items used for the Test Program, the film density and dimensional measurements, and concentrates on the assessment of the measuring results. The usefulness of the beam purity and sensitivity indicators was assessed with the conclusion that they are not suitable for neutron radiography of nuclear reactor fuel. Ample information is included in the report about measuring accuracies which can be reached in dimensional measurements of fuel pins. After a general comparison of measuring accuracies is discussed. Results from different NR facilities are treated separately as are the different kinds of dimensions of the fuel pins. Finally human and instrument factors are discussed. After presenting final conclusions (which take into account the above-mentioned factors) results of other investigations about dimensional measurements are shortly reviewed

  14. Safety lock for radiography exposure device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    A safety lock for securing a radiation source in a radiography exposure device is disclosed. The safety lock prevents the inadvertent extension of the radiation source from the exposure device. The exposure devices are used extensively in industry for nondestructive testing of metal materials for defect. Unnecessary exposure of the radiographer or operator occurs not infrequently due to operator's error in believing that the radiation source is secured in the exposure device when, in fact, it is not. The present invention solves this problem of unnecessary exposure by releasingly trapping the radiation source in the shield of the radiography exposure device each time the source is retracted therein so that it is not inadvertently extended therefrom without the operator resetting the safety lock, thereby releasing the radiation source. Further, the safety lock includes an indicator which indicates when the source is trapped in the exposure device and also when it is untrapped. The safety lock is so designed that it does not prevent the return of the source to the trapped, shielded position in the exposure device. Further the safety lock includes a key means for locking the radiation source in the trapped position. The key means cannot be actuated until said radiation source is in said trapped position to further insure the safety lock cannot be inadvertently locked with the source untrapped and thus still extendable from the exposure device

  15. Nuclear track radiography of 'hot' aerosol particles

    CERN Document Server

    Boulyga, S F; Kievets, M K; Lomonosova, E M; Zhuk, I V; Yaroshevich, O I; Perelygin, V P; Petrova, R I; Brandt, R; Vater, P

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear track radiography was applied to identify aerosol 'hot' particles which contain elements of nuclear fuel and fallout after Chernobyl NPP accident. For the determination of the content of transuranium elements in radioactive aerosols the measurement of the alpha-activity of 'hot' particles by SSNTD was used in this work, as well as radiography of fission fragments formed as a result of the reactions (n,f) and (gamma,f) in the irradiation of aerosol filters by thermal neutrons and high energy gamma quanta. The technique allowed the sizes and alpha-activity of 'hot' particles to be determined without extracting them from the filter, as well as the determination of the uranium content and its enrichment by sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Pu isotopes. Sensitivity of determination of alpha activity by fission method is 5x10 sup - sup 6 Bq per particle. The software for the system of image analysis was created. It ensured the identification of track clusters on an optical imag...

  16. Void fraction measurements using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickstein, S.S.; Vance, W.H.; Joo, H.

    1992-01-01

    Real-time neutron radiography is being evaluated for studying the dynamic behavior of two phase flow and for measuring void fraction in vertical and inclined water ducts. This technique provides a unique means of visualizing the behavior of fluid flow inside thick metal enclosures. To simulate vapor conditions encountered in a fluid flow duct, an air-water flow system was constructed. Air was injected into the bottom of the duct at flow rates up to 0.47 I/s (1 cfm). The water flow rate was varied between 0--3.78 I/m (0--1 gpm). The experiments were performed at the Pennsylvania State University nuclear reactor facility using a real-time neutron radiography camera. With a thermal neutron flux on the order of 10 6 n/cm 2 /s directed through the thin duct dimension, the dynamic behavior of the air bubbles was clearly visible through 5 cm (2 in.) thick aluminum support plates placed on both sides of the duct wall. Image analysis techniques were employed to extract void fractions from the data which was recorded on videotape. This consisted of time averaging 256 video frames and measuring the gray level distribution throughout the region. The distribution of the measured void fraction across the duct was determined for various air/water mixtures. Details of the results of experiments for a variety of air and water flow conditions are presented

  17. Imaging characteristics in rotational panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderink, G.C.H.

    1987-01-01

    This study is concerned with imaging quality in rotational panoramic radiography. This imaging technique records an image of a curved layer within the object radiographed. The shape of this layer normally corresponds with the average form of the dental arch. In the centre of the layer a plane can be found which is depicted with a minimum of unsharpness. Unsharpness increases and the horizontal magnification changes as distance increases from that central plane. The image quality of the layer has been analyzed with the use of mathematical models to estimate the performance of the radiographic diagnostic system. Despite the application of these increasingly sophisticated models the question remains: will the results of the calculations based on these models adequately predict the diagnostic effectiveness of this type of imaging system? In this study a comparison is made between the theoretically determined quality of the system and the diagnostic quality using the observer as a measuring instrument. Experiments were carried out to measure the total unsharpness occurring in rotational panoramic radiography. 116 refs.; 114 figs.; 54 tabs

  18. Proton solvation and proton transfer in chemical and electrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, S.; Conway, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines the proton solvation and characterization of the H 3 O + ion, proton transfer in chemical ionization processes in solution, continuous proton transfer in conductance processes, and proton transfer in electrode processes. Topics considered include the condition of the proton in solution, the molecular structure of the H 3 O + ion, thermodynamics of proton solvation, overall hydration energy of the proton, hydration of H 3 O + , deuteron solvation, partial molal entropy and volume and the entropy of proton hydration, proton solvation in alcoholic solutions, analogies to electrons in semiconductors, continuous proton transfer in conductance, definition and phenomenology of the unusual mobility of the proton in solution, solvent structure changes in relation to anomalous proton mobility, the kinetics of the proton-transfer event, theories of abnormal proton conductance, and the general theory of the contribution of transfer reactions to overall transport processes

  19. Neutron radiography at the HFR Petten compilation of HFR Petten contributions to the second world conference on neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markgraf, J.W.F.

    1986-01-01

    This booklet summarizes the six papers on neutron radiography activities at the Petten High Flux Reactor (HFR), presented at the Second World Conference on neutron radiography, held in June 1986 in Paris, France. The conference was organized by the French CEA and COFREND, and JRC Petten, HFR Division, with joint sponsorship of the national societies on Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) from the Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom, Japan and the United States. The Petten papers are concerned with: (i) the work of the Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG), an expert group operating under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities represented by JRC Petten, HFR Division; (ii) applications of neutron radiography in research programmes performed at HFR; (iii) neutron radiography facilities at HFR; and (iv) image evaluation techniques

  20. Study of proton radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  1. Can active proton interrogation find shielded nuclear threats at human-safe radiation levels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liew, Seth Van, E-mail: vanliew@gmail.com

    2017-05-21

    A new method of low-dose proton radiography is presented. The system is composed of an 800 MeV proton source, bending magnets, and compact detectors, and is designed for drive-through cargo scanning. The system has been simulated using GEANT4. Material identification algorithms and pixel sorting methods are presented that allow the system to perform imaging at doses low enough to scan passenger vehicles and people. Results are presented on imaging efficacy of various materials and cluttered cargoes. The identification of shielded nuclear materials at human-safe doses has been demonstrated.

  2. A study of television imaging system for fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Koji

    1992-01-01

    The neutron radiography with fast neutron beam is a very useful imaging technique for thicker objects, especially those composed of hydrogen-rich materials which are sometimes difficult to image by thermal neutron radiography. The fast neutron radiography has not been studied so much as the thermal neutron radiography. The fast neutron radiography has been studied at the fast neutron source reactor 'Yayoi' of the University of Tokyo built in Tokai-mura. The average neutron energy of the Yayoi is about 1 MeV, and the peak neutron flux at the core center is 0.8 x 10 12 at the maximum operating power of 2 kW. In the experiment on fast neutron radiography, a CR39 nuclear track detector has been used successfully. But in the Yayoi radiography procedure, about 24 hours were required for obtaining an imaging result. To get a prompt imaging result and a real-time imaging result, it is necessary to develop a fast neutron television system, and in this paper, a new fast neutron TV system is proposed. The main difference is the converter material sensitive to fast neutrons. The study on the fast neutron TV system was carried out by using the Baby Cyclotron of Japan Steel Works, and the good images were realized. (K.I.)

  3. A review of digital radiography technology for valve inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, K.; Guerout, F.M.; Horn, D.

    2008-01-01

    There are thousands of valves in a nuclear power plant (NPP) used for control, safety and checks in various plant systems, so there is a well-identified need for fast and reliable inspection and diagnostics of valves. Digital radiography can provide considerable improvements to the inspection and testing procedures for valves in comparison to classical film radiography. These improvements can lead to significant financial advantages by providing real-time inspection results, significantly reduced inspection and decision-making time, and reduced operational cost. Digital image processing, including digital image enhancement, digital archiving, and digital communication of the images and the results, is also a considerable advantage over classical film radiography technology. Another advantage of digital radiography technology is the improved safety and the reduced environmental impact due to reduced exposure/test times, use of smaller exclusion zones, elimination of chemical processing, and absence of disposable materials. This paper reviews the existing technology and evaluates the potential of digital radiography for inspection and diagnostics of valves. Station needs and requirements are assessed, and the safety, environmental and economical constraints of digital radiography techniques estimated. The advantages and disadvantages of different digital radiography equipment are compared, and their limitations and characteristics studied. (author)

  4. Detectability of the mediastinal lines : comparison of conventional film-screen radiography and digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hye Young; Park, Kyung Joo; Kang, Doo Kyung; Lee, Kang Lai; Han, Chaing Jin; Suh, Jung Ho

    1998-01-01

    Using dynamic range compression (DRC) processing, this study compared the detectability of mediastinal lines by conventional film screen radiography (FS) and by storage phosphor digital radiography (DR). We selected 200 normal consecutive chest radiographs (100 FS, 100 DR); dynamic range compression was applied to DR processing and moving grids were used in both systems. Seven mediastinal lines (left paraspinal, right paraspinal, azygoesophageal, left para-aortic, posterio junctional, anterior junctional and right paratracheal) were scored from 0 point to 3 point (0: not visible, 1 : suspiciously visible, 2 : visible, but not clear, 3: clearly visible) according to visibility and sharpness, as agreed by a radiologist and a resident. The differences between the two modalities were compared and analyzed by chi-square test. DR processed with DRC visualizes mediastinal lines more frequently and clearly than conventional FS, and is therefore thought to be useful for the evaluation of mediastinal diseases. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Development of a proton Computed Tomography Detector System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naimuddin, Md. [Delhi U.; Coutrakon, G. [Northern Illinois U.; Blazey, G. [Northern Illinois U.; Boi, S. [Northern Illinois U.; Dyshkant, A. [Northern Illinois U.; Erdelyi, B. [Northern Illinois U.; Hedin, D. [Northern Illinois U.; Johnson, E. [Northern Illinois U.; Krider, J. [Northern Illinois U.; Rukalin, V. [Northern Illinois U.; Uzunyan, S. A. [Northern Illinois U.; Zutshi, V. [Northern Illinois U.; Fordt, R. [Fermilab; Sellberg, G. [Fermilab; Rauch, J. E. [Fermilab; Roman, M. [Fermilab; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab; Wilson, P. [Fermilab

    2016-02-04

    Computer tomography is one of the most promising new methods to image abnormal tissues inside the human body. Tomography is also used to position the patient accurately before radiation therapy. Hadron therapy for treating cancer has become one of the most advantegeous and safe options. In order to fully utilize the advantages of hadron therapy, there is a necessity of performing radiography with hadrons as well. In this paper we present the development of a proton computed tomography system. Our second-generation proton tomography system consists of two upstream and two downstream trackers made up of fibers as active material and a range detector consisting of plastic scintillators. We present details of the detector system, readout electronics, and data acquisition system as well as the commissioning of the entire system. We also present preliminary results from the test beam of the range detector.

  6. X-radiography using photographic papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitiyaporn, W.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the possibility of using photographic paper, available on the market, for x-ray radiography instead of x-ray film which is more expensive and more complicate to develop. This research concerned about (1) the method and the limitation of x-ray radiography by using 3 types of photographic paper, namely, F2, F3 and F4 distributed by the Kodak Company, as the screen with 3 different kinds of intensifying screens produced by the Phillips Company, Toshiba Company and Picker Company to increase photographic efficiency; (2) correction factor between these 3 types of photographic paper and intensifying screens; (3) the most suitable combination of photographic paper and intensifying screens used; (4) the result of using photographic paper and x-ray film in x-ray radiography regarding quality, cost and film developing. From the research, it was found that (1) the combination of intensifying screen from Picker Company and Kodak photographic paper No. F4 coating with silver bromide with a little mixture of silver iodide resulted in higher sensitivity and more contrast than other combination; (2) photographic papers had more limitation than x-ray film in the sense that it could be used with the iron test piece no thicker than 3 cm.with the x-ray energy of 220 k Vp; (3) photographic papers would give almost the same degree of contrast and sensitivity as x-ray film when used with thin test specimens. For instance the smallest wire No.12 of DIN 62 FE could be seen in the photographic paper at 220 k Vp while it could be seen in the x-ray film at 200 k Vp while it could be seen in the x-ray film at 200 k Vp. The exposure of photographic paper would be in vicinity of x-ray film when it was used with thin test specimens. Photographic paper would produce sharpness definition, density and contrast picture and also details of the picture closely to what given by x-ray film. It is concluded that if the test specimens are thin, photographic papers

  7. Proton-Proton and Proton-Antiproton Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In the last five decades, proton–proton and proton–antiproton colliders have been the most powerful tools for high energy physics investigations. They have also deeply catalyzed innovation in accelerator physics and technology. Among the large number of proposed colliders, only four have really succeeded in becoming operational: the ISR, the SppbarS, the Tevatron and the LHC. Another hadron collider, RHIC, originally conceived for ion–ion collisions, has also been operated part-time with polarized protons. Although a vast literature documenting them is available, this paper is intended to provide a quick synthesis of their main features and key performance.

  8. Absorbed doses for patients undergoing panoramic radiography, cephalometric radiography and CBCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Wrzesień

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Contemporary dental radiology offers a wide spectrum of imaging methods but it also contributes to an increase in the participation of dental radiological diagnosis in the patient’s exposure to ionizing radiation. The aim of this study is to determine the absorbed doses of the brain, spinal column, thyroid and eye lens for patients during panoramic radiography, cephalometric radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Material and Methods: The thermoluminescent dosimetry and anthropomorphic phantom was used for measuring the doses. The 15 panoramic, 4 cephalometric and 4 CBCT exposures were performed by placing high-sensitivity thermoluminescent detectors (TLD in 18 anatomical points of the phantom. Results: The maximum absorbed dose recorded during performed measurements corresponds to the point representing the brainstem and it is 10 mGy. The dose value recorded by the TLD placed in the thyroid during CBCT imaging in relation to the panoramic radiography differs by a factor of 13.5. Conclusions: Cone beam computed tomography, in comparison with panoramic or cephalometric imaging technique, provides higher radiation doses to the patients. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:705–713

  9. Fundamental of neutron radiography and the present of neutron radiography in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekita, Junichiro

    1988-01-01

    Neutron radiography refers to the application of transmitted neutrons to analysis. In general, thermal neutron is used for neutron radiography. Thermal neutron is easily absorbed by light atoms, including hydrogen, boron and lithium, while it is not easily absorbed by such heavy atoms as tungsten, lead and uranium, permitting detection of impurities in heavy metals. Other neutrons than thermal neutron can also be applied. Cold neutron is produced from fast neutron using a moderator to reduce its energy down to below that of thermal neutron. Cold neutron is usefull for analysis of thick material. Epithermal neutron can induce resonance characteristic of each substance. With a relatively small reaction area, fast neutron permits observation of thick samples. Being electrically neutral, neutrons are difficult to detect by direct means. Thus a substance that releases charged particles is put in the path of neutrons for indirect measurement. X-ray film combined with converter screen for conversion of neutrons to charge particles is placed behind the sample. Photographing is carried out by a procedure similar to X-ray photography. Major institues and laboratories in Japan provided with neutron radiography facilities are listed. (Nogami, K.)

  10. Studies on the Fuji computed radiography depended on the panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Shiota, Satoru; Takazawa, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Toru; Takagi, Yoshiko; Funamoto, Choichiro

    1986-01-01

    The Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) developed recently involves the following procedures; photography in the same way as the hitherto radiography, printing auto imaging plate of photostimulable phospher, conversion to electric signals, and recording reproduced images by computerization. Highly valuable images for diagnoses in the medical field have already been obtained by the FCR. Then, we attempted to study FCR images panoramically radiographed for jaw lesions in the field of oral surgery. Method for study: As the samples to be studied, the selected subjects were cases of periodontal diseases, fracture of the jaw, odontogenic cyst and tumor, etc. In the present study the FCR images of panoramic radiography were compared with hitherto panoramic flat radiograms. Result of study: Although the images of the FCR vary depending on the methods of treatment, that is, on how gradient processing and spatial frequency enhancement are, the method of purpose-fitting treatment provided diagnostically significant images for grasping bone lesions. The images obtained from this FCR permitted us to grasp more distinctly condition of alveolar bone resorption in periodontal diseases, running of minute fracture lines in fracture of the jaw, and characteristic images of bone resorption in odontogenic cysts and tumor, etc. Thus the images of the FCR are highly useful in diagnosing bone lesions, but granularity of the images themselves have still been questioned, and additionally the images vary depending on the methods of gradient processing and spatial frequency enhancement. Therefore further repeat studies are probably needed for these questions. (author)

  11. Irradiation hazards and safety standards for patients in dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, B D.P.

    1975-07-01

    The historical developments which have led to a reduction in the hazards or potential hazards to patients in dental radiography are reviewed. Based on a simple risk estimate, the safety of present-day techniques employed in routine dental radiography is assessed. Also included in the review is a description of techniques used and results obtained from the National Radiation Laboratory's (NRL) surveillance programme of patients' exposure to irradiation in dental radiography. The possibilities of and need for achieving further reductions of irradiation are discussed.

  12. Radiography of osseous lesions of the bovine locomotor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blond, L.; Beauregard, G.; Mulon, P.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography is the ancillary test of choice for lameness in cattle. Osseous lesions due to osteoporosis, osteitis or osteomyelitis and sequestrae can be visualised. Radiography is the only ancillary examination that provides a thorough investigation of the lesion affecting a bovine presented with a non-weight bearing suspected fracture and limb inflammation associated with soft tissue crepitation. Radiography is the only method to ensure that the fracture is not open. It facilitates follow-up of healing of osseous lesions. The period of time required for immobilisation can be adjusted depending on the type of lesions [it

  13. Alpha particle radiography of small insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chingshen Su

    1993-01-01

    Radiographies of ants, mosquitoes, cockroaches and small bugs have been done with a radioisotope 244 Cm alpha source. Energy of alpha particles was varied by attenuating the 5.81 MeV alpha particles with adjustable air spacings from the source to the sample. The LR-115 was used to register radiographs. The image of the insect registered on the LR-115 was etched out in a 2.5 N NaOH solution at 52 o C for certain minutes, depending on various irradiation conditions for the insects. For larger insects, a scanning device for the alpha particle irradiation has been fabricated to take the radiograph of whole body of the insect, and the scanning period can be selected to give desired irradiation dosage. A CCDTV camera system connected to a microscope interfaced to an IBM/AT computer is used to register the microscopic image of the radiograph and to print it out with a video copy processor. (Author)

  14. Sphinx, the high speed flash radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Sphinx (Nanosecond Pulse X-Photon Source) is the most compact (0.1 m 3 ) existing system which can generates short pulses (10 to 30 nanoseconds) of 5 to 180 keV X-photon radiation with a repeating cadence of 100 pulses per second and doses which can reach 2 mR at 1 m. This system was developed by the Research Group on Energetics of Ionized Media (GREMI) from the CNRS (French National Center for Scientific Research) and the University of Orleans (France). Sphinx is the smallest device from a series of compact X-ray sources ranging from 5 to 400 keV. These devices can have several possible applications such as the study of ultra-fast phenomena, the high cadence flash radiography in medicine, biology, materials studies, pre-ionizing of gas lasers, self-excitation and photo-ionization of atoms, molecules or aggregates. (J.S.)

  15. X-ray and gamma radiography devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    When we are using this technique, we also must familiar with the device and instrument that used such as gamma projector, crawler, x-ray tubes and others. So this chapter discussed detailed on device used for radiography work. For the x-ray and gamma, their characteristics are same but the source to produce is a big different. X-ray produced from the machine meanwhile, gamma produce from the source such as Co-60 and IR-192. Both are electromagnetic waves. So, the reader can have some knowledge on what is x-ray tube, discrete x-ray and characteristic x-ray, how the machine works and how to control a machine, what is source for gamma emitter, how to handle the projector and lastly difference between x-ray and gamma. Of course this cannot be with the theory only, so detailed must be learned practically.

  16. Linear induction accelerator approach for advanced radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1997-05-01

    Recent advances in induction accelerator technology make it possible to envision a single accelerator that can serve as an intense, precision multiple pulse x-ray source for advanced radiography. Through the use of solid-state modulator technology repetition rates on the order of 1 MHz can be achieved with beam pulse lengths ranging from 200 ns to 2 microsecs. By using fast kickers, these pulses may be sectioned into pieces which are directed to different beam lines so as to interrogate the object under study from multiple lines of sight. The ultimate aim is to do a time dependent tomographic reconstruction of a dynamic object. The technology to accomplish these objectives along with a brief discussion of the experimental plans to verify it will be presented

  17. Medical radiography examinations and carcinogenic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demina, Eh.A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the review was the synthesis of the literature data and the results of our radiobiological (biodosimetric) research on the development of radiation-associated tumors as a result of medical radiography (X-ray) diagnostic. Medical X-ray examinations contribute the most to the excess of radiation exposure of the population, much of which is subject to examination to diagnose the underlying disease, the dynamic observation of the patient during treatment, the research of related diseases, and preventative examinations. The review provides arguments for the necessity of developing a more balanced indication for preventative radiological examination of the population in the aftermath of radio-ecological crisis caused by the Chornobyl accident, taking into account the likelihood of radiation carcinogenesis. The problems and tasks of biological (cytogenetic) dosimetry in radiology are formulated

  18. Improving screen-film chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, N.; Baker, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally symmetric screens and double emulsion symmetric films with medium to wide latitutde are used for radiography of the chest. Beacuse of mismatch of transmitted exposure through the chest with limited latitude of the film, most of the dense areas of the chest are underexposed. Kodak's recent innovation of a unique asymmetry screen-film system (InSight) alleviates this problem. Our phantom measurement indicates that the InSight system offers wider recording range, and the flexible grid permits more positional latitude than conventional grids. Our five-year extensive clinical experience indicates that dense anatomic structures, such as mediastinum, retrocardiac and subdiaphragmatic, are more visible in the InSight system than in the conventional symmetric system. Similarly, a substantial improvement in image quality in portable chest imaging is realized by use of flexible grids because of scatter rejection and invisible grid lines. (author)

  19. Visualization of multiphase flow by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Takenaka, Nobuyuki.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron radiography (NRG) is a technique which produces images of the internal structure of a body, making use of the attenuation characteristics of neutrons in the materials being observed. Recently, attempts have been made to expand the application of this technique not only to non-destructive testing but also to a variety of industrial and basic research fields. The attenuation of neutrons is large in a light material like water and small in ordinary metals, which difference may make it possible to visualize a multiphase flow in a metallic container. Particularly, the neutron television, which is one of the applied techniques of NRG, is expected to be a useful tool for observing the behavior of two-phase flow, since it produces images in real time. In this paper the basic idea and the method of NRG are presented along with examples of visualization of multiphase flow by NRG. (author)

  20. Trends in obstetric radiography, 1939-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, E.A.; Stewart, A.M.; Knox, E.G.; Kneale, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Trends in obstetric radiography in Britian between 1939 and 1981 are reported. During this period the number of films needed to complete each examination decreased. The timing of x-rays also changed towards late pregnancy, and there was virtual elimination of all first trimester exposures following the introduction of the '10-day rule' in 1972. After the introduction of ultrasound, x-rays for twins decreased, x-rays for breech presentations remained unchanged and x-rays for foetal maturity increased. Despite repeated demonstrations of the cancer risk, the proportion of exposed infants was higher in 1970-81 (14%) than in 1960-9 (11%) or 1950-9 (12%). There were fewer x-rays in 1976-81 (12%) than in 1970-5 (15%), but it is possible that withdrawal of the '10-day rule' in 1985 will reverse this trend. (author)

  1. Oral history in radiography: Listening to pioneers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, Christine; Winslow, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    We explore the professional value of the collection and analysis of oral histories in the history of radiography. Drawing on oral histories collected from radiographers, we analyse accounts of experiences to identify common themes, some of which are of current significance, whilst others have faded from existence. 15 oral histories were collected from radiographers whose combined practice spans the years 1930-1973. The sample consists of 6 male and 9 female radiographers. Themes identified in the oral histories include radiographers as invisible pioneers who worked in professionally unclaimed territory and their dangerous working environment. The oral histories reveal the working world of the radiographer as having encompassed a practice ethos where challenges became an accepted part of work. We gain insight into less observable aspects of the radiographer's role, the difficulties they faced, how they invented techniques and equipment, and how they managed their practice including protecting the public from ionising radiation sources.

  2. Neutron radiography with the cyclotron, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Eiichi; Fujishiro, Masatoshi; Tsujii, Yukio

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiography is well recognized as a powerful tool in nondestructive testing, but not widely used yet owing to lack of high intense thermal neutron source convenient for practical use. A new neutron radiograph facility, utilizing a sub-compact cyclotron as neutron source and equipped with vertical and horizontal irradiation ports, is presented in this article. A series of experiment, prior to its construction, was conducted using beams of a variable energy cyclotron at Tohoku University to investigate the characteristics of thermal neutron obtained, from 9 Be (p, n) reaction and thermalized by elastic scattering process. This article describes a computer simulation of neutron moderator to analyze conditions getting maximal thermal neutron flux. Some of practical neutron radiograph examination of aero-space components and museum art objects of classic bronze mirror are also presented together with an attempt realizing real time imaging technique. (author)

  3. Digital radiography exposure indices: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette; Robinson, John

    2014-01-01

    Digital radiography (DR) technologies have the advantage of a wide dynamic range compared to their film-screen predecessors, however, this poses a potential for increased patient exposure if left unchecked. Manufacturers have developed the exposure index (EI) to counter this, which provides radiographers with feedback on the exposure reaching the detector. As these EIs were manufacturer-specific, a wide variety of EIs existed. To offset this, the international standardised EI has been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The purpose of this article is to explore the current literature relating to EIs, beginning with the historical development of the EI, the development of the standardised EI and an exploration of common themes and studies as evidenced in the research literature. It is anticipated that this review will provide radiographers with a useful guide to understanding EIs, their application in clinical practice, limitations and suggestions for further research

  4. Collimation techniques for dense object flash radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.

    1984-08-01

    In explosively driven experiments, flash radiography can record a wealth of information about material densities and boundaries. Obtaining accurate quantitative data from these radiographs requires careful design of the experiment so that one can control and measure the scattered radiation background that is a part of any experiment. We have used collimators at the x-ray source to match the incident x-ray flux to the transmission of the object, thereby reducing the production of scattered radiation while still preserving a complete view of the object. Multi-hole collimators (at the film plane) with a length-to-diameter ratio of approx. 20:1 have been used to measure the scattered radiation field with several exposure geometries and with various shielding methods

  5. Performance evaluation of a computed radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussilhe, J.; Fallet, E. [Carestream Health France, 71 - Chalon/Saone (France); Mango, St.A. [Carestream Health, Inc. Rochester, New York (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Computed radiography (CR) standards have been formalized and published in Europe and in the US. The CR system classification is defined in those standards by - minimum normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNRN), and - maximum basic spatial resolution (SRb). Both the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast sensitivity of a CR system depend on the dose (exposure time and conditions) at the detector. Because of their wide dynamic range, the same storage phosphor imaging plate can qualify for all six CR system classes. The exposure characteristics from 30 to 450 kV, the contrast sensitivity, and the spatial resolution of the KODAK INDUSTREX CR Digital System have been thoroughly evaluated. This paper will present some of the factors that determine the system's spatial resolution performance. (authors)

  6. PENGGUNAAN COMPUTED RADIOGRAPHY UNTUK IDENTIFIKASI MADU LEBAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI MAIYENA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on identification of honey bee using Computed Radiography has been done. The testing was carried out by providing digital radiograph of the three types of honey bee. The voltage of the x-ray generator was varied at 50 kV, 60 kV and 70 kV, while filament current was set at 100 mA and exposure time was at 5 ms. Honey bee was identified based on the image line profile that indicated the distribution of linear absorption coefficient (µ for each sample. The analyses on the image line profile showed that at the voltage of 50 kV and 70 kV the three kinds of the honey bee can be distinguished. However, at the voltage of 60 kV the difference among honey bee was unable to be identified.

  7. Application of nomograms to calculate radiography parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, S.A.; Orlov, K.P.; Petukhov, V.I.; Khomchenkov, Yu.F.; Meshalkin, I.A.; Grachev, A.V.; Akopov, V.'S.; Majorov, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    The method of calculation of radiography parameters with the help of nomograms usable for practical application under laboratory and industrial conditions, is proposed. Nomograms are developed for determining the following parameters: relative sensitivity, general non-definition of image, permissible difference of blackening density between the centre and edge of the picture (ΔD), picture contrast, focus distance, item thickness, radiation-physical parameter, dose build up factor, groove dimension and error. An experimental test has been carried out for evaluating the results, obtained with nomograms. Steel items from 25 to 79 mm thick have been subjected to testing 191 Ir has been used as a source. Comparison of calculation and experimental results has shown the discrepancy in sensitivity values, caused by ΔDsub(min) apriori index and the error, inherent in graphical plotting on a nomogram

  8. Computed radiography in neonatal intensive care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlo, L.; Bighi, S.; Cervi, P.M.; Lupi, L.

    1991-01-01

    The Authors report their experience in the employment of a computerized digital radiographic system in Neonatal Intensive Care. The analog screen-film system is replaced by photosensitive imaging plates, scanned after X-ray exposure by a laser that releases the digital image, which can then be manipulated on computer work-stations. In a period of twelve months about 200 chest-abdomen X-ray examinations in Neonatal Intensive Care have been performed using this method with good technical and diagnostic results. The use of digital radiography in the neonatal area is of high interest: this system produces good quality images, there is a reduction in radiation dose and 'retakes', the system allows selective enhancement of different structures and their magnification. (orig.)

  9. Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treimer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Neutron imaging became important when, besides providing impressive radiographic and tomographic images of various objects, physical, quantification of chemical, morphological or other parameters could be derived from 2D or 3D images. The spatial resolution of approximately 50 µm (and less) yields real space images of the bulk of specimens with more than some cm 3 in volume. Thus the physics or chemistry of structures in a sample can be compared with scattering functions obtained e.g. from neutron scattering. The advantages of using neutrons become more pronounced when the neutron spin comes into play. The interaction of neutrons with magnetism is unique due to their low attenuation by matter and because their spin is sensitive to magnetic fields. Magnetic fields, domains and quantum effects such as the Meissner effect and flux trapping can only be visualized and quantified in the bulk of matter by imaging with polarized neutrons. This additional experimental tool is gaining more and more importance. There is a large number of new fields that can be investigated by neutron imaging, not only in physics, but also in geology, archeology, cultural heritage, soil culture, applied material research, magnetism, etc. One of the top applications of polarized neutron imaging is the large field of superconductivity where the Meissner effect and flux pinning can be visualized and quantified. Here we will give a short summary of the results achieved by radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons. - Highlights: • Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons yield new results concerning the suppressed Meissner effect and magnetic flux trapping. • Suppressed Meissner effect was observed in pure lead samples and niobium. • Trapped magnetic fields in cylindrical Pb samples are squeezed around the rod axis. • The shape and the amount of trapped fields could be determined and quantified

  10. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-01-01

    The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality

  11. Revisit image control for pediatric chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohda, Ehiichi; Nagamoto, Masashi; Gomi, Tatsuya; Terada, Hitoshi; Kawawa, Yohko [Toho Univ., School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Tsutsumi, Yoshiyuki; Masaki, Hidekazu [National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo (Japan); Shiraga, Nobuyuki [Kyousai Tachikawa Hospital, Tachikawa, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-02-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the fraction defectiveness and efficacy of the patient immobilization device (PID) for pediatric chest radiography. We examined 840 plain chest radiographs in six hospitals, including four children's hospitals and two general hospitals. The mean age of the patients was 1.9 years (range 0-5 years). Two boardqualified pediatric radiologists rated (into three grades, by consensus) the degree of inspiration, rotation, lordosis, scoliosis, and cutoff or coning as well as the quality of the chest radiographs. The incidence of ''poor'' and ''very poor'' quality examinations was 2/140 and 3/140 in each of two children's hospitals using PID. The corresponding figures were 9/139 and 17/140 in the two children's hospitals that did not use PID. The general hospital using PID had 14/140 ''poor'' and ''very poor'' examinations. The general hospital that did not use PID had 28/140 ''poor'' and ''very poor'' examinations. Thus, statistically better quality chest radiography was obtained with the use of PID (P<0.001). Likewise, rotation, lordosis, and scoliosis were less frequently diagnosed as present when PID was used (P<0.001, 0.001, 0.05). Cutoff or coning had no relation to the use of PID (P=0.13). No significant difference was found between the degree of inspiration and the use of PID (P=0.56). Fraction defectiveness in the general hospital that did not use PID was as much as 14 times higher than that of the children's hospitals that used PID. The patient immobilization device is recommended for hospitals with technologists not specifically trained for pediatric examination. (author)

  12. Revisit image control for pediatric chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohda, Ehiichi; Nagamoto, Masashi; Gomi, Tatsuya; Terada, Hitoshi; Kawawa, Yohko; Tsutsumi, Yoshiyuki; Masaki, Hidekazu; Shiraga, Nobuyuki

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the fraction defectiveness and efficacy of the patient immobilization device (PID) for pediatric chest radiography. We examined 840 plain chest radiographs in six hospitals, including four children's hospitals and two general hospitals. The mean age of the patients was 1.9 years (range 0-5 years). Two boardqualified pediatric radiologists rated (into three grades, by consensus) the degree of inspiration, rotation, lordosis, scoliosis, and cutoff or coning as well as the quality of the chest radiographs. The incidence of ''poor'' and ''very poor'' quality examinations was 2/140 and 3/140 in each of two children's hospitals using PID. The corresponding figures were 9/139 and 17/140 in the two children's hospitals that did not use PID. The general hospital using PID had 14/140 ''poor'' and ''very poor'' examinations. The general hospital that did not use PID had 28/140 ''poor'' and ''very poor'' examinations. Thus, statistically better quality chest radiography was obtained with the use of PID (P<0.001). Likewise, rotation, lordosis, and scoliosis were less frequently diagnosed as present when PID was used (P<0.001, 0.001, 0.05). Cutoff or coning had no relation to the use of PID (P=0.13). No significant difference was found between the degree of inspiration and the use of PID (P=0.56). Fraction defectiveness in the general hospital that did not use PID was as much as 14 times higher than that of the children's hospitals that used PID. The patient immobilization device is recommended for hospitals with technologists not specifically trained for pediatric examination. (author)

  13. Noise analysis of a digital radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, B.A.; Scheibe, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    The sources of noise in a digital video subtraction angiography system were identified and analyzed. Signal-to-noise ratios of digital radiography systems were measured using the digital image data recorded in the computer. The major sources of noise include quantum noise, TV camera electronic noise, quantization noise from the analog-to-digital converter, time jitter, structure noise in the image intensifier, and video recorder electronic noise. A new noise source was identified, which results from the interplay of fixed pattern noise and the lack of image registration. This type of noise may result from image-intensifier structure noise in combination with TV camera time jitter or recorder time jitter. A similar noise source is generated from the interplay of patient absorption inhomogeneities and patient motion or image re-registration. Signal-to-noise ratios were measured for a variety of experimental conditions using subtracted digital images. Image-intensifier structure noise was shown to be a dominant noise source in unsubtracted images at medium to high radiation exposure levels. A total-system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 750:1 was measured for an input exposure of 1 mR/frame at the image intensifier input. The effect of scattered radiation on subtracted image SNR was found to be greater than previously reported. The detail SNR was found to vary approximately as one plus the scatter degradation factor. Quantization error noise with 8-bit image processors (signal-to-noise ratio of 890:1) was shown to be of increased importance after recent improvements in TV cameras. The results of the analysis are useful both in the design of future digital radiography systems and the selection of optimum clinical techniques

  14. Comparing weld inspection codes: radiography vs. ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moles, M.; Ginzel, E.

    2007-01-01

    Requirements for weld quality are continually increasing. This is due to a combination of factors: increased public awareness; bigger legal penalties; improved and thinner steels; better analysis techniques such as Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA); higher material costs. Weld quality is primarily dictated by construction codes, which should reflect the needs of society and industry: safety, the environment, society, and cost-effectiveness. As R and D produces new products, techniques and procedures, ideally these developments should be reflected in the codes. While pressure vessel and structural welding are certainly included here, it is really pipeline weld inspections that are setting the pace on new developments. For pipelines, a major shift was made from radiography to ultrasonics in Alberta some decades ago. This was driven by the 'need for speed', plus the requirement to size defects in the vertical plane for ECA (also called Fracture Mechanics or Fitness-For-Purpose). One of the main objectives of ECA was to benefit from the calculated fracture toughness of materials, and not to rely on the overly conservative workmanship criteria in radiography. In practice, performing repairs on higher quality material often does more harm than good; changing the microstructure can seriously compromise the material properties. Rising steel costs are another major driving force, so higher strength, thinner materials are being used. Under these conditions, ECA and defect sizing are critical. This paper compares where the various North American codes for pipelines, pressure vessels and structural welds stand on using advanced inspection techniques: ultrasonics, phased arrays, ECA, sizing techniques. For those codes which are not using the latest technologies, there are typical routes for incorporating them. (author)

  15. Longitudinal changes in extended roles in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.C.; Miller, L.R.; Mellor, F.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to identify the extent and scope of changes to radiography practice. Method: Questionnaires were sent to radiology managers at acute National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in 2000 as a follow-up to an initial survey conducted in 1998. Information was sought on region, teaching/non-teaching status, the nature of extended role tasks undertaken and the year in which these tasks were first undertaken. Results: Some 172 questionnaires were returned from a total of 253 dispatched (68%). In 161 hospitals radiographers administered intravenous injections and performed barium enemas in 119 hospitals, while a red-dot system was in operation in 141 hospitals. Reporting by radiographers had increased since 1998. Replies indicated that, at 124 hospitals, radiographers were reporting in ultrasound. Skeletal reporting was the second most-frequently-reported activity, with 63 hospitals indicating that radiographers reported in this modality, while barium enemas were reported by radiographers in 34 hospitals. Reporting was also undertaken by radiographers in mammography, nuclear medicine, paediatrics and chest radiography in a small minority of hospitals. There was no statistically significant difference between the adoption of tasks in non-teaching and teaching hospitals with the exception of radiographer-performed barium enemas (P=0.014) and red-dot systems (P=0.05). Radiographers were more likely to undertake both of these activities at non-teaching hospitals than in teaching hospitals. Regional differences were apparent in reporting, with a greater prevalence in the English regions than Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Conclusion: The study provided data that demonstrated the extent to which hospitals are utilizing the developing skills of radiographers. This has important implications for future education and training needs for radiographers and for delivery of imaging services

  16. Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treimer, Wolfgang, E-mail: treimer@helmholtz-berlin.de [University of Applied Sciences, Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin, Department Mathematics Physics and Chemistry, Luxemburgerstr. 10, D-13353 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Department G – GTOMO, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Neutron imaging became important when, besides providing impressive radiographic and tomographic images of various objects, physical, quantification of chemical, morphological or other parameters could be derived from 2D or 3D images. The spatial resolution of approximately 50 µm (and less) yields real space images of the bulk of specimens with more than some cm{sup 3} in volume. Thus the physics or chemistry of structures in a sample can be compared with scattering functions obtained e.g. from neutron scattering. The advantages of using neutrons become more pronounced when the neutron spin comes into play. The interaction of neutrons with magnetism is unique due to their low attenuation by matter and because their spin is sensitive to magnetic fields. Magnetic fields, domains and quantum effects such as the Meissner effect and flux trapping can only be visualized and quantified in the bulk of matter by imaging with polarized neutrons. This additional experimental tool is gaining more and more importance. There is a large number of new fields that can be investigated by neutron imaging, not only in physics, but also in geology, archeology, cultural heritage, soil culture, applied material research, magnetism, etc. One of the top applications of polarized neutron imaging is the large field of superconductivity where the Meissner effect and flux pinning can be visualized and quantified. Here we will give a short summary of the results achieved by radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons. - Highlights: • Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons yield new results concerning the suppressed Meissner effect and magnetic flux trapping. • Suppressed Meissner effect was observed in pure lead samples and niobium. • Trapped magnetic fields in cylindrical Pb samples are squeezed around the rod axis. • The shape and the amount of trapped fields could be determined and quantified.

  17. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-10-01

    The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality.

  18. Proton Fast Ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M H; Freeman, R R; Hatchett, S P; MacKinnon, A J; Patel, P K; Snavely, R A; Stephens, R B

    2006-04-01

    Fast ignition (FI) by a laser generated ballistically focused proton beam is a more recently proposed alternative to the original concept of FI by a laser generated beam of relativistic electrons. It has potential advantages in less complex energy transport into dense plasma. Recent successful target heating experiments motivate further investigation of the feasibility of proton fast ignition. The concept, the physics and characteristics of the proton beams, the recent experimental work on focusing of the beams and heating of solid targets and the overall prospects for proton FI are discussed

  19. The neutron radiography unit at Washington State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogren, J.W.; Burkhart, D.; Hinman, G.

    1972-01-01

    The WSU neutron radiography unit was developed as a student project, but more recently it has been used by our College of Engineering Research Division in a study of mine wall reinforcement by plastic materials

  20. Constancy tests radiography X-ray devices with CR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdikova, M.; Zakova, M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the changes in QAP (Quality Assurance Program) as consequence of digitalisation of medical facilities. Digitalisation brings many advantages - more comfort for personal use, images are easy achievable and transferable to workstation, fine quality images by postprocessing are easily achievable. But it must be taken into account that due to simplicity of image make it is sometimes taken more images then necessary .There are two possible ways of digitalisation in radiography: to exchange conventional developer machine by Computer Radiography (CR), that means to use CR reader and cassette with phosphor plate - un-direct digitalisation or to use special radiography X-ray devices with flat-panel detector -direct radiography. (authors)