An OCD perspective of line edge and line width roughness metrology
Bonam, Ravi; Muthinti, Raja; Breton, Mary; Liu, Chi-Chun; Sieg, Stuart; Seshadri, Indira; Saulnier, Nicole; Shearer, Jeffrey; Patlolla, Raghuveer; Huang, Huai
2017-03-01
Metrology of nanoscale patterns poses multiple challenges that range from measurement noise, metrology errors, probe size etc. Optical Metrology has gained a lot of significance in the semiconductor industry due to its fast turn around and reliable accuracy, particularly to monitor in-line process variations. Apart from monitoring critical dimension, thickness of films, there are multiple parameters that can be extracted from Optical Metrology models3. Sidewall angles, material compositions etc., can also be modeled to acceptable accuracy. Line edge and Line Width roughness are much sought of metrology following critical dimension and its uniformity, although there has not been much development in them with optical metrology. Scanning Electron Microscopy is still used as a standard metrology technique for assessment of Line Edge and Line Width roughness. In this work we present an assessment of Optical Metrology and its ability to model roughness from a set of structures with intentional jogs to simulate both Line edge and Line width roughness at multiple amplitudes and frequencies. We also present multiple models to represent roughness and extract relevant parameters from Optical metrology. Another critical aspect of optical metrology setup is correlation of measurement to a complementary technique to calibrate models. In this work, we also present comparison of roughness parameters extracted and measured with variation of image processing conditions on a commercially available CD-SEM tool.
Titus, M J; Graves, D B; Yamaguchi, Y; Hudson, E A
2011-01-01
We present a comparison of patterned 193 nm photoresist (PR) line width roughness (LWR) of samples processed in a well characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system to RMS surface roughness and bulk chemical modification of blanket 193 nm PR samples used as control samples. In the ICP system, patterned and blanket PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV) and Ar ions while sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR (blanket) and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). LWR of patterned samples are measured with scanning electron microscopy and blanket portions of the patterned PRs are measured with AFM. We demonstrate that with no RF-bias applied to the substrate the LWR of 193 nm PR tends to smooth and correlates with the smoothing of the RMS surface roughness. However, both LWR and RMS surface roughness increases with simultaneous high-energy (≥70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV-irradiation and is a function of exposure time. Both high- and low-frequency LWR correlate well with the RMS surface roughness of the patterned and blanket 193 nm PR samples. LWR, however, does not increase with temperatures ranging from 20 to 80 deg. C, in contrast to the RMS surface roughness which increases monotonically with temperature. It is unclear why LWR remains independent of temperature over this range. However, the fact that blanket roughness and LWR on patterned samples, both scale similarly with VUV fluence and ion energy suggests a similar mechanism is responsible for both types of surface morphology modifications.
Titus, M J; Graves, D B [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Yamaguchi, Y; Hudson, E A, E-mail: graves@berkeley.edu [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Freemont, CA 94538 (United States)
2011-03-02
We present a comparison of patterned 193 nm photoresist (PR) line width roughness (LWR) of samples processed in a well characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system to RMS surface roughness and bulk chemical modification of blanket 193 nm PR samples used as control samples. In the ICP system, patterned and blanket PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV) and Ar ions while sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR (blanket) and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). LWR of patterned samples are measured with scanning electron microscopy and blanket portions of the patterned PRs are measured with AFM. We demonstrate that with no RF-bias applied to the substrate the LWR of 193 nm PR tends to smooth and correlates with the smoothing of the RMS surface roughness. However, both LWR and RMS surface roughness increases with simultaneous high-energy ({>=}70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV-irradiation and is a function of exposure time. Both high- and low-frequency LWR correlate well with the RMS surface roughness of the patterned and blanket 193 nm PR samples. LWR, however, does not increase with temperatures ranging from 20 to 80 deg. C, in contrast to the RMS surface roughness which increases monotonically with temperature. It is unclear why LWR remains independent of temperature over this range. However, the fact that blanket roughness and LWR on patterned samples, both scale similarly with VUV fluence and ion energy suggests a similar mechanism is responsible for both types of surface morphology modifications.
Nikiskov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.
1993-01-01
The concept of Stokes line width is introduced for the asymptotic expansions of functions near an essential singularity. Explicit expressions are found for functions (switching functions) that switch on the exponentially small terms for the Dawson integral, Airy function, and the gamma function. A different, more natural representation of a function, not associated with expansion in an asymptotic series, in the form of dominant and recessive terms is obtained by a special division of the contour integral which represents the function into contributions of higher and lower saddle points. This division leads to a narrower, natural Stokes line width and a switching function of an argument that depends on the topology of the lines of steepest descent from the saddle point
Fingerprinting the type of line edge roughness
Fernández Herrero, A.; Pflüger, M.; Scholze, F.; Soltwisch, V.
2017-06-01
Lamellar gratings are widely used diffractive optical elements and are prototypes of structural elements in integrated electronic circuits. EUV scatterometry is very sensitive to structure details and imperfections, which makes it suitable for the characterization of nanostructured surfaces. As compared to X-ray methods, EUV scattering allows for steeper angles of incidence, which is highly preferable for the investigation of small measurement fields on semiconductor wafers. For the control of the lithographic manufacturing process, a rapid in-line characterization of nanostructures is indispensable. Numerous studies on the determination of regular geometry parameters of lamellar gratings from optical and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) scattering also investigated the impact of roughness on the respective results. The challenge is to appropriately model the influence of structure roughness on the diffraction intensities used for the reconstruction of the surface profile. The impact of roughness was already studied analytically but for gratings with a periodic pseudoroughness, because of practical restrictions of the computational domain. Our investigation aims at a better understanding of the scattering caused by line roughness. We designed a set of nine lamellar Si-gratings to be studied by EUV scatterometry. It includes one reference grating with no artificial roughness added, four gratings with a periodic roughness distribution, two with a prevailing line edge roughness (LER) and another two with line width roughness (LWR), and four gratings with a stochastic roughness distribution (two with LER and two with LWR). We show that the type of line roughness has a strong impact on the diffuse scatter angular distribution. Our experimental results are not described well by the present modelling approach based on small, periodically repeated domains.
Line width of Josephson flux flow oscillators
Koshelets, V.P.; Dmitriev, P.N.; Sobolev, A.S.
2002-01-01
to be proven before one initiates real FFO applications. To achieve this goal a comprehensive set of line width measurements of the FFO operating in different regimes has been performed. FFOs with tapered shape have been successfully implemented in order to avoid the superfine resonant structure with voltage...... spacing of about 20 nV and extremely low differential resistance, recently observed in the IVC of the standard rectangular geometry. The obtained results have been compared with existing theories and FFO models in order to understand and possibly eliminate excess noise in the FFO. The intrinsic line width...
Width lines of non hydrogenoid ions
Bertuccelli, D.; Bertuccelli, G.; Di Rocco, H.O.
1990-01-01
An extensive theoretical and experimental work was carried out on the ns-np and np-nd line widths (w) of noble gases after ionization (n=n 0 +1, were n 0 is the principal quantum number of the fundamental configuration). A high current 'pinch' discharge was used as source. Electron density and temperature were estimated to be N e =2.65x10 16 cm -3 and T=1.45x10 4 K respectively. Calculations were based on a semi-empirical approximation and the matrix elements (or transition probabilities) were evaluated in different approximation. Comparing our measurements with those of other authors, a systematic tendency, with a dependence on atomic number Z and ionization energy of the higher level L, was established. Finally, it has been established that for N e >10 17 cm -3 , w ∝ N e γ , where γ=5/6. (Author). 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab
Line Width Recovery after Vectorization of Engineering Drawings
Gramblička Matúš
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Vectorization is the conversion process of a raster image representation into a vector representation. The contemporary commercial vectorization software applications do not provide sufficiently high quality outputs for such images as do mechanical engineering drawings. Line width preservation is one of the problems. There are applications which need to know the line width after vectorization because this line attribute carries the important semantic information for the next 3D model generation. This article describes the algorithm that is able to recover line width of individual lines in the vectorized engineering drawings. Two approaches are proposed, one examines the line width at three points, whereas the second uses a variable number of points depending on the line length. The algorithm is tested on real mechanical engineering drawings.
Denney, Kelly Dianne; Pogge, R.W.; Assef, R.J.
2013-01-01
Comparison of six high-redshift quasar spectra obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope with previous observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows that failure to correctly identify absorption and other problems with accurate characterization of the CIV emission line profile in low S/N...
Verduin, T.; Lokhorst, S. R.; Kruit, P.; Hagen, C. W.
2015-03-01
We have investigated in a numerical study the determination of sidewall roughness (SWR) from top down scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. In a typical metrology application, top-down SEM images are acquired in a (critical-dimension) SEM and the roughness is analyzed. However, the true size, shape and roughness characteristics of resist features are not fully investigated in the analysis of top-down SEM images. In reality, rough resist features are complex three-dimensional structures and the characterization naturally extends to the analysis of SWR. In this study we randomly generate images of rough lines and spaces, where the lines are made of PMMA on a silicon substrate. The lines that we study have a length of 2 µm, a width of 32nm and a height of 32 nm. The SWR is modeled by using the power spectral density (PSD) function of Palasantzas, which characterizes roughness by the standard deviation σ, correlation length ξ and roughness exponent α . The actual roughness is generated by application of the method of Thorsos in two dimensions. The images are constructed by using a home-built program for simulating electron-specimen interactions. The program that we have developed is optimized for complex arbitrary geometries and large number of incident low energy primary electrons by using multi-core CPUs and GPUs. The program uses the dielectric function model for inelastic scattering events and has an implementation specifically for low energy electrons. A satisfactory comparison is made between the secondary electron yields from the home-built program and another program found in literature. In order to reduce the risk of shrinkage, we use a beam energy of 300 eV and a spot size of 3 nm. Each pixel is exposed with 20 electrons on average (≍ 276 µC/cm2), following the Poisson distribution to account for illumination shot noise. We have assumed that the detection of electrons is perfect and does not introduce additional noise. We measure line edge
Line roughness improvements on self-aligned quadruple patterning by wafer stress engineering
Liu, Eric; Ko, Akiteru; Biolsi, Peter; Chae, Soo Doo; Hsieh, Chia-Yun; Kagaya, Munehito; Lee, Choongman; Moriya, Tsuyoshi; Tsujikawa, Shimpei; Suzuki, Yusuke; Okubo, Kazuya; Imai, Kiyotaka
2018-04-01
In integrated circuit and memory devices, size shrinkage has been the most effective method to reduce production cost and enable the steady increment of the number of transistors per unit area over the past few decades. In order to reduce the die size and feature size, it is necessary to minimize pattern formation in the advance node development. In the node of sub-10nm, extreme ultra violet lithography (EUV) and multi-patterning solutions based on 193nm immersionlithography are the two most common options to achieve the size requirement. In such small features of line and space pattern, line width roughness (LWR) and line edge roughness (LER) contribute significant amount of process variation that impacts both physical and electrical performances. In this paper, we focus on optimizing the line roughness performance by using wafer stress engineering on 30nm pitch line and space pattern. This pattern is generated by a self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) technique for the potential application of fin formation. Our investigation starts by comparing film materials and stress levels in various processing steps and material selection on SAQP integration scheme. From the cross-matrix comparison, we are able to determine the best stack of film selection and stress combination in order to achieve the lowest line roughness performance while obtaining pattern validity after fin etch. This stack is also used to study the step-by-step line roughness performance from SAQP to fin etch. Finally, we will show a successful patterning of 30nm pitch line and space pattern SAQP scheme with 1nm line roughness performance.
Abdil KUŞ
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this study, the machinability characteristics of Al/B4C-Gr hybrid composite were investigated using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM. In the experiments, the machining parameters of wire speed, pulse-on time and pulse-off time were varied in order to explaiın their effects on machining performance, including the width of slit (kerf and surface roughness values (Rz and Rt. According to the Taguchi quality design concept, a L18 (21×32 orthogonal array was used to determine the S/N ratio, and analysis of variance (ANOVA and the F-test were used to indicate the significant machining parameters affecting the machining performance. From the ANOVA and F-test results, the significant factors were determined for each of the machining performance criteria of kerf, Rz and Rt. The variations of kerf, Rz and Rt with the machining parameters were statistically modeled via the regression analysis method. The optimum levels of the control factors for kerf, Rz and Rt were specified as A1B1C1, A1B1C2 and A1B1C2, respectively. The correlation coefficients of the predictive equations developed for kerf, Rz and Rt were calculated as 0.98, 0.828 and 0.855, respectively.
On the analysis of the thermal line shift and thermal line width of ions in solids
Walsh, Brian M., E-mail: brian.m.walsh@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Di Bartolo, Baldassare, E-mail: baldassare.dibartolo@bc.edu [Boston College, Department of Physics, Chestnut Hill, MA 23667 (United States)
2015-02-15
A method of analysis for the thermally induced line shift and line width of spectral lines regarding the Raman process of ions in solids utilizing rational approximations for the Debye functions is presented. The {sup 2}E level unsplit R-line in V{sup 2+}:MgO is used as an example to illustrate the utility of the methods discussed here in providing a new analytical tool for researchers. - Highlights: • We use rational approximations for Debye functions. • We discuss limits and ranges of applicability of the rational approximations. • We formulate expressions for thermal shift and thermal linewidth for Raman processes using the rational approximations of the Debye functions. • We present an application of the methods to analyze the temperature dependent linewidth and lineshift in V2+:MgO.
Stark widths of Xe II lines in a pulsed plasma
Djurovic, S; Pelaez, R J; Cirisan, M; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S
2006-01-01
In this paper, we present a review of experimental work on Stark broadening of singly ionized xenon lines. Eighty lines, from close UV to the red region of the spectrum, have been studied. Stark halfwidths were compared with experimental data from the literature and modified semi-empirical calculations. A pulsed arc with 95% of helium and 5% xenon was used as a plasma source for this study. Measured electron densities N e and temperatures T were in the ranges of 0.2-1.6 x 10 23 m -3 and 18 300-25 500 K, respectively
Real-time line-width measurements: a new feature for reticle inspection systems
Eran, Yair; Greenberg, Gad; Joseph, Amnon; Lustig, Cornel; Mizrahi, Eyal
1997-07-01
The significance of line width control in mask production has become greater with the lessening of defect size. There are two conventional methods used for controlling line widths dimensions which employed in the manufacturing of masks for sub micron devices. These two methods are the critical dimensions (CD) measurement and the detection of edge defects. Achieving reliable and accurate control of line width errors is one of the most challenging tasks in mask production. Neither of the two methods cited above (namely CD measurement and the detection of edge defects) guarantees the detection of line width errors with good sensitivity over the whole mask area. This stems from the fact that CD measurement provides only statistical data on the mask features whereas applying edge defect detection method checks defects on each edge by itself, and does not supply information on the combined result of error detection on two adjacent edges. For example, a combination of a small edge defect together with a CD non- uniformity which are both within the allowed tolerance, may yield a significant line width error, which will not be detected using the conventional methods (see figure 1). A new approach for the detection of line width errors which overcomes this difficulty is presented. Based on this approach, a new sensitive line width error detector was developed and added to Orbot's RT-8000 die-to-database reticle inspection system. This innovative detector operates continuously during the mask inspection process and scans (inspects) the entire area of the reticle for line width errors. The detection is based on a comparison of measured line width that are taken on both the design database and the scanned image of the reticle. In section 2, the motivation for developing this new detector is presented. The section covers an analysis of various defect types, which are difficult to detect using conventional edge detection methods or, alternatively, CD measurements. In section 3
Natural widths of atomic K and L levels, Kα X-ray lines and several KLL Auger lines
Krause, M.O.; Oliver, J.H.
1979-01-01
Semi-empirical values of the natural widths of K, L 1 , L 2 , and L 3 levels, Kα 1 and Kα 2 x-ray lines, and KL 1 L 1 , KL 1 L 2 and KL 2 L 3 Auger lines for the elements 10 1 ,L 2 , L 3 ) is obtained from the relation GAMMA/sub i/=GAMMA/sub R/,i/ω/sub i/, using the theoretical radiative rate GAMMA/sub R/,i from Scofield's relativistic, relaxed Hartree-Fock calculation and the fluorescence yield ω/sub i/ from Krause's evaluation. X-ray and Auger lines widths are calculated as the sums of pertinent level widths. This tabulation of natural level and line widths is internally consistent, and is compatible with all relevant experimental and theoretical information. Present semi-empirical widths, especially those of Kα 1 and Kα 2 x-rays, are compared with measured widths. Uncertainties of semi-empirical values are estimated
Determination of core level line widths in XPS of GeS and GeSe
Viljoen, P.E.
1981-01-01
Measured X-ray photoelectron spectra are broadened owing to several factors. They can be regarded as the sums of the instrument response functions and the finite source widths. By measuring the response function and deconvoluting the measured peak, the form of the measured peak, the instrument function and the deconvoluted line were determined. The former two seem to have a Gauss and the latter a Lorentz form. The X-ray source is known to have a Lorentz form. A simple method, using the shapes of all these lines, is proposed to determine the line width. Applied to GeS and GeSe lines it gives values that agree quite well with other determinations. Strictly speaking, the method is only applicable to our or other similar spectrometers, but it can be generally applied if the line shapes are known or can be determined [af
Faires, L.M.; Palmer, B.A.; Brault, J.W.
1984-01-01
High resolution Fourier transform spectrometry has been used to perform line width and line shape analysis of eighty-one iron I emision lines in the spectral range 290 to 390nm originating in the normal analytical zone of an inductively coupled plasma. Computer programs using non-linear least squares fitting techniques for line shape analysis were applied to the fully resolved spectra to determine Gaussian and Lorentzian components of the total observed line width. The effect of noise in the spectrum on the precision of the line fitting technique was assessed, and the importance of signal to noise ratio for line shape analysis is discussed. Translational (Doppler) temperatures were calculated from the Gaussian components of the line width and were found to be on the order of 6300 0 K. The excitation temperature of iron I was also determined from the same spectral data by the spectroscopic slope method based on the Einstein-Boltzmann expression for spectral intensity and was found to be on the order of 4700 0 K. 31 references
NH3 quantum rotators in Hofmann clathrates: intensity and width of rotational transition lines
Vorderwisch, Peter; Sobolev, Oleg; Desmedt, Arnaud
2004-01-01
Inelastic structure factors for rotational transitions of uniaxial NH 3 quantum rotators, measured in a Hofmann clathrate with biphenyl as guest molecule, agree with those calculated for free rotators. A finite intrinsic line width, found for rotational transitions involving the rotational level j=3 at low temperature, supports a recently suggested model based on resonant rotor-rotor coupling
Zhao, Libo; Xia, Yong; Hebibul, Rahman; Wang, Jiuhong; Zhou, Xiangyang; Hu, Yingjie; Li, Zhikang; Luo, Guoxi; Zhao, Yulong; Jiang, Zhuangde
2018-03-01
This paper presents an experimental study using image processing to investigate width and width uniformity of sub-micrometer polyethylene oxide (PEO) lines fabricated by near-filed electrospinning (NFES) technique. An adaptive thresholding method was developed to determine the optimal gray values to accurately extract profiles of printed lines from original optical images. And it was proved with good feasibility. The mechanism of the proposed thresholding method was believed to take advantage of statistic property and get rid of halo induced errors. Triangular method and relative standard deviation (RSD) were introduced to calculate line width and width uniformity, respectively. Based on these image processing methods, the effects of process parameters including substrate speed (v), applied voltage (U), nozzle-to-collector distance (H), and syringe pump flow rate (Q) on width and width uniformity of printed lines were discussed. The research results are helpful to promote the NFES technique for fabricating high resolution micro and sub-micro lines and also helpful to optical image processing at sub-micro level.
Impacts of yttrium substitution on FMR line-width and magnetic properties of nickel spinel ferrites
Ishaque, M., E-mail: ishaqdgk1@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar, E-mail: azhar.khan@iub.edu.pk [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Ali, Irshad; Khan, Hasan M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Iqbal, M. Asif [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); College of E & ME, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Islam, M.U. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan)
2015-05-15
The influence of yttrium (Y) substitution on ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), initial permeability, and magnetic properties of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites were investigated. It was observed that the FMR line-width decreases with yttrium contents for the substitution level 0≤×≤0.06. Beyond this, the FMR line-width increases with yttrium contents. The nominal composition NiY{sub 0.12}Fe{sub 1.88}O{sub 4} exhibited the smallest FMR line-width ~282 Oe. A significant change in FMR position of nickel–yttrium (Ni–Y) ferrites was observed and it found to exist between 4150 and 4600 Oe. The saturation magnetization was observed to decrease with the increase of yttrium contents and this was referred to the redistribution of cations on octahedral. The coercivity increased from 15 Oe to 59 Oe by increasing the yttrium concentration. The initial permeability decreased from 110 to 35 at 1 MHz by the incorporation of yttrium and this was attributed to the smaller grains which may obstruct the domain wall movement and impede the domain wall motion. The magnetic loss factors of substituted samples exhibit decreasing behavior in the frequency range 1 kHz to 10 MHz. The smaller FMR line-width and reduced magnetic loss factor of the investigated samples suggest the possible use of these materials in high frequency applications. - Highlights: • Influence of Y{sup 3+} substitution on the properties of nickel ferrites is investigated. • Very small FMR line-width (282 Oe) is exhibited by these substituted ferrites. • Fourfold increase in coercivity was observed for NiY{sub 0.24}Fe{sub 1.76}O{sub 4} ferrites.
Emission-line widths and stellar-wind flows in T Tauri stars
Sa, C.; Lago, M.T.V.T.
1986-01-01
Spectra are reported of T Tauri stars taken with the IPCS on the Isaac Newton Telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at a dispersion of l7 A mm -1 . These were taken in order to determine emission-line widths and hence flow velocities in the winds of these stars following the successful modelling of the wind from RU Lupi using such data. Line widths in RW Aur suggest a similar pattern to the wind flow as in RU Lupi with velocities rising in the inner chromosphere of the star and then entering a 'ballistic' zone. The wind from DFTau is also similar but velocities are generally much lower and the lines sharper. (author)
Zheng, Erhu; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Haiyang
2017-03-01
As CMOS technology reaches 14nm node and beyond, one of the key challenges of the extension of 193nm immersion lithography is how to control the line edge and width roughness (LER/LWR). For Self-aligned Multiple Patterning (SaMP), LER becomes larger while LWR becomes smaller as the process proceeds[1]. It means plasma etch process becomes more and more dominant for LER reduction. In this work, we mainly focus on the core etch solution including an extra plasma coating process introduced before the bottom anti reflective coating (BARC) open step, and an extra plasma cure process applied right after BARC-open step. Firstly, we leveraged the optimal design experiment (ODE) to investigate the impact of plasma coating step on LER and identified the optimal condition. ODE is an appropriate method for the screening experiments of non-linear parameters in dynamic process models, especially for high-cost-intensive industry [2]. Finally, we obtained the proper plasma coating treatment condition that has been proven to achieve 32% LER improvement compared with standard process. Furthermore, the plasma cure scheme has been also optimized with ODE method to cover the LWR degradation induced by plasma coating treatment.
Line width measurement below 60 nm using an optical interferometer and artificial neural network
See, Chung W.; Smith, Richard J.; Somekh, Michael G.; Yacoot, Andrew
2007-03-01
We have recently described a technique for optical line-width measurements. The system currently is capable of measuring line-width down to 60 nm with a precision of 2 nm, and potentially should be able to measure down to 10nm. The system consists of an ultra-stable interferometer and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The former is used to generate optical profiles which are input to the ANNs. The outputs of the ANNs are the desired sample parameters. Different types of samples have been tested with equally impressive results. In this paper we will discuss the factors that are essential to extend the application of the technique. Two of the factors are signal conditioning and sample classification. Methods, including principal component analysis, that are capable of performing these tasks will be considered.
Mohammed, Mohammed Ziauddin; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.; Khashan, Saud A.
2018-06-01
The application of maskless lithography technique on negative photoresist material is investigated in this study. The equipment used in this work is designed and built especially for maskless lithography applications. The UV laser of 405 nm wavelength with 0.85 Numerical Aperture is selected for direct laser writing. All the samples are prepared on a glass substrate. Samples are tested at different UV laser intensities and different stage velocities in order to study the impact on patterned line width. Three cases of spin coated layers of thickness 90 μm, 40 μm, and 28 μm on the substrate are studied. The experimental results show that line width has a generally increasing trend with intensity. However, a decreasing trend was observed for increasing velocity. The overall performance shows that the mr-DWL material is suitable for direct laser writing systems.
Mohammed, Mohammed Ziauddin; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.; Khashan, Saud A.
2018-04-01
The application of maskless lithography technique on negative photoresist material is investigated in this study. The equipment used in this work is designed and built especially for maskless lithography applications. The UV laser of 405 nm wavelength with 0.85 Numerical Aperture is selected for direct laser writing. All the samples are prepared on a glass substrate. Samples are tested at different UV laser intensities and different stage velocities in order to study the impact on patterned line width. Three cases of spin coated layers of thickness 90 μm, 40 μm, and 28 μm on the substrate are studied. The experimental results show that line width has a generally increasing trend with intensity. However, a decreasing trend was observed for increasing velocity. The overall performance shows that the mr-DWL material is suitable for direct laser writing systems.
The effect of the negative binomial distribution on the line-width of the micromaser cavity field
Kremid, A. M.
2009-01-01
The influence of negative binomial distribution (NBD) on the line-width of the negative binomial distribution (NBD) on the line-width of the micromaser is considered. The threshold of the micromaser is shifted towards higher values of the pumping parameter q. Moreover the line-width exhibits sharp dips 'resonances' when the cavity temperature reduces to a very low value. These dips are very clear evidence for the occurrence of the so-called trapping states regime in the micromaser. This statistics prevents the appearance of these trapping states, namely by increasing the negative binomial parameter q these dips wash out and the line-width becomes more broadening. For small values of the parameter q the line-width at large values of q randomly oscillates around its transition line. As q becomes large this oscillatory behavior occurs at rarely values of q. (author)
Roughness of equipotential lines due to a self-affine boundary
Assis, Thiago A de; Mota, Fernando de B; Miranda, Jose G V; Andrade, Roberto F S; Filho, Hugo de O Dias; Castilho, Caio M C de
2006-01-01
In this work, the characterization of the roughness of a set of equipotential lines l, due to a rough surface held at a nonzero voltage bias, is investigated. The roughness of the equipotential lines reflects the roughness of the profile, and causes a rapid variation in the electric field close to the surface. An ideal situation was considered, where a well known self-affine profile mimics the surface, while the equipotential lines are numerically evaluated using Liebmann's method. The use of an exact scale invariant profile helps to understand the dependency of the line roughness exponent α(l) on both the value of the potential (or on the average distance to the profile) and the profile's length. Results clearly support previous indications that: (a) for a system of fixed size, higher values of α characterize less corrugated lines far away from the profile; (b) for a fixed value of the potential, α decreases with the length of the profile towards the value of the boundary. This suggests that, for a system of infinite size, all equipotential lines share the same value of α
Determination of line edge roughness in low-dose top-down scanning electron microscopy images
Verduin, T.; Kruit, P.; Hagen, C.W.
2014-01-01
We investigated the off-line metrology for line edge roughness (LER) determination by using the discrete power spectral density (PSD). The study specifically addresses low-dose scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images in order to reduce the acquisition time and the risk of resist shrinkage. The
Relating Line Width and Optical Depth for CO Emission in the Large Mgellanic Cloud
Wojciechowski, Evan; Wong, Tony; Bandurski, Jeffrey; MC3 (Mapping CO in Molecular Clouds in the Magellanic Clouds) Team
2018-01-01
We investigate data produced from ALMA observations of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), using 12CO(2–1) and 13CO(2–1) emission. The spectral line width is generally interpreted as tracing turbulent rather than thermal motions in the cloud, but could also be affected by optical depth, especially for the 12CO line (Hacar et al. 2016). We compare the spectral line widths of both lines with their optical depths, estimated from an LTE analysis, to evaluate the importance of optical depth effects. Our cloud sample includes two regions recently published by Wong et al. (2017, submitted): the Tarantula Nebula or 30 Dor, an HII region rife with turbulence, and the Planck cold cloud (PCC), located in a much calmer environment near the fringes of the LMC. We also include four additional LMC clouds, which span intermediate levels of star formation relative to these two clouds, and for which we have recently obtained ALMA data in Cycle 4.
Nakhate, S.G.; Ahmad, S.A.; Pushpa; Rao, M.; Saksena, G.D.
1991-01-01
Deconvolution of atomic line profiles, recorded on PC interfaced recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer, into its Lorentzian and Gaussian component has been carried out. Effect of various parameters of hollow cathode discharge lamp (light source) such as discharge current, bath temperature and gas pressure on Lorentzian and Gaussian width has been studied. The value of the self-broadening coefficient for neon-neon atomic interaction for the transition 2p 5 4P-2P 5 3s (λ=3472.571 A) has been determined. (author). 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs
Runge-Kutta Integration of the Equal Width Wave Equation Using the Method of Lines
M. A. Banaja
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The equal width (EW equation governs nonlinear wave phenomena like waves in shallow water. Numerical solution of the (EW equation is obtained by using the method of lines (MOL based on Runge-Kutta integration. Using von Neumann stability analysis, the scheme is found to be unconditionally stable. Solitary wave motion and interaction of two solitary waves are studied using the proposed method. The three invariants of the motion are evaluated to determine the conservation properties of the generated scheme. Accuracy of the proposed method is discussed by computing the L2 and L∞ error norms. The results are found in good agreement with exact solution.
Chen, Xiuguo; Shi, Yating; Jiang, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zhang, Chuanwei [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wuhan Eoptics Technology Co. Ltd., Wuhan, Hubei 430075 (China); Liu, Shiyuan, E-mail: shyliu@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wuhan Eoptics Technology Co. Ltd., Wuhan, Hubei 430075 (China)
2016-12-01
Highlights: • MME is applied to characterize lithographic patterns with natural LER. • A computationally efficient approach based on EMA is proposed to model LER. • Both theoretical and experimental results verify the effective modeling approach. • The comparison between MME and SEM results reveals the potential of this technique. - Abstract: Mueller matrix ellipsometry (MME) is applied to characterize lithographic patterns with natural line edge roughness (LER). A computationally efficient approach based on effective medium approximation is proposed to model the effects of LER in MME measurements. We present both the theoretical and experimental results on lithographic patterns with realistic LER which demonstrate that MME in combination with the proposed effective modeling method is capable of quantifying LER amplitudes. Quantitative comparisons between the MME and scanning electron microscopy measured results also reveal the strong potential of this technique for in-line nondestructive line roughness monitoring.
NARROW-LINE-WIDTH UV BURSTS IN THE TRANSITION REGION ABOVE SUNSPOTS OBSERVED BY IRIS
Hou, Zhenyong; Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Li, Bo; Madjarska, Maria S.; Fu, Hui; Mou, Chaozhou; Xie, Haixia, E-mail: z.huang@sdu.edu.cn, E-mail: xld@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, 264209 Shandong (China)
2016-10-01
Various small-scale structures abound in the solar atmosphere above active regions, playing an important role in the dynamics and evolution therein. We report on a new class of small-scale transition region structures in active regions, characterized by strong emissions but extremely narrow Si iv line profiles as found in observations taken with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Tentatively named as narrow-line-width UV bursts (NUBs), these structures are located above sunspots and comprise one or multiple compact bright cores at sub-arcsecond scales. We found six NUBs in two data sets (a raster and a sit-and-stare data set). Among these, four events are short-lived with a duration of ∼10 minutes, while two last for more than 36 minutes. All NUBs have Doppler shifts of 15–18 km s{sup −1}, while the NUB found in sit-and-stare data possesses an additional component at ∼50 km s{sup −1} found only in the C ii and Mg ii lines. Given that these events are found to play a role in the local dynamics, it is important to further investigate the physical mechanisms that generate these phenomena and their role in the mass transport in sunspots.
Kurek, Marta; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Sitek, Aneta; Borowska-Strugińska, Beata; Rosset, Iwona; Lorkiewicz, Wiesław
2016-01-01
The neonatal line is usually the first accentuated incremental line visible on the enamel. The prenatal environment significantly contributes to the width of the neonatal line, influencing the pace of reaching post-delivery homeostasis by the newborn's organism. Studies of the enamel of the earliest developing deciduous teeth can provide an insight into the prenatal development and the perinatal conditions of children of past human populations, thus being an additional source contributing to consideration of the influence of prenatal and perinatal factors modifying growth processes. The aim of this study was to examine whether the neonatal line, reflecting the conditions of the prenatal and perinatal environment, differed between the Neolithic, the mediaeval and the modern populations from the Kujawy region in north-central Poland. The material consisted of longitudinally ground sections of 57 human deciduous incisors obtained from children aged 1.0-7.5 years representing three archaeological series from Brześć Kujawski site. All teeth were sectioned in the labio-linqual plane using a diamond blade (Buechler IsoMet 1000). Final specimens were observed with the microscope Delta Optical Evolution 300 at 10× and 40× magnifications. For each tooth, linear measurements of the neonatal line width were performed on its labial surface at the three levels from the cemento-enamel junction. No significant difference was found in the mean neonatal line width depending on the tooth type and archaeological site, although the thickest neonatal line characterised children from the Neolithic series. In all analysed series, the neonatal line width was diversified depending on the child's age at death. The value of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient calculated for the correlation between the child's age at death and the neonatal line width was statistically significant. A clear increase in the width of the neonatal line was thus observed along with a decrease in the child
Berk, Alexander
2013-03-01
Exact expansions for Voigt line-shape total, line-tail and spectral bin equivalent widths and for Voigt finite spectral bin single-line transmittances have been derived in terms of optical depth dependent exponentially-scaled modified Bessel functions of integer order and optical depth independent Fourier integral coefficients. The series are convergent for the full range of Voigt line-shapes, from pure Doppler to pure Lorentzian. In the Lorentz limit, the expansion reduces to the Ladenburg and Reiche function for the total equivalent width. Analytic expressions are derived for the first 8 Fourier coefficients for pure Lorentzian lines, for pure Doppler lines and for Voigt lines with at most moderate Doppler dependence. A strong-line limit sum rule on the Fourier coefficients is enforced to define an additional Fourier coefficient and to optimize convergence of the truncated expansion. The moderate Doppler dependence scenario is applicable to and has been implemented in the MODTRAN5 atmospheric band model radiative transfer software. Finite-bin transmittances computed with the truncated expansions reduce transmittance residuals compared to the former Rodgers-Williams equivalent width based approach by ∼2 orders of magnitude.
Lee, Yen-Min; Li, Jia-Han; Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Wang, Fu-Min; Shen, Yu-Tian; Tsai, Kuen-Yu; Shieh, Jason J; Chen, Alek C
2014-01-01
The Fourier scatterometry model was used to measure the ZEP 520A electron beam resist lines with specific line edge roughness (LER). By obtaining the pupils via an objective lens, the angle-resolved diffraction spectrum was collected efficiently without additional mechanical scanning. The concavity of the pupil was considered as the weight function in specimen recognition. A series of white noises was examined in the model, and the tolerant white noise levels for different system numerical apertures (NAs) were reported. Our numerical results show that the scatterometry model of a higher NA can identify a target with a higher white noise level. Moreover, the fabricated ZEP 520A electron beam resist gratings with LER were measured by using our model, and the fitting results were matched with scanning electron microscope measurements. (paper)
Tian, Y; Zhao, J Q; Wang, W; Wang, Y Z; Gao, W
2010-01-01
Narrow line-width 793 nm laser diode cladding pumped Tm 3+ doped double cladding silica fiber laser with in-line four concatenated tapers filter was reported for the first time to our knowledge. These cascade tapers located 3.6 cm from the output end of the fiber laser was fabricated by heating and stretching method. The taper's transmitted power response as a function of wavelength was described by using local mode coupling theory and successive tapers filter model. The wavelength filter function of the in-line cascade tapers in a linear cavity fiber laser was demonstrated, and the experimental result agreed with these theories. The maximum output laser power was 736 mW, corresponding to single peak of laser spectrum with narrow line-width of ∼ 60 pm
Villarrubia, J.S., E-mail: john.villarrubia@nist.gov [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Vladár, A.E.; Ming, B. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Kline, R.J.; Sunday, D.F. [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Chawla, J.S.; List, S. [Intel Corporation, RA3-252, 5200 NE Elam Young Pkwy, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States)
2015-07-15
The width and shape of 10 nm to 12 nm wide lithographically patterned SiO{sub 2} lines were measured in the scanning electron microscope by fitting the measured intensity vs. position to a physics-based model in which the lines' widths and shapes are parameters. The approximately 32 nm pitch sample was patterned at Intel using a state-of-the-art pitch quartering process. Their narrow widths and asymmetrical shapes are representative of near-future generation transistor gates. These pose a challenge: the narrowness because electrons landing near one edge may scatter out of the other, so that the intensity profile at each edge becomes width-dependent, and the asymmetry because the shape requires more parameters to describe and measure. Modeling was performed by JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo Simulation of Secondary Electrons), which produces a predicted yield vs. position for a given sample shape and composition. The simulator produces a library of predicted profiles for varying sample geometry. Shape parameter values are adjusted until interpolation of the library with those values best matches the measured image. Profiles thereby determined agreed with those determined by transmission electron microscopy and critical dimension small-angle x-ray scattering to better than 1 nm.
Villarrubia, J S; Vladár, A E; Ming, B; Kline, R J; Sunday, D F; Chawla, J S; List, S
2015-07-01
The width and shape of 10nm to 12 nm wide lithographically patterned SiO2 lines were measured in the scanning electron microscope by fitting the measured intensity vs. position to a physics-based model in which the lines' widths and shapes are parameters. The approximately 32 nm pitch sample was patterned at Intel using a state-of-the-art pitch quartering process. Their narrow widths and asymmetrical shapes are representative of near-future generation transistor gates. These pose a challenge: the narrowness because electrons landing near one edge may scatter out of the other, so that the intensity profile at each edge becomes width-dependent, and the asymmetry because the shape requires more parameters to describe and measure. Modeling was performed by JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo Simulation of Secondary Electrons), which produces a predicted yield vs. position for a given sample shape and composition. The simulator produces a library of predicted profiles for varying sample geometry. Shape parameter values are adjusted until interpolation of the library with those values best matches the measured image. Profiles thereby determined agreed with those determined by transmission electron microscopy and critical dimension small-angle x-ray scattering to better than 1 nm. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Constantoudis, Vassilios; Papavieros, George; Lorusso, Gian; Rutigliani, Vito; Van Roey, Frieda; Gogolides, Evangelos
2018-03-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of etch transfer in two challenges of LER metrology raised by recent evolutions in lithography: the effects of SEM noise and the cross-line and edge correlations. The first comes from the ongoing scaling down of linewidths, which dictates SEM imaging with less scanning frames to reduce specimen damage and hence with more noise. During the last decade, it has been shown that image noise can be an important budget of the measured LER while systematically affects and alter the PSD curve of LER at high frequencies. A recent method for unbiased LER measurement is based on the systematic Fourier or correlation analysis to decompose the effects of noise from true LER (Fourier-Correlation filtering method). The success of the method depends on the PSD and HHCF curve. Previous experimental and model works have revealed that etch transfer affects the PSD of LER reducing its high frequency values. In this work, we estimate the noise contribution to the biased LER through PSD flat floor at high frequencies and relate it with the differences between the PSDs of lithography and etched LER. Based on this comparison, we propose an improvement of the PSD/HHCF-based method for noise-free LER measurement to include the missed high frequency real LER. The second issue is related with the increased density of lithographic patterns and the special characteristics of DSA and MP lithography patterns exhibits. In a previous work, we presented an enlarged LER characterization methodology for such patterns, which includes updated versions of the old metrics along with new metrics defined and developed to capture cross-edge and cross-line correlations. The fundamental concept has been the Line Center Roughness (LCR), the edge c-factor and the line c-factor correlation function and length quantifying the line fluctuations and the extent of cross-edge and cross-line correlations. In this work, we focus on the role of etch steps on cross-edge and
Lee, Kyu Seong; Lee, Jaeyong; Kwak, Jongheon; Moon, Hong Chul; Kim, Jin Kon
2017-09-20
To apply well-defined block copolymer nanopatterns to next-generation lithography or high-density storage devices, small line edge roughness (LER) of nanopatterns should be realized. Although polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer (PS-b-PMMA) has been widely used to fabricate nanopatterns because of easy perpendicular orientation of the block copolymer nanodomains and effective removal of PMMA block by dry etching, the fabricated nanopatterns show poorer line edge roughness (LER) due to relatively small Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ) between PS and PMMA chains. Here, we synthesized PS-b-PMMA with urea (U) and N-(4-aminomethyl-benzyl)-4-hydroxymethyl-benzamide (BA) moieties at junction of PS and PMMA chains (PS-U-BA-PMMA) to improve the LER. The U-BA moieties serves as favorable interaction (hydrogen bonding) sites. The LER of PS line patterns obtained from PS-U-BA-PMMA was reduced ∼25% compared with that obtained from neat PS-b-PMMA without BA and U moieties. This is attributed to narrower interfacial width induced by hydrogen bonding between two blocks, which is confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering. This result implies that the introduction of hydrogen bonding into block copolymer interfaces offers an opportunity to fabricate well-defined nanopatterns with improved LER by block copolymer self-assembly, which could be a promising alternative to next-generation extreme ultraviolet lithography.
An atomic force microscopy-based method for line edge roughness measurement
Fouchier, M.; Pargon, E.; Bardet, B. [CNRS/UJF-Grenoble1/CEA LTM, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)
2013-03-14
With the constant decrease of semiconductor device dimensions, line edge roughness (LER) becomes one of the most important sources of device variability and needs to be controlled below 2 nm for the future technological nodes of the semiconductor roadmap. LER control at the nanometer scale requires accurate measurements. We introduce a technique for LER measurement based upon the atomic force microscope (AFM). In this technique, the sample is tilted at about 45 Degree-Sign and feature sidewalls are scanned along their length with the AFM tip to obtain three-dimensional images. The small radius of curvature of the tip together with the low noise level of a laboratory AFM result in high resolution images. Half profiles and LER values on all the height of the sidewalls are extracted from the 3D images using a procedure that we developed. The influence of sample angle variations on the measurements is shown to be small. The technique is applied to the study of a full pattern transfer into a simplified gate stack. The images obtained are qualitatively consistent with cross-section scanning electron microscopy images and the average LER values agree with that obtained by critical dimension scanning electron microscopy. In addition to its high resolution, this technique presents several advantages such as the ability to image the foot of photoresist lines, complex multi-layer stacks regardless of the materials, and deep re-entrant profiles.
Virtual sensors for on-line wheel wear and part roughness measurement in the grinding process.
Arriandiaga, Ander; Portillo, Eva; Sánchez, Jose A; Cabanes, Itziar; Pombo, Iñigo
2014-05-19
Grinding is an advanced machining process for the manufacturing of valuable complex and accurate parts for high added value sectors such as aerospace, wind generation, etc. Due to the extremely severe conditions inside grinding machines, critical process variables such as part surface finish or grinding wheel wear cannot be easily and cheaply measured on-line. In this paper a virtual sensor for on-line monitoring of those variables is presented. The sensor is based on the modelling ability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for stochastic and non-linear processes such as grinding; the selected architecture is the Layer-Recurrent neural network. The sensor makes use of the relation between the variables to be measured and power consumption in the wheel spindle, which can be easily measured. A sensor calibration methodology is presented, and the levels of error that can be expected are discussed. Validation of the new sensor is carried out by comparing the sensor's results with actual measurements carried out in an industrial grinding machine. Results show excellent estimation performance for both wheel wear and surface roughness. In the case of wheel wear, the absolute error is within the range of microns (average value 32 μm). In the case of surface finish, the absolute error is well below Ra 1 μm (average value 0.32 μm). The present approach can be easily generalized to other grinding operations.
Methane spectral line widths and shifts, and dependences on physical parameters
Fox, K.; Quillen, D. T.; Jennings, D. E.; Wagner, J.; Plymate, C.
1991-01-01
A detailed report of the recent high-resolution spectroscopic research on widths and shifts measured for a strong infrared-active fundamental of methane is presented. They were measured in collision with several rare gases and diatomic molecules, in the vibrational-rotational fundamental near 3000/cm. These measurements were made at an ambient temperature of 294 K over a range of pressures from 100 to 700 torr. The measurements are discussed in a preliminary but detailed and quantitative manner with reference to masses, polarizabilities, and quadrupole moments. Some functional dependences on these physical parameters are considered. The present data are useful for studies of corresponding planetary spectra.
On-line measurement of mechanical, optical properties and roughness parameters
Hartman, H.
2005-12-01
Full Text Available On-line measurements become a central importance for the control of production line output. The target is to replace traditional single local destructive quality checks by a continuous survey of the product properties. Other traditional like pyrometric temperature measurements suffer of well-known but non-soluble weakness points. New methods need the unambiguous correlation with the results of traditional testing to be representative for valid proof standards.EKO Stahl GmbH introduces several methods of on-line measurements focused actually on temperature measurement means of FTIR-Spectrometer, prediction of the mechanical properties of steel strips using the information of residual magnetization after a magnetization pulse and optical roughness measurements. The correlation between the results of the new methods and the classical proof processes has been established in a satisfactory manner.
Las medidas on line van tomando una importancia central para el control de la calidad de la producción . El objetivo es reemplazar las pruebas destructivas puntuales tradicionales por un control continuo de las características del producto. Otros métodos tradicionales, como la medida de la temperatura con pirómetros, adolecen de conocidos pero insolubles puntos débiles. Los nuevos métodos necesitan la correlación inequívoca con los resultados de los métodos corrientes clásicos para obtener la autoridad de un estándar de prueba. La EKO Stahl GmbH ha introducido varios métodos de medidas on line y actualmente concentrados en la medida de la temperatura con espectrómetro FTIR, predicción de las características mecánicas usando la información del magnetismo residual, a partir de un impulso magnético inicial así como la medida óptica de la rugosidad. La correlación entre los resultados de los nuevos métodos y los métodos clásicos ha quedado establecida de manera satisfactoria.
Correlation between the line width and the line flux of the double-peaked broad Hα of 3C390.3
Zhang, Xue-Guang
2013-03-01
In this paper, we carefully check the correlation between the line width (second moment) and the line flux of the double-peaked broad Hα of the well-known mapped active galactic nucleus (AGN) 3C390.3 in order to show some further distinctions between double-peaked emitters and normal broad-line AGN. Based on the virialization assumption MBH ∝ RBLR × V2(BLR) and the empirical relation RBLR ∝ L˜0.5, one strong negative correlation between the line width and the line flux of the double-peaked broad lines should be expected for 3C390.3, such as the negative correlation confirmed for the mapped broad-line object NGC 5548, RBLR × V2(BLR) ∝ L˜0.5 × σ2 = constant. Moreover, based on the public spectra around 1995 from the AGN WATCH project for 3C390.3, one reliable positive correlation is found between the line width and the line flux of the double-peaked broad Hα. In the context of the proposed theoretical accretion disc model for double-peaked emitters, the unexpected positive correlation can be naturally explained, due to different time delays for the inner and outer parts of the disc-like broad-line region (BLR) of 3C390.3. Moreover, the virialization assumption is checked and found to be still available for 3C390.3. However, the time-varying size of the BLR of 3C390.3 cannot be expected by the empirical relation RBLR ∝ L˜0.5. In other words, the mean size of the BLR of 3C390.3 can be estimated by the continuum luminosity (line luminosity), while the continuum emission strengthening leads to the size of BLR decreasing (not increasing) in different moments for 3C390.3. Then, we compared our results of 3C390.3 with the previous results reported in the literature for the other double-peaked emitters, and found that before to clearly correct the effects from disc physical parameters varying (such as the effects of disc precession) for long-term observed line spectra, it is not so meaningful to discuss the correlation of the line parameters of double
Determination of line edge roughness in low dose top-down scanning electron microscopy images
Verduin, T.; Kruit, P.; Hagen, C. W.
2014-04-01
We investigated off-line metrology for LER determination in low-dose SEM images to reduce the acquisition time and the risk of shrinkage. Our first attempts are based on filtering noisy (experimental) SEM images and use peak detection to measure the edge displacements and calculating the discrete PSD. However, the result of the filtering is that the power spectrum of the filter leaks into the PSD. So it is better to avoid a filter at all. We subsequently developed a method to detect edge displacements without the use of a filter. This method considers the signal profile of a SEM by integrating an experimental image of lines in the direction of the edges. The signal profile of an isolated edge is modeled as two merged Gaussians. This signal profile is then fitted against the raw (unfiltered) data of the edge pattern using an interior trust-region-reflective minimization procedure. This gives the edge displacements without the use of a filter and a filter-free version of the discrete PSD is obtained. The determination of edge displacements without the use of a filter, enables us to study how much noise is acceptable and still determine LER. To answer this question we generate random lines using the model of Palasantzas and the algorithm of Thorsos. This gives random generated edge displacements for typical values of experimental lines for the parameters of the model: 2 μm long lines (256 pixels), a correlation length ξ of 25 nm and a roughness exponent of 0.75. A noise-free top-down SEM-like image of lines is created by shifting the profile signal according to the random generated edge displacements. The image is further processed by adding Poisson-distributed noise. We consider three noise cases where the average electron density is about 2, 20 and 200 electrons per pixel. This corresponds to a charge density of (in respective order) 10 μC/cm2, 100 μC/cm2 and 1000 μC/cm2. The edge displacements of the random generated images are determined using our new
Line-edge roughness induced single event transient variation in SOI FinFETs
Wu Weikang; An Xia; Jiang Xiaobo; Chen Yehua; Liu Jingjing; Zhang Xing; Huang Ru
2015-01-01
The impact of process induced variation on the response of SOI FinFET to heavy ion irradiation is studied through 3-D TCAD simulation for the first time. When FinFET biased at OFF state configuration (V gs = 0, V ds = V dd ) is struck by a heavy ion, the drain collects ionizing charges under the electric field and a current pulse (single event transient, SET) is consequently formed. The results reveal that with the presence of line-edge roughness (LER), which is one of the major variation sources in nano-scale FinFETs, the device-to-device variation in terms of SET is observed. In this study, three types of LER are considered: type A has symmetric fin edges, type B has irrelevant fin edges and type C has parallel fin edges. The results show that type A devices have the largest SET variation while type C devices have the smallest variation. Further, the impact of the two main LER parameters, correlation length and root mean square amplitude, on SET variation is discussed as well. The results indicate that variation may be a concern in radiation effects with the down scaling of feature size. (paper)
Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina; Iliev, Pavel
2018-04-01
We report here on the contact angle hysteresis, appearing when a liquid meniscus is in contact with doubly sinusoidal wavelike patterned surfaces in Wenzel's wetting regime. Using the full capillary model we obtain numerically the contact angle hysteresis as a function of the surface roughness factor and the equilibrium contact angle for a block case and a kink case contact line depinning mechanism. We find that the dependencies of the contact angle hysteresis on the surface roughness factor are different for the different contact line depinning mechanisms. These dependencies are different also for the two types of rough surfaces we studied. The relations between advancing, receding, and equilibrium contact angles are investigated. A comparison with the existing asymptotical, numerical, and experimental results is carried out.
Spectroscopic Studies of Solar Corona VI: Trend in Line-width ...
cm coronagraph at the Norikura Solar Observatory on several days during the years 1997–2004. The Coude type .... Top-most panel shows the variation of FWHM of the 6374 Е and 5303 Е emission lines with height above the limb when all ...
Bhatnagar, Parijat; Panda, Siddhartha; Edleman, Nikki L.; Allen, Scott D.; Wise, Richard; Mahorowala, Arpan
2007-01-01
We have developed a reactive ion etch (RIE) process in borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) for 150 nm line-and-space features, where line-edge roughness (LER) complemented with RIE lag becomes a major issue. Effect of flow rates and carbon-to-fluorine atomic ratio of fluorohydrocarbon gases was utilized to achieve acceptable process window allowing lower radio frequency powers therefore obtaining acceptable LER and RIE lag in the high-resolution features etched into BPSG
A method to characterize the roughness of 2-D line features: recrystallization boundaries
Sun, Jun; Zhang, Yubin; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm
2017-01-01
A method is presented, which allows quantification of the roughness of nonplanar boundaries of objects for which the neutral plane is not known. The method provides quantitative descriptions of both the local and global characteristics. How the method can be used to estimate the sizes of rough fe...
1H line width dependence on MAS speed in solid state NMR - Comparison of experiment and simulation
Sternberg, Ulrich; Witter, Raiker; Kuprov, Ilya; Lamley, Jonathan M.; Oss, Andres; Lewandowski, Józef R.; Samoson, Ago
2018-06-01
Recent developments in magic angle spinning (MAS) technology permit spinning frequencies of ≥100 kHz. We examine the effect of such fast MAS rates upon nuclear magnetic resonance proton line widths in the multi-spin system of β-Asp-Ala crystal. We perform powder pattern simulations employing Fokker-Plank approach with periodic boundary conditions and 1H-chemical shift tensors calculated using the bond polarization theory. The theoretical predictions mirror well the experimental results. Both approaches demonstrate that homogeneous broadening has a linear-quadratic dependency on the inverse of the MAS spinning frequency and that, at the faster end of the spinning frequencies, the residual spectral line broadening becomes dominated by chemical shift distributions and susceptibility effects even for crystalline systems.
The effect of line-broadening on the overall width of transition arrays in dense plasmas
Hoarty, D.J.; Bentley, C.D.; Crowley, B.J.B.; Davidson, S.J.; Gales, S.G.; Graham, P.; Harris, J.W.O.; Iglesias, C.A.; James, S.F.; Smith, C.C.
2006-01-01
Experiments have been performed, using the HELEN laser, to measure absorption spectra in the temperature range 20-60 eV and density range 0.5-3 g/cm 3 . K-shell spectra of aluminium were studied to investigate the effect of the plasma environment on the absorption spectrum. The experiments show the effect, at high-density, of array broadening and the merging of high series lines. Comparisons of the experimental absorption data to different opacity models are discussed. The experimental data are compared to calculations of the CASSANDRA opacity model, with and without the inclusion of electron impact broadening. The CASSANDRA code is in better agreement with experiment with electron impact broadening included. The data were also compared to the OPAL detailed term accounting model with reasonable agreement
Four-deep charge-time and pulse-width scaling discriminator for delay line MWPC's
Lee, K.L.; Kirsten, F.A.; Grigorian, A.; Guiragossian, Z.G.T.
1976-01-01
A discriminator has been developed for digitizing both intercepted total charge and location of electromagnetic shower and particle trajectories in multi-wire proportional chambers read by delay lines. Determination of shower trajectory is aided by video signal integration followed by centroid-locating discrimination. Calibrated run-down of the signal integrating capacitor gives the charge information above a given threshold level. The discriminator is designed to handle up to four shower-induced video signals per event by incorporating steering circuits within the module. Each video signal is examined for time over an adjustable threshold. Video pulses with separation of less than 20 nsec are treated as a single pulse. Counter-logic circuits indicate the number of video signals digitized. These signal processing circuits provide a first level of data sifting which otherwise must be carried out with additional discriminator channels and added complexity in data recognition
A simple method for controlling the line width of SASE X-ray FELs
Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni
2010-04-01
This paper describes a novel single-bunch self-seeding scheme for generating highly monochromatic X-rays from a baseline XFEL undulator. A self-seeded XFEL consists of two undulators with an X-ray monochromator located between them. Previous self-seeding schemes made use of a four-crystal fixed-exit monochromator in Bragg geometry. In such monochromator the X-ray pulse acquires a cm-long path delay, which must be compensated. For a single-bunch self-seeding scheme this requires a long electron beam bypass, implying modifications of the baseline undulator configuration. To avoid this problem, a double bunch self-seeding scheme based on a special photoinjector setup was recently proposed. At variance, here we propose a new time-domain method of monochromatization exploiting a single crystal in the transmission direction, thus avoiding the problem of extra-path delay for the X-ray pulse. The method can be realized using a temporal windowing technique, requiring a magnetic delay for the electron bunch only. When the incident X-ray beam satisfies the Bragg diffraction condition, multiple scattering takes place and the transmittance spectrum in the crystal exhibits an absorption resonance with a narrow linewidth. Then, the temporal waveform of the transmitted radiation pulse is characterized by a long monochromatic wake. The radiation power within this wake is much larger than the shot noise power. At the entrance of the second undulator, the monochromatic wake of the radiation pulse is combined with the delayed electron bunch, and amplified up to saturation level. The proposed setup is extremely simple and composed of as few as two simple elements. These are the crystal and the short magnetic chicane, which accomplishes three tasks by itself. It creates an offset for crystal installation, it removes the electron micro-bunching produced in the first undulator, and it acts as a delay line for temporal windowing. Using a single crystal installed within a short magnetic
Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers
Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, IV, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marksteiner, Quinn R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-09-09
We describe a new FEL line-narrowing technique called distributed seeding (DS), using Si(111) Bragg crystal monochromators to enhance the spectral brightness of the MaRIE hard X-ray freeelectron laser. DS differs from self-seeding in three important aspects. First, DS relies on spectral filtering of the radiation at multiple locations along the undulator, with a monochromator located every few power gain lengths. Second, DS performs filtering early in the exponential gain region before SASE spikes start to appear in the radiation longitudinal profile. Third, DS provides the option to select a wavelength longer than the peak of the SASE gain curve, which leads to improved spectral contrast of the seeded FEL over the SASE background. Timedependent Genesis simulations show the power-vs-z growth curves for DS exhibit behaviors of a seeded FEL amplifier, such as exponential growth region immediately after the filters. Of the seeding approaches considered, the two-stage DS spectra produce the highest contrast of seeded FEL over the SASE background and that the three-stage DS provides the narrowest linewidth with a relative spectral FWHM of 8 X 10^{-5} .
Solar off-limb line widths with SUMER: revised value of the non-thermal velocity and new results
L. Dolla
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Alfvén waves and ion-cyclotron absorption of high-frequency waves are frequently brought into models devoted to coronal heating and fast solar-wind acceleration. Signatures of ion-cyclotron resonance have already been observed in situ in the solar wind and in the upper corona. In the lower corona, one can use the line profiles to infer the ion temperatures. But the value of the so-called "non-thermal" (or "unresolved" velocity, potentially related to the amplitude of Alfvén waves propagating in the corona, is critical in firmly identifying ion-cyclotron preferential heating. In a previous paper, we proposed a method to constrain both the Alfvén wave amplitude and the preferential heating, above a polar coronal hole observed with the SUMER/SOHO spectrometer. Taking into account the effect of instrumental stray light before analysing the line profiles, we ruled out any direct evidence of damping of the Alfvén waves and showed that ions with the lowest charge-to-mass ratios were preferentially heated. We re-analyse these data here to correct the derived non-thermal velocity, and we discuss the consequences on the main results. We also include a measure of the Fe VIII 1442.56 Å line width (second order, thus extending the charge-to-mass ratio domain towards ions more likely to experience cyclotron resonance.
Siefke, Thomas; Rojas Hurtado, Carol B.; Dickmann, Johannes; Heusinger, Martin; Kroker, Stefanie
2017-06-01
Controlling the polarization of light is crucial in numerous applications such as spectroscopy, ellipsometry, photo lithography or industrial vision. Polarization control can be realized by wire grid polarizers (WGPs), which are large aspect ratio, zero order gratings. These elements provide an anisotropic transmittance depending on the polarization direction of the incident light. WGPs' high attractiveness originates from their large free aperture, while simultaneously being extremely thin. Furthermore, these elements can be easily integrated into other nano-optical devices. Recently, such elements were successfully developed for applications down to the deep ultra violet spectral range. However, at shorter wavelengths the influence of roughness of the structures poses a severe limitation on the feasible optical performance. To tackle this problem, we numerically simulated the impact of line edge roughness on the polarization properties of WPGs. Therefore, we generated edge position data of rough grating lines by means of the Thorsos method and calculated the resulting optical response by finite difference time domain method. With this procedure the influence of standard deviation, correlation length, Hurst exponents and wavelength was investigated. We find that for standard deviations of 2.5 nm and 5.0 nm the polarization contrast is reduced by a factor of 3 and 7, respectively. The polarization contrast shows a minimum for intermediate correlation lengths, while virtually no impact of the Hurst exponent is observed. This is explained by several mechanisms occurring for different ratios between the spatial frequency of the roughness and the frequency of incident light. Our theoretical findings correlate well with experimental results we retrieved with measured roughness parameters of fabricated elements.
Djeniže S.
2000-01-01
Full Text Available In order to find reliable Stark width data, needed in plasma spectroscopy comparision between the existing measured, calculated and predicted Stark width values was performed for ten singly ionized emitters: C, N, O, F, Ne Si, P, S, Cl and Ar in the lower lying 3s - 3p, 3p - 3d and 4s - 4p transitions. These emitters are present in many cosmic light sources. On the basis of the agreement between mentioned values 17 spectral lines from six singly ionized spectra have been recommended, for the first time, for plasma spectroscopy as spectral lines with reliable Stark width data. Critical analysis of the existing Stark width data is also given.
Lee, Won-Sup; Kim, Taeseob; Choi, Guk-Jong; Lim, Geon; Joe, Hang-Eun; Gang, Myeong-Gu; Min, Byung-Kwon; Park, No-Cheol; Moon, Hyungbae; Kim, Do-Hyung; Park, Young-Pil
2015-01-01
Plasmonic lithography has been used in nanofabrication because of its utility beyond the diffraction limit. The resolution of plasmonic lithography depends on the nano-gap between the nanoaperture and the photoresist surface—changing the gap distance can modulate the line-width of the pattern. In this letter, we demonstrate solid-immersion lens based active non-contact plasmonic lithography, applying a range of gap conditions to modulate the line-width of the pattern. Using a solid-immersion lens-based near-field control system, the nano-gap between the exit surface of the nanoaperture and the media can be actively modulated and maintained to within a few nanometers. The line-widths of the recorded patterns using 15- and 5-nm gaps were 47 and 19.5 nm, respectively, which matched closely the calculated full-width at half-maximum. From these results, we conclude that changing the nano-gap within a solid-immersion lens-based plasmonic head results in varying line-width patterns
Zhang, Baixiong; Tan, Junjun; Li, Chuanzhao; Zhang, Jiahui; Ye, Shuji
2018-06-13
The balance of lipid-peptide and peptide-peptide interactions at cell membrane is essential to a large variety of cellular processes. In this study, we have experimentally demonstrated for the first time that sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy can be used to probe the peptide-peptide and lipid-peptide interactions in cell membrane in situ and in real time by determination of the line width of amide I band of protein backbone. Using a "benchmark" model of α-helical WALP23, it is found that the dominated lipid-peptide interaction causes a narrow line width of the amide I band, whereas the peptide-peptide interaction can markedly broaden the line width. When WALP23 molecules insert into the lipid bilayer, a quite narrow line width of the amide I band is observed because of the lipid-peptide interaction. In contrast, when the peptide lies down on the bilayer surface, the line width of amide I band becomes very broad owing to the peptide-peptide interaction. In terms of the real-time change in the line width, the transition from peptide-peptide interaction to lipid-peptide interaction is monitored during the insertion of WALP23 into 1,2-dipalmitoyl- sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'- rac-glycerol) (DPPG) lipid bilayer. The dephasing time of a pure α-helical WALP23 in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl- sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'- rac-glycerol) and DPPG bilayer is determined to be 2.2 and 0.64 ps, respectively. The peptide-peptide interaction can largely accelerate the dephasing time.
Sobolev, O.; Vorderwisch, P.; Desmedt, A.
2005-01-01
Quantum rotations of NH 3 groups in Hofmann clathrates Ni-Ni-C 6 H 6 and Ni-Ni-C 12 H 10 have been studied using inelastic neutron scattering. Calculations of the dynamical structure factor for a free uniaxial quantum rotor reproduce the neutron scattering data with respect to their Q- and T-dependence as well as the relative intensities for the 0 → 1, 0 → 2 and 1 → 2 transitions. Though the effective NH 3 rotation constant is different from the gas phase value, the effective radius of rotation (i.e., the average distance of protons from the rotation axis) is equal or very close to the geometrical value r = 0.94 A for a NH 3 group. Comparing the experimental data with the calculated dynamical structure factor for the 0 → 3 transition it could be shown, that the corresponding transition line, in contrast to transitions between j = 0,1,2 levels measured so far, has a finite width at T = 0 K
Wisnioski, E.; Mendel, J. T.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Wilman, D.; Wuyts, S.; Belli, S.; Beifiori, A.; Bender, R.; Brammer, G.; Chan, J.; Davies, R. I.; Davies, R. L.; Fabricius, M.; Fossati, M.; Galametz, A.; Lang, P.; Lutz, D.; Nelson, E. J.; Momcheva, I.; Rosario, D.; Saglia, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki, K.; Übler, H.; van Dokkum, P. G.
2018-03-01
Using integral field spectroscopy, we investigate the kinematic properties of 35 massive centrally dense and compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs; {log}{\\overline{M}}* [{M}ȯ ]=11.1, {log}({{{Σ }}}1{kpc}[{M}ȯ {kpc}}-2])> 9.5, {log}({M}* /{r}e1.5[{M}ȯ {kpc}}-1.5])> 10.3) at z ∼ 0.7–3.7 within the KMOS3D survey. We spatially resolve 23 compact SFGs and find that the majority are dominated by rotational motions with velocities ranging from 95 to 500 km s‑1. The range of rotation velocities is reflected in a similar range of integrated Hα line widths, 75–400 km s‑1, consistent with the kinematic properties of mass-matched extended galaxies from the full KMOS3D sample. The fraction of compact SFGs that are classified as “rotation-dominated” or “disklike” also mirrors the fractions of the full KMOS3D sample. We show that integrated line-of-sight gas velocity dispersions from KMOS3D are best approximated by a linear combination of their rotation and turbulent velocities with a lesser but still significant contribution from galactic-scale winds. The Hα exponential disk sizes of compact SFGs are, on average, 2.5 ± 0.2 kpc, 1–2× the continuum sizes, in agreement with previous work. The compact SFGs have a 1.4× higher active galactic nucleus (AGN) incidence than the full KMOS3D sample at fixed stellar mass with an average AGN fraction of 76%. Given their high and centrally concentrated stellar masses, as well as stellar-to-dynamical mass ratios close to unity, the compact SFGs are likely to have low molecular gas fractions and to quench on a short timescale unless replenished with inflowing gas. The rotation in these compact systems suggests that their direct descendants are rotating passive galaxies. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDs 092A-0091, 093.A-0079, 094.A-0217, 095.A-0047, 096.A-0025, 097.A-0028, and 098.A-0045).
Experimental methodology of contact edge roughness on sub-100-nm pattern
Lee, Tae Yong; Ihm, Dongchul; Kang, Hyo Chun; Lee, Jun Bum; Lee, Byoung-Ho; Chin, Soo-Bok; Cho, Do-Hyun; Kim, Yang Hyong; Yang, Ho Dong; Yang, Kyoung Mo
2004-05-01
The measurement of edge roughness has become a hot issue in the semiconductor industry. Major vendors offer a variety of features to measure the edge roughness in their CD-SEMs. However, most of the features are limited by the applicable pattern types. For the line and space patterns, features such as Line Edge Roughness (LER) and Line Width Roughness (LWR) are available in current CD-SEMs. The edge roughness is more critical in contact process. However the measurement of contact edge roughness (CER) or contact space roughness (CSR) is more complicated than that of LER or LWR. So far, no formal standard measurement algorithm or definition of contact roughness measurement exists. In this article, currently available features are investigated to assess their representability for CER or CSR. Some new ideas to quantify CER and CSR were also suggested with preliminary experimental results.
Pulikanti Guruprasad Reddy
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Helium (He ion lithography is being considered as one of the most promising and emerging technology for the manufacturing of next generation integrated circuits (ICs at nanolevel. However, He-ion active resists are rarely reported. In this context, we are introducing a new non-chemically amplified hybrid resist (n-CAR, MAPDSA-MAPDST, for high resolution He-ion beam lithography (HBL applications. In the resist architecture, 2.15 % antimony is incorporated as heavy metal in the form of antimonate. This newly developed resists has successfully used for patterning 20 nm negative tone features at a dose of 60 μC/cm2. The resist offered very low line edge roughness (1.27±0.31 nm for 20 nm line features. To our knowledge, this is the first He-ion active hybrid resist for nanopatterning. The contrast (γ and sensitivity (E0 of this resist were calculated from the contrast curve as 0.73 and 7.2 μC/cm2, respectively.
Reddy, Pulikanti Guruprasad; Thakur, Neha; Lee, Chien-Lin; Chien, Sheng-Wei; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P.; Ghosh, Subrata; Tsai, Kuen-Yu; Gonsalves, Kenneth E.
2017-08-01
Helium (He) ion lithography is being considered as one of the most promising and emerging technology for the manufacturing of next generation integrated circuits (ICs) at nanolevel. However, He-ion active resists are rarely reported. In this context, we are introducing a new non-chemically amplified hybrid resist (n-CAR), MAPDSA-MAPDST, for high resolution He-ion beam lithography (HBL) applications. In the resist architecture, 2.15 % antimony is incorporated as heavy metal in the form of antimonate. This newly developed resists has successfully used for patterning 20 nm negative tone features at a dose of 60 μC/cm2. The resist offered very low line edge roughness (1.27±0.31 nm) for 20 nm line features. To our knowledge, this is the first He-ion active hybrid resist for nanopatterning. The contrast (γ) and sensitivity (E0) of this resist were calculated from the contrast curve as 0.73 and 7.2 μC/cm2, respectively.
Yubero, C. [Grupo de Física de Plasmas: Diagnosis, Modelos y Aplicaciones (FQM-136), Edificio A. Einstein (C-2), Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); García, M.C., E-mail: fa1gamam@uco.es [Grupo de Física de Plasmas: Diagnosis, Modelos y Aplicaciones (FQM-136), Edificio A. Einstein (C-2), Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Dimitrijevic, M.S. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Sola, A.; Gamero, A. [Grupo de Física de Plasmas: Diagnosis, Modelos y Aplicaciones (FQM-136), Edificio A. Einstein (C-2), Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba (Spain)
2015-05-01
We present an alternative optical emission spectroscopy method to measure the plasma electron density from the difference of widths of two Balmer series hydrogen lines (H{sub α} and H{sub β}), especially convenient for non-thermal plasmas since with this method, there is no need to know either the gas temperature or the van der Waals contribution to the Lorentzian part of the line. In this paper it has been assumed that the part of full width at half maximum due to Stark broadening can be determined with the approximation of Lorentzian line shape. The method has been applied to the determination of the electron density in an argon microwave-induced plasma maintained at atmospheric pressure, and comparison with the results obtained using other diagnostic methods has been done. - Highlights: • An alternative method to measure the electron density in plasmas from two Balmer series hydrogen lines (H{sub α} and H{sub β}) is presented. • The method is very convenient for plasmas with electron densities of the order of 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3} and above, at low gas temperatures. • It has been applied to the determination of the electron density of an argon microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure. • Results from it are in good agreement with previous ones obtained using other diagnostic methods.
Hermes, J. J.; Fanale, S. M.; Dennihy, E.; Fuchs, J. T.; Dunlap, B. H.; Clemens, J. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Gänsicke, B. T.; Greiss, S.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Fusillo, N. P. Gentile; Raddi, R.; Chote, P.; Marsh, T. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kawaler, Steven D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Bell, Keaton J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Redfield, S., E-mail: jjhermes@unc.edu [Wesleyan University Astronomy Department, Van Vleck Observatory, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)
2017-10-01
We present photometry and spectroscopy for 27 pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (DAVs; a.k.a. ZZ Ceti stars) observed by the Kepler space telescope up to K2 Campaign 8, an extensive compilation of observations with unprecedented duration (>75 days) and duty cycle (>90%). The space-based photometry reveals pulsation properties previously inaccessible to ground-based observations. We observe a sharp dichotomy in oscillation mode line widths at roughly 800 s, such that white dwarf pulsations with periods exceeding 800 s have substantially broader mode line widths, more reminiscent of a damped harmonic oscillator than a heat-driven pulsator. Extended Kepler coverage also permits extensive mode identification: we identify the spherical degree of 87 out of 201 unique radial orders, providing direct constraints of the rotation period for 20 of these 27 DAVs, more than doubling the number of white dwarfs with rotation periods determined via asteroseismology. We also obtain spectroscopy from 4 m-class telescopes for all DAVs with Kepler photometry. Using these homogeneously analyzed spectra, we estimate the overall mass of all 27 DAVs, which allows us to measure white dwarf rotation as a function of mass, constraining the endpoints of angular momentum in low- and intermediate-mass stars. We find that 0.51–0.73 M {sub ⊙} white dwarfs, which evolved from 1.7–3.0 M {sub ⊙} ZAMS progenitors, have a mean rotation period of 35 hr with a standard deviation of 28 hr, with notable exceptions for higher-mass white dwarfs. Finally, we announce an online repository for our Kepler data and follow-up spectroscopy, which we collect at http://k2wd.org.
Akhenbakh, Eh.
1976-01-01
The investigation is presented into heat transfer in the boundary layer and in the tear-away region of a rough round cylinder. The data obtained must aid in improving nuclear reactor heat exchangers. The experiments were carried out in the Re range between 2 x 10 4 and 4 x 10 6 . The roughness parameter k 5 /d (where ksub(S) is the equivalent roughness, and d is the cylinder diameter) varied in the range 0 -5 . The degree of turbulence of the incident flow Tu = 0.45%. Heat transfer values are given in relation to Re and the roughness parameter in subcritical, critical, supercritical, and transcritical flows
Catsalap, K.Yu.; Ershov-Pavlov, E.A.
2005-01-01
Emission spectral line profiles are commonly used for the evaluation of local plasma parameters. The plasma parameters and local line profiles are related in a rather simple way: e.g. at quadratic Stark broadening, the local line half widths and shifts are proportional to the electron density. For homogeneous optically thin plasmas, there is no difference in the line profiles of plasma emission and emissivity spectra. However for inhomogeneous source, the profiles are different due to spatial dependence of electron density and plasma temperature: profiles in the plasma emission are a superposition of different local ones. A transition from the recorded to local profiles is usually performed by tomography techniques. As the result, the measurement procedure is getting slower and additional errors occurs. For transparent plasmas, an approach was developed to evaluate local profiles from as recorded spectra using relations found by modeling. However, for semi-transparent plasmas the relation between the recorded and local profiles is more complicated one. With the optical thickness t increase, profile half width Δλ in the plasma emission spectrum changes much comparing to the profile half width Δλ 0 in the spectrum of optically thin plasma. The ratio t h =Δλ/Δλ 0 on τ for dispersion profile and homogeneous plasma can be written as t h =(-1-τ/ln((1+e -τ )/2)) 1/2 . When Δλ and τ are known, the function allows obtaining Δλ 0 , i. e. reducing the problem to the transparent plasma diagnostics. However, the plasma is nearly always inhomogeneous and the value t depends significantly on plasma inhomogeneity and on Stark parameters ratio d/w. Here, the dependence t(τ) for plasmas of different inhomogeneity rates has been obtained by the numerical simulation. The radiation transfer equation has been solved to calculate the spectral line profiles for LTE-plasma of known composition and distribution of temperature along the observation line. The temperature
Theoretical Stark widths and shifts of spectral lines of 2p5nf and 2p55g configurations of Mg III
Moreno-Díaz, Cristina; Alonso-Medina, Aurelia; Colón, Cristóbal
2014-01-01
In this paper, we report theoretical Stark widths and shifts calculated using the Griem semi-empirical approach, which corresponds to 111 spectral lines of Mg III. The values of these Stark broadening parameters of spectral lines that arise from levels of 2p 5 nf and 2p 5 5g configurations of Mg III are presented in the literature for the first time. The aim of this work is to provide values to estimate the electron density of plasma Mg III in astrophysics and industrial applications. The data are presented for the temperatures T = 0.5–10.0 (10 4 K) and for an electron density of 10 17 cm −3 . The matrix of elements used in these calculations has been determined from 23 configurations of Mg III: 2s 2 2p 6 , 2s 2 2p 5 3p, 2s 2 2p 5 4p, 2s 2 2p 5 4f and 2s 2 2p 5 5f for the even parity and 2s 2 2p 5 ns (n = 3–6), 2s 2 2p 5 nd (n = 3–9), 2s 2 2p 5 5g and 2s2p 6 np (n = 3–8) for the odd parity. For the intermediate coupling calculations, we use the standard method of least square fitting from experimental energy levels by means of Cowan’s computer code. Lines with wavelengths of 134.6460, 135.2800, 189.0380, 190.0043, 192.8424, 408.2939 and 409.4375 nm have high probabilities and also have high values of broadening. Therefore, these lines can be used in some applications. A common regularity for the Stark width of the 189.038 nm spectral line of Mg III is discussed. (paper)
Impact of line edge roughness on the performance of 14-nm FinFET: Device-circuit Co-design
Rathore, Rituraj Singh; Rana, Ashwani K.
2018-01-01
With the evolution of sub-20 nm FinFET technology, line edge roughness (LER) has been identified as a critical problem and may result in critical device parameter variation and performance limitation in the future VLSI circuit application. In the present work, an analytical model of fin-LER has been presented, which shows the impact of correlated and uncorrelated LER on FinFET structure. Further, the influence of correlated and uncorrelated fin- LER on all electrical performance parameters is thoroughly investigated using the three-dimensional (3-D) Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulations for 14-nm technology node. Moreover, the impact of all possible fin shapes on threshold voltage (VTH), drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL), on-current (ION), and off-current (IOFF) has been compared with the well calibrated rectangular FinFET structure. In addition, the influence of all possible fin geometries on the read stability of six-transistor (6-T) Static-Random-Access-Memory (SRAM) has been investigated. The study reveals that fin-LER plays a vital role as it directly governs the electrostatics of the FinFET structure. This has been found that there is a high degree of fluctuations in all performance parameters for uncorrelated fin-LER type FinFETs as compared to correlated fin-LER with respect to rectangular FinFET structure. This paper gives physical insight of FinFET design, especially in sub-20 nm technology nodes by concluding that the impact of LER on electrical parameters are minimum for correlated LER.
Komberg, B.V.; Shefer, E.Yu.
1983-01-01
The data summarized by Steiner (1981) were used to derive the relationship between the intensity of nonthermal X-ray and radio emission and fullwidths of Balmer emission lines. It is shown that the existence of such dependences does not contradict the assumption on partition equidistribution of nonthermal radiation and motion of gas clouds energy in the region of formation of wide lines. Emphasis is given to similar dependence drived by Vayana (1981) for X-ray radiation from hot coronas of fast-rotating single stars, and a suggestion is made about radiation anisotropy from active nuclei (similar to that observed in the SS 433 system). The latter may imply the double nature of active nuclei
2017-07-01
Practitioners have often wondered whether, during ride measurement with inertial devices, the motion of the laser through pavement texture introduces non representative values of international roughness index (IRI), particularly in certain textures. ...
Hassan, M.H.A.; Eltayeb, I.A.
1992-07-01
The previous study (Eltayeb and Hassan, 1992) of the two-dimensional diffusion equation of dust over a rough ground surface, which acts as a dust source of variable strength, under the influence of horizontal wind and gravitational attraction is here extended to all finite values of the roughness height Z 0 . An analytic expression is obtained for the concentration of dust for a general strength of the source. The result reduces to the previously known solutions as special cases. The expression for the concentration has been evaluated for some representative example of the source strength g(X). It is found that the concentration decreases with roughness height at any fixed point above ground level. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs
Measurement of high-energy (10–60 keV) x-ray spectral line widths with eV accuracy
Seely, J. F., E-mail: seelyjf@gmail.com; Feldman, U. [Artep Inc., 2922 Excelsior Springs Court, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Glover, J. L.; Hudson, L. T.; Ralchenko, Y.; Henins, Albert [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Pereira, N. [Ecopulse Inc., P. O. Box 528, Springfield, Virginia 22152 (United States); Di Stefano, C. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chen, Hui; Williams, G. J.; Park, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)
2014-11-15
A high resolution crystal spectrometer utilizing a crystal in transmission geometry has been developed and experimentally optimized to measure the widths of emission lines in the 10–60 keV energy range with eV accuracy. The spectrometer achieves high spectral resolution by utilizing crystal planes with small lattice spacings (down to 2d = 0.099 nm), a large crystal bending radius and Rowland circle diameter (965 mm), and an image plate detector with high spatial resolution (60 μm in the case of the Fuji TR image plate). High resolution W L-shell and K-shell laboratory test spectra in the 10–60 keV range and Ho K-shell spectra near 47 keV recorded at the LLNL Titan laser facility are presented. The Ho K-shell spectra are the highest resolution hard x-ray spectra recorded from a solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser.
Jia, Xiu-jie; Liu, Yan-ge; Si, Li-bin; Guo, Zhan-cheng; Fu, Sheng-gui; Kai, Gui-yun; Dong, Xiao-yi
2008-01-01
A novel multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser operating in C-band is proposed and successfully demonstrated. The wavelength interval between the wavelengths is about 0.22 nm. The 3 dB bandwidth of the laser is about 0.012 nm, and the output power reaches 4.8 mW. By using a high birefringence fiber ring mirror (HiBi-FLM) and a tunable FBG, the laser realizes switchable and tunable characteristic. The mode hopping can be effectively prevented. Moreover, this laser can improve wavelength stability significantly by taking advantage of an un-pumped Er3+-doped fiber at the standing-wave section. The laser can operate in stable narrow-line-width with single-, dual-wavelength, and unstable triple-wavelength output at room temperature.
Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Raspopova, N. I.; Kashirina, N. V.; Fomchenko, A. L.; Sydow, C.; Bauerecker, S.
2017-12-01
The infrared spectra of SiH4 in natural abundance (92.23% of 28SiH4, 4.68% of 29SiH4, and 3.09% of 30SiH4) were measured in the region of 600-1200 cm-1 with a Bruker IFS 120HR Fourier transform spectrometer, analyzed and compared with the results available in the literature. More than 3500 transitions with Jmax. = 27 were assigned to the dyad bands ν4 and ν2 of 28SiH4 (the band ν2 is allowed in Raman, but forbidden in absorption spectra for symmetry reasons, and its transitions appear in absorption spectra only because of strong Coriolis interaction with the ν4 band). Rotational, centrifugal distortion, tetrahedral splitting, and interaction parameters for the ground, (0100) and (0001) vibrational states were determined from the fit of experimental line positions. The obtained set of parameters reproduces the initial experimental data with accuracy close to experimental uncertainties. The results of the analogous analyses of the 29SiH4 and 30SiH4 isotopologues are also presented (the numbers of the assigned transitions are here more than 1360 and 1120). An further analysis of about 790 experimental ro-vibrational lines in the dyad region of 28SiH4 was performed using the Voigt profile to simulate the measured line shape and to determine experimental line intensities. A set of 4 effective dipole moment parameters for the dyad of 28SiH4 was obtained on that basis from the weighted fit, which reproduce the initial experimental intensities of about 790 lines with the drms = 5.6 % . Analogous analyses were made for the two other isotopic species, 29SiH4, and 30SiH4. A detailed line list of transitions in the region of 750-1150 cm-1 is generated. The half-widths of 40 ro-vibrational lines (Jup.max. = 16) are studied from the multi-spectrum analysis, and self-pressure broadening coefficients are determined.
Kreye, W.C.
2007-01-01
New quantum-mechanical (QM) and semi-classical (SC) shifts (d's) and widths (HWHM's, w's) were measured from the line core of computed full spectral-line shapes for the Ar-perturbed/K-radiator system (K/Ar). The initial state of our model was based on a 4p 2 P 3/2,1/2 pseudo-potential for the K/Ar system, and the final state on a zero potential. The Fourier transform of the line shape formed the basis for the computations. Excellent agreement was found between the QM and SC values of d and of w in a high-pressure (P) non-impact region, which was characterized by a √P dependence of w and a P dependence of d. These agreements were shown to be another example of a correspondence between classical (SC) quantities and QM quantities in the limit of large quantum numbers. Typically at P=1x10 6 Torr and T=400 K, w QM =448 cm -1 and w SC =479 cm -1 , where the deviation from the mean is ±3.3%. Also, d QM =-3815 cm -1 and d SC =-3716 cm -1 , where the deviation from the mean is ±1.3%. A new general method was formulated which yielded a definite pressure P 0 , which was defined as an upper limit to the low-pressure impact approximation and a lower limit to the non-impact region
Unbiased roughness measurements: the key to better etch performance
Liang, Andrew; Mack, Chris; Sirard, Stephen; Liang, Chen-wei; Yang, Liu; Jiang, Justin; Shamma, Nader; Wise, Rich; Yu, Jengyi; Hymes, Diane
2018-03-01
Edge placement error (EPE) has become an increasingly critical metric to enable Moore's Law scaling. Stochastic variations, as characterized for lines by line width roughness (LWR) and line edge roughness (LER), are dominant factors in EPE and known to increase with the introduction of EUV lithography. However, despite recommendations from ITRS, NIST, and SEMI standards, the industry has not agreed upon a methodology to quantify these properties. Thus, differing methodologies applied to the same image often result in different roughness measurements and conclusions. To standardize LWR and LER measurements, Fractilia has developed an unbiased measurement that uses a raw unfiltered line scan to subtract out image noise and distortions. By using Fractilia's inverse linescan model (FILM) to guide development, we will highlight the key influences of roughness metrology on plasma-based resist smoothing processes. Test wafers were deposited to represent a 5 nm node EUV logic stack. The patterning stack consists of a core Si target layer with spin-on carbon (SOC) as the hardmask and spin-on glass (SOG) as the cap. Next, these wafers were exposed through an ASML NXE 3350B EUV scanner with an advanced chemically amplified resist (CAR). Afterwards, these wafers were etched through a variety of plasma-based resist smoothing techniques using a Lam Kiyo conductor etch system. Dense line and space patterns on the etched samples were imaged through advanced Hitachi CDSEMs and the LER and LWR were measured through both Fractilia and an industry standard roughness measurement software. By employing Fractilia to guide plasma-based etch development, we demonstrate that Fractilia produces accurate roughness measurements on resist in contrast to an industry standard measurement software. These results highlight the importance of subtracting out SEM image noise to obtain quicker developmental cycle times and lower target layer roughness.
Experimental study of contact edge roughness on sub-100 nm various circular shapes
Lee, Tae Y.; Ihm, Dongchul; Kang, Hyo C.; Lee, Jum B.; Lee, Byoung H.; Chin, Soo B.; Cho, Do H.; Song, Chang L.
2005-05-01
The measurement of edge roughness has become a hot issue in the semiconductor industry. Especially the contact roughness is being more critical as design rule shrinks. Major vendors offer a variety of features to measure the edge roughness in their CD-SEMs. For the line and space patterns, features such as Line Edge Roughness (LER) and Line Width Roughness (LWR) are available in current CD-SEMs. However the features currently available in commercial CD-SEM cannot provide a proper solution in monitoring the contact roughness. We had introduced a new parameter R, measurement algorithm and definition of contact edge roughness to quantify CER and CSR in previous paper. The parameter, R could provide an alternative solution to monitor contact or island pattern roughness. In this paper, we investigated to assess optimum number of CD measurement (1-D) and fitting method for CER or CSR. The study was based on a circular contact shape. Some new ideas to quantify CER or CSR were also suggested with preliminary experimental results.
Rough Finite State Automata and Rough Languages
Arulprakasam, R.; Perumal, R.; Radhakrishnan, M.; Dare, V. R.
2018-04-01
Sumita Basu [1, 2] recently introduced the concept of a rough finite state (semi)automaton, rough grammar and rough languages. Motivated by the work of [1, 2], in this paper, we investigate some closure properties of rough regular languages and establish the equivalence between the classes of rough languages generated by rough grammar and the classes of rough regular languages accepted by rough finite automaton.
Lee, Jonghwan; Jeong, Chaehwan
2016-05-01
The gravure offset method has been developed toward an industrially viable printing technique for electronic circuitry. In this paper, a roller type gravure offset manufacturing process was developed to fabricate fine line for using front electrode for solar cells. In order to obtain the optimum metallization printing lines, thickness of 20 μm which is narrow line is required. The main targets are the reduction of metallized area to reduce the shading loss, and a high conductivity to transport the current as loss free as possible out of the cell. However, it is well known that there is a poor contact resistance between the front Ag electrode and the n(+) emitter. Nickel plating was conducted to prevent the increase of contact resistance and the increase of fill factor (FF). The performance of n-Si/Ag (seed layer)/Ni solar cells were observed in 609 mV of open circuit voltage, 35.54 mA/cm2 of short circuit current density, 75.75% of fill factor, and 16.04% of conversion efficiency.
Liu, Eric; Ko, Akiteru; O'Meara, David; Mohanty, Nihar; Franke, Elliott; Pillai, Karthik; Biolsi, Peter
2017-05-01
Dimension shrinkage has been a major driving force in the development of integrated circuit processing over a number of decades. The Self-Aligned Quadruple Patterning (SAQP) technique is widely adapted for sub-10nm node in order to achieve the desired feature dimensions. This technique provides theoretical feasibility of multiple pitch-halving from 193nm immersion lithography by using various pattern transferring steps. The major concept of this approach is to a create spacer defined self-aligned pattern by using single lithography print. By repeating the process steps, double, quadruple, or octuple are possible to be achieved theoretically. In these small architectures, line roughness control becomes extremely important since it may contribute to a significant portion of process and device performance variations. In addition, the complexity of SAQP in terms of processing flow makes the roughness improvement indirective and ineffective. It is necessary to discover a new approach in order to improve the roughness in the current SAQP technique. In this presentation, we demonstrate a novel method to improve line roughness performances on 30nm pitch SAQP flow. We discover that the line roughness performance is strongly related to stress management. By selecting different stress level of film to be deposited onto the substrate, we can manipulate the roughness performance in line and space patterns. In addition, the impact of curvature change by applied film stress to SAQP line roughness performance is also studied. No significant correlation is found between wafer curvature and line roughness performance. We will discuss in details the step-by-step physical performances for each processing step in terms of critical dimension (CD)/ critical dimension uniformity (CDU)/line width roughness (LWR)/line edge roughness (LER). Finally, we summarize the process needed to reach the full wafer performance targets of LWR/LER in 1.07nm/1.13nm on 30nm pitch line and space pattern.
Ulenikov, O. N.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Gromova, O. V.; Quack, M.; Mellau, G. Ch.; Sydow, C.; Bauerecker, S.
2018-05-01
The high resolution infrared spectra of sulfur dioxide (32S16O2) were recorded with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Zürich prototype ZP2001) in combination with a Ge:Cu detector and analyzed in the ν2 fundamental band region (400-650 cm-1 , ν0 ˜ = 517.8725691(77) cm-1). More than 4200 transitions were assigned in the experimental spectra to the ν2 band (the maximum values of the quantum numbers are Jmax. = 96 and Kamax. = 25). The subsequent weighted fit of experimentally assigned transitions was made with the Watson Hamiltonian. The 148 highly accurate MW transitions known from the literature have been also taken into account in the fit, resulting in a set of 33 parameters which reproduces the initial 1295 infrared ro-vibrational energy values from more than 4200 experimental line positions with a root mean square deviation drms = 1.5 ×10-4 cm-1. An analysis of 992 experimental ro-vibrational line intensities of the ν2 band was made, and a set of four effective dipole moment parameters was obtained which reproduces the initial experimental line intensities with a relative drms = 5.7 % . The half-widths of 146 ro-vibrational lines (Jmax. = 53 and Kamax. = 20) were analyzed from the multi-spectrum fit, and self-pressure broadening coefficients were determined.
On the channel width-dependence of the thermal conductivity in ultra-narrow graphene nanoribbons
Karamitaheri, Hossein [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-53153 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neophytou, Neophytos, E-mail: N.Neophytou@warwick.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
2016-08-08
The thermal conductivity of low-dimensional materials and graphene nanoribbons, in particular, is limited by the strength of line-edge-roughness scattering. One way to characterize the roughness strength is the dependency of the thermal conductivity on the channel's width in the form W{sup β}. Although in the case of electronic transport, this dependency is very well studied, resulting in W{sup 6} for nanowires and quantum wells and W{sup 4} for nanoribbons, in the case of phonon transport it is not yet clear what this dependence is. In this work, using lattice dynamics and Non-Equilibrium Green's Function simulations, we examine the width dependence of the thermal conductivity of ultra-narrow graphene nanoribbons under the influence of line edge-roughness. We show that the exponent β is in fact not a single well-defined number, but it is different for different parts of the phonon spectrum depending on whether phonon transport is ballistic, diffusive, or localized. The exponent β takes values β < 1 for semi-ballistic phonon transport, values β ≫ 1 for sub-diffusive or localized phonons, and β = 1 only in the case where the transport is diffusive. The overall W{sup β} dependence of the thermal conductivity is determined by the width-dependence of the dominant phonon modes (usually the acoustic ones). We show that due to the long phonon mean-free-paths, the width-dependence of thermal conductivity becomes a channel length dependent property, because the channel length determines whether transport is ballistic, diffusive, or localized.
Zhang Jingshang
2003-01-01
In file-6 for double-differential cross sections, the level width broadening effect should be taken into account properly due to Heisenberg' uncertainty. Besides level width broadening effect, the energy resolution in the measurements is also needed in fitting measurement procedure. In general, the traditional normal Gaussian expansion is employed. However, to do so in this way the energy balance could not be held. For this reason, the deformed Gaussian expansion functions with exponential form for both the single energy point and continuous spectrum are introduced, with which the normalization and energy balance conditions could be held exactly in the analytical form. (author)
Sams, E. W.
1952-01-01
as those of other investigators, were used to isolate the influence of ratios of thread height to width, thread spacing to width, and the conventional roughness ratio on the friction coefficient. A fair correlation of the friction data was obtained for each tube with heat addition when the friction coefficient and Reynolds number were defined on the basis of film properties; however, the data for each tube retained the curve characteristic of that particular roughness. The friction data for all the rough tubes could be represented by a single line for the complete turbulence region by incorporating a roughness parameter in the film correlation. No correlation was obtained for the region of incomplete turbulence.
Budyashov, Yu.G.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.
1978-01-01
A pulse duration discriminator is described which is intended for processing signals from multilayer scintillators. The basic elements of the scintillator are: an input gate, a current generator, an integrating capacitor, a Schmidt trigger and an anticoincidence circuit. The basic circuit of the discriminator and its time diagrams explaining its operating are given. The discriminator is based on microcircuits. Pulse duration discrimination threshold changes continuously from 20 to 100 ns, while its amplitude threshold changes within 20 to 100 mV. The temperature instability of discrimination thresholds (both in pulse width and in amplitude) is better than 0.1 per cent/deg C
Heib, F.; Hempelmann, R.; Munief, W.M.; Ingebrandt, S.; Fug, F.; Possart, W.; Groß, K.; Schmitt, M.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Analysis of the triple line motion on surfaces with nanoscale surface topographies. • Analysis of the triple line motion is performed in sub-pixel resolution. • A special fitting and statistical approach for contact angle analysis is applied. • The analyses result set of contact angle data which is independent of “user-skills”. • Characteristically density distributions in dependence on the surface properties. - Abstract: Contact angles and wetting of solid surfaces are strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. These influence quantities are difficult to distinguish from each other if contact angle measurements are performed by measuring only the advancing θ a and the receding θ r contact angle. In this regard, time-dependent water contact angles are measured on two hydrophobic modified silicon wafers with different physical surface topographies. The first surface is nearly atomically flat while the second surface is patterned (alternating flat and nanoscale rough patterns) which is synthesized by a photolithography and etching procedure. The different surface topographies are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The resulting set of contact angle data obtained by the high-precision drop shape analysis approach is further analyzed by a Gompertzian fitting procedure and a statistical counting procedure in dependence on the triple line velocity. The Gompertzian fit is used to analyze overall properties of the surface and dependencies between the motion on the front and the back edge of the droplets. The statistical counting procedure results in the calculation of expectation values E(p) and standard deviations σ(p) for the inclination angle φ, contact angle θ, triple line velocity vel and the covered distance of the triple line dis
Heib, F., E-mail: f.heib@mx.uni-saarland.de [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Hempelmann, R. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Munief, W.M.; Ingebrandt, S. [Department of Informatics and Microsystem Technology, University of Applied Sciences, Kaiserslautern, 66482 Zweibrücken (Germany); Fug, F.; Possart, W. [Department of Adhesion and Interphases in Polymers, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Groß, K.; Schmitt, M. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)
2015-07-01
Highlights: • Analysis of the triple line motion on surfaces with nanoscale surface topographies. • Analysis of the triple line motion is performed in sub-pixel resolution. • A special fitting and statistical approach for contact angle analysis is applied. • The analyses result set of contact angle data which is independent of “user-skills”. • Characteristically density distributions in dependence on the surface properties. - Abstract: Contact angles and wetting of solid surfaces are strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. These influence quantities are difficult to distinguish from each other if contact angle measurements are performed by measuring only the advancing θ{sub a} and the receding θ{sub r} contact angle. In this regard, time-dependent water contact angles are measured on two hydrophobic modified silicon wafers with different physical surface topographies. The first surface is nearly atomically flat while the second surface is patterned (alternating flat and nanoscale rough patterns) which is synthesized by a photolithography and etching procedure. The different surface topographies are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The resulting set of contact angle data obtained by the high-precision drop shape analysis approach is further analyzed by a Gompertzian fitting procedure and a statistical counting procedure in dependence on the triple line velocity. The Gompertzian fit is used to analyze overall properties of the surface and dependencies between the motion on the front and the back edge of the droplets. The statistical counting procedure results in the calculation of expectation values E(p) and standard deviations σ(p) for the inclination angle φ, contact angle θ, triple line velocity vel and the covered distance of the triple
Measurement of surface roughness
De Chiffre, Leonardo
This document is used in connection with two 3 hours laboratory exercises that are part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratories include a demonstration of the function of roughness measuring instruments plus a series of exercises illustrating roughness measurement...
Minas Bakalchev
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.
Anomalous roughness of turbulent interfaces with system size dependent local roughness exponent
Balankin, Alexander S.; Matamoros, Daniel Morales
2005-01-01
In a system far from equilibrium the system size can play the role of control parameter that governs the spatiotemporal dynamics of the system. Accordingly, the kinetic roughness of interfaces in systems far from equilibrium may depend on the system size. To get an insight into this problem, we performed a detailed study of rough interfaces formed in paper combustion experiments. Using paper sheets of different width λ, we found that the turbulent flame fronts display anomalous multi-scaling characterized by non-universal global roughness exponent α and by the system size dependent spectrum of local roughness exponents, ζ q (λ)=ζ 1 (1)q -ω λ φ q =0.93q -0.15 . The structure factor of turbulent flame fronts also exhibits unconventional scaling dependence on λ. These results are expected to apply to a broad range of far from equilibrium systems when the kinetic energy fluctuations exceed a certain critical value.
Rough multiple objective decision making
Xu, Jiuping
2011-01-01
Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.
Influence of edge roughness on graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes
Liang Gengchiau; Khalid, Sharjeel Bin; Lam, Kai-Tak
2010-01-01
The edge roughness effects of graphene nanoribbons on their application in resonant tunnelling diodes with different geometrical shapes (S, H and W) were investigated. Sixty samples for each 5%, 10% and 15% edge roughness conditions of these differently shaped graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes were randomly generated and studied. Firstly, it was observed that edge roughness in the barrier regions decreases the effective barrier height and thickness, which increases the broadening of the quantized states in the quantum well due to the enhanced penetration of the wave-function tail from the electrodes. Secondly, edge roughness increases the effective width of the quantum well and causes the lowering of the quantized states. Furthermore, the shape effects on carrier transport are modified by edge roughness due to different interfacial scattering. Finally, with the effects mentioned above, edge roughness has a considerable impact on the device performance in terms of varying the peak-current positions and degrading the peak-to-valley current ratio.
Probabilistic Analysis of Crack Width
J. Marková
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Probabilistic analysis of crack width of a reinforced concrete element is based on the formulas accepted in Eurocode 2 and European Model Code 90. Obtained values of reliability index b seem to be satisfactory for the reinforced concrete slab that fulfils requirements for the crack width specified in Eurocode 2. However, the reliability of the slab seems to be insufficient when the European Model Code 90 is considered; reliability index is less than recommended value 1.5 for serviceability limit states indicated in Eurocode 1. Analysis of sensitivity factors of basic variables enables to find out variables significantly affecting the total crack width.
A deterministic width function model
C. E. Puente
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Use of a deterministic fractal-multifractal (FM geometric method to model width functions of natural river networks, as derived distributions of simple multifractal measures via fractal interpolating functions, is reported. It is first demonstrated that the FM procedure may be used to simulate natural width functions, preserving their most relevant features like their overall shape and texture and their observed power-law scaling on their power spectra. It is then shown, via two natural river networks (Racoon and Brushy creeks in the United States, that the FM approach may also be used to closely approximate existing width functions.
Numerical simulation of distorted crystal Darwin width
Wang Li; Xu Zhongmin; Wang Naxiu
2012-01-01
A new numerical simulation method according to distorted crystal optical theory was used to predict the direct-cooling crystal monochromator optical properties(crystal Darwin width) in this study. The finite element analysis software was used to calculate the deformed displacements of DCM crystal and to get the local reciprocal lattice vector of distorted crystal. The broadening of direct-cooling crystal Darwin width in meridional direction was estimated at 4.12 μrad. The result agrees well with the experimental data of 5 μrad, while it was 3.89 μrad by traditional calculation method of root mean square (RMS) of the slope error in the center line of footprint. The new method provides important theoretical support for designing and processing of monochromator crystal for synchrotron radiation beamline. (authors)
Bai, H. L.; Kevin, Hutchins, N.; Monty, J. P.
2018-05-01
Turbulence modifications over a rough wall with spanwise-varying roughness are investigated at a moderate Reynolds number Reτ ≈ 2000 (or Reθ ≈ 6400), using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hotwire anemometry. The rough wall is comprised of spanwise-alternating longitudinal sandpaper strips of two different roughness heights. The ratio of high- and low-roughness heights is 8, and the ratio of high- and low-roughness strip width is 0.5. PIV measurements are conducted in a wall-parallel plane located in the logarithmic region, while hotwire measurements are made throughout the entire boundary layer in a cross-stream plane. In a time-average sense, large-scale counter-rotating roll-modes are observed in the cross-stream plane over the rough wall, with downwash and upwash common-flows displayed over the high- and low-roughness strips, respectively. Meanwhile, elevated and reduced streamwise velocities occur over the high- and low-roughness strips, respectively. Significant modifications in the distributions of mean vorticities and Reynolds stresses are observed, exhibiting features of spatial preference. Furthermore, spatial correlations and conditional average analyses are performed to examine the alterations of turbulence structures over the rough wall, revealing that the time-invariant structures observed are resultant from the time-average process of instantaneous turbulent events that occur mostly and preferentially in space.
Kamali, Reza; Soloklou, Mohsen Nasiri; Hadidi, Hooman
2018-05-01
In this study, coupled Lattice Boltzmann method is applied to solve the dynamic model for an electroosmotic flow and investigate the effects of roughness in a 2-D flat microchannel. In the present model, the Poisson equation is solved for the electrical potential, the Nernst- Planck equation is solved for the ion concentration. In the analysis of electroosmotic flows, when the electric double layers fully overlap or the convective effects are not negligible, the Nernst-Planck equation must be used to find the ionic distribution throughout the microchannel. The effects of surface roughness height, roughness interval spacing and roughness surface potential on flow conditions are investigated for two different configurations of the roughness, when the EDL layers fully overlap through the microchannel. The results show that in both arrangements of roughness in homogeneously charged rough channels, the flow rate decreases by increasing the roughness height. A discrepancy in the mass flow rate is observed when the roughness height is about 0.15 of the channel width, which its average is higher for the asymmetric configuration and this difference grows by increasing the roughness height. In the symmetric roughness arrangement, the mass flow rate increases until the roughness interval space is almost 1.5 times the roughness width and it decreases for higher values of the roughness interval space. For the heterogeneously charged rough channel, when the roughness surface potential ψr is less than channel surface potential ψs , the net charge density increases by getting far from the roughness surface, while in the opposite situation, when ψs is more than ψr , the net charge density decreases from roughness surface to the microchannel middle center. Increasing the roughness surface potential induces stronger electric driving force on the fluid which results in larger velocities in the flow.
Rady, E.A.; Kozae, A.M.; Abd El-Monsef, M.M.E.
2004-01-01
The process of analyzing data under uncertainty is a main goal for many real life problems. Statistical analysis for such data is an interested area for research. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new method concerning the generalization and modification of the rough set theory introduced early by Pawlak [Int. J. Comput. Inform. Sci. 11 (1982) 314
Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour
E. E. Woodfield
2002-09-01
Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to the data presented here. Since the
Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour
E. E. Woodfield
Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms^{-1} exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms^{-1}. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms^{-1} have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to
Simple method for calculating island widths
Cary, J.R.; Hanson, J.D.; Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.
1989-01-01
A simple method for calculating magnetic island widths has been developed. This method uses only information obtained from integrating along the closed field line at the island center. Thus, this method is computationally less intensive than the usual method of producing surfaces of section of sufficient detail to locate and resolve the island separatrix. This method has been implemented numerically and used to analyze the buss work islands of ATF. In this case the method proves to be accurate to at least within 30%. 7 refs
Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor
-section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...
Spherical bodies of constant width
Lassak, Marek; Musielak, Michał
2018-01-01
The intersection $L$ of two different non-opposite hemispheres $G$ and $H$ of a $d$-dimensional sphere $S^d$ is called a lune. By the thickness of $L$ we mean the distance of the centers of the $(d-1)$-dimensional hemispheres bounding $L$. For a hemisphere $G$ supporting a %spherical convex body $C \\subset S^d$ we define ${\\rm width}_G(C)$ as the thickness of the narrowest lune or lunes of the form $G \\cap H$ containing $C$. If ${\\rm width}_G(C) =w$ for every hemisphere $G$ supporting $C$, we...
W. C. Kreye
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum-mechanical and semi-classical spectral-line shapes are computed at =400, 800, and 1000 K for the line core of the 5802 Å line of the Ar-Perturbed/K-Radiator system. HWHMs ('s are measured from computed full spectral-line shapes. The final-state pseudopotential is for the 721/2 state, and the initial-state potential is for the 423/2,3/2 state. Three high-pressure (P log(—versus—log( curves, corresponding to the non-impact region, intersect a similar set of low-P, impact-region curves at intersections, 0's. Similarly, for two sets of log(—versus—log( curves, which yield intersections, 0's, where is the perturber density. These 0's and 0's separate the two regions and represent the upper limits of the impact regions. A specific validity condition for the impact region is given by the equation ≤0. From an earlier spectroscopic, Fabry-Perot paper, expt=0.021 cm−1 at =400 K and =10 torr. Two theoretical values, theor=0.025 and 0.062 cm−1 corresponding to two different pseudo-potentials, are reported. Two -dependent figures are given, in which the first shows an increase in the impact region with , based on as the basic parameter, and the second which shows a decrease in the impact region with , based on as the basic parameter.
Turbulent boundary layer over roughness transition with variation in spanwise roughness length scale
Westerweel, Jerry; Tomas, Jasper; Eisma, Jerke; Pourquie, Mathieu; Elsinga, Gerrit; Jonker, Harm
2016-11-01
Both large-eddy simulations (LES) and water-tunnel experiments, using simultaneous stereoscopic PIV and LIF were done to investigate pollutant dispersion in a region where the surface changes from rural to urban roughness. This consists of rectangular obstacles where we vary the spanwise aspect ratio of the obstacles. A line source of passive tracer was placed upstream of the roughness transition. The objectives of the study are: (i) to determine the influence of the aspect ratio on the roughness-transition flow, and (ii) to determine the dominant mechanisms of pollutant removal from street canyons in the transition region. It is found that for a spanwise aspect ratio of 2 the drag induced by the roughness is largest of all considered cases, which is caused by a large-scale secondary flow. In the roughness transition the vertical advective pollutant flux is the main ventilation mechanism in the first three streets. Furthermore, by means of linear stochastic estimation the mean flow structure is identied that is responsible for exchange of the fluid between the roughness obstacles and the outer part of the boundary layer. Furthermore, it is found that the vertical length scale of this structure increases with increasing aspect ratio of the obstacles in the roughness region.
Peters, Andrew J; Lawson, Richard A; Nation, Benjamin D; Ludovice, Peter J; Henderson, Clifford L
2015-01-01
A coarse-grained molecular dynamics model was used to study the thin film self-assembly and resulting pattern properties of block copolymer (BCP) systems with various molar mass dispersities. Diblock copolymers (i.e. A–b–B type) were simulated in an aligned lamellar state, which is one of the most common patterns of potential use for integrated circuit fabrication via directed self-assembly of BCPs. Effects of the molar mass dispersity (Ð) on feature pitch and interfacial roughness, which are critical lithographic parameters that have a direct impact on integrated circuit performance, were simulated. It was found that for a realistic distribution of polymer molecular weights, modeled by a Wesslau distribution, both line edge roughness (LER) and line width roughness (LWR) increase approximately linearly with increasing Ð, up to ∼45% of the monodisperse value at Ð = 1.5. Mechanisms of compensation for increased A–A and B–B roughness were considered. It was found that long and short chain positions were not correlated, and that long chains were significantly deformed in shape. The increase in LWR was due to the increase in LER and a constant correlation between the line edges. Unaligned systems show a correlation between domain width and local molecular weight, while systems aligned on an alternating pattern of A and B lines did not show any correlation. When the volume fraction of individual chains was allowed to vary, similar results were found when considering the Ð of the block as opposed to the Ð of the entire system. (paper)
Modelling dynamic roughness during floods
Paarlberg, Andries; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Termes, A.P.P.
2007-01-01
In this paper, we present a dynamic roughness model to predict water levels during floods. Hysteresis effects of dune development are explicitly included. It is shown that differences between the new dynamic roughness model, and models where the roughness coefficient is calibrated, are most
Turbulent lubrication theory considering the surface roughness effects, 2
Hashimoto, Hiromu; Wada, Sanae; Kobayashi, Toshinobu.
1990-01-01
This second paper describes an application of the generalized turbulent lubrication theory considering the surface roughness effects, which is developed in the previous paper, to the finite-width journal bearings. In the numerical analysis, the nonlinear equations for the modified turbulence coefficients are simplified to save a computation time within a satisfactory accuracy under the assumption that the shear flow is superior to the pressure flow in the turbulent lubrication films. The numerical results of pressure distribution, Sommerfeld number, attitude angle, friction coefficient and flow rate for the Reynolds number of Re=2000, 5000 and 10000 are indicated in graphic form for various values of relative roughness, and the effects of surface roughness on these static performance characteristics are discussed. Moreover, the eccentricity ratio and attitude angle of the journal bearings with homogeneous rough surface are obtained experimentally for a wide range of Sommerfeld number, and the experimental results are compared with theoretical results. (author)
Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-01-01
Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.
Notions of Rough Neutrosophic Digraphs
Nabeela Ishfaq
2018-01-01
Full Text Available [-3]Graph theory has numerous applications in various disciplines, including computer networks, neural networks, expert systems, cluster analysis, and image capturing. Rough neutrosophic set (NS theory is a hybrid tool for handling uncertain information that exists in real life. In this research paper, we apply the concept of rough NS theory to graphs and present a new kind of graph structure, rough neutrosophic digraphs. We present certain operations, including lexicographic products, strong products, rejection and tensor products on rough neutrosophic digraphs. We investigate some of their properties. We also present an application of a rough neutrosophic digraph in decision-making.
Virtual rough samples to test 3D nanometer-scale scanning electron microscopy stereo photogrammetry.
Villarrubia, J S; Tondare, V N; Vladár, A E
2016-01-01
The combination of scanning electron microscopy for high spatial resolution, images from multiple angles to provide 3D information, and commercially available stereo photogrammetry software for 3D reconstruction offers promise for nanometer-scale dimensional metrology in 3D. A method is described to test 3D photogrammetry software by the use of virtual samples-mathematical samples from which simulated images are made for use as inputs to the software under test. The virtual sample is constructed by wrapping a rough skin with any desired power spectral density around a smooth near-trapezoidal line with rounded top corners. Reconstruction is performed with images simulated from different angular viewpoints. The software's reconstructed 3D model is then compared to the known geometry of the virtual sample. Three commercial photogrammetry software packages were tested. Two of them produced results for line height and width that were within close to 1 nm of the correct values. All of the packages exhibited some difficulty in reconstructing details of the surface roughness.
T Nguyen
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the contact of general rough curved surfaces having nearly identical geometries, assuming the contact at each differential area obeys the model proposed by Greenwood and Williamson. In order to account for the most general gross geometry, principles of differential geometry of surface are applied. This method while requires more rigorous mathematical manipulations, the fact that it preserves the original surface geometries thus makes the modeling procedure much more intuitive. For subsequent use, differential geometry of axis-symmetric surface is considered instead of general surface (although this “general case” can be done as well in Chapter 3.1. The final formulas for contact area, load, and frictional torque are derived in Chapter 3.2.
Masses, widths, and leptonic widths of the higher upsilon resonances
Lovelock, D.M.J.; Horstkotte, J.E.; Klopfenstein, C.
1985-01-01
The masses, total widths, and leptonic widths of three triplet s-wave bb-bar states UPSILON(4S), UPSILON(5S), and UPSILON(6S) are determined from measurements of the e + e - annihilation cross section into hadrons for 10.55< W<11.25 GeV. The resonances are identified from potential model results and their properties are obtained with the help of a simplified coupled-channels calculation. We find M(4S) = 10.577 GeV, GAMMA(4S) = 25 MeV, GAMMA/sub e/e(4S) = 0.28 keV; M(5S) = 10.845 GeV, GAMMA(5S) = 110 MeV, GAMMA/sub e/e(5S) = 0.37 keV; M(6S) = 11.02 GeV, GAMMA(6S) = 90 MeV, GAMMA/sub e/e(6S) = 0.16 keV
Masses, widths and leptonic widths of the higher upsilon resonances
Klopfenstein, C.; Lovelock, D.M.J.; Horstkotte, J.E.
1985-01-01
The masses, total widths and leptonic widths of three triplet s-wave bb-bar states Υ(4S), Υ(5S) and Υ(6S) are determined by unfolding the cross section features observed in the hadronic cross section in the √s region betweeen 10.55 to 11.25 GeV. Both the identification of the resonances and the deduction of their properties rely on the validity of potential models' description of heavy quarkonium states which lie close (<0.6 GeV) to the open flavor threshold. The authors find M(4S) = 10.5774 +- 0.0008 GeV, Γ(4S) = 23 +- 2.3 MeV, Γ/sub ee/(4S) = 0.28 +- 0.04 keV; M(5S) = 10.845 +- 0.02 GeV, Γ(5S) = 110 +- 15 MeV, Γ/sub ee/(5S) = 0.37 +- 0.06 keV; M(6S) = 11.02 +- 0.03 GeV, Γ(6S) = 90 +- 20 MeV, Γ/sub ee/(6S) = 0.16 +- 0.04 keV. All errors are statistical only
The need for LWR metrology standardization: the imec roughness protocol
Lorusso, Gian Francesco; Sutani, Takumichi; Rutigliani, Vito; van Roey, Frieda; Moussa, Alain; Charley, Anne-Laure; Mack, Chris; Naulleau, Patrick; Constantoudis, Vassilios; Ikota, Masami; Ishimoto, Toru; Koshihara, Shunsuke
2018-03-01
As semiconductor technology keeps moving forward, undeterred by the many challenges ahead, one specific deliverable is capturing the attention of many experts in the field: Line Width Roughness (LWR) specifications are expected to be less than 2nm in the near term, and to drop below 1nm in just a few years. This is a daunting challenge and engineers throughout the industry are trying to meet these targets using every means at their disposal. However, although current efforts are surely admirable, we believe they are not enough. The fact is that a specification has a meaning only if there is an agreed methodology to verify if the criterion is met or not. Such a standardization is critical in any field of science and technology and the question that we need to ask ourselves today is whether we have a standardized LWR metrology or not. In other words, if a single reference sample were provided, would everyone measuring it get reasonably comparable results? We came to realize that this is not the case and that the observed spread in the results throughout the industry is quite large. In our opinion, this makes the comparison of LWR data among institutions, or to a specification, very difficult. In this paper, we report the spread of measured LWR data across the semiconductor industry. We investigate the impact of image acquisition, measurement algorithm, and frequency analysis parameters on LWR metrology. We review critically some of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) metrology guidelines (such as measurement box length larger than 2μm and the need to correct for SEM noise). We compare the SEM roughness results to AFM measurements. Finally, we propose a standardized LWR measurement protocol - the imec Roughness Protocol (iRP) - intended to ensure that every time LWR measurements are compared (from various sources or to specifications), the comparison is sensible and sound. We deeply believe that the industry is at a point where it is
Helly-type theorems for roughly convexlike sets
Phan Thanh An
2005-04-01
For a given positive real number of γ, a subset M of an n-dimensional Euclidean space is said to be roughly convexlike (with the roughness degree γ) if x 0 , x 1 is an element of M and parallel x 1 - x 0 parallel > γ imply ]x 0 , x 1 [intersection M ≠ 0. In this paper, we present Helly-type theorems for such sets then solve an open question about sets of constant width raised by Buchman and Valentine and Sallee (author)
Writer identification using directional ink-trace width measurements
Brink, A. A.; Smit, J.; Bulacu, M. L.; Schomaker, L. R. B.
As suggested by modern paleography, the width of ink traces is a powerful source of information for off-line writer identification, particularly if combined with its direction. Such measurements can be computed using simple, fast and accurate methods based on pixel contours, the combination of which
Tourniquet pressures: strap width and tensioning system widths.
Wall, Piper L; Coughlin, Ohmar; Rometti, Mary; Birkholz, Sarah; Gildemaster, Yvonne; Grulke, Lisa; Sahr, Sheryl; Buising, Charisse M
2014-01-01
Pressure distribution over tourniquet width is a determinant of pressure needed for arterial occlusion. Different width tensioning systems could result in arterial occlusion pressure differences among nonelastic strap designs of equal width. Ratcheting Medical Tourniquets (RMTs; m2 inc., http://www.ratcheting buckles.com) with a 1.9 cm-wide (Tactical RMT) or 2.3 cm-wide (Mass Casualty RMT) ladder were directly compared (16 recipients, 16 thighs and 16 upper arms for each tourniquetx2). Then, RMTs were retrospectively compared with the windlass Combat Application Tourniquet (C-A-T ["CAT"], http://combattourniquet.com) with a 2.5 cm-wide internal tensioning strap. Pressure was measured with an air-filled No. 1 neonatal blood pressure cuff under each 3.8 cm-wide tourniquet. RMT circumferential pressure distribution was not uniform. Tactical RMT pressures were not higher, and there were no differences between the RMTs in the effectiveness, ease of use ("97% easy"), or discomfort. However, a difference did occur regarding tooth skipping of the pawl during ratchet advancement: it occurred in 1 of 64 Tactical RMT applications versus 27 of 64 Mass Casualty RMT applications. CAT and RMT occlusion pressures were frequently over 300 mmHg. RMT arm occlusion pressures (175-397 mmHg), however, were lower than RMT thigh occlusion pressures (197-562 mmHg). RMT effectiveness was better with 99% reached occlusion and 1% lost occlusion over 1 minute versus the CAT with 95% reached occlusion and 28% lost occlusion over 1 minute. RMT muscle tension changes (up to 232 mmHg) and pressure losses over 1 minute (24±11 mmHg arm under strap to 40±12 mmHg thigh under ladder) suggest more occlusion losses may have occurred if tourniquet duration was extended. The narrower tensioning system Tactical RMT has better performance characteristics than the Mass Casualty RMT. The 3.8 cm-wide RMTs have some pressure and effectiveness similarities and differences compared with the CAT. Clinically
Effects of surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow in microchannel
Masilamani, Kannan; Ganguly, Suvankar; Feichtinger, Christian; Bartuschat, Dominik; Rüde, Ulrich, E-mail: suva_112@yahoo.co.in [Department of Computer Science 10 University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr.11 91058 Erlangen (Germany)
2015-06-15
In this paper, a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann and finite-difference (LB-FD) model is applied to simulate the effects of three-dimensional surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a microchannel. The lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method has been employed to obtain the flow field and a finite-difference (FD) method is used to solve the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation for the electrostatic potential distribution. Numerical simulation of flow through a square cross-section microchannel with designed roughness is conducted and the results are critically analysed. The effects of surface heterogeneity on the electroosmotic transport are investigated for different roughness height, width, roughness interval spacing, and roughness surface potential. Numerical simulations reveal that the presence of surface roughness changes the nature of electroosmotic transport through the microchannel. It is found that the electroosmotic velocity decreases with the increase in roughness height and the velocity profile becomes asymmetric. For the same height of the roughness elements, the EOF velocity rises with the increase in roughness width. For the heterogeneously charged rough channel, the velocity profile shows a distinct deviation from the conventional plug-like flow pattern. The simulation results also indicate locally induced flow vortices which can be utilized to enhance the flow and mixing within the microchannel. The present study has important implications towards electrokinetic flow control in the microchannel, and can provide an efficient way to design a microfluidic system of practical interest. (paper)
Roughness Effects on Fretting Fatigue
Yue, Tongyan; Abdel Wahab, Magd
2017-05-01
Fretting is a small oscillatory relative motion between two normal loaded contact surfaces. It may cause fretting fatigue, fretting wear and/or fretting corrosion damage depending on various fretting couples and working conditions. Fretting fatigue usually occurs at partial slip condition, and results in catastrophic failure at the stress levels below the fatigue limit of the material. Many parameters may affect fretting behaviour, including the applied normal load and displacement, material properties, roughness of the contact surfaces, frequency, etc. Since fretting damage is undesirable due to contacting, the effect of rough contact surfaces on fretting damage has been studied by many researchers. Experimental method on this topic is usually focusing on rough surface effects by finishing treatment and random rough surface effects in order to increase fretting fatigue life. However, most of numerical models on roughness are based on random surface. This paper reviewed both experimental and numerical methodology on the rough surface effects on fretting fatigue.
Microscopic Holography for flow over rough plate
Talapatra, Siddharth; Hong, Jiarong; Lu, Yuan; Katz, Joseph
2008-11-01
Our objective is to measure the near wall flow structures in a turbulent channel flow over a rough wall. In-line microscopic holographic PIV can resolve the 3-D flow field in a small sample volume, but recording holograms through a rough surface is a challenge. To solve this problem, we match the refractive indices of the fluid with that of the wall. Proof of concept tests involve an acrylic plate containing uniformly distributed, closely packed 0.45mm high pyramids with slope angle of 22^^o located within a concentrated sodium iodide solution. Holograms recorded by a 4864 x 3248 pixel digital camera at 10X magnification provide a field of view of 3.47mm x 2.32mm and pixel resolution of 0.714 μm. Due to index matching, reconstructed seed particles can be clearly seen over the entire volume, with only faint traces with the rough wall that can be removed. Planned experiments will be performed in a 20 x 5 cm rectangular channel with the top and bottom plates having the same roughness as the sample plate.
Estimation of fracture roughness from the acoustic borehole televiewer image
Bae, Dae Soek; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Yong Kweon
2000-12-01
Estimation of fracture roughness - as one of the basic hydraulic fracture parameters - is very important in assessing ground water flow described by using discrete fracture network modeling. Former manual estimation of the roughness for each fracture surface of drill cores is above all a tedious, time-consuming work and will often cause some ambiguities of roughness interpretation partly due to the subjective judgements of observers, and partly due to the measuring procedure itself. However, recently, indebt to the highly reliable Televiewer data for the fracture discrimination, it has led to a guess to develop a relationship between the traditional roughness method based on a linear profiles and the method from the Televiewer image based on a ellipsoidal profile. Hence, the aim of this work is to develop an automatic evaluation algorithm for measuring the roughness from the Televiewer images. A highly reliable software named 'FRAFA' has been developed and realized to the extent that its utility merits. In the developing procedure, various problems - such as the examination of a new base line(ellipsoidal) for measuring the unevenness of fracture, the elimination of overlapping fracture signatures or noise, the wavelet estimation according to the type of fractures and the digitalization of roughness etc. - were considered. With these consideration in mind, the newly devised algorithm for the estimation of roughness curves showed a great potential not only for avoiding ambiguities of roughness interpretation but also for the judgement of roughness classification
Variations in roughness predictions (flume experiments)
Noordam, Daniëlle; Blom, Astrid; van der Klis, H.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Makaske, A.; Wolfert, H.P.; van Os, A.G.
2005-01-01
Data of flume experiments with bed forms are used to analyze and compare different roughness predictors. In this study, the hydraulic roughness consists of grain roughness and form roughness. We predict the grain roughness by means of the size of the sediment. The form roughness is predicted by
Comparison of Arch Width Changes Following Orthodontic ...
2015-11-21
Nov 21, 2015 ... Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with pre- and post-treatment digital models from ... or posterior arch width following orthodontic treatment ..... premolar extraction cases show significant arch width increases in ...
Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations
Lindsey, Sloan J. [Institute of Solid-State Electronics, TU Wien, Floragasse 7, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Hobler, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.hobler@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Solid-State Electronics, TU Wien, Floragasse 7, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Lojasiewicza 11, 30348 Kraków (Poland)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • A simple model of surface roughness is proposed. • Its key feature is a linearly varying target density at the surface. • The model can be used in 1D/2D/3D Monte Carlo binary collision simulations. • The model fits well experimental glancing incidence sputtering yield data. - Abstract: It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield – especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the “density gradient model”) which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target’s atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient – leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.
Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations
Lindsey, Sloan J.; Hobler, Gerhard; Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A simple model of surface roughness is proposed. • Its key feature is a linearly varying target density at the surface. • The model can be used in 1D/2D/3D Monte Carlo binary collision simulations. • The model fits well experimental glancing incidence sputtering yield data. - Abstract: It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield – especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the “density gradient model”) which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target’s atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient – leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.
Comparison of vegetation roughness descriptions
Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Huthoff, Freek; van Velzen, E.H.; Altinakar, M.S.; Kokpinar, M.A.; Aydin, I.; Cokgor, S.; Kirkgoz, S.
2008-01-01
Vegetation roughness is an important parameter in describing flow through river systems. Vegetation impedes the flow, which affects the stage-discharge curve and may increase flood risks. Roughness is often used as a calibration parameter in river models, however when vegetation is allowed to
Bankruptcy Prediction with Rough Sets
J.C. Bioch (Cor); V. Popova (Viara)
2001-01-01
textabstractThe bankruptcy prediction problem can be considered an or dinal classification problem. The classical theory of Rough Sets describes objects by discrete attributes, and does not take into account the order- ing of the attributes values. This paper proposes a modification of the Rough Set
Hwang, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Jae Hwa
2017-11-01
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over spanwise heterogeneous surface roughness are performed to investigate the characteristics of secondary flow. The longitudinal surface roughness, which features lateral change in bed elevation, is described by immersed boundary method. The Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness is varied in the range of Reθ = 300-900. As the TBLs over the roughness elements spatially develop in the streamwise direction, a secondary flow emerges in a form of counter-rotating vortex pair. As the spanwise spacing between the roughness elements and roughness width vary, it is shown that the size of the secondary flow is determined by the valley width between the roughness elements. In addition, the strength of the secondary flow is mostly affected by the spanwise distance between the cores of the secondary flow. Analysis of the Reynolds-averaged turbulent kinetic energy transport equation reveals that the energy redistribution terms in the TBLs over-the ridge type roughness play an important role to derive low-momentum pathways with upward motion over the roughness crest, contrary to the previous observation with the strip-type roughness. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1A09000537) and the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2017R1A5A1015311).
Generalizing roughness: experiments with flow-oriented roughness
Trevisani, Sebastiano
2015-04-01
Surface texture analysis applied to High Resolution Digital Terrain Models (HRDTMs) improves the capability to characterize fine-scale morphology and permits the derivation of useful morphometric indexes. An important indicator to be taken into account in surface texture analysis is surface roughness, which can have a discriminant role in the detection of different geomorphic processes and factors. The evaluation of surface roughness is generally performed considering it as an isotropic surface parameter (e.g., Cavalli, 2008; Grohmann, 2011). However, surface texture has often an anisotropic character, which means that surface roughness could change according to the considered direction. In some applications, for example involving surface flow processes, the anisotropy of roughness should be taken into account (e.g., Trevisani, 2012; Smith, 2014). Accordingly, we test the application of a flow-oriented directional measure of roughness, computed considering surface gravity-driven flow. For the calculation of flow-oriented roughness we use both classical variogram-based roughness (e.g., Herzfeld,1996; Atkinson, 2000) as well as an ad-hoc developed robust modification of variogram (i.e. MAD, Trevisani, 2014). The presented approach, based on a D8 algorithm, shows the potential impact of considering directionality in the calculation of roughness indexes. The use of flow-oriented roughness could improve the definition of effective proxies of impedance to flow. Preliminary results on the integration of directional roughness operators with morphometric-based models, are promising and can be extended to more complex approaches. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Cavalli, M. & Marchi, L. 2008, "Characterization of the surface morphology of an alpine alluvial fan using airborne LiDAR", Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 323-333. Grohmann, C
Relative roughness controls on incipient sediment motion in steep channels
Prancevic, J.; Lamb, M. P.; Fuller, B. M.
2012-12-01
For over eight decades, researchers have noted an appreciable increase in the nondimensional shear stress (Shields number) at initiation of fluvial bedload transport with increasing bed slope. The precise cause of the trend, however, is obscured by the covariance of several factors with increased slope: a greater downstream component of the gravity acting on the grains and fluid, changes in bed morphology, increased grainsize relative to the channel width that may lead to grain bridging, and increased grainsize relative to flow depth (relative roughness) that may change flow hydraulics and particle buoyancy. Here, we report on ongoing laboratory experiments spanning a wide range of bed slopes (2% to 67%) designed to isolate these variables and determine the true cause of heightened critical Shields numbers on steep slopes. First, we eliminated bed morphology as a factor by using only planar beds. To investigate the effect of grain bridging, we used two different channel widths, representing width-to-grainsize ratios of 23:1 and 9:1. Finally, to separate the effects of slope from relative roughness, we compared incipient motion conditions for acrylic particles (submerged specific gravity of 0.15) to natural siliciclastic gravel (submerged specific gravity of 1.65). Different particle densities allowed us to explore incipient motion as a function of relative roughness, independent of channel slope, because lighter particles move at shallower flow depths than heavier ones of the same size. Results show that both materials exhibit a positive trend between bed slope and critical Shields number despite the existence of planar beds for all slopes. Furthermore, changing the grainsize-to-width ratio had a negligible effect on this trend. For all slopes, the critical Shields number for bedload transport was higher for the acrylic particles than for gravel, indicating that relative roughness has a strong control on incipient sediment motion independent of channel slope. These
Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements
Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J
2005-01-01
...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...
Mecheri, Sami; Rosey, Florence; Lobjois, Régis
2017-07-01
Previous research has shown that lane-width reduction makes drivers operate vehicles closer to the center of the road whereas hard-shoulder widening induces a position farther away from the road's center. The goal of the present driving-simulator study was twofold. First, it was aimed at further investigating the respective effects of lane and shoulder width on in-lane positioning strategies, by examining vehicle distance from the center of the lane. The second aim was to assess the impact on safety of three possible cross-sectional reallocations of the width of the road (i.e., three lane-width reductions with concomitant shoulder widening at a fixed cross-sectional width) as compared to a control road. The results confirmed that lane-width reduction made participants drive closer to the road's center. However, in-lane position was affected differently by lane narrowing, depending on the traffic situation. In the absence of oncoming traffic, lane narrowing gave rise to significant shifts in the car's distance from the lane's center toward the edge line, whereas this distance remained similar across lane widths during traffic periods. When the shoulders were at least 0.50m wide, participants drove farther away from both the road center and the lane center. Road reallocation operations resulted in vehicles positioned farther away from the edge of the road and less swerving behavior, without generating higher driving speeds. Finally, it is argued that road-space reallocation may serve as a good low-cost tool for providing a recovery area for steering errors, without impairing drivers' behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Simple model of surface roughness for binary collision sputtering simulations
Lindsey, Sloan J.; Hobler, Gerhard; Maciążek, Dawid; Postawa, Zbigniew
2017-02-01
It has been shown that surface roughness can strongly influence the sputtering yield - especially at glancing incidence angles where the inclusion of surface roughness leads to an increase in sputtering yields. In this work, we propose a simple one-parameter model (the "density gradient model") which imitates surface roughness effects. In the model, the target's atomic density is assumed to vary linearly between the actual material density and zero. The layer width is the sole model parameter. The model has been implemented in the binary collision simulator IMSIL and has been evaluated against various geometric surface models for 5 keV Ga ions impinging an amorphous Si target. To aid the construction of a realistic rough surface topography, we have performed MD simulations of sequential 5 keV Ga impacts on an initially crystalline Si target. We show that our new model effectively reproduces the sputtering yield, with only minor variations in the energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles. The success of the density gradient model is attributed to a reduction of the reflection coefficient - leading to increased sputtering yields, similar in effect to surface roughness.
Echo signal from rough planar interfaces influence of roughness, angle, range and transducer type
Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pedersen, P.C.; Jacobsen, S.M.
1998-01-01
The received electrical signal from a pulse-echo system insonifying a planar acoustical interface was measured for varying degrees of rms roughness (0-0.16 mm), angle of incidence (typically +/-7°) and range to the transducer. A planar and a focused 5 MHz transducer was used. When insonifying...... a smooth interface, the normalized spectrum of the received signals for a planar transducer exhibits an increasing number of nulls with increased angle of insonification, as predicted from numerical modeling while the dependence on insonification angle for the focused transducer was smaller and the null...... pattern was much less distinct. For the planar transducer and for the focused transducer with the interface located at the geometrical point of focus, the energy of the received signal as a function of incident angle was approximately Gaussian with maximum at 0°. For the smooth interface, the -3 dB width...
Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0
Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt
2006-01-01
We obtain a characterization of ACC0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...
Palindromic widths of nilpotent and wreath products
Palindromic width; commutator width; wreath products; nilpotent product. 2000 Mathematics ... An algorithm of the computation of the commutator length in free non-abelian .... It is clear that A(1)B = A × B is the direct sum. Let us list some ...
Exploration of BEOL line-space patterning options at 12 nm half-pitch and below
Decoster, S.; Lazzarino, F.; Petersen Barbosa Lima, L.; Li, W.; Versluijs, J.; Halder, S.; Mallik, A.; Murdoch, G.
2018-03-01
While the semiconductor industry is almost ready for high-volume manufacturing of the 7 nm technology node, research centers are defining and troubleshooting the patterning options for the 5 nm technology node (N5) and below. The target dimension for imec's N5 BEOL applications is 20-24 nm Metal Pitch (MP), which requires Self-Aligned multiple (Double/Quadruple/Octuple) Patterning approaches (SAxP) in combination with EUV or immersion lithography at 193 nm. There are numerous technical challenges to enable gratings at the hard mask level such as good uniformity across wafer, low line edge/width roughness (LER/LWR), large process window, and all of this at low cost. An even greater challenge is to transfer these gratings into the dielectric material at such critical dimensions, where increased line edge roughness, line wiggling and even pattern collapse can be expected for materials with small mechanical stability such as highly porous low-k dielectrics. In this work we first compare three different patterning options for 12 nm half-pitch gratings at the hard mask level: EUV-based SADP and 193i-based SAQP and SAOP. This comparison will be based on process window, line edge/width roughness and cost. Next, the transfer of 12 nm line/space gratings in the dielectric material is discussed and presented. The LER of the dielectric lines is investigated as a function of the dielectric material, the trench depth, and the stress in the sacrificial hard mask. Finally, we elaborate on the different options to enable scaling down from 24 nm MP to 16 nm MP, and demonstrate 8 nm line/space gratings with 193i-based SAOP.
Stochastic control with rough paths
Diehl, Joscha; Friz, Peter K.; Gassiat, Paul
2017-01-01
We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).
Heat transfer from rough surfaces
Dalle Donne, M.
1977-01-01
Artificial roughness is often used in nuclear reactors to improve the thermal performance of the fuel elements. Although these are made up of clusters of rods, the experiments to measure the heat transfer and friction coefficients of roughness are performed with single rods contained in smooth tubes. This work illustrated a new transformation method to obtain data applicable to reactor fuel elements from these annulus experiments. New experimental friction data are presented for ten rods, each with a different artificial roughness made up of two-dimensional rectangular ribs. For each rod four tests have been performed, each in a different outer smooth tube. For two of these rods, each for two different outer tubes, heat transfer data are also given. The friction and heat transfer data, transformed with the present method, are correlated by simple equations. In the paper, these equations are applied to a case typical for a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor fuel element. (orig.) [de
Stochastic control with rough paths
Diehl, Joscha [University of California San Diego (United States); Friz, Peter K., E-mail: friz@math.tu-berlin.de [TU & WIAS Berlin (Germany); Gassiat, Paul [CEREMADE, Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University (France)
2017-04-15
We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).
Effect of Edge Roughness on Static Characteristics of Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor
Yaser M. Banadaki
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a physics-based analytical model of GNR FET, which allows for the evaluation of GNR FET performance including the effects of line-edge roughness as its practical specific non-ideality. The line-edge roughness is modeled in edge-enhanced band-to-band-tunneling and localization regimes, and then verified for various roughness amplitudes. Corresponding to these two regimes, the off-current is initially increased, then decreased; while, on the other hand, the on-current is continuously decreased by increasing the roughness amplitude.
Information Measures of Roughness of Knowledge and Rough Sets for Incomplete Information Systems
LIANG Ji-ye; QU Kai-she
2001-01-01
In this paper we address information measures of roughness of knowledge and rough sets for incomplete information systems. The definition of rough entropy of knowledge and its important properties are given. In particular, the relationship between rough entropy of knowledge and the Hartley measure of uncertainty is established. We show that rough entropy of knowledge decreases monotonously as granularity of information become smaller. This gives an information interpretation for roughness of knowledge. Based on rough entropy of knowledge and roughness of rough set. a definition of rough entropy of rough set is proposed, and we show that rough entropy of rough set decreases monotonously as granularity of information become smaller. This gives more accurate measure for roughness of rough set.
Achromatization of Debye-Scherrer Lines
Ekstein, Hans
1951-01-01
A method is described for reducing the width of a Debye-Scherrer line produced by diffraction from a polycrystalline medium, if this width is due to the spectral impurity of the primary characteristic radiation...
Surface roughness effects on plasma near a divertor plate and local impact angle
Wanpeng Hu
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The impact of rough surface topography on the electric potential and electric field is generally neglected due to the small scale of surface roughness compared to the width of the plasma sheath. However, the distributions of the electric potential and field on rough surfaces are expected to influence the characteristics of edge plasma and the local impact angle. The distributions of plasma sheath and local impact angle on rough surfaces are investigated by a two dimension-in-space and three dimension-in-velocity (2d3v Particle-In-Cell (PIC code. The influences of the plasma temperature andsurface morphology on the plasma sheath, local impact angle and resulting physical sputtering yield on rough surfaces are investigated.
Does Surface Roughness Amplify Wetting?
Malijevský, Alexandr
2014-01-01
Roč. 141, č. 18 (2014), s. 184703 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09914S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : density functional theory * wetting * roughness Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.952, year: 2014
Calibration of surface roughness standards
Thalmann, R.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.
2016-01-01
organisations. Five surface texture standards of different type were circulated and on each of the standards several roughness parameters according to the standard ISO 4287 had to be determined. 32 out of 395 individual results were not consistent with the reference value. After some corrective actions...
Fuzzy Rough Ring and Its Prop erties
REN Bi-jun; FU Yan-ling
2013-01-01
This paper is devoted to the theories of fuzzy rough ring and its properties. The fuzzy approximation space generated by fuzzy ideals and the fuzzy rough approximation operators were proposed in the frame of fuzzy rough set model. The basic properties of fuzzy rough approximation operators were analyzed and the consistency between approximation operators and the binary operation of ring was discussed.
Human roughness perception and possible factors effecting roughness sensation.
Aktar, Tugba; Chen, Jianshe; Ettelaie, Rammile; Holmes, Melvin; Henson, Brian
2017-06-01
Surface texture sensation is significant for business success, in particular for solid surfaces for most of the materials; including foods. Mechanisms of roughness perception are still unknown, especially under different conditions such as lubricants with varying viscosities, different temperatures, or under different force loads during the observation of the surface. This work aims to determine the effect of those unknown factors, with applied sensory tests on 62 healthy participants. Roughness sensation of fingertip was tested under different lubricants including water and diluted syrup solutions at room temperature (25C) and body temperature (37C) by using simple pair-wise comparison to observe the just noticeable difference threshold and perception levels. Additionally, in this research applied force load during roughness observation was tested with pair-wise ranking method to illustrate its possible effect on human sensation. Obtained results showed that human's capability of roughness discrimination reduces with increased viscosity of the lubricant, where the influence of the temperature was not found to be significant. Moreover, the increase in the applied force load showed an increase in the sensitivity of roughness discrimination. Observed effects of the applied factors were also used for estimating the oral sensation of texture during eating. These findings are significant for our fundamental understanding to texture perception, and for the development of new food products with controlled textural features. Texture discrimination ability, more specifically roughness discrimination capability, is a significant factor for preference and appreciation for a wide range of materials, including food, furniture, or fabric. To explore the mechanism of sensation capability through tactile senses, it is necessary to identify the relevant factors and define characteristics that dominate the process involved. The results that will be obtained under these principles
Heat transfer and friction on smooth and rough test rods
Franken, W.M.P.; Hoogland, H.; Deijman, P.
1977-06-01
Results are reported on heat transfer and pressure drop tests on one smooth and nine rough test rods in an annular geometry. The wall roughness consisted of transversal ribs with various roughness pitches, rib heights and rib widths. The tests were performed with air as coolant under a wide range of experimental conditions: 10 5 5 , 1.1 2. Special attention has been given to the effect of variation of the physical coolant properties over the flow cross section. This effect could be described by the power function (Tsub(w)/Tsub(b))sup(-0.3l) in additional systematic variation of the heat transfer could be recognized, dependent on the coolant temperature level. The experimental results were correlated by the equation St = C(Tsub(in)) Resup(-0.2) Prsup(-0.6) (Tsub(w)/Tsub(b)sup(-0.31). Values of C(Tsub(in)) are given in tabular form. The thermal entrance effect has been measured on various test rods. A substantial reduction of the heat transfer coefficient was almost constant along the rough test rods
Near-field flow structures about subcritical surface roughness
Doolittle, Charles J.; Drews, Scott D.; Goldstein, David B.
2014-12-01
Laminar flow over a periodic array of cylindrical surface roughness elements is simulated with an immersed boundary spectral method both to validate the method for subsequent studies and to examine how persistent streamwise vortices are introduced by a low Reynolds number roughness element. Direct comparisons are made with prior studies at a roughness-based Reynolds number Rek (=U(k) k/ν) of 205 and a diameter to spanwise spacing ratio d/λ of 1/3. Downstream velocity contours match present and past experiments very well. The shear layer developed over the top of the roughness element produces the downstream velocity deficit. Upstream of the roughness element, the vortex topology is found to be consistent with juncture flow experiments, creating three cores along the recirculation line. Streamtraces stemming from these upstream cores, however, have unexpectedly little effect on the downstream flowfield as lateral divergence of the boundary layer quickly dissipates their vorticity. Long physical relaxation time of the recirculating wake behind the roughness remains a prominent issue for simulating this type of flowfield.
Multiscale Analysis of the Roughness Effect on Lubricated Rough Contact
Demirci , Ibrahim; MEZGHANI , Sabeur; YOUSFI , Mohammed; El Mansori , Mohamed
2014-01-01
Determining friction is as equally essential as determining the film thickness in the lubricated contact, and is an important research subject. Indeed, reduction of friction in the automotive industry is important for both the minimization of fuel consumption as well as the decrease in the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the progress in friction reduction has been limited by the difficulty in understanding the mechanism of roughness effects on friction. It was observed that micro-surf...
Potential for yield improvement in combined rip-first and crosscut-first rough mill processing
Ed Thomas; Urs Buehlmann
2016-01-01
Traditionally, lumber cutting systems in rough mills have either first ripped lumber into wide strips and then crosscut the resulting strips into component lengths (rip-first), or first crosscut the lumber into component lengths, then ripped the segments to the required widths (crosscut-first). Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Crosscut-first typically...
E. E. Woodfield
2002-12-01
Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the Doppler spectral width parameter routinely observed by HF coherent radars has been conducted between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for the nightside ionosphere. Data from the SuperDARN radars at Thykkvibær, Iceland and Syowa East, Antarctica have been employed for this purpose. Both radars frequently observe regions of high (>200 ms-1 spectral width polewards of low (<200 ms-1 spectral width. Three years of data from both radars have been analysed both for the spectral width and line of sight velocity. The pointing direction of these two radars is such that the flow reversal boundary may be estimated from the velocity data, and therefore, we have an estimate of the open/closed field line boundary location for comparison with the high spectral widths. Five key observations regarding the behaviour of the spectral width on the nightside have been made. These are (i the two radars observe similar characteristics on a statistical basis; (ii a latitudinal dependence related to magnetic local time is found in both hemispheres; (iii a seasonal dependence of the spectral width is observed by both radars, which shows a marked absence of latitudinal dependence during the summer months; (iv in general, the Syowa East spectral width tends to be larger than that from Iceland East, and (v the highest spectral widths seem to appear on both open and closed field lines. Points (i and (ii indicate that the cause of high spectral width is magnetospheric in origin. Point (iii suggests that either the propagation of the HF radio waves to regions of high spectral width or the generating mechanism(s for high spectral width is affected by solar illumination or other seasonal effects. Point (iv suggests that the radar beams from each of the radars are subject either to different instrumental or propagation effects, or different geophysical conditions due to their locations, although we suggest that this result is more likely to
Non-LTE equivalent widths for Si II, III and IV
Becker, S.R.; Butler, K.
1990-01-01
Equivalent widths for a set of Si II, III and IV lines reliable for the determination of temperatures in the B star parameter range are given. They are calculated on a fine grid of LTE line blanketed model atmospheres and lie in the wavelength region from 4070 A to 5070 A
Jan Wiedenbeck; John Brown; Neal Bennett; Everette Rast
2003-01-01
Data on red oak lumber width, length, and grade were collected at 14 furniture and cabinet industry rough mills to identify relationships among these lumber attributes and the degree to which they differ from mill to mill. Also, this information is needed to formulate valid lumber size distributions that will improve the quality of theresults obtained in mill and...
Roughness Mapping on Various Vertical Scales Based on Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning Data
Wolfgang Wagner
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Roughness is an important input parameter for modeling of natural hazards such as floods, rock falls and avalanches, where it is basically assumed that flow velocities decrease with increasing roughness. Seeing roughness as a multi-scale level concept (i.e., ranging from fine-scale soil characteristics to description of understory and lower tree layer various roughness raster products were derived from the original full-waveform airborne laser scanning (FWF-ALS point cloud using two different types of roughness parameters, the surface roughness (SR and the terrain roughness (TR. For the calculation of the SR, ALS terrain points within a defined height range to the terrain surface are considered. For the parameterization of the SR, two approaches are investigated. In the first approach, a geometric description by calculating the standard deviation of plane fitting residuals of terrain points is used. In the second one, the potential of the derived echo widths are analyzed for the parameterization of SR. The echo width is an indicator for roughness and the slope of the target. To achieve a comparable spatial resolution of both SR layers, the calculation of the standard deviation of detrended terrain points requires a higher terrain point density than the SR parameterization using the echo widths. The TR describes objects (i.e., point clusters close but explicitly above the terrain surface, with 20 cm defined as threshold height value for delineation of the surface layer (i.e., forest floor layer. Two different empirically defined vegetation layers below the canopy layer were analyzed (TR I: 0.2 m to 1.0 m; TR II: 0.2 m to 3.0 m. A 1 m output grid cell size was chosen for all roughness parameters in order to provide consistency for further integration of high-resolution optical imagery. The derived roughness parameters were then jointly classified, together with a normalized Digital Surface Model (nDSM showing the height of objects (i
Effect of sealer coating and storage methods on the surface roughness of soft liners.
Usta Kutlu, Ilknur; Yanikoğlu, Nuran Dinckal; Kul, Esra; Duymuş, Zeynep Yesïl; Sağsöz, Nurdan Polat
2016-03-01
A soft lining is applied under a removable prosthesis for various reasons. The porosity of the lining material may increase colonization by microorganisms and cause tissue inflammation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of sealer coating on the surface roughness of soft lining materials under 4 different conditions. A total of 125 specimens were prepared. One high-temperature silicone-based soft lining material and 2 room-temperature-polymerized soft lining materials (1 silicone-based and 1 methacrylate-based) were used. Twenty-five specimens of each room-temperature soft lining material were coated with 2 layers of surface sealer. Additionally, 5 specimens of each material were stored in either distilled water, Coca-Cola, denture cleanser, saliva, or air. The surface roughness was measured at baseline and after 1, 7, 14, and 28 days. Surface roughness values were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance, and the Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed using time-dependent groups and storage methods. In the time-dependent groups, methacrylate-based sealer-coated soft liners exhibited a significant increase in roughness (1.74-2.09 μm, P.05). Therefore, the sealer coating was not effective in reducing surface roughness. Among the time-dependent storage methods, the denture cleanser exhibited an almost significant increase in roughness (1.83-1.99 μm, P=.054). Coca-Cola and artificial saliva did not show a significant difference (P>.05). However, a significant decrease in roughness was found with distilled water (P=.02) and air (P<.001). Statistically significant differences in surface roughness were found among the different types of soft liners. The sealer coating had no significant effect, and denture cleanser slightly increased the surface roughness. Contrary to expectations, the roughness did not increase in all groups over time. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Ultrasonic backward radiation on painted rough interface
Kwon, Yong Gyu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kwon, Sung Duck
2002-01-01
The angular dependence(profile) of backscattered ultrasound was measured for steel and brass specimens with periodical surface roughness (1-71μm). Backward radiations showed more linear dependency than normal profile. Direct amplitude increased and averaging amplitude decreased with surface roughness. Painting treatment improved the linearity in direct backward radiation below roughness of 0.03. Scholte and Rayleigh-like waves were observed in the spectrum of averaging backward radiation on periodically rough surface. Painting on periodically rough surface could be used in removing the interface mode effect by periodic roughness.
A quantitative analysis of transtensional margin width
Jeanniot, Ludovic; Buiter, Susanne J. H.
2018-06-01
Continental rifted margins show variations between a few hundred to almost a thousand kilometres in their conjugated widths from the relatively undisturbed continent to the oceanic crust. Analogue and numerical modelling results suggest that the conjugated width of rifted margins may have a relationship to their obliquity of divergence, with narrower margins occurring for higher obliquity. We here test this prediction by analysing the obliquity and rift width for 26 segments of transtensional conjugate rifted margins in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. We use the plate reconstruction software GPlates (http://www.gplates.org) for different plate rotation models to estimate the direction and magnitude of rifting from the initial phases of continental rifting until breakup. Our rift width corresponds to the distance between the onshore maximum topography and the last identified continental crust. We find a weak positive correlation between the obliquity of rifting and rift width. Highly oblique margins are narrower than orthogonal margins, as expected from analogue and numerical models. We find no relationships between rift obliquities and rift duration nor the presence or absence of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs).
Zhou, Yunlong; Zhao, Yunfei; Xu, Dan; Chai, Zhenxia; Liu, Wei
2016-10-01
The roughness-induced laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition is significant for high-speed aerospace applications. The transition mechanism is closely related to the roughness shape. In this paper, high-order numerical method is used to investigate the effect of roughness shape on the flat-plate laminar-to-turbulent boundary layer transition. Computations are performed in both the supersonic and hypersonic regimes (free-stream Mach number from 3.37 up to 6.63) for the square, cylinder, diamond and hemisphere roughness elements. It is observed that the square and diamond roughness elements are more effective in inducing transition compared with the cylinder and hemisphere ones. The square roughness element has the longest separated region in which strong unsteadiness exists and the absolute instability is formed, thus resulting in the earliest transition. The diamond roughness element has a maximum width of the separated region leading to the widest turbulent wake region far downstream. Furthermore, transition location moves backward as the Mach number increases, which indicates that the compressibility significantly suppresses the roughness-induced boundary layer transition.
Stefano Pagliara
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Free surface flows in macro- and intermediate roughness conditions have a high aeration potential causing the flow characteristics to vary with slopes and discharges. The underlying mechanism of two-phase flow characteristics in macro- and intermediate roughness conditions were analyzed in an experimental setup assembled at the Laboratory of Hydraulic Protection of the Territory (PITLAB of the University of Pisa, Italy. Crushed angular rocks and hemispherical boulders were used to intensify the roughness of the bed. Flow rates per unit width ranging between 0.03 m2/s and 0.09 m2/s and slopes between 0.26 and 0.46 were tested over different arrangements of a rough bed. Analyses were mainly carried out in the inner flow region, which consists of both bubbly and intermediate flow regions. The findings revealed that the two-phase flow properties over the rough bed were much affected by rough bed arrangements. Turbulence features of two-phase flows over the rough bed were compared with those of the stepped chute data under similar flow conditions. Overall, the results highlight the flow features in the inner layers of the two-phase flow, showing that the maximum turbulence intensity decreases with the relative submergence, while the bubble frequency distribution is affected by the rough bed elements.
Effects of confinement & surface roughness in electrorheological flows
Helal, Ahmed; Telleria, Maria J.; Wang, Julie; Strauss, Marc; Murphy, Mike; McKinley, Gareth; Hosoi, A. E.
2014-11-01
Electrorheological (ER) fluids are dielectric suspensions that exhibit a fast, reversible change in rheological properties with the application of an external electric field. Upon the application of the electric field, the material develops a field-dependent yield stress that is typically modeled using a Bingham plastic model. ER fluids are promising for designing small, cheap and rapidly actuated hydraulic devices such as rapidly-switchable valves, where fluid flowing in a microchannel can be arrested by applying an external electric field. In the lubrication limit, for a Bingham plastic fluid, the maximum pressure the channel can hold, before yielding, is a function of the field-dependent yield stress, the length of the channel and the electrode gap. In practice, the finite width of the channel and the surface roughness of the electrodes could affect the maximum yield pressure but a quantitative understanding of these effects is currently lacking. In this study, we experimentally investigate the effects of the channel aspect ratio (width/height) and the effects of electrode roughness on the performance of ER valves. Based on this quantitative analysis, we formulate new performance metrics for ER valves as well as design rules for ER valves that will help guide and optimize future designs.
The decay width of stringy hadrons
Jacob Sonnenschein
2018-02-01
We fit the theoretical decay width to experimental data for mesons on the trajectories of ρ, ω, π, η, K⁎, ϕ, D, and Ds⁎, and of the baryons N, Δ, Λ, and Σ. We examine both the linearity in L and the exponential suppression factor. The linearity was found to agree with the data well for mesons but less for baryons. The extracted coefficient for mesons A=0.095±0.015 is indeed quite universal. The exponential suppression was applied to both strong and radiative decays. We discuss the relation with string fragmentation and jet formation. We extract the quark–diquark structure of baryons from their decays. A stringy mechanism for Zweig suppressed decays of quarkonia is proposed and is shown to reproduce the decay width of ϒ states. The dependence of the width on spin and flavor symmetry is discussed. We further apply this model to the decays of glueballs and exotic hadrons.
Ground state energy and width of 7He from 8Li proton knockout
Denby, D. H.; DeYoung, P. A.; Hall, C. C.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Spyrou, A.; Breitbach, E.; Howes, R.; Brown, J.; Frank, N.; Gade, A.; Mosby, S. M.; Peters, W. A.; Thoennessen, M.; Hinnefeld, J.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jenson, R. A.; Luther, B.; Olson, C. W.; Schiller, A.
2008-01-01
The ground state energy and width of 7 He has been measured with the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and superconducting dipole Sweeper magnet experimental setup at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. 7 He was produced by proton knockout from a secondary 8 Li beam. The measured decay energy spectrum is compared to simulations based on Breit-Wigner line shape with an energy-dependent width for the resonant state. The energy of the ground state is found to be 400(10) keV with a full-width at half-maximum of 125( -15 +40 ) keV
The decay width of stringy hadrons
Sonnenschein, Jacob; Weissman, Dorin
2018-02-01
In this paper we further develop a string model of hadrons by computing their strong decay widths and comparing them to experiment. The main decay mechanism is that of a string splitting into two strings. The corresponding total decay width behaves as Γ = π/2 ATL where T and L are the tension and length of the string and A is a dimensionless universal constant. We show that this result holds for a bosonic string not only in the critical dimension. The partial width of a given decay mode is given by Γi / Γ =Φi exp (- 2 πCmsep2 / T) where Φi is a phase space factor, msep is the mass of the "quark" and "antiquark" created at the splitting point, and C is a dimensionless coefficient close to unity. Based on the spectra of hadrons we observe that their (modified) Regge trajectories are characterized by a negative intercept. This implies a repulsive Casimir force that gives the string a "zero point length". We fit the theoretical decay width to experimental data for mesons on the trajectories of ρ, ω, π, η, K*, ϕ, D, and Ds*, and of the baryons N, Δ, Λ, and Σ. We examine both the linearity in L and the exponential suppression factor. The linearity was found to agree with the data well for mesons but less for baryons. The extracted coefficient for mesons A = 0.095 ± 0.015 is indeed quite universal. The exponential suppression was applied to both strong and radiative decays. We discuss the relation with string fragmentation and jet formation. We extract the quark-diquark structure of baryons from their decays. A stringy mechanism for Zweig suppressed decays of quarkonia is proposed and is shown to reproduce the decay width of ϒ states. The dependence of the width on spin and flavor symmetry is discussed. We further apply this model to the decays of glueballs and exotic hadrons.
Towards predictive models for transitionally rough surfaces
Abderrahaman-Elena, Nabil; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo
2017-11-01
We analyze and model the previously presented decomposition for flow variables in DNS of turbulence over transitionally rough surfaces. The flow is decomposed into two contributions: one produced by the overlying turbulence, which has no footprint of the surface texture, and one induced by the roughness, which is essentially the time-averaged flow around the surface obstacles, but modulated in amplitude by the first component. The roughness-induced component closely resembles the laminar steady flow around the roughness elements at the same non-dimensional roughness size. For small - yet transitionally rough - textures, the roughness-free component is essentially the same as over a smooth wall. Based on these findings, we propose predictive models for the onset of the transitionally rough regime. Project supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).
Rough set classification based on quantum logic
Hassan, Yasser F.
2017-11-01
By combining the advantages of quantum computing and soft computing, the paper shows that rough sets can be used with quantum logic for classification and recognition systems. We suggest the new definition of rough set theory as quantum logic theory. Rough approximations are essential elements in rough set theory, the quantum rough set model for set-valued data directly construct set approximation based on a kind of quantum similarity relation which is presented here. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that the new model for quantum rough sets has new type of decision rule with less redundancy which can be used to give accurate classification using principles of quantum superposition and non-linear quantum relations. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt aiming to define rough sets in representation of a quantum rather than logic or sets. The experiments on data-sets have demonstrated that the proposed model is more accuracy than the traditional rough sets in terms of finding optimal classifications.
Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation
Bagrov, V. G., E-mail: bagrov@phys.tsu.ru [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics, SB RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gitman, D. M., E-mail: gitman@if.usp.br [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Levin, A. D., E-mail: alevin@if.usp.br [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Loginov, A. S.; Saprykin, A. D. [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2015-11-25
For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory.
Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation
Bagrov, V. G.; Gitman, D. M.; Levin, A. D.; Loginov, A. S.; Saprykin, A. D.
2015-01-01
For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory
Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation
Bagrov, V.G. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); SB RAS, Institute of High Current Electronics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Levin, A.D. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Loginov, A.S.; Saprykin, A.D. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2015-11-15
For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory. (orig.)
Temperature dependence of giant dipole resonance width
Vdovin, A.I.; Storozhenko, A.N.
2005-01-01
The quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model extended to finite temperature within the framework of the thermo field dynamics is applied to calculate a temperature dependence of the spreading width Γ d own of a giant dipole resonance. Numerical calculations are made for 12S n and 208 Pb nuclei. It is found that the width Γ d own increases with T. The reason of this effect is discussed as well as a relation of the present approach to other ones existing in the literature
Pollutant Plume Dispersion in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over Idealized Urban Roughness
Wong, Colman C. C.; Liu, Chun-Ho
2013-05-01
The Gaussian model of plume dispersion is commonly used for pollutant concentration estimates. However, its major parameters, dispersion coefficients, barely account for terrain configuration and surface roughness. Large-scale roughness elements (e.g. buildings in urban areas) can substantially modify the ground features together with the pollutant transport in the atmospheric boundary layer over urban roughness (also known as the urban boundary layer, UBL). This study is thus conceived to investigate how urban roughness affects the flow structure and vertical dispersion coefficient in the UBL. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is carried out to examine the plume dispersion from a ground-level pollutant (area) source over idealized street canyons for cross flows in neutral stratification. A range of building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios, covering the regimes of skimming flow, wake interference, and isolated roughness, is employed to control the surface roughness. Apart from the widely used aerodynamic resistance or roughness function, the friction factor is another suitable parameter that measures the drag imposed by urban roughness quantitatively. Previous results from laboratory experiments and mathematical modelling also support the aforementioned approach for both two- and three-dimensional roughness elements. Comparing the UBL plume behaviour, the LES results show that the pollutant dispersion strongly depends on the friction factor. Empirical studies reveal that the vertical dispersion coefficient increases with increasing friction factor in the skimming flow regime (lower resistance) but is more uniform in the regimes of wake interference and isolated roughness (higher resistance). Hence, it is proposed that the friction factor and flow regimes could be adopted concurrently for pollutant concentration estimate in the UBL over urban street canyons of different roughness.
Time-dependent behavior of rough discontinuities under shearing conditions
Wang, Zhen; Shen, Mingrong; Ding, Wenqi; Jang, Boan; Zhang, Qingzhao
2018-02-01
The mechanical properties of rocks are generally controlled by their discontinuities. In this study, the time-dependent behavior of rough artificial joints under shearing conditions was investigated. Based on Barton’s standard profile lines, samples with artificial joint surfaces were prepared and used to conduct the shear and creep tests. The test results showed that the shear strength of discontinuity was linearly related to roughness, and subsequently an empirical equation was established. The long-term strength of discontinuity can be identified using the inflection point of the isocreep-rate curve, and it was linearly related to roughness. Furthermore, the ratio of long-term and instantaneous strength decreased with the increase of roughness. The shear-stiffness coefficient increased with the increase of shear rate, and the influence of shear rate on the shear stiffness coefficient decreased with the decrease of roughness. Further study of the mechanism revealed that these results could be attributed to the different time-dependent behavior of intact and joint rocks.
Interfacial layering and capillary roughness in immiscible liquids.
Geysermans, P; Pontikis, V
2010-08-21
The capillary roughness and the atomic density profiles of extended interfaces between immiscible liquids are determined as a function of the interface area by using molecular dynamics and Lennard-Jones (12-6) potentials. We found that with increasing area, the interface roughness diverges logarithmically, thus fitting the theoretical mean-field prediction. In systems small enough for the interfacial roughness not to blur the structural details, atomic density profiles across the fluid interface are layered with correlation length in the range of molecular correlations in liquids. On increasing the system size, the amplitude of the thermally excited position fluctuations of the interface increases, thus causing layering to rapidly vanish, if density profiles are computed without special care. In this work, we present and validate a simple method, operating in the direct space, for extracting from molecular dynamics trajectories the "intrinsic" structure of a fluid interface that is the local density profile of the interface cleaned from capillary wave effects. Estimated values of interfacial properties such as the tension, the intrinsic width, and the lower wavelength limit of position fluctuations are in agreement with results collected from the literature.
Radiative width of molecular-cluster states
Alhassid, Y.; Gai, M.; Bertsch, G.F.
1982-01-01
Molecular states are characterized by enhanced electromagnetic deexcitations of many different multipolarities. The expected enhancement of E1, E2, and E3 transitions is examined by deriving molecular sum rules for radiative deexcitation widths and via a dimensionality approach. The enhancement of the E1 transitions is the most striking
Bounding the Higgs boson width through interferometry.
Dixon, Lance J; Li, Ye
2013-09-13
We study the change in the diphoton-invariant-mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gg→γγ. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the standard model in the leading-order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. The apparent mass shift may provide a way to measure, or at least bound, the Higgs boson width at the Large Hadron Collider through "interferometry." We investigate how the shift depends on the Higgs width, in a model that maintains constant Higgs boson signal yields. At Higgs widths above 30 MeV, the mass shift is over 200 MeV and increases with the square root of the width. The apparent mass shift could be measured by comparing with the ZZ* channel, where the shift is much smaller. It might be possible to measure the shift more accurately by exploiting its strong dependence on the Higgs transverse momentum.
Practical algorithms for linear boolean-width
ten Brinke, C.B.; van Houten, F.J.P.; Bodlaender, H.L.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we give a number of new exact algorithms and heuristics to compute linear boolean decompositions, and experimentally evaluate these algorithms. The experimental evaluation shows that significant improvements can be made with respect to running time without increasing the width of the
Practical algorithms for linear Boolean-width
ten Brinke, C.B.; van Houten, F.J.P.; Bodlaender, H.L.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we give a number of new exact algorithms and heuristics to compute linear boolean decompositions, and experimentally evaluate these algorithms. The experimental evaluation shows that significant improvements can be made with respect to running time without increasing the width of the
Computer simulations of a rough sphere fluid
Lyklema, J.W.
1978-01-01
A computer simulation is described on rough hard spheres with a continuously variable roughness parameter, including the limits of smooth and completely rough spheres. A system of 500 particles is simulated with a homogeneous mass distribution at 8 different densities and for 5 different values of the roughness parameter. For these 40 physically different situations the intermediate scattering function for 6 values of the wave number, the orientational correlation functions and the velocity autocorrelation functions have been calculated. A comparison has been made with a neutron scattering experiment on neopentane and agreement was good for an intermediate value of the roughness parameter. Some often made approximations in neutron scattering experiments are also checked. The influence of the variable roughness parameter on the correlation functions has been investigated and three simple stochastic models studied to describe the orientational correlation function which shows the most pronounced dependence on the roughness. (Auth.)
Axis Problem of Rough 3-Valued Algebras
Jianhua Dai; Weidong Chen; Yunhe Pan
2006-01-01
The collection of all the rough sets of an approximation space has been given several algebraic interpretations, including Stone algebras, regular double Stone algebras, semi-simple Nelson algebras, pre-rough algebras and 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras. A 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a Stone algebra, a regular double Stone algebra, a semi-simple Nelson algebra, a pre-rough algebra. Thus, we call the algebra constructed by the collection of rough sets of an approximation space a rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra. In this paper,the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, which are a special kind of 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, are studied. Whether the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a axled 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is examined.
Keun-Hyeok Yang
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Chloride attack is considered one of the most threatening deterioration mechanisms in concrete. Any cracks or other imperfections on the surface open up additional routes for chloride intrusion. This paper develops existing anisotropic (1-D and isotropic (2-D models for chloride diffusion in concrete with cracks by considering the crack shape and roughness. In order to verify the proposed model, concrete samples with crack widths from 0.0 to 0.4 mm were prepared and the chloride diffusion coefficients under steady-state conditions evaluated. The proposed model for a wedge-shaped model with roughness reduced chloride diffusion and provided more reasonable results than previous models based on rectangular shaped cracks with no roughness, which have tended to overestimate the effect. Our results revealed that including roughness in the model produced a 10%–20% reduction in chloride diffusion.
Sensing roughness and polish direction
Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht
2016-01-01
As a part of the work carried out in a project supported by the Danish Council for Technology and Innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothing standard CNC-machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development cost...... and time consumption can become prohibitive in a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces directly is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, calling for the object to be manually polished. During the polishing process, the operator...... needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...
Yunlu Pan
2018-05-01
Full Text Available As a significant interfacial property for micro/nano fluidic system, the effective boundary slip can be induced by the surface roughness. However, the effect of surface roughness on the effective slip is still not clear, both increased and decreased effective boundary slip were found with increased roughness. The present work develops a simplified model to study the effect of surface roughness on the effective boundary slip. In the created rough models, the reference position of the rough surfaces to determinate effective boundary slip was set based on ISO/ASME standard and the surface roughness parameters including Ra (arithmetical mean deviation of the assessed profile, Rsm (mean width of the assessed profile elements and shape of the texture varied to form different surface roughness. Then, the effective boundary slip of fluid flow through the rough surface was analyzed by using COMSOL 5.3. The results show that the effective boundary slip induced by surface roughness of fully wetted rough surface keeps negative and further decreases with increasing Ra or decreasing Rsm. Different shape of roughness texture also results in different effective slip. A simplified corrected method for the measured effective boundary slip was developed and proved to be efficient when the Rsm is no larger than 200 nm. Another important finding in the present work is that the convective heat transfer firstly increases followed by an unobvious change with increasing Ra, while the effective boundary slip keeps decreasing. It is believed that the increasing Ra enlarges the area of solid-liquid interface for convective heat transfer, however, when Ra is large enough, the decreasing roughness-induced effective boundary slip counteracts the enhancement effect of roughness itself on the convective heat transfer.
Software testing in roughness calculation
Chen, Y L; Hsieh, P F; Fu, W E
2005-01-01
A test method to determine the function quality provided by the software for roughness measurement is presented in this study. The function quality of the software requirements should be part of and assessed through the entire life cycle of the software package. The specific function, or output accuracy, is crucial for the analysis of the experimental data. For scientific applications, however, commercial software is usually embedded with specific instrument, which is used for measurement or analysis during the manufacture process. In general, the error ratio caused by the software would be more apparent especially when dealing with relatively small quantities, like the measurements in the nanometer-scale range. The model of 'using a data generator' proposed by NPL of UK was applied in this study. An example of the roughness software is tested and analyzed by the above mentioned process. After selecting the 'reference results', the 'reference data' was generated by a programmable 'data generator'. The filter function of 0.8 mm long cutoff value, defined in ISO 11562 was tested with 66 sinusoid data at different wavelengths. Test results from commercial software and CMS written program were compared to the theoretical data calculated from ISO standards. As for the filter function in this software, the result showed a significant disagreement between the reference and test results. The short cutoff feature for filtering at the high frequencies does not function properly, while the long cutoff feature has the maximum difference in the filtering ratio, which is more than 70% between the wavelength of 300 μm and 500 μm. Conclusively, the commercial software needs to be tested more extensively for specific application by appropriate design of reference dataset to ensure its function quality
An Experimental Study of Roughness-Induced Instabilities in a Supersonic Boundary Layer
Kegerise, Michael A.; King, Rudolph A.; Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Norris, Andrew
2014-01-01
Progress on an experimental study of laminar-to-turbulent transition induced by an isolated roughness element in a supersonic laminar boundary layer is reported in this paper. Here, the primary focus is on the effects of roughness planform shape on the instability and transition characteristics. Four different roughness planform shapes were considered (a diamond, a circle, a right triangle, and a 45 degree fence) and the height and width of each one was held fixed so that a consistent frontal area was presented to the oncoming boundary layer. The nominal roughness Reynolds number was 462 and the ratio of the roughness height to the boundary layer thickness was 0.48. Detailed flow- field surveys in the wake of each geometry were performed via hot-wire anemometry. High- and low-speed streaks were observed in the wake of each roughness geometry, and the modified mean flow associated with these streak structures was found to support a single dominant convective instability mode. For the symmetric planform shapes - the diamond and circular planforms - the instability characteristics (mode shapes, growth rates, and frequencies) were found to be similar. For the asymmetric planform shapes - the right-triangle and 45 degree fence planforms - the mode shapes were asymmetrically distributed about the roughness-wake centerline. The instability growth rates for the asymmetric planforms were lower than those for the symmetric planforms and therefore, transition onset was delayed relative to the symmetric planforms.
Effects of graphite surface roughness on bypass flow computations for an HTGR
Tung, Yu-Hsin, E-mail: touushin@gmail.com [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, M.S. 3855, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Johnson, Richard W., E-mail: Rich.Johnson@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, M.S. 3855, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sato, Hiroyuki, E-mail: sato.hiroyuki09@jaea.go.jp [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, M.S. 3855, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2012-11-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFD calculations are made of bypass flow between graphite blocks in HTGR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several turbulence models are employed to compare to friction and heat transfer correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parameters varied include bypass gap width and surface roughness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface roughness causes increases in max fuel and coolant temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface roughness does not cause increase in outlet coolant temperature variation. - Abstract: Bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) occurs between graphite blocks as they sit side by side in the core. Bypass flow is not intentionally designed to occur in the reactor, but is present because of tolerances in manufacture, imperfect installation and expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. It is desired to increase the knowledge of the effects of such flow; it has been suggested that it may be as much as 20% of the total helium coolant flow [INL Report 2007, INL/EXT-07-13289]. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations can provide estimates of the scale and impacts of bypass flow. Previous CFD calculations have examined the effects of bypass gap width, level and distribution of heat generation and effects of shrinkage. The present contribution examines the effects of graphite surface roughness on the bypass flow for different relative roughness factors for three gap widths. Such calculations should be validated using specific bypass flow measurements. While such experiments are currently underway for the specific reference prismatic HTGR design for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) program of the U.S. Dept. of Energy, the data are not yet available. To enhance confidence in the present calculations, wall shear stress and heat transfer results for several turbulence models and their associated wall treatments are first compared for steady flow in a
Statistics of zero crossings in rough interfaces with fractional elasticity
Zamorategui, Arturo L.; Lecomte, Vivien; Kolton, Alejandro B.
2018-04-01
We study numerically the distribution of zero crossings in one-dimensional elastic interfaces described by an overdamped Langevin dynamics with periodic boundary conditions. We model the elastic forces with a Riesz-Feller fractional Laplacian of order z =1 +2 ζ , such that the interfaces spontaneously relax, with a dynamical exponent z , to a self-affine geometry with roughness exponent ζ . By continuously increasing from ζ =-1 /2 (macroscopically flat interface described by independent Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes [Phys. Rev. 36, 823 (1930), 10.1103/PhysRev.36.823]) to ζ =3 /2 (super-rough Mullins-Herring interface), three different regimes are identified: (I) -1 /2 value in the system size, or decays as a power-law towards (II) a subextensive or (III) an intensive value. In the steady state, the distribution of intervals between zeros changes from an exponential decay in (I) to a power-law decay P (ℓ ) ˜ℓ-γ in (II) and (III). While in (II) γ =1 -θ with θ =1 -ζ the steady-state persistence exponent, in (III) we obtain γ =3 -2 ζ , different from the exponent γ =1 expected from the prediction θ =0 for infinite super-rough interfaces with ζ >1 . The effect on P (ℓ ) of short-scale smoothening is also analyzed numerically and analytically. A tight relation between the mean interval, the mean width of the interface, and the density of zeros is also reported. The results drawn from our analysis of rough interfaces subject to particular boundary conditions or constraints, along with discretization effects, are relevant for the practical analysis of zeros in interface imaging experiments or in numerical analysis.
Narrow widths of old and new resonances
Pasupathy, J.
1977-01-01
A quantitative measure of the suppression factors involved in the pionic decays of mesons phi(1019) and f'(1514) as compared to their kaonic psi(3100) and psi(3700) decays are explained using the two different approaches, viz., the phenomenological S matrix approach and the field theoretical approach. The importance of the O-Z-I rule is brought out. The partial width GAMMA(phi → 3π) has been calculated using the dual model for the scattering kappa kappa(bar) → rhoπ. The effective coupling psi rho π is evaluated. The partial widths for psi → e + e - and psi → hadrons is calculated on a field theoretical approach. In conclusion, it appears that there are no serious objections to interpreting psi and psi' as cc - states. Most of their properties can be understood in a qualitative and in semi-quantitative way. (A.K.)
Exotic meson decay widths using lattice QCD
Cook, M. S.; Fiebig, H. R.
2006-01-01
A decay width calculation for a hybrid exotic meson h, with J PC =1 -+ , is presented for the channel h→πa 1 . This quenched lattice QCD simulation employs Luescher's finite box method. Operators coupling to the h and πa 1 states are used at various levels of smearing and fuzzing, and at four quark masses. Eigenvalues of the corresponding correlation matrices yield energy spectra that determine scattering phase shifts for a discrete set of relative πa 1 momenta. Although the phase shift data is sparse, fits to a Breit-Wigner model are attempted, resulting in a decay width of about 60 MeV when averaged over two lattice sizes having a lattice spacing of 0.07 fm
Analysis of reduced widths and size
Sharma, H.C.; Ram Raj; Nath, N.
1977-01-01
Recent data on S-wave neutron reduced widths for a large number of nuclei have been analysed nucleus-wise and the calculations for the degree of freedom of the associated (chi) 2 -distribution have been made using the Porter and Thomas procedure. It is noted that a number of nuclei can be fitted by a (chi) 2 -distribution with degree of freedom one, while there are few which are identified to follow a (chi) 2 -distribution with degree of freedom two and even more than two. The present analysis thus contradicts the usual presumption according to which the degree of freedom is taken to be always unity. An analytical attempt has also been made to ascertain the suitability of the data on reduced widths to be used for the analysis. These considerations are likely to modify the neutron cross-section evaluations. (author)
Meson widths from string worldsheet instantons
Faulkner, Thomas; Liu, Hong
2009-01-01
We show that open strings living on a D-brane which lies outside an AdS black hole can tunnel into the black hole through worldsheet instantons. These instantons have a simple interpretation in terms of thermal quarks in the dual Yang-Mills (YM) theory. As an application we calculate the width of a meson in a strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma which is described holographically as a massless mode on a D7 brane in AdS 5 xS 5 . While the width of the meson is zero to all orders in the 1/√(λ) expansion with λ the 't Hooft coupling, it receives non-perturbative contributions in 1/√(λ) from worldsheet instantons. We find that the width increases quadratically with momentum at large momentum and comment on potential phenomenological implications of this enhancement for heavy ion collisions. We also comment on how this non-perturbative effect has important consequences for the phase structure of the YM theory obtained in the classical gravity limit
Evaluation of arch width variations among different skeletal patterns in South Indian population.
Prasad, Mandava; Kannampallil, Senny Thomas; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; George, Suja Ani; Shetty, Sharath Kumar
2013-01-01
Anterior cranial base can be taken as a reference line (SN) to determine the steepness of mandibular plane. Subjects with high mandibular plane angle tend to have a long face and one with low MP-SN angle has a shorter face. This study was done to investigate if dental arch widths correlated with vertical facial types and if there are any differences in arch widths between untreated male and female adults in South Indian population. Lateral cephalogram and dental casts were obtained from 180 untreated South Indian adults (90 males and 90 females) above 18 year old with no cross bite, minimal crowding and spacing. The angle between the anterior cranial base and the mandibular plane was measured on lateral cephalogram of each patient. Dental casts were used to obtain comprehensive dental measurements including maxillary and mandibular inter canine, inter premolar and inter molar widths, as well as amount of crowding or spacing. The results showed that male arch widths were significantly larger than those of females (P population. The results obtained in our study when compared with studies done in other population groups showed that there is difference in inter arch widths according to ethnicity and race. It was concluded that the dental arch width is associated with gender, race and vertical facial morphology. Thus using individualized arch wires according to each patient's pre treatment arch form and width is suggested during orthodontic treatment.
Width and partial widths of unstable particles in the light of the Nielsen identities
Grassi, P.A.; Sirlin, A.; Kniehl, B.A.; Hamburg Univ.
2001-09-01
Fundamental properties of unstable particles, including mass, width, and partial widths, are examined on the basis of the Nielsen identities (NI) that describe the gauge dependence of Green functions. In particular, we prove that the pole residues and associated definitions of branching ratios and partial widths are gauge independent to all orders. A simpler, previously discussed definition of branching ratios and partial widths is found to be gauge independent through next-to-next-to-leading order. It is then explained how it may be modified in order to extend the gauge independence to all orders. We also show that the physical scattering amplitude is the most general combination of self-energy, vertex, and box contributions that is gauge independent for arbitrary s, discuss the analytical properties of the NI functions, and exhibit explicitly their one-loop expressions in the Z-γ sector of the Standard Model. (orig.)
Width and partial widths of unstable particles in the light of the Nielsen identities
Grassi, Pietro A.; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Sirlin, Alberto
2002-01-01
Fundamental properties of unstable particles, including mass, width, and partial widths, are examined on the basis of the Nielsen identities (NI) that describe the gauge dependence of Green functions. In particular, we prove that the pole residues and associated definitions of branching ratios and partial widths are gauge independent to all orders. A simpler, previously discussed definition of branching ratios and partial widths is found to be gauge independent through next-to-next-to-leading order. It is then explained how it may be modified in order to extend the gauge independence to all orders. We also show that the physical scattering amplitude is the most general combination of self-energy, vertex, and box contributions that is gauge independent for arbitrary s, discuss the analytical properties of the NI functions, and exhibit explicitly their one-loop expressions in the Z-γ sector of the standard model
Modified model of neutron resonance widths distribution. Results of total gamma-widths approximation
Sukhovoj, A.M.; Khitrov, V.A.
2011-01-01
Functional dependences of probability to observe given Γ n 0 value and algorithms for determination of the most probable magnitudes of the modified model of resonance parameter distributions were used for analysis of the experimental data on the total radiative widths of neutron resonances. As in the case of neutron widths, precise description of the Γ γ spectra requires a superposition of three and more probability distributions for squares of the random normally distributed values with different nonzero average and nonunit dispersion. This result confirms the preliminary conclusion obtained earlier at analysis of Γ n 0 that practically in all 56 tested sets of total gamma widths there are several groups noticeably differing from each other by the structure of their wave functions. In addition, it was determined that radiative widths are much more sensitive than the neutron ones to resonance wave functions structure. Analysis of early obtained neutron reduced widths distribution parameters for 157 resonance sets in the mass region of nuclei 35 ≤ A ≤ 249 was also performed. It was shown that the experimental values of widths can correspond with high probability to superposition of several expected independent distributions with their nonzero mean values and nonunit dispersion
Within-footprint roughness measurements using ICESat/GLAS waveform and LVIS elevation
Li, Xiaolu; Xu, Kai; Xu, Lijun
2016-01-01
The surface roughness is an important characteristic over an ice sheet or glacier, since it is an identification of boundary-layer meteorology and is an important limiter on the accuracy of surface-height measurements. In this paper, we propose a simulation method to derive the within-footprint roughness (called simulation-derived roughness) using ICESat/GLAS echo waveform, laser vegetation imaging sensor (LVIS) elevations, and laser profile array (LPA) images of ICESat/GLAS. By dividing the within-footprint surface into several elements, a simulation echo waveform can be obtained as the sum of the elementary pulses reflected from each surface element. The elevation of the surface elements, which is utilized to get the return time of the elementary pulses, is implemented based on an LVIS interpolated elevation using a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. The intensity of the elementary pulses can be obtained from the thresholded LPA images. Based on the return time and the intensity of the elementary pulses, we used the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method to approximate the simulation waveform to the ICESat/GLAS echo waveform. The full width at half maximum) (FWHM) of the elementary pulse was extracted from the simulation waveform for estimating the simulation-derived roughness. By comparing with the elevation-derived roughness (derived from the elevation) and the waveform-derived roughness (derived from the ICESat/GLAS waveform), the proposed algorithm can exclude the slope effect from waveform width broadening for describing the roughness of the surface elements. (paper)
Simplified Approach to Predicting Rough Surface Transition
Boyle, Robert J.; Stripf, Matthias
2009-01-01
Turbine vane heat transfer predictions are given for smooth and rough vanes where the experimental data show transition moving forward on the vane as the surface roughness physical height increases. Consiste nt with smooth vane heat transfer, the transition moves forward for a fixed roughness height as the Reynolds number increases. Comparison s are presented with published experimental data. Some of the data ar e for a regular roughness geometry with a range of roughness heights, Reynolds numbers, and inlet turbulence intensities. The approach ta ken in this analysis is to treat the roughness in a statistical sense , consistent with what would be obtained from blades measured after e xposure to actual engine environments. An approach is given to determ ine the equivalent sand grain roughness from the statistics of the re gular geometry. This approach is guided by the experimental data. A roughness transition criterion is developed, and comparisons are made with experimental data over the entire range of experimental test co nditions. Additional comparisons are made with experimental heat tran sfer data, where the roughness geometries are both regular as well a s statistical. Using the developed analysis, heat transfer calculatio ns are presented for the second stage vane of a high pressure turbine at hypothetical engine conditions.
Stark width regularities within spectral series of the lithium isoelectronic sequence
Tapalaga, Irinel; Trklja, Nora; Dojčinović, Ivan P.; Purić, Jagoš
2018-03-01
Stark width regularities within spectral series of the lithium isoelectronic sequence have been studied in an approach that includes both neutrals and ions. The influence of environmental conditions and certain atomic parameters on the Stark widths of spectral lines has been investigated. This study gives a simple model for the calculation of Stark broadening data for spectral lines within the lithium isoelectronic sequence. The proposed model requires fewer parameters than any other model. The obtained relations were used for predictions of Stark widths for transitions that have not yet been measured or calculated. In the framework of the present research, three algorithms for fast data processing have been made and they enable quality control and provide verification of the theoretically calculated results.
Rock discontinuity surface roughness variation with scale
Bitenc, Maja; Kieffer, D. Scott; Khoshelham, Kourosh
2017-04-01
ABSTRACT: Rock discontinuity surface roughness refers to local departures of the discontinuity surface from planarity and is an important factor influencing the shear resistance. In practice, the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) roughness parameter is commonly relied upon and input to a shear strength criterion such as developed by Barton and Choubey [1977]. The estimation of roughness by JRC is hindered firstly by the subjective nature of visually comparing the joint profile to the ten standard profiles. Secondly, when correlating the standard JRC values and other objective measures of roughness, the roughness idealization is limited to a 2D profile of 10 cm length. With the advance of measuring technologies that provide accurate and high resolution 3D data of surface topography on different scales, new 3D roughness parameters have been developed. A desirable parameter is one that describes rock surface geometry as well as the direction and scale dependency of roughness. In this research a 3D roughness parameter developed by Grasselli [2001] and adapted by Tatone and Grasselli [2009] is adopted. It characterizes surface topography as the cumulative distribution of local apparent inclination of asperities with respect to the shear strength (analysis) direction. Thus, the 3D roughness parameter describes the roughness amplitude and anisotropy (direction dependency), but does not capture the scale properties. In different studies the roughness scale-dependency has been attributed to data resolution or size of the surface joint (see a summary of researches in [Tatone and Grasselli, 2012]). Clearly, the lower resolution results in lower roughness. On the other hand, have the investigations of surface size effect produced conflicting results. While some studies have shown a decrease in roughness with increasing discontinuity size (negative scale effect), others have shown the existence of positive scale effects, or both positive and negative scale effects. We
Nuclear structure effects on alpha reduced widths
Toth, K.S.; Ellis-Akovali, Y.A.; Kim, H.J.; McConnell, J.W.
1987-01-01
A review of α widths for s-wave transitions is presented together with a discussion of the following topics: (1) a new determination of the 218 Ra half-life and its relation to reflection asymmetry in nuclei near N = 130, (2) a measurement of the 194 Pb α-decay rate and the influence of the Z = 82 gap on neutron-deficient Pb nuclei, and (3) an up-date of α-decay-rate systematics for isotopes in the rare earth and medium-weight mass regions. 16 refs., 6 figs
Statistical analysis of partial reduced width distributions
Tran Quoc Thuong.
1973-01-01
The aim of this study was to develop rigorous methods for analysing experimental event distributions according to a law in chi 2 and to check if the number of degrees of freedom ν is compatible with the value 1 for the reduced neutron width distribution. Two statistical methods were used (the maximum-likelihood method and the method of moments); it was shown, in a few particular cases, that ν is compatible with 1. The difference between ν and 1, if it exists, should not exceed 3%. These results confirm the validity of the compound nucleus model [fr
Resolving single bubble sonoluminescence flask width
Arakeri, Vijay H
1998-01-01
Single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL), first studied and observed by Gaitan et al., is the of light emission from a single gas bubble trapped at the pressure maximum of a resonant sound field in a liquid medium, generally water. One of the most striking aspects of SBSL was the estimated optical flash width being less than 50 picoseconds (ps)3; this upper estimate was based on the relative response of a SBSL flash in comparison to a 34 ps laser pulse using a microchannel platephotomultiplier ...
Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pedersen, Peter C.; Jacobsen, Søren Mehl
2001-01-01
B width for a 25.4 mm diameter 5-MHz planar and focused transducer was approximately 0.5/spl deg/ and 4/spl deg/ (at the focal point), respectively. E(0/spl deg/) as a function of surface roughness, R/sub q/, was nearly linear on a decibel scale, with a slope of -109 dB/(R/sub q///spl lambda/) and -61 d...
Scaling of localization length of a quasi 1D system with longitudinal boundary roughness
Abhijit Kar Gupta; Sen, A.K.
1994-08-01
We introduce irregularities on one of the longitudinal boundaries of a quasi 1D strip which has no bulk disorder. We calculate the localization length of such a system within the scope of tight-binding formalism and see how it behaves with the roughness introduced on the boundary and with the strip-width. We find that localization length scales with a composite one parameter. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs
Rough surface mitigates electron and gas emission
Molvik, A.
2004-01-01
Heavy-ion beams impinging on surfaces near grazing incidence (to simulate the loss of halo ions) generate copious amounts of electrons and gas that can degrade the beam. We measured emission coefficients of η e (le) 130 and η 0 ∼ 10 4 respectively, with 1 MeV K + incident on stainless steel. Electron emission scales as η e ∝ 1/cos(θ), where θ is the ion angle of incidence relative to normal. If we were to roughen a surface by blasting it with glass beads, then ions that were near grazing incidence (90 o ) on smooth surface would strike the rims of the micro-craters at angles closer to normal incidence. This should reduce the electron emission: the factor of 10 reduction, Fig. 1(a), implies an average angle of incidence of 62 o . Gas desorption varies more slowly with θ (Fig. 1(b)) decreasing a factor of ∼2, and along with the electron emission is independent of the angle of incidence on a rough surface. In a quadrupole magnet, electrons emitted by lost primary ions are trapped near the wall by the magnetic field, but grazing incidence ions can backscatter and strike the wall a second time at an azimuth where magnetic field lines intercept the beam. Then, electrons can exist throughout the beam (see the simulations of Cohen, HIF News 1-2/04). The SRIM (TRIM) Monte Carlo code predicts that 60-70% of 1 MeV K + ions backscatter when incident at 88-89 o from normal on a smooth surface. The scattered ions are mostly within ∼10 o of the initial direction but a few scatter by up to 90 o . Ion scattering decreases rapidly away from grazing incidence, Fig. 1(c ). At 62 deg. the predicted ion backscattering (from a rough surface) is 3%, down a factor of 20 from the peak, which should significantly reduce electrons in the beam from lost halo ions. These results are published in Phys. Rev. ST - Accelerators and Beams
A rough set approach for determining weights of decision makers in group decision making.
Yang, Qiang; Du, Ping-An; Wang, Yong; Liang, Bin
2017-01-01
This study aims to present a novel approach for determining the weights of decision makers (DMs) based on rough group decision in multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems. First, we construct a rough group decision matrix from all DMs' decision matrixes on the basis of rough set theory. After that, we derive a positive ideal solution (PIS) founded on the average matrix of rough group decision, and negative ideal solutions (NISs) founded on the lower and upper limit matrixes of rough group decision. Then, we obtain the weight of each group member and priority order of alternatives by using relative closeness method, which depends on the distances from each individual group member' decision to the PIS and NISs. Through comparisons with existing methods and an on-line business manager selection example, the proposed method show that it can provide more insights into the subjectivity and vagueness of DMs' evaluations and selections.
Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger
Slicker, James M.
1985-01-01
An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a "flyback" DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.
Influence of diffuse goiter on tracheal width
Baik, Sung Mo; Shon, Hyung Sun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee
1980-01-01
The radioisotopic scanning of the thyroid gland is well established method of demonstrating morphology of the thyroid gland and is used to measure the size, area and weight of thyroid gland. The purpose of this investigation is to observe the various effects of goiter to the regional trachea. Both radioisotopic scanning and roentgenogram were taken at the same time to evaluate size, area and weight of the thyroid glands, as well as to measure the width of soft tissue structure of the neck and the regional trachea in normal and goitrous patients. The clinical materials consisted of normal thyroid group for control (46 cases), diffuse simple goiter group (76 cases) and Graves' disease group (59 cases). The results were as follows; 1. The goiter causes some narrowing of the regional trachea to various degree which is not necessarily reflective of the size of goiter. 2. The goiter may increase the width of retrotracheal soft tissue space. 3. The lateral roentgenogram of the neck appear very useful in estimating the thyroid gland three dimensionally and the effect of goiter to the regional trachea
Bed roughness experiments in supply limited conditions
Spekkers, Matthieu; Tuijnder, Arjan; Ribberink, Jan S.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Parsons, D.R.; Garlan, T.; Best, J.L.
2008-01-01
Reliable roughness models are of great importance, for example, when predicting water levels in rivers. The currently available roughness models are based on fully mobile bed conditions. However, in rivers where widely graded sediments are present more or less permanent armour layers can develop
Axiomatic Characterizations of IVF Rough Approximation Operators
Guangji Yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of axiomatic characterizations of IVF rough approximation operators. IVF approximation spaces are investigated. The fact that different IVF operators satisfy some axioms to guarantee the existence of different types of IVF relations which produce the same operators is proved and then IVF rough approximation operators are characterized by axioms.
Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence
Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben Adriaan; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander Gerard; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2018-01-01
Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by
Kono, Hitoshi; Fujimoto, Akira; Nakano, Hiroshi
1988-03-31
In recent years, in order to attain a total quantity regulation of air pollution and to prepare a local air-control program, a diffusion simulation is often made using a Gaussian plume model. NOx diffusion simulation of the urban area was carried out using a vertical diffusion width by taking a parameter of ground-surface roughness using Smith's correction to the Gaussian model. For the diffusion of car exhaust gas, comparison was made for the estimate and the measurement by jointly using the values of ground-surface roughness and the initial diffusion width. As a result, change in the diffusion width of the car exhaust gas due to the urban buildings was expressed at a necessary practical level by giving the height of the point of calculation, 1 - 3 m in the central part and 30 cm at the peripheral part, and giving the initial diffusion width of roughly half to equal size of initial diffusion width to the average height of the buildings. (2 figs, 8 tabs, 20 refs)
Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires
Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel; Papadakis, Stergios J.; Gracias, David H.
2010-01-01
Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.
Modeling surface roughness scattering in metallic nanowires
Moors, Kristof, E-mail: kristof@itf.fys.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sorée, Bart [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); KU Leuven, Electrical Engineering (ESAT) Department, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Magnus, Wim [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)
2015-09-28
Ando's model provides a rigorous quantum-mechanical framework for electron-surface roughness scattering, based on the detailed roughness structure. We apply this method to metallic nanowires and improve the model introducing surface roughness distribution functions on a finite domain with analytical expressions for the average surface roughness matrix elements. This approach is valid for any roughness size and extends beyond the commonly used Prange-Nee approximation. The resistivity scaling is obtained from the self-consistent relaxation time solution of the Boltzmann transport equation and is compared to Prange-Nee's approach and other known methods. The results show that a substantial drop in resistivity can be obtained for certain diameters by achieving a large momentum gap between Fermi level states with positive and negative momentum in the transport direction.
Suppression of intrinsic roughness in encapsulated graphene
Thomsen, Joachim Dahl; Gunst, Tue; Gregersen, Søren Schou
2017-01-01
Roughness in graphene is known to contribute to scattering effects which lower carrier mobility. Encapsulating graphene in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) leads to a significant reduction in roughness and has become the de facto standard method for producing high-quality graphene devices. We have...... fabricated graphene samples encapsulated by hBN that are suspended over apertures in a substrate and used noncontact electron diffraction measurements in a transmission electron microscope to measure the roughness of encapsulated graphene inside such structures. We furthermore compare the roughness...... of these samples to suspended bare graphene and suspended graphene on hBN. The suspended heterostructures display a root mean square (rms) roughness down to 12 pm, considerably less than that previously reported for both suspended graphene and graphene on any substrate and identical within experimental error...
Study on the Light Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces by Kirrhoff Approximation
Keding Yan
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In order to study the space distribution characteristics of light scattering from random rough surfaces, the linear filtering method is used to generate a series of Gaussian randomly rough surfaces, and the Kirchhoff Approximation is used to calculate the scattered light intensity distribution from random metal and dielectric rough surfaces. The three characteristics of the scattered light intensity distribution peak, the intensity distribution width and the position of peak are reviewed. Numerical calculation results show that significant differences between scattering characteristics of metal surfaces and the dielectric surfaces exist. The light scattering characteristics are jointly influenced by the slope distribution and reflectance of surface element. The scattered light intensity distribution is affected by common influence of surface local slope distribution and surface local reflectivity. The results can provide a basis theory for the research to lidar target surface scattering characteristics.
Constraints on the outer radius of the broad emission line region of active galactic nuclei
Landt, Hermine; Ward, Martin J.; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita
2014-03-01
Here we present observational evidence that the broad emission line region (BELR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) generally has an outer boundary. This was already clear for sources with an obvious transition between the broad and narrow components of their emission lines. We show that the narrow component of the higher-order Paschen lines is absent in all sources, revealing a broad emission line profile with a broad, flat top. This indicates that the BELR is kinematically separate from the narrow emission line region. We use the virial theorem to estimate the BELR outer radius from the flat top width of the unblended profiles of the strongest Paschen lines, Paα and Paβ, and find that it scales with the ionizing continuum luminosity roughly as expected from photoionization theory. The value of the incident continuum photon flux resulting from this relationship corresponds to that required for dust sublimation. A flat-topped broad emission line profile is produced by both a spherical gas distribution in orbital motion and an accretion disc wind if the ratio between the BELR outer and inner radius is assumed to be less than ˜100-200. On the other hand, a pure Keplerian disc can be largely excluded, since for most orientations and radial extents of the disc the emission line profile is double-horned.
Direct measurement of the W boson width
Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U. /Northeastern U.
2009-09-01
We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W {yields} e{nu} candidates selected in 1 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 {+-} 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model and is the most precise direct measurement result from a single experiment to date.
Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...
Surface roughness effects on turbulent Couette flow
Lee, Young Mo; Lee, Jae Hwa
2017-11-01
Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent Couette flow with two-dimensional (2-D) rod roughness is performed to examine the effects of the surface roughness. The Reynolds number based on the channel centerline laminar velocity (Uco) and channel half height (h) is Re =7200. The 2-D rods are periodically arranged with a streamwise pitch of λ = 8 k on the bottom wall, and the roughness height is k = 0.12 h. It is shown that the wall-normal extent for the logarithmic layer is significantly shortened in the rough-wall turbulent Couette flow, compared to a turbulent Couette flow with smooth wall. Although the Reynolds stresses are increased in a turbulent channel flow with surface roughness in the outer layer due to large-scale ejection motions produced by the 2-D rods, those of the rough-wall Couette flow are decreased. Isosurfaces of the u-structures averaged in time suggest that the decrease of the turbulent activity near the centerline is associated with weakened large-scale counter-rotating roll modes by the surface roughness. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1A09000537) and the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2017R1A5A1015311).
Half-width at half-maximum, full-width at half-maximum analysis
addition to the well-defined parameter full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). The distribution of ... optical side-lobes in the diffraction pattern resulting in steep central maxima [6], reduc- tion of effects of ... and broad central peak. The idea of.
Barros, Julio; Flack, Karen; Schultz, Michael
2017-11-01
Real-world engineering systems which feature either external or internal wall-bounded turbulent flow are routinely affected by surface roughness. This gives rise to performance degradation in the form of increased drag or head loss. However, at present there is no reliable means to predict these performance losses based upon the roughness topography alone. This work takes a systematic approach by generating random surface roughness in which the surface statistics are closely controlled. Skin friction and roughness function results will be presented for two groups of these rough surfaces. The first group is Gaussian (i.e. zero skewness) in which the root-mean-square roughness height (krms) is varied. The second group has a fixed krms, and the skewness is varied from approximately -1 to +1. The effect of the roughness amplitude and skewness on the skin friction will be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the effect of these parameters on the roughness function in the transitionally-rough flow regime. For example, the role these parameters play in the monotonic or inflectional nature of the roughness function will be addressed. Future research into the details of the turbulence structure over these rough surfaces will also be outlined. Research funded by U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR).
Numerical Schemes for Rough Parabolic Equations
Deya, Aurelien, E-mail: deya@iecn.u-nancy.fr [Universite de Nancy 1, Institut Elie Cartan Nancy (France)
2012-04-15
This paper is devoted to the study of numerical approximation schemes for a class of parabolic equations on (0,1) perturbed by a non-linear rough signal. It is the continuation of Deya (Electron. J. Probab. 16:1489-1518, 2011) and Deya et al. (Probab. Theory Relat. Fields, to appear), where the existence and uniqueness of a solution has been established. The approach combines rough paths methods with standard considerations on discretizing stochastic PDEs. The results apply to a geometric 2-rough path, which covers the case of the multidimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index H>1/3.
Characterizing graphs of maximum matching width at most 2
Jeong, Jisu; Ok, Seongmin; Suh, Geewon
2017-01-01
The maximum matching width is a width-parameter that is de ned on a branch-decomposition over the vertex set of a graph. The size of a maximum matching in the bipartite graph is used as a cut-function. In this paper, we characterize the graphs of maximum matching width at most 2 using the minor o...
Kornbluth, Y. S.; Mathews, R. H.; Parameswaran, L.; Racz, L. M.; Velásquez-García, L. F.
2018-04-01
We report the design, modelling, and proof-of-concept demonstration of a continuously fed, atmospheric-pressure microplasma metal sputterer that is capable of printing conductive lines narrower than the width of the target without the need for post-processing or lithographic patterning. Ion drag-induced focusing is harnessed to print narrow lines; the focusing mechanism is modelled via COMSOL Multiphysics simulations and validated with experiments. A microplasma sputter head with gold target is constructed and used to deposit imprints with minimum feature sizes as narrow as 9 µm, roughness as small as 55 nm, and electrical resistivity as low as 1.1 µΩ · m.
CO2 laser direct writing of silver lines on epoxy resin from solid film
Liu, J.G.; Chen, C.H.; Zheng, J.S.; Huang, J.Y.
2005-01-01
A technique of CO 2 laser direct writing from solid film was proposed in this paper. Patterns of silver lines were locally deposited on the non-conductive substrate using a preset layer of silver compound solid film, which was irradiated by focused CO 2 laser beam. The deposits were analyzed by XPS and EPMA. Results showed that metallic silver was dominant with an even distribution on the surface of the substrate, and part of the deposited silver had diffused into the substrate interior. The deposits had catalytic activity for the further electroless copper plating and had strong adhesion to the substrate. At last, the deposition mechanism and the dependence of the width of silver lines on the laser power and scan speed were roughly explored
Measurement of inner wall limiter SOL widths in KSTAR tokamak
J.G. Bak
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Scrape-off layer (SOL widths λq are presented from the KSTAR tokamak using fast reciprocating Langmuir probe assembly (FRLPA measurements at the outboard mid-plane (OMP and the infra-Red (IR thermography at inboard limiter tiles in moderately elongated (κ = 1.45 – 1.55 L-mode inner wall-limited (IWL plasmas under experimental conditions such as BT = 2.0 T, PNBI = 1.4 – 1.5 MW, line averaged densities 2.5 – 5.1 × 1019 m−3 and plasma current Ip = 0.4 − 0.7 MA. There is clear evidence for a double exponential structure in q||(r from the FRLPA such that, for example at Ip = 0.6 MA, a narrow feature, λq,near (=3.5 mm is found close to the LFCS, followed by a broader width, λq,main (=57.0 mm. Double exponential profiles (λq,near = 1.5 – 2.8 mm, λq,main = 17.0 – 35.0 mm can be also observed in the IR heat flux mapped to the OMP throughout the range of Ip investigated. In addition, analysis of SOL turbulence statistics obtained with the FRLPA shows high relative fluctuation levels and positively skewed distributions in electron temperature and ion particle flux across the SOL, with both properties increasing for longer distance from the LCFS, as often previously observed in the tokamaks. Interestingly, the fluctuation character expressed in terms of spectral distributions remains unchanged in passing from the narrow to the broad SOL heat flux channel.
Spin Hall effect by surface roughness
Zhou, Lingjun; Grigoryan, Vahram L.; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Wang, Xuhui; Xiao, Jiang
2015-01-01
induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.
Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona
Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.
1973-01-01
When water flows in an open channel, energy is lost through friction along the banks and bed of the channel and through turbulence within the channel. The amount of energy lost is governed by channel roughness, which is expressed in terms of a roughness coefficient. An evaluation of the roughness coefficient is necessary in many hydraulic computations that involve flow in an open channel. Owing to the lack of satisfactory quantitative procedure, the ability of evaluate roughness coefficients can be developed only through experience; however, a basic knowledge of the methods used to assign the coefficients and the factors affecting them will be a great help. One of the most commonly used equations in open-channel hydraulics is that of Manning. The Manning equation is 1.486
Investigation on Surface Roughness in Cylindrical Grinding
Rudrapati, Ramesh; Bandyopadhyay, Asish; Pal, Pradip Kumar
2011-01-01
Cylindrical grinding is a complex machining process. And surface roughness is often a key factor in any machining process while considering the machine tool or machining performance. Further, surface roughness is one of the measures of the technological quality of the product and is a factor that greatly influences cost and quality. The present work is related to some aspects of surface finish in the context of traverse-cut cylindrical grinding. The parameters considered have been: infeed, longitudinal feed and work speed. Taguchi quality design is used to design the experiments and to identify the significantly import parameter(s) affecting the surface roughness. By utilization of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), second order differential equation has been developed and attempts have also been made for optimization of the process in the context of surface roughness by using C- programming.
Rough horizontal plates: heat transfer and hysteresis
Tisserand, J-C; Gasteuil, Y; Pabiou, H; Castaing, B; Chilla, F [Universite de Lyon, ENS Lyon, CNRS, 46 Allee d' ltalie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 7 (France); Creyssels, M [LMFA, CNRS, Ecole Centrale Lyon, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Gibert, M, E-mail: mathieu.creyssels@ec-lyon.fr [Also at MPI-DS (LFPN) Gottingen (Germany)
2011-12-22
To investigate the influence of a rough-wall boundary layer on turbulent heat transport, an experiment of high-Rayleigh convection in water is carried out in a Rayleigh-Benard cell with a rough lower plate and a smooth upper plate. A transition in the heat transport is observed when the thermal boundary layer thickness becomes comparable to or smaller than the roughness height. Besides, at larger Rayleigh numbers than the threshold value, heat transport is found to be increased up to 60%. This enhancement cannot be explained simply by an increase in the contact area of the rough surface since the contact area is increased only by a factor of 40%. Finally, a simple model is proposed to explain the enhanced heat transport.
Surface excitation parameter for rough surfaces
Da, Bo; Salma, Khanam; Ji, Hui; Mao, Shifeng; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiaoping; Ding, Zejun
2015-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Instead of providing a general mathematical model of roughness, we directly use a finite element triangle mesh method to build a fully 3D rough surface from the practical sample. • The surface plasmon excitation can be introduced to the realistic sample surface by dielectric response theory and finite element method. • We found that SEP calculated based on ideal plane surface model are still reliable for real sample surface with common roughness. - Abstract: In order to assess quantitatively the importance of surface excitation effect in surface electron spectroscopy measurement, surface excitation parameter (SEP) has been introduced to describe the surface excitation probability as an average number of surface excitations that electrons can undergo when they move through solid surface either in incoming or outgoing directions. Meanwhile, surface roughness is an inevitable issue in experiments particularly when the sample surface is cleaned with ion beam bombardment. Surface roughness alters not only the electron elastic peak intensity but also the surface excitation intensity. However, almost all of the popular theoretical models for determining SEP are based on ideal plane surface approximation. In order to figure out whether this approximation is efficient or not for SEP calculation and the scope of this assumption, we proposed a new way to determine the SEP for a rough surface by a Monte Carlo simulation of electron scattering process near to a realistic rough surface, which is modeled by a finite element analysis method according to AFM image. The elastic peak intensity is calculated for different electron incident and emission angles. Assuming surface excitations obey the Poisson distribution the SEPs corrected for surface roughness are then obtained by analyzing the elastic peak intensity for several materials and for different incident and emission angles. It is found that the surface roughness only plays an
Small-Scale Surf Zone Geometric Roughness
2017-12-01
using stereo imagery techniques. A waterproof two- camera system with self-logging and internal power was developed using commercial-off-the-shelf...estimates. 14. SUBJECT TERMS surface roughness, nearshore, aerodynamic roughness, surf zone, structure from motion, 3D imagery 15. NUMBER OF... power was developed using commercial-off-the- shelf components and commercial software for operations 1m above the sea surface within the surf zone
How supercontinents and superoceans affect seafloor roughness.
Whittaker, Joanne M; Müller, R Dietmar; Roest, Walter R; Wessel, Paul; Smith, Walter H F
2008-12-18
Seafloor roughness varies considerably across the world's ocean basins and is fundamental to controlling the circulation and mixing of heat in the ocean and dissipating eddy kinetic energy. Models derived from analyses of active mid-ocean ridges suggest that ocean floor roughness depends on seafloor spreading rates, with rougher basement forming below a half-spreading rate threshold of 30-35 mm yr(-1) (refs 4, 5), as well as on the local interaction of mid-ocean ridges with mantle plumes or cold-spots. Here we present a global analysis of marine gravity-derived roughness, sediment thickness, seafloor isochrons and palaeo-spreading rates of Cretaceous to Cenozoic ridge flanks. Our analysis reveals that, after eliminating effects related to spreading rate and sediment thickness, residual roughness anomalies of 5-20 mGal remain over large swaths of ocean floor. We found that the roughness as a function of palaeo-spreading directions and isochron orientations indicates that most of the observed excess roughness is not related to spreading obliquity, as this effect is restricted to relatively rare occurrences of very high obliquity angles (>45 degrees ). Cretaceous Atlantic ocean floor, formed over mantle previously overlain by the Pangaea supercontinent, displays anomalously low roughness away from mantle plumes and is independent of spreading rates. We attribute this observation to a sub-Pangaean supercontinental mantle temperature anomaly leading to slightly thicker than normal Late Jurassic and Cretaceous Atlantic crust, reduced brittle fracturing and smoother basement relief. In contrast, ocean crust formed above Pacific superswells, probably reflecting metasomatized lithosphere underlain by mantle at only slightly elevated temperatures, is not associated with basement roughness anomalies. These results highlight a fundamental difference in the nature of large-scale mantle upwellings below supercontinents and superoceans, and their impact on oceanic crustal
Role of surface roughness in superlubricity
Tartaglino, U; Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J
2006-01-01
We study the sliding of elastic solids in adhesive contact with flat and rough interfaces. We consider the dependence of the sliding friction on the elastic modulus of the solids. For elastically hard solids with planar surfaces with incommensurate surface structures we observe extremely low friction (superlubricity), which very abruptly increases as the elastic modulus decreases. We show that even a relatively small surface roughness may completely kill the superlubricity state
Global synchronization of parallel processors using clock pulse width modulation
Chen, Dong; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Franke, Ross L.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Littrell, Daniel; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D.; Schenck, Brandon E.; Swetz, Richard A.
2013-04-02
A circuit generates a global clock signal with a pulse width modification to synchronize processors in a parallel computing system. The circuit may include a hardware module and a clock splitter. The hardware module may generate a clock signal and performs a pulse width modification on the clock signal. The pulse width modification changes a pulse width within a clock period in the clock signal. The clock splitter may distribute the pulse width modified clock signal to a plurality of processors in the parallel computing system.
Beam-width spreading of vortex beams in free space
Wang, Weiwei; Li, Jinhong; Duan, Meiling
2018-01-01
Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the definition of second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function, the analytical expression for the beam-width spreading of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) vortex beams in free space are derived, and used to study the influence of beam parameters on the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams. With the increment of the propagation distance, the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams will increase; the bigger the topological charge, spatial correlation length, wavelength and waist width are, the smaller the beam-width spreading is.
Narrow-width mechanism of a=5 Ξ-state
Kumagai-Fuse, I.; Akaishi, Y.
1995-04-01
Narrow-width mechanism of ≡ 5 H is discussed by calculating conversion widths to all its possible decay channels. Since the conversion processes have small reaction Q values, the three- and four- body decays are strongly suppressed owing to small phase volumes available. Decay widths to the two-body channels are significantly reduced by the distortion of emitted-particle waves. This mechanism brings about a narrow width of ≡ 5 H. The total width is estimated to be 0.87 MeV, in which the largest contribution comes from the decay into the Λ 4 H * +Λ channel. (author)
Measured pulse width of sonoluminescence flashes in the form of resonance radiation
Giri, Asis; Arakeri, Vijay H.
1998-09-01
Recent studies have shown that the measured flash widths from single and multibubble sonoluminescence are in subnanosecond or even picosecond regime. Here, we provide conclusive evidence for the existence of nanosecond multibubble sonoluminescence. This has become possible by our ability to find a medium from which exclusive sodium D line resonance radiation as a form of sonoluminescence is possible. The measured flash width of this emission is found to be in the range of tens of nanoseconds and is sensitively dependent on experimental parameters. Our finding is important since all the earlier pulse width measurements have been limited to emission with the physical source or species responsible for observed optical radiation not being clearly identified. We propose that the presently observed resonance radiation is from ``soft'' bubble collapse as analyzed by V. Kamath et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 248 (1993)].
Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence
Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander G.; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2018-04-01
Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by combining extensive experiments and numerical simulations, we examine the paradigmatic Taylor-Couette system, which describes the closed flow between two independently rotating coaxial cylinders. We show how wall roughness greatly enhances the overall transport properties and the corresponding scaling exponents associated with wall-bounded turbulence. We reveal that if only one of the walls is rough, the bulk velocity is slaved to the rough side, due to the much stronger coupling to that wall by the detaching flow structures. If both walls are rough, the viscosity dependence is eliminated, giving rise to asymptotic ultimate turbulence—the upper limit of transport—the existence of which was predicted more than 50 years ago. In this limit, the scaling laws can be extrapolated to arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers.
Pepper, D.W.; Long, P.E.
1978-01-01
The method of moments is used with and without a a width-correction technique to solve the advection of a passive scalar. The method of moments is free of numerical dispersion but suffers from numerical diffusion (damping). In order to assess the effect of the width-correction procedure on reducing numerical diffusion, both versions are used to advect a passive scalar in straight-line and rotational wind fields. Although the width-correction procedure reduces numerical diffusion under some circumstances, the unmodified version of the second-moment procedure is better suited as a general method
GAP WIDTH STUDY IN LASER BUTT-WELDING
Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove
power : 2 and 2.6 kW and the focal point position : 0 and -1.2 mm. Quality of all the butt welds are destructively tested according to ISO 13919-1.Influences of the variable process parameters to the maximum allowable gap width are observed as (1) the maximum gap width is inversely related......In this paper the maximum allowable gap width in laser butt-welding is intensively studied. The gap width study (GWS) is performed on the material of SST of W1.4401 (AISI 316) under various welding conditions, which are the gap width : 0.00-0.50 mm, the welding speed : 0.5-2.0 m/min, the laser...... to the welding speed, (2) the larger laser power leads to the bigger maximum allowable gap width and (3) the focal point position has very little influence on the maximum gap width....
Kumar, K. Ravi; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Srinivas, B.; Venkateswarlu, D.; Pramod Kumar, G.; Shiva, Apireddi
2018-03-01
In solar air heater, artificial roughness on absorber plate become prominent technique to improving heat transfer rate of air flowing passage as a result of laminar sublayer. The selection of rib geometries plays important role on friction characteristics and heat transfer rate. Many researchers studying the roughness shapes over the years to investigate the effect of geometries on the performance of friction factor and heat transfer of the solar air heater. The present study made an attempt to develop the different rib shapes utilised for creating artificial rib roughness and its comparison to investigate higher performance of the geometries. The use of computational fluid dynamics software resulted in correlation of friction factor and heat transfer rate. The simulations studies were performed on 2D computational fluid dynamics model and analysed to identify the most effective parameters of relative roughness of the height, width and pitch on major considerations of friction factor and heat transfer. The Reynolds number is varied in a range from 3000 to 20000, in the current study and modelling has conducted on heat transfer and turbulence phenomena by using Reynolds number. The modelling results showed the formation of strong vortex in the main stream flow due to the right angle triangle roughness over the square, rectangle, improved rectangle and equilateral triangle geometries enhanced the heat transfer extension in the solar air heater. The simulation of the turbulence kinetic energy of the geometry suggests the local turbulence kinetic energy has been influenced strongly by the alignments of the right angle triangle.
Velocity distribution in a turbulent flow near a rough wall
Korsun, A. S.; Pisarevsky, M. I.; Fedoseev, V. N.; Kreps, M. V.
2017-11-01
Velocity distribution in the zone of developed wall turbulence, regardless of the conditions on the wall, is described by the well-known Prandtl logarithmic profile. In this distribution, the constant, that determines the value of the velocity, is determined by the nature of the interaction of the flow with the wall and depends on the viscosity of the fluid, the dynamic velocity, and the parameters of the wall roughness.In extreme cases depending on the ratio between the thickness of the viscous sublayer and the size of the roughness the constant takes on a value that does not depend on viscosity, or leads to a ratio for a smooth wall.It is essential that this logarithmic profile is the result not only of the Prandtl theory, but can be derived from general considerations of the theory of dimensions, and also follows from the condition of local equilibrium of generation and dissipation of turbulent energy in the wall area. This allows us to consider the profile as a universal law of velocity distribution in the wall area of a turbulent flow.The profile approximation up to the maximum speed line with subsequent integration makes possible to obtain the resistance law for channels of simple shape. For channels of complex shape with rough walls, the universal profile can be used to formulate the boundary condition when applied to the calculation of turbulence models.This paper presents an empirical model for determining the constant of the universal logarithmic profile. The zone of roughness is described by a set of parameters and is considered as a porous structure with variable porosity.
Dissolution of minerals with rough surfaces
de Assis, Thiago A.; Aarão Reis, Fábio D. A.
2018-05-01
We study dissolution of minerals with initial rough surfaces using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and a scaling approach. We consider a simple cubic lattice structure, a thermally activated rate of detachment of a molecule (site), and rough surface configurations produced by fractional Brownian motion algorithm. First we revisit the problem of dissolution of initial flat surfaces, in which the dissolution rate rF reaches an approximately constant value at short times and is controlled by detachment of step edge sites. For initial rough surfaces, the dissolution rate r at short times is much larger than rF ; after dissolution of some hundreds of molecular layers, r decreases by some orders of magnitude across several time decades. Meanwhile, the surface evolves through configurations of decreasing energy, beginning with dissolution of isolated sites, then formation of terraces with disordered boundaries, their growth, and final smoothing. A crossover time to a smooth configuration is defined when r = 1.5rF ; the surface retreat at the crossover is approximately 3 times the initial roughness and is temperature-independent, while the crossover time is proportional to the initial roughness and is controlled by step-edge site detachment. The initial dissolution process is described by the so-called rough rates, which are measured for fixed ratios between the surface retreat and the initial roughness. The temperature dependence of the rough rates indicates control by kink site detachment; in general, it suggests that rough rates are controlled by the weakest microscopic bonds during the nucleation and formation of the lowest energy configurations of the crystalline surface. Our results are related to recent laboratory studies which show enhanced dissolution in polished calcite surfaces. In the application to calcite dissolution in alkaline environment, the minimal values of recently measured dissolution rate spectra give rF ∼10-9 mol/(m2 s), and the calculated rate
Rough mill simulator version 3.0: an analysis tool for refining rough mill operations
Edward Thomas; Joel Weiss
2006-01-01
ROMI-3 is a rough mill computer simulation package designed to be used by both rip-first and chop-first rough mill operators and researchers. ROMI-3 allows users to model and examine the complex relationships among cutting bill, lumber grade mix, processing options, and their impact on rough mill yield and efficiency. Integrated into the ROMI-3 software is a new least-...
Nano rough micron patterned titanium for directing osteoblast morphology and adhesion
Sabrina Puckett
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Sabrina Puckett, Rajesh Pareta, Thomas J WebsterDivision of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Previous studies have demonstrated greater functions of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells on nanophase compared with conventional metals. Nanophase metals possess a biologically inspired nanostructured surface that mimics the dimensions of constituent components in bone, including collagen and hydroxyapatite. Not only do these components possess dimensions on the nanoscale, they are aligned in a parallel manner creating a defined orientation in bone. To date, research has yet to evaluate the effect that organized nanosurface features can have on the interaction of osteoblasts with material surfaces. Therefore, to determine if surface orientation of features can mediate osteoblast adhesion and morphology, this study investigated osteoblast function on patterned titanium substrates containing alternating regions of micron rough and nano rough surfaces prepared by novel electron beam evaporation techniques. This study was also interested in determining whether or not the size of the patterned regions had an effect on osteoblast behavior and alignment. Results indicated early controlled osteoblast alignment on these patterned materials as well as greater osteoblast adhesion on the nano rough regions of these patterned substrates. Interestingly, decreasing the width of the nano rough regions (from 80 µm to 22 µm on these patterned substrates resulted in a decreased number of osteoblasts adhering to these areas. Changes in the width of the nano rough regions also resulted in changes in osteoblast morphology, thus, suggesting there is an optimal pattern dimension that osteoblasts prefer. In summary, results of this study provided evidence that aligned nanophase metal features on the surface of titanium improved early osteoblast functions (morphology and adhesion promising for their long term functions, criteria necessary to improve
Mask roughness and its implications for LER at the 22- and 16-nm nodes
Naulleau, Patrick; George, Simi A.; McClinton, Brittany M.
2010-02-16
Line-edge roughness (LER) remains the most significant challenge facing the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resist. The mask, however, has been found to be a significant contributor to image-plane LER. This has long been expected based on modeling and has more recently been demonstrated experimentally. Problems arise from both mask-absorber LER as well as mask multilayer roughness leading to random phase variations in the reflected beam and consequently speckle. Understanding the implications this has on mask requirements for the 22-nm half pitch node and below is crucial. Modeling results indicate a replicated surface roughness (RSR) specification of 50 pm and a ruthenium capping layer roughness specification of 440 pm. Moreover, modeling indicates that it is crucial to achieve the current ITRS specifications for mask absorber LER which is significantly smaller than current capabilities.
Mitigating mask roughness via pupil filtering
Baylav, B.; Maloney, C.; Levinson, Z.; Bekaert, J.; Vaglio Pret, A.; Smith, B.
2014-03-01
The roughness present on the sidewalls of lithographically defined patterns imposes a very important challenge for advanced technology nodes. It can originate from the aerial image or the photoresist chemistry/processing [1]. The latter remains to be the dominant group in ArF and KrF lithography; however, the roughness originating from the mask transferred to the aerial image is gaining more attention [2-9], especially for the imaging conditions with large mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) values. The mask roughness contribution is usually in the low frequency range, which is particularly detrimental to the device performance by causing variations in electrical device parameters on the same chip [10-12]. This paper explains characteristic differences between pupil plane filtering in amplitude and in phase for the purpose of mitigating mask roughness transfer under interference-like lithography imaging conditions, where onedirectional periodic features are to be printed by partially coherent sources. A white noise edge roughness was used to perturbate the mask features for validating the mitigation.
Development of nano-roughness calibration standards
Baršić, Gorana; Mahović, Sanjin; Zorc, Hrvoje
2012-01-01
At the Laboratory for Precise Measurements of Length, currently the Croatian National Laboratory for Length, unique nano-roughness calibration standards were developed, which have been physically implemented in cooperation with the company MikroMasch Trading OU and the Ruđer Bošković Institute. In this paper, a new design for a calibration standard with two measuring surfaces is presented. One of the surfaces is for the reproduction of roughness parameters, while the other is for the traceability of length units below 50 nm. The nominal values of the groove depths on these measuring surfaces are the same. Thus, a link between the measuring surfaces has been ensured, which makes these standards unique. Furthermore, the calibration standards available on the market are generally designed specifically for individual groups of measuring instrumentation, such as interferometric microscopes, stylus instruments, scanning electron microscopes (SEM) or scanning probe microscopes. In this paper, a new design for nano-roughness standards has been proposed for use in the calibration of optical instruments, as well as for stylus instruments, SEM, atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes. Therefore, the development of these new nano-roughness calibration standards greatly contributes to the reproducibility of the results of groove depth measurement as well as the 2D and 3D roughness parameters obtained by various measuring methods. (paper)
A Rough Set Approach for Customer Segmentation
Prabha Dhandayudam
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Customer segmentation is a process that divides a business's total customers into groups according to their diversity of purchasing behavior and characteristics. The data mining clustering technique can be used to accomplish this customer segmentation. This technique clusters the customers in such a way that the customers in one group behave similarly when compared to the customers in other groups. The customer related data are categorical in nature. However, the clustering algorithms for categorical data are few and are unable to handle uncertainty. Rough set theory (RST is a mathematical approach that handles uncertainty and is capable of discovering knowledge from a database. This paper proposes a new clustering technique called MADO (Minimum Average Dissimilarity between Objects for categorical data based on elements of RST. The proposed algorithm is compared with other RST based clustering algorithms, such as MMR (Min-Min Roughness, MMeR (Min Mean Roughness, SDR (Standard Deviation Roughness, SSDR (Standard deviation of Standard Deviation Roughness, and MADE (Maximal Attributes DEpendency. The results show that for the real customer data considered, the MADO algorithm achieves clusters with higher cohesion, lower coupling, and less computational complexity when compared to the above mentioned algorithms. The proposed algorithm has also been tested on a synthetic data set to prove that it is also suitable for high dimensional data.
Turbulent flow and heat transfer in channels with combined rough and smooth surfaces
Aytekin, A.
1978-01-01
A two-part experimental investigation is reported on the effects of transverse square rib roughening on fluid flow and heat transfer in channels with uniform and non-uniform boundary conditions. The first part of the experimental programme consisted of providing detailed measurements of mean and basic turbulent characteristics of fully developed flow in two rectangular ducts of aspect ratios 1.63 and 3.0. In each duct only one wall was roughened. In channels having low aspect ratios secondary flows play an important part in momentum transfer, and an interpretation of their effect on the measured Reynolds shear stress distribution has been attempted. In the second part of the experimental programme mean velocity and temperature profiles, friction factors and Stanton numbers were measured in an internally roughened pipe and annuli composed of a rough inner rod and either a smooth or a rough outer pipe. Heating was always applied on the outer surface. In all the geometries the mean velocities near the rough walls were found to be represented by logarithmic straight lines. The gradients of these lines were independent of Reynolds number but differed for various geometries. The mean temperature profiles, measured in the rough pipe and the fully rough annulus, showed that these could also be represented by logarithmic straight lines, but the slopes of these profiles were markedly different from those of the velocity profiles. (author)
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Blazars equivalent widths and radio luminosity (Landt+, 2004)
Landt, H.; Padovani, P.; Perlman, E. S.; Giommi, P.
2004-07-01
Blazars are currently separated into BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and flat spectrum radio quasars based on the strength of their emission lines. This is performed rather arbitrarily by defining a diagonal line in the Ca H&K break value-equivalent width plane, following Marcha et al. (1996MNRAS.281..425M). We readdress this problem and put the classification scheme for blazars on firm physical grounds. We study ~100 blazars and radio galaxies from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS, Cat. and ) and 2-Jy radio survey and find a significant bimodality for the narrow emission line [OIII]{lambda}5007. This suggests the presence of two physically distinct classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that all radio-loud AGN, blazars and radio galaxies, can be effectively separated into weak- and strong-lined sources using the [OIII]{lambda}5007-[OII]{lambda}3727 equivalent width plane. This plane allows one to disentangle orientation effects from intrinsic variations in radio-loud AGN. Based on DXRBS, the strongly beamed sources of the new class of weak-lined radio-loud AGN are made up of BL Lacs at the ~75 per cent level, whereas those of the strong-lined radio-loud AGN include mostly (~97 per cent) quasars. (4 data files).
Pooja,; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Pathania, Y.
2015-01-01
This paper presents the results from a molecular dynamics simulation of mixture of argon and krypton in the Poiseuille flow across a rough walled nanochannel. The roughness effect on liquid nanoflows has recently drawn attention The computational software used for carrying out the molecular dynamics simulations is LAMMPS. The fluid flow takes place between two parallel plates and is bounded by horizontal rough walls in one direction and periodic boundary conditions are imposed in the other two directions. Each fluid atom interacts with other fluid atoms and wall atoms through Leenard-Jones (LJ) potential with a cut off distance of 5.0. To derive the flow a constant force is applied whose value is varied from 0.1 to 0.3 and velocity profiles and temperature profiles are noted for these values of forces. The velocity profile and temperature profiles are also looked at different channel widths of nanochannel and at different densities of mixture. The velocity profile and temperature profile of rough walled nanochannel are compared with that of smooth walled nanochannel and it is concluded that mean velocity increases with increase in channel width, force applied and decrease in density also with introduction of roughness in the walls of nanochannel mean velocity again increases and results also agree with the analytical solution of a Poiseuille flow
Burmeister, Jay; McDermott, Patrick N.; Bossenberger, Todd; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Levin, Kenneth; Forman, Jeffrey D.
2004-01-01
This study investigates the influence of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width on intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans delivered via the segmented multileaf collimator (SMLC) technique. IMRT plans were calculated using the Corvus treatment planning system for three brain, three prostate, and three pancreas cases using leaf widths of 0.5 and 1 cm. Resulting differences in plan quality and complexity are presented here. Plans calculated using a 1 cm leaf width were chosen over the 0.5 cm leaf width plans in seven out of nine cases based on clinical judgment. Conversely, optimization results revealed a superior objective function result for the 0.5 cm leaf width plans in seven out of the nine comparisons. The 1 cm leaf width objective function result was superior only for very large target volumes, indicating that expanding the solution space for plan optimization by using narrower leaves may result in a decreased probability of finding the global minimum. In the remaining cases, we can conclude that we are often not utilizing the objective function as proficiently as possible to meet our clinical goals. There was often no apparent clinically significant difference between the two plans, and in such cases the issue becomes one of plan complexity. A comparison of plan complexity revealed that the average 1 cm leaf width plan required roughly 60% fewer segments and over 40% fewer monitor units than required by 0.5 cm leaf width plans. This allows a significant decrease in whole body dose and total treatment time. For very complex IMRT plans, the treatment delivery time may affect the biologically effective dose. A clinically significant improvement in plan quality from using narrower leaves was evident only in cases with very small target volumes or those with concavities that are small with respect to the MLC leaf width. For the remaining cases investigated in this study, there was no clinical advantage to reducing the MLC leaf width from 1 to 0.5 cm. In
Pulsed rf excited spectrometer having improved pulse width control
1977-01-01
RF excitation for a spectrometer is obtained by pulse width modulating an RF carrier to produce the desired broadband RF exciting spectrum. The RF excitation includes a train of composite RF pulses, each composite pulse having a primary pulse portion of a first RF phase and a second pulse portion of a second RF phase opposite that of the first. In this manner, the finite rise and fall times of the primary pulse portion are compensated for by the corresponding rise and fall times of the secondary pulse portion. The primary pulse portion is lengthened by an amount equal to the secondary pulse portion so that the secondary pulse portion cancels the added primary pulse portion. In a spectrometer, the compensating second pulse component removes certain undesired side bands of the RF excitation caused by the finite rise and fall times of the applied RF pulses. The compensating second pulse component removes certain undesired side bands associated with each of the resonant lines of the excited resonance spectrum of the sample under analysis, particularly for wide band RF excitation
Turbulent flow velocity distribution at rough walls
Baumann, W.
1978-08-01
Following extensive measurements of the velocity profile in a plate channel with artificial roughness geometries specific investigations were carried out to verify the results obtained. The wall geometry used was formed by high transverse square ribs having a large pitch. The measuring position relative to the ribs was varied as a parameter thus providing a statement on the local influence of roughness ribs on the values measured. As a fundamental result it was found that the gradient of the logarithmic rough wall velocity profiles, which differs widely from the value 2.5, depends but slightly on the measuring position relative to the ribs. The gradients of the smooth wall velocity profiles deviate from 2.5 near the ribs, only. This fact can be explained by the smooth wall shear stress varying with the pitch of the ribs. (orig.) 891 GL [de
Spin Hall effect by surface roughness
Zhou, Lingjun
2015-01-08
The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.
Why do rough surfaces appear glossy?
Qi, Lin; Chantler, Mike J; Siebert, J Paul; Dong, Junyu
2014-05-01
The majority of work on the perception of gloss has been performed using smooth surfaces (e.g., spheres). Previous studies that have employed more complex surfaces reported that increasing mesoscale roughness increases perceived gloss [Psychol. Sci.19, 196 (2008), J. Vis.10(9), 13 (2010), Curr. Biol.22, 1909 (2012)]. We show that the use of realistic rendering conditions is important and that, in contrast to [Psychol. Sci.19, 196 (2008), J. Vis.10(9), 13 (2010)], after a certain point increasing roughness further actually reduces glossiness. We investigate five image statistics of estimated highlights and show that for our stimuli, one in particular, which we term "percentage of highlight area," is highly correlated with perceived gloss. We investigate a simple model that explains the unimodal, nonmonotonic relationship between mesoscale roughness and percentage highlight area.
The significance of biometric parameters in determining anterior teeth width
Strajnić Ljiljana
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background/Aim. An important element of prosthetic treatment of edentulous patients is selecting the size of anterior artificial teeth that will restore the natural harmony of one’s dentolabial structure as well as the whole face. The main objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the inner canthal distance (ICD and interalar width (IAW on one side and the width of both central incisors (CIW, the width of central and lateral incisors (CLIW, the width of anterior teeth (ATW, the width between the canine cusps (CCW, which may be useful in clinical practice. Methods. A total of 89 subjects comprising 23 male and 66 female were studied. Their age ranged from 19 to 34 years with the mean of 25 years. Only the subjects with the preserved natural dentition were included in the sample. All facial and intraoral tooth measurements were made with a Boley Gauge (Buffalo Dental Manufacturing Co., Brooklyn NY, USA having a resolution of 0.1mm. Results. A moderate correlation was established between the interalar width and combined width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.439, r = 0.374. A low correlation was established between the inner canthal distance and the width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.335, r = 0.303. The differences between the two genders were highly significant for all the parameters (p < 0.01. The measured facial distances and width of anterior teeth were higher in men than in women. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that the examined interalar width and inner canthal distance cannot be considered reliable guidelines in the selection of artificial upper anterior teeth. However, they may be used as a useful additional factor combined with other methods for objective tooth selection. The final decision should be made while working on dentures fitting models with the patient’s consent.
Formation of extremely narrow metallic lines
Harris, E.P.; Keyes, R.W.
1979-01-01
A method for forming metal lines, particularly lines which are superconductive, involves delineating a pattern on a thin metal film on a substrate by masking techniques, ion implanting the metal film to a desired depth, removing the mask and etching away the unimplanted portion of the metal film to leave the line whose width is equal to the implanted depth. (U.K.)
Step width alters iliotibial band strain during running.
Meardon, Stacey A; Campbell, Samuel; Derrick, Timothy R
2012-11-01
This study assessed the effect of step width during running on factors related to iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome. Three-dimensional (3D) kinematics and kinetics were recorded from 15 healthy recreational runners during overground running under various step width conditions (preferred and at least +/- 5% of their leg length). Strain and strain rate were estimated from a musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity. Greater ITB strain and strain rate were found in the narrower step width condition (p running, especially in persons whose running style is characterized by a narrow step width, may be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of running-related ITB syndrome.
Fuzzy sets, rough sets, multisets and clustering
Dahlbom, Anders; Narukawa, Yasuo
2017-01-01
This book is dedicated to Prof. Sadaaki Miyamoto and presents cutting-edge papers in some of the areas in which he contributed. Bringing together contributions by leading researchers in the field, it concretely addresses clustering, multisets, rough sets and fuzzy sets, as well as their applications in areas such as decision-making. The book is divided in four parts, the first of which focuses on clustering and classification. The second part puts the spotlight on multisets, bags, fuzzy bags and other fuzzy extensions, while the third deals with rough sets. Rounding out the coverage, the last part explores fuzzy sets and decision-making.
Diffuse neutron scattering signatures of rough films
Pynn, R.; Lujan, M. Jr.
1992-01-01
Patterns of diffuse neutron scattering from thin films are calculated from a perturbation expansion based on the distorted-wave Born approximation. Diffuse fringes can be categorised into three types: those that occur at constant values of the incident or scattered neutron wavevectors, and those for which the neutron wavevector transfer perpendicular to the film is constant. The variation of intensity along these fringes can be used to deduce the spectrum of surface roughness for the film and the degree of correlation between the film's rough surfaces
Nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on dielectric wall accelerator technology
Zhao, Quantang, E-mail: zhaoquantang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Z.M.; Yuan, P.; Cao, S.C.; Shen, X.K.; Jing, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, C.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Z.P.; Liu, M.; Xiao, R.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zong, Y.; Wang, Y.R. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)
2013-11-21
An electron diode using a short section of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been under development at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Tests have been carried out with spark gap switches triggered by lasers. The stack voltage efficiency of a four-layer of Blumleins reached about 60–70% with gas filled spark gap switching. The generated pulse voltage of peak amplitude of 23 kV and pulse width of 5 ns is used to extract and accelerate an electron beam of 320 mA, measured by a fast current transformer. A nanosecond pulse width electron diode was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the principle of a DWA is well proven and the development details and discussions are presented in this article. -- Highlights: •The key technology of DWA, including switches and pulse forming lines were studied. •The SiC PCSS obtained from Shanghai Institute were tested. •Two layers ZIP lines (new structure) and four layers Blumlein lines were studied with laser triggered spark gap switches. •A nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on DWA technologies is achieved and studied experimentally. •The principle of DWA is also proved by the diode.
A new mathematical formulation of the line-by-line method in case of weak line overlapping
Ishov, Alexander G.; Krymova, Natalie V.
1994-01-01
A rigorous mathematical proof is presented for multiline representation on the equivalent width of a molecular band which consists in the general case of n overlapping spectral lines. The multiline representation includes a principal term and terms of minor significance. The principal term is the equivalent width of the molecular band consisting of the same n nonoverlapping spectral lines. The terms of minor significance take into consideration the overlapping of two, three and more spectral lines. They are small in case of the weak overlapping of spectral lines in the molecular band. The multiline representation can be easily generalized for optically inhomogeneous gas media and holds true for combinations of molecular bands. If the band lines overlap weakly the standard formulation of line-by-line method becomes too labor-consuming. In this case the multiline representation permits line-by-line calculations to be performed more effectively. Other useful properties of the multiline representation are pointed out.
A 350 KV nanosecond pulse voltage generator with adjustable pulsed-width
Wang, X.; Wang, M.; Chen, Y.Q.; Zeng, L.G.; Han, M.
2002-01-01
This paper presents a 350 kV nanosecond pulse voltage generator (NPVG). The voltage pulsed-width can be adjusted from 30 to 160 ns. The generator consists of: Marx generator, pulsed forming line (PFL), main switch and matched impedance. The output voltage of Marx generator is over than nU c (n- the stage number of Marx generator, U c -the charging voltage of capacitor). When the pulse forming line is terminated with an impedance that is over than the characteristic impedance of PFL, the higher voltage pulse was provided for the load
Differences in the H-mode pedestal width of temperature and density
Schneider, P A; Wolfrum, E; Günter, S; Kurzan, B; Lackner, K; Zohm, H; Groebner, R J; Osborne, T H; Ferron, J R; Snyder, P B; Beurskens, M N A; Dunne, M G
2012-01-01
A pedestal database was built using data from type-I ELMy H-modes of ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D and JET. ELM synchronized pedestal data were analysed with the two-line method. The two-line method is a bilinear fit which shows better reproducibility of pedestal parameters than a modified hyperbolic tangent fit. This was tested with simulated and experimental data. The influence of the equilibrium reconstruction on pedestal parameters was investigated with sophisticated reconstructions from CLISTE and EFIT including edge kinetic profiles. No systematic deviation between the codes could be observed. The flux coordinate system is influenced by machine size, poloidal field and plasma shape. This will change the representation of the width in different coordinates, in particular, the two normalized coordinates Ψ N and r/a show a very different dependence on the plasma shape. The scalings derived for the pedestal width, Δ, of all machines suggest a different scaling for the electron temperature and the electron density. Both cases show similar dependence with machine size, poloidal magnetic field and pedestal electron temperature and density. The influence of ion temperature and toroidal magnetic field is different on each of Δ T e and Δ n e . In dimensionless form the density pedestal width in Ψ N scales with ρ 0.6 i* , the temperature pedestal width with β p,ped 0.5 . Both widths also show a strong correlation with the plasma shape. The shape dependence originates from the coordinate transformation and is not visible in real space. The presented scalings predict that in ITER the temperature pedestal will be appreciably wider than the density pedestal. (paper)
Linsky, J.L.; Worden, S.P.; McClintock, V.; Robertson, R.M.
1979-01-01
We present 120 mA resolution spectra of the cores and wings of the Ca II H and K lines in 43 stars covering a wide range of spectral type and luminosity class. These spectra were obtained with the KPNO 4 m echelle spectrograph and blue image tube, and are calibrated in absolute suface flux units using Willstrop's narrow-band photometry and the Barnes and Evans relations for stellar angular diameters. We estimate an uncertainty of +- 15% in our flux scales. We derive chromospheric radiative loss rates in H and K lines, and discuss trenfs in these loss rates with effective temperature for dwarfs, giants and supergiants. We compare these loss rates with similar rates for the Mg II h and k lines, and discuss the doublet line ratios for H and K. The monochromatic surface fluxes for different features in the H and K lines are presented. From the surface fluxes at K 1 we derived the radiation temperature T/sub R/(K 1 ). The T/sub R/(K 1 )/T/sub eff/ ratio is lower in giants than in dwarfs, as predicted by partial redistribution calculations, and this ratio appears to be an empirical age indicator among dwarfs. Asymmetries in the K line profile provide evidence for a solar-type supergranulation flow pattern in F5--K5 dwarfs and perhaps aslo in G and early K supergiants. Measurements of line widths at H 1 , K 1 , and K 2 are presented, together with FWHM data for the H and K lines. We find rough agreement between the measured K 1 widths and the gravity and chromospheric heating rate dependences in the scaling law proposed by Ayeres. Finally, we present data on emission lines in the wings of H and K, and discuss chromospheric radiative loss rates in the Hepsilon line compared with loss rates in the H and K lines
Statistical characteristics of Doppler spectral width as observed by the conjugate SuperDARN radars
K. Hosokawa
Full Text Available We performed a statistical analysis of the occurrence distribution of Doppler spectral width around the day-side high-latitude ionosphere using data from the conjugate radar pair composed of the CUTLASS Iceland-East radar in the Northern Hemisphere and the SENSU Syowa-East radar in the Southern Hemisphere. Three types of spectral width distribution were identified: (1 an exponential-like distribution in the lower magnetic latitudes (below 72°, (2 a Gaussian-like distribution around a few degrees magnetic latitude, centered on 78°, and (3 another type of distribution in the higher magnetic latitudes (above 80°. The first two are considered to represent the geophysical regimes such as the LLBL and the cusp, respectively, because they are similar to the spectral width distributions within the LLBL and the cusp, as classified by Baker et al. (1995. The distribution found above 80° magnetic latitude has been clarified for the first time in this study. This distribution has similarities to the exponential-like distribution in the lower latitude part, although clear differences also exist in their characteristics. These three spectral width distributions are commonly identified in conjugate hemispheres. The latitudinal transition from one distribution to another exhibits basically the same trend between two hemispheres. There is, however, an interhemispheric difference in the form of the distribution around the cusp latitudes, such that spectral width values obtained from Syowa-East are larger than those from Iceland-East. On the basis of the spectral width characteristics, the average locations of the cusp and the open/closed field line boundary are estimated statistically.
Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere inter-actions; plasma convection – Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers
Kozawa, Takahiro; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Itani, Toshiro; Tagawa, Seiichi
2010-11-01
The development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has progressed owing to worldwide effort. As the development status of EUV lithography approaches the requirements for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices with a minimum line width of 22 nm, the extraction of resist parameters becomes increasingly important from the viewpoints of the accurate evaluation of resist materials for resist screening and the accurate process simulation for process and mask designs. In this study, we demonstrated that resist parameters (namely, quencher concentration, acid diffusion constant, proportionality constant of line edge roughness, and dissolution point) can be extracted from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of patterned resists without the knowledge on the details of resist contents using two types of latest EUV resist.
Kim, Jung Yul; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Y. S.; Hyun, H. J. [Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)
2000-03-01
Estimation of fracture roughness-as one of the basic hydraulic fracture parameters - is very important in assessing ground water flow described by using discrete fracture network modeling. Former manual estimation of the roughness for each fracture surface of drill cores is above all a tedious, time-consuming work and will often cause some ambiguities of roughness interpretation partly due to the subjective judgements of observers, and partly due to the measuring procedure itself. However, recently, indebt to the highly reliable Televiewer data for the fracture discrimination, it has led to a guess to develop a relationship between the traditional roughness method based on a linear profiles and the method from the Televiewer image based on a ellipsoidal profile. Hence, the aim of this work is to develop an automatic evaluation algorithm for measuring the roughness from the Televiewer images. A highly reliable software named 'RAF' has been developed and realized to the extent that its utility merits. In the developing procedure, various problems - such as the examination of a new base line(ellipsoidal) for measuring the unevenness of fracture, the elimination of overlapping fracture signatures or noise, the wavelet estimation according to the type of fractures and the digitalization of roughness etc. - were considered. With these consideration in mind, the newly devised algorithm for the estimation of roughness curves showed a great potential not only for avoiding ambiguities of roughness interpretation but also for the judgement of roughness classification. 12 refs., 23 figs. (Author)
Potential roughness near lithographically fabricated atom chips
Krüger, Peter; Andersson, L. M.; Wildermuth, Stefan
2007-01-01
Potential roughness has been reported to severely impair experiments in magnetic microtraps. We show that these obstacles can be overcome as we measure disorder potentials that are reduced by two orders of magnitude near lithographically patterned high-quality gold layers on semiconductor atom chip...
Rough flows and homogenization in stochastic turbulence
Bailleul, I.; Catellier, R.
2016-01-01
We provide in this work a tool-kit for the study of homogenisation of random ordinary differential equations, under the form of a friendly-user black box based on the tehcnology of rough flows. We illustrate the use of this setting on the example of stochastic turbulence.
Reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming
Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo
An investigation on the reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming was performed to document the applicability of this approach for testing cutting fluids. Austenitic stainless steel was used as a workpiece material and HSS reamers as cutting tools. Reproducibility of the results was evaluat...
Optical measurement of surface roughness in manufacturing
Brodmann, R.
1984-11-01
The measuring system described here is based on the light-scattering method, and was developed by Optische Werke G. Rodenstock, Munich. It is especially useful for rapid non-contact monitoring of surface roughness in production-related areas. This paper outlines the differences between this system and the common stylus instrument, including descriptions of some applications in industry.
Factors influencing surface roughness of polyimide film
Yao Hong; Zhang Zhanwen; Huang Yong; Li Bo; Li Sai
2011-01-01
The polyimide (PI) films of pyromellitic dianhydride-oxydiamiline (PMDA-ODA) were fabricated using vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) method under high vacuum pressure of 10-4 Pa level. The influence of equipment, substrate temperature, the process of heating and deposition ratio of monomers on the surface roughness of the PI films was investigated. The surface topography of films was measured by interferometer microscopy and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and the surface roughness was probed with atomic force microscopy(AFM). The results show that consecutive films can be formed when the distance from steering flow pipe to substrate is 74 cm. The surface roughnesses are 291.2 nm and 61.9 nm respectively for one-step heating process and multi-step heating process, and using fine mesh can effectively avoid the splash of materials. The surface roughness can be 3.3 nm when the deposition rate ratio of PMDA to ODA is 0.9:1, and keeping the temperature of substrate around 30 degree C is advantageous to form a film with planar micro-surface topography. (authors)
Roughly isometric minimal immersions into Riemannian manifolds
Markvorsen, Steen
of the intrinsic combinatorial discrete Laplacian, and we will show that they share several analytic and geometric properties with their smooth (minimal submanifold) counterparts in $N$. The intrinsic properties thus obtained may hence serve as roughly invariant descriptors for the original metric space $X$....
Three-tier rough superhydrophobic surfaces
Cao, Yuanzhi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun
2015-01-01
A three-tier rough superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by growing hydrophobic modified (fluorinated silane) zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper oxide (CuO) hetero-hierarchical structures on silicon (Si) micro-pillar arrays. Compared with the other three control samples with a less rough tier, the three-tier surface exhibits the best water repellency with the largest contact angle 161° and the lowest sliding angle 0.5°. It also shows a robust Cassie state which enables the water to flow with a speed over 2 m s"−"1. In addition, it could prevent itself from being wetted by the droplet with low surface tension (mixed water and ethanol 1:1 in volume) which reveals a flow speed of 0.6 m s"−"1 (dropped from the height of 2 cm). All these features prove that adding another rough tier on a two-tier rough surface could futher improve its water-repellent properties. (paper)
Roughness-induced streaming in turbulent wave boundary layers
Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen
2011-01-01
-averaged streaming characteristics induced by bottom roughness variations are systematically assessed. The effects of variable roughness ratio, gradual roughness transitions, as well as changing flow orientation in plan are all considered. As part of the latter, roughness-induced secondary flows are predicted...
Self-affine roughness influence on redox reaction charge admittance
Palasantzas, G
2005-01-01
In this work we investigate the influence of self-affine electrode roughness on the admittance of redox reactions during facile charge transfer kinetics. The self-affine roughness is characterized by the rms roughness amplitude w, the correlation length xi and the roughness exponent H (0
More on neutrosophic soft rough sets and its modification
Emad Marei
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce and discuss anew mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainties, which is a combination of neutrosophic sets, soft sets and rough sets, namely neutrosophic soft rough set model. Also, its modification is introduced. Some of their properties are studied and supported with proved propositions and many counter examples. Some of rough relations are redefined as a neutrosophic soft rough relations. Comparisons among traditional rough model, suggested neutrosophic soft rough model and its modification, by using their properties and accuracy measures are introduced. Finally, we illustrate that, classical rough set model can be viewed as a special case of suggested models in this paper.
Hong's grading for evaluating anterior chamber angle width.
Kim, Seok Hwan; Kang, Ja Heon; Park, Ki Ho; Hong, Chul
2012-11-01
To compare Hong's grading method with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), gonioscopy, and the dark-room prone-position test (DRPT) for evaluating anterior chamber width. The anterior chamber angle was graded using Hong's grading method, and Hong's angle width was calculated from the arctangent of Hong's grades. The correlation between Hong's angle width and AS-OCT parameters was analyzed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for Hong's grading method when discriminating between narrow and open angles as determined by gonioscopy was calculated. Correlation analysis was performed between Hong's angle width and intraocular pressure (IOP) changes determined by DRPT. A total of 60 subjects were enrolled. Of these subjects, 53.5 % had a narrow angle. Hong's angle width correlated significantly with the AS-OCT parameters (r = 0.562-0.719, P < 0.01). A Bland-Altman plot showed relatively good agreement between Hong's angle width and the angle width obtained by AS-OCT. The ability of Hong's grading method to discriminate between open and narrow angles was good (AUC = 0.868, 95 % CI 0.756-0.942). A significant linear correlation was found between Hong's angle width and IOP change determined by DRPT (r = -0.761, P < 0.01). Hong's grading method is useful for detecting narrow angles. Hong's grading correlated well with AS-OCT parameters and DRPT.
Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC^{0}
Hansen, K.A.
2004-01-01
We obtain a characterization of ACC 0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...
Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness
Barton D. Clinton
2011-01-01
Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...
Plume Dispersion over Idealized Urban-liked Roughness with Height Variation: an LES Approach
Wong, Colman Ching Chi; Liu, Chun-Ho
2013-04-01
Human activities (e.g. vehicular emission) are the primary pollutant sources affecting the health and living quality of stakeholders in modern compact cities. Gaussian plume dispersion model is commonly used for pollutant distribution estimate that works well over rural areas with flat terrain. However, its major parameters, dispersion coefficients, exclude the effect of surface roughness that unavoidably prone to error handling the pollutant transport in the urban boundary layer (UBL) over building roughness. Our recent large-eddy simulation (LES) has shown that urban surfaces affect significantly the pollutant dispersion over idealized, identical two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of uniform height. As an extension to our on-going effort, this study is conceived to investigate how rough urban surfaces, which are constructed by 2D street canyons of non-uniform height, modify the UBL pollutant dispersion . A series of LESs with idealized roughness elements of non-uniform heights were performed in neutral stratification. Building models with two different heights were placed alternatively in the computational domain to construct 2D street canyons in cross flows. The plume dispersion from a ground-level passive pollutant source over more realistic urban areas was then examined. Along with the existing building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio (AR), a new parameter, building-height variability (BHV), is used to measure the building height unevenness. Four ARs (1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125) and three BHVs (20%, 40% and 60%) were considered in this study. Preliminary results show that BHV greatly increases the aerodynamic roughness of the hypothetical urban surfaces for narrow street canyons. Analogous to our previous findings, the air exchange rate (ACH) of street canyons increases with increasing friction factor, implying that street-level ventilation could be improved by increasing building roughness via BHV. In addition, the parameters used in dispersion coefficient
Numerical Investigation of Effect of Surface Roughness in a Microchannel
Shin, Myung Seob; Byun, Sung Jun; Yoon, Joon Yong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2010-05-15
In this paper, lattice Boltzmann method(LBM) results for a laminar flow in a microchannel with rough surface are presented. The surface roughness is modeled as an array of rectangular modules placed on the top and bottom surface of a parallel-plate channel. The effects of relative surface roughness, roughness distribution, and roughness size are presented in terms of the Poiseuille number. The roughness distribution characterized by the ratio of the roughness height to the spacing between the modules has a negligible effect on the flow and friction factors. Finally, a significant increase in the Poiseuille number is observed when the surface roughness is considered, and the effects of roughness on the microflow field mainly depend on the surface roughness.
Electrotactile Feedback for Handheld Devices with Touch Screen and Simulation of Roughness.
Altinsoy, M E; Merchel, S
2012-01-01
We present a novel electrotactile display that can be integrated into current handheld devices with touch screens. In this display, tactile information is presented to the fingertip of the user by transmitting small currents through electrodes. Experiments were conducted to investigate the perception of simulated textures using this electrotactile display technique. One fundamental feature of texture, which is the focus of this study, is roughness. The aim of the first experiment was to investigate the relationship between electrotactile stimulation parameters such as current and pulse frequency and the perception of roughness. An increase in the current magnitude resulted in an increase in perceived roughness. The aim of the second experiment was to investigate parameter combinations of electrotactile stimuli can be used to simulate textures. Subjects adjusted the intensity and frequency of the current stimuli until the simulated textures were perceived as being equal to reference textures such as sandpapers of varying grit numbers and grooved woods with varying groove widths. Subjects tended to find an electrotactile stimulus with a high current magnitude and a low pulse frequency more suitable to represent rough surfaces. They tended to find just-perceptible current magnitudes suitable for very smooth surfaces and did not show a preference for any frequency.
Removing roughness on metal surface by irradiation of intense short-pulsed ion beams
Hashimoto, Y.
1995-01-01
Surface modification of metals with an intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) was studied experimentally. When the temperature rise of metal surfaces by IPIB irradiation exceeds their boiling point, it is found that machining roughness on surfaces is removed. The experiments were performed with the pulsed power generator HARIMA-II at Himeji Institute of Technology. The main components of the ion beam were carbon and fluorine ions. The IPIB was irradiated to metal plates (Al, Cu and Ti) which were placed at the focal point. Machining roughness on Ti surface was removed after IPIB irradiation, while roughness on Al and Cu plates was not removed. Using the present experimental parameters (beam power density: 32 W/cm 2 , pulse width: 25 ns), the temperature rise of the Ti surface was estimated to be 8,100 K which exceed its boiling point (3,000 K). However, the estimated temperatures of Al and Cu surfaces was 2,500 and 1,500 K, respectively, that are less than their boiling points. These studies above suggests that temperature rise over the boiling point of metals is necessary for removing machining roughness on metal surfaces
Intraflow width variations in Martian and terrestrial lava flows
Peitersen, Matthew N.; Crown, David A.
1997-03-01
Flow morphology is used to interpret emplacement processes for lava flows on Earth and Mars. Accurate measurements of flow geometry are essential, particularly for planetary flows where neither compositional sampling nor direct observations of active flows may be possible. Width behavior may indicate a flow's response to topography, its emplacement regime, and its physical properties. Variations in width with downflow distance from the vent may therefore provide critical clues to flow emplacement processes. Flow width is also one of the few characteristics that can be readily measured from planetary mission data with accuracy. Recent analyses of individual flows at two terrestrial and four Martian sites show that widths within an individual flow vary by up to an order of magnitude. Width is generally thought to be correlated to topography; however, recent studies show that this relationship is neither straightforward nor easily quantifiable.
Crack widths in concrete with fibers and main reinforcement
Christensen, Frede; Ulfkjær, Jens Peder; Brincker, Rune
2015-01-01
The main object of the research work presented in this paper is to establish design tools for concrete structures where main reinforcement is combined with addition of short discrete steel fibers. The work is concerned with calculating and measuring crack widths in structural elements subjected...... to bending load. Thus, the aim of the work is to enable engineers to calculate crack widths for flexural concrete members and analyze how different combinations of amounts of fibers and amounts of main reinforcement can meet a given maximum crack width requirement. A mathematical model including...... the ductility of the fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is set up and experimental work is conducted in order to verify the crack width model. The ductility of the FRC is taken into account by using the stress crack width relation. The constitutive model for the FRC is based on the idea that the initial part...
Markl, Daniel; Wahl, Patrick; Pichler, Heinz; Sacher, Stephan; Khinast, Johannes G
2018-01-30
This study demonstrates the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to simultaneously characterize the roughness of the tablet core and coating of pharmaceutical tablets. OCT is a high resolution non-destructive and contactless imaging methodology to characterize structural properties of solid dosage forms. Besides measuring the coating thickness, it also facilitates the analysis of the tablet core and coating roughness. An automated data evaluation algorithm extracts information about coating thickness, as well as tablet core and coating roughness. Samples removed periodically from a pan coating process were investigated, on the basis of thickness and profile maps of the tablet core and coating computed from about 480,000 depth measurements (i.e., 3D data) per sample. This data enables the calculation of the root mean square deviation, the skewness and the kurtosis of the assessed profiles. Analyzing these roughness parameters revealed that, for the given coating formulation, small valleys in the tablet core are filled with coating, whereas coarse features of the tablet core are still visible on the final film-coated tablet. Moreover, the impact of the tablet core roughness on the coating thickness is analyzed by correlating the tablet core profile and the coating thickness map. The presented measurement method and processing could be in the future transferred to in-line OCT measurements, to investigate core and coating roughness during the production of film-coated tablets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Near Wall measurement in Turbulent Flow over Rough Wall using microscopic HPIV
Talapatra, Siddharth; Hong, Jiarong; Katz, Joseph
2009-11-01
Using holographic PIV, 3D velocity measurements are being performed in a turbulent rough wall channel flow. Our objective is to examine the contribution of coherent structures to the flow dynamics, momentum and energy fluxes in the roughness sublayer. The 0.45mm high, pyramid-shaped roughness is uniformly distributed on the top and bottom surfaces of a 5X20cm rectangular channel flow, where the Reτ is 3400. To facilitate recording of holograms through a rough plate, the working fluid is a concentrated solution of NaI in water, whose optical refractive index is matched with that of the acrylic rough plates. The test section is illuminated by a collimated laser beam from the top, and the sample volume extends from the bottom wall up to 7 roughness heights. After passing through the sample volume, the in-line hologram is magnified and recorded on a 4864X3248 pixels camera at a resolution of 0.74μm/pixel. The flow is locally seeded with 2μm particles. Reconstruction, spatial filtering and particle tracking provide the 3D velocity field. This approach has been successfully implemented recently, as preliminary data demonstrate.
Effect of step width manipulation on tibial stress during running.
Meardon, Stacey A; Derrick, Timothy R
2014-08-22
Narrow step width has been linked to variables associated with tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of step width on bone stresses using a standardized model of the tibia. 15 runners ran at their preferred 5k running velocity in three running conditions, preferred step width (PSW) and PSW±5% of leg length. 10 successful trials of force and 3-D motion data were collected. A combination of inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modeling and beam theory was used to estimate stresses applied to the tibia using subject-specific anthropometrics and motion data. The tibia was modeled as a hollow ellipse. Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial stresses at the distal 1/3 of the tibia differed with step width manipulation (p=0.002). Compression on the posterior and medial aspect of the tibia was inversely related to step width such that as step width increased, compression on the surface of tibia decreased (linear trend p=0.036 and 0.003). Similarly, tension on the anterior surface of the tibia decreased as step width increased (linear trend p=0.029). Widening step width linearly reduced shear stress at all 4 sites (pstresses experienced by the tibia during running were influenced by step width when using a standardized model of the tibia. Wider step widths were generally associated with reduced loading of the tibia and may benefit runners at risk of or experiencing stress injury at the tibia, especially if they present with a crossover running style. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xuesong Han
2018-03-01
Full Text Available AlSi10Mg inclined struts with angle of 45° were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM using different scanning speed and hatch spacing to gain insight into the evolution of the molten pool morphology, surface roughness, and dimensional accuracy. The results show that the average width and depth of the molten pool, the lower surface roughness and dimensional deviation decrease with the increase of scanning speed and hatch spacing. The upper surface roughness is found to be almost constant under different processing parameters. The width and depth of the molten pool on powder-supported zone are larger than that of the molten pool on the solid-supported zone, while the width changes more significantly than that of depth. However, if the scanning speed is high enough, the width and depth of the molten pool and the lower surface roughness almost keep constant as the density is still high. Therefore, high dimensional accuracy and density as well as good surface quality can be achieved simultaneously by using high scanning speed during SLMed cellular lattice strut.
Han, Xuesong; Zhu, Haihong; Nie, Xiaojia; Wang, Guoqing; Zeng, Xiaoyan
2018-03-07
AlSi10Mg inclined struts with angle of 45° were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) using different scanning speed and hatch spacing to gain insight into the evolution of the molten pool morphology, surface roughness, and dimensional accuracy. The results show that the average width and depth of the molten pool, the lower surface roughness and dimensional deviation decrease with the increase of scanning speed and hatch spacing. The upper surface roughness is found to be almost constant under different processing parameters. The width and depth of the molten pool on powder-supported zone are larger than that of the molten pool on the solid-supported zone, while the width changes more significantly than that of depth. However, if the scanning speed is high enough, the width and depth of the molten pool and the lower surface roughness almost keep constant as the density is still high. Therefore, high dimensional accuracy and density as well as good surface quality can be achieved simultaneously by using high scanning speed during SLMed cellular lattice strut.
Oude Lansink, I L B; van Kouwenhove, L; Dijkstra, P U; Postema, K; Hijmans, J M
2017-10-01
Step width is increased during dual-belt treadmill walking, in self-paced mode with virtual reality. Generally a familiarization period is thought to be necessary to normalize step width. The aim of this randomised study was to analyze the effects of two interventions on step width, to reduce the familiarization period. We used the GRAIL (Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab), a dual-belt treadmill with virtual reality in the self-paced mode. Thirty healthy young adults were randomly allocated to three groups and asked to walk at their preferred speed for 5min. In the first session, the control-group received no intervention, the 'walk-on-the-line'-group was instructed to walk on a line, projected on the between-belt gap of the treadmill and the feedback-group received feedback about their current step width and were asked to reduce it. Interventions started after 1min and lasted 1min. During the second session, 7-10days later, no interventions were given. Linear mixed modeling showed that interventions did not have an effect on step width after the intervention period in session 1. Initial step width (second 30s) of session 1 was larger than initial step width of session 2. Step width normalized after 2min and variation in step width stabilized after 1min. Interventions do not reduce step width after intervention period. A 2-min familiarization period is sufficient to normalize and stabilize step width, in healthy young adults, regardless of interventions. A standardized intervention to normalize step width is not necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Effects of excitation spectral width on decay profile of weakly confined excitons
Kojima, O.; Isu, T.; Ishi-Hayase, J.; Kanno, A.; Katouf, R.; Sasaki, M.; Tsuchiya, M.
2008-01-01
We report the effect due to a simultaneous excitation of several exciton states on the radiative decay profiles on the basis of the nonlocal response of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films. In the case of excitation of single exciton state, the transient grating signal has two decay components. The fast decay component comes from nonlocal response, and the long-lived component is attributed to free exciton decay. With an increase of excitation spectral width, the nonlocal component becomes small in comparison with the long-lived component, and disappears under irradiation of a femtosecond-pulse laser with broader spectral width. The transient grating spectra clearly indicates the contribution of the weakly confined excitons to the signal, and the exciton line width hardly changes by excitation spectral width. From these results, we concluded that the change of decay profile is attributed not to the many-body effect but to the effect of simultaneous excitation of several exciton states
Percolation characteristics of solvent invasion in rough fractures under miscible conditions
Korfanta, M.; Babadagli, T.; Develi, K.
2017-10-01
Surface roughness and flow rate effects on the solvent transport under miscible conditions in a single fracture are studied. Surface replicas of seven different rocks (marble, granite, and limestone) are used to represent different surface roughness characteristics each described by different mathematical models including three fractal dimensions. Distribution of dyed solvent is investigated at various flow rate conditions to clarify the effect of roughness on convective and diffusive mixing. After a qualitative analysis using comparative images of different rocks, the area covered by solvent with respect to time is determined to conduct a semi-quantitative analysis. In this exercise, two distinct zones are identified, namely the straight lines obtained for convective (early times) and diffusive (late times) flow. The bending point between these two lines is used to point the transition between the two zones. Finally, the slopes of the straight lines and the bending points are correlated to five different roughness parameters and the rate (Peclet number). It is observed that both surface roughness and flow rate have significant effect on solvent spatial distribution. The largest area covered is obtained at moderate flow rates and hence not only the average surface roughness characteristic is important, but coessentially total fracture surface area needs to be considered when evaluating fluid distribution. It is also noted that the rate effect is critically different for the fracture samples of large grain size (marbles and granite) compared to smaller grain sizes (limestones). Variogram fractal dimension exhibits the strongest correlation with the maximum area covered by solvent, and display increasing trend at the moderate flow rates. Equations with variogram surface fractal dimension in combination with any other surface fractal parameter coupled with Peclet number can be used to predict maximum area covered by solvent in a single fracture, which in turn can be
Sub-0.1 μm optical track width measurement
Smith, Richard J.; See, Chung W.; Somekh, Mike G.; Yacoot, Andrew
2005-08-01
In this paper, we will describe a technique that combines a common path scanning optical interferometer with artificial neural networks (ANN), to perform track width measurements that are significantly beyond the capability of conventional optical systems. Artificial neural networks have been used for many different applications. In the present case, ANNs are trained using profiles of known samples obtained from the scanning interferometer. They are then applied to tracks that have not previously been exposed to the networks. This paper will discuss the impacts of various ANN configurations, and the processing of the input signal on the training of the network. The profiles of the samples, which are used as the inputs to the ANNs, are obtained with a common path scanning optical interferometer. It provides extremely repeatable measurements, with very high signal to noise ratio, both are essential for the working of the ANNs. The characteristics of the system will be described. A number of samples with line widths ranging from 60nm-3μm have been measured to test the system. The system can measure line widths down to 60nm with a standard deviation of 3nm using optical wavelength of 633nm and a system numerical aperture of 0.3. These results will be presented in detail along with a discussion of the potential of this technique.
Generalized rough sets hybrid structure and applications
Mukherjee, Anjan
2015-01-01
The book introduces the concept of “generalized interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets”. It presents the basic properties of these sets and also, investigates an application of generalized interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets in decision making with respect to interval of degree of preference. The concept of “interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft rough sets” is discussed and interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft rough set based multi criteria group decision making scheme is presented, which refines the primary evaluation of the whole expert group and enables us to select the optimal object in a most reliable manner. The book also details concept of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets of type 2. It presents the basic properties of these sets. The book also introduces the concept of “interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft topological space (IVIFS topological space)” together with intuitionistic fuzzy soft open sets (IVIFS open sets) and intuitionistic fuzzy soft cl...
Single-layer model for surface roughness.
Carniglia, C K; Jensen, D G
2002-06-01
Random roughness of an optical surface reduces its specular reflectance and transmittance by the scattering of light. The reduction in reflectance can be modeled by a homogeneous layer on the surface if the refractive index of the layer is intermediate to the indices of the media on either side of the surface. Such a layer predicts an increase in the transmittance of the surface and therefore does not provide a valid model for the effects of scatter on the transmittance. Adding a small amount of absorption to the layer provides a model that predicts a reduction in both reflectance and transmittance. The absorbing layer model agrees with the predictions of a scalar scattering theory for a layer with a thickness that is twice the rms roughness of the surface. The extinction coefficient k for the layer is proportional to the thickness of the layer.
Offshore Wind Power at Rough Sea
Petersen, Kristian Rasmus; Madsen, Erik Skov; Bilberg, Arne
2013-01-01
This study compare the current operations and maintenance issues of one offshore wind park at very rough sea conditions and two onshore wind parks. Through a detailed data analysis and case studies this study identifies how improvements have been made in maintenance of large wind turbines. Howeve......, the study has also revealed the need for new maintenance models including a shift from breakdown and preventive maintenances and towards more predictive maintenance to reduce the cost of energy for offshore wind energy installations in the future.......This study compare the current operations and maintenance issues of one offshore wind park at very rough sea conditions and two onshore wind parks. Through a detailed data analysis and case studies this study identifies how improvements have been made in maintenance of large wind turbines. However...
The contact sport of rough surfaces
Carpick, Robert W.
2018-01-01
Describing the way two surfaces touch and make contact may seem simple, but it is not. Fully describing the elastic deformation of ideally smooth contacting bodies, under even low applied pressure, involves second-order partial differential equations and fourth-rank elastic constant tensors. For more realistic rough surfaces, the problem becomes a multiscale exercise in surface-height statistics, even before including complex phenomena such as adhesion, plasticity, and fracture. A recent research competition, the “Contact Mechanics Challenge” (1), was designed to test various approximate methods for solving this problem. A hypothetical rough surface was generated, and the community was invited to model contact with this surface with competing theories for the calculation of properties, including contact area and pressure. A supercomputer-generated numerical solution was kept secret until competition entries were received. The comparison of results (2) provides insights into the relative merits of competing models and even experimental approaches to the problem.
Prediction of Ductile Fracture Surface Roughness Scaling
Needleman, Alan; Tvergaard, Viggo; Bouchaud, Elisabeth
2012-01-01
. Ductile crack growth in a thin strip under mode I, overall plane strain, small scale yielding conditions is analyzed. Although overall plane strain loading conditions are prescribed, full 3D analyses are carried out to permit modeling of the three dimensional material microstructure and of the resulting......Experimental observations have shown that the roughness of fracture surfaces exhibit certain characteristic scaling properties. Here, calculations are carried out to explore the extent to which a ductile damage/fracture constitutive relation can be used to model fracture surface roughness scaling...... three dimensional stress and deformation states that develop in the fracture process region. An elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a progressively cavitating plastic solid is used to model the material. Two populations of second phase particles are represented: large inclusions with low...
Estimation of gloss from rough surface parameters
Simonsen, Ingve; Larsen, Åge G.; Andreassen, Erik; Ommundsen, Espen; Nord-Varhaug, Katrin
2005-12-01
Gloss is a quantity used in the optical industry to quantify and categorize materials according to how well they scatter light specularly. With the aid of phase perturbation theory, we derive an approximate expression for this quantity for a one-dimensional randomly rough surface. It is demonstrated that gloss depends in an exponential way on two dimensionless quantities that are associated with the surface randomness: the root-mean-square roughness times the perpendicular momentum transfer for the specular direction, and a correlation function dependent factor times a lateral momentum variable associated with the collection angle. Rigorous Monte Carlo simulations are used to access the quality of this approximation, and good agreement is observed over large regions of parameter space.
Roughness of the SiC/SiO{sub 2} vicinal interface and atomic structure of the transition layers
Liu, Peizhi; Li, Guoliang; Duscher, Gerd, E-mail: gduscher@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Sharma, Yogesh K.; Ahyi, Ayayi C.; Isaacs-Smith, Tamara; Williams, John R.; Dhar, Sarit [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)
2014-11-01
The SiC/SiO{sub 2} interface is generally considered to be the cause for the reduced electron mobility of SiC power devices. Previous studies have shown a correlation between the mobility and the transition layer width at the SiC/SiO{sub 2} interface. The authors investigated this interface with atomic resolution Z-contrast imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and discovered that this transition region was due to the roughness of the vicinal interface. The roughness of a vicinal interface consisted of atomic steps and facets deviating from the ideal off-axis cut plane. The authors conclude that this roughness is limiting the mobility in the channels of SiC MOSFETs.
Sparseness and Roughness of Foreign Exchange Rates
Vandewalle, N.; Ausloos, M.
An accurate multiaffine analysis of 23 foreign currency exchange rates has been performed. The roughness exponent H1 which characterizes the excursion of the exchange rate has been numerically measured. The degree of intermittency C1 has been also estimated. In the (H1,C1) phase diagram, the currency exchange rates are dispersed in a wide region around the Brownian motion value (H1=0.5,C1=0) and have a significantly intermittent component (C1≠0).
Rough surface scattering simulations using graphics cards
Klapetek, Petr; Valtr, Miroslav; Poruba, Ales; Necas, David; Ohlidal, Miloslav
2010-01-01
In this article we present results of rough surface scattering calculations using a graphical processing unit implementation of the Finite Difference in Time Domain algorithm. Numerical results are compared to real measurements and computational performance is compared to computer processor implementation of the same algorithm. As a basis for computations, atomic force microscope measurements of surface morphology are used. It is shown that the graphical processing unit capabilities can be used to speedup presented computationally demanding algorithms without loss of precision.
Roughness Length Variability over Heterogeneous Surfaces
2010-03-01
2004), the influence of variable roughness reaches its maximum at the height of local 0z and vanishes at the so- called blending height (Wieringa...the distribution of visibility restrictors such as low clouds, fog, haze, dust, and pollutants . An improved understanding of ABL structure...R. D., B. H. Lynn, A. Boone, W.-K. Tao, and J. Simpson, 2001: The influence of soil moisture, coastline curvature, and land-breeze circulations on
Analysis of accuracy in photogrammetric roughness measurements
Olkowicz, Marcin; Dąbrowski, Marcin; Pluymakers, Anne
2017-04-01
Regarding permeability, one of the most important features of shale gas reservoirs is the effective aperture of cracks opened during hydraulic fracturing, both propped and unpropped. In a propped fracture, the aperture is controlled mostly by proppant size and its embedment, and fracture surface roughness only has a minor influence. In contrast, in an unpropped fracture aperture is controlled by the fracture roughness and the wall displacement. To measure fracture surface roughness, we have used the photogrammetric method since it is time- and cost-efficient. To estimate the accuracy of this method we compare the photogrammetric measurements with reference measurements taken with a White Light Interferometer (WLI). Our photogrammetric setup is based on high resolution 50 Mpx camera combined with a focus stacking technique. The first step for photogrammetric measurements is to determine the optimal camera positions and lighting. We compare multiple scans of one sample, taken with different settings of lighting and camera positions, with the reference WLI measurement. The second step is to perform measurements of all studied fractures with the parameters that produced the best results in the first step. To compare photogrammetric and WLI measurements we regrid both data sets onto a regular 10 μm grid and determined the best fit, followed by a calculation of the difference between the measurements. The first results of the comparison show that for 90 % of measured points the absolute vertical distance between WLI and photogrammetry is less than 10 μm, while the mean absolute vertical distance is 5 μm. This proves that our setup can be used for fracture roughness measurements in shales.
The characteristic function of rough Heston models
Euch, Omar El; Rosenbaum, Mathieu
2016-01-01
It has been recently shown that rough volatility models, where the volatility is driven by a fractional Brownian motion with small Hurst parameter, provide very relevant dynamics in order to reproduce the behavior of both historical and implied volatilities. However, due to the non-Markovian nature of the fractional Brownian motion, they raise new issues when it comes to derivatives pricing. Using an original link between nearly unstable Hawkes processes and fractional volatility models, we c...
The effect of scattering interference term on the practical width
Martins do Amaral, C.; Martinez, A.S.
2001-01-01
The practical width Γ p has an important application in the characterization of the resonance type for the calculation of neutron average cross sections. Previous treatments ignore the interference term χζ,x for the Doppler broadening function in the practical width calculation. In the present paper, a rational approximation for the χζ,x function is derived, using a modified asymptotic Pade method. A new approximation for Γ p is obtained. The results which are presented here provide evidence that the practical width as a function of temperature varies considerably with the inclusion of the interference term χζ,x
Influence of electrical sheet width on dynamic magnetic properties
Chevalier, T; Cornut, B
2000-01-01
Effects of the width of electrical steel sheets on dynamic magnetic properties are investigated by solving diffusion equation on the cross-section of the sheet. Linear and non-linear cases are studied, and are compared with measurement on Epstein frame. For the first one an analytical solution is found, while for the second, a 2D finite element simulation is achieved. The influence of width is highlighted for a width thickness ratio lower than 10. It is shown that the behaviour modification in such cases is conditioned by the excitation signal waveform, amplitude and also frequency.
Friction factor in smooth and rough gas pipelines. An experimental study
Sletfjerding, Elling
1999-01-01
Flow of high pressure natural gas in pipelines has been studied experimentally. Pipeline flow of natural gas is characterized by high Reynolds numbers due to the low viscosity and relatively high density of pressurized gas. Friction factor correlations for high Reynolds number flow in smooth and rough pipes were developed. To study the effect of wall roughness on pipe flow at high Reynolds numbers 8 test pipes with different wall roughness were fabricated. The wall roughness in 6 of the test pipes was varied by adding glass beads in an epoxy coating applied on the pipe wall. One test pipe was treated with a smooth epoxy coating and one was left untreated. The inner diameter of the test pipes was 150 mm. Measurements of the pressure drop in the pipes were made in a closed flow loop at line pressures of 25, 70, 95 and 120 bar. The Reynolds number of the flow was varied in the range 2-30 million. The wall roughness of the test pipes was measured with a stylus instrument. Correlations between the directly measured wall roughness and the friction factor at fully rough flow conditions were presented. To characterize the wall roughness of the test pipes a parameter combining a measure of the roughness height (R{sub q}) and the texture of the wall roughness was used. Due to the high Reynolds number of the flow, minute irregularities of the pipe wall had significant effect on the friction factor in the pipe. The measured wall roughness of the test pipes was in the range 1.4 < R{sub q} <31 (my)m. The flow experiments in test pipes was compared with data from operating pipelines in the North Sea. The offshore pipelines are coated with the same epoxy coating as used in the test pipes. The friction factor in coated offshore gas pipelines showed smooth behavior when the additional pressure drop due to welds were accounted for. The study of coated gas pipelines showed that the friction factor was significantly lower than predicted by standard correlations.
Radiative transfer model for contaminated rough slabs.
Andrieu, François; Douté, Sylvain; Schmidt, Frédéric; Schmitt, Bernard
2015-11-01
We present a semi-analytical model to simulate the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a rough slab layer containing impurities. This model has been optimized for fast computation in order to analyze massive hyperspectral data by a Bayesian approach. We designed it for planetary surface ice studies but it could be used for other purposes. It estimates the bidirectional reflectance of a rough slab of material containing inclusions, overlaying an optically thick media (semi-infinite media or stratified media, for instance granular material). The inclusions are assumed to be close to spherical and constituted of any type of material other than the ice matrix. It can be any other type of ice, mineral, or even bubbles defined by their optical constants. We assume a low roughness and we consider the geometrical optics conditions. This model is thus applicable for inclusions larger than the considered wavelength. The scattering on the inclusions is assumed to be isotropic. This model has a fast computation implementation and thus is suitable for high-resolution hyperspectral data analysis.
Multi-decadal Arctic sea ice roughness.
Tsamados, M.; Stroeve, J.; Kharbouche, S.; Muller, J. P., , Prof; Nolin, A. W.; Petty, A.; Haas, C.; Girard-Ardhuin, F.; Landy, J.
2017-12-01
The transformation of Arctic sea ice from mainly perennial, multi-year ice to a seasonal, first-year ice is believed to have been accompanied by a reduction of the roughness of the ice cover surface. This smoothening effect has been shown to (i) modify the momentum and heat transfer between the atmosphere and ocean, (ii) to alter the ice thickness distribution which in turn controls the snow and melt pond repartition over the ice cover, and (iii) to bias airborne and satellite remote sensing measurements that depend on the scattering and reflective characteristics over the sea ice surface topography. We will review existing and novel remote sensing methodologies proposed to estimate sea ice roughness, ranging from airborne LIDAR measurement (ie Operation IceBridge), to backscatter coefficients from scatterometers (ASCAT, QUICKSCAT), to multi angle maging spectroradiometer (MISR), and to laser (Icesat) and radar altimeters (Envisat, Cryosat, Altika, Sentinel-3). We will show that by comparing and cross-calibrating these different products we can offer a consistent multi-mission, multi-decadal view of the declining sea ice roughness. Implications for sea ice physics, climate and remote sensing will also be discussed.
ROUGHNESS ANALYSIS OF VARIOUSLY POLISHED NIOBIUM SURFACES
Ribeill, G.; Reece, C.
2008-01-01
Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities have gained widespread use in accelerator systems. It has been shown that surface roughness is a determining factor in the cavities’ effi ciency and maximum accelerating potential achievable through this technology. Irregularities in the surface can lead to spot heating, undesirable local electrical fi eld enhancement and electron multipacting. Surface quality is typically ensured through the use of acid etching in a Buffered Chemical Polish (BCP) bath and electropolishing (EP). In this study, the effects of these techniques on surface morphology have been investigated in depth. The surface of niobium samples polished using different combinations of these techniques has been characterized through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and stylus profi lometry across a range of length scales. The surface morphology was analyzed using spectral techniques to determine roughness and characteristic dimensions. Experimentation has shown that this method is a valuable tool that provides quantitative information about surface roughness at different length scales. It has demonstrated that light BCP pretreatment and lower electrolyte temperature favors a smoother electropolish. These results will allow for the design of a superior polishing process for niobium SRF cavities and therefore increased accelerator operating effi ciency and power.
Modeling superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of random roughness
Samaha, M. A.; Tafreshi, H. Vahedi; Gad-El-Hak, M.
2011-11-01
We model the performance of superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of randomly distributed roughness that resembles natural surfaces, or those produced via random deposition of hydrophobic particles. Such a fabrication method is far less expensive than ordered-microstructured fabrication. The present numerical simulations are aimed at improving our understanding of the drag reduction effect and the stability of the air-water interface in terms of the microstructure parameters. For comparison and validation, we have also simulated the flow over superhydrophobic surfaces made up of aligned or staggered microposts for channel flows as well as streamwise or spanwise ridge configurations for pipe flows. The present results are compared with other theoretical and experimental studies. The numerical simulations indicate that the random distribution of surface roughness has a favorable effect on drag reduction, as long as the gas fraction is kept the same. The stability of the meniscus, however, is strongly influenced by the average spacing between the roughness peaks, which needs to be carefully examined before a surface can be recommended for fabrication. Financial support from DARPA, contract number W91CRB-10-1-0003, is acknowledged.
Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models
Mohammed M. Eissa
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Medical domain has become one of the most important areas of research in order to richness huge amounts of medical information about the symptoms of diseases and how to distinguish between them to diagnose it correctly. Knowledge discovery models play vital role in refinement and mining of medical indicators to help medical experts to settle treatment decisions. This paper introduces four hybrid Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models based on Rough Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm and Rough Mereology Theory. A comparative analysis of various knowledge discovery models that use different knowledge discovery techniques for data pre-processing, reduction, and data mining supports medical experts to extract the main medical indicators, to reduce the misdiagnosis rates and to improve decision-making for medical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed models utilized two medical datasets: Coronary Heart Disease dataset and Hepatitis C Virus dataset. The main purpose of this paper was to explore and evaluate the proposed models based on Granular Computing methodology for knowledge extraction according to different evaluation criteria for classification of medical datasets. Another purpose is to make enhancement in the frame of KDD processes for supervised learning using Granular Computing methodology.
Viradia, Neal K; Berger, Alex A; Dahners, Laurence E
2011-09-01
Trochanteric bursitis is a common disorder that is characterized by inflammation of the bursa, superficial to the greater trochanter of the femur, leading to pain in the lateral hip, and often occurs because of acute trauma or repetitive friction involving the iliotibial band, the greater trochanter, and the bursa. In the study reported here, we hypothesized that the increased incidence of bursitis may be the result of the increased prominence of the trochanter in relation to the wings of the iliac crest. Distances between the outermost edges of trochanters and iliac wings were measured in 202 patients from the University of North Carolina Health Care System-101 without a known diagnosis and 101 with a clinical diagnosis of trochanteric bursitis. To determine significance, t tests for nonpaired data were used. Mean (SD) difference between trochanter and iliac wing widths was 28 (20) mm in the group diagnosed with trochanteric bursitis and 17 (18) mm in the control group. The difference between the groups in this regard was significant (Pbursitis group and 1.05 (.06) in the control group. The difference between these groups was significant (Pbursitis.
The surface roughness and planetary boundary layer
Telford, James W.
1980-03-01
Applications of the entrainment process to layers at the boundary, which meet the self similarity requirements of the logarithmic profile, have been studied. By accepting that turbulence has dominating scales related in scale length to the height above the surface, a layer structure is postulated wherein exchange is rapid enough to keep the layers internally uniform. The diffusion rate is then controlled by entrainment between layers. It has been shown that theoretical relationships derived on the basis of using a single layer of this type give quantitatively correct factors relating the turbulence, wind and shear stress for very rough surface conditions. For less rough surfaces, the surface boundary layer can be divided into several layers interacting by entrainment across each interface. This analysis leads to the following quantitatively correct formula compared to published measurements. 1 24_2004_Article_BF00877766_TeX2GIFE1.gif {σ _w }/{u^* } = ( {2/{9Aa}} )^{{1/4}} ( {1 - 3^{{1/2}{ a/k{d_n }/z{σ _w }/{u^* }z/L} )^{{1/4}} = 1.28(1 - 0.945({{σ _w }/{u^* }}}) {{z/L}})^{{1/4 where u^* = ( {{tau/ρ}}^{{1/2}}, σ w is the standard deviation of the vertical velocity, z is the height and L is the Obukhov scale lenght. The constants a, A, k and d n are the entrainment constant, the turbulence decay constant, Von Karman's constant, and the layer depth derived from the theory. Of these, a and A, are universal constants and not empirically determined for the boundary layer. Thus the turbulence needed for the plume model of convection, which resides above these layers and reaches to the inversion, is determined by the shear stress and the heat flux in the surface layers. This model applies to convection in cool air over a warm sea. The whole field is now determined except for the temperature of the air relative to the water, and the wind, which need a further parameter describing sea surface roughness. As a first stop to describing a surface where roughness elements
Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube by means of varying width twisted tape inserts with air as the working fluid.
A fast integrated discriminator with continuously variable width
Borghesi, A.; Goggi, G.; Nardo, R.
1976-01-01
A simple dc-coupled discriminator with fast switching characteristics has been realized. Both input threshold and output width are continuously variable; the ECL design allows high speed and high density with ample fanout. (Auth.)
Estimates for the widths of weighted Sobolev classes
Vasil'eva, Anastasia A
2010-01-01
Estimates for the Kolmogorov widths in the L q,v -metric of weighted Sobolev classes as well as for the approximation numbers of the corresponding embedding operators are found. Bibliography: 33 titles.
The width of the giant dipole resonance at finite temperature
Mau, N.V.
1992-01-01
A method is proposed to evaluate the effect of the change of the Fermi sea on the width of the giant dipole resonance at finite temperature. In a schematic model it is found that, indeed, in 208 Pb the width increases very sharply up to about T=4 MeV but shows a much weaker variation for higher temperature. (author) 26 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs
SM Higgs decay branching ratios and total Higgs width
Daniel Denegri
2001-01-01
Upper: Higgs decay ratios as a function of Higgs mass. The largest branching ratio is not necessarily the most usefull one. The most usefull ones are gamma gamma bbar ZZ and WW as in those modes latter signal to background ratios can be achieved. Lower: Total Higgs decay width versus Higgs mass. At low masses the natural width is extremely small, thus observability depends on instrumental resolution primarily.
Estimating the Spectral Width of a Narrowband Optical Signal
Lading, Lars; Skov Jensen, A.
1980-01-01
Methods for estimating the spectral width of a narrowband optical signal are investigated. Spectral analysis and Fourier spectroscopy are compared. Optimum and close-to-optimum estimators are developed under the constraint of having only one photodetector.......Methods for estimating the spectral width of a narrowband optical signal are investigated. Spectral analysis and Fourier spectroscopy are compared. Optimum and close-to-optimum estimators are developed under the constraint of having only one photodetector....
Width of electromagnetic wave instability spectrum in tungsten plate
Rinkevich, A.B.
1995-01-01
Based on the study of high-frequency signal modulation and spectrum analysis of the envelope a measurement of spectrum width for electromagnetic wave instability was carried out under conditions of current pulse action on tungsten plate in magnetic field. The existence of amplitude-frequency wave modulation was revealed. The width of current disturbance spectrum in a specimen was evaluated. Current disturbances are shown to cause the instability of electromagnetic wave. 11 refs.; 6 figs
Correlations for reduced-width amplitudes in 49V
Chou, B.H.; Mitchell, G.E.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Westerfeldt, C.R.
1980-01-01
Measurement of the relative sign of inelastic proton-channel amplitudes permits the determination of amplitude correlations. Data were obtained for 45 5/2 + resonances in 49 V. Although the reduced widths in each channel followed a Porter-Thomas distribution, large amplitude correlations were observed. The results are compared with the reduced-width--amplitude distribution of Krieger and Porter. This is the first direct test of the Krieger-Porter distribution
Quantum numbers and decay widths of the psi (3684)
Luth, V.; Boyarski, A.M.; Lynch, H.L.; Breidenbach, M.; Bulos, F.; Feldman, G.J.; Fryberger, D.; Hanson, G.; Hartill, D.L.; Jean-Marie, B.; Larsen, R.R.; Luke, D.; Morehouse, C.C.; Paterson, J.M.; Perl, M.L.; Pun, T.P.; Rapidis, P.; Richter, B.; Schwitters, R.F.; Tanenbaum, W.; Vannucci, F.; Abrams, G.S.; Chinowsky, W.; Friedberg, C.E.; Goldhaber, G.; Kadyk, J.A.; Litke, A.M.; Lulu, B.A.; Pierre, F.M.; Sadoulet, B.; Trilling, G.H.; Whitaker, J.S.; Winkelmann, F.C.; Wiss, J.E.
1975-01-01
Cross sections for e + e - →hadrons, e + e - , and μ + μ - near 3684 MeV are presented. The psi(3684) resonance is established as having the assignment J/sup PC/=1 -- . The mass is 3684+-5 MeV. The partial width for decay to electrons is GAMMA/sube/=2.1+-0.3 keV and the total width is GAMMA=228+-56 keV
Stieltjes-moment-theory technique for calculating resonance width's
Hazi, A.U.
1978-12-01
A recently developed method for calculating the widths of atomic and molecular resonances is reviewed. The method is based on the golden-rule definition of the resonance width, GAMMA(E). The method uses only square-integrable, L 2 , basis functions to describe both the resonant and the non-resonant parts of the scattering wave function. It employs Stieltjes-moment-theory techniques to extract a continuous approximation for the width discrete representation of the background continuum. Its implementation requires only existing atomic and molecular structure codes. Many-electron effects, such as correlation and polarization, are easily incorporated into the calculation of the width via configuration interaction techniques. Once the width, GAMMA(E), has been determined, the energy shift can be computed by a straightforward evaluation of the required principal-value integral. The main disadvantage of the method is that it provides only the total width of a resonance which decays into more than one channel in a multichannel problem. A review of the various aspects of the theory is given first, and then representative results that have been obtained with this method for several atomic and molecular resonances are discussed. 28 references, 3 figures, 4 tables
Crack width monitoring of concrete structures based on smart film
Zhang, Benniu; Wang, Shuliang; Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Guang; Qiu, Minfeng
2014-01-01
Due to its direct link to structural security, crack width is thought to be one of the most important parameters reflecting damage conditions of concrete structures. However, the width problem is difficult to solve with the existing structural health monitoring methods. In this paper, crack width monitoring by means of adhering enameled copper wires with different ultimate strains on the surface of structures is proposed, based on smart film crack monitoring put forward by the present authors. The basic idea of the proposed method is related to a proportional relationship between the crack width and ultimate strain of the broken wire. Namely, when a certain width of crack passes through the wire, some low ultimate strain wires will be broken and higher ultimate strain wires may stay non-broken until the crack extends to a larger scale. Detection of the copper wire condition as broken or non-broken may indicate the width of the structural crack. Thereafter, a multi-layered stress transfer model and specimen experiment are performed to quantify the relationship. A practical smart film is then redesigned with this idea and applied to Chongqing Jiangjin Yangtze River Bridge. (paper)
Crack width monitoring of concrete structures based on smart film
Zhang, Benniu; Wang, Shuliang; Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Guang; Qiu, Minfeng
2014-04-01
Due to its direct link to structural security, crack width is thought to be one of the most important parameters reflecting damage conditions of concrete structures. However, the width problem is difficult to solve with the existing structural health monitoring methods. In this paper, crack width monitoring by means of adhering enameled copper wires with different ultimate strains on the surface of structures is proposed, based on smart film crack monitoring put forward by the present authors. The basic idea of the proposed method is related to a proportional relationship between the crack width and ultimate strain of the broken wire. Namely, when a certain width of crack passes through the wire, some low ultimate strain wires will be broken and higher ultimate strain wires may stay non-broken until the crack extends to a larger scale. Detection of the copper wire condition as broken or non-broken may indicate the width of the structural crack. Thereafter, a multi-layered stress transfer model and specimen experiment are performed to quantify the relationship. A practical smart film is then redesigned with this idea and applied to Chongqing Jiangjin Yangtze River Bridge.
LINE BROADENING AND THE SOLAR OPACITY PROBLEM
Krief, M.; Feigel, A.; Gazit, D., E-mail: menahem.krief@mail.huji.ac.il [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel)
2016-06-20
The calculation of line widths constitutes theoretical and computational challenges in the calculation of opacities of hot, dense plasmas. Opacity models use line broadening approximations that are untested at stellar interior conditions. Moreover, calculations of atomic spectra of the Sun indicate a large discrepancy in the K-shell line widths between several atomic codes and the Opacity-Project (OP). In this work, the atomic code STAR is used to study the sensitivity of solar opacities to line broadening. Variations in the solar opacity profile due to an increase of the Stark widths resulting from discrepancies with OP, are compared, in light of the solar opacity problem, with the required opacity variations of the present day Sun, as imposed by helioseismic and neutrino observations. The resulting variation profile is much larger than the discrepancy between different atomic codes, agrees qualitatively with the missing opacity profile, recovers about half of the missing opacity nearby the convection boundary, and has a little effect in the internal regions. Since it is hard to estimate quantitatively the uncertainty in the Stark widths, we show that an increase of all line widths by a factor of about ∼100 recovers quantitatively the missing opacity. These results emphasize the possibility that photoexcitation processes are not modeled properly, and more specifically, highlight the need for a better theoretical characterization of the line broadening phenomena at stellar interior conditions, and of the uncertainty due to the way it is implemented by atomic codes.
Pathikonda, Gokul; Clark, Caitlyn; Christensen, Kenneth T.
2017-11-01
Inner-outer interactions over rough-wall boundary layer were investigated using high frame-rate, PIV measurements in a Refractive index-matched (RIM) facility. Flows over canonical smooth-wall and hexagonally-packed hemispherical roughness under transitionally rough flow conditions (and with Reτ 1500) were measured using a dual camera PIV system with different fields of view (FOVs) and operating simultaneously. The large FOV measures the large scales and boundary layer parameters, while the small FOV measures the small scales very close to the wall with high spatial ( 7y*) and temporal ( 2.5t*) resolutions. Conditional metrics were formulated to investigate these scale interactions in a spatio-temporal sense using the PIV data. It was found that the observations complement the interaction structure made via hotwire experiments and DNS in previous studies over both smooth and rough-wall flows, with a strong correlation between the large scales and small scale energies indicative of the amplitude modulation interactions. Additionally, frequency and scale modulations were also investigated with limited success. These experiments highlight the similarities and differences in these interactions between the smooth- and rough-wall flows.
The Rough Field and The Grafted Tongue of Northern Ireland
John Engle
1999-01-01
garbh acaidh itself, the name, translated into English, of the hamlet where Montague grew up. Over the course of the sequence, the personally significant title takes on resonant public identification with the dying, politically fractured North, hopelessly sterile and crisscrossed by the fault lines of history. To Montague one of the most telling lines of division partitioning this field is linguistic, the severing of the native Irish tongue and its replacement by the « grafted tongue » of English.A trilingual Catholic born in faraway Brooklyn, raised in rural, divided Ulster, and writing in the English of the colonizer, Montague turns, not surprisingly, to language as a recurring subject and to the multiple resources of linguistic variation as method. In the accumulation of diverse materials that is The Rough Field, he frequently exploits the collage form, throwing different languages, registers, levels of diction, and poetic forms into fruitful collision or cohabitation.In this essay I investigate the way Montague assembles materials of disparate nature - fragments of Irish, the sonnets of Shakespeare, quotations from sources as diverse as a priest's letters or Unionist hate tracts - to give form to the complex, moving evocation of this fractured province of a divided nation, that « harsh landscape that haunts me. »The Rough Field (« La Tierra baldía » de John Montague fue publicada en 1972. Derek Mahon calificó la obra de« rica y compleja, por el mejor poeta irlandés de su generación », la cual se compone de decenas de poemas variados por su estilo, su largura y su tonalidad. Ya basados en lo imprevisible y la pura yuxtaposición, ya siguiendo un tema lógico y coherente, los poemas exponen la juventud del autor en Ulster en el terreno de un entorno rural destinado a desaparecer pronto y de la historia trágica de Irlanda.El gardh acaidh, metáfora omnipresente en los poemas, es el nombre gaélico de la aldea en que se crió Montague, que suele
Revised Line Profile Function for Hydrogenic Species
Sapar A.
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Analytical series expansions for the hydrogenic spectral line profile functions are derived starting from the three single expressions, obtained by integrating twice the convolution of the Holtsmark, Lorentz and Doppler line profile functions. We get well converging series expansions for the line wings and centers by reducing the number of arguments in the profile function by one, introducing the module of the Holtsmark and Lorentz profiles as a new argument. In the intermediate part of the line, the parabolic cylinder functions expressed via the confluent hypergeometric series, are used. The multi-component Stark splitting of the hydrogenic spectral lines and the modeled stochastic electron transitions in the electric field of the adjacent ions generate wide Doppler plateaux at the line centers, with the characteristic widths estimated from the fit to the characteristic width of the Holtsmark profile. This additional Doppler broadening of the line profile function removes the central dip typical to the Holtsmark profile.
Dewetting of thin polymer film on rough substrate: II. Experiment
Volodin, Pylyp; Kondyurin, Alexey
2008-01-01
The theory of the dewetting process developed for a model of substrate-film interaction forces was examined by an experimental investigation of the dewetting process of thin polystyrene (PS) films on chemically etched silicon substrates. In the dependence on PS films thickness and silicon roughness, various situations of dewetting were observed as follows: (i) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is much larger than the critical spinodal wavelength of a film, then spinodal dewetting of the film is observed; (ii) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is smaller than the critical wavelength of the film and the substrate roughness is larger in comparison with film thickness, then the dewetting due to substrate roughness is observed and the dewetted film patterns repeat the rough substrate structure; (iii) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is smaller than the critical wavelength of the film and the substrate roughness is small in comparison with the film thickness, then spinodal dewetting proceeds
Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations
Zielke, Olaf; Mai, Paul Martin
2016-01-01
Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault's roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughness –roughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.
Roughness characterization of the galling of metals
Hubert, C.; Marteau, J.; Deltombe, R.; Chen, Y. M.; Bigerelle, M.
2014-09-01
Several kinds of tests exist to characterize the galling of metals, such as that specified in ASTM Standard G98. While the testing procedure is accurate and robust, the analysis of the specimen's surfaces (area=1.2 cm) for the determination of the critical pressure of galling remains subject to operator judgment. Based on the surface's topography analyses, we propose a methodology to express the probability of galling according to the macroscopic pressure load. After performing galling tests on 304L stainless steel, a two-step segmentation of the S q parameter (root mean square of surface amplitude) computed from local roughness maps (100 μ m× 100 μ m) enables us to distinguish two tribological processes. The first step represents the abrasive wear (erosion) and the second one the adhesive wear (galling). The total areas of both regions are highly relevant to quantify galling and erosion processes. Then, a one-parameter phenomenological model is proposed to objectively determine the evolution of non-galled relative area A e versus the pressure load P, with high accuracy ({{A}e}=100/(1+a{{P}2}) with a={{0.54}+/- 0.07}× {{10}-3} M P{{a}-2} and with {{R}2}=0.98). From this model, the critical pressure of galling is found to be equal to 43MPa. The {{S}5 V} roughness parameter (the five deepest valleys in the galled region's surface) is the most relevant roughness parameter for the quantification of damages in the ‘galling region’. The significant valleys’ depths increase from 10 μm-250 μm when the pressure increases from 11-350 MPa, according to a power law ({{S}5 V}=4.2{{P}0.75}, with {{R}2}=0.93).
Robust surface roughness indices and morphological interpretation
Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele
2016-04-01
Geostatistical-based image/surface texture indices based on variogram (Atkison and Lewis, 2000; Herzfeld and Higginson, 1996; Trevisani et al., 2012) and on its robust variant MAD (median absolute differences, Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) offer powerful tools for the analysis and interpretation of surface morphology (potentially not limited to solid earth). In particular, the proposed robust index (Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) with its implementation based on local kernels permits the derivation of a wide set of robust and customizable geomorphometric indices capable to outline specific aspects of surface texture. The stability of MAD in presence of signal noise and abrupt changes in spatial variability is well suited for the analysis of high-resolution digital terrain models. Moreover, the implementation of MAD by means of a pixel-centered perspective based on local kernels, with some analogies to the local binary pattern approach (Lucieer and Stein, 2005; Ojala et al., 2002), permits to create custom roughness indices capable to outline different aspects of surface roughness (Grohmann et al., 2011; Smith, 2015). In the proposed poster, some potentialities of the new indices in the context of geomorphometry and landscape analysis will be presented. At same time, challenges and future developments related to the proposed indices will be outlined. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Grohmann, C.H., Smith, M.J., Riccomini, C., 2011. Multiscale Analysis of Topographic Surface Roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49, 1220-1213. Herzfeld, U.C., Higginson, C.A., 1996. Automated geostatistical seafloor classification - Principles, parameters, feature vectors, and discrimination criteria. Computers and Geosciences, 22 (1), pp. 35-52. Lucieer, A., Stein, A., 2005. Texture-based landform segmentation of LiDAR imagery
Traceability of optical roughness measurements on polymers
De Chiffre, Leonardo; Gasparin, Stefania; Carli, Lorenzo
2008-01-01
-focus instrument, and a confocal microscope. Using stylus measurements as reference, parameter settings on the optical instruments were optimised and residual noise reduced by low pass filtering. Traceability of optical measurements could be established with expanded measuring uncertainties (k=2) of 4......An experimental investigation on surface roughness measurements on plastics was carried out with the objective of developing a methodology to achieve traceability of optical instruments. A ground steel surface and its replicas were measured using a stylus instrument, an optical auto......% for the auto-focus instrument and 10% for confocal microscope....
Wave scattering from statistically rough surfaces
Bass, F G; ter Haar, D
2013-01-01
Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes a
Surface correlations of hydrodynamic drag for transitionally rough engineering surfaces
Thakkar, Manan; Busse, Angela; Sandham, Neil
2017-02-01
Rough surfaces are usually characterised by a single equivalent sand-grain roughness height scale that typically needs to be determined from laboratory experiments. Recently, this method has been complemented by a direct numerical simulation approach, whereby representative surfaces can be scanned and the roughness effects computed over a range of Reynolds number. This development raises the prospect over the coming years of having enough data for different types of rough surfaces to be able to relate surface characteristics to roughness effects, such as the roughness function that quantifies the downward displacement of the logarithmic law of the wall. In the present contribution, we use simulation data for 17 irregular surfaces at the same friction Reynolds number, for which they are in the transitionally rough regime. All surfaces are scaled to the same physical roughness height. Mean streamwise velocity profiles show a wide range of roughness function values, while the velocity defect profiles show a good collapse. Profile peaks of the turbulent kinetic energy also vary depending on the surface. We then consider which surface properties are important and how new properties can be incorporated into an empirical model, the accuracy of which can then be tested. Optimised models with several roughness parameters are systematically developed for the roughness function and profile peak turbulent kinetic energy. In determining the roughness function, besides the known parameters of solidity (or frontal area ratio) and skewness, it is shown that the streamwise correlation length and the root-mean-square roughness height are also significant. The peak turbulent kinetic energy is determined by the skewness and root-mean-square roughness height, along with the mean forward-facing surface angle and spanwise effective slope. The results suggest feasibility of relating rough-wall flow properties (throughout the range from hydrodynamically smooth to fully rough) to surface
The Role of Bed Roughness in Wave Transformation Across Sloping Rock Shore Platforms
Poate, Tim; Masselink, Gerd; Austin, Martin J.; Dickson, Mark; McCall, Robert
2018-01-01
We present for the first time observations and model simulations of wave transformation across sloping (Type A) rock shore platforms. Pressure measurements of the water surface elevation using up to 15 sensors across five rock platforms with contrasting roughness, gradient, and wave climate represent the most extensive collected, both in terms of the range of environmental conditions, and the temporal and spatial resolution. Platforms are shown to dissipate both incident and infragravity wave energy as skewness and asymmetry develop and, in line with previous studies, surf zone wave heights are saturated and strongly tidally modulated. Overall, the observed properties of the waves and formulations derived from sandy beaches do not highlight any systematic interplatform variation, in spite of significant differences in platform roughness, suggesting that friction can be neglected when studying short wave transformation. Optimization of a numerical wave transformation model shows that the wave breaker criterion falls between the range of values reported for flat sandy beaches and those of steep coral fore reefs. However, the optimized drag coefficient shows significant scatter for the roughest sites and an alternative empirical drag model, based on the platform roughness, does not improve model performance. Thus, model results indicate that the parameterization of frictional drag using the bottom roughness length-scale may be inappropriate for the roughest platforms. Based on these results, we examine the balance of wave breaking to frictional dissipation for rock platforms and find that friction is only significant for very rough, flat platforms during small wave conditions outside the surf zone.
Wire Roughness Assessment of 0.016'' × 0.022'' the Technique Lingual Orthodontics.
Facchini, Fátima Mm; Filho, Mario Vedovello; Vedovello, Silvia As; Cotrim, Flávio A; Cotrim-Ferreira, Andrຟa; Tubel, Carlos Am
2017-04-01
To evaluate the difference in surface roughness of stainless steel archwires of different commercial brands used in lingual orthodontics. Precontoured arches measuring 0.016'' × 0.022'' were selected of the following brands: Tecnident, Adenta, G&H, Highland Metals Inc., Ormco, Incognito, and Ebraces. Quantitative evaluation of the surface roughness of archwires was performed by means of an atomic force microscope in contact mode. Three surface readouts were taken of each sample, analyzing areas of 20 × 20 μm. Each scan of the samples produced a readout of 512 lines, generating three-dimensional images of the wires. The analysis of variance statistical test was applied to prove significant variables (p > 0.05), with H 0 being rejected and H 1 accepted. The Incognito brand showed the lowest surface roughness. The archwires of brands Adenta, Tecnident, Highland, and Ormco showed similar values among them, and all close to these obtained by the Incognito brand. The archwires of the Ebraces brand showed the highest surface roughness, with values being close to those of the G&H Brand. There was a statistical difference in surface roughness of orthodontic archwires among the brands studied. Companies should pay attention to the quality control of their materials, as these may directly affect the quality of orthodontic treatment.
Time Resolved Tomographic PIV Measurements of Rough-Wall Turbulent Channel Flow
Miorini, Rinaldo; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph
2013-11-01
Time resolved tomographic PIV is used to study flow structures in the outer region of a rough-wall turbulent boundary layer, focusing on imprints of the roughness on the outer layer. Measurements are performed in a transparent channel installed in the JHU optically index matched facility. The roughness consists of pyramids with height, k = 0.46 mm, and wavelength, λ = 3.2 mm, satisfying h/k = 55 (h = 25.4 mm is the channel half-height), k + = 64 and Re = 40000. The TPIV setup consists of four high-speed cameras operating at 3 kHz, which view the sample volume through acrylic prisms. The flow field is illuminated by an Nd:YLF laser. Following enhancement, calibration, and reconstruction, 643 voxels interrogation volumes with 0.75 overlap provide 3D velocity fields with spacing of 0.5883 mm3. Formation and transport of near-wall 3D U-shaped vortex structures, with base in front of the pyramids, and quasi-streamwise legs extending between pyramid crest lines are evident from the data. Extended streamwise regions of high wall-normal vorticity appear ``latched'' to the roughness elements close to the wall, but are transported downstream at higher elevations. Also evident are traveling streamwise low velocity streaks, which cover many roughness elements. Sponsored by NSF CBET and ONR.
Skrzypczak, Anna; Basu, Rahul; Mitra, Dipanjan; Melikidze, George I.; Maciesiak, Krzysztof; Koralewska, Olga; Filothodoros, Alexandros
2018-02-01
The core component width in normal pulsars, with periods (P) > 0.1 s, measured at the half-power point at 1 GHz, has a lower boundary line (LBL) that closely follows the P ‑0.5 scaling relation. This result is of fundamental importance for understanding the emission process and requires extended studies over a wider frequency range. In this paper we have carried out a detailed study of the profile component widths of 123 normal pulsars observed in the Meterwavelength Single-pulse Polarimetric Emission Survey at 333 and 618 MHz. The components in the pulse profile were separated into core and conal classes. We found that at both frequencies, the core, as well as the conal component widths versus period, had a LBL that followed the P ‑0.5 relation with a similar lower boundary. The radio emission in normal pulsars has been observationally shown to arise from a narrow range of heights around a few hundred kilometers above the stellar surface. In the past the P ‑0.5 relation has been considered as evidence for emission arising from last open dipolar magnetic field lines. We show that the P ‑0.5 dependence only holds if the trailing and leading half-power points of the component are associated with the last open field line. In such a scenario we do not find any physical motivation that can explain the P ‑0.5 dependence for both core and conal components as evidence for dipolar geometry in normal pulsars. We believe the period dependence is a result of a currently unexplained physical phenomenon.
Pulse Width Affects Scalp Sensation of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.
Peterchev, Angel V; Luber, Bruce; Westin, Gregory G; Lisanby, Sarah H
Scalp sensation and pain comprise the most common side effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which can reduce tolerability and complicate experimental blinding. We explored whether changing the width of single TMS pulses affects the quality and tolerability of the resultant somatic sensation. Using a controllable pulse parameter TMS device with a figure-8 coil, single monophasic magnetic pulses inducing electric field with initial phase width of 30, 60, and 120 µs were delivered in 23 healthy volunteers. Resting motor threshold of the right first dorsal interosseus was determined for each pulse width, as reported previously. Subsequently, pulses were delivered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at each of the three pulse widths at two amplitudes (100% and 120% of the pulse-width-specific motor threshold), with 20 repetitions per condition delivered in random order. After each pulse, subjects rated 0-to-10 visual analog scales for Discomfort, Sharpness, and Strength of the sensation. Briefer TMS pulses with amplitude normalized to the motor threshold were perceived as slightly more uncomfortable than longer pulses (with an average 0.89 point increase on the Discomfort scale for pulse width of 30 µs compared to 120 µs). The sensation of the briefer pulses was felt to be substantially sharper (2.95 points increase for 30 µs compared to 120 µs pulse width), but not stronger than longer pulses. As expected, higher amplitude pulses increased the perceived discomfort and strength, and, to a lesser degree the perceived sharpness. Our findings contradict a previously published hypothesis that briefer TMS pulses are more tolerable. We discovered that the opposite is true, which merits further study as a means of enhancing tolerability in the context of repetitive TMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Urban roughness mapping validation techniques and some first results
Bottema, M; Mestayer, PG
1998-01-01
Because of measuring problems related to evaluation of urban roughness parameters, a new approach using a roughness mapping tool has been tested: evaluation of roughness length z(o) and zero displacement z(d) from cadastral databases. Special attention needs to be given to the validation of the
Procedure and applications of combined wheel/rail roughness measurement
Dittrich, M.G.
2009-01-01
Wheel-rail roughness is known to be the main excitation source of railway rolling noise. Besides the already standardised method for direct roughness measurement, it is also possible to measure combined wheel-rail roughness from vertical railhead vibration during a train pass-by. This is a different
Rough sets applied in sublattices and ideals of lattices
R. Ameri
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the study of rough hyperlattice. In this regards we introduce rough sublattice and rough ideals of lattices. We will proceed by obtaining lower and upper approximations in these lattices.
Use of roughness maps in visualisation of surfaces
Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko
2005-01-01
monohydrate, theophylline anhydrate, sodium chloride and potassium chloride. The roughness determinations were made by a laser profilometer. The new matrix method gives detailed roughness maps, which are able to show local variations in surface roughness values and provide an illustrative picture...
ROMI 4.0: Updated Rough Mill Simulator
Timo Grueneberg; R. Edward Thomas; Urs Buehlmann
2012-01-01
In the secondary hardwood industry, rough mills convert hardwood lumber into dimension parts for furniture, cabinets, and other wood products. ROMI 4.0, the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service's ROugh-MIll simulator, is a software package designed to simulate the cut-up of hardwood lumber in rough mills in such a way that a maximum possible component yield...
Rough sets selected methods and applications in management and engineering
Peters, Georg; Ślęzak, Dominik; Yao, Yiyu
2012-01-01
Introduced in the early 1980s, Rough Set Theory has become an important part of soft computing in the last 25 years. This book provides a practical, context-based analysis of rough set theory, with each chapter exploring a real-world application of Rough Sets.
7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels (see...
Dynamic Roughness Ratio-Based Framework for Modeling Mixed Mode of Droplet Evaporation.
Gunjan, Madhu Ranjan; Raj, Rishi
2017-07-18
The spatiotemporal evolution of an evaporating sessile droplet and its effect on lifetime is crucial to various disciplines of science and technology. Although experimental investigations suggest three distinct modes through which a droplet evaporates, namely, the constant contact radius (CCR), the constant contact angle (CCA), and the mixed, only the CCR and the CCA modes have been modeled reasonably. Here we use experiments with water droplets on flat and micropillared silicon substrates to characterize the mixed mode. We visualize that a perfect CCA mode after the initial CCR mode is an idealization on a flat silicon substrate, and the receding contact line undergoes intermittent but recurring pinning (CCR mode) as it encounters fresh contaminants on the surface. The resulting increase in roughness lowers the contact angle of the droplet during these intermittent CCR modes until the next depinning event, followed by the CCA mode of evaporation. The airborne contaminants in our experiments are mostly loosely adhered to the surface and travel along with the receding contact line. The resulting gradual increase in the apparent roughness and hence the extent of CCR mode over CCA mode forces appreciable decrease in the contact angle observed during the mixed mode of evaporation. Unlike loosely adhered airborne contaminants on flat samples, micropillars act as fixed roughness features. The apparent roughness fluctuates about the mean value as the contact line recedes between pillars. Evaporation on these surfaces exhibits stick-jump motion with a short-duration mixed mode toward the end when the droplet size becomes comparable to the pillar spacing. We incorporate this dynamic roughness into a classical evaporation model to accurately predict the droplet evolution throughout the three modes, for both flat and micropillared silicon surfaces. We believe that this framework can also be extended to model the evaporation of nanofluids and the coffee-ring effect, among
Narrow line width operation of a 980 nm gain guided tapered diode laser bar
Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Barrientos-Barria, Jessica
2011-01-01
We demonstrate two different schemes for the spectral narrowing of a 12 emitter 980 nm gain guided tapered diode laser bar. In the first scheme, a reflective grating has been used in a Littman Metcalf configuration and the wavelength of the laser emission could be narrowed down from more than 5.......5 nm in the free running mode to 0.04 nm (FWHM) at an operating current of 30 A with an output power of 8 W. The spectrum was found to be tunable within a range of 16 nm. In the second scheme, a volume Bragg grating has been used to narrow the wavelength of the laser bar from over 5 nm to less than 0.......2 nm with an output of 5 W at 20 A. To our knowledge, this is the first time spectral narrowing has been performed on a gain guided tapered diode laser bar. In the Littman Metcalf configuration, the spectral brightness has been increased by 86 times and in the volume Bragg grating cavity the spectral...
Recrystallization curve study of zircaloy-4 with DRX line width method
Juarez, G; Buioli, C; Samper, R; Vizcaino, P
2012-01-01
X-ray diffraction peak broadening analysis is a method that allows to characterize the plastic deformation in metals. This technique is a complement of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine dislocation densities. So that, both techniques may cover a wide range in the analysis of metals deformation. The study of zirconium alloys is an issue of usual interest in the nuclear industry since such materials present the best combination of good mechanical properties, corrosion behavior and low neutron cross section. It is worth noting there are two factors to be taken into account in the application of the method developed for this purpose: the characteristic anisotropy of the hexagonals and the strong texture that these alloys acquire during the manufacturing process. In order to assess the recrystallization curve of Zircaloy-4, a powder of this alloy was produced through filing. Then, fractions of the powder were subjected to thermal treatments at different temperatures for the same time. Since the powder has a random crystallographic orientation, the texture effect practically disappears; this is the reason why the Williamson and Hall method may be easily used, producing good fittings and predicting confidence values of diffraction domain size and the accumulated deformation. The temperatures selected for the thermal treatments were 1000, 700, 600, 500, 420, 300 and 200 o C during 2 hs. As a result of these annealings, powders in different recovery stages were obtained (completely recrystallized, partially recrystallized and non-recrystallized structures with different levels of stress relieve). The obtained values were also compared with the non annealed powder ones. All the microstructural evolution through the annealings was followed by optical microscopy (author)
InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells: line widths, transition energies and segregation
Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang
2000-01-01
We investigate the optical properties of InAlCaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells pseudomorphically grown on GaAs using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transition energies, measured with photoluminescence (PL), are modelled solving the Schrodinger equation, and taking into account segregation in the group...
Tunable, Narrow Line Width Mid-Infrared Laser Source, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to advance the technology of interband cascade (IC) lasers and their facet coatings and to design, build, and deliver to NASA a...
Tunable, Narrow Line Width Mid-Infrared Laser Source, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maxion Technologies, Inc. (Maxion) and Professor Mario Dagenais and his group at the University of Maryland (UMD) jointly propose to develop a compact, efficient,...
Rough viscoelastic sliding contact: Theory and experiments
Carbone, G.; Putignano, C.
2014-03-01
In this paper, we show how the numerical theory introduced by the authors [Carbone and Putignano, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 61, 1822 (2013), 10.1016/j.jmps.2013.03.005] can be effectively employed to study the contact between viscoelastic rough solids. The huge numerical complexity is successfully faced up by employing the adaptive nonuniform mesh developed by the authors in Putignano et al. [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 60, 973 (2012), 10.1016/j.jmps.2012.01.006]. Results mark the importance of accounting for viscoelastic effects to correctly simulate the sliding rough contact. In detail, attention is, first, paid to evaluate the viscoelastic dissipation, i.e., the viscoelastic friction. Fixed the sliding speed and the normal load, friction is completely determined. Furthermore, since the methodology employed in the work allows to study contact between real materials, a comparison between experimental outcomes and numerical prediction in terms of viscoelastic friction is shown. The good agreement seems to validate—at least partially—the presented methodology. Finally, it is shown that viscoelasticity entails not only the dissipative effects previously outlined, but is also strictly related to the anisotropy of the contact solution. Indeed, a marked anisotropy is present in the contact region, which results stretched in the direction perpendicular to the sliding speed. In the paper, the anisotropy of the deformed surface and of the contact area is investigated and quantified.
Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Alkheraif, Abdulaziz A.; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Matinlinna, Jukka P.; Vallittu, Pekka K.
2016-01-01
The current laboratory study is evaluating the effect of hydrofluoric acid etching duration on the surface characteristics of five silica-based glass ceramics. Changes in the pore pattern, crystal structure, roughness, and wettability were compared and evaluated. Seventy-five rectangularly shaped specimens were cut from each material (IPS e-max™, Dentsply Celtra™, Vita Suprinity™, Vita mark II™, and Vita Suprinity FC™); the sectioned samples were finished, polished, and ultrasonically cleaned. Specimens were randomly assigned into study groups: control (no etching) and four experimental groups (20, 40, 80 and 160 s of etching). The etched surfaces’ microstructure including crystal structure, pore pattern, pore depth, and pore width was studied under a scanning electron microscope, and the surface roughness and wettability were analyzed using a non-contact surface profilometer and a contact angle measuring device, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc Tukey’s test. The results showed a significant change in the pore number, pore pattern, crystal structure, surface roughness, and wettability with increased etching duration. Etching for a short time resulted in small pores, and etching for longer times resulted in wider, irregular grooves. A significant increase in the surface roughness and wettability was observed with an increase in the etching duration. The findings also suggested a strong association between the surface roughness and wettability. PMID:27240353
EFFECT OF BRIDGE PIERS INCLINATION AND ROUGHNESS ON SCOUR PIT DIMENSIONS
Moaed S. Khalil
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper a laboratory work was performed to study the effect of bridge piers inclination and surface roughness on scour pit dimensions. Fifty four experiments were conducted using three different sizes and inclinations Pier models fixed in a sandy bed channel. First, the axis of the pier was parallel to the flow, then it was inclined by 30° and finally by 45°. Each model was tested under three different flow discharges for a period not less than two hours and at the end of each experiment the dimensions of the scour pit were measured. The same experiments were repeated after roughening the surface of each pier by fine gravel of 2mm in diameter to increase its roughness.The results of the experiment showed a clear reduction in scour pit dimensions after increasing pier roughness, the percentage of decreases in scour depth was between 2 % and 61%, while the scour length decreased between 2.5% and 22%, and finally the width of scour decreases was between 3% and 19.7%. The results also showed that the inclination of pier's axis produced an increase in scour pit dimensions. Finally, the empirical relationships of the results showed that it's possible to explain the relation between the flow discharge and each of scour pit dimensions by a simple linear equation, where the determination coefficient were more than 0.94 for all relations.
AFM Surface Roughness and Topography Analysis of Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramic
M. Pantić
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is presenting AFM analysis of surface roughness of Lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max CAD under different finishing procedure (techniques: polishing, glazing and grinding. Lithium disilicate glass ceramics is all-ceramic dental system which is characterized by high aesthetic quality and it can be freely said that properties of material provide all prosthetic requirements: function, biocompatibility and aesthetic. Experimental tests of surface roughness were investigated on 4 samples with dimensions: 18 mm length, 14 mm width and 12 mm height. Contact surfaces of three samples were treated with different finishing procedure (polishing, glazing and grinding, and the contact surface of the raw material is investigated as a fourth sample. Experimental measurements were done using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM of NT-MDT manufacturers, in the contact mode. All obtained results of different prepared samples are presented in the form of specific roughness parameters (Rа, Rz, Rmax, Rq and 3D surface topography.
Scaling of surface roughness in sputter-deposited ZnO:Al thin films
Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra; Choi, Hong-Rak; Cho, Yong Soo
2009-01-01
We have studied surface roughness scaling of ZnO:Al thin films grown by rf magnetron sputtering of a compound target within framework of the dynamic scaling theory using atomic force microscopy. We have observed a crossover in scaling behavior of surface roughness at a deposition time of 25 min. Both the regimes are characterized by power-law dependence of local surface width w(r,t) on deposition time for small r, typical of anomalous scaling. The scaling exponents for the first regime indicate the existence of a new dynamics. For t≥25 min, the films follow super-rough scaling behavior with global exponents α=1.5±0.2 and β=1.03±0.01, and local exponents α local =1 and β local =0.67±0.05. The anomaly in the scaling behavior of the films is discussed in terms of the shadowing instability and bombardment of energetic particles during growth of the films.
Capacitor charging FET switcher with controller to adjust pulse width
Mihalka, Alex M.
1986-01-01
A switching power supply includes an FET full bridge, a controller to drive the FETs, a programmable controller to dynamically control final output current by adjusting pulse width, and a variety of protective systems, including an overcurrent latch for current control. Power MOSFETS are switched at a variable frequency from 20-50 kHz to charge a capacitor load from 0 to 6 kV. A ferrite transformer steps up the DC input. The transformer primary is a full bridge configuration with the FET switches and the secondary is fed into a high voltage full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The peak current is held constant by varying the pulse width using predetermined timing resistors and counting pulses. The pulse width is increased as the capacitor charges to maintain peak current. A digital ripple counter counts pulses, and after the desired number is reached, an up-counter is clocked. The up-counter output is decoded to choose among different resistors used to discharge a timing capacitor, thereby determining the pulse width. A current latch shuts down the supply on overcurrent due to either excessive pulse width causing transformer saturation or a major bridge fault, i.e., FET or transformer failure, or failure of the drive circuitry.
Chromospheric scaling laws, width-luminosity correlations, and the Wilson-Bappu effect
Ayres, T.R.
1979-01-01
Simple scaling laws are developed to explain the thickness and mean electron density of late-type stellar chromospheres in an effort to understand why the emission cores of effectively thick resonance lines such as Ca II H and K broaden with increasing stellar luminosity (the Wilson-Bappu effect). It is shown that stellar chromospheres become thicker in mass column density as stellar gravity g decreases and that the mean chromospheric electric density n/sub e/ decreases if the chromospheric heating dF/dm is constant with height and if the total heating F/sup tot/ is independent of g. It is also shown that chromospheres becomes thicker and the mean electron density becomes larger than the total chromospheric heating increases. The predicted behavior of the K 1 minimum separation and full width at half-maximum of the Ca II emission core (W 0 ) based on the derived scaling laws agree quantitatively with the observed correlations of these widths with fundamental stellar parameters, particularly surface gravity. In addition, the predicted behavior of the K 2 peak separation and base emission width with increasing chromospheric heating is consistent with the behavior of the Ca II emission core shapes in solar plages. The analytical arguments suggest that the Wilson-Bappu effect is largely a consequence of hydrostatic equilibrium rather than chromospheric dynamics
Form factors and radiation widths of the giant multipole resonances
Denisov, V.Yu.
1990-01-01
Simple analytic relations for the form factors of inelastic electron scattering in the Born approximation and radiation widths of the isovector and isoscalar giant multipole resonances are derived. The dynamic relationship between the volume and surface density vibrations were taken into account in this calculation. The form factors in the Born approximation were found to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data in the region of small transferred momenta. The radiation widths of isoscalar multipole resonances increase when the number of nucleons increase as A 1/3 , and for isovector resonances this dependence has the form f(A)A 1/3 , where f(A) is a slowly increasing function of A. Radiation widths well fit the experimental data
Modelling the widths of fission observables in GEF
Schmidt K.-H.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The widths of the mass distributions of the different fission channels are traced back to the probability distributions of the corresponding quantum oscillators that are coupled to the heat bath, which is formed by the intrinsic degrees of freedom of the fissioning system under the influence of pairing correlations and shell effects. Following conclusion from stochastic calculations of Adeev and Pashkevich, an early freezing due to dynamical effects is assumed. It is shown that the mass width of the fission channels in low-energy fission is strongly influenced by the zero-point motion of the corresponding quantum oscillator. The observed variation of the mass widths of the asymmetric fission channels with excitation energy is attributed to the energy-dependent properties of the heat bath and not to the population of excited states of the corresponding quantum oscillator.
Fast and Robust Nanocellulose Width Estimation Using Turbidimetry.
Shimizu, Michiko; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Iwamoto, Shinichiro; Yano, Hiroyuki; Isogai, Akira; Endo, Takashi
2016-10-01
The dimensions of nanocelluloses are important factors in controlling their material properties. The present study reports a fast and robust method for estimating the widths of individual nanocellulose particles based on the turbidities of their water dispersions. Seven types of nanocellulose, including short and rigid cellulose nanocrystals and long and flexible cellulose nanofibers, are prepared via different processes. Their widths are calculated from the respective turbidity plots of their water dispersions, based on the theory of light scattering by thin and long particles. The turbidity-derived widths of the seven nanocelluloses range from 2 to 10 nm, and show good correlations with the thicknesses of nanocellulose particles spread on flat mica surfaces determined using atomic force microscopy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Morphodynamics structures induced by variations of the channel width
Duro, Gonzalo; Crosato, Alessandra; Tassi, Pablo
2014-05-01
In alluvial channels, forcing effects, such as a longitudinally varying width, can induce the formation of steady bars (Olesen, 1984). The type of bars that form, such as alternate, central or multiple, will mainly depend on the local flow width-to-depth ratio and on upstream conditions (Struiksma et al., 1985). The effects on bar formation of varying the channel width received attention only recently and investigations, based on flume experiments and mathematical modelling, are mostly restricted to small longitudinal sinusoidal variations of the channel width (e.g. Repetto et al., 2002; Wu and Yeh, 2005, Zolezzi et al., 2012; Frascati and Lanzoni, 2013). In this work, we analyze the variations in equilibrium bed topography in a longitudinal width-varying channel with characteristic scales of the Waal River (The Netherlands) using two different 2D depth-averaged morphodynamic models, one based on the Delft3D code and one on Telemac-Mascaret system. In particular, we explore the effects of changing the wavelength of sinusoidal width variations in a straight channel, focusing on the effects of the spatial lag between bar formation and forcing that is observed in numerical models and laboratory experiments (e.g. Crosato et al, 2011). We extend the investigations to finite width variations in which longitudinal changes of the width-to-depth ratio are such that they may affect the type of bars that become unstable (alternate, central or multiple bars). Numerical results are qualitatively validated with field observations and the resulting morphodynamic pattern is compared with the physics-based predictor of river bar modes by Crosato and Mosselman (2009). The numerical models are finally used to analyse the experimental conditions of Wu and Yeh (2005). The study should be seen as merely exploratory. The aim is to investigate possible approaches for future research aiming at assessing the effects of artificial river widening and narrowing to control bar formation in
Roughness as classicality indicator of a quantum state
Lemos, Humberto C. F.; Almeida, Alexandre C. L.; Amaral, Barbara; Oliveira, Adélcio C.
2018-03-01
We define a new quantifier of classicality for a quantum state, the Roughness, which is given by the L2 (R2) distance between Wigner and Husimi functions. We show that the Roughness is bounded and therefore it is a useful tool for comparison between different quantum states for single bosonic systems. The state classification via the Roughness is not binary, but rather it is continuous in the interval [ 0 , 1 ], being the state more classic as the Roughness approaches to zero, and more quantum when it is closer to the unity. The Roughness is maximum for Fock states when its number of photons is arbitrarily large, and also for squeezed states at the maximum compression limit. On the other hand, the Roughness approaches its minimum value for thermal states at infinite temperature and, more generally, for infinite entropy states. The Roughness of a coherent state is slightly below one half, so we may say that it is more a classical state than a quantum one. Another important result is that the Roughness performs well for discriminating both pure and mixed states. Since the Roughness measures the inherent quantumness of a state, we propose another function, the Dynamic Distance Measure (DDM), which is suitable for measure how much quantum is a dynamics. Using DDM, we studied the quartic oscillator, and we observed that there is a certain complementarity between dynamics and state, i.e. when dynamics becomes more quantum, the Roughness of the state decreases, while the Roughness grows as the dynamics becomes less quantum.
Effect of Blade Roughness on Transition and Wind Turbine Performance.
Ehrmann, Robert S. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); White, E. B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
2015-09-01
The real-world effect of accumulated surface roughness on wind-turbine power production is not well understood. To isolate specific blade roughness features and test their effect, field measurements of turbine-blade roughness were made and simulated on a NACA 633-418 airfoil in a wind tunnel. Insect roughness, paint chips, and erosion were characterized then manufactured. In the tests, these roughness configurations were recreated as distributed roughness, a forward-facing step, and an eroded leading edge. Distributed roughness was tested in three heights and five densities. Chord Reynolds number was varied between 0:8 to 4:8 × 10^{6}. Measurements included lift, drag, pitching moment, and boundary-layer transition location. Results indicate minimal effect from paint-chip roughness. As distributed roughness height and density increase, the lift-curve slope, maximum lift, and lift-to-drag ratio decrease. As Reynolds number increases, natural transition is replaced by bypass transition. The critical roughness Reynolds number varies between 178 to 318, within the historical range. At a chord Reynolds number of 3:2 × 10^{6}, the maximum lift-to-drag ratio decreases 40% for 140 μm roughness, corresponding to a 2.3% loss in annual energy production. Simulated performance loss compares well to measured performance loss of an in-service wind turbine.
Barros, Julio; Schultz, Michael; Flack, Karen
2016-11-01
Engineering systems are affected by surface roughness which cause an increase in drag leading to significant performance penalties. One important question is how to predict frictional drag purely based upon surface topography. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, this has proven to be challenging. The present work takes a systematic approach by generating surface roughness in which surfaces parameters, such as rms , skewness, can be controlled. Surfaces were produced using the random Fourier modes method with enforced power-law spectral slopes. The surfaces were manufactured using high resolution 3D-printing. In this study three surfaces with constant amplitude and varying slope, P, were investigated (P = - 0 . 5 , - 1 . 0 , - 1 . 5). Skin-friction measurements were conducted in a high Reynolds number turbulent channel flow facility, covering a wide range of Reynolds numbers, from hydraulic-smooth to fully-rough regimes. Results show that some long wavelength roughness scales do not contribute significantly to the frictional drag, thus highlighting the need for filtering in the calculation of surface statistics. Upon high-pass filtering, it was found that krms is highly correlated with the measured ks.
Band width and multiple-angle valence-state mapping of diamond
Jimenez, I.; Terminello, L.J.; Sutherland, D.G.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others
1997-04-01
The band width may be considered the single most important parameter characterizing the electronic structure of a solid. The ratio of band width and Coulomb repulsion determines how correlated or delocalized an electron system is. Some of the most interesting solids straddle the boundary between localized and delocalized, e.g. the high-temperature superconductors. The bulk of the band calculations available today is based on local density functional (DF) theory. Even though the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues from that theory do not represent the outcome of a band-mapping experiment, they are remarkably similar to the bands mapped via photoemission. Strictly speaking, one should use an excited state calculation that takes the solid`s many-body screening response to the hole created in photoemission into account. Diamond is a useful prototype semiconductor because of its low atomic number and large band width, which has made it a long-time favorite for testing band theory. Yet, the two experimental values of the band width of diamond have error bars of {+-}1 eV and differ by 3.2 eV. To obtain an accurate valence band width for diamond, the authors use a band-mapping method that collects momentum distributions instead of the usual energy distributions. This method has undergone extensive experimental and theoretical tests in determining the band width of lithium fluoride. An efficient, imaging photoelectron spectrometer is coupled with a state-of-the-art undulator beam line at the Advanced Light Source to allow collection of a large number of data sets. Since it takes only a few seconds to take a picture of the photoelectrons emitted into a 84{degrees} cone, the authors can use photon energies as high as 350 eV where the cross section for photoemission from the valence band is already quite low, but the emitted photoelectrons behave free-electron-like. This make its much easier to locate the origin of the inter-band transitions in momentum space.
Band width and multiple-angle valence-state mapping of diamond
Jimenez, I.; Terminello, L.J.; Sutherland, D.G.J.
1997-01-01
The band width may be considered the single most important parameter characterizing the electronic structure of a solid. The ratio of band width and Coulomb repulsion determines how correlated or delocalized an electron system is. Some of the most interesting solids straddle the boundary between localized and delocalized, e.g. the high-temperature superconductors. The bulk of the band calculations available today is based on local density functional (DF) theory. Even though the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues from that theory do not represent the outcome of a band-mapping experiment, they are remarkably similar to the bands mapped via photoemission. Strictly speaking, one should use an excited state calculation that takes the solid's many-body screening response to the hole created in photoemission into account. Diamond is a useful prototype semiconductor because of its low atomic number and large band width, which has made it a long-time favorite for testing band theory. Yet, the two experimental values of the band width of diamond have error bars of ±1 eV and differ by 3.2 eV. To obtain an accurate valence band width for diamond, the authors use a band-mapping method that collects momentum distributions instead of the usual energy distributions. This method has undergone extensive experimental and theoretical tests in determining the band width of lithium fluoride. An efficient, imaging photoelectron spectrometer is coupled with a state-of-the-art undulator beam line at the Advanced Light Source to allow collection of a large number of data sets. Since it takes only a few seconds to take a picture of the photoelectrons emitted into a 84 degrees cone, the authors can use photon energies as high as 350 eV where the cross section for photoemission from the valence band is already quite low, but the emitted photoelectrons behave free-electron-like. This make its much easier to locate the origin of the inter-band transitions in momentum space
Analysis on Longitudinal Dose according to Change of Field Width
Jung, Won Seok; Shin, Ryung Mi; Oh, Byung Cheon; Jo, Jun Young; Kim, Gi Chul; Choi, Tae Gu; Back, Jong Geal
2011-01-01
To analyze the accuracy of tumor volume dose following field width change, to check the difference of dose change by using self-made moving car, and to evaluate practical delivery tumor dose when tomotherapy in the treatment of organ influenced by breathing. By using self-made moving car, the difference of longitudinal movement (0.0 cm, 1.0 cm, 1.5 cm, 2.0 cm) was applied and compared calculated dose with measured dose according to change of field width (1.05 cm, 2.50 cm, 5.02 cm) and apprehended margin of error. Then done comparative analysis in degree of photosensitivity of DQA film measured by using Gafchromic EBT film. Dose profile and Gamma histogram were used to measure degree of photosensitivity of DQA film. When field width were 1.05 cm, 2.50 cm, 5.02 cm, margin of error of dose delivery coefficient was -2.00%, -0.39%, -2.55%. In dose profile of Gafchromic EBT film's analysis, the movement of moving car had greater motion toward longitudinal direction and as field width was narrower, big error increased considerably at high dose part compared to calculated dose. The more field width was narrowed, gamma index had a large considerable influence of moving at gamma histogram. We could check the difference of longitudinal dose of moving organ. In order to small field width and minimize organ moving due to breathing, it is thought to be needed to develop breathing control unit and fixation tool.
Effects of injection nozzle exit width on rotating detonation engine
Sun, Jian; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Shijie; Lin, Zhiyong; Cai, Jianhua
2017-11-01
A series of numerical simulations of RDE modeling real injection nozzles with different exit widths are performed in this paper. The effects of nozzle exit width on chamber inlet state, plenum flowfield and detonation propagation are analyzed. The results are compared with that using an ideal injection model. Although the ideal injection model is a good approximation method to model RDE inlet, the two-dimensional effects of real nozzles are ignored in the ideal injection model so that some complicated phenomena such as the reflected waves caused by the nozzle walls and the reversed flow into the nozzles can not be modeled accurately. Additionally, the ideal injection model overpredicts the block ratio. In all the cases that stabilize at one-wave mode, the block ratio increases as the nozzle exit width gets smaller. The dual-wave mode case also has a relatively high block ratio. A pressure oscillation in the plenum with the same main frequency with the rotating detonation wave is observed. A parameter σ is applied to describe the non-uniformity in the plenum. σ increases as the nozzle exit width gets larger. Under some condition, the heat release on the interface of fresh premixed gas layer and detonation products can be strong enough to induce a new detonation wave. A spontaneous mode-transition process is observed for the smallest exit width case. Due to the detonation products existing in the premixed gas layer before the detonation wave, the detonation wave will propagate through reactants and products alternately, and therefore its strength will vary with time, especially near the chamber inlet. This tendency gets weaker as the injection nozzle exit width increases.
Stream Width Dynamics in a Small Headwater Catchment
Barefoot, E. A.; Pavelsky, T.; Allen, G. H.; Zimmer, M. A.; McGlynn, B. L.
2016-12-01
Changing streamflow conditions cause small, ephemeral and intermittent stream networks to expand and contract, while simultaneously driving widening and narrowing of streams. The resulting dynamic surface area of ephemeral streams impacts critical hydrological and biogeochemical processes, including air-water gas exchange, solute transport, and sediment transport. Despite the importance of these dynamics, to our knowledge there exists no complete study of how stream widths vary throughout an entire catchment in response to changing streamflow conditions. Here we present the first characterization of how variable hydrologic conditions impact the distribution of stream widths in a 48 ha headwater catchment in the Stony Creek Research Watershed, NC, USA. We surveyed stream widths longitudinally every 5 m on 12 occasions over a range of stream discharge from 7 L/s to 128 L/s at the catchment outlet. We hypothesize that the shape and location of the stream width distribution are driven by the action of two interrelated mechanisms, network extension and at-a-station widening, both of which increase with discharge. We observe that during very low flow conditions, network extension more significantly influences distribution location, and during high flow conditions stream widening is the dominant driver. During moderate flows, we observe an approximately 1 cm rightward shift in the distribution peak with every additional 10 L/s of increased discharge, which we attribute to a greater impact of at-a-station widening on distribution location. Aside from this small shift, the qualitative location and shape of the stream width distribution are largely invariant with changing streamflow. We suggest that the basic characteristics of stream width distributions constitute an equilibrium between the two described mechanisms across variable hydrologic conditions.
Selenium x-ray laser line profile measurements
Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.; Matthews, D.L.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.
1992-01-01
We discuss our recent measurements of the spectral width of the 206.38 Angstrom laser in Ne-like Se. These measurements were performed over a wide range of amplifier length indicate an intrinsic line width of 50 m Angstrom FWHM (full-width at half-maximum), show gain narrowing to 10 m Angstrom in intermediate length amplifiers and show no significant re-broadening in We briefly discuss the experiments and interpretations
Thermal Width for Heavy Quarkonium in the Static Limit
Shi Chao-Yi; Zhu Jia-Qing; Ma Zhi-Lei; Li Yun-De
2015-01-01
The thermal widths for heavy quarkonia are calculated for both Coulomb gauge (CG) and Feynman gauge (FG), and the comparisons between these results with the hard thermal loop (HTL) approximation ones are illustrated. The dissociation temperatures of heavy quarkonia in thermal medium are also discussed for CG, FG and HTL cases. It is shown that the thermal widths, derived from the HTL approximation and used in many research studies, cause some errors in the practical calculations at the temperature range accessible in the present experiment, and the problem of gauge dependence cannot be avoided when the complete self energy is used in the derivation of potential. (paper)
Statistical analysis of s-wave neutron reduced widths
Pandita Anita; Agrawal, H.M.
1992-01-01
The fluctuations of the s-wave neutron reduced widths for many nuclei have been analyzed with emphasis on recent measurements by a statistical procedure which is based on the method of maximum likelihood. It is shown that the s-wave neutron reduced widths of nuclei follow single channel Porter Thomas distribution (x 2 -distribution with degree of freedom ν = 1) for most of the cases. However there are apparent deviations from ν = 1 and possible explanation and significance of this deviation is given. These considerations are likely to modify the evaluation of neutron cross section. (author)
Domain wall width of lithium niobate poled during growth
Brooks, R; Hole, D E; Callejo, D; Bermudez, V; Diéguez, E
2003-01-01
Good quality crystals of periodically poled lithium niobate can be generated directly during growth. However, the temperature gradients at the zone boundaries define the width of the regions where the polarity is reversed. Hence, the region influenced the domain transition may be a significant fraction of the overall poling period for material poled during growth. Evidence for the scale of this feature is reported both by chemical etching and by the less common method of ion beam luminescence and the 'domain wall' width approximately 1 mu m for these analyses. The influence of the reversal region may differ for alternative techniques but the relevance to device design for second harmonic generation is noted.
Level and width statistics for a decaying chaotic system
Mizutori, S.; Zelevinsky, V.G.
1993-01-01
The random matrix ensemble of discretized effective non-hermitian hamiltonians is used for studying local correlations and fluctuations of energies and widths in a quantum system where intrinsic levels are coupled to the continuum via a common decay channel. With the use of analytical estimates and numerical simulations, generic properties of statistical observables are obtained for the regimes of weak and strong continuum coupling as well as for the transitional region. Typical signals of the transition (width collectivization, disappearance of level repulsion at small spacings and violation of uniformity along the energy axis) are discussed quantitatively. (orig.)
Tomczak, Kamil; Jakubowski, Jacek; Fiołek, Przemysław
2017-06-01
Crack width measurement is an important element of research on the progress of self-healing cement composites. Due to the nature of this research, the method of measuring the width of cracks and their changes over time must meet specific requirements. The article presents a novel method of measuring crack width based on images from a scanner with an optical resolution of 6400 dpi, subject to initial image processing in the ImageJ development environment and further processing and analysis of results. After registering a series of images of the cracks at different times using SIFT conversion (Scale-Invariant Feature Transform), a dense network of line segments is created in all images, intersecting the cracks perpendicular to the local axes. Along these line segments, brightness profiles are extracted, which are the basis for determination of crack width. The distribution and rotation of the line of intersection in a regular layout, automation of transformations, management of images and profiles of brightness, and data analysis to determine the width of cracks and their changes over time are made automatically by own code in the ImageJ and VBA environment. The article describes the method, tests on its properties, sources of measurement uncertainty. It also presents an example of application of the method in research on autogenous self-healing of concrete, specifically the ability to reduce a sample crack width and its full closure within 28 days of the self-healing process.
Influence of surface roughness of a desert
Sud, Y. C.; Smith, W. E.
1984-01-01
A numerical simulation study, using the current GLAS climate GCM, was carried out to examine the influence of low bulk aerodynamic drag parameter in the deserts. The results illustrate the importance of yet another feedback effect of a desert on itself, that is produced by the reduction in surface roughness height of land once the vegetation dies and desert forms. Apart from affecting the moisture convergence, low bulk transport coefficients of a desert lead to enhanced longwave cooling and sinking which together reduce precipitation by Charney's (1975) mechanism. Thus, this effect, together with albedo and soil moisture influence, perpetuate a desert condition through its geophysical feedback effect. The study further suggests that man made deserts is a viable hypothesis.
Khun, N.W.; Frankel, G.S.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Cathodic delamination of epoxy coated steel samples was studied using SKP. ► Delamination of the coating decreased with increased substrate surface roughness. ► Delamination of the coating was faster on the substrate with parallel surface scratches. ► Delamination of the coating exposed to weathering conditions increased with prolonged exposure. - Abstract: The Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) technique was used to investigate the effects of surface roughness, texture and polymer degradation on cathodic delamination of epoxy coated steel. The cathodic delamination rate of the epoxy coatings dramatically decreased with increased surface roughness of the underlying steel substrate. The surface texture of the steel substrates also had a significant effect in that samples with parallel abrasion lines exhibiting faster cathodic delamination in the direction of the lines compared to the direction perpendicular to the lines. The cathodic delamination kinetics of epoxy coatings previously exposed to weathering conditions increased with prolonged exposure due to pronounced polymer degradation. SEM observation confirmed that the cyclic exposure to UV radiation and water condensation caused severe deterioration in the polymer structures with surface cracking and erosion. The SKP results clearly showed that the cathodic delamination of the epoxy coatings was significantly influenced by the surface features of the underlying steel substrates and the degradation of the coatings.
Absorptive reduction and width narrowing in λ-type atoms confined between two dielectric walls
Li Yuanyuan; Hou Xun; Bai Jintao; Yan Junfeng; Gan Chenli; Zhang Yanpeng
2008-01-01
This paper investigates the absorptive reduction and the width narrowing of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a thin vapour film of λ-type atoms confined between two dielectric walls whose thickness is comparable with the wavelength of the probe field. The absorptive lines of the weak probe field exhibit strong reductions and very narrow EIT dips, which mainly results from the velocity slow-down effects and transient behaviour of atoms in a confined system. It is also shown that the lines are modified by the strength of the coupling field and the ratio of L/λ, with L the film thickness and λ the wavelength of the probe field. A simple robust recipe for EIT in a thin medium is achievable in experiment. (general)
On fractal properties of equipotentials over a real rough surface faced to plasma in fusion devices
Budaev, V.P.; Yakovlev, M.
2008-01-01
We consider a sheath region bounded by a corrugated surface of material conductor and a flat boundary held to a constant voltage bias. The real profile of the film deposited from plasma on a limiter in a fusion device was used in numerical solving of the Poisson's equation to find a profile of electrostatic potential. The rough surface influences the equipotential lines over the surface. We characterized a shape of equipotential lines by a fractal dimension. The long-range correlation in the potential field is imposed by the non-trivial fractal structure of the surface. Dust particles bounced in such irregular potential field can accelerate due to the Fermi acceleration. (author)
Urban Aerodynamic Roughness Length Mapping Using Multitemporal SAR Data
Fengli Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Aerodynamic roughness is very important to urban meteorological and climate studies. Radar remote sensing is considered to be an effective means for aerodynamic roughness retrieval because radar backscattering is sensitive to the surface roughness and geometric structure of a given target. In this paper, a methodology for aerodynamic roughness length estimation using SAR data in urban areas is introduced. The scale and orientation characteristics of backscattering of various targets in urban areas were firstly extracted and analyzed, which showed great potential of SAR data for urban roughness elements characterization. Then the ground truth aerodynamic roughness was calculated from wind gradient data acquired by the meteorological tower using fitting and iterative method. And then the optimal dimension of the upwind sector for the aerodynamic roughness calculation was determined through a correlation analysis between backscattering extracted from SAR data at various upwind sector areas and the aerodynamic roughness calculated from the meteorological tower data. Finally a quantitative relationship was set up to retrieve the aerodynamic roughness length from SAR data. Experiments based on ALOS PALSAR and COSMO-SkyMed data from 2006 to 2011 prove that the proposed methodology can provide accurate roughness length estimations for the spatial and temporal analysis of urban surface.
Roughness coefficient and its uncertainty in gravel-bed river
Ji-Sung Kim
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Manning's roughness coefficient was estimated for a gravel-bed river reach using field measurements of water level and discharge, and the applicability of various methods used for estimation of the roughness coefficient was evaluated. Results show that the roughness coefficient tends to decrease with increasing discharge and water depth, and over a certain range it appears to remain constant. Comparison of roughness coefficients calculated by field measurement data with those estimated by other methods shows that, although the field-measured values provide approximate roughness coefficients for relatively large discharge, there seems to be rather high uncertainty due to the difference in resultant values. For this reason, uncertainty related to the roughness coefficient was analyzed in terms of change in computed variables. On average, a 20% increase of the roughness coefficient causes a 7% increase in the water depth and an 8% decrease in velocity, but there may be about a 15% increase in the water depth and an equivalent decrease in velocity for certain cross-sections in the study reach. Finally, the validity of estimated roughness coefficient based on field measurements was examined. A 10% error in discharge measurement may lead to more than 10% uncertainty in roughness coefficient estimation, but corresponding uncertainty in computed water depth and velocity is reduced to approximately 5%. Conversely, the necessity for roughness coefficient estimation by field measurement is confirmed.
Rough Electrode Creates Excess Capacitance in Thin-Film Capacitors.
Torabi, Solmaz; Cherry, Megan; Duijnstee, Elisabeth A; Le Corre, Vincent M; Qiu, Li; Hummelen, Jan C; Palasantzas, George; Koster, L Jan Anton
2017-08-16
The parallel-plate capacitor equation is widely used in contemporary material research for nanoscale applications and nanoelectronics. To apply this equation, flat and smooth electrodes are assumed for a capacitor. This essential assumption is often violated for thin-film capacitors because the formation of nanoscale roughness at the electrode interface is very probable for thin films grown via common deposition methods. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically show that the electrical capacitance of thin-film capacitors with realistic interface roughness is significantly larger than the value predicted by the parallel-plate capacitor equation. The degree of the deviation depends on the strength of the roughness, which is described by three roughness parameters for a self-affine fractal surface. By applying an extended parallel-plate capacitor equation that includes the roughness parameters of the electrode, we are able to calculate the excess capacitance of the electrode with weak roughness. Moreover, we introduce the roughness parameter limits for which the simple parallel-plate capacitor equation is sufficiently accurate for capacitors with one rough electrode. Our results imply that the interface roughness beyond the proposed limits cannot be dismissed unless the independence of the capacitance from the interface roughness is experimentally demonstrated. The practical protocols suggested in our work for the reliable use of the parallel-plate capacitor equation can be applied as general guidelines in various fields of interest.
Utility Interfaced Pulse-Width Modulation of Solar Fed Voltage ...
Utility Interfaced Pulse-Width Modulation of Solar Fed Voltage Source Inverter Using Fixed-Band Hysteresis Current Controller Method. ... with the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy; boosting the dc power; inversion of the dc to ac and then synchronization of the inverter output with the utility, and consequently, ...
Turbulent transport regimes and the SOL heat flux width
Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Russell, D. A.
2014-10-01
Understanding the responsible mechanisms and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width is important for predicting viable operating regimes in future tokamaks, and for seeking possible mitigation schemes. Simulation and theory results using reduced edge/SOL turbulence models have produced SOL widths and scalings in reasonable accord with experiments in many cases. In this work, we attempt to qualitatively and conceptually understand various regimes of edge/SOL turbulence and the role of turbulent transport in establishing the SOL heat flux width. Relevant considerations include the type and spectral characteristics of underlying instabilities, the location of the gradient drive relative to the SOL, the nonlinear saturation mechanism, and the parallel heat transport regime. Recent SOLT turbulence code results are employed to understand the roles of these considerations and to develop analytical scalings. We find a heat flux width scaling with major radius R that is generally positive, consistent with older results reviewed in. The possible relationship of turbulence mechanisms to the heuristic drift mechanism is considered, together with implications for future experiments. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER54392.
The effect of buffer zone width on biodiversity
Navntoft, Søren; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian Morten
2012-01-01
Field margin management for conservation purposes is a way to protect both functional biodiversity and biodiversity per se without considerable economical loss as field margins are less productive. However, the effect of width of the buffer zone on achievable biodiversity gains has received littl...
Joint space width in dysplasia of the hip
Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, K
2005-01-01
. Neither subjects with dysplasia nor controls had radiological signs of ongoing degenerative disease at admission. The primary radiological discriminator of degeneration of the hip was a change in the minimum joint space width over time. There were no significant differences between these with dysplasia...
Widths of the atomic K-N7 levels
Campbell, J.L.; Papp, Tibor
2001-01-01
Atomic level widths obtained from experimental measurements are collected in Table I, along with the corresponding theoretical widths derived from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; these EADL values are based upon the Dirac-Hartree-Slater version of the independent-particle model. In a minority of cases, many-body theory predictions are also provided. A brief discussion of the manner in which the experimental widths were deduced from spectroscopic data is included. The bulk of the data are for elements in the solid state, but a few data for gases and simple compounds are included. For the K, L2, L3, and M5 levels, where Coster-Kronig contributions do not contribute or contribute only to a small extent to the overall widths, the EADL predictions appear satisfactory for elements in the solid state. For other levels, where Coster-Kronig and super-Coster-Kronig transitions have large probabilities within the independent-particle model, this model is not satisfactory. Table II provides a complete set of recommended elemental values based upon consideration of the available experimental data
Partial Widths of Nonmesonic Weak Decays of Lambda-Hypernuclei
Kuzmin, V A
2002-01-01
It is shown that the phenomenological matrix elements completely describing \\Lambda N \\to NN weak interaction in the 1p-shell nuclei can be obtained from the partial widths of nonmesonic decays of ^{10}_{\\Lambda}Be and ^{10}_{\\Lambda}B hypernuclei. It is shown that the uncertainties related to the description of nuclear structure are not essential for this task.
Downstream flow top width prediction in a river system | Choudhury ...
ANFIS, ARIMA and Hybrid Multiple Inflows Muskingum models (HMIM) were applied to simulate and forecast downstream discharge and flow top widths in a river system. The ANFIS model works on a set of linguistic rules while the ARIMA model uses a set of past values to predict the next value in a time series. The HMIM ...
Measurement of joint space width and erosion size
Sharp, JI; van der Heijde, D; Angwin, J; Duryea, J; Moens, HJB; Jacobs, JWG; Maillefert, JF; Strand, CV
2005-01-01
Measurement of radiographic abnormalities in metric units has been reported by several investigators during the last 15 years. Measurement of joint space in large joints has been employed in a few trials to evaluate therapy in osteoarthritis. Measurement of joint space width in small joints has been
Line-breaking algorithm enhancement in inverse typesetting paradigma
Jan Přichystal
2007-01-01
Full Text Available High quality text preparing using computer desktop publishing systems usually uses line-breaking algorithm which cannot make provision for line heights and typeset paragraph accurately when composition width, page break, line index or other object appears. This article deals with enhancing of line-breaking algorithm based on optimum-fit algorithm. This algorithm is enhanced with calculation of immediate typesetting width and thus solves problem of forced change. Line-breaking algorithm enhancement causes expansion potentialities of high-quality typesetting in cases that have not been yet covered with present typesetting systems.
Modeling of dislocation channel width evolution in irradiated metals
Doyle, Peter J.; Benensky, Kelsa M.; Zinkle, Steven J.
2018-02-01
Defect-free dislocation channel formation has been reported to promote plastic instability during tensile testing via localized plastic flow, leading to a distinct loss of ductility and strain hardening in many low-temperature irradiated materials. In order to study the underlying mechanisms governing dislocation channel width and formation, the channel formation process is modeled via a simple stochastic dislocation-jog process dependent upon grain size, defect cluster density, and defect size. Dislocations traverse a field of defect clusters and jog stochastically upon defect interaction, forming channels of low defect-density. Based upon prior molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and in-situ experimental transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, each dislocation encounter with a dislocation loop or stacking fault tetrahedron (SFT) is assumed to cause complete absorption of the defect cluster, prompting the dislocation to jog up or down by a distance equal to half the defect cluster diameter. Channels are predicted to form rapidly and are comparable to reported TEM measurements for many materials. Predicted channel widths are found to be most strongly dependent on mean defect size and correlated well with a power law dependence on defect diameter and density, and distance from the dislocation source. Due to the dependence of modeled channel width on defect diameter and density, maximum channel width is predicted to slowly increase as accumulated dose increases. The relatively weak predicted dependence of channel formation width with distance, in accordance with a diffusion analogy, implies that after only a few microns from the source, most channels observed via TEM analyses may not appear to vary with distance because of limitations in the field-of-view to a few microns. Further, examinations of the effect of the so-called "source-broadening" mechanism of channel formation showed that its effect is simply to add a minimum thickness to the channel
Influence of MLC leaf width on biologically adapted IMRT plans
Roedal, Jan; Soevik, Aaste; Malinen, Eirik (Dept. of Medical Physics, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)), E-mail: jan.rodal@radiumhospitalet.no
2010-10-15
Introduction. High resolution beam delivery may be required for optimal biology-guided adaptive therapy. In this work, we have studied the influence of multi leaf collimator (MLC) leaf widths on the treatment outcome following adapted IMRT of a hypoxic tumour. Material and methods. Dynamic contrast enhanced MR images of a dog with a spontaneous tumour in the nasal region were used to create a tentative hypoxia map following a previously published procedure. The hypoxia map was used as a basis for generating compartmental gross tumour volumes, which were utilised as planning structures in biologically adapted IMRT. Three different MLCs were employed in inverse treatment planning, with leaf widths of 2.5 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm. The number of treatment beams and the degree of step-and-shoot beam modulation were varied. By optimising the tumour control probability (TCP) function, optimal compartmental doses were derived and used as target doses in the inverse planning. Resulting IMRT dose distributions and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were exported and analysed, giving estimates of TCP and compartmental equivalent uniform doses (EUDs). The impact of patient setup accuracy was simulated. Results. The MLC with the smallest leaf width (2.5 mm) consistently gave the highest TCPs and compartmental EUDs, assuming no setup error. The difference between this MLC and the 5 mm MLC was rather small, while the MLC with 10 mm leaf width gave considerably lower TCPs. When including random and systematic setup errors, errors larger than 5 mm gave only small differences between the MLC types. For setup errors larger than 7 mm no differences were found between non-uniform and uniform dose distributions. Conclusions. Biologically adapted radiotherapy may require MLCs with leaf widths smaller than 10 mm. However, for a high probability of cure it is crucial that accurate patient setup is ensured.
QSOs with narrow emission lines
Baldwin, J.A.; Mcmahon, R.; Hazard, C.; Williams, R.E.
1988-01-01
Observations of two new high-redshift, narrow-lined QSOs (NLQSOs) are presented and discussed together with observations of similar objects reported in the literature. Gravitational lensing is ruled out as a possible means of amplifying the luminosity for one of these objects. It is found that the NLQSOs have broad bases on their emission lines as well as the prominent narrow cores which define this class. Thus, these are not pole-on QSOs. The FWHM of the emission lines fits onto the smoothly falling tail of the lower end of the line-width distribution for complete QSO samples. The equivalent widths of the combined broad and narrow components of the lines are normal for QSOs of the luminosity range under study. However, the NLQSOs do show ionization differences from broader-lined QSOs; most significant, the semiforbidden C III/C IV intensity ratio is unusually low. The N/C abundance ratio in these objects is found to be normal; the Al/C abundance ratio may be quite high. 38 references
Multi-scale analysis of the roughness effect on lubricated rough contact
DEMIRCI, Ibrahim
2014-01-01
Determining friction is as equally essential as determining the film thickness in the lubricated contact, and is an important research subject. Indeed, reduction of friction in the automotive industry is important for both the minimization of fuel consumption as well as the decrease in the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the progress in friction reduction has been limited by the difficulty in understanding the mechanism of roughness effects on friction. It was observed that micro-surf...
A new fiber optic sensor for inner surface roughness measurement
Xu, Xiaomei; Liu, Shoubin; Hu, Hong
2009-11-01
In order to measure inner surface roughness of small holes nondestructively, a new fiber optic sensor is researched and developed. Firstly, a new model for surface roughness measurement is proposed, which is based on intensity-modulated fiber optic sensors and scattering modeling of rough surfaces. Secondly, a fiber optical measurement system is designed and set up. Under the help of new techniques, the fiber optic sensor can be miniaturized. Furthermore, the use of micro prism makes the light turn 90 degree, so the inner side surface roughness of small holes can be measured. Thirdly, the fiber optic sensor is gauged by standard surface roughness specimens, and a series of measurement experiments have been done. The measurement results are compared with those obtained by TR220 Surface Roughness Instrument and Form Talysurf Laser 635, and validity of the developed fiber optic sensor is verified. Finally, precision and influence factors of the fiber optic sensor are analyzed.
Turbulent flow with suction in smooth and rough pipes
Verdier, Andre.
1977-11-01
It concerns an experimental study of turbulent flow inside a pipe with rough and porous wall and suction applied through it. The first part recall the basic knowledge concerning the turbulent flow with roughness. In second part statistical equations of fluid wall stress are written in the case of a permeable rough wall, in order to underline the respective role played by viscosity and pressure terms. In the third part the dynamic equilibrium of the flow is experimentally undertaken in the smooth and rough range with and without wall suction. Some empirical formulae are proposed for the mean velocity profiles in the inertial range and for friction velocity with suction. In the case of the sand roughness used, it does not seem that critical Reynolds number of transition from smooth to rough range is varied [fr
Numerical simulations of seepage flow in rough single rock fractures
Qingang Zhang
2015-09-01
Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between the structural characteristics and seepage flow behavior of rough single rock fractures, a set of single fracture physical models were produced using the Weierstrass–Mandelbrot functions to test the seepage flow performance. Six single fractures, with various surface roughnesses characterized by fractal dimensions, were built using COMSOL multiphysics software. The fluid flow behavior through the rough fractures and the influences of the rough surfaces on the fluid flow behavior was then monitored. The numerical simulation indicates that there is a linear relationship between the average flow velocity over the entire flow path and the fractal dimension of the rough surface. It is shown that there is good a agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data in terms of the properties of the fluid flowing through the rough single rock fractures.
Effect of truncated cone roughness element density on hydrodynamic drag
Womack, Kristofer; Schultz, Michael; Meneveau, Charles
2017-11-01
An experimental study was conducted on rough-wall, turbulent boundary layer flow with roughness elements whose idealized shape model barnacles that cause hydrodynamic drag in many applications. Varying planform densities of truncated cone roughness elements were investigated. Element densities studied ranged from 10% to 79%. Detailed turbulent boundary layer velocity statistics were recorded with a two-component LDV system on a three-axis traverse. Hydrodynamic roughness length (z0) and skin-friction coefficient (Cf) were determined and compared with the estimates from existing roughness element drag prediction models including Macdonald et al. (1998) and other recent models. The roughness elements used in this work model idealized barnacles, so implications of this data set for ship powering are considered. This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research and by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.
Irregular wall roughness in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
Berghout, Pieter; Zhu, Xiaojue; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Stevens, Richard
2017-11-01
Many wall bounded flows in nature, engineering and transport are affected by surface roughness. Often, this has adverse effects, e.g. drag increase leading to higher energy costs. A major difficulty is the infinite number of roughness geometries, which makes it impossible to systematically investigate all possibilities. Here we present Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. We focus on the transitionally rough regime, in which both viscous and pressure forces contribute to the total wall stress. We investigate the effect of the mean roughness height and the effective slope on the roughness function, ΔU+ . Also, we present simulations of varying Ta (Re) numbers for a constant mean roughness height (kmean+). Alongside, we show the behavior of the large scale structures (e.g. plume ejection, Taylor rolls) and flow structures in the vicinity of the wall.
Incorporating Skew into RMS Surface Roughness Probability Distribution
Stahl, Mark T.; Stahl, H. Philip.
2013-01-01
The standard treatment of RMS surface roughness data is the application of a Gaussian probability distribution. This handling of surface roughness ignores the skew present in the surface and overestimates the most probable RMS of the surface, the mode. Using experimental data we confirm the Gaussian distribution overestimates the mode and application of an asymmetric distribution provides a better fit. Implementing the proposed asymmetric distribution into the optical manufacturing process would reduce the polishing time required to meet surface roughness specifications.
Investigation of surface roughness influence on hyperbolic metamaterial performance
S. Kozik
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to introduce simple model of surface roughness which does not involve objects with complicated shapes and could help to reduce computational costs. We described and proved numerically that the influence of surface roughness at the interfaces in metal-dielectric composite materials could be described by proper selection of refractive index of dielectric layers. Our calculations show that this model works for roughness with RMS value about 1 nm and below.
Constraining the roughness degree of slip heterogeneity
Causse, Mathieu
2010-05-07
This article investigates different approaches for assessing the degree of roughness of the slip distribution of future earthquakes. First, we analyze a database of slip images extracted from a suite of 152 finite-source rupture models from 80 events (Mw = 4.1–8.9). This results in an empirical model defining the distribution of the slip spectrum corner wave numbers (kc) as a function of moment magnitude. To reduce the “epistemic” uncertainty, we select a single slip model per event and screen out poorly resolved models. The number of remaining models (30) is thus rather small. In addition, the robustness of the empirical model rests on a reliable estimation of kc by kinematic inversion methods. We address this issue by performing tests on synthetic data with a frequency domain inversion method. These tests reveal that due to smoothing constraints used to stabilize the inversion process, kc tends to be underestimated. We then develop an alternative approach: (1) we establish a proportionality relationship between kc and the peak ground acceleration (PGA), using a k−2 kinematic source model, and (2) we analyze the PGA distribution, which is believed to be better constrained than slip images. These two methods reveal that kc follows a lognormal distribution, with similar standard deviations for both methods.
Spectrophotometric Examination of Rough Print Surfaces
Erzsébet Novotny
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The objective was to assess the impact of the surface texture of individual creative paper types (coated or patternedon the quality of printing and to identify to what extent the various creative paper types require specific types ofspectrophotometers. We used stereomicroscopic images to illustrate unprinted and printed surfaces of creative papertypes. Surface roughness was measured to obtain data on the unevenness of surfaces. Spectrophotometric tests wereused to select the most suitable spectrophotometer from meters with different illumination setup for testing anygiven print. For the purpose of testing, we used spectrophotometers which are commonly available generally used totest print products for colour accuracy. With the improvement of measuring geometries, illumination setup, colourmeasurement becomes more and more capable of producing reliable results unaffected by surface textures. Our testshave proved this fact by showing that the GretagMacbeth Spectrolino with annular illumination is less sensitive tosurface texture than the X-Rite Spetrodensitometer and the Techkon SpetroDens with directional illumination. Furthertests have brought us to the conclusion that there is a difference even between the two devices with directionalillumination. While the X-Rite 530 Spectrodensitometer is more suitable for testing coated surfaces, the TechkonSpectroDens can come close to ΔE*ab values produced by the annular illuminated device for textured surfaces.
Radiosensitivity of the rough-skinned newt
Willis, D.L.; Lappenbusch, W.L.
1974-01-01
Newts were collected locally and maintained unfed at 10 0 C both before and after irradiation. Whole-body exposures ranging up to 80 kR were given with 250 kVp x rays, 300 kVp x rays, and 60 Co gamma rays. The mean survival time-exposure curve was sigmoid, following the typical appearance of such curves for mammalian species. A dose-independent region extending from roughly 700 to 5,000 R was evident. A variety of skin lesions and depigmentation effects were noted at exposures above 250 R, whose time of appearance decreased with increasing dose. A total of 832 newts were used in this phase of the study. Assuming that hematopoietic damage was primarily responsible for deaths below 700-800 R, additional studies of hematopoiesis were initiated. The effect of a 650 R-exposure on liver weight, spleen weight and concentration of circulating red blood cells for 1 1 / 2 months post-irradiation was assessed. The results indicate a progressive state of anemia. This was further substantiated by a study of 59 Fe incorporation by red blood cells at intervals up to one month for five exposures ranging up to 1000 R. (U.S.)
Chakraborty, B.; Schenke, H.W.; Kodagali, V.N.; Hagen, R.
composite roughness model, including water-sediment interface roughness and sediment volume roughness parameters the data was modeled. The model effectively uses the near normal incidence angle backscatter to determine the seafloor interface roughness...
Fong, Kahei Danny
stability equation (PSE) are performed to ensure the fidelity of the data and to study the relevant flow physics. All results unanimously confirm the conclusion that the relative location of the synchronization point with respect to the roughness element determines the roughness effect on the second mode. Namely, a roughness placed upstream of the synchronization point amplifies the unstable waves while placing a roughness downstream of the synchronization point damps the second-mode waves. The parametric study also shows that a tall roughness element within the local boundary-layer thickness results in a stronger damping effect, while the effect of the roughness width is relatively insignificant compared with the other roughness parameters. On the other hand, the fact that both LST and PSE successfully predict the damping effect only by analyzing the meanflow suggests the mechanism of the damping is by the meanflow alteration due to the existence of roughness elements, rather than new mode generation. In addition to studying the unstable waves, the drag force and heating with and without roughness have been investigated by comparing the numerical simulation data with experimental correlations. It is shown that the increase in drag force generated by the Mach wave around a roughness element in a hypersonic boundary layer is insignificant compared to the reduction of drag force by suppressing turbulent flow. The study also shows that, for a cold wall flow which is the case for practical flight applications, the Stanton number decreases as roughness elements smooth out the temperature gradient in the wall-normal direction. Based on the knowledge of roughness elements damping the second mode gained from the current study, a novel passive transition control method using judiciously placed roughness elements has been developed, and patented, during the course of this research. The main idea of the control method is that, with a given geometry and flow condition, it is possible
Xiangju Cheng
2014-12-01
Full Text Available One of the most uncertain parameters in stepped spillway design is the length (from the crest of boundary layer development. The normal velocity profiles responding to the steps as bed roughness are investigated in the developing non-aerated flow region. A detailed analysis of the logarithmic vertical velocity profiles on stepped spillways is conducted through experimental data to verify the computational code and numerical experiments to expand the data available. To determine development length, the hydraulic roughness and displacement thickness, along with the shear velocity, are needed. This includes determining displacement height d and surface roughness length z0 and the relationship of d and z0 to the step geometry. The results show that the hydraulic roughness height ks is the primary factor on which d and z0 depend. In different step height, step width, discharge and intake Froude number, the relations d/ks = 0.22–0.27, z0/ks = 0.06–0.1 and d/z0 = 2.2–4 result in a good estimate. Using the computational code and numerical experiments, air inception will occur over stepped spillway flow as long as the Bauer-defined boundary layer thickness is between 0.72 and 0.79.
The SOL width and the MHD interchange instability in tokamaks
Kerner, W [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pogutse, O [Kurchatov institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1994-07-01
Instabilities in the SOL plasma can strongly influence the SOL plasma behaviour and in particular the SOL width. The SOL stability analysis shows that there exists a critical ratio of the thermal energy and the magnetic energy. If the SOL beta is greater than this critical value, the magnetic field cannot prevent the plasma displacement and a strong MHD instability in the SOL occurs. In the opposite case only slower resistive instabilities can develop. A theoretical investigation of the SOL plasma stability is presented for JET single-null and double-null divertor configurations. The dependence of the stability threshold on the SOL beta and on the sheath resistance is established. Applying a simple mixing length argument gives the scaling of the SOL width. 5 refs., 2 figs.
Simple discretization method for autoionization widths. III. Molecules
Macas, A.; Martn, F.; Riera, A.; Yanez, M.
1987-01-01
We apply a new method to calculate widths of two-electron Feshbach resonances, which was described in detail and applied to atomic systems in preceding articles (this issue), to molecular and quasimolecular autoionizing states. For simplicity in the programming effort, we restrict our calculations to the small-R region where one-centered expansions are sufficiently accurate to describe the wave functions. As test cases, positions and widths for the H 2 , He 2 /sup 2+/, HeH + , and LiHe/sup 3+/ resonances of lowest energy are computed for R<0.6 a.u. The advantage of using block-diagonalization techniques to define diabatic resonant states instead of generalizing the Feshbach formalism is pointed out
Joint space width in dysplasia of the hip
Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, K
2005-01-01
In a longitudinal case-control study, we followed 81 subjects with dysplasia of the hip and 136 control subjects without dysplasia for ten years assessing radiological evidence of degeneration of the hip at admission and follow-up. There were no cases of subluxation in the group with dysplasia....... Neither subjects with dysplasia nor controls had radiological signs of ongoing degenerative disease at admission. The primary radiological discriminator of degeneration of the hip was a change in the minimum joint space width over time. There were no significant differences between these with dysplasia...... and controls in regard to age, body mass index or occupational exposure to daily repeated lifting at admission.We found no significant differences in the reduction of the joint space width at follow-up between subjects with dysplasia and the control subjects nor in self-reported pain in the hip...
Histogram bin width selection for time-dependent Poisson processes
Koyama, Shinsuke; Shinomoto, Shigeru
2004-01-01
In constructing a time histogram of the event sequences derived from a nonstationary point process, we wish to determine the bin width such that the mean squared error of the histogram from the underlying rate of occurrence is minimized. We find that the optimal bin widths obtained for a doubly stochastic Poisson process and a sinusoidally regulated Poisson process exhibit different scaling relations with respect to the number of sequences, time scale and amplitude of rate modulation, but both diverge under similar parametric conditions. This implies that under these conditions, no determination of the time-dependent rate can be made. We also apply the kernel method to these point processes, and find that the optimal kernels do not exhibit any critical phenomena, unlike the time histogram method
Histogram bin width selection for time-dependent Poisson processes
Koyama, Shinsuke; Shinomoto, Shigeru [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2004-07-23
In constructing a time histogram of the event sequences derived from a nonstationary point process, we wish to determine the bin width such that the mean squared error of the histogram from the underlying rate of occurrence is minimized. We find that the optimal bin widths obtained for a doubly stochastic Poisson process and a sinusoidally regulated Poisson process exhibit different scaling relations with respect to the number of sequences, time scale and amplitude of rate modulation, but both diverge under similar parametric conditions. This implies that under these conditions, no determination of the time-dependent rate can be made. We also apply the kernel method to these point processes, and find that the optimal kernels do not exhibit any critical phenomena, unlike the time histogram method.
Statistical analysis of P-wave neutron reduced widths
Joshi, G.C.; Agrawal, H.M.
2000-01-01
The fluctuations of the p-wave neutron reduced widths for fifty one nuclei have been analyzed with emphasis on recent measurements by a statistical procedure which is based on the method of maximum likelihood. It is shown that the p-wave neutron reduced widths of even-even nuclei fallow single channel Porter Thomas distribution (χ 2 -distribution with degree of freedom ν=1) for most of the cases where there are no intermediate structure. It is emphasized that the distribution in nuclei other than even-even may differ from a χ 2 -distribution with one degree of freedom. Possible explanation and significance of this deviation from ν=1 is given. (author)
Explicit and implicit processes in behavioural adaptation to road width.
Lewis-Evans, Ben; Charlton, Samuel G
2006-05-01
The finding that drivers may react to safety interventions in a way that is contrary to what was intended is the phenomenon of behavioural adaptation. This phenomenon has been demonstrated across various safety interventions and has serious implications for road safety programs the world over. The present research used a driving simulator to assess behavioural adaptation in drivers' speed and lateral displacement in response to manipulations of road width. Of interest was whether behavioural adaptation would occur and whether we could determine whether it was the result of explicit, conscious decisions or implicit perceptual processes. The results supported an implicit, zero perceived risk model of behavioural adaptation with reduced speeds on a narrowed road accompanied by increased ratings of risk and a marked inability of the participants to identify that any change in road width had occurred.
A Direct Measurement of the $W$ Decay Width
Vine, Troy [Univ. of College, London (United Kingdom)
2008-08-01
A direct measurement of the W boson total decay width is presented in proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using data collected by the CDF II detector. The measurement is made by fitting a simulated signal to the tail of the transverse mass distribution in the electron and muon decay channels. An integrated luminosity of 350 pb^{-1} is used, collected between February 2002 and August 2004. Combining the results from the separate decay channels gives the decay width as 2.038 ± 0.072 GeV in agreement with the theoretical prediction of 2.093 ± 0.002 GeV. A system is presented for the management of detector calibrations using a relational database schema. A description of the implementation and monitoring of a procedure to provide general users with a simple interface to the complete set of calibrations is also given.
Generation of ozone by Ns-width pulsed power
Shimomura, Naoyuki; Wakimoto, Masaya; Shinke, Yosuke; Nagata, Masayoshi; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori
2002-01-01
The demand of ozone will be increasing for wholesome and environment-conscious sterilizations. The generation of ozone using the pulsed power discharge will apply electron accelerations around the head of streamer discharge principally. The breakdown in reactor often limits the efficient generation. Therefore, the pulse shape should be controlled for dimension of the reactor. It is clear that a pulse shortening is one of effective approaches. Pulsed power voltage with ns-width applies for ozone generation. The effects, on concentration and efficiency of generation, of pulse shape, repetition rate of pulse, flow rate of oxygen gas, and dimension and configuration of reactor, are discussed. The dimension and configuration of the reactor are optimized for the pulse width
Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama, E-mail: rkant@chemistry.du.ac.in
2013-10-01
Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.
Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama
2013-01-01
Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.
DIFFUSE DBD IN ATMOSPHERIC AIR AT DIFFERENT APPLIED PULSE WIDTHS
Ekaterina Alexandrovna Shershunova
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the realization and the diagnostics of the volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge in 1-mm air gap when applying high voltage rectangular pulses to the electrodes. The effect of the applied pulse width on the discharge dissipated energy was studied in detail. It was found experimentally, the energy stayed nearly constant with the pulse elongation from 600 ns to 1 ms.
Temperature dependence of spreading width of giant dipole resonance
Storozhenko, A.N.; Vdovin, A.I.; Ventura, A.; Blokhin, A.I.
2002-01-01
The Quasiparticle-Phonon Nuclear Model extended to finite temperature within the framework of Thermo Field Dynamics is applied to calculate a temperature dependence of the spreading width Γ ↓ of a giant dipole resonance. Numerical calculations are made for 120 Sn and 208 Pb nuclei. It is found that Γ ↓ increases with T. The reason of this effect is discussed as well as a relation of the present approach to other ones, existing in the literature
Pole mass, width, and propagators of unstable fermions
Kniehl, B.A.; Sirlin, A.
2008-01-01
The concepts of pole mass and width are extended to unstable fermions in the general framework of parity-nonconserving gauge theories, such as the Standard Model. In contrast with the conventional on-shell definitions, these concepts are gauge independent and avoid severe unphysical singularities, properties of great importance since most fundamental fermions in nature are unstable particles. General expressions for the unrenormalized and renormalized dressed propagators of unstable fermions and their field-renormalization constants are presented. (orig.)
Pulse-Width-Modulating Driver for Brushless dc Motor
Salomon, Phil M.
1991-01-01
High-current pulse-width-modulating driver for brushless dc motor features optical coupling of timing signals from low-current control circuitry to high-current motor-driving circuitry. Provides high electrical isolation of motor-power supply, helping to prevent fast, high-current motor-driving pulses from being coupled through power supplies into control circuitry, where they interfere with low-current control signals.
Porous Alumina Films with Width-Controllable Alumina Stripes
Huang Shi-Ming
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Porous alumina films had been fabricated by anodizing from aluminum films after an electropolishing procedure. Alumina stripes without pores can be distinguished on the surface of the porous alumina films. The width of the alumina stripes increases proportionally with the anodizing voltage. And the pores tend to be initiated close to the alumina stripes. These phenomena can be ascribed to the electric field distribution in the alumina barrier layer caused by the geometric structure of the aluminum surface.
Porous Alumina Films with Width-Controllable Alumina Stripes
2010-01-01
Porous alumina films had been fabricated by anodizing from aluminum films after an electropolishing procedure. Alumina stripes without pores can be distinguished on the surface of the porous alumina films. The width of the alumina stripes increases proportionally with the anodizing voltage. And the pores tend to be initiated close to the alumina stripes. These phenomena can be ascribed to the electric field distribution in the alumina barrier layer caused by the geometric structure of the aluminum surface. PMID:21170406
Single event effects in pulse width modulation controllers
Penzin, S.H.; Crain, W.R.; Crawford, K.B.; Hansel, S.J.; Kirshman, J.F.; Koga, R.
1996-01-01
SEE testing was performed on pulse width modulation (PWM) controllers which are commonly used in switching mode power supply systems. The devices are designed using both Set-Reset (SR) flip-flops and Toggle (T) flip-flops which are vulnerable to single event upset (SEU) in a radiation environment. Depending on the implementation of the different devices the effect can be significant in spaceflight hardware
Characterizing the width of amphibian movements during postbreeding migration.
Coster, Stephanie S; Veysey Powell, Jessica S; Babbitt, Kimberly J
2014-06-01
Habitat linkages can help maintain connectivity of animal populations in developed landscapes. However, the lack of empirical data on the width of lateral movements (i.e., the zigzagging of individuals as they move from one point to point another) makes determining the width of such linkages challenging. We used radiotracking data from wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in a managed forest in Maine (U.S.A.) to characterize movement patterns of populations and thus inform planning for the width of wildlife corridors. For each individual, we calculated the polar coordinates of all locations, estimated the vector sum of the polar coordinates, and measured the distance from each location to the vector sum. By fitting a Gaussian distribution over a histogram of these distances, we created a population-level probability density function and estimated the 50th and 95th percentiles to determine the width of lateral movement as individuals progressed from the pond to upland habitat. For spotted salamanders 50% of lateral movements were ≤13 m wide and 95% of movements were ≤39 m wide. For wood frogs, 50% of lateral movements were ≤17 m wide and 95% of movements were ≤ 51 m wide. For both species, those individuals that traveled the farthest from the pond also displayed the greatest lateral movement. Our results serve as a foundation for spatially explicit conservation planning for pond-breeding amphibians in areas undergoing development. Our technique can also be applied to movement data from other taxa to aid in designing habitat linkages. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.
Conversion width of Σ-hyperon in nuclear matter
Filimonov, V.A.
1983-01-01
Width G of ΣN→ΛN conversion for Σ - hyperon in nuclear matter on the base of one-boson exchange model is calculated. Essential compensation of contributions of diffe-- rent mesons to amplitude of the conversiop is shown to take place. As a result G decreases approximately twice as compaped with the value from exchange only by π-meson. Without accout of Pauli principle it is obtained G=15-25 MeV
Technique for estimating relocated gap width for gap conductance calculations
Klink, P.H.
1978-01-01
Thermally induced fuel fragmentation and relocation has been demonstrated to influence the thermal behavior of a fuel rod in two ways. The effective fuel pellet conductivity is decreased and pellet-to-cladding heat transfer is improved. This paper presents a correlation between as-built and relocated gap width which, used with the Ross and Stoute Gap Conductance Correlation and an appropriate fuel thermal expansion model, closely predicts the measured gap conductances
Stark widths regularities within spectral series of sodium isoelectronic sequence
Trklja, Nora; Tapalaga, Irinel; Dojčinović, Ivan P.; Purić, Jagoš
2018-02-01
Stark widths within spectral series of sodium isoelectronic sequence have been studied. This is a unique approach that includes both neutrals and ions. Two levels of problem are considered: if the required atomic parameters are known, Stark widths can be calculated by some of the known methods (in present paper modified semiempirical formula has been used), but if there is a lack of parameters, regularities enable determination of Stark broadening data. In the framework of regularity research, Stark broadening dependence on environmental conditions and certain atomic parameters has been investigated. The aim of this work is to give a simple model, with minimum of required parameters, which can be used for calculation of Stark broadening data for any chosen transitions within sodium like emitters. Obtained relations were used for predictions of Stark widths for transitions that have not been measured or calculated yet. This system enables fast data processing by using of proposed theoretical model and it provides quality control and verification of obtained results.
Measurement of the mass and width of the W boson
Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija
2006-01-01
The mass and width of the W boson are measured using e+e- -> W+W- events from the data sample collected by the OPAL experiment at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 170 GeV and 209 GeV. The mass (mw) and width (gw) are determined using direct reconstruction of the kinematics of W+W- -> qqbarlv and W+W- -> qqbarqqbar events. When combined with previous OPAL measurements using W+W- -> lvlv events and the dependence on mw of the WW production cross-section at threshold, the results are determined to be mw = 80.415 +- 0.042 +- 0.030 +- 0.009 GeV gw = 1.996 +- 0.096 +- 0.102 +- 0.003 GeV where the first error is statistical, the second systematic and the third due to uncertainties in the value of the LEP beam energy. By measuring mw with several different jet algorithms in the qqbarqqbar channel, a limit is also obtained on possible final-state interactions due to colour reconnection effects in W+W- -> qqbarqqbar events. The consistency of the results for the W mass and width with those inferred from other ele...
Balance (perceived and actual) and preferred stance width during pregnancy.
Jang, John; Hsiao, Katherine T; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T
2008-05-01
Pregnant women often remark that their balance degrades during pregnancy; however, it appears that no studies have documented the gravida's perception of her balance nor measured direction-specific changes in balance throughout pregnancy or after delivery. Thirty women, fifteen pregnant and fifteen non-pregnant controls, were tested monthly and through 6-month postpartum. For each session, perceived degradation in sense of balance, laboratory-based balance measures, stance width, and the number of falls since the previous session were recorded. Laboratory-based balance measures, quantified by direction-specific measures of postural sway, were computed from ten 30s quiet-standing trials on a stationary force platform. Repeated-measures analysis of variance, paired t-tests, and Pearson correlations were use to examine group and time effects. For the pregnant group, perceived balance degradation and stance width were highly correlated (r = 0.94). Both increased during pregnancy (P r > 0.72) and also decreased significantly between the third trimester and postpartum (P pregnancy, but increased after delivery. Contrary to recent work suggesting fall rates of 25%, only 13% of our subjects (n = 2) fell during pregnancy. Perceived degradation in balance during pregnancy was strongly related to increasing postural sway instability in the anterior-posterior direction. Lateral stability was maintained during pregnancy and likely accomplished by increasing stance width.
Predictors of the peak width for networks with exponential links
Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.
1989-01-01
We investigate optimal predictors of the peak (S) and distance to peak (T) of the width function of drainage networks under the assumption that the networks are topologically random with independent and exponentially distributed link lengths. Analytical results are derived using the fact that, under these assumptions, the width function is a homogeneous Markov birth-death process. In particular, exact expressions are derived for the asymptotic conditional expectations of S and T given network magnitude N and given mainstream length H. In addition, a simulation study is performed to examine various predictors of S and T, including N, H, and basin morphometric properties; non-asymptotic conditional expectations and variances are estimated. The best single predictor of S is N, of T is H, and of the scaled peak (S divided by the area under the width function) is H. Finally, expressions tested on a set of drainage basins from the state of Wyoming perform reasonably well in predicting S and T despite probable violations of the original assumptions. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.
Ridge Width Correlations between Inked Prints and Powdered Latent Fingerprints.
De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Barrot-Feixat, Carme; Zapico, Sara C; Mancenido, Michelle; Broatch, Jennifer; Roberts, Katherine A; Carreras-Marin, Clara; Tasker, Jack
2017-10-03
A methodology to estimate the time of latent fingerprint deposition would be of great value to law enforcement and courts. It has been observed that ridge topography changes as latent prints age, including the widths of ridges that could be measured as a function of time. Crime suspects are commonly identified using fingerprint databases that contain reference inked tenprints (flat and rolled impressions). These can be of interest in aging studies as they provide baseline information relating to the original (nonaged) ridges' widths. In practice, the age of latent fingerprints could be estimated following a comparison process between the evidentiary aged print and the corresponding reference inked print. The present article explores possible correlations between inked and fresh latent fingerprints deposited on different substrates and visualized with TiO 2 . The results indicate that the ridge width of flat inked prints is most similar to fresh latent fingerprints , and these should be used as the comparison standard for future aging studies. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
A Sample of Quasars with Strong Nitrogen Emission Lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne
2008-01-01
We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7......We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7...
Sahu, Trinath; Shore, K Alan
2009-01-01
We analyse the effect of interface roughness scattering on low temperature electron mobility μ n mediated by intersubband interactions in a multisubband coupled Ga 0.5 In 0.5 P/GaAs quantum well structure. We consider a barrier δ-doped double quantum well system in which the subband electron mobility is limited by the interface roughness scattering μ IR n and ionized impurity scattering μ imp n . We analyse the effect of the intersubband interaction and coupling of subband wavefunctions through the barrier on the intrasubband and intersubband transport scattering rates. We show that the intersubband interaction controls the roughness potential of different interfaces through the dielectric screening matrix. In the case of lowest subband occupancy, the mobility is mainly governed by the interface roughness of the central barrier. Whereas when two subbands are occupied, the interface roughness of the outer barrier predominates due to intersubband effects. The influence of the intersubband interaction also exhibits interesting results on the well width up to which the interface roughness dominates in a double quantum well structure
Fuzzy multi-project rough-cut capacity planning
Masmoudi, Malek; Hans, Elias W.; Leus, Roel; Hait, Alain; Sotskov, Yuri N.; Werner, Frank
2014-01-01
This chapter studies the incorporation of uncertainty into multi-project rough-cut capacity planning. We use fuzzy sets to model uncertainties, adhering to the so-called possibilistic approach. We refer to the resulting proactive planning environment as Fuzzy Rough Cut Capacity Planning (FRCCP).
Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations
Zielke, Olaf
2016-02-13
Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault\\'s roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughness –roughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.
Heat transfer and pressure drop in microchannels with random roughness
Pelevic, N.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.
2016-01-01
The effect of surface roughness on heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena within a microchannel has been investigated by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The surface roughness has been generated by using Gaussian function. Gaussian function is an efficient and convenient method to create surface
Assessing of channel roughness and temperature variations on ...
Assessing of channel roughness and temperature variations on wastewater quality parameters using numerical modeling. ... According to the obtained results, nitrate (NO3) has a decreasing trend when the Manning Roughness Coefficient (N) is higher than 0.04 along the channel, but is reduced when “N” is less than 0.04.
Gliding Swifts Attain Laminar Flow over Rough Wings
Lentink, D.; Kat, de R.
2014-01-01
Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1–2% of chord length on the upper surface—10,000 times rougher than sailplane
Surface roughness effects on heat transfer in Couette flow
Elia, G.G.
1981-01-01
A cell theory for viscous flow with rough surfaces is applied to two basic illustrative heat transfer problems which occur in Couette flow. Couette flow between one adiabatic surface and one isothermal surface exhibits roughness effects on the adiabatic wall temperature. Two types of rough cell adiabatic surfaces are studied: (1) perfectly insulating (the temperature gradient vanishes at the boundary of each cell); (2) average insulating (each cell may gain or lose heat but the total heat flow at the wall is zero). The results for the roughness on a surface in motion are postulated to occur because of fluid entrainment in the asperities on the moving surface. The symmetry of the roughness effects on thermal-viscous dissipation is discussed in detail. Explicit effects of the roughness on each surface, including combinations of roughness values, are presented to enable the case where the two surfaces may be from different materials to be studied. The fluid bulk temperature rise is also calculated for Couette flow with two ideal adiabatic surfaces. The effect of roughness on thermal-viscous dissipation concurs with the viscous hydrodynamic effect. The results are illustrated by an application to lubrication. (Auth.)
A Meta-Analysis: Acoustic Measurement of Roughness and Breathiness
v. Latoszek, Ben Barsties; Maryn, Youri; Gerrits, Ellen; De Bodt, Marc
2018-01-01
Purpose: Over the last 5 decades, many acoustic measures have been created to measure roughness and breathiness. The aim of this study is to present a meta-analysis of correlation coefficients (r) between auditory-perceptual judgment of roughness and breathiness and various acoustic measures in both sustained vowels and continuous speech. Method:…
Road roughness evaluation using in-pavement strain sensors
Zhang, Zhiming; Deng, Fodan; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj
2015-11-01
The international roughness index (IRI) is a characterization of road roughness or ride quality that transportation agencies most often report. The prevalent method of acquiring IRI data requires instrumented vehicles and technicians with specialized training to interpret the results. The extensive labor and high cost requirements associated with the existing approaches limit data collection to at most once per year for portions of the national highway system. Agencies characterize roughness only for some secondary roads but much less frequently, such as once every five years, resulting in outdated roughness information. This research developed a real-time roughness evaluation approach that links the output of durable in-pavement strain sensors to prevailing indices that summarize road roughness. Field experiments validated the high consistency of the approach by showing that it is within 3.3% of relative IRI estimates. After their installation and calibration during road construction, the ruggedized strain sensors will report road roughness continuously. Thus, the solution will provide agencies a real-time roughness monitoring solution over the remaining service life of road assets.
Model of rough bed for numerical simulation of saltation
Kharlamova, Irina; Vlasák, Pavel
2015-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 3 (2015), s. 366-385 ISSN 1964-8189 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/1718; GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : saltation * bed load transport * rough bed * armoured bed * bed roughness Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.636, year: 2015
PhysarumSoft: An update based on rough set theory
Schumann, Andrew; Pancerz, Krzysztof
2017-07-01
PhysarumSoft is a software tool consisting of two modules developed for programming Physarum machines and simulating Physarum games, respectively. The paper briefly discusses what has been added since the last version released in 2015. New elements in both modules are based on rough set theory. Rough sets are used to model behaviour of Physarum machines and to describe strategy games.
Roughness effect on the efficiency of dimer antenna based biosensor
D. Barchiesi
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The fabrication process of nanodevices is continually improved. However, most of the nanodevices, such as biosensors present rough surfaces with mean roughness of some nanometers even if the deposition rate of material is more controlled. The effect of roughness on performance of biosensors was fully addressed for plane biosensors and gratings, but rarely addressed for biosensors based on Local Plasmon Resonance. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate numerically the influence of nanometric roughness on the efficiency of a dimer nano-biosensor (two levels of roughness are considered. Therefore, we propose a general numerical method, that can be applied to any other nanometric shape, to take into account the roughness in a three dimensional model. The study focuses on both the far-field, which corresponds to the experimental detected data, and the near-field, responsible for exciting and then detecting biological molecules. The results suggest that the biosensor efficiency is highly sensitive to the surface roughness. The roughness can produce important shifts of the extinction efficiency peak and a decrease of its amplitude resulting from changes in the distribution of near-field and absorbed electric field intensities.
Roughness of grain boundaries in partly recrystallized aluminum
Sun, Jun; Zhang, Yubin; Juul Jensen, Dorte
2017-01-01
cold rolled aluminum samples. The results show that particle pinning is not the main reason accounting for recrystallization boundary roughness in the present samples. The roughness is however shown to relate to the deformation microstructure and possible effects of migration rate are discussed...
Rough Mill Improvement Guide for Managers and Supervisors
Philip H. Mitchell; Jan Wiedenbeck; Bobby Ammerman; Bobby Ammerman
2005-01-01
Wood products manufacturers require an efficient recovery of product from lumber to remain profitable. A company's ability to obtain the best yield in lumber cut-up operations (i.e., the rough mill) varies according to the raw material, product, processing equipment, processing environment, and knowledge and skill of the rough mill's employees. This book...
The Terahertz Scattering Analysis of Rough Metallic and Dielectric Targets
Mou Yuan
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The terahertz scattering characteristics of metallic and dielectric rough targets is important for the investigation of the terahertz radar targets properties. According to the stationary phase theory and scalar approximation, if the radius of curvature at any point of the surface is much larger than the incident wavelength, and the wavelength is also much longer than the surface height function and Root-Mean-Square (RMS surface slope, the coherent and incoherent scattering Radar Cross Section (RCS of rough metallic and dielectric targets can be obtained. Based on the stationary phase approximation, the coherent RCS of rough conductors, smooth dielectric targets and rough dielectric targets can be easily deputed. The scattering characteristics of electrically large smooth Al and painted spheres are investigated in this paper, and the calculated RCS are verified by Mie scattering theory, the error is less than 0.1 dBm2. Based on lambert theory, it is demonstrated that the incoherent RCS is analyzed with better precision if the rough surfaces are divided into much more facets. In this paper, the coherent and incoherent scattering of rough Al and painted spheres are numerically observed, and the effects of surface roughness and materials are analyzed. The conclusions provide theoretical foundation for the terahertz scattering characteristics of electrically large rough targets.
Jones, Morgin; Wadi, Hasina; Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh
2009-04-01
The coordinates of the area-preserving map equations for integration of magnetic field line trajectories in divertor tokamaks can be any coordinates for which a transformation to (ψt,θ,φ) coordinates exists [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, T. Evans, and A. Boozer, Phys. Lett. A 364, 140 (2007)]. ψt is toroidal magnetic flux, θ is poloidal angle, and φ is toroidal angle. This freedom is exploited to construct the symmetric quartic map such that the only parameter that determines magnetic geometry is the elongation of the separatrix surface. The poloidal flux inside the separatrix, the safety factor as a function of normalized minor radius, and the magnetic perturbation from the symplectic discretization are all held constant, and only the elongation is κ varied. The width of stochastic layer, the area, and the fractal dimension of the magnetic footprint and the average radial diffusion coefficient of magnetic field lines from the stochastic layer; and how these quantities scale with κ is calculated. The symmetric quartic map gives the correct scalings which are consistent with the scalings of coordinates with κ. The effects of m =1, n =±1 internal perturbation with the amplitude that is expected to occur in tokamaks are calculated by adding a term [H. Ali, A. Punjabi, A. H. Boozer, and T. Evans, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1908 (2004)] to the symmetric quartic map. In this case, the width of stochastic layer scales as 0.35 power of κ. The area of the footprint is roughly constant. The average radial diffusion coefficient of field lines near the X-point scales linearly with κ. The low mn perturbation changes the quasisymmetric structure of the footprint, and reorganizes it into a single, large scale, asymmetric structure. The symmetric quartic map is combined with the dipole map [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, and A. H. Boozer, Phys. Plasmas 10, 3992 (2003)] to calculate the effects of magnetic perturbation from a current carrying coil. The coil position and coil current coil are
Jones, Morgin; Wadi, Hasina; Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh
2009-01-01
The coordinates of the area-preserving map equations for integration of magnetic field line trajectories in divertor tokamaks can be any coordinates for which a transformation to (ψ t ,θ,φ) coordinates exists [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, T. Evans, and A. Boozer, Phys. Lett. A 364, 140 (2007)]. ψ t is toroidal magnetic flux, θ is poloidal angle, and φ is toroidal angle. This freedom is exploited to construct the symmetric quartic map such that the only parameter that determines magnetic geometry is the elongation of the separatrix surface. The poloidal flux inside the separatrix, the safety factor as a function of normalized minor radius, and the magnetic perturbation from the symplectic discretization are all held constant, and only the elongation is κ varied. The width of stochastic layer, the area, and the fractal dimension of the magnetic footprint and the average radial diffusion coefficient of magnetic field lines from the stochastic layer; and how these quantities scale with κ is calculated. The symmetric quartic map gives the correct scalings which are consistent with the scalings of coordinates with κ. The effects of m=1, n=±1 internal perturbation with the amplitude that is expected to occur in tokamaks are calculated by adding a term [H. Ali, A. Punjabi, A. H. Boozer, and T. Evans, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1908 (2004)] to the symmetric quartic map. In this case, the width of stochastic layer scales as 0.35 power of κ. The area of the footprint is roughly constant. The average radial diffusion coefficient of field lines near the X-point scales linearly with κ. The low mn perturbation changes the quasisymmetric structure of the footprint, and reorganizes it into a single, large scale, asymmetric structure. The symmetric quartic map is combined with the dipole map [A. Punjabi, H. Ali, and A. H. Boozer, Phys. Plasmas 10, 3992 (2003)] to calculate the effects of magnetic perturbation from a current carrying coil. The coil position and coil current coil are
Micromachined Si channel width and tortuosity on human osteoblast cell attachment and proliferation
Leber, Christopher; Choi, Hongsoo; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit
2010-01-01
In this study, influence of coating chemistry, channel width and tortuosity of various two-dimensional micro-channels were explored on micromachined Si using osteoblast precursor cells line 1 (OPC1). The rationale for our study is to delineate the influence of different porosity parameters on bone cell attachment and proliferation in vitro. Channel widths of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 600 μm; channel bends of 0, 1, and 2 right angles; and gold and silicon dioxide coatings on single-crystal Si were studied. Experiments were conducted with channel tops under glass covered and uncovered conditions keeping the channel depth at 220 μm. Independent samples were evaluated using SEM imaging and MTT assay to measure bone cell morphology and quantity. Images were taken of micro-channels and exterior chambers at 50x, 500x, 1000x, and 5000x magnifications. Channel and chamber cell densities were scored as follows: bare (score = 0), scattered (1), limited (2), abundant (3), and overflowing (4). Samples were then scored and statistically analyzed for major differences. In general, OPC1 cells proliferated at least 5% or better based on cell numbers under uncovered conditions than glass covered. Channel widths of 100 μm largely prohibited cell proliferation and diffusion by narrow path inhibition with the lowest average score of 1.17. Among channel bends of 0, 1, and 2 right angles, an increase in micro-channel tortuosity from 0-2 bends amplified OPC1 cell growth upwards of ∼ 6.6%. A one-way ANOVA showed significant differences in cell quantity for alternating channel tortuosity at a significance level of p < 0.05. No preference was found for gold or silicon dioxide coatings on Si for bone cell proliferation.
Surface Roughness of Al-5Cu Alloy using a Taguchi-Fuzzy Based Approach
Biswajit Das
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The present paper investigates the application of traditional Taguchi method with fuzzy logic for multi objective optimization of the turning process of Al-5Cu alloy in CNC Lathe machine. The cutting parameters are optimized with considerations of the multiple surface roughness characteristics (Centre line average roughness Ra, Average maximum height of the profile Rz, Maximum height of the profile Rt, Mean spacing of local peaks of the profile Sa . Experimental results are demonstrated to present the effectiveness of this approach. The parameters used in the experiment were cutting speed, depth of cut, feed rate. Other parameters such as tool nose radius, tool material, workpiece length, workpiece diameter, and workpiece material were taken as constant.
Estimation of roughness lengths and flow separation over compound bedforms in a natural-tidal inlet
Lefebvre, Alice; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Winter, Christian
2013-01-01
was found to underestimate the length of the flow separation zone of the primary bedforms. A better estimation of the presence and shape of the flow separation zone over complex bedforms in a tidal environment still needs to be determined; in particular the relationship between flow separation zone......The hydraulic effect of asymmetric compound bedforms on tidal currents was assessed from field measurements of flow velocity in the Knudedyb tidal inlet, Denmark. Large asymmetric bedforms with smaller superimposed ones are a common feature of sandy shallow water environments and are known to act...... as hydraulic roughness elements in dependence with flow direction. The presence of a flow separation zone on the bedform lee was estimated through analysis of the measured velocity directions and the calculation of the flow separation line. The Law of the Wall was used to calculate roughness lengths and shear...
An intermittency model for predicting roughness induced transition
Ge, Xuan; Durbin, Paul
2014-11-01
An extended model for roughness-induced transition is proposed based on an intermittency transport equation for RANS modeling formulated in local variables. To predict roughness effects in the fully turbulent boundary layer, published boundary conditions for k and ω are used, which depend on the equivalent sand grain roughness height, and account for the effective displacement of wall distance origin. Similarly in our approach, wall distance in the transition model for smooth surfaces is modified by an effective origin, which depends on roughness. Flat plate test cases are computed to show that the proposed model is able to predict the transition onset in agreement with a data correlation of transition location versus roughness height, Reynolds number, and inlet turbulence intensity. Experimental data for a turbine cascade are compared with the predicted results to validate the applicability of the proposed model. Supported by NSF Award Number 1228195.
Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization
Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pilny, Lukas
2015-01-01
We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler....... For each instrument, the effective range of spatial surface wavelengths is determined, and the common bandwidth used when comparing the evaluated roughness parameters. The compared roughness parameters are: the root-mean-square (RMS) profile deviation (Rq), the RMS profile slope (Rdq), and the variance...... of the scattering angle distribution (Aq). The twenty-two investigated samples were manufactured with several methods in order to obtain a suitable diversity of roughness patterns.Our study shows a one-to-one correlation of both the Rq and the Rdq roughness values when obtained with the BRDF and the confocal...
Computer simulation of RBS spectra from samples with surface roughness
Malinský, P., E-mail: malinsky@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Hnatowicz, V., E-mail: hnatowicz@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Macková, A., E-mail: mackova@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic)
2016-03-15
A fast code for the simulation of common RBS spectra including surface roughness effects has been written and tested on virtual samples comprising either a rough layer deposited on a smooth substrate or smooth layer deposited on a rough substrate and simulated at different geometries. The sample surface or interface relief has been described by a polyline and the simulated RBS spectrum has been obtained as the sum of many particular spectra from randomly chosen particle trajectories. The code includes several procedures generating virtual samples with random and regular (periodical) roughness. The shape of the RBS spectra has been found to change strongly with increasing sample roughness and an increasing angle of the incoming ion beam.
Quantized Ultracold Neutrons in Rough Waveguides: GRANIT Experiments and Beyond
M. Escobar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We apply our general theory of transport in systems with random rough boundaries to gravitationally quantized ultracold neutrons in rough waveguides as in GRANIT experiments (ILL, Grenoble. We consider waveguides with roughness in both two and one dimensions (2D and 1D. In the biased diffusion approximation the depletion times for the gravitational quantum states can be easily expressed via each other irrespective of the system parameters. The calculation of the exit neutron count reduces to evaluation of a single constant which contains a complicated integral of the correlation function of surface roughness. In the case of 1D roughness (random grating this constant is calculated analytically for common types of the correlation functions. The results obey simple scaling relations which are slightly different in 1D and 2D. We predict the exit neutron count for the new GRANIT cell.
Analysis Of The Effect Of Flow Channel Width On The Performance Of PEMFC
Elif Eker
2013-08-01
Full Text Available In this work, it was analysed the effect of different channel width on performance of PEM fuel cell. Current density were measured on the single cells of parallel flow fields that has 25 cm² active layer, using three different kinds of channel width. The cell width and the channel height remain constant.The results show that increasing the channel width while the cell width remains constant decreases the current density.
Roughness evolution in Ga doped ZnO films deposited by pulsed laser deposition
Liu Yunyan; Cheng Chuanfu; Yang Shanying; Song Hongsheng; Wei Gongxiang; Xue Chengshan; Wang Yongzai
2011-01-01
We analyze the morphology evolution of the Ga doped ZnO(GZO) films deposited on quartz substrates by a laser deposition system. The surface morphologies of the film samples grown with different times are measured by the atomic force microscope, and they are analyzed quantitatively by using the image data. In the initial stage of the growth time shorter than 8 min, our analysis shows that the GZO surface morphologies are influenced by such factors as the random fluctuations, the smoothening effects in the deposition, the lateral strain and the substrate. The interface width uw(t) and the lateral correlation length ξ(t) at first decrease with deposition time t. For the growth time larger than 8 min, w(t) and ξ(t) increase with time and it indicates the roughening of the surface and the surface morphology exhibits the fractal characteristics. By fitting data of the roughness w(t) versus deposition time t larger than 4 min to the power-law function, we obtain the growth exponent β is 0.3; and by the height-height correlation functions of the samples to that of the self-affine fractal model, we obtain the value of roughness exponent α about 0.84 for all samples with different growth time t.
Roughness Sensitivity Comparisons of Wind Turbine Blade Sections
Wilcox, Benjamin J. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; White, Edward B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.
2017-10-01
One explanation for wind turbine power degradation is insect roughness. Historical studies on insect-induced power degradation have used simulation methods which are either un- representative of actual insect roughness or too costly or time-consuming to be applied to wide-scale testing. Furthermore, the role of airfoil geometry in determining the relations between insect impingement locations and roughness sensitivity has not been studied. To link the effects of airfoil geometry, insect impingement locations, and roughness sensitivity, a simulation code was written to determine representative insect collection patterns for different airfoil shapes. Insect collection pattern data was then used to simulate roughness on an NREL S814 airfoil that was tested in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers between 1.6 x 10^{6} and 4.0 x 10^{6}. Results are compared to previous tests of a NACA 63_{3} -418 airfoil. Increasing roughness height and density results in decreased maximum lift, lift curve slope, and lift-to-drag ratio. Increasing roughness height, density, or Reynolds number results in earlier bypass transition, with critical roughness Reynolds numbers lying within the historical range. Increased roughness sensitivity on the 25% thick NREL S814 is observed compared to the 18% thick NACA 63 3 -418. Blade-element-momentum analysis was used to calculate annual energy production losses of 4.9% and 6.8% for a NACA 63_{3} -418 turbine and an NREL S814 turbine, respectively, operating with 200 μm roughness. These compare well to historical field measurements.
Heuristic Drift-based Model of the Power Scrape-off width in H-mode Tokamaks
Goldston, Robert J.
2011-01-01
An heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width in H-mode plasmas is introduced. Grad B and curv B drifts into the SOL are balanced against sonic parallel flows out of the SOL, to the divertor plates. The overall particle flow pattern posited is a modification for open field lines of Pfirsch-Shlueter flows to include sinks to the divertors. These assumptions result in an estimated SOL width of ∼ 2αρ p /R. They also result in a first-principles calculation of the particle confinement time of H-mode plasmas, qualitatively consistent with experimental observations. It is next assumed that anomalous perpendicular electron thermal diffusivity is the dominant source of heat flux across the separatrix, investing the SOL width, defined above, with heat from the main plasma. The separatrix temperature is calculated based on a two-point model balancing power input to the SOL with Spitzer-Haerm parallel thermal conduction losses to the divertor. This results in a heuristic closed-form prediction for the power scrape-off width that is in reasonable quantitative agreement both in absolute magnitude and in scaling with recent experimental data from deuterium plasmas. Further work should include full numerical calculations, including all magnetic and electric drifts, as well as more thorough comparison with experimental data.
An Heuristic Drift-Based Model of the Power Scrape-Off Width in H-Mode Tokamaks
Goldston, Robert J.
2011-01-01
An heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width in H-mode plasmas is introduced. Grad B and curv B drifts into the SOL are balanced against sonic parallel flows out of the SOL, to the divertor plates. The overall mass flow pattern posited is a modification for open field lines of Pfirsch-Shlueter flows to include sinks to the divertors. These assumptions result in an estimated SOL width of 2αρ p /R. They also result in a first-principles calculation of the particle confinement time of H-mode plasmas, qualitatively consistent with experimental observations. It is next assumed that anomalous perpendicular electron thermal diffusivity is the dominant source of heat flux across the separatrix, investing the SOL width, defined above, with heat from the main plasma. The separatrix temperature is calculated based on a two-point model balancing power input to the SOL with Spitzer-Haerm parallel thermal conduction losses to the divertor. This results in an heuristic closed-form prediction for the power scrape-off width that is in remarkable quantitative agreement both in absolute magnitude and in scaling with recent experimental data. Further work should include full numerical calculations, including all magnetic and electric drifts, as well as more thorough comparison with experimental data.
Bishop, P J; Clemente, C J; Weems, R E; Graham, D F; Lamas, L P; Hutchinson, J R; Rubenson, J; Wilson, R S; Hocknull, S A; Barrett, R S; Lloyd, D G
2017-07-01
How extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs locomoted is a subject of considerable interest, as is the manner in which it evolved on the line leading to birds. Fossil footprints provide the most direct evidence for answering these questions. In this study, step width-the mediolateral (transverse) distance between successive footfalls-was investigated with respect to speed (stride length) in non-avian theropod trackways of Late Triassic age. Comparable kinematic data were also collected for humans and 11 species of ground-dwelling birds. Permutation tests of the slope on a plot of step width against stride length showed that step width decreased continuously with increasing speed in the extinct theropods ( p < 0.001), as well as the five tallest bird species studied ( p < 0.01). Humans, by contrast, showed an abrupt decrease in step width at the walk-run transition. In the modern bipeds, these patterns reflect the use of either a discontinuous locomotor repertoire, characterized by distinct gaits (humans), or a continuous locomotor repertoire, where walking smoothly transitions into running (birds). The non-avian theropods are consequently inferred to have had a continuous locomotor repertoire, possibly including grounded running. Thus, features that characterize avian terrestrial locomotion had begun to evolve early in theropod history. © 2017 The Author(s).
Determination of the radiative decay width of the positive K*+(890) meson
Chandlee, C.D.
1983-01-01
A systematic study of the coherent excitation of high energy pions and kaons by nuclear targets has been completed at Fermilab (Experiment 272) with the intent of extracting the radiative decay widths of the various vector and tensor mesons. This work was initiated to furnish experimental results for comparison with theoretical predictions based on unitary symmetry schemes, quark models, and vector dominance models with the hope of shedding light on the structure of the quark-antiquark system. The work presented here deals with data collected during the second running period of E272 on the excitation of incident 200 GeV/c K + by copper and lead targets for the purpose of precisely determining the radiative width from the transition K* + (890) → K + γ. The experiment was performed in the MIE secondary beam line of the Meson Lab utilizing an enhanced, Cherenkov tagged, positive kaon beam, a forward charged particle spectrometer consisting of drift and proportional wire chambers, and a liquid argon colorimeter for photon detection. A Primakoff type analysis of excitation in the nuclear Coulomb field including a strong contribution to the coherent production process from isoscalar exchange was applied to data for both the K + π 0 and K/sub S/ 0 π + decay modes of the K* +
Real-Time Measurement of Width and Height of Weld Beads in GMAW Processes
Jesús Emilio Pinto-Lopera
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Associated to the weld quality, the weld bead geometry is one of the most important parameters in welding processes. It is a significant requirement in a welding project, especially in automatic welding systems where a specific width, height, or penetration of weld bead is needed. This paper presents a novel technique for real-time measuring of the width and height of weld beads in gas metal arc welding (GMAW using a single high-speed camera and a long-pass optical filter in a passive vision system. The measuring method is based on digital image processing techniques and the image calibration process is based on projective transformations. The measurement process takes less than 3 milliseconds per image, which allows a transfer rate of more than 300 frames per second. The proposed methodology can be used in any metal transfer mode of a gas metal arc welding process and does not have occlusion problems. The responses of the measurement system, presented here, are in a good agreement with off-line data collected by a common laser-based 3D scanner. Each measurement is compare using a statistical Welch’s t-test of the null hypothesis, which, in any case, does not exceed the threshold of significance level α = 0.01, validating the results and the performance of the proposed vision system.
P. Aastrup
1993-12-01
Full Text Available While conductioning muskox-censuses (Ovibos moschatus in winter in Jameson Land, NE Greenland, from a fixed-wing aircraft, we examined the width of transects covered. We used a laser range-finder binocular for measuring the distance to observed groups. We found that 1000 m was a reasonable limit for observing a high proportion of the muskoxen present even though it was possible to observe muskoxen from 4000 m or even more. Using two observers on the right side of the aircraft each speaking into a tape recorder with an automatic time signal, we recorded observations and performed a double-observer experiment. By matching the group sizes and perpendicular distances with times of observation we could compare observations of the two observers. We found that both observers missed up to 25% of muskoxen within a 2000 m transect width. The main reasons for missing animals is difficulty in obtaining reference points in snow covered landscape and fatigue of the observers. Calibration of estimated distances using read-outs from the laser-range finder is an adequate method of obtaining distance data for line transect calculations. Our double-observer experiment demonstrated that even groups close to the transect are easily missed.
The role of the roughness spectral breadth in elastic contact of rough surfaces
Yastrebov, Vladislav A.; Anciaux, Guillaume; Molinari, Jean-François
2017-10-01
We study frictionless and non-adhesive contact between elastic half-spaces with self-affine surfaces. Using a recently suggested corrective technique, we ensure an unprecedented accuracy in computation of the true contact area evolution under increasing pressure. This accuracy enables us to draw conclusions on the role of the surface's spectrum breadth (Nayak parameter) in the contact area evolution. We show that for a given normalized pressure, the contact area decreases logarithmically with the Nayak parameter. By linking the Nayak parameter with the Hurst exponent (or fractal dimension), we show the effect of the latter on the true contact area. This effect, undetectable for surfaces with poor spectral content, is quite strong for surfaces with rich spectra. Numerical results are compared with analytical models and other available numerical results. A phenomenological equation for the contact area growth is suggested with coefficients depending on the Nayak parameter. Using this equation, the pressure-dependent friction coefficient is deduced based on the adhesive theory of friction. Some observations on Persson's model of rough contact, whose prediction does not depend on Nayak parameter, are reported. Overall, the paper provides a unifying picture of rough elastic contact and clarifies discrepancies between preceding results.
Line Generalization and AutoCAD Map
Nada Vučetić
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The paper offers the results of original research made on the application of AutoCAD Map in line generalisation. The differences and similarities have been found out between the Douglas-Peucker method and the method of line simplification that is incorporated in AutoCAD Map. There have been also the inaccuracies found out in AutoCAD Map manual relating to the issues of buffer width and tolerance, and the line width before and after simplification. The paper gives recommendations about pseudo nodes dissolving. It has been noticed that AutoCAD Map simplification method is not independent of the order of points. The application of the method is illustrated by an example of coastal line of Istria.
Reduced widths of alpha -decay of near-magic even-even nuclei
Kar Yan, N
1972-01-01
Precision on-line investigations on the linear heavy-ion Berkeley accelerator, and on the CERN synchrophasotron were carried out recently on new alpha -emitters. The results obtained are analysed with a view to finding the degree of correspondence, or disagreement, with the authors' own ideas about alpha -decay processes. The discussion is confined to examining even isotopes of polonium, radon, radium and thorium Several theoretical and experimental plots are given of reduced widths of alpha -disintegration for different regions of shell filling and a comparison is made between barrier penetration coefficients, obtained by rigorous methods and with the aid of WKB- approximation, for /sup 212/Po, /sup 208/Po and /sup 212/Po isotopes. (24 refs).
Tire inspection machine presenting an X-ray image of the entire width of the tire
1975-01-01
An X-ray machine for production line inspection of tires places each tire in turn with one sector of the tire inside of a U-shaped arrangement of three fluorescent screens so that one screen faces the tread and the other two face the sides of the tire. An X-ray source inside the bead circle of the tire produces X-ray shadow pictures on the screens, which are separately viewed by a video camera, with an image of the picture on each screen transferred to a third of the target of a storage tube, so that a composite image of the entire width of the tire sector can be displayed on a picture tube. The tire is rotated step-wise for display of still pictures of every sector of the tire. (Auth.)
Movement of dislocations through a random array of weak obstacles of finite width
Labusch, R.; Schwarz, R.B.
1976-01-01
The movement of a dislocation through a random array of weak obstacles of finite width has been simulated with the aid of a digital computer. Through a normalization of the equation of motion it is shown that in the absence of inertial effects the flow stress is a function of a single parameter eta 0 = (y 0 /l/sub s/)√(2 GAMMA/F/sub y/), where y 0 is the range of the dislocation-obstacle interaction force in the direction perpendicular to the dislocation, l/sub s/ is the average distance between obstacles, F/sub y/ is the strength of the interaction force, and GAMMA is the dislocation line tension. The calculations suggest a relation of the form sigma = A (1 + eta 0 B)/sup 1 / 3 / for the flow stress, where A and B are constants
Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.
1983-01-01
It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt
Λ(1520) → Λγ Radiative-Decay Width
Vavilov, D.V.; Antipov, Yu.M.; Artamonov, A.V.; Batarin, V.A.; Victorov, V.A.; Golovkin, S.V.; Gorin, Yu.P.; Eroshin, O.V.; Kozhevnikov, A.P.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kubarovsky, V.P.; Kurshetsov, V.F.; Landsberg, L.G.; Leontiev, V.M.; Molchanov, V.V.; Mukhin, V.A.; Patalakha, D.I.; Petrenko, S.V.; Petrukhin, A.I.; Kolganov, V.Z.
2005-01-01
The radiative decay Λ(1520) → Λγ was recorded in the exclusive reaction p + N → Λ(1520)K + + N at the SPHINX facility. The branching ratio for this decay and the corresponding partial width were found to be, respectively, Br[Λ(1520) → Λγ] = (1.02 ± 0.21) x 10 -2 and Γ[Λ(1520) → Λγ] = 159 ± 35 keV (the quoted errors are purely statistical, the systematic errors being within 15%)
Use of artificial neural networks on optical track width measurements
Smith, Richard J.; See, Chung W.; Somekh, Mike G.; Yacoot, Andrew
2007-08-01
We have demonstrated recently that, by using an ultrastable optical interferometer together with artificial neural networks (ANNs), track widths down to 60 nm can be measured with a 0.3 NA objective lens. We investigate the effective conditions for training ANNs. Experimental results will be used to show the characteristics of the training samples and the data format of the ANN inputs required to produce suitably trained ANNs. Results obtained with networks measuring double tracks, and classifying different structures, will be presented to illustrate the capability of the technique. We include a discussion on expansion of the application areas of the system, allowing it to be used as a general purpose instrument.
Orbit width scaling of TAE instability growth rate
Wong, H.V.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.
1995-07-01
The growth rate of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) driven unstable by resonant coupling of energetic charged particles is evaluated in the ballooning limit over a wide range of parameters. All damping effects are ignored. Variations in orbit width, aspect ratio, and the ratio of alfven velocity to energetic particle birth velocity, are explored. The relative contribution of passing and trapped particles, and finite Larmor radius effects, are also examined. The phase space location of resonant particles with interact strongly with the modes is described. The accuracy of the analytic results with respect to growth rate magnitude and parametric dependence is investigated by comparison with numerical results
Collisional width of giant resonances and interplay with Landau damping
Bonasera, A.; Burgio, G.F.; Di Toro, M.; Wolter, H.H.
1989-01-01
We present a semiclassical method to calculate the widths of giant resonances. We solve a mean-field kinetic equation (Vlasov equation) with collision terms treated within the relaxation time approximation to construct a damped strength distribution for collective motions. The relaxation time is evaluated from the time evolution of distortions in the nucleon momentum distribution using a test-particle approach. The importance of an energy dependent nucleon-nucleon cross section is stressed. Results are shown for isoscalar giant quadrupole and octupole motions. A quite important interplay between self-consistent (Landau) and collisional damping is revealed
Beam manipulating by metallic nano-slits with variant widths.
Shi, Haofei; Wang, Changtao; Du, Chunlei; Luo, Xiangang; Dong, Xiaochun; Gao, Hongtao
2005-09-05
A novel method is proposed to manipulate beam by modulating light phase through a metallic film with arrayed nano-slits, which have constant depth but variant widths. The slits transport electro-magnetic energy in the form of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in nanometric waveguides and provide desired phase retardations of beam manipulating with variant phase propagation constant. Numerical simulation of an illustrative lens design example is performed through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and shows agreement with theory analysis result. In addition, extraordinary optical transmission of SPPs through sub-wavelength metallic slits is observed in the simulation and helps to improve elements' energy using factor.
Effect of Pulse Width on Oxygen-fed Ozonizer
Okada, Sho; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori
Though general ozonizers based on silent discharge (barrier discharge) have been used to supply ozone at many industrial situations, there is still some problem, such as improvements of ozone yield. In this work, ozone was generated by pulsed discharge in order to improve the characteristics of ozone generation. It is known that a pulse width gives strong effect to the improvement of energy efficiency in exhaust gas processing. In this paper, the effect of pulse duration on ozone generation by pulsed discharge in oxygen would be reported.