WorldWideScience

Sample records for line transect surveying

  1. AFSC/NMML: Cetacean line-transect survey in the eastern Bering Sea shelf; 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visual surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf along transect lines, in association with the AFSC.s echo integration trawl surveys for...

  2. Double-observer line transect surveys with Markov-modulated Poisson process models for animal availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, D L; Langrock, R

    2015-12-01

    We develop maximum likelihood methods for line transect surveys in which animals go undetected at distance zero, either because they are stochastically unavailable while within view or because they are missed when they are available. These incorporate a Markov-modulated Poisson process model for animal availability, allowing more clustered availability events than is possible with Poisson availability models. They include a mark-recapture component arising from the independent-observer survey, leading to more accurate estimation of detection probability given availability. We develop models for situations in which (a) multiple detections of the same individual are possible and (b) some or all of the availability process parameters are estimated from the line transect survey itself, rather than from independent data. We investigate estimator performance by simulation, and compare the multiple-detection estimators with estimators that use only initial detections of individuals, and with a single-observer estimator. Simultaneous estimation of detection function parameters and availability model parameters is shown to be feasible from the line transect survey alone with multiple detections and double-observer data but not with single-observer data. Recording multiple detections of individuals improves estimator precision substantially when estimating the availability model parameters from survey data, and we recommend that these data be gathered. We apply the methods to estimate detection probability from a double-observer survey of North Atlantic minke whales, and find that double-observer data greatly improve estimator precision here too. © 2015 The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.

  3. Global coverage of cetacean line-transect surveys: status quo, data gaps and future challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Kaschner

    Full Text Available Knowledge of abundance, trends and distribution of cetacean populations is needed to inform marine conservation efforts, ecosystem models and spatial planning. We compiled a geo-spatial database of published data on cetacean abundance from dedicated visual line-transect surveys and encoded >1100 abundance estimates for 47 species from 430 surveys conducted worldwide from 1975-2005. Our subsequent analyses revealed large spatial, temporal and taxonomic variability and gaps in survey coverage. With the exception of Antarctic waters, survey coverage was biased toward the northern hemisphere, especially US and northern European waters. Overall, <25% of the world's ocean surface was surveyed and only 6% had been covered frequently enough (≥ 5 times to allow trend estimation. Almost half the global survey effort, defined as total area (km(2 covered by all survey study areas across time, was concentrated in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP. Neither the number of surveys conducted nor the survey effort had increased in recent years. Across species, an average of 10% of a species' predicted range had been covered by at least one survey, but there was considerable variation among species. With the exception of three delphinid species, <1% of all species' ranges had been covered frequently enough for trend analysis. Sperm whales emerged from our analyses as a relatively data-rich species. This is a notoriously difficult species to survey visually, and we use this as an example to illustrate the challenges of using available data from line-transect surveys for the detection of trends or for spatial planning. We propose field and analytical methods to fill in data gaps to improve cetacean conservation efforts.

  4. Using hidden Markov models to deal with availability bias on line transect surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, D L; Zucchini, W; Heide-Jørgensen, M P; Cañadas, A; Langrock, R

    2013-09-01

    We develop estimators for line transect surveys of animals that are stochastically unavailable for detection while within detection range. The detection process is formulated as a hidden Markov model with a binary state-dependent observation model that depends on both perpendicular and forward distances. This provides a parametric method of dealing with availability bias when estimates of availability process parameters are available even if series of availability events themselves are not. We apply the estimators to an aerial and a shipboard survey of whales, and investigate their properties by simulation. They are shown to be more general and more flexible than existing estimators based on parametric models of the availability process. We also find that methods using availability correction factors can be very biased when surveys are not close to being instantaneous, as can estimators that assume temporal independence in availability when there is temporal dependence. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  5. Line Transect Surveys Underdetect Terrestrial Mammals: Implications for the Sustainability of Subsistence Hunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Taal; Oliveira, Luiz F. B.; Luzar, Jeffrey B.; Overman, Han; Read, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of Neotropical game species must take into account the livelihood and food security needs of local human populations. Hunting management decisions should therefore rely on abundance and distribution data that are as representative as possible of true population sizes and dynamics. We simultaneously applied a commonly used encounter-based method and an infrequently used sign-based method to estimate hunted vertebrate abundance in a 48,000-km2 indigenous landscape in southern Guyana. Diurnal direct encounter data collected during three years along 216, four-kilometer -long transects consistently under-detected many diurnal and nocturnal mammal species readily detected through sign. Of 32 species analyzed, 31 were detected by both methods; however, encounters did not detect one and under-detected another 12 of the most heavily hunted species relative to sign, while sign under-detected 12 never or rarely collected species relative to encounters. The six most important game animals in the region, all ungulates, were not encountered at 11–40% of village and control sites or on 29–72% of transects where they were detected by sign. Using the sign methodology, we find that tapirs, one of the terrestrial vertebrates considered most sensitive to overexploitation, are present at many sites where they were never visually detected during distance sampling. We find that this is true for many other species as well. These high rates of under-detection suggest that behavioral changes in hunted populations may affect apparent occurrence and abundance of these populations. Accumulation curves (detection of species on transects) were much steeper for sign for 12 of 16 hunted species than for encounters, but that pattern was reversed for 12 of 16 species unhunted in our area. We conclude that collection of sign data is an efficient and effective method of monitoring hunted vertebrate populations that complements encounter and camera-trapping methods in areas impacted by

  6. Likelihood-based inference for clustered line transect data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Schweder, Tore

    2006-01-01

    The uncertainty in estimation of spatial animal density from line transect surveys depends on the degree of spatial clustering in the animal population. To quantify the clustering we model line transect data as independent thinnings of spatial shot-noise Cox processes. Likelihood-based inference...

  7. Likelihood-based inference for clustered line transect data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge; Schweder, Tore

    The uncertainty in estimation of spatial animal density from line transect surveys depends on the degree of spatial clustering in the animal population. To quantify the clustering we model line transect data as independent thinnings of spatial shot-noise Cox processes. Likelihood-based inference...

  8. AFSC/NMML: Cetacean line-transect survey in the Gulf of Alaska, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three marine mammal observers participated on a cetacean survey from 26 June to 15 July 2003, aboard the NOAA ship Miller Freeman as a piggyback project during a...

  9. Using mark-recapture distance sampling methods on line transect surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Louise M.; Borchers, David L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Marques, Tigao A

    2014-01-01

    Mark–recapture distance sampling (MRDS) methods are widely used for density and abundance estimation when the conventional DS assumption of certain detection at distance zero fails, as they allow detection at distance zero to be estimated and incorporated into the overall probability of detection to better estimate density and abundance. However, incorporating MR data in DS models raises survey and analysis issues not present in conventional DS. Conversely, incorporating DS assumptions in MR models raises issues not present in conventional MR. As a result, being familiar with either conventional DS methods or conventional MR methods does not on its own put practitioners in good a position to apply MRDS methods appropriately. This study explains the sometimes subtly different varieties of MRDS survey methods and the associated concepts underlying MRDS models. This is done as far as possible without giving mathematical details – in the hope that this will make the key concepts underlying the methods accessible to a wider audience than if we were to present the concepts via equations.

  10. Cetacean line-transect survey conducted in the eastern Bering Sea shelf by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from NOAA Ship Miller Freeman from 1999-07-07 to 2004-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0131862)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visual surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf along transect lines, in association with the AFSC’s echo integration trawl surveys for...

  11. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Niihau, Main Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Niihau in the Main...

  12. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Kure Atoll 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in October,...

  13. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Johnston Island, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Johnston Island in...

  14. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Guam, Marianas Archipelago, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at Guam in the Marianas...

  15. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the NW...

  16. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Alamagan, Marianas Archipelago, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Alamagan in the...

  17. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Sarigan Island, CNMI, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Sarigan in the...

  18. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Tatsumi Reef, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at Tatsumi Reef in the...

  19. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Swains Atoll, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Swains Atoll in...

  20. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Saipan Island, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 5 sites at Saipan in the...

  1. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Baker in the Pacific...

  2. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Rota, Marianas Archipelago, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota in the Marianas...

  3. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Rota Island, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota in the...

  4. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Saipan, Marianas Archipelago, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Saipan in the Marianas...

  5. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAS), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Howland in the Pacific...

  6. Can roads be used as transects for primate population surveys?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, Renato R; Rodrigues, Flávio H G; Chiarello, Adriano G; Mourthé, Italo

    2012-01-01

    Line transect distance sampling (LTDS) can be applied to either trails or roads. However, it is likely that sampling along roads might result in biased density estimates. In this paper, we compared the results obtained with LTDS applied on trails and roads for two primate species (Callithrix penicillata and Callicebus nigrifrons) to clarify whether roads are appropriate transects to estimate densities. We performed standard LTDS surveys in two nature reserves in south-eastern Brazil. Effective strip width and population density were different between trails and roads for C. penicillata, but not for C. nigrifrons. The results suggest that roads are not appropriate for use as transects in primate surveys, at least for some species. Further work is required to fully understand this issue, but in the meantime we recommend that researchers avoid using roads as transects or treat roads and trails as covariates when sampling on roads is unavoidable. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Design unbiased estimation in line intersect sampling using segmented transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L.R. Affleck; Timothy G. Gregoire; Harry T. Valentine; Harry T. Valentine

    2005-01-01

    In many applications of line intersect sampling. transects consist of multiple, connected segments in a prescribed configuration. The relationship between the transect configuration and the selection probability of a population element is illustrated and a consistent sampling protocol, applicable to populations composed of arbitrarily shaped elements, is proposed. It...

  8. Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens in Hawaiian waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Bradford

    Full Text Available For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ: an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n = 5 and NWHI (n = 1 false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n = 5,000 of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai'i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV = 0.66; 95% CI = 479-5,030 and 552 (CV = 1.09; 95% CI = 97

  9. Line transect estimates of Irrawaddy dolphin abundance along the eastern Gulf Coast of Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen eHines

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation of coastal marine mammals is largely dependent on reliable knowledge of their abundance, as well as the ecological and human factors driving their distribution. In developing countries, lack of resources and capacity frequently impedes research needed to estimate abundance and to determine the ecological requirements of coastal marine mammals and the impact of threats related to coastal development and fisheries. Over the course of five years, we developed practical research methods and trained local scientists in Thailand to use accepted line transect distance sampling methods for abundance assessment. The study focused on a little-known coastal and freshwater species found throughout Southeast Asia, namely the Irrawaddy dolphin, which has been sighted regularly along the coast of the eastern Gulf of Thailand. During five years of line transect boat surveys in Trat Province, the eastern-most province in Thailand, we found an average of 423 dolphins distributed within 12km of the coast. Compared to other abundance estimates of coastal Irrawaddy dolphins in Southeast Asia, this is a relatively large number. This population could extend into the northern coast of Cambodia, where surveys are currently being planned. The Thai government has begun talks with Cambodia about a transboundary marine protected area that would include areas in both countries where coastal Irrawaddy dolphins are found. Other analyses include photo-identification, modeling environmental factors that determine presence, determination of fresh vs. salt water foraging using stable isotopes, and an assessment of threats. Collaboration between scientists in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam is further needed to determine dolphin movement and habitat use across borders.

  10. SWFSC/MMTD/CCE: Oregon, California, and Washington Line-transect Experiment (ORCAWALE) 1996, 2001, 2008 and CA Current Cetacean and Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS) 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The California Current Cetacean and Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS) is a marine mammal assessment survey of the U.S. West Coast waters. Similar research in...

  11. Mobile acoustic transects miss rare bat species: implications of survey method and spatio-temporal sampling for monitoring bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun de Torrez, Elizabeth C; Wallrichs, Megan A; Ober, Holly K; McCleery, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing threats facing bats, long-term monitoring protocols are needed to inform conservation strategies. Effective monitoring should be easily repeatable while capturing spatio-temporal variation. Mobile acoustic driving transect surveys ('mobile transects') have been touted as a robust, cost-effective method to monitor bats; however, it is not clear how well mobile transects represent dynamic bat communities, especially when used as the sole survey approach. To assist biologists who must select a single survey method due to resource limitations, we assessed the effectiveness of three acoustic survey methods at detecting species richness in a vast protected area (Everglades National Park): (1) mobile transects, (2) stationary surveys that were strategically located by sources of open water and (3) stationary surveys that were replicated spatially across the landscape. We found that mobile transects underrepresented bat species richness compared to stationary surveys across all major vegetation communities and in two distinct seasons (dry/cool and wet/warm). Most critically, mobile transects failed to detect three rare bat species, one of which is federally endangered. Spatially replicated stationary surveys did not estimate higher species richness than strategically located stationary surveys, but increased the rate at which species were detected in one vegetation community. The survey strategy that detected maximum species richness and the highest mean nightly species richness with minimal effort was a strategically located stationary detector in each of two major vegetation communities during the wet/warm season.

  12. Mobile acoustic transects miss rare bat species: implications of survey method and spatio-temporal sampling for monitoring bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Braun de Torrez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing threats facing bats, long-term monitoring protocols are needed to inform conservation strategies. Effective monitoring should be easily repeatable while capturing spatio-temporal variation. Mobile acoustic driving transect surveys (‘mobile transects’ have been touted as a robust, cost-effective method to monitor bats; however, it is not clear how well mobile transects represent dynamic bat communities, especially when used as the sole survey approach. To assist biologists who must select a single survey method due to resource limitations, we assessed the effectiveness of three acoustic survey methods at detecting species richness in a vast protected area (Everglades National Park: (1 mobile transects, (2 stationary surveys that were strategically located by sources of open water and (3 stationary surveys that were replicated spatially across the landscape. We found that mobile transects underrepresented bat species richness compared to stationary surveys across all major vegetation communities and in two distinct seasons (dry/cool and wet/warm. Most critically, mobile transects failed to detect three rare bat species, one of which is federally endangered. Spatially replicated stationary surveys did not estimate higher species richness than strategically located stationary surveys, but increased the rate at which species were detected in one vegetation community. The survey strategy that detected maximum species richness and the highest mean nightly species richness with minimal effort was a strategically located stationary detector in each of two major vegetation communities during the wet/warm season.

  13. NOAA Line Shapefile- Locations of Phantom S2 ROV Underwater Video Transects, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20N WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a line shapefile showing the trackline of various Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) underwater video transects in the US Virgin Islands.NOAA's...

  14. NOAA Polyline Shapefile - ROV transect Lines, US Caribbean - North East Reserve, Puerto Rico - M-I907-NF-12 (2012), UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the transect lines of the underwater video and photos that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely...

  15. NOAA Polyline Shapefile - ROV transect Lines, US Caribbean - North East Reserve, Puerto Rico - M-I907-NF-13 (2013), UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the transect lines of the underwater video and photos that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely...

  16. NOAA Polyline Shapefile - ROV transect Lines, US Caribbean - North East Reserve, Puerto Rico - M-I907-NF-12 (2012), UTM 20N NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131856)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the transect lines of the underwater video and photos that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely...

  17. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Rapid Ecological Assessments of Fish Belt Transect Surveys (BLT) at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Ocean from 2000 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects (BLT) is one of the non-invasive underwater-survey methods to enumerate the diverse components of diurnally active shallow-water reef fish...

  18. Section Level Public Land Survey - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Public Land Survey line delineations to the section level. Developed from manually digitized section corners captured from paper USGS seven and one-half map sources.

  19. NOAA Line Shapefile- Locations of Phantom S2 ROV Underwater Video Transects, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20N WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a line shapefile showing the trackline of various Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) underwater video transects in the US Virgin Islands.NOAA's...

  20. FBSAD Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  1. FBSAB RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  2. Fisheries Biology and Stock Assessment Division (FBSAD) Recruit and Predator Reef Fish Belt Transect and Habitat Quadrat Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2008; and Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2008 (NODC Accession 0067519)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted and habitat quadrats were surveyed using transects at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total four (4) sites: at (1-2) 2 longshore...

  3. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  4. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Palmyra Atoll in the...

  5. FBSAB PREDATOR Reef Fish Belt Transect Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~5 m depths at a total two (2) sites: at 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big...

  6. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Rapid Ecological Assessments of Fish Belt Transect Surveys (BLT) in the Pacific Ocean from 2000-09-09 to 2009-05-05 (NCEI Accession 0162462)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects (BLT) are a non-invasive underwater-survey method that enumerates the diverse components of diurnally active shallow-water reef fish assemblages. At...

  7. Digital still images from Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) Rapid Assessment Transect surveys from 2006 in the coastal waters of Hawaii, 22 June - 12 December 2006 (NODC Accession 0039627)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still images taken during CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes images of substrate type and species....

  8. Substrate and species data from Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) Rapid Assessment Transect surveys from 2006 in the coastal waters of Hawaii, 22 June - 12 December 2006 (NODC Accession 0039383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. In 2006, there were...

  9. Location and description of transects for ecological studies in floodplain forests of the lower Suwannee River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L.J.; Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve transects were established in floodplain forests along the lower Suwannee River, Florida, as the principal data collection sites for a comprehensive study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Suwannee River Water Management District from 1996 to 2001. Data collected along the 12 transects included hydrologic conditions, land-surface elevations, soils, and vegetation of floodplain forests in relation to river flow. Transect locations are marked in the field with permanent markers at approximately 30 meter intervals. Detailed descriptions of the 12 transects and their locations are provided so that they can be used for future ecological studies. Descriptions of the transects include contact information necessary for access to the property on which the transects are located, maps showing transect locations and routes from the nearest city or major road, small scale maps of each transect showing marker locations, latitude and longitude of each marker, compass bearings of each transect line and graphs showing land-surface elevations of the transect with marker locations.

  10. The traveling transect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa; Lee, Gini

    2013-01-01

    , when working with the more unpredictable qualities of sites as in water-made landscapes, designers often lack mapping and representational tools capable of capturing and expressing ephemeral qualities - dynamics, relationships and atmospheres. These abstract qualities, that exist over physical site...... in everyday practice, the Canarysect project negotiates testing and capture of the dynamic, relational and atmospheric qualities encountered along lines of transect across island lands and waters. Individual sketching, photography and modelling gestures merge into a common archipelago of thinking around......The practice of landscape architecture is most often a cultivation of open space alongside an open-ended dialogue with the presence and complexities of the cultural and natural features of places, usually resulting in projects generating site resolution rather than pure invention ex nihilo. However...

  11. Fisheries Biology and Stock Assessment Division (FBSAD) Recruit and Predator Reef Fish Belt Transect and Habitat Quadrat Surveys at Hawaii Island and Midway Atoll, 2006-2007; and Oahu, 2007 only (NODC Accession 0056602)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt and habitat quadrats were surveyed using transects at 1 to ~5 m depths at a total seven (7) sites: at (1-2) 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast...

  12. Atlantic Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the southeastern U.S. Surveys have been conducted...

  13. The "Tracked Roaming Transect" and distance sampling methods increase the efficiency of underwater visual censuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo J Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Underwater visual census (UVC is the most common approach for estimating diversity, abundance and size of reef fishes in shallow and clear waters. Abundance estimation through UVC is particularly problematic in species occurring at low densities and/or highly aggregated because of their high variability at both spatial and temporal scales. The statistical power of experiments involving UVC techniques may be increased by augmenting the number of replicates or the area surveyed. In this work we present and test the efficiency of an UVC method based on diver towed GPS, the Tracked Roaming Transect (TRT, designed to maximize transect length (and thus the surveyed area with respect to diving time invested in monitoring, as compared to Conventional Strip Transects (CST. Additionally, we analyze the effect of increasing transect width and length on the precision of density estimates by comparing TRT vs. CST methods using different fixed widths of 6 and 20 m (FW3 and FW10, respectively and the Distance Sampling (DS method, in which perpendicular distance of each fish or group of fishes to the transect line is estimated by divers up to 20 m from the transect line. The TRT was 74% more time and cost efficient than the CST (all transect widths considered together and, for a given time, the use of TRT and/or increasing the transect width increased the precision of density estimates. In addition, since with the DS method distances of fishes to the transect line have to be estimated, and not measured directly as in terrestrial environments, errors in estimations of perpendicular distances can seriously affect DS density estimations. To assess the occurrence of distance estimation errors and their dependence on the observer's experience, a field experiment using wooden fish models was performed. We tested the precision and accuracy of density estimators based on fixed widths and the DS method. The accuracy of the estimates was measured comparing the actual

  14. Linear Transect Surveys of Abundance and Density of Cetaceans in The Area Near the Dzharylgach Island in the North-Western Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladilina E. V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The first assessment of cetacean density and abundance by linear transect survey was conducted in 2016 and 2017 in the shallowest coastal area of the Ukrainian sector of the north-western Black Sea, in the Dzharylgach Gulf and the northern Karkinit Gulf, total area up to 259 km2. Three cetacean species were found present in the area in summer, and the harbour porpoise was the most abundant species with the abundance of at least a few hundred animals (estimated as 175 individuals in the Dzharylgach Gulf, whereas the common dolphins (59 and bottlenose dolphins (31 were present in lesser numbers. Common and bottlenose dolphins showed the clearest patterns of habitat preferences, being restricted respectively to the Dzharylgach and the northern Karkinit Gulf; an unusual trait is the preference of the shallowest habitat by common dolphins. Recorded density of harbour porpoises in the Dzharylgach Gulf is among the highest in the whole Black Sea. Thus, the studied area may be an important summer habitat for cetaceans.

  15. Etude géologique de la Serrania del Interior Oriental (Venezuela sur le transect Cariaco-Maturin Geological Survey of the Serrania Del Interior Oriental in Venezuela on the Cariaco-Maturin Transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez G.

    2006-11-01

    stratigraphic and structural survey made on the N-S transect perpendicular to the structures is based on field and subsurface data. It has enabled two major periods to be defined: (a From the Neocomian(?-Barremian to the bottom Lower Miocene, the sector corresponds to a vast continental platform marked by the concurrence of marine facies in the N and of terrigenous sediments coming from the Guyana Craton in the S. There were eustatic variations in the sedimentation (in particular the major transgression in the late Cretaceous and the regression in the late EoceneOligocene as well as epirogenic movements (late Aptian, late Senonian, early and middle Eocene but no paleogeographic upheaval. (b Beginning at the end of the early Miocene, the uplifting of the northern edge of the region (beginning of tectonization of the Serrania del Interior Oriental limited marine sedimentation to a very subsident southern furrow (foreland basin, i. e. the future Maturin basin. Until the end of the middle Miocene, its northern flank was gradually incorporated into the structural edifice during three tectonic pulsations in quick succession. At the same time, the succesive depocenters, of the still very subsident basin were pushed southward. Then this basin was filled in (and pushed eastward by shallow marine and then continental sediments. The structural organization of the Serrania is characterized by a fold system trending N. 70, often boxed and arranged en échelon in relation to the El Pilar E-W dextral transcurrent fault. The folds were generally affected by SE tilting whose accentuation led to the development of overthrusts. The fault of Pirital is the major overthrust which separates the Serrania itself in the N from a frontal tectonic slice system in the S. On the northern slope of the range, the folds are sometimes overturned toward the NW (double overturning and sheared by reverse faults, among which the main one is the Rio Grande fault. Its occurrence was controlled by the northern

  16. North European Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland

  17. Fishery Biology and Stock Assessment Division (FBSAD) Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect and Habitat Quadrat Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  18. A survey of the occurrence of Bacillus anthracis in North American soils over two long-range transects and within post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Petrosky, Terry; Morman, Suzette A.; Luna, Vicki A.

    2009-01-01

    Soil samples were collected along a north-south transect extending from Manitoba, Canada, to the US-Mexico border near El Paso, Texas in 2004 (104 samples), a group of sites within New Orleans, Louisiana following Hurricane Katrina in 2005 (19 samples), and a Gulf Coast transect extending from Sulphur, Louisiana, to DeFuniak Springs, Florida, in 2007 (38 samples). Samples were collected from the top 40 cm of soil and were screened for the presence of total Bacillus species and Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), specifically using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using an assay with a sensitivity of ~170 equivalent colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 field moist soil, the prevalence rate of Bacillus sp./B. anthracis in the north-south transect and the 2005 New Orleans post-Katrina sample set were 20/5% and 26/26%, respectively. Prevalence in the 2007 Gulf Coast sample set using an assay with a sensitivity of ~4 CFU g-1 of soil was 63/0%. Individual transect-set data indicate a positive relation between occurrences of species and soil moisture or soil constituents (i.e., Zn and Cu content). The 2005 New Orleans post-Katrina data indicated that B. anthracis is readily detectable in Gulf Coast soils following flood events. The data also indicated that occurrence, as it relates to soil chemistry, may be confounded by flood-induced dissemination of germinated cells and the mixing of soil constituents for short temporal periods following an event.

  19. FBSAD PREDATOR Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2008; and Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2008 (NODC Accession 0067519)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~5 m depths at a total four (4) sites: at (1-2) 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of...

  20. FBSAD RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2008; and Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2008 (NODC Accession 0067519)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total four (4) sites: at (1-2) 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of...

  1. Protecting front-line survey and rescue teams during emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tresise, H.

    1980-01-01

    Means of protecting front-line survey and rescue teams during emergencies are described. The team composition, their apparatus, the selection of the incident control point, the use of guidelines and breathing apparatus and control point trolley and equipment are discussed. (H.K.)

  2. State-space approach to evaluate spatial variability of field measured soil water status along a line transect in a volcanic-vesuvian soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Comegna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated hydraulic properties and their spatial variability today are analyzed in order to use properly mathematical models developed to simulate flow of the water and solute movement at the field-scale soils. Many studies have shown that observations of soil hydraulic properties should not be considered purely random, given that they possess a structure which may be described by means of stochastic processes. The techniques used for analyzing such a structure have essentially been based either on the theory of regionalized variables or to a lesser extent, on the analysis of time series. This work attempts to use the time-series approach mentioned above by means of a study of pressure head h and water content θ which characterize soil water status, in the space-time domain. The data of the analyses were recorded in the open field during a controlled drainage process, evaporation being prevented, along a 50 m transect in a volcanic Vesuvian soil. The isotropic hypothesis is empirical proved and then the autocorrelation ACF and the partial autocorrelation functions PACF were used to identify and estimate the ARMA(1,1 statistical model for the analyzed series and the AR(1 for the extracted signal. Relations with a state-space model are investigated, and a bivariate AR(1 model fitted. The simultaneous relations between θ and h are considered and estimated. The results are of value for sampling strategies and they should incite to a larger use of time and space series analysis.

  3. Pacific Equatorial Transect

    OpenAIRE

    Pälike, Heiko; Nishi, Hiroshi; Lyle, Mitch; Raffi, Isabella; Klaus, Adam; Gamage, Kusali

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 320/321, "Pacific Equatorial Age Transect" (Sites U1331–U1338), was designed to recover a continuous Cenozoic record of the paleoequatorial Pacific by coring above the paleoposition of the Equator at successive crustal ages on the Pacific plate. These sediments record the evolution of the paleoequatorial climate system throughout the Cenozoic. As we gained more information about the past movement of plates and when in Earth's history "critical" cli...

  4. Tidal energy site - Tidal energy site mammal/bird survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A vessel-based line visual transect survey was conducted for birds and marine mammals near the proposed Snohomish County PUD Admiralty Inlet tidal energy site...

  5. Gulf of Mexico Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the Gulf of Mexico since 1992. The majority of these...

  6. Survey of transmission line corridors. [Data on delays in transmission line construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-05

    The intent of this study is to determine the extent of delays experienced in planning and constructing transmission lines in the continental United States. The reasons for the delays are identified for each line studied and their effect on the total electrical system is sought. Data was collected for 136 different lines either recently built or currently under study. Statistics were developed for each line in several categories and comparisons of lines delayed were made by company, area served and generation capacity. From the study presented here it was found that: right-of-way acquisition procedures including condemnation and easement negotiation practices delay more projects than local, state and federal regulatory requirements combined; load growth reductions particularly in the east have reduced the impact of regulatory delays; the south, southeast and southwestern areas of the country experience fewer delays in constructing transmission lines than the more populated states, and the cost for corridor delays was responded to for only 17 of the 142 projects surveyed. By far the most costly delay is the expense of condemning land for transmission right-of-way.

  7. Carma 1 CM Line Survey of Orion-Kl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Douglas; Looney, Leslie; Corby, Joanna F.; Remijan, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    We have conducted the first 1 cm (27-35 GHz) line survey of the Orion-KL region by an array. With a primary beam of ˜4.5 arcminutes, the survey looks at a region ˜166,000 AU (0.56 pc) across. The data have a resolution of ˜6 arcseconds on the sky and 97.6 kHz(1.07-0.84 km/s) in frequency. This region of frequency space is much less crowded than at 3mm or 1mm frequencies and contains the fundamental transitions of several complex molecular species, allowing us to probe the largest extent of the molecular emission. We present the initial results, and comparison to 3mm results, from several species including, dimethyl ether [(CH_3)_2O], ethyl cyanide [C_2H_5CN], acetone [(CH_3)_2CO], SO, and SO_2.

  8. THE HETDEX PILOT SURVEY. I. SURVEY DESIGN, PERFORMANCE, AND CATALOG OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Joshua J.; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hao, Lei; Byun, Joyce; Fry, Alex; Jeong, Donghui; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Hill, Gary J.; Cornell, Mark E.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Drory, Niv; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Kelzenberg, Ralf; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gawiser, Eric; Kelz, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We present a catalog of emission-line galaxies selected solely by their emission-line fluxes using a wide-field integral field spectrograph. This work is partially motivated as a pilot survey for the upcoming Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. We describe the observations, reductions, detections, redshift classifications, line fluxes, and counterpart information for 397 emission-line galaxies detected over 169 □' with a 3500-5800 A bandpass under 5 A full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) spectral resolution. The survey's best sensitivity for unresolved objects under photometric conditions is between 4 and 20x 10 -17 erg s -1 cm -2 depending on the wavelength, and Lyα luminosities between 3 x 10 42 and 6 x 10 42 erg s -1 are detectable. This survey method complements narrowband and color-selection techniques in the search of high-redshift galaxies with its different selection properties and large volume probed. The four survey fields within the COSMOS, GOODS-N, MUNICS, and XMM-LSS areas are rich with existing, complementary data. We find 105 galaxies via their high-redshift Lyα emission at 1.9 44 □' which appear to be extended Lyα nebulae. We also find three high-z objects with rest-frame Lyα EW above the level believed to be achievable with normal star formation, EW 0 >240 A. Future papers will investigate the physical properties of this sample.

  9. The millimeter IRAM-30 m line survey toward IK Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velilla Prieto, L.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Agúndez, M.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.; Balança, C.; Herpin, F.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We aim to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the molecular envelope of the oxygen-rich AGB star IK Tau. Methods: We carried out a millimeter wavelength line survey between 79 and 356 GHz with the IRAM-30 m telescope. We analysed the molecular lines detected in IK Tau using the population diagram technique to derive rotational temperatures and column densities. We conducted a radiative transfer analysis of the SO2 lines, which also helped us to verify the validity of the approximated method of the population diagram for the rest of the molecules. Results: For the first time in this source we detected rotational lines in the ground vibrational state of HCO+, NS, NO, and H2CO, as well as several isotopologues of molecules previously identified, namely, C18O, Si17O, Si18O, 29SiS, 30SiS, Si34S, H13CN, 13CS, C34S, H234S, 34SO, and 34SO2. We also detected several rotational lines in vibrationally excited states of SiS and SiO isotopologues, as well as rotational lines of H2O in the vibrationally excited state ν2 = 2. We have also increased the number of rotational lines detected of molecules that were previously identified toward IK Tau, including vibrationally excited states, enabling a detailed study of the molecular abundances and excitation temperatures. In particular, we highlight the detection of NS and H2CO with fractional abundances of f(NS) 10-8 and f(H2CO) [10-7-10-8]. Most of the molecules display rotational temperatures between 15 and 40 K. NaCl and SiS isotopologues display rotational temperatures higher than the average ( 65 K). In the case of SO2 a warm component with Trot 290 K is also detected. Conclusions: With a total of 350 lines detected of 34 different molecular species (including different isotopologues), IK Tau displays a rich chemistry for an oxygen-rich circumstellar envelope. The detection of carbon bearing molecules like H2CO, as well as the discrepancies found between our derived abundances and the predictions from

  10. DOUBLE-LINED SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY STARS IN THE RAVE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijevic, G.; Zwitter, T.; Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Bienayme, O.; Siebert, A.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Watson, F. G.

    2010-01-01

    We devise a new method for the detection of double-lined binary stars in a sample of the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey spectra. The method is both tested against extensive simulations based on synthetic spectra and compared to direct visual inspection of all RAVE spectra. It is based on the properties and shape of the cross-correlation function, and is able to recover ∼80% of all binaries with an orbital period of order 1 day. Systems with periods up to 1 yr are still within the detection reach. We have applied the method to 25,850 spectra of the RAVE second data release and found 123 double-lined binary candidates, only eight of which are already marked as binaries in the SIMBAD database. Among the candidates, there are seven that show spectral features consistent with the RS CVn type (solar type with active chromosphere) and seven that might be of W UMa type (over-contact binaries). One star, HD 101167, seems to be a triple system composed of three nearly identical G-type dwarfs. The tested classification method could also be applicable to the data of the upcoming Gaia mission.

  11. Molecular Line Survey of CRL618 and Complete Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, J. R.; Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Phillips, T. G.

    We present a complete survey and model of the emission from the C-rich protoplanetary nebula CRL 618 at the frequencies accessible with the IRAM-30m telescope (80.25-115.75 GHz, 131.25-179.25 GHz, and 204.25-275.25 GHz) and some results of still on-going observations at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (280-360 GHz). Although the number of lines detected is large (several hundreds), the number of chemical species from which they arise is rather small. In fact, lines from cyanopolyynes HC3N and HC5N dominate by far the long-wave spectrum of CRL618, with detection of numerous vibrationally excited states and isotopic substituted species. Most of detected species exhibit P-Cygni profiles at the lowest frequencies (3 mm window), and they evolve to pure emission as frequency increases. This fact can only be explained by the behavior of the continuum emission arising from the inner ultracompact HII region and surrounding dust. The data set itself has been used to characterize the continuum emission by averaging all the continuum measurements during the time span of the survey (~8 years). The physical parameters of the different gas regions have been established by studying the large number of detected cyanopolyynes lines. Using these constraints, the abundances of many other species relative to HC3N could also be determined and a general model, that reproduce the whole data set at a very detailed level of agreement, could be built. 1. Introduction The motivation to perform the complete millimeter line survey presented here with the IRAM-30m telescope has been to gather the most complete information on the molecular content in one particular stage (protoplanetary nebula, PPNe) of stellar evolution from the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) to Planetary Nebulae (PN), of which CRL618 is the best example. Its chemical richness and its complex morphology are now very well known. Detailed chemical models for this object have been developed (Cernicharo 2004) indicating the

  12. 77 FR 15722 - Southern California Hook and Line Survey; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... and Line survey design and protocols; (2) examine the analytical methods used to generate rockfish... emergency. Special Accommodations This meeting is physically accessible to people with disabilities...

  13. AFSC/NMML: Killer whale surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  14. THE GBT 67–93.6 GHz SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY OF ORION-KL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frayer, D. T.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; Meijer, M.; Hough, L.; White, S.; Norrod, R.; Watts, G.; Stennes, M.; Simon, R.; Woody, D.; Whitehead, M.; Ford, P.; Mello, M.; Bloss, M.; Srikanth, S.; Pospieszalski, M.; Bryerton, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a 67–93.6 GHz spectral line survey of Orion-KL with the new 4 mm Receiver on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The survey reaches unprecedented depths and covers the low-frequency end of the 3 mm atmospheric window which has been relatively unexplored previously. The entire spectral-line survey is published electronically for general use by the astronomical community. The calibration and performance of the 4 mm Receiver on the GBT is also summarized

  15. Plotting of bathythermograph transect data on a printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, James B.; McLain, Douglas R.

    1971-01-01

    A program for plotting bathythermograph transect data on a computer (IBM 1130) printer is available from the Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory. Temperature values are printed in positions proportional to their depths and distances from shore. Contour lines are drawn manually through the plotted points.

  16. Analytical techniques for in-line/on-line monitoring of uranium and plutonium in process solutions : a brief literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, S.G.; Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    In-line/on-line monitoring of various parameters such as uranium-plutonium-fission product concentration, acidity, density etc. plays an important role in quickly understanding the efficiency of processes in a reprocessing plant. Efforts in studying and installation of such analytical instruments are going on since more than three decades with adaptation of newer methods and technologies. A review on the developement of in-line analytical instrumentation was carried out in this laboratory about two decades ago. This report presents a very short literature survey of the work in the last two decades. The report includes an outline of principles of the main techniques employed in the in-line/on-line monitoring. (author). 77 refs., 6 tabs

  17. Survey of Differentially Methylated Promoters in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation, copy number in the genomes of three immortalized prostate epithelial, five cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3, PC3M, PC3M-Pro4, PC3MLN4 were compared using a microarray-based technique. Genomic DNA is cut with a methylation-sensitive enzyme Hpall, followed by linker ligation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification, labeling, hybridization to an array of promoter sequences. Only those parts of the genomic DNA that have unmethylated restriction sites within a few hundred base pairs generate PCR products detectable on an array. Of 2732 promoter sequences on a test array, 504 (18.5% showed differential hybridization between immortalized prostate epithelial, cancer cell lines. Among candidate hypermethylated genes in cancer-derived lines, there were eight (CD44, CDKN1A, ESR1, PLAU, RARB, SFN, TNFRSF6, TSPY previously observed in prostate cancer, 13 previously known methylation targets in other cancers (ARHI, bcl-2, BRCA1, CDKN2C, GADD45A, MTAP, PGR, SLC26A4, SPARC, SYK, TJP2, UCHL1, WIT-1. The majority of genes that appear to be both differentially methylated, differentially regulated between prostate epithelial, cancer cell lines are novel methylation targets, including PAK6, RAD50, TLX3, PIR51, MAP2K5, INSR, FBN1, GG2-1, representing a rich new source of candidate genes used to study the role of DNA methylation in prostate tumors.

  18. Southern California Hook and Line Survey - Annual So. CA Bight hook and line data collection/survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an annual, fishery-independent survey aimed at collecting abundance and biological data for use in the stock assessments of several key rockfish species...

  19. Changes in the structural properties of peripheral nerves after transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby, E B; Meyer, B M; Schwappach, J; Alvine, G

    1996-11-01

    Changes in peripheral nerve structural properties after transection were measured weekly for 5 weeks in the distal stump of the sciatic nerve in 50 Sprague-Dawley rats. Each week after transection, the distal stump of the transected nerve showed increased stiffness when compared to intact nerves. Linear elastic stiffness reached a maximum at weeks 1 and 2 after transection, when the transected nerves were 15% stiffer than the contralateral control sides. Toughness was also increased and reached a maximum at week 4 with a 50% difference between values for experimental and control sides. Overall failure load was between 21% and 27% greater, peaking at week 3. An increase in stiffness of the distal stump would result in increased tension at the suture line, as the nerve gap is overcome when performing a delayed neurorraphy. These data suggest, with respect to structural properties, that an end-to-end repair should be carried out at the time of injury; after only 1 week, significant stiffness in the distal segment of the nerve developed, which should result in an increase in tension at the repair site.

  20. Killer whale surveys conducted in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2001-07-01 to 2010-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0137766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  1. THE PITTSBURGH SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY Mg II QUASAR ABSORPTION-LINE SURVEY CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quider, Anna M.; Nestor, Daniel B.; Turnshek, David A.; Rao, Sandhya M.; Weyant, Anja N.; Monier, Eric M.; Busche, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a catalog of intervening Mg II quasar absorption-line systems in the redshift interval 0.36 ≤ z ≤ 2.28. The catalog was built from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Four (SDSS DR4) quasar spectra. Currently, the catalog contains ∼17, 000 measured Mg II doublets. We also present data on the ∼44, 600 quasar spectra which were searched to construct the catalog, including redshift and magnitude information, continuum-normalized spectra, and corresponding arrays of redshift-dependent minimum rest equivalent widths detectable at our confidence threshold. The catalog is available online. A careful second search of 500 random spectra indicated that, for every 100 spectra searched, approximately one significant Mg II system was accidentally rejected. Current plans to expand the catalog beyond DR4 quasars are discussed. Many Mg II absorbers are known to be associated with galaxies. Therefore, the combination of large size and well understood statistics makes this catalog ideal for precision studies of the low-ionization and neutral gas regions associated with galaxies at low to moderate redshift. An analysis of the statistics of Mg II absorbers using this catalog will be presented in a subsequent paper.

  2. Survey of symbology for aeronautical charts and electronic displays : navigation aids, airports, lines, and linear patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This industry survey documents the symbols for navigation aids, airports, lines, and linear patterns currently in use by avionics manufactureres and chart providers for depicting aeronautical charting information. Nine avionics display manufacturers ...

  3. Welfare assessment in broiler farms: transect walks versus individual scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, J; Watanabe, T T N; Ferrante, V; Estevez, I

    2013-10-01

    Current scientific approaches to welfare assessment in broilers are based on individual sampling that can be time consuming under field conditions. On the other hand, farmers conduct routine checks based on walks through the house to screen birds' health condition. We adapted the walks through following line transect methodology used in wildlife studies to explore their feasibility as a welfare assessment tool. The aim of this study was to compare broiler welfare assessed by individual sampling and transect walks. We evaluated 6 identically managed flocks. For individual sampling, we collected measures on 150 birds, including weight, breast dirtiness, hock and footpad dermatitis, lameness, and immobility. Transect observations were conducted by slowly walking on randomized paths within each house recording: immobility, lameness, back dirtiness, sickness, agony, and dead. Transect walks allowed detection of small variations (P < 0.003) in the prevalence of most welfare indicators considered with consistency in interobserver reliability (P ≥ 0.05). In addition, assessments across transects were highly consistent (P ≥ 0.05). Individual sampling was also sensitive to differences across houses (P < 0.01) with the exception of immobility (P = 0.783). No differences were found across sampling locations (P ≥ 0.05). However, both methods differed greatly in the frequency of the incidence of the parameters considered. For example, immobility varied from 0.2 ± 0.02% for transect walks to 4 ± 2.3% for individual sampling, whereas lameness varied between 0.8 ± 0.07% and 24.2 ± 4.7% for transect and samplings, respectively. It is possible that the transect approach may have overlooked walking deficiencies because a large number of birds were scored, although if this was the case, the consistency obtained in the scoring across observers and transects would be surprising. Differences may also be related to possibly biased individual sampling procedures, where less mobile

  4. A SURVEY OF ALKALI LINE ABSORPTION IN EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Adam G.; Redfield, Seth; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Koesterke, Lars; Barman, Travis S.

    2011-01-01

    We obtained over 90 hr of spectroscopic observations of four exoplanetary systems with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Observations were taken in transit and out of transit, and we analyzed the differenced spectra—i.e., the transmission spectra—to inspect it for absorption at the wavelengths of the neutral sodium (Na I) doublet at λλ5889, 5895 and neutral potassium (K I) at λ7698. We used the transmission spectrum at Ca I λ6122—which shows strong stellar absorption but is not an alkali metal resonance line that we expect to show significant absorption in these atmospheres—as a control line to examine our measurements for systematic errors. We use an empirical Monte Carlo method to quantify these systematic errors. In a reanalysis of the same data set using a reduction and analysis pipeline that was derived independently, we confirm the previously seen Na I absorption in HD 189733b at a level of (– 5.26 ± 1.69) × 10 –4 (the average value over a 12 Å integration band to be consistent with previous authors). Additionally, we tentatively confirm the Na I absorption seen in HD 209458b (independently by multiple authors) at a level of (– 2.63 ± 0.81) × 10 –4 , though the interpretation is less clear. Furthermore, we find Na I absorption of (– 3.16 ± 2.06) × 10 –4 at <3σ in HD 149026b; features apparent in the transmission spectrum are consistent with real absorption and indicate this may be a good target for future observations to confirm. No other results (Na I in HD 147506b and Ca I and K I in all four targets) are significant to ≥3σ, although we observe some features that we argue are primarily artifacts.

  5. Fisheries Biology and Stock Assessment Division (FBSAD) Recruit and Predator Reef Fish Belt Transect and Habitat Surveys at Big Island (Hawaii Island) in May-June 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites: at 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big...

  6. FBSAD PREDATOR Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2006 and 2007; Oahu (Kaneohe Bay), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2007 only; and Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2006 and 2007 (NODC Accession 0056602)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~5 m depths at a total seven (7) sites: at (1-2) 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of...

  7. FBSAD RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2006 and 2007; Oahu (Kaneohe Bay), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2007 only; and Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2006 and 2007 (NODC Accession 0056602)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total seven (7) sites: at (1-2) 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of...

  8. The HI/OH/Recombination line survey of the inner Milky Way (THOR). Survey overview and data release 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuther, H.; Bihr, S.; Rugel, M.; Johnston, K.; Wang, Y.; Walter, F.; Brunthaler, A.; Walsh, A. J.; Ott, J.; Stil, J.; Henning, Th.; Schierhuber, T.; Kainulainen, J.; Heyer, M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Anderson, L. D.; Longmore, S. N.; Klessen, R. S.; Glover, S. C. O.; Urquhart, J. S.; Plume, R.; Ragan, S. E.; Schneider, N.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Menten, K. M.; Smith, R.; Roy, N.; Shanahan, R.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Bigiel, F.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The past decade has witnessed a large number of Galactic plane surveys at angular resolutions below 20''. However, no comparable high-resolution survey exists at long radio wavelengths around 21 cm in line and continuum emission. Aims: We remedy this situation by studying the northern Galactic plane at 20'' resolution in emission of atomic, molecular, and ionized gas. Methods: Employing the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in the C-array configuration and a large program, we observe the HI 21 cm line, four OH lines, nineteen Hnα radio recombination lines as well as the continuum emission from 1 to 2 GHz in full polarization over a large part of the first Galactic quadrant. Results: Covering Galactic longitudes from 14.5 to 67.4 deg and latitudes between ± 1.25 deg, we image all of these lines and the continuum at 20'' resolution. These data allow us to study the various components of the interstellar medium (ISM): from the atomic phase, traced by the HI line, to the molecular phase, observed by the OH transitions, to the ionized medium, revealed by the cm continuum and the Hnα radio recombination lines. Furthermore, the polarized continuum emission enables magnetic field studies. In this overview paper, we discuss the survey outline and present the first data release as well as early results from the different datasets. We now release the first half of the survey; the second half will follow later after the ongoing data processing has been completed. The data in fits format (continuum images and line data cubes) can be accessed through the project web-page. Conclusions: The HI/OH/Recombination line survey of the Milky Way (THOR) opens a new window to the different parts of the ISM. It enables detailed studies of molecular cloud formation, conversion of atomic to molecular gas, and feedback from Hii regions as well as the magnetic field in the Milky Way. It is highly complementary to other surveys of our Galaxy, and comparing the different datasets

  9. Benthic data from rapid assessment transects, 2001-2004, in the Hawaiian Islands (NODC Accession 0002464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2001-2004 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. The types and...

  10. Prognosis of patients with transected melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn J; Nandi, Tina; Honda, Kord; Cooper, Kevin D; Bordeaux, Jeremy S

    2013-04-01

    The management of melanoma is directly related to Breslow's depth. Biopsying melanomas in a fashion that transects the deep margin precludes an accurate measurement of the true depth. To examine the prognosis of melanomas transected along the deep margins, as well as cases where no residual melanoma was seen on re-excision after transection. Records from a cohort of patients at one institution were examined from 1996 through 2007. Patients were considered to have "transected" melanomas if tumor cells were present on the deep margin of the biopsy. Overall survival was determined. Seven hundred fourteen patients were examined. 171 (24%) of all melanomas were transected. 101(59%) of those lacked tumor cells on re-excision. Patients with transected melanomas were older (OR = 1.03, p < .001), and had higher Breslow's depths (OR = 1.21, p < .001) than those without transected tumors. Those with no residual melanoma after transection were younger (OR = 0.98, p = .010) and more likely to have no lymph node involvement (OR = 2.23, p = .037). Neither transection (p = .760), nor lack of residual melanoma on re-excision after transection (p = .793) influenced survival. A high number of melanomas are transected at diagnosis, many of which lack visible tumor. The original Breslow's depth of transected melanomas without residual tumor on re-excision accurately predicts survival and prognosis. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of External Disturbing Gravity Field on Spacecraft Guidance and Surveying Line Layout for Marine Gravity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Motao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Centred on the support requirement of flying track control for a long range spacecraft, a detail research is made on the computation of external disturbing gravity field, the survey accuracy of gravity anomaly on the earth' surface and the program of surveying line layout for marine gravity survey. Firstly, the solution expression of navigation error for a long range spacecraft is analyzed and modified, and the influence of the earth's gravity field on flying track of spacecraft is evaluated. Then with a given limited quota of biased error of spacecraft drop point, the accuracy requirement for calculating the external disturbing gravity field is discussed and researched. Secondly, the data truncation error and the propagated data error are studied and estimated, and the quotas of survey resolution and computation accuracy for gravity anomaly on the earth' surface are determined. Finally, based on the above quotas, a corresponding program of surveying line layout for marine gravity survey is proposed. A numerical test has been made to prove the reasonableness and validity of the suggested program.

  12. IUE and Einstein survey of late-type giant and supergiant stars and the dividing line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, Bernhard M.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Maggio, A.; Vaiana, G. S.; Bennett, Jeffrey O.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on an IUE UV survey of 255 late-type G, K, and M stars, complementing the Maggio et al. (1990) Einstein X-ray survey of 380 late-type stars. The large data sample of X-ray and UV detections make it possible to examine the activity relationship between the X-ray and the UV emissions. The results confirm previous finding of a trend involving a steeply-dropping upper envelope of the transition region line fluxes, f(line)/f(V), as the dividing line is approached. This suggests that a sharp decrease in maximum activity accompanies the advancing spectral type, with the dividing line corresponding to this steep gradient region. The results confirm the rotation-activity connection for stars in this region of the H-R diagram.

  13. Effects of Mentioning the Incentive Prize in the Email Subject Line on Survey Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Janke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study examined the effects that mentioning the survey incentive prize in the subject line of a reminder email had on the response rate and data quality. To date, manipulation of the subject line, specifically in terms of mentioning the incentive prize, has received limited attention in the survey design literature. Methods – The delivery of the survey invitation is discussed in terms of the timing of the launch and reminder emails. Particular emphasis is given to the design of the email subject line and justification of the format. Weekly response rates from four LibQUAL+TM surveys were compared. In addition, weekly responses for one year were analyzed using SPSS to investigate if there were any between means differences in terms of three elements of data quality. The three elements were: length of time it took to complete the survey, the number of core questions with an N/A response, and the number of illogical responses where minimum scores were higher than desired. Results – The response rates for the second week were grouped together based on the presence or absence of the subject line manipulation. There was a significant difference between these means (4.75%, p 0.033. There was no statistical difference in regards to the measures of data quality as determined by a one-way ANOVA test. Conclusions – Reminding survey participants with an email that mentions the incentive prize in the subject line appears to increase response rates with no deleterious effects on data quality. The results of this investigation are encouraging, and those running the LibQUAL+TM survey in their universities should consider implementing this method to increase response rates. Further research to replicate these findings in other contexts and using an experimental design would be beneficial.

  14. Digital Still Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) Maui 2006 (NODC Accession 0039627)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still transect images (JPG files) from CRAMP surveys taken on Maui in 2006 at 8 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Surveys...

  15. Survey and alignment of high energy physics accelerators and transport lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    This talk summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are revisited and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step by step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations

  16. Driftscan surveys in the 21 cm line with the Arecibo and Nancay telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briggs, FH; Sorar, E; KraanKorteweg, RC; vanDriel, W

    Driftscan methods are highly efficient, stable techniques for conducting extragalactic surveys in the 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen. Holding the telescope still while the beam scans the sky at the sidereal rate produces exceptionally stable spectral baselines, increased stability for RFI signals,

  17. Nancay "blind" 21 cm line survey of the Canes Venatici group region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan-Korteweg, RC; van Driel, W; Briggs, F; Binggeli, B; Mostefaoui, TI

    A radio spectroscopic driftscan survey in the 21 cm line with the Nancay decimetric radio telescope of 0.08 steradians of sky in the direction of the constellation Canes Venatici covering a heliocentric velocity range of -350

  18. An Interferometric 270--355 GHz Spectral Line Survey of the Red Supergiant VY CMa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menten, K. M.; Young, K. H.; Patel, N. A.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Thaddeus, P.; McCarthy, M. C.; Gurwell, M. A.; Belloche, A.; Kaminski, T.; Verheyen, L.; Decin, L.; Brunken, S.; Holger, S. P. M.

    2011-05-01

    We have used the Submillimeter Array to image the molecular line emission in the circumstellar envelope of the peculiar red supergiant star VY Canis Majoris over the whole 870 μm atmospheric window. Employing adaptive calibration using the object's continuum emission we achieve high quality one arcsecond resolution imaging of the whole 280--355 GHz range within which we find 211 distinct spectral lines from 33 molecules (including isotopologues) plus 40 unidentified lines. From the distribution of molecules we are obtaining their abundances and isotopologic abundance ratios. Using data for multiple transitions in a number of molecules we are deriving the physical conditions in the circumstellar envelope to reach a picture of the star's chemistry that can be compared with models. Our legacy survey is accompanied by a strong laboratory effort that helps with the identification of possibly newly found molecules traced by unidentified lines. We shall create a publicly accessible database of spectral-line channel-maps of the emission from all the lines detected in the survey.

  19. Coral bleaching, hurricane damage, and benthic cover on coral reefs in St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands: A comparison of surveys with the chain transect method and videography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C.S.; Miller, J.

    2001-01-01

    The linear chain transect method and videography were used to quantify the percent cover by corals, macroalgae, gorgonians, other living organisms, and substrate along permanent transects on two fringing reefs off St. John. Both methods were used simultaneously on Lameshur reef in November 1998, and on Newfound reef in March and October 1998. Hurricane Georges passed over St. John in September 1998, and a severe coral bleaching episode began the same month. Both methods gave remarkably similar values for coral cover, while the video method gave consistently higher values for gorgonians and macroalgae. The most dramatic difference was in the quantification of bleaching. At Newfound, the chain method indicated 13.4% (SD = 14.1) of the coral tissues were bleached and the video method, 43.4% (SD = 13.0). Corresponding values at Lameshur were 18.1% (SD = 22.3) and 46.5% (SD = 13.3). Although hurricane damage was conspicuous at Newfound reef, neither method showed significant changes in coral cover or other categories as a result of the storm.

  20. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    following blunt abdominal trauma and its clinical picture is often ... Here we report a case of complete duodenal ... Key words: Duodenal injury, peritonitis, transection. Department of ... When our patient was brought to the emergency room, he.

  1. Survey of seismic conditions of drilling and blasting operations near overhead electricity power lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, G. I.; Afanasev, P. I.; Bulbasheva, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    The monitoring and survey results of drilling and blasting operations are specified during the development of Afanasyevsky deposit of cement raw materials for a 110 kV electricity power lines structure. Seismic explosion waves and air shock waves were registered in the course of monitoring. The dependency of peak particle velocities on the scaled distance and explosive weight by the delay time was obtained.

  2. The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS). First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, J. K.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Coutens, A.; Lykke, J. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Calcutt, H.; Bjerkeli, P.; Bourke, T. L.; Drozdovskaya, M. N.; Favre, C.; Fayolle, E. C.; Garrod, R. T.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Öberg, K. I.; Persson, M. V.; Wampfler, S. F.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterized by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) provides an unprecedented view of these regions zooming in on solar system scales of nearby protostars and mapping the emission from rare species. Aims: The goal is to introduce a systematic survey, the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), of the chemical complexity of one of the nearby astrochemical templates, the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422, using ALMA in order to understand the origin of the complex molecules formed in its vicinity. In addition to presenting the overall survey, the analysis in this paper focuses on new results for the prebiotic molecule glycolaldehyde, its isomers, and rarer isotopologues and other related molecules. Methods: An unbiased spectral survey of IRAS 16293-2422 covering the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) has been obtained with ALMA, in addition to a few targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. The data consist of full maps of the protostellar binary system with an angular resolution of 0.5'' (60 AU diameter), a spectral resolution of 0.2 km s-1, and a sensitivity of 4-5 mJy beam-1 km s-1, which is approximately two orders of magnitude better than any previous studies. Results: More than 10 000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary, corresponding to an average line density of approximately one line per 3 km s-1. Glycolaldehyde; its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid; and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected and their emission well-modeled with an excitation temperature of 300 K. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg' and gGg', are detected, the latter for the first time in the interstellar medium (ISM). The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or

  3. Cultural-resource survey report: Hoover Dam Powerplant Modification Project II. Associated transmission-line facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, R.L.

    1991-06-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) is proposing to modify or install additional transmission facilities between the Hoover Dam hydroelectric plant and the Western Area Power Authority substation near Boulder City, Nevada. Reclamation has completed cultural resource investigations to identify historic or prehistoric resources in the project area that might be affected during construction of the transmission line. Four possible transmission corridors approximately 50 feet wide and between 9.5 and 11.5 miles long were investigated. The proposed transmission lines either parallel or replace existing transmission lines. The corridors generally have undergone significant disturbance from past transmission line construction. A Class II sampling survey covering approximately 242 acres was conducted. Access or construction roads have not been identified and surveys of these areas will have to be completed in the future. No historic or prehistoric archeological sites were encountered within the four corridor right-of-ways. It is believed that the probability for prehistoric sites is very low. Four historic period sites were recorded that are outside, but near, the proposed corridor. These sites are not individually eligible for the National Register of Historic Places, but may be associated with the construction of Hoover Dam and contribute to a historic district or multiple property resource area focusing on the dam and its construction

  4. A NEW Hα EMISSION-LINE SURVEY IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegedi-Elek, E.; Kun, M.; Pál, A.; Balázs, L. G.; Reipurth, B.; Willman, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from an Hα emission line survey in a 1 deg 2 area centered on the Orion Nebula Cluster, obtained with the Wide Field Grism Spectrograph 2 on the 2.2 m telescope of the University of Hawaii. We identified 587 stars with Hα emission, 99 of which, located mainly in the outer regions of the observed area, have not appeared in previous Hα surveys. We determined the equivalent width (EW) of the line and, based on this, classified 372 stars as classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) and 187 as weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs). Simultaneous r', i' photometry indicates a limiting magnitude of r' ∼ 20 mag, but the sample is incomplete at r' > 17 mag. The surface distribution of the Hα emission stars reveals a clustered population and a dispersed population, the former consisting of younger and more massive young stars than the latter. Comparison of the derived EWs with those found in the literature indicates variability of the Hα line. We found that the typical amplitudes of the variability are not greater than a factor of two to three in most cases. We identified a subgroup of low-EW stars with infrared signatures indicative of optically thick accretion disks. We studied the correlations between the EW and other properties of the stars. Based on literature data, we examined several properties of our CTTS and WTTS subsamples and found significant differences in mid-infrared color indices, average rotational periods, and spectral energy distribution characteristics of the subsamples

  5. [An assembly line lighting survey analysis and its optimal illumination range research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-ning; Xu, Yan; DU, Wei-wei; Cao, Lei; Wang, Sheng; Dong, Xue-mei; Lu, Hou-han; Chen, Song-gen; Cao, Xiao-ou; Zhang, Long-lian; He, Li-hua

    2011-06-18

    To investigate and analyze present conditions of the assembling line illumination in our country, and to set the recommended values of illuminance standard. Questionnaires and field surveys were used in this investigation. A total of 752 workers from seven factories in textile, shoes and electronics industries were selected for the questionnaire survey and site measurement, and corresponding analyses made with SPSS 13.0 statistic software. Uniformity of illumination, definition in working face, general satisfactory degrees, asthenopia were significantly correlated with each other. Assembly line illuminances for five different visual characteristics were recommended in this paper. The illuminances were 500-1 000-1 500 lx, 300-500-1 000 lx, 200-300-750 lx, 100-300-500 lx, 50-100-200 lx, respectively. Present conditions of the assembling line illumination are less than satisfactory, uniformity of illumination is on the low side, and there is no assembling line illuminance standard for general satisfactory degrees and asthenopia of workers. The related work should be further improved.

  6. Unusual broad-line Mg II emitters among luminous galaxies in the baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig, Benjamin; Blanton, Michael R.; Ross, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Many classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been observed and recorded since the discovery of Seyfert galaxies. In this paper, we examine the sample of luminous galaxies in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find a potentially new observational class of AGNs, one with strong and broad Mg II λ2799 line emission, but very weak emission in other normal indicators of AGN activity, such as the broad-line Hα, Hβ, and the near-ultraviolet AGN continuum, leading to an extreme ratio of broad Hα/Mg II flux relative to normal quasars. Meanwhile, these objects' narrow-line flux ratios reveal AGN narrow-line regions with levels of activity consistent with the Mg II fluxes and in agreement with that of normal quasars. These AGN may represent an extreme case of the Baldwin effect, with very low continuum and high equivalent width relative to typical quasars, but their ratio of broad Mg II to broad Balmer emission remains very unusual. They may also be representative of a class of AGN where the central engine is observed indirectly with scattered light. These galaxies represent a small fraction of the total population of luminous galaxies (≅ 0.1%), but are more likely (about 3.5 times) to have AGN-like nuclear line emission properties than other luminous galaxies. Because Mg II is usually inaccessible for the population of nearby galaxies, there may exist a related population of broad-line Mg II emitters in the local universe which is currently classified as narrow-line emitters (Seyfert 2 galaxies) or low ionization nuclear emission-line regions.

  7. Radio Recombination Line Surveys of the inner Galactic Plane: SIGGMA and GDIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Anderson, Loren Dean; Luisi, Matteo; Balser, Dana; Bania, Thomas; Wenger, Trey; Haffner, Lawrence Matthew; Minchin, Robert; Roshi, Anish; Churchwell, Edward; Terzian, Yervant; McIntyre, Travis; Lebron, Mayra; SIGGMA team, GDIGS team

    2018-01-01

    Ionized gas is one of the primary components of the interstellar medium (ISM) and plays a crucial role in star formation and galaxy evolution. Radio recombination lines (RRLs) can directly trace ionized gas in HII regions and warm ionized medium (WIM) without being affected by interstellar extinction. Single-dish telescopes like Arecibo Observatory and the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) are sensitive to low surface brightness emission, and are therefore powerful tools for the study of HII regions and the WIM. We report here on two large surveys of RRL emission: The Survey of Ionized Gas in the Galaxy, Made with the Arecibo telescope (SIGGMA) and the GBT Diffuse Ionized Gas Survey (GDIGS). These are the first large-scale fully-sampled RRL surveys, and together cover nearly the entire first quadrant of the Galactic plane at ~arcmin spatial resolution (l = -5 - 32 deg. for GDIGS and l = 32 - 70 deg. for SIGGMA). SIGGMA is performed with the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) receiver, whose bandpass covers twelve hydrogen alpha lines from H163α to H174α. By stacking the α-lines and smoothing to 4 km/s velocity resolution, the final SIGGMA spectra have a mean rms level of ~0.65 mJy per beam. The GDIGS data were taken with the GBT C-band receiver and the VEGAS backend and include RRLs from H95α to H117α, and when stacked and smoothed to 5 km/s resolution achieve 1 mJy per beam rms. Here, we report on early analysis of the SIGGMA and GDIGS data, and present first scientific results.

  8. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Rapid Assessment Transects 2001-2004 (NODC Accession 0002464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2001-2004 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. The types and...

  9. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Rapid Assessment Transects Maui 2006 (NODC Accession 0039383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. In 2006, there were...

  10. Video transect images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): data from 2002 (NODC Accession 0000961)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2002 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  11. Video transect images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): data from year 1999 (NODC Accession 0000671)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (JPEG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 1999 at 26 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  12. Digital Still Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2004 (NODC Accession 0037908)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (JPG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2004 at 6 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Digital images are...

  13. Video Transect Images (1999) from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) (NODC Accession 0000671)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (JPEG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 1999 at 26 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  14. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP):Data from 2003 (NODC Accession 0001732)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2003 at 15 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  15. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2003 (NODC Accession 0001732)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2003 at 15 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  16. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2000 (NODC Accession 0000728)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2000 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  17. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2002 (NODC Accession 0000961)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2002 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  18. Deep, Broadband Spectral Line Surveys of Molecule-rich Interstellar Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.; Laas, Jacob C.; Zou, Luyao; Kroll, Jay A.; Rad, Mary L.; Hays, Brian M.; Sanders, James L.; Cross, Trevor N.; Wehres, Nadine; McGuire, Brett A. [Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Lis, Dariusz C.; Sumner, Matthew C., E-mail: susanna.widicus.weaver@emory.edu [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Spectral line surveys are an indispensable tool for exploring the physical and chemical evolution of astrophysical environments due to the vast amount of data that can be obtained in a relatively short amount of time. We present deep, broadband spectral line surveys of 30 interstellar clouds using two broadband λ  = 1.3 mm receivers at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. This information can be used to probe the influence of physical environment on molecular complexity. We observed a wide variety of sources to examine the relative abundances of organic molecules as they relate to the physical properties of the source (i.e., temperature, density, dynamics, etc.). The spectra are highly sensitive, with noise levels ≤25 mK at a velocity resolution of ∼0.35 km s{sup −1}. In the initial analysis presented here, column densities and rotational temperatures have been determined for the molecular species that contribute significantly to the spectral line density in this wavelength regime. We present these results and discuss their implications for complex molecule formation in the interstellar medium.

  19. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: RAPID C iv BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Schneider, D. P.; Hall, P. B.; Shen, Yue; Vivek, M.; Dawson, K. S.; Ak, N. Filiz; Chen, Yuguang; Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, B. M.; Green, Paul J.; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D.; Pâris, I.; Tao, Charling; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Bizyaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity C iv broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4σ) variability in the equivalent width (EW) of the broad (∼4000 km s −1 wide) C iv trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (∼29 hr), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The EW varied by ∼10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability places a lower limit on the density of the absorbing gas of n e ≳ 3.9 × 10 5 cm −3 . The broad absorption line variability characteristics of this quasar are consistent with those observed in previous studies of quasars, indicating that such short-term variability may in fact be common and thus can be used to learn about outflow characteristics and contributions to quasar/host-galaxy feedback scenarios

  20. GOT C+: Galactic Plane Survey of the 1.9 THz [CII] Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William

    2012-01-01

    The ionized carbon [CII] 1.9 THz fine structure line is a major gas coolant in the interstellar medium (ISM) and controls the thermal conditions in diffuse gas clouds and Photodissociation Regions (PDRs). The [CII] line is also an important tracer of the atomic gas and atomic to molecular transition in diffuse clouds throughout the Galaxy. I will review some of the results from the recently completed Galactic Observations of Terahertz C+ (GOT C+) survey. This Herschel Open Time Key Project is a sparse, but uniform volume sample survey of [CII] line emission throughout the Galactic disk using the HIFI heterodyne receiver. HIFI observations, with their high spectral resolution, isolate and locate individual clouds in the Galaxy and provide excitation information on the gas. I will present [CII] position-velocity maps that reveal the distribution and motion of the clouds in the inner Galaxy and discuss results on the physical properties of the gas using spectral observations of [CII] and ancillary HI and 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J=1-0 data. The [CII] emission is also a useful tracer of the "Dark H2 Gas", and I will discuss its distribution in a sample of interstellar clouds. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. Primary non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty long-term success rates are similar to transecting urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kirk M; Blakely, Stephen A; O'Donnell, Colin I; Nikolavsky, Dmitriy; Flynn, Brian J

    2017-01-01

    To review the long-term outcomes of transecting versus non-transecting urethroplasty to repair bulbar urethral strictures. A retrospective review was conducted of 342 patients who underwent anterior urethroplasty performed by a single surgeon from 2003 to 2014. Patients were excluded from further analysis if there had been prior urethroplasty, stricture location outside the bulbous urethra, or age urethroplasty. In the non-transecting group, surgical techniques used included non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty and dorsal and/or ventral buccal grafting. The primary endpoint was stricture resolution in transecting vs. non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty. Success was defined as freedom from secondary procedures including dilation, urethrotomy, or repeat urethroplasty. One hundred and fifty-two patients met inclusion criteria. At a mean follow-up of 65 months (range: 10-138 months), stricture-free recurrence in the transecting and non-transecting groups was similar, 83% (n = 85/102) and 82% (n = 41/50), respectively (p = 0.84). Surgical technique (p = 0.91), stricture length (p = 0.8), and etiology (p = 0.6) did not affect stricture recurrence rate on multivariate analysis. There was no difference detected in time to stricture recurrence (p = 0.21). In this retrospective series, transecting and non-transecting primary bulbar urethroplasty resulted in similar long-term stricture resolution rate. Prospective studies are needed to determine what differences may present in outcomes related to sexual function and long-term success.

  2. Biomechanical implications of lumbar spinal ligament transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Forell, Gregory A; Bowden, Anton E

    2014-11-01

    Many lumbar spine surgeries either intentionally or inadvertently damage or transect spinal ligaments. The purpose of this work was to quantify the previously unknown biomechanical consequences of isolated spinal ligament transection on the remaining spinal ligaments (stress transfer), vertebrae (bone remodelling stimulus) and intervertebral discs (disc pressure) of the lumbar spine. A finite element model of the full lumbar spine was developed and validated against experimental data and tested in the primary modes of spinal motion in the intact condition. Once a ligament was removed, stress increased in the remaining spinal ligaments and changes occurred in vertebral strain energy, but disc pressure remained similar. All major biomechanical changes occurred at the same spinal level as the transected ligament, with minor changes at adjacent levels. This work demonstrates that iatrogenic damage to spinal ligaments disturbs the load sharing within the spinal ligament network and may induce significant clinically relevant changes in the spinal motion segment.

  3. The SLUGGS survey: globular cluster stellar population trends from weak absorption lines in stacked spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Conroy, Charlie; Foster, Caroline; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Arnold, Jacob A.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey, we stack 1137 Keck DEIMOS (Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph) spectra of globular clusters from 10 galaxies to study their stellar populations in detail. The stacked spectra have median signal-to-noise ratios of ˜90 Å-1. Besides the calcium triplet, we study weaker sodium, magnesium, titanium and iron lines as well as the Hα and higher order Paschen hydrogen lines. In general, the stacked spectra are consistent with old ages and a Milky Way-like initial mass function. However, we see different metal line index strengths at fixed colour and magnitude, and differences in the calcium triplet-colour relation from galaxy to galaxy. We interpret this as strong evidence for variations in the globular cluster colour-metallicity relation between galaxies. Two possible explanations for the colour-metallicity relation variations are that the average ages of globular clusters vary from galaxy to galaxy or that the average abundances of light elements (i.e. He, C, N and O) differ between galaxies. Stacking spectra by magnitude, we see that the colours become redder and metal line indices stronger with brighter magnitudes. These trends are consistent with the previously reported `blue tilts' being mass-metallicity relations.

  4. Narrow absorption lines with two observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Chen, Yan-Mei; Cao, Yue

    2015-07-01

    We assemble 3524 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with repeated observations to search for variations of the narrow C IV λ λ 1548,1551 and Mg II λ λ 2796,2803 absorption doublets in spectral regions shortward of 7000 Å in the observed frame, which corresponds to time-scales of about 150-2643 d in the quasar rest frame. In these quasar spectra, we detect 3580 C IV absorption systems with zabs = 1.5188-3.5212 and 1809 Mg II absorption systems with zabs = 0.3948-1.7167. In term of the absorber velocity (β) distribution in the quasar rest frame, we find a substantial number of C IV absorbers with β Hacker et al. However, in our Mg II absorption sample, we find that neither shows variable absorption with confident levels of >4σ for λ2796 lines and >3σ for λ2803 lines.

  5. A NEW Hα EMISSION-LINE SURVEY IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szegedi-Elek, E.; Kun, M.; Pál, A.; Balázs, L. G. [Konkoly Observatory, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege út 15-17 (Hungary); Reipurth, B.; Willman, M., E-mail: eelza@konkoly.hu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present results from an Hα emission line survey in a 1 deg{sup 2} area centered on the Orion Nebula Cluster, obtained with the Wide Field Grism Spectrograph 2 on the 2.2 m telescope of the University of Hawaii. We identified 587 stars with Hα emission, 99 of which, located mainly in the outer regions of the observed area, have not appeared in previous Hα surveys. We determined the equivalent width (EW) of the line and, based on this, classified 372 stars as classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) and 187 as weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs). Simultaneous r', i' photometry indicates a limiting magnitude of r' ∼ 20 mag, but the sample is incomplete at r' > 17 mag. The surface distribution of the Hα emission stars reveals a clustered population and a dispersed population, the former consisting of younger and more massive young stars than the latter. Comparison of the derived EWs with those found in the literature indicates variability of the Hα line. We found that the typical amplitudes of the variability are not greater than a factor of two to three in most cases. We identified a subgroup of low-EW stars with infrared signatures indicative of optically thick accretion disks. We studied the correlations between the EW and other properties of the stars. Based on literature data, we examined several properties of our CTTS and WTTS subsamples and found significant differences in mid-infrared color indices, average rotational periods, and spectral energy distribution characteristics of the subsamples.

  6. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Swains, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  7. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guguan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  8. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Maui, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  9. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Aguijan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  10. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Hawaii, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  11. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Johnston, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  12. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Niihau, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  13. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Saipan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  14. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Ofu & Olosega, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  15. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Palmyra, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  16. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Jarvis, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  17. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kingman, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  18. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kauai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  19. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Farallon de Pajaros, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  20. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Tau, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  1. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Pearl & Hermes, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  2. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guam, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  3. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Lanai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  4. A (Si VI) (1.92 micrometer) coronal line survey of galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, A.; Moorwood, A. F. M.; Salvati, M.; Oliva, E.

    1994-11-01

    We present the results of a (Si VI) lambda 1.962 emission line survey of active, starburst and IRAS luminous galaxies. The line was only detected in known Seyfert type 1 and 2 nuclei confirming previous suggestions that (Si VI) is related to Seyfert activity. By modeling the formation of (Si VI) and (Fe VIII) lambda 6087 we find further strong evidence that these lines arise in gas photoionized by the active nucleus although collisional ionization e.g. by shock fronts may be important in some galaxies exhibiting (Fe VII) much greater than (Si VI). Our failure to detect (Si VI) in the IRAS ultraluminous galaxies does not exclude the possible presence of obscured Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), particularly as some of the known Seyferts were also not detected. Molecular hydrogen lines (a by-product of our spectra) are common in all galaxy types including several IRAS ultraluminous galaxies whose H2 equivalent widths (Wlambda less that 20 A) are 'normal'and much lower than the extreme value (Wlambda approximately = 70 A) found in NGC 6240 and NGC 1275. 'Bare' Seyferts have Wlambda(H2) less than 1 A and a factor greater than or approximately 10 lower than starbursts, and we do not confirm previous claims of H2 line emission in the quasar 3C273. Although the ratio of H2 to (Si VI) emission varies over a wide range it does not appear to provide a useful indicator of activity type or to impose constraints on the He excitation mechanism.

  5. Morphology of AGN Emission Line Regions in SDSS-IV MaNGA Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhicheng; Sun, Ai-Lei; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Wylezalek, Dominika; Kelly, Michael; Greene, Jenny E.; Rembold, Sandro B.; Riffel, Rogério; Riffel, Rogemar A.

    2018-05-01

    Extended narrow-line regions (NLRs) around active galactic nuclei (AGN) are shaped by the distribution of gas in the host galaxy and by the geometry of the circumnuclear obscuration, and thus they can be used to test the AGN unification model. In this work, we quantify the morphologies of the narrow-line regions in 308 nearby AGNs (z = 0 - 0.14, Lbol˜1042.4 - 44.1 erg s-1) from the MaNGA survey. Based on the narrow-line region maps, we find that a large fraction (81%) of these AGN have bi-conical NLR morphology. The distribution of their measured opening angles suggests that the intrinsic opening angles of the ionization cones has a mean value of 85-98° with a finite spread of 39-44° (1-σ). Our inferred opening angle distribution implies a number ratio of type I to type II AGN of 1:1.6-2.3, consistent with other measurements of the type I / type II ratio at low AGN luminosities. Combining these measurements with the WISE photometry data, we find that redder mid-IR color (lower effective temperature of dust) corresponds to stronger and narrower photo-ionized bicones. This relation is in agreement with the unification model that suggests that the bi-conical narrow-line regions are shaped by a toroidal dusty structure within a few pc from the AGN. Furthermore, we find a significant alignment between the minor axis of host galaxy disks and AGN ionization cones. Together, these findings suggest that obscuration on both circumnuclear (˜pc) and galactic (˜ kpc) scales are important in shaping and orienting the AGN narrow-line regions.

  6. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: RAPID C iv BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Vivek, M.; Dawson, K. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Ak, N. Filiz [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Chen, Yuguang [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, B. M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Green, Paul J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McGreer, Ian D. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Pâris, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Tao, Charling [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS /IN2P3, 163, avenue de Luminy, Case 902, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: grier@psu.edu [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2015-06-10

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity C iv broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4σ) variability in the equivalent width (EW) of the broad (∼4000 km s{sup −1} wide) C iv trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (∼29 hr), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The EW varied by ∼10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability places a lower limit on the density of the absorbing gas of n{sub e} ≳ 3.9 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}. The broad absorption line variability characteristics of this quasar are consistent with those observed in previous studies of quasars, indicating that such short-term variability may in fact be common and thus can be used to learn about outflow characteristics and contributions to quasar/host-galaxy feedback scenarios.

  7. TIMASSS: the IRAS 16293-2422 millimeter and submillimeter spectral survey. I. Observations, calibration, and analysis of the line kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caux, E.; Kahane, C.; Castets, A.; Coutens, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Bisschop, S.; Bottinelli, S.; Comito, C.; Helmich, F. P.; Lefloch, B.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Dishoeck, E.; Vastel, C.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.

    Context. Unbiased spectral surveys are powerful tools to study the chemistry and the physics of star forming regions, because they can provide a complete census of the molecular content and the observed lines probe the physical structure of the source. Aims. While unbiased surveys at the millimeter

  8. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY. IV. SMOOTH LENS MODELS FOR THE BELLS GALLERY SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Yiping [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Bolton, Adam S.; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Cornachione, Matthew A.; Zheng, Zheng; Brownstein, Joel R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Mao, Shude [Physics Department and Tsinghua Centre for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Marques-Chaves, Rui [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38205 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Oguri, Masamune [Research Center for the Early Universe, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ménard, Brice, E-mail: yiping.shu@nao.cas.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope F606W-band imaging observations of 21 galaxy-Ly α emitter lens candidates in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Emission-Line Lens Survey (BELLS) for the GALaxy-Ly α EmitteR sYstems (BELLS GALLERY) survey. Seventeen systems are confirmed to be definite lenses with unambiguous evidence of multiple imaging. The lenses are primarily massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) at redshifts of approximately 0.55, while the lensed sources are Ly α emitters (LAEs) at redshifts from two to three. Although most of the lens systems are well fit by smooth lens models consisting of singular isothermal ellipsoids in an external shear field, a thorough exploration of dark substructures in the lens galaxies is required. The Einstein radii of the BELLS GALLERY lenses are, on average, 60% larger than those of the BELLS lenses because of the much higher source redshifts. This will allow for a detailed investigation of the radius evolution of the mass profile in ETGs. With the aid of the average ∼13× lensing magnification, the LAEs are frequently resolved into individual star-forming knots with a wide range of properties. They have characteristic sizes from less than 100 pc to several kiloparsecs, rest-frame far-UV apparent AB magnitudes from 29.6 to 24.2, and typical projected separations of 500 pc to 2 kpc.

  9. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  10. The discussion of method for survey the radiosensitivity of human glioma cell line SHG-44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Xu Changshao; Zhou Juying; Xu Xiaoting; Luo Jialin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate if thiazolyl blue colorimetric assay (MTT) and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) can replace clone forming assay for survey the radiosensitivity of SHG-44. Methods; Three assays was applied to examine the growth inhibition of human glioma cell line SHG-44 in eight dose groups of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy, and statistical research was applied to analyze the correlation between survival fraction and various doses. Results: Dose was associated with survival fraction in these three assays at some range of irradiation doseage (dose≤3 Gy). If out of the range, the relation is poor. CCK-8 has no rather superiority than MTT. Conclusion: By now clone forming assay is still the 'gold standard'. In some cases, MTT and other assays can give us some reference, but these assays still can not replace clone forming assay. (authors)

  11. An Interferometric Spectral Line and Imaging Survey of VY Canis Majoris in the 345 GHz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, T.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Young, K. H.; Menten, K. M.; Patel, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    A spectral line survey of the oxygen-rich red supergiant VY Canis Majoris was made between 279 and 355 GHz with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Two hundred twenty-three spectral features from 19 molecules (not counting isotopic species of some of them) were observed, including the rotational spectra of TiO, TiO2, and AlCl for the first time in this source. The parameters and an atlas of all spectral features are presented. Observations of each line with a synthesized beam of ~0.''9, reveal the complex kinematics and morphology of the nebula surrounding VY CMa. Many of the molecules are observed in high-lying rotational levels or in excited vibrational levels. From these, it was established that the main source of the submillimeter-wave continuum (dust) and the high-excitation molecular gas (the star) are separated by about 0.''15. Apparent coincidences between the molecular gas observed with the SMA, and some of the arcs and knots observed at infrared wavelengths and in the optical scattered light by the Hubble Space Telescope are identified. The observations presented here provide important constraints on the molecular chemistry in oxygen-dominated circumstellar environments and a deeper picture of the complex circumstellar environment of VY CMa.

  12. C IV BROAD ABSORPTION LINE ACCELERATION IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Schneider, D. P.; Sun, M.; Beatty, T. G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Filiz Ak, N. [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Anderson, S. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Green, Paul J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vivek, M.; Brownstein, Joel R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Roman-Lopes, Alexandre, E-mail: grier@psu.edu [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena, Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile)

    2016-06-20

    We present results from the largest systematic investigation of broad absorption line (BAL) acceleration to date. We use spectra of 140 quasars from three Sloan Digital Sky Survey programs to search for global velocity offsets in BALs over timescales of ≈2.5–5.5 years in the quasar rest frame. We carefully select acceleration candidates by requiring monolithic velocity shifts over the entire BAL trough, avoiding BALs with velocity shifts that might be caused by profile variability. The C iv BALs of two quasars show velocity shifts consistent with the expected signatures of BAL acceleration, and the BAL of one quasar shows a velocity-shift signature of deceleration. In our two acceleration candidates, we see evidence that the magnitude of the acceleration is not constant over time; the magnitudes of the change in acceleration for both acceleration candidates are difficult to produce with a standard disk-wind model or via geometric projection effects. We measure upper limits to acceleration and deceleration for 76 additional BAL troughs and find that the majority of BALs are stable to within about 3% of their mean velocities. The lack of widespread acceleration/deceleration could indicate that the gas producing most BALs is located at large radii from the central black hole and/or is not currently strongly interacting with ambient material within the host galaxy along our line of sight.

  13. Molecular line study of massive star-forming regions from the Red MSX Source survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we have selected a sample of massive star-forming regions from the Red MSX Source survey, in order to study star formation activities (mainly outflow and inflow signatures). We have focused on three molecular lines from the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz: HCO+(1-0), H13CO+(1-0) and SiO(2-1). According to previous observations, our sources can be divided into two groups: nine massive young stellar object candidates (radio-quiet) and 10 H II regions (which have spherical or unresolved radio emissions). Outflow activities have been found in 11 sources, while only three show inflow signatures in all. The high outflow detection rate means that outflows are common in massive star-forming regions. The inflow detection rate was relatively low. We suggest that this was because of the beam dilution of the telescope. All three inflow candidates have outflow(s). The outward radiation and thermal pressure from the central massive star(s) do not seem to be strong enough to halt accretion in G345.0034-00.2240. Our simple model of G318.9480-00.1969 shows that it has an infall velocity of about 1.8 km s-1. The spectral energy distribution analysis agrees our sources are massive and intermediate-massive star formation regions.

  14. Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D A; Raynolds, M K; Kuss, P; Kade, A N; Epstein, H E; Frost, G V; Kopecky, M A; Daniëls, F J A; Leibman, M O; Moskalenko, N G; Khomutov, A V; Matyshak, G V; Khitun, O V; Forbes, B C; Bhatt, U S; Vonlanthen, C M; Tichý, L

    2012-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an index of vegetation greenness and photosynthetic capacity) indicate that tundra environments are generally greening and becoming more productive as climates warm in the Arctic. The greening, however, varies and is even negative in some parts of the Arctic. To help interpret the space-based observations, the International Polar Year (IPY) Greening of the Arctic project conducted ground-based surveys along two >1500 km transects that span all five Arctic bioclimate subzones. Here we summarize the climate, soil, vegetation, biomass, and spectral information collected from the North America Arctic transect (NAAT), which has a more continental climate, and the Eurasia Arctic transect (EAT), which has a more oceanic climate. The transects have broadly similar summer temperature regimes and overall vegetation physiognomy, but strong differences in precipitation, especially winter precipitation, soil texture and pH, disturbance regimes, and plant species composition and structure. The results indicate that summer warmth and NDVI increased more strongly along the more continental transect. (letter)

  15. Meltwater retention in a transect across the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Carl Egede; Forsberg, René; Reeh, Niels

    2005-01-01

    by different physical mechanisms, their potential magnitude can be estimated, which has been done in a transect at 66 degrees N. Results show that SI declines from west to east and inversely correlates with accumulation. From the total retention capacity, theoretical lowest-runoff lines were determined......Meltwater retention by freezing is a highly climate-sensitive term in the mass budget since the cold content is directly controlled by winter climate, which is expected to change most in an anthropogenic-driven climate change. Meltwater released at the surface percolates into dry snow in a pattern...... with alternating horizontal and vertical water-flow directions, where the processes of pore refreezing (RF) (vertical flow) and superimposed ice (SI) formation (horizontal flow) occur. The flow cannot be forecasted and quantified when water first enters cold, dry snow. However, because the two processes are driven...

  16. Multidetector CT findings of bowel Transection in blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Suk; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Park, Mee Hyun; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Jung, Ah Young; Hwang, Ji Young; Ha, Hong Il

    2013-01-01

    Though a number of CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are described in literature, no studies on the specific CT signs of a transected bowel have been published. In the present study we describe the incidence and new CT signs of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma. We investigated the incidence of bowel transection in 513 patients admitted for blunt abdominal trauma who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT). The MDCT findings of 8 patients with a surgically proven complete bowel transection were assessed retrospectively. We report novel CT signs that are unique for transection, such as complete cutoff sign (transection of bowel loop), Janus sign (abnormal dual bowel wall enhancement, both increased and decreased), and fecal spillage. The incidence of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma was 1.56%. In eight cases of bowel transection, percentage of CT signs unique for bowel transection were as follows: complete cutoff in 8 (100%), Janus sign in 6 (100%, excluding duodenal injury), and fecal spillage in 2 (25%). The combination of complete cutoff and Janus sign were highly specific findings in patients with bowel transection. Complete cut off and Janus sign are the unique CT findings to help detect bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma and recognition of these findings enables an accurate and prompt diagnosis for emergency laparotomy leading to reduced mortality and morbidity.

  17. SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY TOWARD MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yuri; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Shimonishi, Takashi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramakiazaaoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8578 (Japan); Sakai, Nami [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Center for Computational Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-02-20

    Spectral line survey observations of seven molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have been conducted in the 3 mm band with the Mopra 22 m telescope to reveal chemical compositions in low metallicity conditions. Spectral lines of fundamental species such as CS, SO, CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC are detected in addition to those of CO and {sup 13}CO, while CH{sub 3}OH is not detected in any source and N{sub 2}H{sup +} is marginally detected in two sources. The molecular-cloud scale (10 pc scale) chemical composition is found to be similar among the seven sources regardless of different star formation activities, and hence, it represents the chemical composition characteristic of the LMC without influences by star formation activities. In comparison with chemical compositions of Galactic sources, the characteristic features are (1) deficient N-bearing molecules, (2) abundant CCH, and (3) deficient CH{sub 3}OH. Feature (1) is due to a lower elemental abundance of nitrogen in the LMC, whereas features (2) and (3) seem to originate from extended photodissociation regions and warmer temperature in cloud peripheries due to a lower abundance of dust grains in the low metallicity condition. In spite of general resemblance of chemical abundances among the seven sources, the CS/HCO{sup +} and SO/HCO{sup +} ratios are found to be slightly higher in a quiescent molecular cloud. An origin of this trend is discussed in relation to possible depletion of sulfur along the molecular cloud formation.

  18. Fractured cervical spine and aortic transection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Griffin, M J

    2012-02-03

    A 17-year-old victim of a road traffic accident presented. Following investigation diagnoses of fractured first cervical vertebra, aortic transection, diffuse cerebral oedema, fractured right ribs 2-4 and pubic rami were made. Management of this case presented a number of anaesthetic dilemmas: management of the airway, use of cross-clamp vs. shunting or heparinization and bypass, cardiovascular and neurological monitoring, maintenance of cardiovascular stability during and post cross-clamp, minimizing the risk of post-operative renal and neurological dysfunction.

  19. SURVEY, Northumberland County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  20. A survey of infrared continuum versus line radiation from metal halide lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, M; Herd, M T; Lawler, J E

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared radiation (near-IR) losses from the arcs of six commercial metal halide high intensity discharge (MH-HID) lamps with various power levels and with both Na/Sc and rare earth doses were surveyed in this paper. A radiometrically calibrated Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used. Lamps with rare earth doses have appreciably better color rendering indices (CRIs) than lamps with Na/Sc doses. The ratios of near-IR continuum emission over near-IR line emission from these six lamps were compared. The near-IR continuum dominates near-IR losses from lamps with rare earth doses and the continuum is significant, but not dominant, from lamps with Na/Sc doses. There was no strong dependence of this ratio on input power or color temperature (T c ). Total near-IR losses were estimated using absolutely calibrated, horizontal irradiance measurements. Estimated total near-IR losses were correlated with CRI. The lamps with rare earth doses yield the best CRIs, but have appreciably higher near-IR losses due primarily to continuum processes. One of these rare earth MH-HID lamps was used in a more detailed study of the microscopic physics of the continuum mechanism (Herd M T and Lawler E 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 3386)

  1. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. IV. HELIUM AND CARBON RECOMBINATION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M. [Astronomy Department, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903-2475 (United States); Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) found hundreds of previously unknown Galactic regions of massive star formation by detecting hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate H II region targets. Since the HRDS nebulae lie at large distances from the Sun, they are located in previously unprobed zones of the Galactic disk. Here, we derive the properties of helium and carbon RRL emission from HRDS nebulae. Our target sample is the subset of the HRDS that has visible helium or carbon RRLs. This criterion gives a total of 84 velocity components (14% of the HRDS) with helium emission and 52 (9%) with carbon emission. For our highest quality sources, the average {sup 4}He{sup +}/H{sup +} abundance ratio by number, (y {sup +}), is 0.068 {+-} 0.023(1{sigma}). This is the same ratio as that measured for the sample of previously known Galactic H II regions. Nebulae without detected helium emission give robust y {sup +} upper limits. There are 5 RRL emission components with y {sup +} less than 0.04 and another 12 with upper limits below this value. These H II regions must have either a very low {sup 4}He abundance or contain a significant amount of neutral helium. The HRDS has 20 nebulae with carbon RRL emission but no helium emission at its sensitivity level. There is no correlation between the carbon RRL parameters and the 8 {mu}m mid-infrared morphology of these nebulae.

  2. The organizational and operational boundaries of triple bottom line reporting: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archel, Pablo; Fernández, Manuel; Larrinaga, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This article responds to Gray's (2002) call for normative research on social and environmental accounting (SEA) and Parker's (2005) call for active engagement in the process of designing SEA systems. More specifically, our investigation focuses on the study of boundary setting for triple bottom line (TBL) reporting, an issue that has been given more attention by practitioners than by researchers. The study reviews the consequences of boundary setting for the discharge of organizational accountability, from which it develops a framework to investigate TBL reporting boundaries and then reports on an empirical survey of best practice. It concludes that organizations are strategically setting and disclosing their boundaries instead of discharging their accountability and argues that such strategies have far-reaching consequences, because reporting boundaries are not only reflective of organizations but also have a constitutive role in their definition. A further consequence is that it calls into question the use of voluntary labeling, such as "in accordance" with Global Reporting Initiative; one implication being that further research into technical developments in TBL reporting could contribute to the discharge of organizational accountability.

  3. Non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty (surgical atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty – is three types of urethroplasty, which are united on the principle resection of bulbar urethra with sparing of corpus spongiosum and antegrade blood flow through it. The article describes the surgical technique of urethroplasty: dorsal strictureplasty by Heineke–Mikulicz; strictureplasty by Mundy; vessel-sparing anastomotic urethroplasty by Jordan. Obligatory conditions of the non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty are a non traumatic etiology, length of the stricture not more than 1–1.5 cm, and its localization in the proximal bulbar urethra. Strictureplasty by Heineke–Mikulicz is a dorsal longitudinal incision of the urethra on the area of stricture and subsequent suturing the defect transversely. Strictureplasty by Mundy is a dorsal longitudinal urethrotomy, excision of the affected mucosa inside the lumen of the urethra and transversely urethral closure according to Heineke–Mikulicz, s principle. Vessel-sparing anastomotic urethroplasty by Jordan is circular excision of the urethral mucosa without crossing of corpus spongiosum and incoming into it bulbar arteries and thereby preserving the antegrade blood flow through the urethra.

  4. Emission-line galaxies and quasars in the southern hemisphere. I. Description and applications of an objective-prism survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.G.

    1975-01-01

    A selection of objects from the first plates of a low-dispersion, objective-prism survey for emission-line galaxies and quasars is used to illustrate the application of the survey to the following lines of research in extragalactic astronomy: quasi-stellar objects, Seyfert galaxies, instabilities in galaxies produced by tidal interaction or explosive events, and rates of star formation and the general chemical evolution of galaxies. Included in the discussion is a description of how the survey provides a new, purely optical, color-independent method for the direct isolation of bright, high-redshift QSOs with strong emission lines (Lα is often directly visible on the Schmidt-survey plates). The newly discovered objects used for illustration are a radio-quiet QSO of redshift 2.07, a luminous, class 2 Seyfert galaxy, a compact blue emission-line galaxy with a jet or streamer, yet with no obvious interacting companion, and a blue galaxy with Hβ flux 50 times that of 30 Doradus, and low metal abundances, which is undergoing a very intense burst of star formation. These objects are to be discussed in greater detail in subsequent papers in this series

  5. Strapdown Airborne Gravimetry Quality Assessment Method Based on Single Survey Line Data: A Study by SGA-WZ02 Gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong; Cai, Shaokun; Yu, Ruihang

    2018-01-01

    Quality assessment is an important part in the strapdown airborne gravimetry. Root mean square error (RMSE) evaluation method is a classical way to evaluate the gravimetry quality, but classical evaluation methods are preconditioned by extra flight or reference data. Thus, a method, which is able to largely conquer the premises of classical quality assessment methods and can be used in single survey line, has been developed in this paper. According to theoretical analysis, the method chooses the stability of two horizontal attitude angles, horizontal specific force and vertical specific force as the determinants of quality assessment method. The actual data, collected by SGA-WZ02 from 13 flights 21 lines in certain survey, was used to build the model and elaborate the method. To substantiate the performance of the quality assessment model, the model is applied in extra repeat line flights from two surveys. Compared with internal RMSE, standard deviation of assessment residuals are 0.23 mGal and 0.16 mGal in two surveys, which shows that the quality assessment method is reliable and stricter. The extra flights are not necessary by specially arranging the route of flights. The method, summarized from SGA-WZ02, is a feasible approach to assess gravimetry quality using single line data and is also suitable for other strapdown gravimeters. PMID:29373535

  6. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): digital still images from transects on Maui, Molokai, and Kauai, 2007 (NODC Accession 0056791)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still transect images (JPG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2007 from 9 sites on Maui, 3 sites on Molokai, and 1 site on Kauai....

  7. The Gaia-ESO Survey: double-, triple-, and quadruple-line spectroscopic binary candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, T.; Van Eck, S.; Jorissen, A.; Van der Swaelmen, M.; Masseron, T.; Zwitter, T.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Klutsch, A.; Pourbaix, D.; Blomme, R.; Worley, C. C.; Sacco, G.; Lewis, J.; Abia, C.; Traven, G.; Sordo, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Pancino, E.; Damiani, F.; Hourihane, A.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Koposov, S.; Casey, A.; Morbidelli, L.; Franciosini, E.; Magrini, L.; Jofre, P.; Costado, M. T.; Jeffries, R. D.; Bergemann, M.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Flaccomio, E.; Monaco, L.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-12-01

    Context. The Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) is a large spectroscopic survey that provides a unique opportunity to study the distribution of spectroscopic multiple systems among different populations of the Galaxy. Aims: Our aim is to detect binarity/multiplicity for stars targeted by the GES from the analysis of the cross-correlation functions (CCFs) of the GES spectra with spectral templates. Methods: We developed a method based on the computation of the CCF successive derivatives to detect multiple peaks and determine their radial velocities, even when the peaks are strongly blended. The parameters of the detection of extrema (DOE) code have been optimized for each GES GIRAFFE and UVES setup to maximize detection. The DOE code therefore allows to automatically detect multiple line spectroscopic binaries (SBn, n ≥ 2). Results: We apply this method on the fourth GES internal data release and detect 354 SBn candidates (342 SB2, 11 SB3, and even one SB4), including only nine SBs known in the literature. This implies that about 98% of these SBn candidates are new because of their faint visual magnitude that can reach V = 19. Visual inspection of the SBn candidate spectra reveals that the most probable candidates have indeed a composite spectrum. Among the SB2 candidates, an orbital solution could be computed for two previously unknown binaries: CNAME 06404608+0949173 (known as V642 Mon) in NGC 2264 and CNAME 19013257-0027338 in Berkeley 81 (Be 81). A detailed analysis of the unique SB4 (four peaks in the CCF) reveals that CNAME 08414659-5303449 (HD 74438) in the open cluster IC 2391 is a physically bound stellar quadruple system. The SB candidates belonging to stellar clusters are reviewed in detail to discard false detections. We suggest that atmospheric parameters should not be used for these system components; SB-specific pipelines should be used instead. Conclusions: Our implementation of an automatic detection of spectroscopic binaries within the GES has allowed the

  8. Ureteric transection secondary to penetrating handlebar injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Debbink

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ureteric trauma is rare, occurring in <1% of all traumas. We present a unique case of a 13 year old female who sustained a penetrating abdominal injury from a bicycle handlebar. Upon initial examination there was herniation of bowel through the abdominal wound, so exploratory laparotomy was performed. A serosal injury of the colon and bleeding mesenteric veins were encountered; the retroperitoneum was not explored at that time. Postoperative course was remarkable for a doubling of the serum creatinine, increasing abdominal distention and pain. Computed tomography on postoperative day five demonstrated a large amount of intra-abdominal fluid. The patient was taken for re-exploration. The left ureter was found to be completely transected. It was repaired over a double-J stent. This case demonstrates the need for a high index of suspicion in the diagnosis of ureteric injury. Keywords: Ureter, Bicycle, Handlebar, Penetrating

  9. Vocalizations as a conservation tool: an auditory survey of the Andean titi monkey Callicebus oenanthe Thomas, 1924 (Mammalia: Primates: Pitheciidae) at Tarangue, Northern Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldrich, B.C.; Molleson, L.; Nekaris, K.A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Titi monkeys (Callicebus), morphologically cryptic primates, have been difficult to survey using traditional sighting-based line transect methods. Callicebus-species regularly engage in loud, ritualized singing bouts, which could allow for the use of alternate, potentially more accurate call-based

  10. AN UNBIASED 1.3 mm EMISSION LINE SURVEY OF THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK ORBITING LkCa 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzi, K. M.; Kastner, J. H. [Center for Imaging Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Hily-Blant, P.; Forveille, T. [UJF—Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, F-38041, Grenoble (France); Sacco, G. G. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    The outer (>30 AU) regions of the dusty circumstellar disk orbiting the ∼2–5 Myr old, actively accreting solar analog LkCa 15 are known to be chemically rich, and the inner disk may host a young protoplanet within its central cavity. To obtain a complete census of the brightest molecular line emission emanating from the LkCa 15 disk over the 210–270 GHz (1.4–1.1 mm) range, we have conducted an unbiased radio spectroscopic survey with the Institute de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM) 30 m telescope. The survey demonstrates that in this spectral region, the most readily detectable lines are those of CO and its isotopologues {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O, as well as HCO{sup +}, HCN, CN, C{sub 2}H, CS, and H{sub 2}CO. All of these species had been previously detected in the LkCa 15 disk; however, the present survey includes the first complete coverage of the CN (2–1) and C{sub 2}H (3–2) hyperfine complexes. Modeling of these emission complexes indicates that the CN and C{sub 2}H either reside in the coldest regions of the disk or are subthermally excited, and that their abundances are enhanced relative to molecular clouds and young stellar object environments. These results highlight the value of unbiased single-dish line surveys in guiding future high-resolution interferometric imaging of disks.

  11. Transect width and missed observations in counting muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus from fixed-wing aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aastrup

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available While conductioning muskox-censuses (Ovibos moschatus in winter in Jameson Land, NE Greenland, from a fixed-wing aircraft, we examined the width of transects covered. We used a laser range-finder binocular for measuring the distance to observed groups. We found that 1000 m was a reasonable limit for observing a high proportion of the muskoxen present even though it was possible to observe muskoxen from 4000 m or even more. Using two observers on the right side of the aircraft each speaking into a tape recorder with an automatic time signal, we recorded observations and performed a double-observer experiment. By matching the group sizes and perpendicular distances with times of observation we could compare observations of the two observers. We found that both observers missed up to 25% of muskoxen within a 2000 m transect width. The main reasons for missing animals is difficulty in obtaining reference points in snow covered landscape and fatigue of the observers. Calibration of estimated distances using read-outs from the laser-range finder is an adequate method of obtaining distance data for line transect calculations. Our double-observer experiment demonstrated that even groups close to the transect are easily missed.

  12. Survey and analysis of line-frequency interference in the CEBAF accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiefenback, M.G.; Li, Rui.

    1995-01-01

    Feedthrough of interference from the AC power line into accelerator components is a problem which in pulsed accelerators can be reduced by operation synchronous with the AC line. This means of avoiding line-frequency effects is ineffective for continuous wave machines such as the CEBAF accelerator. We have measured line-frequency perturbations at CEBAF both in beam position and energy by using the beam position monitor system as a multiple-channel sampling oscilloscope. Comparing these data against the measured static optics (taken synchronously with the AC line) we have been able to identify point sources of interference, and resolve line-synchronous variations in the beam energy at a level near 0.001%. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. An Interferometric Spectral-Line and Imaging Survey of VY Canis Majoris in the 345 GHz Band

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, T.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Young, K. H.; Menten, K. M.; Patel, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    A spectral line survey of the oxygen-rich red supergiant VY Canis Majoris was made between 279 and 355 GHz with the Submillimeter Array. Two hundred twenty three spectral features from 19 molecules (not counting isotopic species of some of them) were observed, including the rotational spectra of TiO, TiO2, and AlCl for the first time in this source. The parameters and an atlas of all spectral features is presented. Observations of each line with a synthesized beam of ~0.9 arcsec, reveal the c...

  14. Reconnaissance survey of the intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line between X-10 and the hydrofracture site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.; Sealand, O.M.

    1975-08-01

    Two leakage points on an intermediate-level liquid waste line were located. The waste line is used periodically to transfer waste between X-10 and the hydrofracture site. The first leak occurred prior to this survey and had been repaired, but no contaminated soil had been removed. The second leak resulted in soil contamination that was more intense than at the first leak. Analyses of soil samples taken from both locations are given in this report. Groundwater data indicate the effectiveness of the removal of the contaminated material from leak two. 1 ref., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Reconnaissance survey of the intermediate level liquid waste transfer line between X-10 and the hydrofracture site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.; Sealand, O.M.

    1975-08-01

    Two leakage points on an intermediate-level liquid waste line were located. The waste line is used periodically to transfer waste between X-10 and the hydrofracture site. The first leak had occurred prior to this survey and had been repaired. However, no contaminated soil had been removed. The second leak had not been discovered previously and soil contamination in this area was more intense than at the first leak. Analyses of soil samples taken from both locations are given in this report. Groundwater data that indicate the effectiveness of the removal of the contaminated material from leak two are presented. (U.S.)

  16. Complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium: IRAM 30 m line survey of Sagittarius B2(N) and (M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloche, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Menten, K. M.; Schilke, P.; Comito, C.

    2013-11-01

    Context. The discovery of amino acids in meteorites fallen to Earth and the detection of glycine, the simplest of them, in samples returned from a comet to Earth strongly suggest that the chemistry of the interstellar medium is capable of producing such complex organic molecules and that they may be widespread in our Galaxy. Aims: Our goal is to investigate the degree of chemical complexity that can be reached in the interstellar medium, in particular in dense star-forming regions. Methods: We performed an unbiased, spectral line survey toward Sgr B2(N) and (M), two regions where high-mass stars are formed, with the IRAM 30 m telescope in the 3 mm atmospheric transmission window. Partial surveys at 2 and 1.3 mm were performed in parallel. The spectra were analyzed with a simple radiative transfer model that assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium but takes optical depth effects into account. Results: About 3675 and 945 spectral lines with a peak signal-to-noise ratio higher than 4 are detected at 3 mm toward Sgr B2(N) and (M), i.e. about 102 and 26 lines per GHz, respectively. This represents an increase by about a factor of two over previous surveys of Sgr B2. About 70% and 47% of the lines detected toward Sgr B2(N) and (M) are identified and assigned to 56 and 46 distinct molecules as well as to 66 and 54 less abundant isotopologues of these molecules, respectively. In addition, we report the detection of transitions from 59 and 24 catalog entries corresponding to vibrationally or torsionally excited states of some of these molecules, respectively, up to a vibration energy of 1400 cm-1 (2000 K). Excitation temperatures and column densities were derived for each species but should be used with caution. The rotation temperatures of the detected complex molecules typically range from ~50 to 200 K. Among the detected molecules, aminoacetonitrile, n-propyl cyanide, and ethyl formate were reported for the first time in space based on this survey, as were five rare

  17. A Sample of Quasars with Strong Nitrogen Emission Lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7......We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7...

  18. TIMASSS: the IRAS 16293-2422 millimeter and submillimeter spectral survey. I. Observations, calibration, and analysis of the line kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caux, E.; Kahane, C.; Castets, A.; Coutens, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Bisschop, S.; Bottinelli, S.; Comito, C.; Helmich, F. P.; Lefloch, B.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Dishoeck, E.; Vastel, C.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.

    2011-08-01

    Context. Unbiased spectral surveys are powerful tools to study the chemistry and the physics of star forming regions, because they can provide a complete census of the molecular content and the observed lines probe the physical structure of the source. Aims: While unbiased surveys at the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths observable from ground-based telescopes have previously been performed towards several high mass protostars, very little exists on low mass protostars, which are believed to resemble our own Sun's progenitor. To help fill up this gap in our understanding, we carried out a complete spectral survey of the bands at 3, 2, 1, and 0.9 mm towards the solar type protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Methods: The observations covered a range of about 200 GHz and were obtained with the IRAM-30 m and JCMT-15 m telescopes during about 300 h of observations. Particular attention was devoted to the inter-calibration of the acquired spectra with previous observations. All the lines detected with more than 3σ confidence-interval certainty and free from obvious blending effects were fitted with Gaussians to estimate their basic kinematic properties. Results: More than 4000 lines were detected (with σ ≥ 3) and identified, yielding a line density of approximatively 20 lines per GHz, comparable to previous surveys in massive hot cores. The vast majority (about two-thirds) of the lines are weak and produced by complex organic molecules. The analysis of the profiles of more than 1000 lines belonging to 70 species firmly establishes the presence of two distinct velocity components associated with the two objects, A and B, forming the IRAS 16293-2422 binary system. In the source A, the line widths of several species increase with the upper level energy of the transition, a behavior compatible with gas infalling towards a ~1 M⊙ object. The source B, which does not show this effect, might have a much lower central mass of ~0.1 M⊙. The difference in the rest velocities

  19. A 16 deg2 survey of emission-line galaxies at z SSP Public Data Release 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masao; Tanaka, Masayuki; Shimakawa, Rhythm; Furusawa, Hisanori; Momose, Rieko; Koyama, Yusei; Silverman, John D.; Kodama, Tadayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lin, Yen-Ting; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Yabe, Kiyoto

    2018-01-01

    We present initial results from the Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) with Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) on a comprehensive survey of emission-line galaxies at z SSP fields suggests that a survey volume of >5 × 105 Mpc3 is essential to overcome cosmic variance. Since the current data have not reached the full depth expected for the HSC-SSP, the color cut in i - NB816 or z - NB921 induces a bias towards star-forming galaxies with large equivalent widths, primarily seen in the stellar mass functions for the H α emitters at z ≈ 0.25-0.40. Even so, the emission-line galaxies clearly cover a wide range of luminosity, stellar mass, and environment, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the narrowband data from the HSC-SSP for investigating star-forming galaxies at z < 1.5.

  20. Traditional and non-traditional treatments for autism spectrum disorder with seizures: an on-line survey

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Richard E; Sreenivasula, Swapna; Adams, James B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the high prevalence of seizure, epilepsy and abnormal electroencephalograms in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is little information regarding the relative effectiveness of treatments for seizures in the ASD population. In order to determine the effectiveness of traditional and non-traditional treatments for improving seizures and influencing other clinical factor relevant to ASD, we developed a comprehensive on-line seizure survey. Methods A...

  1. Correction of bias in belt transect studies of immotile objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.R.; Pospahala, R.S.

    1970-01-01

    Unless a correction is made, population estimates derived from a sample of belt transects will be biased if a fraction of, the individuals on the sample transects are not counted. An approach, useful for correcting this bias when sampling immotile populations using transects of a fixed width, is presented. The method assumes that a searcher's ability to find objects near the center of the transect is nearly perfect. The method utilizes a mathematical equation, estimated from the data, to represent the searcher's inability to find all objects at increasing distances from the center of the transect. An example of the analysis of data, formation of the equation, and application is presented using waterfowl nesting data collected in Colorado.

  2. A New Radio Spectral Line Survey of Planetary Nebulae: Exploring Radiatively-driven Heating and Chemistry of Molecular Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Jesse; Kastner, Joel H.; Santander-García, Miguel; Montez, Rodolfo; Alcolea, Javier; Balick, Bruce; Bujarrabal, Valentín

    2018-01-01

    We report the results of a survey of mm-wave molecular line emission from nine nearby (Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM) 30 m telescope. Our sample comprises molecule-rich PNe spanning a wide range of central star UV luminosities as well as central star and nebular X-ray emission properties. Nine molecular line frequencies were chosen to investigate the molecular chemistry of these nebulae. New detections of one or more of five molecules -- the molecular mass tracer 13CO and the chemically important trace species HCO+, CN, HCN, and HNC -- were made in at least one PN. We present analysis of emission line flux ratios that are potential diagnostics of the influence that ultraviolet and X-ray radiation have on the chemistry of residual molecular gas in PNe.

  3. ELABORATION OF THE 3D MODEL AND SURVEY OF THE POWER LINES USING DATA FROM AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusława Kwoczyńska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods of obtaining highly accurate and current spatial data about the terrain, as well as objects situated on it, is laser scanning. LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging is among the most modern, dynamically developing technologies and reveals in surveying new capabilities that have been unachievable in a traditional way so far. The aim of the publication is to show the possibilities of using data from airborne laser scanning to perform the survey and visualization of the energy network, and also identification of hazards which the present network constitutes for the immediate environment using the TerraSolid software package. The survey was conducted for two independent sections of the power line, on the basis of two different clouds of points obtained from the airborne laser scanning. The first one had a density of 16 points/m2, while the other 22 pts/m2. The project was created in an environment of MicroStation V8i software using special overlays – TerraScan and TerraModeler of Finnish TerraSolid Company. The use of the test clouds of different densities was intended to indicate an optimal density of the cloud of points, which allows carrying out a survey and visualization of the energy network based on data derived from airborne laser scanning. The publication presents on particular examples the procedure of vectorization and visualization of the power line and detection of objects within a dangerous distance from it. The possibility of using applied LIDAR data, meeting the industry requirements, to the survey of power lines has been also confirmed.

  4. Edge Effects in Line Intersect Sampling With

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. R. Affleck; Timothy G. Gregoire; Harry T. Valentine

    2005-01-01

    Transects consisting of multiple, connected segments with a prescribed configuration are commonly used in ecological applications of line intersect sampling. The transect configuration has implications for the probability with which population elements are selected and for how the selection probabilities can be modified by the boundary of the tract being sampled. As...

  5. Developing a survey to collect expertise in agile product line requirements engineering processes

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Kunwu; Lempert, Meli; Tang, Yan; Tian, Kun; Cooper, Kendra M.L.; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Current agile methods are focused on practices of small, rapid developing and iteration, more people oriented, less documentation projects, and the use of the methods in large, product line projects are somehow difficult. UTD and GESSI have started a project to develop an expert system that can assist a requirements enginer in selecting a requirements engineering process that is well suited for their project, in particular with respect to the use of agile and product line engineering methods....

  6. Electromagnetic wave survey on voids behind waterway channel lining; Suiro kaikyo sokuheki haimen kudo no denjiha tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koitabashi, H [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Inagaki, M

    1996-10-01

    Voids behind lining were surveyed by applying electromagnetic wave reflection method to the waterway channel of a hydraulic power plant. Since waterway channel lining is ranged from oblique to vertical direction, voids are hardly formed. However, formation of voids or cavities behind lining is supposed such as voids between ground and lining due to change with time or consolidation settlement, and voids due to soil loss. Electromagnetic radar reflection suggesting continuous void was observed behind terrace concrete lining. As the result of core boring, thin continuous void of 2-5cm thick and more than 100m long was found. This was possibly formed by consolidation settlement for a long time. In some sites, continuous void signal was observed at the upper part of side walls although this signal was smaller than that at the upper part of a terrace. This continuous cavity of 10-20cm thick and 20m long was different from voids, and unevenly distributed at the upper part of an open channel along flowing surface with large flow rate. In addition, it is necessary to clarify the relation to cracks. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  7. XMM-Newton Survey of Local O VII Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Galactic X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Fang, Taotao; Ma, Renyi

    2018-04-01

    The detection of highly ionized metal absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of the Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs) implies the distribution of hot gas along the sightline toward the background sources. However, the origin of this hot gas is still unclear: it can arise in the hot interstellar medium (ISM), or is intrinsic to the XRBs. In this paper, we present an XMM-Newton survey of the O VII absorption lines in the spectra of Galactic XRBs. A total of 33 XRBs were selected, with 29 low-mass XRBs and 4 high-mass XRBs. At a more than 3σ threshold, O VII absorption line was detected in 16 targets, among which 4 were newly discovered in this work. The average line equivalent width is centered around ∼20 mÅ. Additionally, we do not find strong correlations between the O VII EWs and the Galactic neutral absorption N H, the Galactic coordinates, or the distance of background targets. Such non-correlation may suggest contamination of the circumstellar material, or a lack of constraints on the line Doppler-b parameter. We also find that regardless of the direction of the XRBs, the O VII absorption lines are always detected when the flux of the background XRBs reaches a certain level, suggesting a uniform distribution of this hot gas. We estimate a ratio of 0.004–0.4 between the hot and neutral phases of the ISM. This is the second paper in the series following Fang et al. (2015), in which we focused on the local O VII absorption lines detected in the background AGN spectra. Detailed modeling of the hot ISM distribution will be investigated in a future paper.

  8. Measure of pancreas transection and postoperative pancreatic fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shinichiro; Gotohda, Naoto; Kato, Yuichiro; Konishi, Masaru

    2016-05-15

    In pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), a standard protocol for pancreas transection has not been established although the method of pancreas transection might be involved in the occurrence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). This study aimed to compare whether pancreas transection by ultrasonically activated shears (UAS) or that by scalpel contributed more to POPF development. A prospective database of 171 patients who underwent PD for periampullary tumor at National Cancer Center Hospital East between January 2010 and June 2013 was reviewed. Among the 171 patients, 93 patients with soft pancreas were specifically included in this study. Surgical results and background were compared between patients with pancreas transection by UAS and scalpel to evaluate the effectiveness of UAS on reducing POPF. Body mass index, main pancreatic duct diameter, or other clinicopathologic factors that have been reported as predictive factors for POPF were not significantly different between the two groups. The incidence of all grades of POPF and that of grade B were significantly lower in the scalpel group (52%, 4%) than in the UAS group (74%, 42%). Postoperative complications ≥ grade III were also significantly fewer in the scalpel group. Scalpel transection was less associated with POPF than UAS transection in patients who underwent PD for soft pancreas. The method of pancreas transection plays an important role in the prevention of clinical POPF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. W. van de Wal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A 21-yr record is presented of surface mass balance measurements along the K-transect. The series covers the period 1990–2011. Data are available at eight sites along a transect over an altitude range of 380–1850 m at approximately 67° N in West Greenland. The surface mass balance gradient is on average 3.8 × 10−3 m w.e. m−1, and the mean equilibrium line altitude is 1553 m a.s.l. Only the lower three sites within 10 km of the margin up to an elevation of 700 m experience a significant increasing trend in the ablation over the entire period. Data are available at: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779181.

  10. Factors controlling floc settling velocity along a longitudinal estuarine transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, A.J.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    A 147 km longitudinal transect of flocculated cohesive sediment properties in San Francisco Bay (SFB) was conducted on June 17th, 2008. Our aim was to determine the factors that control floc settling velocity along the longitudinal axis of the estuary. The INSSEV-LF video system was used to measure floc diameters and settling velocities at 30 stations at a distance of 0.7 m above the estuary bed. Floc sizes (D) ranged from 22 μm to 639 μm and settling velocities (Ws) ranged between 0.04 mm·s− 1 and 15.8 mm·s− 1 during the longitudinal transect. Nearbed turbulent shear stresses throughout the transect duration were within the 0.2–0.5 Pa range which typically stimulates flocculation growth. The individual D–Ws–floc density plots suggest the suspended sediments encountered throughout SFB were composed of both muddy cohesive sediment and mixed sediments flocs. Mass-weighted population mean settling velocity (Wsmass) ranged from 0.5 mm·s− 1 to 10 mm·s− 1. The macrofloc and microfloc (demarcation at 160 μm) sub-populations demonstrated parameterised settling velocities which spanned nearly double the range of the sample mean settling velocities (Wsmean). The macroflocs tended to dominate the suspended mass (up to 77% of the ambient suspended solid concentration; SSC) from San Pablo Bay to Carquinez Strait (the vicinity of the turbidity maximum zone). Microfloc mass was particularly significant (typically 60–100% of the SSC) in the northern section of South Bay and most of Central Bay. The transect took eleven hours to complete and was not fully synoptic. During slack tide, larger and faster settling flocs deposited, accounting for most of the longitudinal variability. The best single predictor of settling velocity was water velocity 39 min prior to sampling, not suspended-sediment concentration or salinity. Resuspension and settling lags are likely responsible for the lagged response of settling velocity to water velocity. The distribution of

  11. Survey for C-Band High Spectral Lines with the Arecibo Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei Siang

    High-mass stars have masses greater than 8 solar masses and are the main source of heavy elements such as iron in the interstellar medium. This type of stars form in giant molecular clouds. Studying the molecular environment in star-forming regions is crucial to understand the physical structure and conditions that lead to the formation of high-mass stars. This thesis presents observations conducted with the 305m Arecibo Telescope in Puerto Rico of twelve high-mass star forming regions. Every source was observed in multiple transitions of molecular species including CH, CH3OH, H2CS, and OH lines, and a radio recombination line. The observations were conducted with the C-Band High receiver of the Arecibo Telescope in the frequency range of 6.0 to 7.4GHz. The goals of the observations were to investigate the detectability of different molecular species (including new possible molecular masers) and obtain high sensitivity observations of the 6.7GHz CH3OH line to detect absorption and use it as a probe of the kinematics of the molecular material with respect to the ionized gas. Among the results of the observations, we report detection of 6.7GHz CH3OH masers toward nine regions, OH masers toward five sources, 6.7GHz CH3OH absorption toward four sources (including tentative detections), and detection of H2CS toward the star forming region G34.26+0.15. We also found a variable and recurrent 6.7GHz CH3OH maser in G45.12+0.13. The 6.7GHz CH 3OH and 6278.65MHz H2CS absorption lines were modeled using the radiative transfer code RADEX to investigate the physical conditions of the molecular clouds responsible for the absorption lines. Our analysis of the absorption lines supports the interpretation that the spectral lines are tracing molecular envelopes of HII regions. In the case of 6.7GHz CH 3OH absorption, our results and data from an extensive literature review indicate that absorption is rare, but that a population of 6.7GHz CH 3OH absorbers may be present at levels

  12. Herschel/HIFI spectral line survey of the Orion Bar. Temperature and density differentiation near the PDR surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Z.; Choi, Y.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Bergin, E. A.; Gerin, M.; Joblin, C.; Röllig, M.; Simon, R.; Stutzki, J.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Photon dominated regions (PDRs) are interfaces between the mainly ionized and mainly molecular material around young massive stars. Analysis of the physical and chemical structure of such regions traces the impact of far-ultraviolet radiation of young massive stars on their environment. Aims: We present results on the physical and chemical structure of the prototypical high UV-illumination edge-on Orion Bar PDR from an unbiased spectral line survey with a wide spectral coverage which includes lines of many important gas coolants such as [Cii], [Ci], and CO and other key molecules such as H2CO, H2O, HCN, HCO+, and SO. Methods: A spectral scan from 480-1250 GHz and 1410-1910 GHz at 1.1 MHz resolution was obtained by the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. We obtained physical parameters for the observed molecules. For molecules with multiple transitions we used rotational diagrams to obtain excitation temperatures and column densities. For species with a single detected transition we used an optically thin LTE approximation. In the case of species with available collisional rates, we also performed a non-LTE analysis to obtain kinetic temperatures, H2 volume densities, and column densities. Results: About 120 lines corresponding to 29 molecules (including isotopologues) have been detected in the Herschel/HIFI line survey, including 11 transitions of CO, 7 transitions of 13CO, 6 transitions of C18O, 10 transitions of H2CO, and 6 transitions of H2O. The rotational temperatures are in the range between 22 and 146 K and the column densities are in the range between 1.8 × 1012 cm-2 and 4.5 × 1017 cm-2. For species with at least three detected transitions and available collisional excitation rates we derived a best fit kinetic temperature and H2 volume density. Most species trace kinetic temperatures in the range between 100 and 150 K and H2 volume densities in the range between 105 and 106 cm-3. The species with temperatures and

  13. Traditional and non-traditional treatments for autism spectrum disorder with seizures: an on-line survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Richard E; Sreenivasula, Swapna; Adams, James B

    2011-05-18

    Despite the high prevalence of seizure, epilepsy and abnormal electroencephalograms in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is little information regarding the relative effectiveness of treatments for seizures in the ASD population. In order to determine the effectiveness of traditional and non-traditional treatments for improving seizures and influencing other clinical factor relevant to ASD, we developed a comprehensive on-line seizure survey. Announcements (by email and websites) by ASD support groups asked parents of children with ASD to complete the on-line surveys. Survey responders choose one of two surveys to complete: a survey about treatments for individuals with ASD and clinical or subclinical seizures or abnormal electroencephalograms, or a control survey for individuals with ASD without clinical or subclinical seizures or abnormal electroencephalograms. Survey responders rated the perceived effect of traditional antiepileptic drug (AED), non-AED seizure treatments and non-traditional ASD treatments on seizures and other clinical factors (sleep, communication, behavior, attention and mood), and listed up to three treatment side effects. Responses were obtained concerning 733 children with seizures and 290 controls. In general, AEDs were perceived to improve seizures but worsened other clinical factors for children with clinical seizure. Valproic acid, lamotrigine, levetiracetam and ethosuximide were perceived to improve seizures the most and worsen other clinical factors the least out of all AEDs in children with clinical seizures. Traditional non-AED seizure and non-traditional treatments, as a group, were perceived to improve other clinical factors and seizures but the perceived improvement in seizures was significantly less than that reported for AEDs. Certain traditional non-AED treatments, particularly the ketogenic diet, were perceived to improve both seizures and other clinical factors.For ASD individuals with reported

  14. A survey and comparison of heuristics for the 2D oriented on-line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two dimensional oriented on-line strip packing problem requires items to be packed, one at a time, into a strip of fixed width and infinite height so as to minimise the total height of the packing. The items may neither be rotated nor overlap. In this paper, ten heuristics from the literature are considered for the special case ...

  15. Spectral survey of helium lines in a linear plasma device for use in HELIOS imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, H. B., E-mail: rayhb@ornl.gov [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Biewer, T. M.; Fehling, D. T.; Isler, R. C.; Unterberg, E. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Fast visible cameras and a filterscope are used to examine the visible light emission from Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Proto-MPEX. The filterscope has been configured to perform helium line ratio measurements using emission lines at 667.9, 728.1, and 706.5 nm. The measured lines should be mathematically inverted and the ratios compared to a collisional radiative model (CRM) to determine T{sub e} and n{sub e}. Increasing the number of measurement chords through the plasma improves the inversion calculation and subsequent T{sub e} and n{sub e} localization. For the filterscope, one spatial chord measurement requires three photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) connected to pellicle beam splitters. Multiple, fast visible cameras with narrowband filters are an alternate technique for performing these measurements with superior spatial resolution. Each camera contains millions of pixels; each pixel is analogous to one filterscope PMT. The data can then be inverted and the ratios compared to the CRM to determine 2-dimensional “images” of T{sub e} and n{sub e} in the plasma. An assessment is made in this paper of the candidate He I emission lines for an imaging technique.

  16. Survey of Cold Water Lines in Protoplanetary Disks : Indications of Systematic Volatile Depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, F.; Bergin, E.A.; Hogerheijde, M.; van Dishoeck, E.F.; Blake, G.; Bruderer, S.; Cleeves, I.; Dominik, C.; Fedele, D.; Lis, D.C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Pearson, J.; Yıldız, U.

    2017-01-01

    We performed very deep searches for 2 ground-state water transitions in 13 protoplanetary disks with the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory, with integration times up to 12 hr per line. We also searched for, with shallower integrations, two other water transitions that sample

  17. Survey of magnetospheric line radiation events observed by the DEMETER spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, František; Parrot, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Rodger, C. J.; Rycroft, M. J.; Hayosh, Mykhaylo; Shklyar, D.; Demekhov, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 114, May 7 (2009), A05203/1-A05203/11 ISSN 0148-0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Magnetospheric Line Radiation * MLR * DEMETER Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2009 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2008JA014016/abstract

  18. Spectroscopic survey of emission-line stars - I. B[e] stars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aret, A.; Kraus, Michaela; Šlechta, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 456, č. 2 (2016), s. 1424-1437 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-21373S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : circumstellar matter * stars * emission line Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  19. Spectral survey of helium lines in a linear plasma device for use in HELIOS imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, H. B.; Biewer, T. M.; Fehling, D. T.; Isler, R. C.; Unterberg, E. A.

    2016-11-01

    Fast visible cameras and a filterscope are used to examine the visible light emission from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Proto-MPEX. The filterscope has been configured to perform helium line ratio measurements using emission lines at 667.9, 728.1, and 706.5 nm. The measured lines should be mathematically inverted and the ratios compared to a collisional radiative model (CRM) to determine Te and ne. Increasing the number of measurement chords through the plasma improves the inversion calculation and subsequent Te and ne localization. For the filterscope, one spatial chord measurement requires three photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) connected to pellicle beam splitters. Multiple, fast visible cameras with narrowband filters are an alternate technique for performing these measurements with superior spatial resolution. Each camera contains millions of pixels; each pixel is analogous to one filterscope PMT. The data can then be inverted and the ratios compared to the CRM to determine 2-dimensional "images" of Te and ne in the plasma. An assessment is made in this paper of the candidate He I emission lines for an imaging technique.

  20. REDUCTION OF CYCLE TIME IN SCREW AIR COMPRESSOR ASSEMBLY LINE USING KAIZEN SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rajenthirakumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this competitive world, any company has to fulfill its customer needs to survive in the market. Lean manufacturing is a technique that can be adopted in a company to improve the quality of its products, reduce the cost of the production and also deliver the products in less time. The goal of this work is to show the applicability of lean manufacturing’s body of knowledge in a screw air compressor manufacturing company. Here, the main objective is to evolve and test several methodologies to eliminate wastes in the assembly line as the company at present unable to meet the customer demand. A systematic approach is suggested for the implementation of lean principles to showcase that lean could be applied to the compressor assembly line to enhance the productivity thereby making the line more efficient. In the current assembly line there was no work standardization followed by absence of kaizen that has led to an increased assembly time. Thus with the help of lean tools and techniques such as 5S, kaizen, standardization, visual management, poke yoke and string diagram the total cycle time has been reduced from 236 to 209 minutes. This reduction has benefitted the company in meeting the customer demand, increased profit and work satisfaction.

  1. A preliminary survey of avian mortality on power lines in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collisions were more common than electrocutions, apparently killing 88% of the birds found on distribution lines. Large terrestrial birds were the most numerous victims, with large numbers of Blue Cranes Anthropoides paradiseus and Denham's Bustards Neotis denhami killed. In comparison with mortality rates from the ...

  2. A New Radio Spectral Line Survey of Planetary Nebulae: Exploring Radiatively Driven Heating and Chemistry of Molecular Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Jesse

    Planetary nebulae contain shells of cold gas and dust whose heating and chemistry is likely driven by UV and X-ray emission from their central stars and from wind-collision-generated shocks. We present the results of a survey of molecular line emissions in the 88 - 235 GHz range from nine nearby (Radioastronomie Millimetrique. Rotational transitions of nine molecules, including the well-studied CO isotopologues and chemically important trace species, were observed and the results compared with and augmented by previous studies of molecular gas in PNe. Lines of the molecules HCO+, HNC, HCN, and CN, which were detected in most objects, represent new detections for five planetary nebulae in our study. Flux ratios were analyzed to identify correlations between the central star and/or nebular ultraviolet/X-ray luminosities and the molecular chemistries of the nebulae. Analysis reveals the apparent dependence of the HNC/HCN line ratio on PN central star UV luminosity. There exists no such clear correlation between PN X-rays and various diagnostics of PN molecular chemistry. The correlation between HNC/HCN ratio and central star UV luminosity hints at the potential of molecular emission line studies of PNe for improving our understanding of the role that high-energy radiation plays in the heating and chemistry of photodissociation regions.

  3. Effects of Enron on Future Russian Business Leaders: A Time Line Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlum, Marty; Moskalionov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Russia has emerged as a new capitalistic country with a prior history of corruption under the state controlled regime. Will word of corruption in America stop efforts for an ethical business climate in the new Russia? Has the Enron scandal affected Russian views of business? In pursuit of the answer, the authors surveyed Russian business students…

  4. [On the front line: survey on shared responsibility. General practitioners and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, Emmanuel; Boyer, Richard; Sepehry, Amir Ali; Rodriguez, Jean Pierre; Umbricht, Daniel; Tempier, Adrien; Simon, Andor E

    2007-01-01

    General practitioners (GP) play a preponderant role in the treatment of patients suffering of schizophrenia. Discovering the number of patients with schizophrenia who are treated by GPs ; the needs and attitudes of GPs, their knowledge concerning diagnosis, and the treatment they provide. A postal survey was conducted with Quebec GPs who were randomly chosen. A total of 1003 GPs have participated in the survey. Among them, a small percentage have to treat an early onset schizophrenia and the GPs have expressed their wish to be more informed on the accessibility of specialized services. Results pertaining to questions on diagnoses and knowledge on treatments are inconsistent. The majority of GPs treat the first psychotic episodes with antipsychotic medication. Only a third of GPs surveyed propose maintaining the treatment after a first psychotic episode, in accordance with international recommendations and the recent Canadian guidelines on practices that recommends at least 6 to 12 months of treatment after a partial or complete clinical response. Time given by male GPs to a first contact varies between 10 and 20 minutes, while 80 % of female GPs spend at least 20 minutes. The adverse effects of antipsychotic medication that raise most concern is weight gain before neurological signs. some of this survey's data should be considered by various professional and governmental associations, in order to improve the place of GPs in a health plan destined to treat schizophrenia.

  5. SAFARI 2000 PAR Measurements, Kalahari Transect, Botswana, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ceptometer data from a Decagon AccuPAR (Model PAR-80) were collected at four sites in Botswana during the SAFARI 2000 Kalahari Transect Wet Season Campaign (March,...

  6. Rocuronium Versus Suxamethonium: A Survey of First-line Muscle Relaxant Use in UK Prehospital Rapid Sequence Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Emma L; Alcock, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Prehospital anaesthesia in the United Kingdom (UK) is provided by Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and British Association for Immediate Care (BASICS), a road-based service. Muscle relaxation in rapid sequence induction (RSI) has been traditionally undertaken with the use of suxamethonium; however, rocuronium at higher doses has comparable intubating conditions with fewer side effects. The aim of this survey was to establish how many prehospital services in the UK are now using rocuronium as first line in RSI. An online survey was constructed identifying choice of first-line muscle relaxant for RSI and emailed to lead clinicians for BASICS and HEMS services across the UK. If rocuronium was used, further questions regarding optimal dose, sugammadex, contraindications, and difference in intubating conditions were asked. A total of 29 full responses (93.5%) were obtained from 31 services contacted. Suxamethonium was used first line by 17 prehospital services (58.6%) and rocuronium by 12 (41.4%). In 11 services (91.7%), a dose of 1 mg/kg of rocuronium was used, and in one service, 1.2 mg/kg (8.3%) was used. No services using rocuronium carried sugammadex. In five services, slower relaxation time was found using rocuronium (41.7%), and in seven services, no difference in intubation conditions were noted (58.3%). Contraindications to rocuronium use included high probability of difficult airway and anaphylaxis. Use of rocuronium as first-line muscle relaxant in prehospital RSI is increasing. Continued auditing of practice will ascertain which services have adopted change and identify if complications of failed intubation increase as a result.

  7. Emission Line Galaxies Behind the Planetary Nebula IC 5148: Potential for a Serendipity Survey with Archival Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimeswenger, S.; Barria, D.; Kausch, W.; Goldman, D. S.

    2018-04-01

    During the start of a survey program using FORS2 long slit spectroscopy on planetary nebulae (PN) and their haloes, we serendipitously discovered six background emission line galaxies (ELG) with redshifts of z = 0.2057, 0.3137, 0.37281, 0.4939, 0.7424 and 0.8668. Thus they clearly do not belong to a common cluster structure. We derived the major physical properties of the targets. Since the used long slit covers a sky area of only 570 arcsec2 (= 4.3×10-5 square degrees), we discuss further potential of serendipitous discoveries in archival data, beside the deep systematic work of the ongoing and upcoming big surveys. We conclude that archival data provide a decent potential for extending the overall data on ELGs without any selection bias.

  8. Integrated Seismic Survey for Detecting Landslide Effects on High Speed Rail Line at Istanbul–Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grit Mert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves Method (MASW, seismic refraction tomography and seismic reflection methods are used together at Silivri district in Istanbul – a district with a landslide problem because of the high speed rail line project crossing through the area. The landslide structure, border and depth of the slip plane are investigated and correlated within the local geology. According to the obtained 2D seismic sections, the landslide occurs through the East-West direction in the study area and the landslide slip plane with its border are clearly obtained under the subsurface. The results prove that the study area is suitable enough for the landslide development and this evolution also affects the high speed rail line project.

  9. Smooth muscle adaptation after intestinal transection and resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J S; Quigley, E M; Adrian, T E

    1996-09-01

    Changes in motor function occur in the intestinal remnant after intestinal resection. Smooth muscle adaptation also occurs, particularly after extensive resection. The time course of these changes and their interrelationship are unclear. Our aim was to evaluate changes in canine smooth muscle structure and function during intestinal adaptation after transection and resection. Twenty-five dogs underwent either transection (N = 10), 50% distal resection (N = 10), or 50% proximal resection (N = 5). Thickness and length of the circular (CM) and longitudinal (LM) muscle layers were measured four and 12 weeks after resection. In vitro length-tension properties and response to a cholinergic agonist were studied in mid-jejunum and mid-ileum. Transection alone caused increased CM length in the jejunum proximal to the transection but did not affect LM length or muscle thickness. A 50% resection resulted in increased length of CM throughout the intestine and thickening of CM and LM near the anastomosis. Active tension of jejunal CM increased transiently four weeks after resection. Active tension in jejunal LM was decreased 12 weeks after transection and resection. Sensitivity of CM to carbachol was similar after transection and resection. It is concluded that: (1) Structural adaptation of both circular and longitudinal muscle occurs after intestinal resection. (2) This process is influenced by the site of the intestinal remnant. (3) Only minor and transient changes occur in smooth muscle function after resection. (4) Factors other than muscle adaptation are likely involved in the changes in motor function seen following massive bowel resection.

  10. Electrical power line and pole removal radiological survey completion report: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    Each electric power pole and all wire, cross members, and attached hardware were radiologically surveyed and removed. The survey procedures did not conform in every respect with the planned procedures because the actual work differed from the removal plan. The survey showed that all contamination was fixed. Certain poles that were suspected of being contaminated with Th-230 were cut off one foot above ground level and left on site. Each truck load of materials was checked at the access point to ensure it met release criteria. Wood samples were taken from all the poles at Building 403 and 5% of all the rest and analyzed for U-238 and Th-232. Only U-238 was detected. 1903 bundles of wire (95,150 lin ft) were released, and 76 bundles (1520 lin ft) were found to be contaminated. 7163 lin ft of power pole material were released, and 1484 lin ft were contaminated. A comprehensive quality measure assurance/quality control program was applied to this work

  11. DETERMINING QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTIONS FROM THEIR BROAD EMISSION LINES: APPLICATION TO THE BRIGHT QUASAR SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Fan Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian approach to estimating quasar black hole mass functions (BHMF) using the broad emission lines to estimate black hole mass. We show how using the broad-line mass estimates in combination with statistical techniques developed for luminosity function estimation (e.g., the 1/V a correction) leads to statistically biased results. We derive the likelihood function for the BHMF based on the broad-line mass estimates, and derive the posterior distribution for the BHMF, given the observed data. We develop our statistical approach for a flexible model where the BHMF is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian functions. Statistical inference is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, and we describe a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to perform the MCMC. The MCMC simulates random draws from the probability distribution of the BHMF parameters, given the data, and we use a simulated data set to show how these random draws may be used to estimate the probability distribution for the BHMF. In addition, we show how the MCMC output may be used to estimate the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF, such as the peak in the space density of quasars. Our method has the advantage that it is able to constrain the BHMF even beyond the survey detection limits at the adopted confidence level, accounts for measurement errors and the intrinsic uncertainty in broad-line mass estimates, and provides a natural way of estimating the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF. We conclude by using our method to estimate the local active BHMF using the z BH ∼> 10 8 M sun . Our analysis implies that at a given M BH , z < 0.5 broad-line quasars have a typical Eddington ratio of ∼0.4 and a dispersion in Eddington ratio of ∼<0.5 dex.

  12. Survey of potential use of dynamic line phantom for quality control of Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindev, P.; Ozturk, N.

    2004-01-01

    Different phantoms, used to evaluate the essential for image quality parameters of gamma cameras in order to avoid artefacts, are presented. The prices are significant and it is a sensible approach to optimise the type and number of phantoms necessary for quality control. Among all phantoms the price of 'Dynamic Line Phantom' (DLP) is impressive, but it is announced to substitute several 'passive' and 'active' phantoms. The goal of this paper is to justify this statement. The programs, based on image profile are discussed in the paper and the practical uses of the different programs are given

  13. A survey of front-line paramedics examining the professional relationship between paramedics and physician medical oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Christopher R; Tavares, Walter; Virkkunen, Ilkka; Kämäräinen, Antti

    2018-03-01

    Paramedicine is often dependent on physician medical directors and their associated programs for direction and oversight. A positive relationship between paramedics and their oversight physicians promotes safety and quality care while a strained or ineffective one may threaten these goals. The objective of this study was to explore and understand the professional relationship between paramedics and physician medical oversight as viewed by front-line paramedics. All active front-line paramedics from four municipal paramedic services involving three medical oversight groups in Ontario were invited to complete an online survey. Five hundred and four paramedics were invited to participate in the study, with 242 completing the survey (48% response rate); 66% male, 76% primary care paramedics with an average of 13 (SD=9) years of experience. Paramedics had neutral or positive perceptions regarding their autonomy, opportunities to interact with their medical director, and medical director understanding of the prehospital setting. Paramedics perceived medical directives as rigid and ambiguous. A significant amount of respondents reported a perception of having provided suboptimal patient care due to fear of legal or disciplinary consequences. Issues of a lack of support for critical thinking and a lack of trust between paramedics and medical oversight groups were often raised. Paramedic perceptions of physician medical oversight were mixed. Concerning areas identified were perceptions of ambiguous written directives and concerns related to the level of trust and support for critical thinking. These perceptions may have implications for the system of care and should be explored further.

  14. An unbiased spectral line survey toward R CrA IRS7B in the 345 GHz window with ASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Lindberg, Johan

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 332-364 GHz region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope toward R CrA IRS7B, a low-mass protostar in the Class 0 or Class 0/I transitional stage. We have also performed some supplementary observations in the 450 GHz band...... corino. These results suggest a weak hot corino activity in R CrA IRS7B. On the other hand, the carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C3H2, are found to be abundant. However, this source cannot be classified as a WCCC source, since long carbon-chain molecules are not detected. If WCCC and hot corino...... chemistry represent the two extremes in chemical compositions of low-mass Class 0 sources, R CrA IRS7B would be a source with a mixture of these two chemical characteristics. The UV radiation from the nearby Herbig Ae star R CrA may also affect the chemical composition. The present line survey demonstrates...

  15. Oceanographic data collected during the Estuary to the Abyss: Exploring Along the Latitude 31-30 Transect (abyss2004) on RV Seward Johnson in Charleston Bump from August 19, 2004 - September 1, 2004 (NODC Accession 0072309)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The diverse ocean-bottom habitats off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia support a corresponding diversity of organisms. An imaginary line, or transect, running...

  16. Molecular-cloud-scale Chemical Composition. II. Mapping Spectral Line Survey toward W3(OH) in the 3 mm Band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yuri [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Harada, Nanase [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Shimonishi, Takashi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramakiazaaoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sakai, Nami [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-10-10

    To study a molecular-cloud-scale chemical composition, we conducted a mapping spectral line survey toward the Galactic molecular cloud W3(OH), which is one of the most active star-forming regions in the Perseus arm. We conducted our survey through the use of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope, and observed the area of 16′ × 16′, which corresponds to 9.0 pc × 9.0 pc. The observed frequency ranges are 87–91, 96–103, and 108–112 GHz. We prepared the spectrum averaged over the observed area, in which eight molecular species (CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CS, SO, C{sup 18}O, and {sup 13}CO) are identified. On the other hand, the spectrum of the W3(OH) hot core observed at a 0.17 pc resolution shows the lines of various molecules such as OCS, H{sub 2}CS CH{sub 3}CCH, and CH{sub 3}CN in addition to the above species. In the spatially averaged spectrum, emission of the species concentrated just around the star-forming core, such as CH{sub 3}OH and HC{sub 3}N, is fainter than in the hot core spectrum, whereas emission of the species widely extended over the cloud such as CCH is relatively brighter. We classified the observed area into five subregions according to the integrated intensity of {sup 13}CO, and evaluated the contribution to the averaged spectrum from each subregion. The CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, and CS lines can be seen even in the spectrum of the subregion with the lowest {sup 13}CO integrated intensity range (<10 K km s{sup −1}). Thus, the contributions of the spatially extended emission is confirmed to be dominant in the spatially averaged spectrum.

  17. AN UNBIASED SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY TOWARD R CrA IRS7B IN THE 345 GHz WINDOW WITH ASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Jørgensen, Jes K.

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 332-364 GHz region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope toward R CrA IRS7B, a low-mass protostar in the Class 0 or Class 0/I transitional stage. We have also performed some supplementary observations in the 450 GHz band. In total, 16 molecular species are identified in the 332-364 GHz region. Strong emission lines of CN and CCH are observed, whereas complex organic molecules and long carbon-chain molecules, which are characteristics of hot corino and warm carbon-chain chemistry (WCCC) source, respectively, are not detected. The rotation temperature of CH 3 OH is evaluated to be 31 K, which is significantly lower than that reported for the prototypical hot corino IRAS 16293-2422 (∼85 K). The deuterium fractionation ratios for CCH and H 2 CO are obtained to be 0.038 and 0.050, respectively, which are much lower than those in the hot corino. These results suggest a weak hot corino activity in R CrA IRS7B. On the other hand, the carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C 3 H 2 , are found to be abundant. However, this source cannot be classified as a WCCC source, since long carbon-chain molecules are not detected. If WCCC and hot corino chemistry represent the two extremes in chemical compositions of low-mass Class 0 sources, R CrA IRS7B would be a source with a mixture of these two chemical characteristics. The UV radiation from the nearby Herbig Ae star R CrA may also affect the chemical composition. The present line survey demonstrates further chemical diversity in low-mass star-forming regions.

  18. On-line survey of professional stakeholder perceptions of energy labelling for buildings : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    This paper presented the results of a survey conducted to examine stakeholder responses to energy labelling for buildings. Stakeholders were also asked to respond to a first draft energy label created to provide a national template for energy consumption in commercial, institutional, and residential buildings. A total of 1943 buildings sector stakeholders were consulted to help identify improvements to the labelling system. Over 88 per cent of all respondents supported the idea of introducing an energy labelling system for buildings. Engineers, technologists, and energy consultants strongly supported the system, while real estate appraisers and building and maintenance managers were less supportive of the idea. A clear majority supported the idea of a mandatory labelling system. The majority of stakeholders agreed that the system would serve to aid valuators, buyers, and tenants in making energy efficient purchases, and serve as a useful benchmarking tool. Results of the survey also showed that the majority of respondents were willing to incur administrative fees related to the labelling system, and that the label's benefits would be maximized through the use of an expiry date. Approximately 71 per cent of respondents thought that the label should be linked to financial incentives. All stakeholders were shown to have a positive impression of the draft label. 15 tabs.

  19. Surveys of the Milky Way and Magellanic System in the λ21-cm line of atomic hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickey J.M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the next three years, surveys of the Northern and Southern skies using focal plane arrays on aperture synthesis radio telescopes will lead to a breakthrough in our knowledge of the warm and cool atomic phases of the interstellar medium and their relationship with the diffuse molecular gas. The sensitivity and resolution of these surveys will give an order of magnitude or more improvement over existing interstellar medium data. The GASKAP (South and GAMES (North projects together constitute a complete survey of the Milky Way plane and the Magellanic Clouds and Stream in both emission and absorption in the H I 21-cm line and the OH 18-cm lines. The overall goal of this project is to understand the mechanism of galaxy evolution, through a detailed tracing of the astrophysical processes that drive the cycle of star formation in very different environments. Comparison of 21-cm emission and absorption highlights the transition from the warm, diffuse medium to cool clouds. Tracing turbulence in the Magellanic Stream shows how extra-galactic gas makes the difficult passage through the halo to replenish the disk. Finally, high resolution images of OH masers trace outflows from evolved stars that enrich the medium with heavy elements. To understand how the Milky Way was assembled and how it has evolved since, the speed and efficiency of these processes must be measured, as functions of Galactic radius and height above the plane. Observations of similar processes in the Magellanic Clouds show how differently they might have worked in conditions typical of the early universe.

  20. The socio-economic base line survey; first chapter of the handbook under preparation: "Managing farmers: a handbook for working with farmers in irrigation and drainage projects"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrevel, A.

    2002-01-01

    The text The socio-economic base line survey is the first chapter of a book under preparation meant to instruct senior staff of irrigation and drainage projects on techniques to work with farmers. It informs the reader of best practices to set up and execute a socio-economic baseline survey. The

  1. The PLOT (Paleolimnological Transect) Project in the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromig, R.; Andreev, A.; Baumer, M.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Fedorov, G.; Frolova, L.; Krastel, S.; Lebas, E.; Ludikova, A.; Melles, M.; Meyer, H.; Nazarova, L.; Pestryakova, L.; Savelieva, L.; Shumilovskikh, L.; Subetto, D.; Wagner, B.; Wennrich, V.

    2017-12-01

    The joint Russian- German project 'PLOT - Paleolimnological Transec' aims to recover lake sediment sequences along a >6000 km long longitudinal transect across the Eurasian Arctic in order to investigate the Late Quaternary climatic and environmental history. The climate history of the Arctic is of particular interest since it is the region, which is experiencing major impact of the current climate change. The project is funded for three years (2015-2018) by the Russian and German Ministries of Research. Since 2013 extensive fieldwork, including seismic surveys, coring, and hydrological investigations, was carried out at lakes Ladoga (NW Russia, pilot study), Bolshoye Shuchye (Polar Urals), Emanda (Verkhoyansk Range, field campaign planned for August 2017), Levinson-Lessing and Taymyr (Taymyr Peninsula). Fieldwork at lakes Bolshoye Shuchye, Levinson-Lessing and Taymyr was conducted in collaboration with the Russian-Norwegian CHASE (Climate History along the Arctic Seaboard of Eurasia) project. A major objective of the PLOT project was to recover preglacial sediments. A multiproxy approach was applied to the analytical work of all cores, including (bio-)geochemical, sedimentological, geophysical, and biological analyses. First data implies the presence of preglacial sediments in the cores from all lakes so far visited. Age-depth models, based on radiocarbon dating, OSL dating, paleomagnetic measurements, identification of cryptotephra, and varve counting (where applicable), are in progress. Climate variability in the records shall be compared to that recorded at Lake Eĺgygytgyn (NE Russia), which represents the master record for the Siberian Arctic. The outcome of the PLOT project will be a better understanding of the temporal and spatial variability and development of the Arctic climate. Here, we present the major results and first key interpretations of the PLOT project, along with an outlook on the future strategy and foci. First results from lakes Ladoga

  2. SHOCKED POSTSTARBUST GALAXY SURVEY. I. CANDIDATE POST-STARBUST GALAXIES WITH EMISSION LINE RATIOS CONSISTENT WITH SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Rich, Jeffrey A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cales, Sabrina L. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Appleton, Philip N.; Lanz, Lauranne [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kewley, Lisa J.; Medling, Anne M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Lacy, Mark; Nyland, Kristina, E-mail: kalatalo@carnegiescience.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    There are many mechanisms by which galaxies can transform from blue, star-forming spirals, to red, quiescent early-type galaxies, but our current census of them does not form a complete picture. Recent observations of nearby case studies have identified a population of galaxies that quench “quietly.” Traditional poststarburst searches seem to catch galaxies only after they have quenched and transformed, and thus miss any objects with additional ionization mechanisms exciting the remaining gas. The Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey (SPOGS) aims to identify transforming galaxies, in which the nebular lines are excited via shocks instead of through star formation processes. Utilizing the Oh-Sarzi-Schawinski-Yi (OSSY) measurements on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 catalog, we applied Balmer absorption and shock boundary criteria to identify 1067 SPOG candidates (SPOGs*) within z = 0.2. SPOGs* represent 0.2% of the OSSY sample galaxies that exceed the continuum signal-to-noise cut (and 0.7% of the emission line galaxy sample). SPOGs* colors suggest that they are in an earlier phase of transition than OSSY galaxies that meet an “E+A” selection. SPOGs* have a 13% 1.4 GHz detection rate from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters Survey, higher than most other subsamples, and comparable only to low-ionization nuclear emission line region hosts, suggestive of the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). SPOGs* also have stronger Na i D absorption than predicted from the stellar population, suggestive of cool gas being driven out in galactic winds. It appears that SPOGs* represent an earlier phase in galaxy transformation than traditionally selected poststarburst galaxies, and that a large proportion of SPOGs* also have properties consistent with disruption of their interstellar media, a key component to galaxy transformation. It is likely that many of the known pathways to transformation undergo a SPOG phase. Studying this sample of

  3. Material handling systems for use in glovebox lines: A survey of Department of Energy facility experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teese, G.D.; Randall, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study has recommended that a new manufacturing facility be constructed to replace the Rocky Flats Plant. In the new facility, use of an automated material handling system for movement of components would reduce both the cost and radiation exposure associated with production and maintenance operations. Contamination control would be improved between process steps through the use of airlocks and portals. Part damage associated with improper transport would be reduced, and accountability would be increased. In-process workpieces could be stored in a secure vault, awaiting a request for parts at a production station. However, all of these desirable features rely on the proper implementation of an automated material handling system. The Department of Energy Weapons Production Complex has experience with a variety of methods for transporting discrete parts in glovebox lines. The authors visited several sites to evaluate the existing technologies for their suitability for the application of plutonium manufacturing. Technologies reviewed were Linear motors, belt conveyors, roller conveyors, accumulating roller conveyors, pneumatic transport, and cart systems. The sites visited were The Idaho National Engineering laboratory, the Hanford Site, and the Rocky Flats Plant. Linear motors appear to be the most promising technology observed for the movement of discrete parts, and further investigation is recommended

  4. NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR SURVEY: ON LINE SOFTWARES FOR 3D RECONTRUCTION FROM IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fratus de Balestrini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 3d scanning technologies had a significant development and have been widely used in documentation of cultural, architectural and archeological heritages. Modern methods of three-dimensional acquiring and modeling allow to represent an object through a digital model that combines visual potentialities of images (normally used for documentation to the accuracy of the survey, becoming at the same time support for the visualization that for metric evaluation of any artefact that have an historical or artistic interest, opening up new possibilities for cultural heritage's fruition, cataloging and study. Despite this development, because of the small catchment area and the 3D laser scanner's sophisticated technologies, the cost of these instruments is very high and beyond the reach of most operators in the field of cultural heritages. This is the reason why they have appeared low-cost technologies or even free, allowing anyone to approach the issues of acquisition and 3D modeling, providing tools that allow to create three-dimensional models in a simple and economical way. The research, conducted by the Laboratory of Photogrammetry of the University IUAV of Venice, of which we present here some results, is intended to figure out whether, with Arc3D, it is possible to obtain results that can be somehow comparable, in therms of overall quality, to those of the laser scanner, and/or whether it is possible to integrate them. They were carried out a series of tests on certain types of objects, models made with Arc3D, from raster images, were compared with those obtained using the point clouds from laser scanner. We have also analyzed the conditions for an optimal use of Arc3D: environmental conditions (lighting, acquisition tools (digital cameras and type and size of objects. After performing the tests described above, we analyzed the patterns generated by Arc3D to check what other graphic representations can be obtained from them: orthophotos and drawings

  5. A Survey of Metal Lines at High Redshift. II. SDSS Absorption Line Studies—O VI Line Density, Space Density, and Gas Metallicity at z abs ~ 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S.; Mathur, S.; Pieri, M.; York, D. G.

    2010-09-01

    We have analyzed a large data set of O VI absorber candidates found in the spectra of 3702 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars, focusing on a subsample of 387 active galactic nuclei sight lines with an average S/N >=5.0, allowing for the detection of absorbers above a rest-frame equivalent width limit of W r >= 0.19 Å for the O VI 1032 Å component. Accounting for random interlopers mimicking an O VI doublet, we derive for the first time a secure lower limit for the redshift number density ΔN/Δz for redshifts z abs >= 2.8. With extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we quantify the losses of absorbers due to blending with the ubiquitous Lyα forest lines and estimate the success rate of retrieving each individual candidate as a function of its redshift, the emission redshift of the quasar, the strength of the absorber, and the measured signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the spectrum by modeling typical Lyman forest spectra. These correction factors allow us to derive the "incompleteness and S/N-corrected" redshift number densities of O VI absorbers: ΔN O VI,c /Δzc (2.8 secure lower limit for the contribution of O VI to the closure mass density at the redshifts probed here: ΩO VI (2.8 = 1.9 × 10-8 h -1. We show that the strong lines we probe account for over 65% of the mass in the O VI absorbers; the weak absorbers, while dominant in line number density, do not contribute significantly to the mass density. Making a conservative assumption about the ionization fraction, {O VI}/{O}, and adopting the Anders & Grevesse solar abundance values, we derive the mean metallicity of the gas probed in our search: ζ(2.8 = 3.6 × 10-4 h, in good agreement with other studies. These results demonstrate that large spectroscopic data sets such as SDSS can play an important role in QSO absorption line studies, in spite of the relatively low resolution.

  6. A SURVEY OF METAL LINES AT HIGH REDSHIFT. II. SDSS ABSORPTION LINE STUDIES-O VI LINE DENSITY, SPACE DENSITY, AND GAS METALLICITY AT zabs ∼ 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.; Mathur, S.; Pieri, M.; York, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed a large data set of O VI absorber candidates found in the spectra of 3702 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars, focusing on a subsample of 387 active galactic nuclei sight lines with an average S/N ≥5.0, allowing for the detection of absorbers above a rest-frame equivalent width limit of W r ≥ 0.19 A for the O VI 1032 A component. Accounting for random interlopers mimicking an O VI doublet, we derive for the first time a secure lower limit for the redshift number density ΔN/Δz for redshifts z abs ≥ 2.8. With extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we quantify the losses of absorbers due to blending with the ubiquitous Lyα forest lines and estimate the success rate of retrieving each individual candidate as a function of its redshift, the emission redshift of the quasar, the strength of the absorber, and the measured signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the spectrum by modeling typical Lyman forest spectra. These correction factors allow us to derive the 'incompleteness and S/N-corrected' redshift number densities of O VI absorbers: ΔN O V I,c /Δz c (2.8 O V I,c /Δz c (3.2 O V I,c /Δz c (3.6 O V I (2.8 -8 h -1 . We show that the strong lines we probe account for over 65% of the mass in the O VI absorbers; the weak absorbers, while dominant in line number density, do not contribute significantly to the mass density. Making a conservative assumption about the ionization fraction, O VI /O, and adopting the Anders and Grevesse solar abundance values, we derive the mean metallicity of the gas probed in our search: ζ(2.8 -4 h, in good agreement with other studies. These results demonstrate that large spectroscopic data sets such as SDSS can play an important role in QSO absorption line studies, in spite of the relatively low resolution.

  7. A multi-spacecraft survey of magnetic field line draping in the dayside magnetosheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Coleman

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available When the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF encounters the Earth's magnetosphere, it is compressed and distorted. This distortion is known as draping, and plays an important role in the interaction between the IMF and the geomagnetic field. This paper considers a particular aspect of draping, namely how the orientation of the IMF in a plane perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line (the clock angle is altered by draping in the magnetosheath close to the dayside magnetopause. The clock angle of the magnetosheath field is commonly estimated from the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF measured by upstream monitoring spacecraft either by assuming that the draping process does not significantly alter the clock angle ("perfect draping" or that the change in clock angle is reasonably approximated by a gas dynamic model. In this paper, the magnetosheath clock angles measured during 36 crossings of the magnetopause by the Geotail and Interball-Tail spacecraft are compared to the upstream IMF clock angles measured by the Wind spacecraft. Overall, about 30% of data points exhibit perfect draping within ±10°, and 70% are within 30°. The differences between the IMF and magnetosheath clock angles are not, in general, well-ordered in any systematic fashion which could be accounted for by hydrodynamic draping. The draping behaviour is asymmetric with respect to the y-component of the IMF, and the form of the draping distribution function is dependent on solar wind pressure. While the average clock angle observed in the magnetosheath does reflect the orientation of the IMF to within ~30° or less, the assumption that the magnetosheath field direction at any particular region of the magnetopause at any instant is approximately similar to the IMF direction is not justified. This study shows that reconnection models which assume laminar draping are unlikely to accurately reflect the distribution of reconnection sites across the dayside magnetopause.

  8. SINGLE-LINED SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY STAR CANDIDATES IN THE RAVE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijevic, G.; Zwitter, T.; Bienayme, O.; Siebert, A.; Watson, F. G.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Freeman, K. C.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Steinmetz, M.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated spectroscopic observations of stars in the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) database are used to identify and examine single-lined binary (SB1) candidates. The RAVE latest internal database (VDR3) includes radial velocities, atmospheric parameters, and other parameters for approximately a quarter of a million different stars with slightly less than 300,000 observations. In the sample of ∼20,000 stars observed more than once, 1333 stars with variable radial velocities were identified. Most of them are believed to be SB1 candidates. The fraction of SB1 candidates among stars with several observations is between 10% and 15% which is the lower limit for binarity among RAVE stars. Due to the distribution of time spans between the re-observation that is biased toward relatively short timescales (days to weeks), the periods of the identified SB1 candidates are most likely in the same range. Because of the RAVE's narrow magnitude range most of the dwarf candidates belong to the thin Galactic disk while the giants are part of the thick disk with distances extending to up to a few kpc. The comparison of the list of SB1 candidates to the VSX catalog of variable stars yielded several pulsating variables among the giant population with radial velocity variations of up to few tens of km s -1 . There are 26 matches between the catalog of spectroscopic binary orbits (S B 9 ) and the whole RAVE sample for which the given periastron time and the time of RAVE observation were close enough to yield a reliable comparison. RAVE measurements of radial velocities of known spectroscopic binaries are consistent with their published radial velocity curves.

  9. Herschel/HIFI line surveys: Discovery of interstellar chloronium (H{sub 2}Cl{sup +})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lis, Dariusz C., E-mail: dcl@caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics MC 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-01-22

    Prior to the launch of Herschel, HCl was the only chlorine-containing molecule detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, chemical models have identified chloronium, H{sub 2}Cl{sup +}, as a relatively abundant species that is potentially detectable. H{sub 2}Cl{sup +} was predicted to be most abundant in the environments where the ultraviolet radiation is strong: in diffuse clouds, or near the surfaces of dense clouds illuminated by nearby O and B stars. The HIFI instrument on Herschel provided the first detection of H{sub 2}Cl{sup +} in the ISM. The 2{sub 12}-1{sub 01} lines of ortho-H{sub 2}{sup 35}Cl{sup +} and ortho-H{sub 2}{sup 37}Cl{sup +} were detected in absorption toward NGC 6334I, and the 1{sub 11}-0{sub 00} transition of para-H{sub 2}{sup 35}Cl{sup +} was detected in absorption toward NGC 6334I and Sgr B2(S). The derived HCl/H{sub 2}Cl{sup +} column density ratios, ∼1-10, are within the range predicted by models of diffuse and dense Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs). However, the observed H{sub 2}Cl{sup +} column densities, in excess of 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}, are significantly higher than the model predictions. These observations demonstrate the outstanding spectroscopic capabilities of HIFI for detecting new interstellar molecules and providing key constraints for astrochemical models.

  10. Motor Axonal Regeneration After Partial and Complete Spinal Cord Transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Paul; Blesch, Armin; Graham, Lori; Wang, Yaozhi; Samara, Ramsey; Banos, Karla; Haringer, Verena; Havton, Leif; Weishaupt, Nina; Bennett, David; Fouad, Karim; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    We subjected rats to either partial mid-cervical or complete upper thoracic spinal cord transections and examined whether combinatorial treatments support motor axonal regeneration into and beyond the lesion. Subjects received cAMP injections into brainstem reticular motor neurons to stimulate their endogenous growth state, bone marrow stromal cell grafts in lesion sites to provide permissive matrices for axonal growth, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gradients beyond the lesion to stimulate distal growth of motor axons. Findings were compared to several control groups. Combinatorial treatment generated motor axon regeneration beyond both C5 hemisection and complete transection sites. Yet despite formation of synapses with neurons below the lesion, motor outcomes worsened after partial cervical lesions and spasticity worsened after complete transection. These findings highlight the complexity of spinal cord repair, and the need for additional control and shaping of axonal regeneration. PMID:22699902

  11. Do Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Receive First-Line Pharmacotherapy? Results From the Longitudinal Veterans Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Mark A.; Rosen, Craig S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Guidelines addressing the treatment of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) strongly recommend a therapeutic trial of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). This study examined veteran characteristics associated with receiving such first-line pharmacotherapy, as well as how being a veteran of the recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq impact receipt of pharmacotherapy for PTSD. Method: This was a national study of 482 Veterans Affairs (VA) outpatients between the ages of 18 and 69 years who had been newly diagnosed with PTSD (DSM-IV criteria: 309.81) during a VA outpatient visit between May 31, 2006, and December 7, 2007. Participants completed a mailed survey between August 11, 2006, and April 6, 2008. Veterans from the Afghanistan and Iraq conflicts and female veterans were intentionally oversampled. Logistic regression models were developed to predict 2 dependent variables: odds of initiating an SSRI/SNRI and, among veterans who initiated an SSRI/SNRI, odds of receiving an adequate therapeutic trial. Each dependent variable was regressed on a variety of sociodemographic and survey characteristics. Results: Of the 377 veterans prescribed a psychotropic medication, 73% (n = 276) received an SSRI/SNRI, of whom 61% (n = 168) received a therapeutic trial. Afghanistan and Iraq veterans were less likely to receive a therapeutic trial (odds ratio [OR] = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.27–0.75; P < .01), with presence of a comorbid depression diagnosis in the year after the index episode moderating this relationship, which further decreased the odds of completing a therapeutic trial (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.09–0.95; P < .05). Conclusions: Reduced levels of receipt of first-line pharmacotherapy among recent veteran returnees parallel previous findings of less mental health treatment utilization in this population and warrant investigation. PMID:22943028

  12. Survey of magnetic fields near BPA 230-kV and 500-kV transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, N.; Aggarwal, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize typical levels and variability of 60Hz magnetic fields at the centerline and edge of right-of-way of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) 230-kV and 500-kV transmission lines. This was accomplished by taking magnetic field measurements at over 800 spans in Oregon and Washington. The spans were sampled using a stratified random sampling procedure with region (East vs. West), voltage (230-kV vs 500-kV), and circuit configuration as strata. There were five different circuit configuration groups for each region/voltage category requiring a total of 200 strata. Magnetic field measurements were taken at 13 locations under each span using an EMDEX-C as a survey meter. Additional information recorded for each span included conductor height (at 10 locations), right-of-way width, longitudinal and lateral slope, time of day, vegetation, terrain, weather conditions, temperature, wind speed, span length and presence of other lines in the corridor. 9 refs., 17 figs., 26 tabs

  13. AN INTERFEROMETRIC SPECTRAL LINE AND IMAGING SURVEY OF VY CANIS MAJORIS IN THE 345 GHz BAND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiński, T.; Menten, K. M.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Young, K. H.; Patel, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    A spectral line survey of the oxygen-rich red supergiant VY Canis Majoris was made between 279 and 355 GHz with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Two hundred twenty-three spectral features from 19 molecules (not counting isotopic species of some of them) were observed, including the rotational spectra of TiO, TiO 2 , and AlCl for the first time in this source. The parameters and an atlas of all spectral features are presented. Observations of each line with a synthesized beam of ∼0.''9, reveal the complex kinematics and morphology of the nebula surrounding VY CMa. Many of the molecules are observed in high-lying rotational levels or in excited vibrational levels. From these, it was established that the main source of the submillimeter-wave continuum (dust) and the high-excitation molecular gas (the star) are separated by about 0.''15. Apparent coincidences between the molecular gas observed with the SMA, and some of the arcs and knots observed at infrared wavelengths and in the optical scattered light by the Hubble Space Telescope are identified. The observations presented here provide important constraints on the molecular chemistry in oxygen-dominated circumstellar environments and a deeper picture of the complex circumstellar environment of VY CMa

  14. The Discovery of a High-Redshift Quasar without Emission Lines from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan; Strauss; Gunn; Lupton; Carilli; Rupen; Schmidt; Moustakas; Davis; Annis; Bahcall; Brinkmann; Brunner; Csabai; Doi; Fukugita; Heckman; Hennessy; Hindsley; Ivezic; Knapp; Lamb; Munn; Pauls; Pier; Rockosi; Schneider; Szalay; Tucker; York

    1999-12-01

    We report observations of a luminous unresolved object at redshift z=4.62, with a featureless optical spectrum redward of the Lyalpha forest region, discovered from Sloan Digital Sky Survey commissioning data. The redshift is determined by the onset of the Lyalpha forest at lambda approximately 6800 Å and a Lyman limit system at lambda=5120 Å. A strong Lyalpha absorption system with weak metal absorption lines at z=4.58 is also identified in the spectrum. The object has a continuum absolute magnitude of -26.6 at 1450 Å in the rest frame (h0=0.5, q0=0.5) and therefore cannot be an ordinary galaxy. It shows no radio emission (the 3 sigma upper limit of its flux at 6 cm is 60 µJy), indicating a radio-to-optical flux ratio at least as small as that of the radio-weakest BL Lacertae objects known. It is also not linearly polarized to a 3 sigma upper limit of 4% in the observed I band. Therefore, it is either the most distant BL Lac object known to date, with very weak radio emission, or a new type of unbeamed quasar, whose broad emission line region is very weak or absent.

  15. THE ALMA SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD: IMPLICATIONS FOR SPECTRAL LINE INTENSITY MAPPING AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS AND CMB SPECTRAL DISTORTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carilli, C. L.; Walter, F. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Chluba, J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Decarli, R. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Aravena, M. [Nucleo de Astronomia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Wagg, J. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Lower Withington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Popping, G. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Cortes, P. [Joint ALMA Observatory—ESO, Av. Alonso de Cordova, 3104, Santiago (Chile); Hodge, J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL2333 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Weiss, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Riechers, D., E-mail: ccarilli@aoc.nrao.edu [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We present direct estimates of the mean sky brightness temperature in observing bands around 99 and 242 GHz due to line emission from distant galaxies. These values are calculated from the summed line emission observed in a blind, deep survey for spectral line emission from high redshift galaxies using ALMA (the ALMA spectral deep field observations “ASPECS” survey). In the 99 GHz band, the mean brightness will be dominated by rotational transitions of CO from intermediate and high redshift galaxies. In the 242 GHz band, the emission could be a combination of higher order CO lines, and possibly [C ii] 158 μ m line emission from very high redshift galaxies ( z  ∼ 6–7). The mean line surface brightness is a quantity that is relevant to measurements of spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background, and as a potential tool for studying large-scale structures in the early universe using intensity mapping. While the cosmic volume and the number of detections are admittedly small, this pilot survey provides a direct measure of the mean line surface brightness, independent of conversion factors, excitation, or other galaxy formation model assumptions. The mean surface brightness in the 99 GHZ band is: T{sub B}  = 0.94 ± 0.09 μ K. In the 242 GHz band, the mean brightness is: T{sub B}  = 0.55 ± 0.033 μ K. These should be interpreted as lower limits on the average sky signal, since we only include lines detected individually in the blind survey, while in a low resolution intensity mapping experiment, there will also be the summed contribution from lower luminosity galaxies that cannot be detected individually in the current blind survey.

  16. THE HERSCHEL COMPREHENSIVE (U)LIRG EMISSION SURVEY (HERCULES): CO LADDERS, FINE STRUCTURE LINES, AND NEUTRAL GAS COOLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Van der Werf, P. P.; Israel, F. P.; Meijerink, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Aalto, S. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Observatory, SE-43994 Onsala (Sweden); Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, P. Penteli, 15236 Athens (Greece); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Fischer, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); González-Alfonso, E. [Departamento de Fsica y Matemáticas, Universidad de Alcalá, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Harris, A. I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Henkel, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 16, Bonn, D-53121 (Germany); Isaak, K. G. [Scientific Support Office, ESTEC/SRE-S, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Kramer, C., E-mail: rosenberg@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Instituto Radioastronomía Milimétrica (IRAM), Av. Divina Pastora 7, Nucleo Central, E-18012 Granada (Spain); and others

    2015-03-10

    (Ultra) luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) are objects characterized by their extreme infrared (8-1000 μm) luminosities (L {sub LIRG} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉} and L {sub ULIRG} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}). The Herschel Comprehensive ULIRG Emission Survey (PI: van der Werf) presents a representative flux-limited sample of 29 (U)LIRGs that spans the full luminosity range of these objects (10{sup 11} L {sub ☉} ≤ L {sub IR} ≤ 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}). With the Herschel Space Observatory, we observe [C II] 157 μm, [O I] 63 μm, and [O I] 145 μm line emission with Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer, CO J = 4-3 through J = 13-12, [C I] 370 μm, and [C I] 609 μm with SPIRE, and low-J CO transitions with ground-based telescopes. The CO ladders of the sample are separated into three classes based on their excitation level. In 13 of the galaxies, the [O I] 63 μm emission line is self absorbed. Comparing the CO excitation to the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite 60/100 μm ratio and to far infrared luminosity, we find that the CO excitation is more correlated to the far infrared colors. We present cooling budgets for the galaxies and find fine-structure line flux deficits in the [C II], [Si II], [O I], and [C I] lines in the objects with the highest far IR fluxes, but do not observe this for CO 4 ≤ J {sub upp} ≤ 13. In order to study the heating of the molecular gas, we present a combination of three diagnostic quantities to help determine the dominant heating source. Using the CO excitation, the CO J = 1-0 linewidth, and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution, we conclude that galaxies with large CO linewidths always have high-excitation CO ladders, and often low AGN contributions, suggesting that mechanical heating is important.

  17. Non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Bugeja

    S. Ivaz, A.V. Frost, D.E. Andrich, A.R. Mundy. University College London Hospital, Reconstructive Urology Unit, UK. Received 6 September 2015; accepted 30 September 2015. Available online 2 December 2015. KEYWORDS. Urethral stricture;. Bulbar urethroplasty;. Non-transecting;. Buccal mucosal graft. Abstract.

  18. Review: Non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa. S Bugeja, S Ivaz, AV Frost, DE Andrich, AR Mundy. Abstract. Augmentation urethroplasty using oral mucosal graft has become the standard surgical treatment of long bulbar strictures. In very tight strictures the urethral plate is narrowed to the extent that an ...

  19. Microbial characteristics of soils on a latitudinal transect in Siberia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, Hana; Bird, M. I.; Kalaschnikov, Y. N.; Grund, M.; Elhottová, Dana; Šimek, Miloslav; Grigoryev, S.; Gleixner, G.; Arneth, A.; Schulze, E.D.; Lloyd, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2003), s. 1106-1117 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/99/P033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : latitudial transect * microbial net growth rate * soil microbial activity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.152, year: 2003

  20. Preliminary clinical study on non-transecting anastomotic bulbomembranous urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Wei; Li, Chao; Zhang, Jinfu; Wu, Denglong; Liu, Bo

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty for treatment of posterior urethral stricture. A total of 23 patients with traumatic posterior urethral stricture were enrolled and then divided into two groups. In one group, 12 patients underwent non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty. In the other group, 11 patients underwent conventional posterior urethra end-to-end anastomosis. The effect of operation was evaluated using the following parameters: the bleeding amount during operation, operation time, IIEF-5 scores after operation, maximum flow rate (Qmax), and rating scale of quality of life (QoL). The comparison between the conventional posterior urethra end-to-end anastomosis group and the non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty group showed no significant difference with regard to average operation time. However, a significant difference was observed between the groups with regard to the bleeding amount during operation. The patients in the group of non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty urinated smoothly after the removal of catheter. Meanwhile, one patient from the group of conventional posterior urethra end-to-end anastomosis had difficulty urinating after the removal of catheter. Furthermore, significant differences in the operation time, bleeding amount during operation, IIEF-5 scores after operation, and rating scale of QoL were observed, whereas no significant difference was observed between urine flow rates of the two groups after operation. Overall, nontransecting anastomotic urethroplasty is effective for posterior urethra reconstruction, and it can reduce the occurrence rate of erectile dysfunction after operation.

  1. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey - III. An Observed Link Between AGN Eddington Ratio and Narrow-Emission-Line Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Schawinski, Kevin; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lamperti, Isabella; Ricci, Claudio; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Berney, Simon; Crenshaw, D. Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the observed relationship between black hole mass (M(sub BH)), bolometric luminosity (L(sub bol)) and Eddington ratio (lambda(sub Edd)) with optical emission-line ratios ([N II] lambda6583/Halpha, [S II]lambda-lamda6716, 6731/Halpha, [O I] lamda6300/Halpha, [O III] lamda5007/Hbeta, [Ne III] lamda3869/Hbeta and He II lamda4686/Hbeta) of hard X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. We show that the [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio exhibits a significant correlation with lamda(sub Edd) (R(sub Pear) = -0.44, p-value 3 x 10(exp. -13) sigma = 0.28 dex), and the correlation is not solely driven by M(sub BH) or L(sub bol). The observed correlation between [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio and M(sub BH) is stronger than the correlation with L(sub bol), but both are weaker than the lamda(sub Edd) correlation. This implies that the large-scale narrow lines of AGN host galaxies carry information about the accretion state of the AGN central engine. We propose that [N II] lamda6583/Halpha is a useful indicator of Eddington ratio with 0.6 dex of rms scatter, and that it can be used to measure lambda(sub Edd) and thus M(sub BH) from the measured L(sub bol), even for high-redshift obscured AGN. We briefly discuss possible physical mechanisms behind this correlation, such as the mass-metallicity relation, X-ray heating, and radiatively driven outflows.

  2. Herschel observations of extraordinary sources: Analysis of the full Herschel/HIFI molecular line survey of sagittarius B2(N)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, Justin L.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Crockett, Nathan R.; Favre, Cécile; Anderson, Dana E.; Burkhardt, Andrew M.; McNeill, Trevor D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lis, Dariusz C.; Emprechtinger, Martin; Monje, Raquel R.; Phillips, Thomas G. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schilke, Peter; Comito, Claudia; Qin, Sheng-Li [Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Chen, Jo-Hsin [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Harris, Brent J.; Steber, Amanda L.; Vasyunina, Tatiana [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Lord, Steven D. [National Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McGuire, Brett A., E-mail: jneill@umich.edu, E-mail: ebergin@umich.edu [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    A sensitive broadband molecular line survey of the Sagittarius B2(N) star-forming region has been obtained with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory, offering the first high spectral resolution look at this well-studied source in a wavelength region largely inaccessible from the ground (625-157 μm). From the roughly 8000 spectral features in the survey, a total of 72 isotopologues arising from 44 different molecules have been identified, ranging from light hydrides to complex organics, and arising from a variety of environments from cold and diffuse to hot and dense gas. We present a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model to the spectral signatures of each molecule, constraining the source sizes for hot core species with complementary Submillimeter Array interferometric observations and assuming that molecules with related functional group composition are cospatial. For each molecule, a single model is given to fit all of the emission and absorption features of that species across the entire 480-1910 GHz spectral range, accounting for multiple temperature and velocity components when needed to describe the spectrum. As with other HIFI surveys toward massive star-forming regions, methanol is found to contribute more integrated line intensity to the spectrum than any other species. We discuss the molecular abundances derived for the hot core where the LTE approximation is generally found to describe the spectrum well, in comparison to abundances derived for the same molecules in the Orion KL region from a similar HIFI survey. Notably, we find significantly higher abundances of amine- and amide-bearing molecules (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}, CH{sub 2}NH, and NH{sub 2}CHO) toward Sgr B2(N) than Orion KL and lower abundances of some complex oxygen-bearing molecules (CH{sub 3}OCHO in particular). In addition to information on the chemical composition of the hot core, the strong far-infrared dust continuum allows

  3. Spectral line survey toward the spiral arm of M51 in the 3 and 2 mm bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sorai, Kazuo, E-mail: nabe@taurus.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics/Department of Cosmoscience, Hokkaido University, Kita 10, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan)

    2014-06-10

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 3 and 2 mm bands toward two positions in a spiral arm of M51 (NGC 5194) with the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique 30 m telescope. In this survey, we have identified 13 molecular species, including CN, CCH, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HNCO, and CH{sub 3}OH. Furthermore, six isotopologues of the major species have been detected. On the other hand, SiO, HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and deuterated species such as DCN and DCO{sup +} were not detected. The deuterium fractionation ratios are evaluated to be less than 0.8% and 1.2% for DCN/HCN and DCO{sup +}/HCO{sup +}, respectively. By comparing the results of the two positions with different star formation activities, we have found that the observed chemical compositions do not strongly depend on star formation activities. They seem to reflect a chemical composition averaged over the 1 kpc scale region including many giant molecular clouds. Among the detected molecules CN, CCH, and CH{sub 3}OH are found to be abundant. High abundances of CN and CCH are consistent with the above picture of a widespread distribution of molecules because they can be produced by photodissociation. On the other hand, it seems likely that CH{sub 3}OH is liberated in the gas phase by shocks associated with large-scale phenomena such as cloud-cloud collisions and/or by nonthermal desorption processes such as photoevaporation due to cosmic-ray-induced UV photons. The present result demonstrates a characteristic chemical composition of a giant molecular cloud complex in the spiral arm, which can be used as a standard reference for studying chemistry in active galactic nuclei and starbursts.

  4. Does an offer for a free on-line continuing medical education (CME) activity increase physician survey response rate? A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J; Edwards, Teresa

    2012-03-07

    Achieving a high response rate in a physician survey is challenging. Monetary incentives increase response rates but obviously add cost to a survey project. We wondered whether an offer of a free continuing medical education (CME) activity would be effective in improving survey response rate. As part of a survey of a national sample of physicians, we randomized half to an offer for a free on-line CME activity upon completion of a web-based survey and the other half to no such offer. We compared response rates between the groups. A total of 1214 out of 8477 potentially eligible physicians responded to our survey, for an overall response rate of 14.3%. The response rate among the control group (no offer of CME credit) was 16.6%, while among those offered the CME opportunity, the response rate was 12.0% (p offer for a free on-line CME activity did not improve physician survey response rate. On the contrary, the offer for a free CME activity actually appeared to worsen the response rate. © 2011 Viera et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  5. Beyond the bundle: a survey of central line-associated bloodstream infection prevention practices used in US and Canadian pediatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieger, Sarah B; Potter-Bynoe, Gail; Quach, Caroline; Sandora, Thomas J; Coffin, Susan E

    2013-11-01

    We surveyed US and Canadian pediatric hospitals about their use of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) prevention strategies beyond typical insertion and maintenance bundles. We found wide variation in supplemental strategies across hospitals and in their penetration within hospitals. Future studies should assess specific adjunctive prevention strategies and CLABSI rates.

  6. Terrestrial transect study on driving mechanism of vegetation changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In terms of Chinese climate-vegetation model based on the classification of plant functional types, to- gether with climatic data from 1951 to 1980 and two future climatic scenarios (SRES-A2 and SRES-B2) in China from the highest and the lowest emission scenarios of greenhouse gases, the distribution patterns of vegetation types and their changes along the Northeast China Transect (NECT) and the North-South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC) were simulated in order to understand the driving mechanisms of vegetation changes under climatic change. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patterns would change significantly under future climate, and the major factors driving the vegetation changes were water and heat. However, the responses of various vegetation types to the changes in water and heat factors were obviously different. The vegetation changes were more sensi- tive to heat factors than to water factors. Thus, in the future climate warming will significantly affect vegetation distribution patterns.

  7. Sleeve resection for delayed presentation of traumatic bronchial transection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, H Y

    2010-02-01

    Tracheobronchial disruption is uncommon in blunt chest trauma. Many of these patients die before reaching the hospital. In the majority of survivors diagnosis is occasionally delayed resulting in complications like airway stenosis and lung collapse. Thus it is important to have radiological follow up after severe thoracic trauma. Sleeve resection can be an excellent option to conserve lung tissue in delayed presentation of bronchial transection.

  8. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Bankar, Sanket Subhash; Gosavi, Vikas S.; Hamid, Mohd.

    2014-01-01

    With the inventions of faster cars and even more faster motorbikes there is a worldwide increase in road traffic accidents, which has increased the incidence of blunt abdominal trauma but still duodenal injury following a blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon and can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly can result in devastating results. It may typically occur in isolation or with pancreatic injury. Here, we report a case of an isolated transection of the ...

  9. Combined pancreatic and duodenal transection injury: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mungazi, Simbarashe Gift; Mbanje, Chenesa; Chihaka, Onesai; Madziva, Noah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Combined pancreatic-duodenal injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are rare. These injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and their emergent management is a challenge. Case presentation: We report a case of combined complete pancreatic (through the neck) and duodenal (first part) transections in a 24-year-old male secondary to blunt abdominal trauma following a motor vehicle crash. The duodenal stumps were closed separately and a gastrojejunostomy performed f...

  10. The KMOS3D Survey: Rotating Compact Star-forming Galaxies and the Decomposition of Integrated Line Widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnioski, E.; Mendel, J. T.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Wilman, D.; Wuyts, S.; Belli, S.; Beifiori, A.; Bender, R.; Brammer, G.; Chan, J.; Davies, R. I.; Davies, R. L.; Fabricius, M.; Fossati, M.; Galametz, A.; Lang, P.; Lutz, D.; Nelson, E. J.; Momcheva, I.; Rosario, D.; Saglia, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki, K.; Übler, H.; van Dokkum, P. G.

    2018-03-01

    Using integral field spectroscopy, we investigate the kinematic properties of 35 massive centrally dense and compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs; {log}{\\overline{M}}* [{M}ȯ ]=11.1, {log}({{{Σ }}}1{kpc}[{M}ȯ {kpc}}-2])> 9.5, {log}({M}* /{r}e1.5[{M}ȯ {kpc}}-1.5])> 10.3) at z ∼ 0.7–3.7 within the KMOS3D survey. We spatially resolve 23 compact SFGs and find that the majority are dominated by rotational motions with velocities ranging from 95 to 500 km s‑1. The range of rotation velocities is reflected in a similar range of integrated Hα line widths, 75–400 km s‑1, consistent with the kinematic properties of mass-matched extended galaxies from the full KMOS3D sample. The fraction of compact SFGs that are classified as “rotation-dominated” or “disklike” also mirrors the fractions of the full KMOS3D sample. We show that integrated line-of-sight gas velocity dispersions from KMOS3D are best approximated by a linear combination of their rotation and turbulent velocities with a lesser but still significant contribution from galactic-scale winds. The Hα exponential disk sizes of compact SFGs are, on average, 2.5 ± 0.2 kpc, 1–2× the continuum sizes, in agreement with previous work. The compact SFGs have a 1.4× higher active galactic nucleus (AGN) incidence than the full KMOS3D sample at fixed stellar mass with an average AGN fraction of 76%. Given their high and centrally concentrated stellar masses, as well as stellar-to-dynamical mass ratios close to unity, the compact SFGs are likely to have low molecular gas fractions and to quench on a short timescale unless replenished with inflowing gas. The rotation in these compact systems suggests that their direct descendants are rotating passive galaxies. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDs 092A-0091, 093.A-0079, 094.A-0217, 095.A-0047, 096.A-0025, 097.A-0028, and 098.A-0045).

  11. Spinal cord transection before scoliosis correction in myelomeningocele may improve bladder function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst, Josephine I.; Veenboer, Paul W.; Dik, Pieter; Pruijs, Hans E. H.; Han, Sen K. S.; de Kort, Laetitia M. O.; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.

    2014-01-01

    In patients with myelomeningocele (MMC) and coexistent scoliosis, a spinal cord transection (SC-transection) is sometimes performed before scoliosis correction to prevent traction on the myelum after stretching the spinal column. Performing a SC-transection may have positive effects on bladder

  12. A CHANDRA SURVEY OF THE X-RAY PROPERTIES OF BROAD ABSORPTION LINE RADIO-LOUD QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Garmire, G. P.; Gibson, R. R.; Shemmer, O.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the results of a Chandra study of 21 broad absorption line (BAL) radio-loud quasars (RLQs). We conducted a Chandra snapshot survey of 12 bright BAL RLQs selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data/Faint Images of the Radio Sky data and possessing a wide range of radio and C IV absorption properties. Optical spectra were obtained nearly contemporaneously with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope; no strong flux or BAL variability was seen between epochs. In addition to the snapshot targets, we include in our sample nine additional BAL RLQs possessing archival Chandra coverage. We compare the properties of (predominantly high-ionization) BAL RLQs to those of non-BAL RLQs as well as to BAL radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) and non-BAL RQQs for context. All 12 snapshots and 8/9 archival BAL RLQs are detected, with observed X-ray luminosities less than those of non-BAL RLQs having comparable optical/UV luminosities by typical factors of 4.1-8.5. (BAL RLQs are also X-ray weak by typical factors of 2.0-4.5 relative to non-BAL RLQs having both comparable optical/UV and radio luminosities.) However, BAL RLQs are not as X-ray weak relative to non-BAL RLQs as are BAL RQQs relative to non-BAL RQQs. While some BAL RLQs have harder X-ray spectra than typical non-BAL RLQs, some have hardness ratios consistent with those of non-BAL RLQs, and there does not appear to be a correlation between X-ray weakness and spectral hardness, in contrast to the situation for BAL RQQs. RLQs are expected to have X-ray continuum contributions from both accretion-disk corona and small-scale jet emission. While the entire X-ray continuum in BAL RLQs cannot be obscured to the same degree as in BAL RQQs, we calculate that the jet is likely partially covered in many BAL RLQs. We comment briefly on implications for geometries and source ages in BAL RLQs.

  13. Probing the Physics of Narrow-line Regions in Active Galaxies. IV. Full Data Release of the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Adam D.; Dopita, Michael A.; Davies, Rebecca; Hampton, Elise; Kewley, Lisa; Banfield, Julie; Groves, Brent; Sutherland, Ralph [RSAA, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Shastri, Prajval; Sairam, Lalitha [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Sarjapur Road, Bengaluru 560034 (India); James, Bethan L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jin, Chichuan [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Juneau, Stéphanie [CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kharb, Preeti [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics—Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 3, Ganeshkhind Pune 411007 (India); Scharwächter, Julia [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Shalima, P. [Regional Institute of Education, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570006 (India); Sundar, M. N. [Jain University, 3rd Block Jayanagar, Bengaluru 560011 (India); Zaw, Ingyin, E-mail: adam.thomas@anu.edu.au [New York University (Abu Dhabi), 70 Washington Sq. S, New York, NY 10012 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We present the second and final data release of the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7). Data are presented for 63 new galaxies not included in the first data release, and we provide 2D emission-line fitting products for the full S7 sample of 131 galaxies. The S7 uses the WiFeS instrument on the ANU 2.3 m telescope to obtain spectra with a spectral resolution of R  = 7000 in the red (540–700 nm) and R  = 3000 in the blue (350–570 nm), over an integral field of 25 × 38 arcsec{sup 2} with 1 × 1 arcsec{sup 2} spatial pixels. The S7 contains both the largest sample of active galaxies and the highest spectral resolution of any comparable integral field survey to date. The emission-line fitting products include line fluxes, velocities, and velocity dispersions across the WiFeS field of view, and an artificial neural network has been used to determine the optimal number of Gaussian kinematic components for emission-lines in each spaxel. Broad Balmer lines are subtracted from the spectra of nuclear spatial pixels in Seyfert 1 galaxies before fitting the narrow lines. We bin nuclear spectra and measure reddening-corrected nuclear fluxes of strong narrow lines for each galaxy. The nuclear spectra are classified on optical diagnostic diagrams, where the strength of the coronal line [Fe vii] λ 6087 is shown to be correlated with [O iii]/H β . Maps revealing gas excitation and kinematics are included for the entire sample, and we provide notes on the newly observed objects.

  14. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Special Line Features for the State of Rhode Island: Bristol, Kent, Newport, Providence, and Washington County

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  15. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  16. Evaluation of fall armyworm resistance in maize germplasm lines using visual leaf injury rating and predator survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    After examining ear-colonizing pest resistance, 20 maize lines from the USDA-ARS germplasm enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program were evaluated for whorl-feeding fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda) resistance using four maize inbred lines as the resistant and susceptible controls. Both FAW inju...

  17. Transected sciatic nerve repair by diode laser protein soldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Mortezai, Omid; Pedram, MirSepehr; Kalhori, Katayoun Am; Joharchi, Khojasteh; Mansoori, Korosh; Ebrahimi, Roja; Mashhadiabbas, Fatemeh

    2017-08-01

    Despite advances in microsurgical techniques, repair of peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) is still a major challenge in regenerative medicine. The standard treatment for PNI includes suturing and anasthomosis of the transected nerve. The objective of this study was to compare neurorraphy (nerve repair) using standard suturingto diode laser protein soldering on the functional recovery of transected sciatic nerves. Thirty adult male Fischer-344 Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: 1. The control group, no repair, 2. the standard of care suture group, and 3. The laser/protein solder group. For all three groups, the sciatic nerve was transected and the repair was done immediately. For the suture repair group, 10.0 prolene suture was used and for the laser/protein solder group a diode laser (500mW output power) in combination with bovine serum albumen and indocyanine green dye was used. Behavioral assessment by sciatic functional index was done on all rats biweekly. At 12weeks post-surgery, EMG recordings were done on all the rats and the rats were euthanized for histological evaluation of the sciatic nerves. The one-way ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. The average time required to perform the surgery was significantly shorter for the laser-assisted nerve repair group compared to the suture group. The EMG evaluation revealed no difference between the two groups. Based on the sciatic function index the laser group was significantly better than the suture group after 12weeks (pneurorraphy using standard suturing methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Bamba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05. These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  19. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Riley, D Colton; Boyer, Richard B; Pollins, Alonda C; Shack, R Bruce; Thayer, Wesley P

    2017-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA) were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR) and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups ( P < 0.01, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  20. PROBING THE PHYSICS OF NARROW LINE REGIONS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES. II. THE SIDING SPRING SOUTHERN SEYFERT SPECTROSCOPIC SNAPSHOT SURVEY (S7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Davies, Rebecca; Kewley, Lisa; Hampton, Elise; Sutherland, Ralph [RSAA, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala 2 B Block, Bangalore 560034 (India); Scharwächter, Julia [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UMR 8112, 61 Avenue de l’Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Jin, Chichuan [Qian Xuesen Laboratory for Space Technology, Beijing (China); Banfield, Julie [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW, 1710 Australia (Australia); Zaw, Ingyin [New York University (Abu Dhabi), 70 Washington Square South, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Juneau, Stéphanie [CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); James, Bethan [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Srivastava, Shweta, E-mail: Michael.Dopita@anu.edu.au [Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Here we describe the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7) and present results on 64 galaxies drawn from the first data release. The S7 uses the Wide Field Spectrograph mounted on the ANU 2.3 m telescope located at the Siding Spring Observatory to deliver an integral field of 38 × 25 arcsec at a spectral resolution of R = 7000 in the red (530–710 nm), and R = 3000 in the blue (340–560 nm). From these data cubes we have extracted the narrow-line region spectra from a 4 arcsec aperture centered on the nucleus. We also determine the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 fluxes in the narrow lines, the nuclear reddening, the reddening-corrected relative intensities of the observed emission lines, and the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 luminosities determined from spectra for which the stellar continuum has been removed. We present a set of images of the galaxies in [O iii] λ5007, [N ii] λ6584, and Hα, which serve to delineate the spatial extent of the extended narrow-line region and also to reveal the structure and morphology of the surrounding H ii regions. Finally, we provide a preliminary discussion of those Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies that display coronal emission lines in order to explore the origin of these lines.

  1. Postherniotomy dysejaculation: successful treatment with mesh removal and nerve transection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    Dysejaculation following groin hernia repair can occur in about 1-2% of patients, resulting in impairment of sexual function. We report a case of chronic postherniotomy dysejaculation treated with transection of the ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves and decompression of vas deferens...... that was embedded and twisted in shrunken mesh and scar tissue. At three months follow-up, there was reduced overall pain and no dysejaculation, and quantitative sensory testing showed reversal of sensory abnormalities, except for sensory loss, compared with preoperative values Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  2. Postoperative Airway Emergency following Accidental Flexometallic Tube Transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Habib MR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal intubation using flexometallic tubes are often required in anaesthesia practice for a variety of reasons. It is preferred in the head and neck region surgeries due to its relative resistance to kinking forces. At times, these patients postoperatively may need to be shifted to ICU or HDU without extubation for further stabilization/management and extubation after adequate recovery. We present an unusual accident where a new flexometallic endotracheal tube was permanently tapered, transected and migrated proximally due to patient’s bite on tube leading to airway emergency in post-operative recovery period.

  3. Liver trauma and transection of the inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radin, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    CT of a child with severe liver trauma due to a seat belt injury demonstrated avulsion of a portion of the lateral segment of the left lobe of the liver. The location of nondependent extravasated contrast material aided in identification of the visceral fracture site (the sentinel contrast sign). Associated transection of the inferior vena cava was evidenced by hypoatenuating zones adjacent to all the major hepatic veins and vena cava (hepatic perivenous tracking). Recognition of these two signs is important so that the radiologist can help the surgeon select the optimal operative approach. (orig.)

  4. The ATCA CABB Line Survey on Centaurus A: Properties of the Molecular Gas from the Dust Lanes to the Central Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Juergen; Koribalski, Baerbel; Henkel, Christian; Edwards, Philip; Norris, Ray; Meier, David; Feain, Ilana; Curran, Steve; Martin-Pintado, Jesus; Beelen, Alexandre; Aalto, Susanne; Combes, Francoise; Israel, Frank; Muller, Sebastien; Espada, Daniel; Guelin, Michel; Black, John Harry; V-Trung, Dinh; Impellizzeri, Caterina M. V.; Persson, Carina

    2011-10-01

    Centaurus A with its host NGC5128 is the most nearby radio galaxy. Its molecular spectrum exhibits three prominent features: a) gas that is located in the outer disk and dust lanes, b) absorption lines that are supposedly close to the central AGN, and c) gas in emission from the nucleus. We propose to perform an extensive line survey toward CenA using the exciting new capabilities of CABB. The broad basebands and narrow zoom bands of CABB are ideal to capture the full breath of the CenA spectral features. Our multi-band line observations will allow us to derive the exact physical conditions of each component as well as the chemistry involved. We will therefore obtain a comprehensive view of the physics imprinted on the molecular spectrum of a radio galaxy and its host, reaching from the central supermassive black hole, through the accretion region and the inner disk to the outer dust lanes.

  5. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Tok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods: A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results: Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion: Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia.

  6. Case of pituitary stalk transection syndrome ascertained after breech delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Kaori; Hidaka, Takao; Ono, Yosuke; Kochi, Keiko; Yasoshima, Kuniaki; Arai, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Pituitary stalk transection syndrome (PSTS) is a rare complication that can accompany breech delivery. Early diagnosis of this syndrome is difficult, and it may cause a serious delay in the diagnosis. We present a case of PSTS ascertained after breech delivery. A 20-year-old woman presented with primary amenorrhea. The patient was born by breech delivery and had a history of treatment for pituitary dwarfism. Her laboratory findings showed pituitary hypothyroidism, and hormone replacement therapy was initiated. At 28 years old, she became pregnant and had a normal delivery at 38 weeks' gestation. One year after delivery, her thyroid hormone level changed. Laboratory test showed adrenocortical insufficiency, and magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland showed transection of the pituitary stalk and development of an ectopic posterior lobe. These findings were compatible with PSTS. When a patient who has been born by breech delivery presents with symptoms of pituitary deficiency, PSTS should be considered in the differential diagnosis. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, Levent; Tok, Ozlem Yalcin; Argun, Tugba Cakmak; Yilmaz, Omer; Gunes, Alime; Unlu, Elif Nisa; Sezer, Sezgin; Ibisoglu, Seda; Argun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia. PMID:25606034

  8. CRED REA Line Point Intercept Surveys of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Aguijan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 12 - 22 May 2007, line...

  9. CRED REA Line Point Intercept Surveys of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Swains Island, American Samoa in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 16-18 March 2010, line...

  10. CRED REA Line Point Intercept Surveys of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Tinian Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 12 - 22 May 2007, line...

  11. CRED REA Line Point Intercept Surveys of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guam Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 12 - 22 May 2007, line...

  12. CRED REA Line Point Intercept Surveys of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Rota Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 12 - 22 May 2007, line...

  13. CRED REA Line Point Intercept Surveys of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 07-13 April 2010, line...

  14. SNP Polymorphism Survey of the Parental Lines of ISRA Sorghum Breeding Program as Part of the Feed the Future

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Polymorphism of SNP Markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) was assessed on 24 parental lines of the ISRA sorghum breeding program . About 1300 SNP have been used...

  15. Use of Geodetic Surveys of Leveling Lines and Dry Tilt Arrays to Study Faults and Volcanoes in Undergraduate Field Geophysics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, J.; Alvarez, K.; Elizondo, K.

    2017-12-01

    In the early 1980's and 1990's numerous leveling lines and dry tilt arrays were installed throughout Central and Southern California by United States Geological Survey scientists and other researchers (e.g. Sylvester, 1985). These lines or triangular arrays of geodetic monuments commonly straddle faults or have been installed close to volcanic areas, where significant motion is expected over relatively short time periods. Over the past year, we have incorporated geodetic surveys of these arrays as part of our field exercises in undergraduate and graduate level classes on topics such as shallow subsurface geophysics and field geophysics. In some cases, the monuments themselves first had to be located based on only limited information, testing students' Brunton use and map reading skills. Monuments were then surveyed using total stations and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers, using a variety of experimental procedures. The surveys were documented with tables, photos, maps and graphs in field reports, as well as in wiki pages created by student groups for a geophysics field class this June. The measurements were processed by the students and compared with similar data from surveys conducted soon after installation of the arrays, to analyze the deformation that occurred over the last few decades. The different geodetic techniques were also compared and an error analysis was conducted. The analysis and processing of these data challenged and enhanced students' quantitative literacy and technology skills. The final geodetic measurements are being incorporated into several senior and MSc thesis projects. Further surveys are planned for additional classes, in topics that could include seismology, geodesy, volcanology and global geophysics. We are also considering additional technologies, such as structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry.

  16. VERY STRONG EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES IN THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atek, H.; Colbert, J.; Shim, H. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Siana, B.; Bridge, C. [Department of Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Scarlata, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McCarthy, P.; Dressler, A.; Hathi, N. P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Teplitz, H. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Henry, A.; Martin, C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bunker, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Fosbury, R. A. E. [Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-12-20

    The WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey uses the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared grism capabilities to obtain slitless spectra of thousands of galaxies over a wide redshift range including the peak of star formation history of the universe. We select a population of very strong emission-line galaxies with rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) higher than 200 A. A total of 176 objects are found over the redshift range 0.35 < z < 2.3 in the 180 arcmin{sup 2} area that we have analyzed so far. This population consists of young and low-mass starbursts with high specific star formation rates (sSFR). After spectroscopic follow-up of one of these galaxies with Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, we report the detection at z = 0.7 of an extremely metal-poor galaxy with 12 + log(O/H) =7.47 {+-} 0.11. After estimating the active galactic nucleus fraction in the sample, we show that the high-EW galaxies have higher sSFR than normal star-forming galaxies at any redshift. We find that the nebular emission lines can substantially affect the total broadband flux density with a median brightening of 0.3 mag, with some examples of line contamination producing brightening of up to 1 mag. We show that the presence of strong emission lines in low-z galaxies can mimic the color-selection criteria used in the z {approx} 8 dropout surveys. In order to effectively remove low-redshift interlopers, deep optical imaging is needed, at least 1 mag deeper than the bands in which the objects are detected. Without deep optical data, most of the interlopers cannot be ruled out in the wide shallow HST imaging surveys. Finally, we empirically demonstrate that strong nebular lines can lead to an overestimation of the mass and the age of galaxies derived from fitting of their spectral energy distribution (SED). Without removing emission lines, the age and the stellar mass estimates are overestimated by a factor of 2 on average and up to a factor of 10 for the high-EW galaxies

  17. Fisheries Online Information System - Fishing vessel based survey of young-of-year groundfish along the Newport Hydrographic Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) conducts a comprehensive groundfish bottom trawl survey encompassing the U.S. West Coast between the borders with...

  18. Neurogenesis and growth factors expression after complete spinal cord transection in Pleurodeles waltlii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Z Zaky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following spinal lesion, connections between the supra-spinal centers and spinal neuronal networks can be disturbed, which causes the deterioration or even the complete absence of sublesional locomotor activity. In Mammals, possibilities of locomotion restoration are much reduced since descending tracts either have very poor regenerative ability or do not regenerate at all. However, in lower Vertebrates, there is spontaneous locomotion recuperation after complete spinal cord transection at the mid-trunk level. This phenomenon depends on a translesional descending axon re-growth originating from the brainstem. On the other hand, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying spinal cord regeneration and in parallel, locomotion restoration of the animal, are not well known. FGF-2 plays an important role in different processes such as neural induction, neuronal progenitor proliferation and their differentiation. Studies had shown an over expression of this growth factor after tail amputation. Nestin, a protein specific for intermediate filaments, is considered as an early marker for neuronal precursors. It has been recently shown that its expression increases after tail transection in Urodeles. Using this marker and western blots, our results show that the increase in the number of FGF-2 and FGFR2 mRNAs is correlated with an increase in neurogenesis especially in the central canal lining cells immediately after lesion. This study also confirms that spinal cord re-growth through the lesion site initially follows a rostrocaudal direction. In addition to its role known in neuronal differentiation, FGF-2 could be implicated in the differentiation of ependymal cells into neuronal progenitors.

  19. Complex thrusting at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism, NanTroSEIZE Kumano transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. F.; Park, J.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Seismic reflection data collected over the past 10 years by the Institute for Research on Earth Evolution (IFREE) of Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) image a zone of complex thrusting at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism south of Kii Peninsula, Honshu, Japan. The frontal part of the Nankai prism west of Shionomisaki Canyon (SC) at ~136° E, including the Muroto and Ashizuri Transects off Shikoku, is generally formed of imbricate thrusts with spacing of ~ 1-3 km that dip ~25-35° landward and sole into a prominent décollement. Out-of-sequence thrusts (OOSTs) are usually restricted to the landward margin of this imbricate thrust zone. East of SC, in the Kumano Transect area, the imbricate thrust zone is bounded on its seaward edge by a frontal thrust block that is ~5-6 km wide and consists of several OOSTs. The frontal thrust dips ~5-10° under this ~2-4 km thick block, emplacing this thrust sheet over the trench floor. The number and character of thrusts within the frontal thrust block vary laterally along strike. The 2006 Kumano 3D seismic data set images details of one segment of this complex frontal thrust block. Out-of-sequence faulting has led to underplating of several smaller thrust slices and movement along oblique ramps has led to a complex pattern of faulting that cannot be recognized in even closely-spaced 2D seismic lines. The frontal thrust block is further modified by subduction of seamounts and ridges that have caused large slumps of material from the block.

  20. Outer atmospheres of cool stars. XII - A survey of IUE ultraviolet emission line spectra of cool dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsky, J. L.; Bornmann, P. L.; Carpenter, K. G.; Hege, E. K.; Wing, R. F.; Giampapa, M. S.; Worden, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative information is obtained on the chromospheres and transition regions of M dwarf stars, in order to determine how the outer atmospheres of dMe stars differ from dM stars and how they compare with the outer atmospheres of quiet and active G and K type dwarfs. IUE spectra of six dMe and four dM stars, together with ground-based photometry and spectroscopy of the Balmer and Ca II H and K lines, show no evidence of flares. It is concluded, regarding the quiescent behavior of these stars, that emission-line spectra resemble that of the sun and contain emission lines formed in regions with 4000-20,000 K temperatures that are presumably analogous to the solar chromosphere, as well as regions with temperatures of 20,000-200,000 K that are presumably analogous to the solar transition region. Emission-line surface fluxes are proportional to the emission measure over the range of temperatures at which the lines are formed.

  1. Image-guided ureteral reconstruction using rendezvous technique for complex ureteric transection after gunshot injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Mohammad; Mat'hami, Abdulaziz; Said, Mohammad T; Bulbul, Muhammad; Haddad, Maurice; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2016-01-01

    Management of complex ureteric transection poses a significant clinical challenge, particularly after gunshot injuries due to marked distortion of anatomy and associated tissue loss. We report two cases of total ureteric transection due to gunshot injury successfully repaired using fluoroscopy-guided rendezvous procedure and double J stent placement. This minimally invasive approach may offer a safe and effective technique to repair complete ureteral transection and obviate the need for complex surgical procedures.

  2. Extending the Capabilities of the Mooring Analysis Program: A Survey of Dynamic Mooring Line Theories for Integration into FAST: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masciola, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-03-01

    Techniques to model dynamic mooring lines come in various forms. The most widely used models include either a heuristic representation of the physics (such as a Lumped-Mass, LM, system), a Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) discretization of the lines (discretized in space), or a Finite-Difference (FD) model (which is discretized in both space and time). In this paper, we explore the features of the various models, weigh the advantages of each, and propose a plan for implementing one dynamic mooring line model into the open-source Mooring Analysis Program (MAP). MAP is currently used as a module for the FAST offshore wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool to model mooring systems quasi-statically, although dynamic mooring capabilities are desired. Based on the exploration in this manuscript, the lumped-mass representation is selected for implementation in MAP based on its simplicity, computational cost, and ability to provide similar physics captured by higher-order models.

  3. A SURVEY OF MOLECULAR LINES TOWARD MASSIVE CLUMPS IN EARLY EVOLUTIONARY STAGES OF HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takeshi; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Hirota, Tomoya

    2010-01-01

    We have observed the CH 3 OH J = 2-1, SiO J = 2-1, C 34 S J = 2-1, H 13 CO + J = 1-0, HN 13 C J = 1-0, CCH N = 1-0, OCS J = 8-7, and SO J N = 2 2 -1 1 lines toward 20 massive clumps, including Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) 8 μm dark sources (infrared dark clouds) and MSX 8 μm sources, by using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. We have found that the velocity widths of the CH 3 OH and C 34 S lines are broader than those of the H 13 CO + line in the MSX dark sources. On the other hand, they are comparable to the velocity width of the H 13 CO + line in the MSX sources. In addition, the [SiO]/[H 13 CO + ] abundance ratio is found to be enhanced in the MSX dark sources in comparison with the MSX sources. These results suggest that shocks caused by interaction between an outflow and an ambient dense gas would have substantial impact on the chemical composition of the MSX dark sources. The velocity widths of the CH 3 OH and C 34 S lines relative to that of the H 13 CO + line as well as the [SiO]/[H 13 CO + ] abundance ratio could be used as good tools for investigating evolutionary stages of massive clumps. On the basis of the results, we discuss the chemical and physical evolution of massive clumps.

  4. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY (BELLS). I. A LARGE SPECTROSCOPICALLY SELECTED SAMPLE OF LENS GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT {approx}0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownstein, Joel R.; Bolton, Adam S.; Pandey, Parul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Connolly, Natalia [Department of Physics, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Maraston, Claudia [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Seitz, Stella [University Observatory Munich, Scheinstrasse 1, 81679 Muenchen (Germany); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Wood-Vasey, W. Michael [Pittsburgh Center for Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology (PITT-PACC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Brinkmann, Jon [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Weaver, Benjamin A. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We present a catalog of 25 definite and 11 probable strong galaxy-galaxy gravitational lens systems with lens redshifts 0.4 {approx}< z {approx}< 0.7, discovered spectroscopically by the presence of higher-redshift emission lines within the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of luminous galaxies, and confirmed with high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of 44 candidates. Our survey extends the methodology of the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys survey (SLACS) to higher redshift. We describe the details of the BOSS spectroscopic candidate detections, our HST ACS image processing and analysis methods, and our strong gravitational lens modeling procedure. We report BOSS spectroscopic parameters and ACS photometric parameters for all candidates, and mass-distribution parameters for the best-fit singular isothermal ellipsoid models of definite lenses. Our sample to date was selected using only the first six months of BOSS survey-quality spectroscopic data. The full five-year BOSS database should produce a sample of several hundred strong galaxy-galaxy lenses and in combination with SLACS lenses at lower redshift, strongly constrain the redshift evolution of the structure of elliptical, bulge-dominated galaxies as a function of luminosity, stellar mass, and rest-frame color, thereby providing a powerful test for competing theories of galaxy formation and evolution.

  5. Place Mapping – transect walks in Arctic urban landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hemmersam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how experimental forms of urban mapping can reveal the particularity of places in non-standard urban situations with the intention of moving beyond the reductivism of still-dominant modernist modes of mapping and associated forms of planning. In order to do so, it reports on the emergence of a methodology involving transect walks, with the purpose of mapping the peculiarities of cultural landscapes. The study is located in cities and communities in the Arctic that are undergoing rapid transformation and are in urgent need of new conceptual approaches capable of enabling future thinking and strategic action. The article specifically asks how such a methodology works to includes the ephemeral and emergent, but also digital, dimensions of urban landscapes, and results in a complex reflexive method of critically reading and writing, of moving and locating, of seeing and picturing place mapping.

  6. Combined pancreatic and duodenal transection injury: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungazi, Simbarashe Gift; Mbanje, Chenesa; Chihaka, Onesai; Madziva, Noah

    2017-01-01

    Combined pancreatic-duodenal injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are rare. These injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and their emergent management is a challenge. We report a case of combined complete pancreatic (through the neck) and duodenal (first part) transections in a 24-year-old male secondary to blunt abdominal trauma following a motor vehicle crash. The duodenal stumps were closed separately and a gastrojejunostomy performed for intestinal continuity. The transacted head of pancreas main duct was suture ligated and parenchyma was over sewn and buttressed with omentum. The edge of the body and tail pancreatic segment was freshened and an end to side pancreatico-jejunostomy was fashioned. A drain was left in situ. Post operatively the patient developed a pancreatic fistula which resolved with conservative management. After ten months of follow up the patient was well and showed no signs and symptoms of pancreatic insufficiency. Lengthy, complex procedures in pancreatic injuries have been associated with poor outcomes. Distal pancreatectomy or Whipple's procedure for trauma are viable options for complete pancreatic transections. But when there is concern that the residual proximal pancreatic tissue is inadequate to provide endocrine or exocrine function, preservation of the pancreatic tissue distal to the injury becomes an option. Combined pancreatic and duodenal injuries are rare and often fatal. Early identification, resuscitation and surgical intervention is warranted. Because of the large number of possible combinations of injuries to the pancreas and duodenum, no one form of therapy is appropriate for all patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimating the abundance of the Southern Hudson Bay polar bear subpopulation with aerial surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbard, Martyn E.; Stapleton, Seth P.; Middel, Kevin R.; Thibault, Isabelle; Brodeur, Vincent; Jutras, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Hudson Bay (SH) polar bear subpopulation occurs at the southern extent of the species’ range. Although capture–recapture studies indicate abundance was likely unchanged between 1986 and 2005, declines in body condition and survival occurred during the period, possibly foreshadowing a future decrease in abundance. To obtain a current estimate of abundance, we conducted a comprehensive line transect aerial survey of SH during 2011–2012. We stratified the study site by anticipated densities and flew coastal contour transects and systematically spaced inland transects in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and large offshore islands in 2011. Data were collected with double-observer and distance sampling protocols. We surveyed small islands in James Bay and eastern Hudson Bay and flew a comprehensive transect along the Québec coastline in 2012. We observed 667 bears in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and nearby islands in 2011, and we sighted 80 bears on offshore islands during 2012. Mark–recapture distance sampling and sight–resight models yielded an estimate of 860 (SE = 174) for the 2011 study area. Our estimate of abundance for the entire SH subpopulation (943; SE = 174) suggests that abundance is unlikely to have changed significantly since 1986. However, this result should be interpreted cautiously because of the methodological differences between historical studies (physical capture–recapture) and this survey. A conservative management approach is warranted given previous increases in duration of the ice-free season, which are predicted to continue in the future, and previously documented declines in body condition and vital rates.

  8. Estimating abundance of the Southern Hudson Bay polar bear subpopulation using aerial surveys, 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbard, Martyn E.; Middel, Kevin R.; Stapleton, Seth P.; Thibault, Isabelle; Brodeur, Vincent; Jutras, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The Southern Hudson Bay (SH) polar bear subpopulation occurs at the southern extent of the species’ range. Although capture-recapture studies indicate that abundance remained stable between 1986 and 2005, declines in body condition and survival were documented during the period, possibly foreshadowing a future decrease in abundance. To obtain a current estimate of abundance, we conducted a comprehensive line transect aerial survey of SH during 2011–2012. We stratified the study site by anticipated densities and flew coastal contour transects and systematically spaced inland transects in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and large offshore islands in 2011. Data were collected with double observer and distance sampling protocols. We also surveyed small islands in Hudson Bay and James Bay and flew a comprehensive transect along the Québec coastline in 2012. We observed 667 bears in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and nearby islands in 2011, and we sighted 80 bears on offshore islands during 2012. Mark-recapture distance sampling and sightresight models yielded a model-averaged estimate of 868 (SE: 177) for the 2011 study area. Our estimate of abundance for the entire SH subpopulation (951; SE: 177) suggests that abundance has remained unchanged. However, this result should be interpreted cautiously because of the methodological differences between historical studies (physical capture) and this survey. A conservative management approach is warranted given the previous increases in the duration of the ice-free season, which are predicted to continue in the future, and previously documented declines in body condition and vital rates.

  9. Adding the s-Process Element Cerium to the APOGEE Survey: Identification and Characterization of Ce II Lines in the H-band Spectral Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Hasselquist, Sten; Souto, Diogo; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Frinchaboy, Peter; García-Hernández, D. Anibal; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jőnsson, Henrik; Majewski, Steven R.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Pinsonneault, Mark; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Zamora, Olga; Zasowski, Gail; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Nine Ce II lines have been identified and characterized within the spectral window observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey (between λ1.51 and 1.69 μm). At solar metallicities, cerium is an element that is produced predominantly as a result of the slow capture of neutrons (the s-process) during asymptotic giant branch stellar evolution. The Ce II lines were identified using a combination of a high-resolution (R=λ /δ λ ={{100,000}}) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) spectrum of α Boo and an APOGEE spectrum (R = 22,400) of a metal-poor, but s-process enriched, red giant (2M16011638-1201525). Laboratory oscillator strengths are not available for these lines. Astrophysical gf-values were derived using α Boo as a standard star, with the absolute cerium abundance in α Boo set by using optical Ce II lines that have precise published laboratory gf-values. The near-infrared Ce II lines identified here are also analyzed, as consistency checks, in a small number of bright red giants using archival FTS spectra, as well as a small sample of APOGEE red giants, including two members of the open cluster NGC 6819, two field stars, and seven metal-poor N- and Al-rich stars. The conclusion is that this set of Ce II lines can be detected and analyzed in a large fraction of the APOGEE red giant sample and will be useful for probing chemical evolution of the s-process products in various populations of the Milky Way.

  10. The 1980 Survey of Certain Unrestricted Line Officers of the Navy Regarding Their Reassignment to a New Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    variables resulting from the survey and their location on an SPSS system file are documented in a user-oriented codebook. Free responses to an open...and added expense), anguish in transfer of family. (3) The Navy cannot afford to treat people like cattle. If I could have re- signed without a six

  11. E-mail survey with an attached Form: an off-line data collection alternative via the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Reis Graeml

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As people start incorporating the Internet in their daily routine, using its resources to carry out their usual activities, it becomes easier to use the Web's environment also to collect data by means of electronic surveys. This paper reports the use of a quantitative research survey, which used an "intelligent" MS Word form, which was sent through e-mail to industrial manufacturers in the state of Sao Paulo - Brazil. The response speed was much better than usually achieved using the conventional procedure of sending the survey through regular mail. The return rate was satisfactory and the cost was much lower than usually incurred, due to the virtualization of the contact with the respondent. The initiative was so successful that the authors decided to share their experience with the academic community, contributing to the maturing of the e-mail survey methodology. Although the focus of this study was strictly academic, the authors believe that the adopted procedures are also suitable for market research, feedback gathering and other entrepreneurial needs.

  12. USVI 2011, Ground Validation ROV Transect Lines, NOAA Ship Nancy Foster (NCEI Accession 0131858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater photos and/or video that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely operated...

  13. USVI 2011, Ground Validation ROV Transect Lines, NOAA Ship Nancy Foster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater photos and/or video that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely operated...

  14. The 3D-HST Survey: Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/G141 Grism Spectra, Redshifts, and Emission Line Measurements for ~ 100,000 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Nelson, Erica J.; Fumagalli, Mattia; Maseda, Michael V.; Leja, Joel; Franx, Marijn; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bezanson, Rachel; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Dickey, Claire; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Illingworth, Garth; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Ulf Lange, Johannes; Lundgren, Britt F.; Magee, Daniel; Marchesini, Danilo; Oesch, Pascal; Pacifici, Camilla; Patel, Shannon G.; Price, Sedona; Tal, Tomer; Wake, David A.; van der Wel, Arjen; Wuyts, Stijn

    2016-08-01

    We present reduced data and data products from the 3D-HST survey, a 248-orbit HST Treasury program. The survey obtained WFC3 G141 grism spectroscopy in four of the five CANDELS fields: AEGIS, COSMOS, GOODS-S, and UDS, along with WFC3 H 140 imaging, parallel ACS G800L spectroscopy, and parallel I 814 imaging. In a previous paper, we presented photometric catalogs in these four fields and in GOODS-N, the fifth CANDELS field. Here we describe and present the WFC3 G141 spectroscopic data, again augmented with data from GO-1600 in GOODS-N (PI: B. Weiner). We developed software to automatically and optimally extract interlaced two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) spectra for all objects in the Skelton et al. (2014) photometric catalogs. The 2D spectra and the multi-band photometry were fit simultaneously to determine redshifts and emission line strengths, taking the morphology of the galaxies explicitly into account. The resulting catalog has redshifts and line strengths (where available) for 22,548 unique objects down to {{JH}}{IR}≤slant 24 (79,609 unique objects down to {{JH}}{IR}≤slant 26). Of these, 5459 galaxies are at z\\gt 1.5 and 9621 are at 0.7\\lt z\\lt 1.5, where Hα falls in the G141 wavelength coverage. The typical redshift error for {{JH}}{IR}≤slant 24 galaxies is {σ }z≈ 0.003× (1+z), I.e., one native WFC3 pixel. The 3σ limit for emission line fluxes of point sources is 2.1× {10}-17 erg s-1 cm-2. All 2D and 1D spectra, as well as redshifts, line fluxes, and other derived parameters, are publicly available.18

  15. An optical and near-infrared polarization survey of Seyfert and broad-line radio galaxies. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindle, C.; Hough, J.H.; Bailey, J.A.; Axon, D.J.; Ward, M.J.; McLean, I.S.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the wavelength dependence (0.44-2.2 μm) of polarization of the sample of 71 Seyfert and three broad-line radio galaxies presented in a previous paper. For four galaxies, 3A 0557-383, Fairall 51, IC 4392A and NGC 3783, we also present spectropolarimetry covering the wavelength range of 0.4-0.6 μm. (author)

  16. H I SHELLS AND SUPERSHELLS IN THE I-GALFA H I 21 cm LINE SURVEY. I. FAST-EXPANDING H I SHELLS ASSOCIATED WITH SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.; Koo, B.-C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Gibson, S. J.; Newton, J. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Kang, J.-H.; Lane, D. C.; Douglas, K. A. [Arecibo Observatory, HC 3 Box 53995, Arecibo, PR 00612 (United States); Peek, J. E. G. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Korpela, E. J. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Heiles, C., E-mail: koo@astro.snu.ac.kr [Radio Astronomy Lab, UC Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We search for fast-expanding H I shells associated with Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) in the longitude range l ≈ 32° to 77° using 21 cm line data from the Inner-Galaxy Arecibo L-band Feed Array (I-GALFA) H I survey. Among the 39 known Galactic SNRs in this region, we find such H I shells in 4 SNRs: W44, G54.4-0.3, W51C, and CTB 80. All four were previously identified in low-resolution surveys, and three of those (excluding G54.4-0.3) were previously studied with the Arecibo telescope. A remarkable new result, however, is the detection of H I emission at both very high positive and negative velocities in W44 from the receding and approaching parts of the H I expanding shell, respectively. This is the first detection of both sides of an expanding shell associated with an SNR in H I 21 cm emission. The high-resolution I-GALFA survey data also reveal a prominent expanding H I shell with high circular symmetry associated with G54.4-0.3. We explore the physical characteristics of four SNRs and discuss what differentiates them from other SNRs in the survey area. We conclude that these four SNRs are likely the remnants of core-collapse supernovae interacting with a relatively dense (∼> 1 cm{sup –3}) ambient medium, and we discuss the visibility of SNRs in the H I 21 cm line.

  17. CERN survey team at KHI for photogrammetry of magnetic endcaps.Raphaël Goudard (CERN), Farshid Feyzi (from PSL) and Céline Humbertclaude (CERN) with KHI engineers.

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Loveless/U. of Wisconsin

    2000-01-01

    The endcap disk are surveyed by photogrammetric techniques at KHI during trial assembly. A CERN suvey team (Raphaël Goudard & Céline Humbertclaude) has instructed KHI engineers, how to proceed with the forthcoming disks.

  18. Millimeter- and submillimeter-wave surveys of Orion A emission lines in the ranges 200.7-202.3, 203.7-205.3, and 330-360 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewell, P.R.; Hollis, J.M.; Lovas, F.J.; Snyder, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    A continuous spectral line survey of the Orion A position from 330.5 to 360.1 GHz was carried out. This survey covers nearly the entire 870 micron atmospheric window accessible from ground-based observations. Approximately 160 distinct spectral features composed of about 180 lines were detected, 29 of which could not be readily identified. In addition, Orion A from 200.7 to 202.3 GHz and from 203.7 to 205.3 GHz and 42 distinct new spectral lines were detected, including four that are unidentified at present. These data sets are the first thorough survey results in these spectral regions. The new interstellar lines in the survey bands are tabulated and displayed graphically. Moreover, the data are being made available to the Astronomical Data Center at the Goddard Space Flight Center for distribution by request to the astronomical community. 14 refs

  19. Composition and diversity of tree species in transects of location lowland evergreen forest of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Caranqui A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 9 transects 1000m2 of lowland evergreen forest, located in two locations on the coast and one in eastern Ecuador. It was to contribute to knowledge of the diversity and composition of woody plants over 10 cm diameter at breast height (DBH plus infer the state of conservation of forests based on the composition, the number of species, indices diversity and importance value (IV, found in 9 transects of 1000 m² of forest: 156 species, 107 genera and 39 families distributed in 9 transects, in each one the Simpson diversity index is of 0.92 to 0.95, in this case are diversity because all approaches 1. Most were found species aren´t present in all transects, the index value in each transect does not exceed 40%. Grouping transects match three locations exception made to transect 5 and 8 were conducted in disturbed sites, the most transects are intermediate disturbance that their high levels of diversity.

  20. On-line instrument for control of water and steam quality at energy production plants - a market survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahlgren, N.; Persson, F.

    1988-10-01

    Instruments for on-line measuring are today available for all water analyses that can be of intrerest in power stations. For some of the analyses instruments have been in operation for many years e.g. for determination of silica, sodium and oxygen. For other analyses no instruments or only a few have been in operation. Many instruments are developed under the last years. Operation experiences for many instruments are therefore limited. For mostly all instruments, also for instruments that have been in operation a long time, operation experiences from the same type of instruments differ from plant to plant. The reson is that most of the instruments need daily or weekly maintenance and that has not always been aquainted. The time for necessary maintenance is however not so long that it is deterrent. The time for necessary maintenance for an instrument is normally 1-2 hours a week. On-line measuring, improve supervision and reliability of service and are therefore to recommend in both big and small plants. In small plants it is very important to have a good supervision of pH-value, conductivity, harness and the content of oxygen in feed water. (authors)

  1. Stellar parameters and H α line profile variability of Be stars in the BeSOS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, C.; Kanaan, S.; Chávez, J.; Vanzi, L.; Araya, I.; Curé, M.

    2018-03-01

    The Be phenomenon is present in about 20 per cent of B-type stars. Be stars show variability on a broad range of time-scales, which in most cases is related to the presence of a circumstellar disc of variable size and structure. For this reason, a time-resolved survey is highly desirable in order to understand the mechanisms of disc formation, which are still poorly understood. In addition, a complete observational sample would improve the statistical significance of the study of stellar and disc parameters. The `Be Stars Observation Survey' (BeSOS) is a survey containing reduced spectra obtained using the Pontifica Universidad Católica High Echelle Resolution Optical Spectrograph (PUCHEROS) with a spectral resolution of 17 000 in the range 4260-7300 Å. BeSOS's main objective is to offer consistent spectroscopic and time-resolved data obtained with one instrument. The user can download or plot the data and obtain stellar parameters directly from the website. We also provide a star-by-star analysis based on photometric, spectroscopic and interferometric data, as well as general information about the whole BeSOS sample. Recently, BeSOS led to the discovery of a new Be star HD 42167 and facilitated study of the V/R variation of HD 35165 and HD 120324, the steady disc of HD 110335 and the Be shell status of HD 127972. Optical spectra used in this work, as well as the stellar parameters derived, are available online at http://besos.ifa.uv.cl.

  2. H I Structure and Topology of the Galaxy Revealed by the I-GALFA H I 21-cm Line Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Park, G.; Cho, W.; Gibson, S. J.; Kang, J.; Douglas, K. A.; Peek, J. E. G.; Korpela, E. J.; Heiles, C. E.

    2011-05-01

    The I-GALFA survey mapping all the H I in the inner Galactic disk visible to the Arecibo 305m telescope within 10 degrees of the Galactic plane (longitudes of 32 to 77 degrees at b = 0) completed observations in 2009 September and will soon be made publicly available. The high (3.4 arcmin) resolution and tremendous sensitivity of the survey offer a great opportunity to observe the fine details of H I both in the inner and in the far outer Galaxy. The reduced HI column density maps show that the HI structure is highly filamentary and clumpy, pervaded by shell-like structures, vertical filaments, and small clumps. By inspecting individual maps, we have found 36 shell candidates of angular sizes ranging from 0.4 to 12 degrees, half of which appear to be expanding. In order to characterize the filamentary/clumpy morphology of the HI structure, we have carried out statistical analyses of selected areas representing the spiral arms in the inner and outer Galaxy. Genus statistics that can distinguish the ``meatball'' and ``swiss-cheese'' topologies show that the HI topology is clump-like in most regions. The two-dimensional Fourier analysis further shows the HI structures are filamentary and mainly parallel to the plane in the outer Galaxy. We also examine the level-crossing statistics, the results of which are described in detail in an accompanying poster by Park et al.

  3. Probing the CO and methanol snow lines in young protostars. Results from the CALYPSO IRAM-PdBI survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, S.; Maret, S.; Cabrit, S.; Belloche, A.; Maury, A. J.; André, Ph.; Codella, C.; Bacmann, A.; Bontemps, S.; Podio, L.; Gueth, F.; Bergin, E.

    2016-06-01

    Context. So-called snow lines, indicating regions where abundant volatiles freeze out onto the surface of dust grains, play an important role for planet growth and bulk composition in protoplanetary disks. They can already be observed in the envelopes of the much younger, low-mass Class 0 protostars, which are still in their early phase of heavy accretion. Aims: We aim to use the information on the sublimation regions of different kinds of ices to understand the chemistry of the envelope, its temperature and density structure, and the history of the accretion process. This information is crucial to get the full picture of the early protostellar collapse and the subsequent evolution of young protostars. Methods: As part of the CALYPSO IRAM Large Program, we have obtained observations of C18O, N2H+, and CH3OH towards nearby Class 0 protostars with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer at sub-arcsecond resolution. For four of these sources, we have modeled the emission using a chemical code coupled with a radiative transfer module. Results: We observe an anti-correlation of C18O and N2H+ in NGC 1333-IRAS4A, NGC 1333-IRAS4B, L1157, and L1448C, with N2H+ forming a ring (perturbed by the outflow) around the centrally peaked C18O emission. This emission morphology, which is due to N2H+ being chemically destroyed by CO, reveals the CO and N2 ice sublimation regions in these protostellar envelopes with unprecedented resolution. We also observe compact methanol emission towards three of the sources. Based on our chemical model and assuming temperature and density profiles from the literature, we find that for all four sources the CO snow line appears further inwards than expected from the binding energy of pure CO ices (~855 K). The emission regions of models and observations match for a higher value of the CO binding energy of 1200 K, corresponding to a dust temperature of ~24 K at the CO snow line. The binding energy for N2 ices is modeled at 1000 K, also higher than for

  4. An optical and near-infrared polarization survey of Seyfert and broad-line radio galaxies. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindle, C.; Hough, J.H.; Bailey, J.A.; Axon, D.J.; Ward, M.J.; McLean, I.S.

    1990-01-01

    We present new broad-band optical and near-infrared (0.44-2.2 μm) flux density and polarization measurements of a sample of 71 Seyfert galaxies and three broad-line radio galaxies. We confirm the results of earlier studies which show that the polarization of Seyferts is generally low in the V-band and at longer wavelengths, but in the B-band somewhat higher polarizations are commonly found. After correction has been made for the effects of stellar dilution, we find that Seyfert 2 nuclei are probably more highly polarized than Seyfert 1's. The small sample of Seyfert 2's selected using the 'warm' IRAS colour criterion tend to be more highly polarised than those selected by optical techniques. (author)

  5. First on-line survey of an international multidisciplinary working group (MightyMedic) on current practice in diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of dyslipidemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, C; D'Alessandri, G; Petta, A; Harada-Shiba, M; Julius, U; Soran, H; Moriarty, P M; Romeo, S; Drogari, E; Jaeger, B R

    2015-05-01

    The MightyMedic (Multidisciplinary International Group for Hemapheresis TherapY and MEtabolic DIsturbances Contrast) Working Group has been founded in 2013. The leading idea was to establish an international network of interdisciplinary nature aimed at working to cross national borders research projects, clinical trials, educational initiatives (meetings, workshops, summer schools) in the field of metabolic diseases, namely hyperlipidemias, and diabetes, preventive cardiology, and atherosclerosis. Therapeutic apheresis, its indications and techniques, is a parallel field of investigation. The first on-line survey of the Group has been completed in the first half of 2014. The survey included # 24 Centers in Italy, Germany, Greece, UK, Sweden, Japan and USA. Relevant data have been collected on current practice in diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of dyslipidemias. 240 subjects with hyperlipidemia and treated with lipoprotein apheresis have been reported in the survey, but a large percentage of patients (35%) who could benefit from this therapeutic option are still treated by conventional drug approach. Genetic molecular diagnosis is performed in only 33% of patients while Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is included in cardiovascular disease risk assessment in 71% of participating Centers. New detailed investigations and prospective multicenter studies are needed to evaluate changes induced by the impact of updated indications and strategies, as well as new treatment options, targeting standardization of therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. AFSC/NMML: Southeast Alaska Cetacean Vessel Surveys, 1991 - 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1991, NMML initiated cetacean studies with vessel coverage throughout inland waters of Southeast Alaska. Between 1991 and 1993, line-transect methodology was used...

  7. An X-ray survey of the central molecular zone: Variability of the Fe Kα emission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, R.; Clavel, M.; Soldi, S.; Goldwurm, A.; Ponti, G.; Morris, M. R.; Chuard, D.

    2018-05-01

    There is now abundant evidence that the luminosity of the Galactic super-massive black hole (SMBH) has not always been as low as it is nowadays. The observation of varying non-thermal diffuse X-ray emission in molecular complexes in the central 300 pc has been interpreted as delayed reflection of a past illumination by bright outbursts of the SMBH. The observation of different variability timescales of the reflected emission in the Sgr A molecular complex can be well explained if the X-ray emission of at least two distinct and relatively short events (i.e. about 10 yr or less) is currently propagating through the region. The number of such events or the presence of a long-duration illumination are open questions. Variability of the reflected emission all over of the central 300 pc, in particular in the 6.4 keV Fe Kα line, can bring strong constraints. To do so we performed a deep scan of the inner 300 pc with XMM-Newton in 2012. Together with all the archive data taken over the course of the mission, and in particular a similar albeit more shallow scan performed in 2000-2001, this allows for a detailed study of variability of the 6.4 keV line emission in the region, which we present here. We show that the overall 6.4 keV emission does not strongly vary on average, but variations are very pronounced on smaller scales. In particular, most regions showing bright reflection emission in 2000-2001 significantly decrease by 2012. We discuss those regions and present newly illuminated features. The absence of bright steady emission argues against the presence of an echo from an event of multi-centennial duration and most, if not all, of the emission can likely be explained by a limited number of relatively short (i.e. up to 10 yr) events. Images of the Fe Kα emission as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/612/A102

  8. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Ke; Yang, Juan-Mei; Huang, Yi-Bo; Ren, Dong-Dong; Chi, Fang-Lu

    2015-06-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  9. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  10. The influence of surgical transection and anastomosis on the rate of cell proliferation in the colonic epithelium of normal and DMH-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Tutton, P M

    1983-10-01

    Normal and DMH-treated male rats aged 18-20 weeks underwent surgical transection and anastomosis of the transverse colon. Animals were subsequently killed at intervals of 14, 30 and 72 days. Three hours prior to sacrifice animals were injected with vinblastine sulphate and mitotic indices were subsequently estimated in histological sections. Possible differences between experimental and control groups were tested using a Student's t-test. The results show that the accumulated mitotic indices in normal and DMH-treated colon are statistically similar. The results also show that transection and anastomosis stimulates cell division in both normal and DMH-treated colon and that the increase is of greater amplitude and more prolonged duration in the DMH-treated rats. Carcinomas developed close to the line of anastomosis in DMH-treated but not in control rats. The results support the hypothesis that non-specific injury to hyperplastic colonic epithelium promotes carcinogenesis.

  11. Characterization of dendritic morphology and neurotransmitter phenotype of thoracic descending propriospinal neurons after complete spinal cord transection and GDNF treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lingxiao; Ruan, Yiwen; Chen, Chen; Frye, Christian Corbin; Xiong, Wenhui; Jin, Xiaoming; Jones, Kathryn; Sengelaub, Dale; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), poor regeneration of damaged axons of the central nervous system (CNS) causes limited functional recovery. This limited spontaneous functional recovery has been attributed, to a large extent, to the plasticity of propriospinal neurons, especially the descending propriospinal neurons (dPSNs). Compared with the supraspinal counterparts, dPSNs have displayed significantly greater regenerative capacity, which can be further enhanced by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In the present study, we applied a G-mutated rabies virus (G-Rabies) co-expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP) to reveal Golgi-like dendritic morphology of dPSNs. We also investigated the neurotransmitters expressed by dPSNs after labeling with a retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). dPSNs were examined in animals with sham injuries or complete spinal transections with or without GDNF treatment. Bilateral injections of G-Rabies and FG were made into the 2nd lumbar (L2) spinal cord at 3 days prior to a spinal cord transection performed at the 11th thoracic level (T11). The lesion gap was filled with Gelfoam containing either saline or GDNF in the injury groups. Four days post-injury, the rats were sacrificed for analysis. For those animals receiving G-rabies injection, the GFP signal in the T7–9 spinal cord was visualized via 2-photon microscopy. Dendritic morphology from stack images was traced and analyzed using a Neurolucida software. We found that dPSNs in sham injured animals had a predominantly dorsal-ventral distribution of dendrites. Transection injury resulted in alterations in the dendritic distribution with dorsal-ventral retraction and lateral-medial extension. Treatment with GDNF significantly increased the terminal dendritic length of dPSNs. The density of spine-like structures was increased after injury, and treatment with GDNF enhanced this effect. For the group receiving FG injections, immunohistochemistry for glutamate, choline

  12. Spatial patterns of preconsolidation pressure and soil moisture along transects in two directions under coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivoney Gontijo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the spatial structure of soil physical and structural properties is needed to evaluate the soil quality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatial behavior of preconsolidation pressure and soil moisture in six transects, three selected along and three across coffee rows, at three different sites under different tillage management systems. The study was carried out on a farm, in Patrocinio, state of Minas Gerais, in the Southeast of Brazil (18 º 59 ' 15 '' S; 46 º 56 ' 47 '' W; 934 m asl. The soil type is a typic dystrophic Red Latosol (Acrustox and consists of 780 g kg-1 clay; 110 g kg-1 silt and 110 g kg-1 sand, with an average slope of 3 %. Undisturbed soil cores were sampled at a depth of 0.10-0.13 m, at three different points within the coffee plantation: (a from under the wheel track, where equipment used in farm operations passes; (b in - between tracks and (c under the coffee canopy. Six linear transects were established in the experimental area: three transects along and three across the coffee rows. This way, 161 samples were collected in the transect across the coffee rows, from the three locations, while 117 samples were collected in the direction along the row. The shortest sampling distance in the transect across the row was 4 m, and 0.5 m for the transect along the row. No clear patterns of the preconsolidation pressure values were observed in the 200 m transect. The results of the semivariograms for both variables indicated a high nugget value and short range for the studied parameters of all transects. A cyclic pattern of the parameters was observed for the across-rows transect. An inverse relationship between preconsolidation pressure and soil moisture was clearly observed in the samples from under the track, in both directions.

  13. [Attitude of patients and customers toward on-line purchase of drugs--a Hungarian survey by community pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittler, András; Bosze, Gergely; Botz, Lajos

    2010-11-28

    As internet is now available to nearly everyone in Hungary, the accessibility of websites offering pharmaceutical products is also increasing. The national and international regulation of these sites is currently an unsolved problem worldwide, thus potentially harmful, counterfeit and prescription only medicines are easily accessible on the market. We aimed to measure and estimate the current situation of the ordering of online medicines. In 5 Hungarian cities 434 self-administered questionnaires were collected in community pharmacies. Our results show that 6.2% of the respondents have already ordered drugs or dietary supplements online and approximately same amount of people are considering this option in the near future. Based on our survey mostly the educated, the 30-49 year old people and women are likely to buy drugs online. Every fifth respondent reported willingness to buy drugs online from abroad if lower prices were offered. Most people do not know that the quality of medicines purchased online could be different from the ones purchased from community pharmacies. We would like to draw attention of healthcare professionals to the rising popularity and potential risks of drugs available online.

  14. Delayed presentation of popliteal artery transection following undisplaced lateral condyle fracture of tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests that vascular damage occurring with orthopedic injury of the lower extremity is rare and uncommon. We present a case of a young adult male who presented to the emergency room with a history of road traffic accident with complaints of pain in the right ankle diagnosed as medial malleolus fracture and pain in the left knee diagnosed as undisplaced lateral tibial condyle fracture. At the time of presentation, the left leg appeared normal and was stabilized with a knee brace, which on the next day developed severe swelling with absence of distal pulses. Doppler revealed no blood flow distal to popliteal artery with severe soft tissue edema. The patient was posted for emergency basis vascular exploration where popliteal artery was surprisingly found transected and was repaired followed by timely fasciotomy. This case report has also been prepared to stress the importance of secondary survey in patients after high energy trauma as it can prevent the important injuries from being missed.

  15. A Unimodal Model for Double Observer Distance Sampling Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl F Becker

    Full Text Available Distance sampling is a widely used method to estimate animal population size. Most distance sampling models utilize a monotonically decreasing detection function such as a half-normal. Recent advances in distance sampling modeling allow for the incorporation of covariates into the distance model, and the elimination of the assumption of perfect detection at some fixed distance (usually the transect line with the use of double-observer models. The assumption of full observer independence in the double-observer model is problematic, but can be addressed by using the point independence assumption which assumes there is one distance, the apex of the detection function, where the 2 observers are assumed independent. Aerially collected distance sampling data can have a unimodal shape and have been successfully modeled with a gamma detection function. Covariates in gamma detection models cause the apex of detection to shift depending upon covariate levels, making this model incompatible with the point independence assumption when using double-observer data. This paper reports a unimodal detection model based on a two-piece normal distribution that allows covariates, has only one apex, and is consistent with the point independence assumption when double-observer data are utilized. An aerial line-transect survey of black bears in Alaska illustrate how this method can be applied.

  16. Evaluation of Meniscal Mechanics and Proteoglycan Content in a Modified Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischenich, Kristine M.; Coatney, Garrett A.; Haverkamp, John H.; Button, Keith D.; DeCamp, Charlie; Haut, Roger C.; Haut Donahue, Tammy L.

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) develops as a result of traumatic loading that causes tears of the soft tissues in the knee. A modified transection model, where the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and both menisci were transected, was used on skeletally mature Flemish Giant rabbits. Gross morphological assessments, elastic moduli, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) coverage of the menisci were determined to quantify the amount of tissue damage 12 weeks post injury. This study is one of the first to monitor meniscal changes after inducing combined meniscal and ACL transections. A decrease in elastic moduli as well as a decrease in GAG coverage was seen. PMID:24749144

  17. Reciever Function Transect Across Tibet, Tarim and Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, B.; Levin, V. L.; Huang, G.; Roecker, S. W.; Wang, H.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the region of the ongoing collision between the India and Eurasia tectonic plates that results in widespread deformation of the continental lithosphere. Over the past decade, numerous regional studies were conducted between the Himalaya and the Tien Shan mountains, each illuminating a small part of the area. We combine the data from a number of portable and permanent networks to construct a ~1800 km long profile of lithospheric properties that cross three very different tectonic domains: the Tibetan plateau, the Tarim basin, and the Tien Shan mountains. We use data from 60 stations operated in the region by US, Chinese and French researchers. We use records of distant earthquakes to construct receiver function gathers for each station. The uniformity of processing ensures that our results are comparable along the transect. We examine receiver function gathers at each site, and rank their quality on the basis of number of records, noise levels, and directional stability of the wavefield. We select 27 sites with high-quality data. For these we construct average receiver function traces using data in the 60-85 degree range, and use them as a guide to the lithospheric layering beneath the region. On most receiver functions we constructed the most prominent feature is a positive phase likely associated with the crust-mantle transition. The timing of this phase varies significantly over the length of the profile. Beneath the Tibetan plateau delay times ~7-8 s are seen close to the Himalayas, and nearly 10 s delays are found further north. Delays of 6 to 8 s are seen beneath sites in the Tarim basin and the Tien Shan mountains, and nearly 10 s delays are seen at the border between them. In addition to the pulse associated with the crust-mantle transition we see other locally-consistent features, for example a negative phase with delay values between 3 and 5 s beneath much of the Tibetan plateau.

  18. THE HERSCHEL DIGIT SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DISK EVOLUTION AND DISSIPATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J. II; Najita, Joan; Merín, Bruno; Liebhart, Armin; Güdel, Manuel; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Pinte, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    As part of the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT)' Herschel Open Time Key Program, we present Herschel photometry (at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm) of 31 weak-line T Tauri star (WTTS) candidates in order to investigate the evolutionary status of their circumstellar disks. Of the stars in our sample, 13 had circumstellar disks previously known from infrared observations at shorter wavelengths, while 18 of them had no previous evidence for a disk. We detect a total of 15 disks as all previously known disks are detected at one or more Herschel wavelengths and two additional disks are identified for the first time. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our targets seem to trace the dissipation of the primordial disk and the transition to the debris disk regime. Of the 15 disks, 7 appear to be optically thick primordial disks, including 2 objects with SEDs indistinguishable from those of typical Classical T Tauri stars, 4 objects that have significant deficit of excess emission at all IR wavelengths, and 1 'pre-transitional' object with a known gap in the disk. Despite their previous WTTS classification, we find that the seven targets in our sample with optically thick disks show evidence for accretion. The remaining eight disks have weaker IR excesses similar to those of optically thin debris disks. Six of them are warm and show significant 24 μm Spitzer excesses, while the last two are newly identified cold debris-like disks with photospheric 24 μm fluxes, but significant excess emission at longer wavelengths. The Herschel photometry also places strong constraints on the non-detections, where systems with F 70 /F 70,* ∼> 5-15 and L disk /L * ∼> 10 –3 to 10 –4 can be ruled out. We present preliminary models for both the optically thick and optically thin disks and discuss our results in the context of the evolution and dissipation of circumstellar disks.

  19. Mobile-Source GHG Modeling Institutions and Capacities in China:Findings Based on Structured Interviews and On-Line Surveys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangping; ZHOU; Yin; WANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of practices of mobile-source greenhouse gas(GHG) modeling in China and related data sharing issues. It is based on structured phone interviews and two on-line surveys conducted in 2011 and finds that most cities have transportation-land use models but that few have mobile-source GHG models. A group of entities housed in the government have the strongest GHG modeling capacities and dominate the relevant consulting market. Data hoarding of public entities is the biggest barrier for entities without government ties to compete in the market. The reasons for data hoarding include government concerns over political implications of data release, a tradition of data hoarding, and a lack of confidence in reliability and accuracy of the data.

  20. Bionomics of Anopheline species and malaria transmission dynamics along an altitudinal transect in Western Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toto Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highland areas of Africa are mostly malaria hypoendemic, due to climate which is not appropriate for anophelines development and their reproductive fitness. In view of designing a malaria control strategy in Western Cameroon highlands, baseline data on anopheline species bionomics were collected. Methods Longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted in three localities at different altitudinal levels. Mosquitoes were captured when landing on human volunteers and by pyrethrum spray catches. Sampled Anopheles were tested for the presence of Plasmodium circumsporozoite proteins and their blood meal origin with ELISA. Entomological parameters of malaria epidemiology were assessed using Mac Donald's formula. Results Anopheline species diversity and density decreased globally from lowland to highland. The most aggressive species along the altitudinal transect was Anopheles gambiae s.s. of S molecular form, followed in the lowland and on the plateau by An. funestus, but uphill by An. hancocki. An. gambiae and An. ziemanni exhibited similar seasonal biting patterns at the different levels, whereas different features were observed for An. funestus. Only indoor resting species could be captured uphill; it is therefore likely that endophilic behaviour is necessary for anophelines to climb above a certain threshold. Of the ten species collected along the transect, only An. gambiae and An. funestus were responsible for malaria transmission, with entomological inoculation rates (EIR of 90.5, 62.8 and zero infective bites/human/year in the lowland, on the plateau and uphill respectively. The duration of gonotrophic cycle was consistently one day shorter for An. gambiae as compared to An. funestus at equal altitude. Altitudinal climate variations had no effect on the survivorship and the subsequent life expectancy of the adult stage of these malaria vectors, but most probably on aquatic stages. On the contrary increasing altitude

  1. The Atlantic Meridional Transect: Spatially Extensive Calibration and Validation of Optical Properties and Remotely Sensed Measurements of Ocean Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, James; Hooker, Stanford

    1997-01-01

    Twice a year, the Royal Research Ship (RRS) James Clark Ross (JCR) steams a meridional transect of the atlantic Ocean between Grimsly (UK) and Stanley (Falkland Islands) with a port call in Montevideo (Uruguay), as part of the annual research activities of the British Antarctic Survey (BAS). In September, the JCR sails from the UK, and the following April it makes the return trip. The ship is operated by the BAS for the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). The Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) Program exploits the passage of the JCR from approximately 50 deg. N to 50 deg. S with a primary objective to investigate physical and biological processes, as well as to measure the mesi-to-basin-scale bio-optical properties of the atlantic Ocean. The calibration and validation of remotely sensed observations of ocean colour is an inherent objective of these studies: first, by relating in situ measurements of water leaving radiance to satellite measurement, and second, by measuring the bio-optically active constituents of the water.

  2. Consulting patients in setting priorities in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (M.E.) research: findings from a national on-line survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Nicola; Robinson, Lisa; Chowdhury, Sonya; Ogden, Clare; Newton, Julia L

    2015-01-01

    Myalgic encephalitis (M.E.) is a common condition, the cause of which is not known and there are no treatments available. In this study the national patient support group Action for M.E. sought the opinions of their members via an online survey as to what they felt should be future priorities for M.E. Respondents were asked what they considered first, second and third research priorities to be from a list of 13 pre-defined options. Individuals were invited to provide additional free text comments about Action for M.E.'s research priorities in general. Of the 1144 respondents: 822 had M.E.; 94 were a supporting a member of Action for M.E. ; 66 were carers for someone with M.E.; 26 were professionals with an interest in M.E.; 136 had a family member or colleague with M.E. Individuals selected more than one category as applicable. The top five research priorities identified were: disease processes to achieve a better understanding of the causes of M.E.; more effective treatments; faster and more accurate diagnosis; clinical course of M.E.; outcomes and natural history; and severely affected patients. Least popular priorities were: sleep; economic research towards identifying the cost of ME; and psychological aspects. Much of the free text comments emphasised the importance of funding biomedical research into disease processes to achieve a better understanding of the causes of M.E. Three themes were identified in relation to this topic: accurate diagnosis and awareness; risk factors and causes; drug development and curative therapies. In conclusion; individuals affected by M.E. have clear views regarding priorities for research investment. These have informed Action for M.E.'s ongoing research strategy and ultimately will inform national and international research priorities.

  3. GREEN PEA GALAXIES AND COHORTS: LUMINOUS COMPACT EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izotov, Yuri I.; Guseva, Natalia G.; Thuan, Trinh X.

    2011-01-01

    We present a large sample of 803 star-forming luminous compact galaxies (LCGs) in the redshift range z = 0.02-0.63, selected from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The global properties of these galaxies are similar to those of the so-called green pea star-forming galaxies in the redshift range z = 0.112-0.360 and selected from the SDSS on the basis of their green color and compact structure. In contrast to green pea galaxies, our LCGs are selected on the basis of both their spectroscopic and photometric properties, resulting in a ∼10 times larger sample, with galaxies spanning a redshift range ∼>2 times larger. We find that the oxygen abundances and the heavy element abundance ratios in LCGs do not differ from those of nearby low-metallicity blue compact dwarf galaxies. The median stellar mass of LCGs is ∼10 9 M sun . However, for galaxies with high EW(Hβ), ≥ 100 A, it is only ∼7 x 10 8 M sun . The star formation rate in LCGs varies in the large range of 0.7-60 M sun yr -1 , with a median value of ∼4 M sun yr -1 , a factor of ∼3 lower than in high-redshift star-forming galaxies at z ∼> 3. The specific star formation rates in LCGs are extremely high and vary in the range ∼10 -9 -10 -7 yr -1 , comparable to those derived in high-redshift galaxies.

  4. The Daily 110 MHZ Sky Survey (bsa Fian): On-Line Database, Science Aims and First Results of Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samodurov, V. A.; Rodin, A. E.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Isaev, E. A.; Dumsky, D. V.; Churakov, D. D.; Manzyuk, M. O.

    From 2012 on radio telescope BSA FIAN multi beams diagram was started. It capable at July 2014 daily observing by 96 beams in declination -8 .. 42 degrees in the frequency band 109-111.5 MHz. The number of frequency bands are from 6 to 32, the time constant are from 0.1 to 0.0125 sec. In receiving mode with 32 band (plus one common band) with a time constant of 12.5 ms (80 times per second) respectively produced 33x96x80 four byte real and so daily we produced 87.5 Gbt (yearly to 32 Tbt). These data are enormous opportunities for both short and long-term monitoring of various classes of radio sources (including radio transients) and for space weather and the Earth's ionosphere monitoring, for search for different classes of radio sources, etc. The base aims of our work are: a) to obtain new scientific data on different classes of discrete radio sources, the construction of physical models and their evolution - obtained on the basis of the clock continuous digital sky radio monitoring at frequency 109-111.5 MHz and cross-analysis of data from third-party reviews on other frequencies; c) launch the streaming data on various types of high-performance computing systems, including to create a public system of distributed computing for thousands of users on the basis of BOINC technology. The BOINC client for astronomical data from the monitoring survey of the big part of entire sky almost have not analogies. We have some first science results (new pulsars, and some new type of radiosources).

  5. THE HERSCHEL DIGIT SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DISK EVOLUTION AND DISSIPATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institute fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Najita, Joan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 86719 (United States); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Liebhart, Armin; Guedel, Manuel [Department of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Augereau, Jean-Charles; Pinte, Christophe, E-mail: lcieza@ifa.hawaii.edu [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique (IPAG) UMR 5274, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2013-01-10

    As part of the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT)' Herschel Open Time Key Program, we present Herschel photometry (at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m) of 31 weak-line T Tauri star (WTTS) candidates in order to investigate the evolutionary status of their circumstellar disks. Of the stars in our sample, 13 had circumstellar disks previously known from infrared observations at shorter wavelengths, while 18 of them had no previous evidence for a disk. We detect a total of 15 disks as all previously known disks are detected at one or more Herschel wavelengths and two additional disks are identified for the first time. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our targets seem to trace the dissipation of the primordial disk and the transition to the debris disk regime. Of the 15 disks, 7 appear to be optically thick primordial disks, including 2 objects with SEDs indistinguishable from those of typical Classical T Tauri stars, 4 objects that have significant deficit of excess emission at all IR wavelengths, and 1 'pre-transitional' object with a known gap in the disk. Despite their previous WTTS classification, we find that the seven targets in our sample with optically thick disks show evidence for accretion. The remaining eight disks have weaker IR excesses similar to those of optically thin debris disks. Six of them are warm and show significant 24 {mu}m Spitzer excesses, while the last two are newly identified cold debris-like disks with photospheric 24 {mu}m fluxes, but significant excess emission at longer wavelengths. The Herschel photometry also places strong constraints on the non-detections, where systems with F {sub 70}/F {sub 70,*} {approx}> 5-15 and L {sub disk}/L {sub *} {approx}> 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4} can be ruled out. We present preliminary models for both the optically thick and optically thin disks and discuss our results in the context of the evolution and dissipation of circumstellar disks.

  6. RAPID INFRARED VARIABILITY OF THREE RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES: A VIEW FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Ning; Zhou Hongyan; Wang Tinggui; Dong Xiaobo; Jiang Peng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Yuan Weimin [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ji Tuo; Tian Qiguo, E-mail: jnac@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200136 (China)

    2012-11-10

    Using newly released data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we report the discovery of rapid infrared variability in three radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) selected from the 23 sources in the sample of Yuan et al. J0849+5108 and J0948+0022 clearly show intraday variability, while J1505+0326 has a longer measurable timescale within 180 days. Their variability amplitudes, corrected for measurement errors, are {approx}0.1-0.2 mag. The detection of intraday variability restricts the size of the infrared-emitting region to {approx}10{sup -3} pc, significantly smaller than the scale of the torus but consistent with the base of a jet. The three variable sources are exceptionally radio-loud, have the highest radio brightness temperature among the whole sample, and all show detected {gamma}-ray emission in Fermi/LAT observations. Their spectral energy distributions resemble those of low-energy-peaked blazars, with a synchrotron peak around infrared wavelengths. This result strongly confirms the view that at least some radio-loud NLS1s are blazars with a relativistic jet close to our line of sight. The beamed synchrotron emission from the jet contributes significantly to and probably dominates the spectra in the infrared and even optical bands.

  7. A Survey of X-Ray Variability in Seyfert 1 Galaxies with XMM-Newton to study the soft excess and the broad Fe lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Gabriele

    The nature of the soft excess and the presence of the broad Fe lines is still nowadays highly debated because the different absorption/emission models are degenerate. Spectral variability studies have the potential to break this degeneracy. I will present the results of a spectral variability RMS survey of the 36 brightest type 1 Seyfert galaxies observed by XMM-Newton for more than 30 ks. More than 80 as already measured, on longer timescales, with RXTE (Markowitz et al. 2004). About half of the sample show lower variability in the soft energy band, indicating that the emission from the soft excess is more stable than the one of the continuum. While the other sources show a soft excess that is as variable as the continuum. About half of the sample do not show an excess of variability where the warm absorber component imprints its stronger features, suggesting that for these sources the soft excess is not produced by a relativistic absorbing wind. In a few bright and well exposed sources it has been possible to measure an excess of variability at the energy of the broad component of the Fe K line, in agreement with the broad emission line interpretation. For the sources where more than one observation was available the stability of the shape of the RMS spectrum has been investigated. Moreover, it will be presented the results of the computation of the excess variance of all the radio quiet type 1 AGN of the XMM-Newton database. The relations between variability, black hole mass, accretion rate and luminosity are investigated and their scatter measured.

  8. First high-resolution near-seafloor survey of magnetic anomalies of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Xu, X.; Li, C.; Sun, Z.; Zhu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Qiu, N.

    2013-12-01

    We successfully conducted the first high-resolution near-seafloor magnetic survey of the Central, Southwest, and Northern Central Basins of the South China Sea (SCS) during two cruises on board Chinese R/V HaiYangLiuHao in October-November 2012 and March-April 2013, respectively. Measurements of magnetic field were made along four long survey lines, including (1) a NW-SE across-isochron profile transecting the Southwest Basin and covering all ages of the oceanic crust (Line CD); (2) a N-S across-isochron profile transecting the Central Basin (Line AB); and (3) two sub-parallel NE-SW across-isochron profiles transecting the Northern Central Basin of the SCS (Lines D and E). A three-axis magnetometer was mounted on a deep-tow vehicle, flying within 0.6 km above the seafloor. The position of the tow vehicle was provided by an ultra-short baseline navigation system along Lines D and E, while was estimated using shipboard GPS along Lines AB and CD. To investigate crustal magnetization, we first removed the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) of 2010 from the measured magnetic data, and then downward continued the resultant magnetic field data to a horizontal plane at a water depth of 4.5 km to correct for variation due to the fishing depth of the deep-tow vehicle. Finally, we calculated magnetic anomalies at various water depths after reduction-to-the-pole corrections. We also constructed polarity reversal block (PRB) models of crustal magnetization by matching peaks and troughs of the observed magnetic field anomaly. Our analysis yielded the following results: (1) The near-bottom magnetic anomaly showed peak-to-trough amplitudes of more than 2,500 nT, which are several times of the anomaly amplitudes at the sea surface, illustrating that deep-tow measurements acquired much higher spatial resolutions. (2) The deep-tow data revealed several distinctive magnetic anomalies with wavelengths of 5-15 km and amplitudes of several hundred nT. These short

  9. Seasonality of runoff and precipitation regimes along transects in Peru and Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudry Maria M. Cárdenas; Gutknecht Dieter; Parajka Juraj; Perdigão Rui A.P.; Blöschl Günter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the seasonalities of runoff and precipitation and their controls along two transects in Peru and one transect in Austria. The analysis is based on daily precipitation data at 111 and 61 stations in Peru and Austria, respectively, and daily discharge data at 51 and 110 stations. The maximum Pardé coefficient is used to quantify the strength of the seasonalities of monthly precipitation and runoff. Circular statistics are used to quantify the seasonalities...

  10. [Tachistoscope and dichotic listening test of the subject after the transection of the posterior part of the corpus callosum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Tasaki, H; Hojo, K; Yoshimura, I; Sato, T; Nakaoka, T; Iwabuchi, T

    1982-06-01

    The authors made neuropsychological studies by the tachistoscope and the dichotic listening test on a subject who had undergone the transection of the posterior part of the corpus callosum. As to the tachistoscopic recognition, stimulus material was composed with the various Japanese letters (Katakana, Hiragana, Kanji), various faces (variations of the eyebrow form and the mouth form) and various slopes of line. Table 1 shows results of the cases (the subject was the present case, subjects 1 and subject 2 were past cases). It was seen that the performance of the subject on Japanese letters tasks showed greater right visual field superiority than the one of subject 1 and subject 2. As to the auditory recognition, the tasks used for the dichotic listening test were the following (Table 2, 3, 4). Different digits (three pairs) of the subject showed greater right ear superiority (right ear: 61.1, left ear 5.9) than the ones of subject 1 and subject 2.

  11. Recovery of bimodal locomotion in the spinal-transected salamander, Pleurodeles waltlii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Stéphanie; Landry, Marc; Nagy, Frédéric; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie

    2004-10-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) analysis was used to provide an assessment of the recovery of locomotion in spinal-transected adult salamanders (Pleurodeles waltlii). EMG recordings were performed during swimming and overground stepping in the same animal before and at various times (up to 500 days) after a mid-trunk spinalization. Two-three weeks after spinalization, locomotor EMG activity was limited to the forelimbs and the body rostral to the transection. Thereafter, there was a return of the locomotor EMG activity at progressively more caudal levels below the transection. The animals reached stable locomotor patterns 3-4 months post-transection. Several locomotor parameters (cycle duration, burst duration, burst proportion, intersegmental phase lag, interlimb coupling) measured at various recovery times after spinalization were compared with those in intact animals. These comparisons revealed transient and long-term alterations in the locomotor parameters both above and below the transection site. These alterations were much more pronounced for swimming than for stepping and revealed differences in adaptive plasticity between the two locomotor networks. Recovered locomotor activity was immediately abolished by retransection at the site of the original spinalization, suggesting that the spinal cord caudal to the transection was reinnervated by descending brain and/or propriospinal axons, and that this regeneration contributed to the restoration of locomotor activity. Anatomical studies conducted in parallel further demonstrated that some of the regenerated axons came from glutamatergic and serotoninergic immunoreactive cells within the reticular formation.

  12. Geochemistry of soils along a transect from Central Mexico to the Pacific Coast: a pilot study for continental-scale geochemical mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiprés, J.A.; de la Calleja,; Tellez, J.I.; Jiménez, F.; Cruz, Carlos; Guerrero, E.G.; Castro, J.; Monroy, M.G.; Salinas, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mexican Geological Survey (SGM), the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI) and the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi (UASLP) have established a multidisciplinary team with the objective of creating a national program of geochemical mapping of soils in Mexico. This is being done as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in partnership with the US Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada. As the first step, a pilot study was conducted over a transect that extends from the Mexico–US border near Ciudad Juarez in the north to the Pacific Ocean in the south. This pilot transect was conducted in two phases, and this paper presents results from the first phase, which sampled soils at about a 40-km spacing along a 730-km transect beginning in Central Mexico and ending at the Pacific Coast. Samples were collected from the A and C horizons at each site and 60 elements were analyzed. This pilot study demonstrates that geochemical mapping based on a 40-km spacing is adequate to identify broad-scale geochemical patterns. Geologic influence (i.e., soil parent material) was the most important factor influencing the distribution of elements along the transect, followed by the influence of regional mineralization. The study also showed that influence by human activities over the transect is minimal except possibly in large mining districts. A comparison of element abundance in the A horizon with the environmental soil guidelines in Mexico showed that the natural concentrations of the studied soils were lower than the established threshold for soil restoration with the exception of V and As. The former had a median value (75 mg/kg) approximately equal to the value established in Mexico for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands (78 mg/kg), and the latter had three values higher than the 22 mg/kg threshold for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands. These cases demonstrate

  13. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Survey, Fish Transect, 1985-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has measurements of the abundance of fish species. The original measurements...

  14. Timed surveys and transect walks as comparable methods for monitoring butterflies in small plots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Tomáš; Tropek, Robert; Konvička, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2012), s. 275-280 ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA ČR GAP505/10/2167; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD206/08/H049; University of South Bohemia(CZ) SGA2008/005 Program:GD Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly counting * Lepidoptera * insect sampling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/42u273615487212p/fulltext.pdf

  15. Species composition, distribution and abundance of chaetodontidae along reef transects in the Flores Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrim, Mohammad; Hutomo, Malikusworo

    Observations on chaetodontid fishes were made by applying a visual census technique at 13 coral reef locations in the Flores Sea region in October and November 1984. These observations were made along 50 m transect lines, parallel to the shore or the reef edge at depths between 3 to 12 m. Twenty-three species of Chaetodontidae were observed, representing three genera: Chaetodon (20 species), Heniochus (2 species) and Forcipiger (1 species). Chaetodon kleini, C. trifasciatus, C. melannotus and C. baronessa proved to be the most abundant species, and among them C. kleini and C. trifasciatus were the most widely distributed ones. Chaetodon semeion and C. mertensi were the rarest species. The greatest number of individuals (77) was counted at station 4.268 near Tanjung Burung, Sumbawa, while the greatest number of species (14) was observed at station 4.257, north of Komodo. The lowest number of individuals (17) was counted at station 4.175 near P. Bahuluang, Salayer, while station 4.251 near Teluk Slawi, Komodo, was inhabited by the smallest numbver of species (2). Numerical classification by using the Bray Curtis dissimilarity index resulted in three groups of entities. The first group was characterized by predomination of C. kleini and the second by predomination of C. melannotus. The third one was a loose group not characterized by any predominant species. The analyses indicated that the similarities of the chaetodontid communities between locations are not related to the distance between them, but rather to habitat conditions. For example predomination of C. melannotus is strongly related to the predomination of soft coral. Compared to other areas of Indonesia, e.g. Bali, Seribu Islands, Batam, Sunda Strait, and Ambon Bay, the Flores Sea reefs have a more abundant and more diverse chaetodontid fauna.

  16. Levels of mercury in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected along a transect through the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, D.G.; Fink, L.E.; Laine, K.A.; Niemczyk, S.L.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Wankel, Scott D.; Kendall, C.

    2002-01-01

    As part of a multi-agency study of alligator health, 28 American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) were captured along a transect through the Florida Everglades in 1999. Liver and tail muscle tissues were sampled and analyzed on a wet weight basis for total mercury (THg) using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All tissues had detectable concentrations of THg that ranged from 0.6 to 17 mg/kg in liver and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg/kg in tail muscle. THg was more concentrated in liver tissue than tail muscle, but levels were highly correlated between tissues. THg concentrations in tissue differed significantly among locations, with animals from Everglades National Park (ENP) having mean concentrations of THg in liver (10.4 mg/kg) and tail muscle (1.2 mg/kg) that were two-fold higher than basin-wide averages (4.9 and 0.64 mg/kg, respectively). The reasons for higher contamination of ENP alligators were unclear and could not be explained by differences in sex, length, weight or animal age. While ??15N values were positively correlated with THg concentrations in tail muscle, spatial patterns in isotopic composition did not explain the elevated THg levels in ENP alligators. Therefore, it appears that ENP alligators were more highly exposed to mercury in their environment than individuals in other areas. Comparisons to a previous survey by Yanochko et al. [Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32 (1997) 323] suggest that mercury levels have declined in some Everglades alligators since 1994. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Health risks related to illegal and on-line sale of drugs and food supplements: results of a survey on marketed products in Italy from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Maria Cristina; Manna, Livia; Bartolomei, Monica; Rodomonte, Andrea Luca; Bertocchi, Paola; Antoniella, Eleonora; Romanini, Laura; Alimonti, Stefano; Rufini, Leandro; Valvo, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The increasing illegal and on-line market of medicines and food supplements is helping the widespread diffusion of harmful counterfeit and forbidden products among consumers of developed countries. The objectives of this survey were the description of the main frauds recognized by public officers and the detection of illegal or counterfeit drugs and food supplements. Medicines and food supplements found by Police forces on the illegal market or resulting from seizures made by Italian Customs authorities were visually inspected and analysed to evaluate their quality and the presence of other undeclared substances. The visual inspection and the chemical analysis revealed unsuitable packaging (mostly lacking of adequate information for consumers), absence of the declared active substances and presence of undeclared active substances. Products containing doping agents, illegal substances and active ingredients requiring medical supervision were found. The present work confirmed the health risk associated with assumption of medicines purchased on the Internet and from the illegal supply chain and evidenced a new threat to consumer safety related to the presence of pharmaceutical active ingredients in food supplements claiming to contain only "natural ingredients".

  18. AN XMM-NEWTON SURVEY OF THE SOFT X-RAY BACKGROUND. I. THE O VII AND O VIII LINES BETWEEN l = 120 DEG. AND l = 240 DEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the soft X-ray background (SXRB) O VII and O VIII intensity between l = 120 deg. and l = 240 deg., the first results of a survey of the SXRB using archival XMM-Newton observations. We do not restrict ourselves to blank-sky observations, but instead use as many observations as possible, removing bright or extended sources by hand if necessary. In an attempt to minimize contamination from near-Earth solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission, we remove times of high solar wind proton flux from the data. Without this filtering we are able to extract measurements from 586 XMM-Newton observations. With this filtering, ∼1/2 of the observations are rendered unusable, and we are able to extract measurements from 303 observations. The oxygen intensities are typically ∼0.5-10 photons cm -2 s -1 sr -1 (line units, L.U.) for O VII and ∼0-5 L.U. for O VIII. The proton flux filtering does not systematically reduce the oxygen intensities measured from a given observation. However, the filtering does preferentially remove the observations with higher oxygen intensities. Our data set includes 69 directions with multiple observations, whose oxygen intensity variations can be used to constrain SWCX models. One observation exhibits an O VII enhancement of ∼25 L.U. over two other observations of the same direction, although most SWCX enhancements are ∼ 6 K, in good agreement with previous studies.

  19. Spontaneous recovery of locomotion induced by remaining fibers after spinal cord transection in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Si-Wei; Chen, Bing-Yao; Liu, Hui-Ling; Lang, Bing; Xia, Jie-Lai; Jiao, Xi-Ying; Ju, Gong

    2003-01-01

    A major issue in analysis of experimental results after spinal cord injury is spontaneous functional recovery induced by remaining nerve fibers. The authors investigated the relationship between the degree of locomotor recovery and the percentage and location of the fibers that spared spinal cord transection. The spinal cords of 12 adult rats were transected at T9 with a razor blade, which often resulted in sparing of nerve fibers in the ventral spinal cord. The incompletely-transected animals were used to study the degree of spontaneous recovery of hindlimb locomotion, evaluated with the BBB rating scale, in correlation to the extent and location of the remaining fibers. Incomplete transection was found in the ventral spinal cord in 42% of the animals. The degree of locomotor recovery was highly correlated with the percentage of the remaining fibers in the ventral and ventrolateral funiculi. In one of the rats, 4.82% of remaining fibers in unilateral ventrolateral funiculus were able to sustain a certain recovery of locomotion. Less than 5% of remaining ventrolateral white matter is sufficient for an unequivocal motor recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury. Therefore, for studies with spinal cord transection, the completeness of sectioning should be carefully checked before any conclusion can be reached. The fact that the degree of locomotor recovery is correlated with the percentage of remaining fibers in the ventrolateral spinal cord, exclusive of most of the descending motor tracts, may imply an essential role of propriospinal connections in the initiation of spontaneous locomotor recovery.

  20. The longitudinal epineural incision and complete nerve transection method for modeling sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-long Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury severity, operative technique and nerve regeneration are important factors to consider when constructing a model of peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a novel peripheral nerve injury model and compare it with the complete sciatic nerve transection method. In the experimental group, under a microscope, a 3-mm longitudinal incision was made in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve to reveal the nerve fibers, which were then transected. The small, longitudinal incision in the epineurium was then sutured closed, requiring no stump anastomosis. In the control group, the sciatic nerve was completely transected, and the epineurium was repaired by anastomosis. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, Wallerian degeneration was observed in both groups. In the experimental group, at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, distinct medullary nerve fibers and axons were observed in the injured sciatic nerve. Regular, dense myelin sheaths were visible, as well as some scarring. By 12 weeks, the myelin sheaths were normal and intact, and a tight lamellar structure was observed. Functionally, limb movement and nerve conduction recovered in the injured region between 4 and 12 weeks. The present results demonstrate that longitudinal epineural incision with nerve transection can stably replicate a model of Sunderland grade IV peripheral nerve injury. Compared with the complete sciatic nerve transection model, our method reduced the difficulties of micromanipulation and surgery time, and resulted in good stump restoration, nerve regeneration, and functional recovery.

  1. Effects of spinal transection on presynaptic markers for glutamatergic neurons in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, H.S.; Coyle, J.T.; Frangia, J.; Price, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that glutamic acid may be the neurotransmitter of descending, excitatory supraspinal pathways, the uptake and release of L-[3H] glutamate and the levels of endogenous glutamate were measured in preparations from rat lumbar spinal cord following complete mid-thoracic transection. Following transection, the activity of the synaptosomal high-affinity glutamate uptake process was increased in both dorsal and ventral halves of lumbar cord between 1 and 14 days after transection and returned to control levels by 21 days posttransection. At 7 days, the increased activity of the uptake process for L-[3H]glutamate resulted in elevation of Vmax with no significant alteration in KT as compared to age-matched controls. Depolarization-induced release of L-[3H]glutamate from prelabeled slices did not differ significantly from control in the lesioned rat except at 21 days after lesion when the amount of tritium release was significantly greater in the transected preparations than in control. Amino acid analysis of the lumbar cord from control and transected rats indicated only a 10% decrease in the level of endogenous glutamate and no alterations in the concentration of GABA and glycine 7 days after lesion. These findings do not support the hypothesis that glutamate serves as a major excitatory neurotransmitter in supraspinal pathways innervating the lumbar cord of the rat

  2. A brain-machine-muscle interface for restoring hindlimb locomotion after complete spinal transection in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monzurul Alam

    Full Text Available A brain-machine interface (BMI is a neuroprosthetic device that can restore motor function of individuals with paralysis. Although the feasibility of BMI control of upper-limb neuroprostheses has been demonstrated, a BMI for the restoration of lower-limb motor functions has not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to determine if gait-related information can be captured from neural activity recorded from the primary motor cortex of rats, and if this neural information can be used to stimulate paralysed hindlimb muscles after complete spinal cord transection. Neural activity was recorded from the hindlimb area of the primary motor cortex of six female Sprague Dawley rats during treadmill locomotion before and after mid-thoracic transection. Before spinal transection there was a strong association between neural activity and the step cycle. This association decreased after spinal transection. However, the locomotive state (standing vs. walking could still be successfully decoded from neural recordings made after spinal transection. A novel BMI device was developed that processed this neural information in real-time and used it to control electrical stimulation of paralysed hindlimb muscles. This system was able to elicit hindlimb muscle contractions that mimicked forelimb stepping. We propose this lower-limb BMI as a future neuroprosthesis for human paraplegics.

  3. The National Marine Mammal's California Current Ecosystem Program and Cascadia Research Collective: Aerial and small boat line transect surveys conducted in waters of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, Canada from 1989-07-13 to 2003-08-29 (NCEI Accession 0141100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML), a division of NOAA's Alaska Fisheries Science Center (Seattle, WA) and Cascadia Research Collective (Olympia, WA),...

  4. Seismic imaging along a 600 km transect of the Alaska Subduction zone (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, J. A.; Abers, G. A.; Freymueller, J. T.; Rondenay, S.; Christensen, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present earthquake locations, scattered wavefield migration images, and phase velocity maps from preliminary analysis of combined seismic data from the Broadband Experiment Across the Alaska Range (BEAAR) and Multidisciplinary Observations of Onshore Subduction (MOOS) projects. Together, these PASSCAL broadband arrays sampled a 500+ km transect across a portion of the subduction zone characterized by the Yakutat terrane/Pacific plate boundary in the downgoing plate, and the Denali volcanic gap in the overriding plate. These are the first results from the MOOS experiment, a 34-station array that was deployed from 2006-2008 to fill in the gap between the TACT offshore refraction profile (south and east of the coastline of the Kenai Peninsula), and the BEAAR array (spanning the Alaska Range between Talkeetna and Fairbanks). 2-D images of the upper 150 km of the subduction zone were produced by migrating forward- and back-scattered arrivals in the coda of P waves from large teleseismic earthquakes, highlighting S-velocity perturbations from a smoothly-varying background model. The migration images reveal a shallowly north-dipping low velocity zone that is contiguous near 20 km depth on its updip end with previously obtained images of the subducting plate offshore. The low velocity zone steepens further to the north, and terminates near 120 km beneath the Alaska Range. We interpret this low velocity zone to be the crust of the downgoing plate, and the reduced seismic velocities to be indicative of hydrated gabbroic compositions. Earthquakes located using the temporary arrays and nearby stations of the Alaska Regional Seismic Network correlate spatially with the inferred subducting crust. Cross-sections taken along nearly orthogonal strike lines through the MOOS array reveal that both the dip angle and the thickness of the subducting low velocity zone change abruptly across a roughly NNW-SSE striking line drawn through the eastern Kenai Peninsula, coincident with a

  5. Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections due to blunt force trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bjurlin, Marc A

    2012-02-01

    Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections is an encouraging minimally invasive alternative to open surgical repair. Between 2006 and 2008, 16 patients with acute thoracic aortic transections underwent evaluation at our institution. Seven patients who were treated with an endovascular stent graft were reviewed. The mean Glasgow Coma Score was 13.0, probability of survival was .89, and median injury severity score was 32. The mean number of intensive care unit days was 7.7, mean number of ventilator support days was 5.4, and hospital length of stay was 10 days. Mean blood loss was 285 mL, and operative time was 143 minutes. Overall mortality was 14%. Procedure complications were a bleeding arteriotomy site and an endoleak. Endovascular treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic transections appears to demonstrate superior results with respect to mortality, blood loss, operative time, paraplegia, and procedure-related complications when compared with open surgical repair literature.

  6. A west-east vegetation transect through Africa south of the Tropic of Capricorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Coetzee

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in predominant vegetation physiognomy, prominent species and physiography along the route following an I 800 km transect across southern Africa near the Tropic of Capricorn, are described. Eleven main discontinuities in the structure and Holistic composition of the vegetation along the transect are related to a climatic gradient across the Continent. Floristic variation within the main structural types is largely related to rainfall, severity of frost, soil conditions, exposure, slope and aspect. The main vegetation classes distinguished coincide largely with major differences in carrying capacity of the vegetation.

  7. Pinch-off syndrome: transection of implantable central venous access device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takuya; Nagata, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ken; Kano, Nobuyasu

    2012-11-30

    As the population of people with cancer increases so does the number of patients who take chemotherapy. Majority of them are administered parentally continuously. Implantable central venous catheter device is a good choice for those patients; however, severe complication would occur concerning the devices. Pinch-off syndrome is one of the most severe complications. The authors report a severe case of pinch-off syndrome. The patient with the implantable central venous device could not take chemotherapy because the device occluded. Further examination revealed the transection of the catheter. The transected fragment of the catheter in the heart was successfully removed by using a loop snare placed through the right femoral vein.

  8. Effects of different delayed exercise regimens on cognitive performance in fimbria‑fornix transected rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, Elise; Marschner, Linda; Gram, Marie Gajhede

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that exercise can positively influence cognitive performance after brain injury. This study investigated the effects of different exercise regimens on allocentric place learning after fimbria‑fornix (FF) transection. One hundred and sixteen pre‑shaped rats were subjected either...... to a mechanical transection of the FF or control sham surgery and divided into following groups: i) no exercise (NE), ii) voluntary exercise in a running wheel (RW), iii) forced swimming exercise administered as interval training of short (3x5 min) duration (FS‑SI), iv) forced swimming exercise administered...

  9. Evaluating application of the National Healthcare Safety Network central line-associated bloodstream infection surveillance definition: a survey of pediatric intensive care and hematology/oncology units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Aditya H; Miller, Marlene R; Gao, Cuilan; Rosenberg, Carol; Morrell, Gloria C; Coffin, Susan E; Huskins, W Charles

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the application of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) definition in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and pediatric hematology/oncology units (PHOUs) participating in a multicenter quality improvement collaborative to reduce CLABSIs; to identify sources of variability in the application of the definition. Online survey using 18 standardized case scenarios. Each described a positive blood culture in a patient and required a yes- or-no answer to the question "Is this a CLABSI?" NHSN staff responses were the reference standard. Sixty-five US PICUs and PHOUs. Staff who routinely adjudicate CLABSIs using NHSN definitions. Sixty responses were received from 58 (89%) of 65 institutions; 78% of respondents were infection preventionists, infection control officers, or infectious disease physicians. Responses matched those of NHSN staff for 78% of questions. The mean (SE) percentage of concurring answers did not differ for scenarios evaluating application of 1 of the 3 criteria ("known pathogen," 78% [1.7%]; "skin contaminant, >1 year of age," 76% [SE, 2.5%]; "skin contaminant, ≤1 year of age," 81% [3.8%]; [Formula: see text]). The mean percentage of concurring answers was lower for scenarios requiring respondents to determine whether a CLABSI was present or incubating on admission (64% [4.6%]; [Formula: see text]) or to distinguish between primary and secondary bacteremia (65% [2.5%]; [Formula: see text]). The accuracy of application of the CLABSI definition was suboptimal. Efforts to reduce variability in identifying CLABSIs that are present or incubating on admission and in distinguishing primary from secondary bloodstream infection are needed.

  10. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS. III. THE TRANSITION FROM PRIMORDIAL DISKS TO DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Cieza, Lucas; Koerner, David W.; Case, April; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Chapman, Nicholas; Padgett, Deborah L.; Brooke, Tim; Keller, James R.; MerIn, Bruno; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Sargent, Anneila; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Allen, Lori; Blake, Geoff; Mundy, Lee; Myers, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    We present 3.6 to 70 μm Spitzer photometry of 154 weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs) in the Chamaeleon, Lupus, Ophiuchus, and Taurus star formation regions, all of which are within 200 pc of the Sun. For a comparative study, we also include 33 classical T Tauri stars which are located in the same star-forming regions. Spitzer sensitivities allow us to robustly detect the photosphere in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8 μm) and the 24 μm MIPS band. In the 70 μm MIPS band, we are able to detect dust emission brighter than roughly 40 times the photosphere. These observations represent the most sensitive WTTSs survey in the mid- to far-infrared to date and reveal the frequency of outer disks (r = 3-50 AU) around WTTSs. The 70 μm photometry for half the c2d WTTSs sample (the on-cloud objects), which were not included in the earlier papers in this series, those of Padgett et al. and Cieza et al., are presented here for the first time. We find a disk frequency of 19% for on-cloud WTTSs, but just 5% for off-cloud WTTSs, similar to the value reported in the earlier works. WTTSs exhibit spectral energy distributions that are quite diverse, spanning the range from optically thick to optically thin disks. Most disks become more tenuous than L disk /L * = 2 x 10 -3 in 2 Myr and more tenuous than L disk /L * = 5 x 10 -4 in 4 Myr.

  11. Evaluation of Scat Deposition Transects versus Radio Telemetry for Developing a Species Distribution Model for a Rare Desert Carnivore, the Kit Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Steven J; Gese, Eric M; Kluever, Bryan M; Lonsinger, Robert C; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-01-01

    Development and evaluation of noninvasive methods for monitoring species distribution and abundance is a growing area of ecological research. While noninvasive methods have the advantage of reduced risk of negative factors associated with capture, comparisons to methods using more traditional invasive sampling is lacking. Historically kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) occupied the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America. Once the most abundant carnivore in the Great Basin Desert of Utah, the species is now considered rare. In recent decades, attempts have been made to model the environmental variables influencing kit fox distribution. Using noninvasive scat deposition surveys for determination of kit fox presence, we modeled resource selection functions to predict kit fox distribution using three popular techniques (Maxent, fixed-effects, and mixed-effects generalized linear models) and compared these with similar models developed from invasive sampling (telemetry locations from radio-collared foxes). Resource selection functions were developed using a combination of landscape variables including elevation, slope, aspect, vegetation height, and soil type. All models were tested against subsequent scat collections as a method of model validation. We demonstrate the importance of comparing multiple model types for development of resource selection functions used to predict a species distribution, and evaluating the importance of environmental variables on species distribution. All models we examined showed a large effect of elevation on kit fox presence, followed by slope and vegetation height. However, the invasive sampling method (i.e., radio-telemetry) appeared to be better at determining resource selection, and therefore may be more robust in predicting kit fox distribution. In contrast, the distribution maps created from the noninvasive sampling (i.e., scat transects) were significantly different than the invasive method, thus scat transects may be

  12. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on Leyland Cypress (xCupressocyparis leylandii (Dallim. and A.B. Jacks.) Dallim) and Japanese Privet (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.) growth were examined in a private nursery located in Sakarya, Turkey. Five transect were randomly chosen in both ...

  13. Benthic Surveys in Faga'alu, American Samoa: benthic images collected during belt transect surveys in 2012 and 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described herein are part of a NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) funded project aimed at establishing baseline data for coral demographics and...

  14. Benthic Surveys in Vatia, American Samoa since 2015: benthic images collected during belt transect surveys in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jurisdictional managers have expressed concerns that nutrients from the village of Vatia, Tutuila, American Samoa, are having an adverse effect on the coral reef...

  15. Effect of Chorda Tympani Nerve Transection on Salt Taste Perception in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwatari, Yutaka; Theodorides, Maria L.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of gustatory nerve transection on salt taste have been studied extensively in rats and hamsters but have not been well explored in the mouse. We examined the effects of chorda tympani (CT) nerve transection on NaCl taste preferences and thresholds in outbred CD-1 mice using a high-throughput phenotyping method developed in our laboratory. To measure taste thresholds, mice were conditioned by oral self-administration of LiCl or NaCl and then presented with NaCl concentration series in 2-bottle preference tests. LiCl-conditioned and control NaCl-exposed mice were given bilateral transections of the CT nerve (LiCl-CTX, NaCl-CTX) or were left intact as controls (LiCl-CNT, NaCl-CNT). After recovery from surgery, mice received a concentration series of NaCl (0–300 mM) in 48-h 2-bottle tests. CT transection increased NaCl taste thresholds in LiCl-conditioned mice and eliminated avoidance of concentrated NaCl in control NaCl-exposed mice. This demonstrates that in mice, the CT nerve is important for detection and recognition of NaCl taste and is necessary for the normal avoidance of high concentrations of NaCl. The results of this experiment also show that the method of high-throughput phenotyping of salt taste thresholds is suitable for detecting changes in the taste periphery in mouse genetic studies. PMID:21743094

  16. Histological characteristics of ligament healing after bio-enhanced repair of the transected goat ACL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, D. Tan; Dellbrügge, Sietske; Tak, Paul P.; Woo, Savio L.-Y.; Blankevoort, Leendert; van Dijk, Niek C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, healing of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is reconsidered. In a previous study, we have shown that the transected ACL can heal after treatment with the triple X locking suture alone or combined with small intestine submucosa (SIS). The first research question of this study was

  17. Transection of the pituitary stalk: evaluation of two cases by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.L.F. do; Mendonca, R.A.; Natal, M.R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present two cases of pituitary dwarfism where the study by high resolution computed tomography and by magnetic resonance imaging show transection of the pituitary stalk as the cause of the endocrine disturb. The importance of these methods on the investigation of disturbs of the hypothalamus-hypophyseal axis is stressed. (author)

  18. Transection of the inferior vena cava from blunt thoracic trauma: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzman, A B; Udekwu, A O; Pevec, W; Albrink, M

    1989-04-01

    Blunt thoracic trauma is a frequent cause of death in multiple trauma victims. Myocardial rupture may occur in up to 65% of patients who die with thoracic injuries. Two cases are presented with intrapericardial transection of the inferior vena cava, pericardial rupture, and myocardial rupture from blunt thoracic trauma. Both patients died.

  19. Accuracy Assessment Transects (2013) in the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of 399 underwater photos and video transects taken between 3/18 - 3/28/2013 in Fish Bay and Coral Bay, St. John and the St....

  20. Robust upregulation of serotonin 2A receptors after chronic spinal transection of rats: An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Xiang-Yu; Wienecke, Jacob; Hultborn, Hans

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that spinal motoneurons below a spinal transection become supersensitive to a systemic administration of serotonin (5-HT) precursors, such as 5-hydroxytryptophan. This supersensitivity has been implicated in both the process of functional recovery following chronic lesions, and a...

  1. Transection of the innominate artery for tracheomalacia caused by persistent opisthotonus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Chikara; Ono, Yasuyuki; Nishijima, Eiji; Takamizawa, Shigeru; Satoh, Shiiki; Muraji, Toshihiro

    2004-01-01

    Patients with cerebral palsy often develop opisthotonus. The trachea may be pinched between the innominate artery and the cervical spine. This compartmentalized thoracic inlet results in severe tracheomalacia. We successfully released tracheal compression by transection of the innominate artery. In case 1, a 4-year-old girl with cerebral palsy and opisthotonus was admitted due to respiratory distress. Bronchoscopy revealed severe tracheomalacia 2 cm above the carina. An endotracheal stent was placed through a tracheostomy. Two months later, she developed tracheal bleeding and bronchoscopy demonstrated a trachea-innominate artery fistula. Magnetic resonance brain angiography showed the presence of Willis' circle, and transection of the innominate artery was justified. This was done through a low cervical skin incision. In case 2, a 6-year-old boy with cerebral palsy and opisthotonus had long-standing respiratory distress. Ventilatory support did not resolve the symptoms. The innominate artery was transected in the same fashion as in the first case. Case 1 has been free from respiratory distress for 4 months and case 2 for 3 years. Our experience suggests that the combination of tracheomalacia, opisthotonus causes severe respiratory distress. Transection of the innominate artery is a useful therapeutic strategy to release airway obstruction in this condition.

  2. The distribution of mercury in a forest floor transect across the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher; William Cannon; Randall K. Kolka; Laurel Woodruff

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) stored in soil organic matter may be released when the forest floor is consumed by fire. Our objective is to document the spatial distribution of forest floor Hg for a transect crossing the central United States. Samples collected by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Inventory and Analysis Soil Quality Indicator were tested...

  3. Surveys of arthropod and gastropod diversity in the geothermal resource subzones, Puna, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.E.; Burgett, J.; Bruegmann, M.

    1995-04-01

    The invertebrate surveys reported here were carried out as part of ecological studies funded by the Department of Energy in support of their environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Hawaii Geothermal Project. Currently, preparation of the EIS has been suspended, and all supporting information is being archived and made available to the public. The invertebrate surveys reported here assessed diversity and abundance of the arthropod and gastropod fauna in forested habitat and lava tubes in or near the three geothermal resource subzones. Recommendations for conservation of these organisms are given in this report. Surveys were conducted along three 100-m transect lines at each of the six forested locations. Malaise traps, baited pitfall traps, yellow pan traps, baited sponge lures, and visual examination of vegetation were used to assess invertebrate diversity along each transect line. Three of these locations were adjacent to roads, and three were adjacent to lava flows. Two of these lava-forest locations (Keauohana Forest Reserve and Pu`u O`o) were relatively remote from direct human impacts. The third location (Southeast Kula) was near a low-density residential area. Two lava tubes were surveyed. The forest over one of these tubes (Keokea tube) had recently been burned away. This tube was used to assess the effects of loss of forest habitat on the subterranean fauna. An undisturbed tube (Pahoa tube) was used as a control. Recommendations offered in this report direct geothermal development away from areas of high endemic diversity and abundance, and toward areas where natural Hawaiian biotic communities have already been greatly disturbed. These disturbed areas are mainly found in the lower half of the Kamaili (middle) geothermal subzone and throughout most of the Kapoho (lower) geothermal subzone. These recommendation may also generally apply to other development projects in the Puna District.

  4. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hodgson

    Full Text Available Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2 area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98% were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs. Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys.

  5. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2) area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys.

  6. Gulf of Mexico miocene CO₂ site characterization mega transect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckel, Timothy [Univ. of Austin, Austin, TX (United Staes); Trevino, Ramon [Univ. of Austin, Austin, TX (United Staes)

    2014-12-01

    This project characterized the Miocene-age sub-seafloor stratigraphy in the near-offshore portion of the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Texas coast. The large number of industrial sources of carbon dioxide (CO₂) in coastal counties and the high density of onshore urbanization and environmentally sensitive areas make this offshore region extremely attractive for long-term storage of carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources (CCS). The study leverages dense existing geologic data from decades of hydrocarbon exploration in and around the study area to characterize the regional geology for suitability and storage capacity. Primary products of the study include: regional static storage capacity estimates, sequestration “leads” and prospects with associated dynamic capacity estimates, experimental studies of CO₂-brine-rock interaction, best practices for site characterization, a large-format ‘Atlas’ of sequestration for the study area, and characterization of potential fluid migration pathways for reducing storage risks utilizing novel high-resolution 3D (HR3D) seismic surveys. In addition, three subcontracted studies address source-to-sink matching optimization, offshore well bore management and environmental aspects. The various geologic data and interpretations are integrated and summarized in a series of cross-sections and maps, which represent a primary resource for any near-term commercial deployment of CCS in the area. The regional study characterized and mapped important geologic features (e.g., Clemente-Tomas fault zone, the regionally extensive Marginulina A and Amphistegina B confining systems, etc.) that provided an important context for regional static capacity estimates and specific sequestration prospects of the study. A static capacity estimate of the majority of the Study area (14,467 mi2) was estimated at 86 metric Gigatonnes. While local capacity estimates are likely to be lower due to reservoir-scale characteristics, the

  7. Coral Reef Surveys at 21 Sites in American Samoa during 2002 (NODC Accession 0000735)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Transects of the coral colonies at 21 sites in American Samoa were surveyed by Dr. Charles Birkeland during an underwater swim in March 2002. Data for each coral...

  8. Adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) demonstrate near normal locomotion after spinal cord transection as neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X M; Basso, D M; Terman, J R; Bresnahan, J C; Martin, G F

    1998-05-01

    When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is transected on postnatal day (PD) 5, the site of injury becomes bridged by histologically recognizable spinal cord and axons which form major long tracts grow through the lesion. In the present study we asked whether opossums lesioned on PD5 have normal use of the hindlimbs as adults and, if so, whether that use is dependent upon axons which grow through the lesion site. The thoracic spinal cord was transected on PD5 and 6 months later, hindlimb function was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. All animals supported their weight with the hindlimbs and used their hindlimbs normally during overground locomotion. In some cases, the spinal cord was retransected at the original lesion site or just caudal to it 6 months after the original transection and paralysis of the hindlimbs ensued. Surprisingly, however, these animals gradually recovered some ability to support their weight and to step with the hindlimbs. Similar recovery was not seen in animals transected only as adults. In order to verify that descending axons which grew through the lesion during development were still present in the adult animal, opossums subjected to transection of the thoracic cord on PD5 were reoperated and Fast blue was injected several segments caudal to the lesion. In all cases, neurons were labeled rostral to the lesion in each of the spinal and supraspinal nuclei labeled by comparable injections in unlesioned, age-matched controls. The results of orthograde tracing studies indicated that axons which grew through the lesion innervated areas that were appropriate for them. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  9. Relative spatial soil geochemical variability along two transects across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    To support the development of protocols for the proposed North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes project, whose objective is to establish baselines for the geochemistry of North American soils, two continental-scale transects across the United States and Canada were sampled in 2004. The sampling employed a spatially stratified random sampling design in order to estimate the variability between 40-km linear sampling units, within them, at sample sites, and due to sample preparation and analytical chemical procedures. The 40-km scale was chosen to be consistent with the density proposed for the continental-scale project. The two transects, north–south (N–S) from northern Manitoba to the USA–Mexico border near El Paso, Texas, and east–west (E–W) from the Virginia shore north of Washington, DC, to north of San Francisco, California, closely following the 38th parallel, have been studied individually. The purpose of this study was to determine if statistically significant systematic spatial variation occurred along the transects. Data for 38 major, minor and trace elements in A- and C-horizon soils where less than 5% of the data were below the detection limit were investigated by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). A total of 15 elements (K, Na, As, Ba, Be, Ce, La, Mn, Nb, P, Rb, Sb, Th, Tl and W) demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.05) variability at the between-40-km scale for both horizons along both transects. Only Cu failed to demonstrate significant variability at the between-40-km scale for both soil horizons along both transects.

  10. THE MOSDEF SURVEY: DISSECTING THE STAR FORMATION RATE VERSUS STELLAR MASS RELATION USING Hα AND Hβ EMISSION LINES AT z ∼ 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivaei, Irene; Reddy, Naveen A.; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Freeman, William R.; Groot, Laura de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Shapley, Alice E.; Sanders, Ryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kriek, Mariska; Price, Sedona H. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Coil, Alison L.; Azadi, Mojegan [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    We present results on the star formation rate (SFR) versus stellar mass (M{sub *}) relation (i.e., the “main sequence”) among star-forming galaxies at 1.37 ≤ z ≤ 2.61 using the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey. Based on a sample of 261 galaxies with Hα and Hβ spectroscopy, we have estimated robust dust-corrected instantaneous SFRs over a large range in M{sub *} (∼10{sup 9.5}–10{sup 11.5} M{sub ⊙}). We find a correlation between log(SFR(Hα)) and log(M{sub *}) with a slope of 0.65 ± 0.08 (0.58 ± 0.10) at 1.4 < z < 2.6 (2.1 < z < 2.6). We find that different assumptions for the dust correction, such as using the color excess of the stellar continuum to correct the nebular lines, sample selection biases against red star-forming galaxies, and not accounting for Balmer absorption, can yield steeper slopes of the log(SFR)–log(M{sub *}) relation. Our sample is immune from these biases as it is rest-frame optically selected, Hα and Hβ are corrected for Balmer absorption, and the Hα luminosity is dust corrected using the nebular color excess computed from the Balmer decrement. The scatter of the log(SFR(Hα))–log(M{sub *}) relation, after accounting for the measurement uncertainties, is 0.31 dex at 2.1 < z < 2.6, which is 0.05 dex larger than the scatter in log(SFR(UV))–log(M{sub *}). Based on comparisons to a simulated SFR–M{sub *} relation with some intrinsic scatter, we argue that in the absence of direct measurements of galaxy-to-galaxy variations in the attenuation/extinction curves and the initial mass function, one cannot use the difference in the scatter of the SFR(Hα)– and SFR(UV)–M{sub *} relations to constrain the stochasticity of star formation in high-redshift galaxies.

  11. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) : IV. A survey of low-J H2O line profiles toward high-mass protostars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Walmsley, C. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.

    Context. Water is a key constituent of star-forming matter, but the origin of its line emission and absorption during high-mass star formation is not well understood. Aims. We study the velocity profiles of low-excitation H2O lines toward 19 high-mass star-forming regions and search for trends with

  12. Independent Verification Survey Report for the Offsite Portion of the Potential Release Site-7 Abandoned Sanitary Line, Miamisburg Closure Project, Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    The ORISE objective was to confirm that the remedial action process implemented by the contractor was in accordance with the PRS-7 Work Package. Following removal of the sanitary line, the soil beneath the line would be sampled to determine if remediation was required (ARC 2007a).

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Epidemiology and Management of Travelers' Diarrhea: A Survey of Front-Line Providers in Iraq and Afghanistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, John W

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between medical knowledge and clinical practice, a survey on travelers' diarrhea was administered to military health care providers attending a professional development...

  14. Diel effects on bottom-trawl survey catch rates of shallow- and deep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fishing in depths shallower than 400 m outside daylight hours should therefore be avoided in order to reduce bias and ensure consistency in abundance estimates from surveys. Keywords: Benguela Current system, consistency of survey indices, efficiency of bottom-trawl surveys, negative binomial GAM, transect survey ...

  15. CRED REA Line Point Intercept Surveys of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Howland Island, Phoenix Islands, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs) in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 3-5 February 2010, line...

  16. CRED REA Line Point Intercept Surveys of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Baker Island, Phoenix Islands, Pacific Remote Islands Areas (PRIAs) in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 6-8 February 2010, line...

  17. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east–west from Virginia to California, and north–south from northern Manitoba to the US–Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba–North Dakota segment of the north–south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  18. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east-west from Virginia to California, and north-south from northern Manitoba to the US-Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba-North Dakota segment of the north-south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  19. Pacific Reef Monitoring and Assessment Program: Line-Point-Intercept (LPI) Surveys for Benthic Cover at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Ocean from 2005 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A REA survey is a collection of inter-disciplinary protocols for gathering data pertaining to ecologically relevant biological components of a reef habitat over...

  20. Geology, Bedrock - BEDROCK_TOPOGRAPHY_MM36_IN: Bedrock Topography Contours, Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Bedrock topography was converted from the original published map, Indiana Geological Survey Miscellaneous Map 36. The contours define the elevation/topography of the...

  1. SV_SEISMICLINES- Survey Lines along which seismic data were collected aboard R/V RAFAEL (field activities 05001 and 06001) in Apalachicola Bay, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected under a cooperative mapping program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office...

  2. Outcome of prolonged acute vena cava occlusion after iatrogenic transection and repair in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Halwagi, Marie-Chantal; Crawford, Evan; Hoddinott, Katie; Oblak, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    A 12-year-old castrated male Airedale terrier dog was diagnosed with a hepatocellular carcinoma in the right medial liver lobe. During tumor resection, inadvertent stapling and transection of the caudal vena cava occurred. Complete caval occlusion was required for 18 minutes and primary anastomosis was completed. The dog received 2 blood transfusions and developed mild pelvic limb edema after surgery. Computed tomography evaluation 9 months after surgery showed collateral circulation and susp...

  3. Electroacupuncture and Acupuncture Promote the Rat’s Transected Median Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, C. Y.; Yao, C. H.; Chen, W. C.; Shen, W. C.; Bau, D. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments of damaged nerves may aid nerve regeneration related to hindlimb function, but the effects on the forelimb-related median nerve were not known. Methods. A gap was made in the median nerve of each rat by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. The influences of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments on transected median nerve regeneration were evaluated from morphological, electrophysiological, and functional angles. Resu...

  4. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yi-ke; Yang, Juan-mei; Huang, Yi-bo; Ren, Dong-dong; Chi, Fang-lu

    2015-01-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: co...

  5. Spatial distribution of phytoplankton in Spring 2004 along a transect in the eastern part of the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaloud, P.; Rezacova, M.; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    were analyzed by multivariate statistics. Only distance from the coast was found to be a significant factor for algal distribution along the transect. Three main areas of the transect were found: the coastal, middle and oceanic areas. Diatoms, mainly the centric ones, were the most abundant group......, although the species composition was different. Some species were found to prefer coastal waters, other species were characterized as oceanic, and several species were found at all stations. Porosira glacialis showed an atypical distribution along the transect, with highest abundances at both coastal...... and oceanic stations....

  6. Transection of Nasolacrimal Duct in Endoscopic Medial Maxillectomy: Implication on Epiphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Abdulkadir; Imre, Seher Saritepe; Pinar, Ercan; Ozkul, Yilmaz; Songu, Murat; Ece, Ahmet Ata; Aladag, Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Management of the nasolacrimal system is usually recommended during medial maxillectomy via external approach because of reported higher rates of postoperative epiphora. Association of the endoscopic medial maxillectomy (EMM) with epiphora, however, is not clearly stated. In this study, we attempted to evaluate whether patients develop epiphora after simple transection of the nasolacrimal duct during EMM. Medical records of 26 patients who underwent endoscopic tumor resection for inverted papilloma (IP) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who underwent EMM with nasolacrimal canal transection were included and recalled for lacrimal system evaluation. Twelve patients were eligible for inclusion and fluorescein dye disappearance test (FDDT) was performed for each patient. Patient demographics, tumor data, surgical procedures, and follow-up time were recorded. Of the 12 patients included in the study, 6 underwent canine fossa transantral approach concurrently with EMM. The mean duration of follow-up was 21.1 months (range, 6-84 months). Eight patients were graded as 0, whereas 4 patients were graded as 1 according to FDDT. All test results were interpreted as negative for epiphora. All patients were completely symptom free of epiphora. Epiphora after EMM with nasolacrimal canal transection among patients with sinonasal tumors appears to be uncommon. Therefore, prophylactic concurrent management of nasolacrimal system including stenting, dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR), or postoperative lacrimal lavage are not mandatory for all patients.

  7. Changes of amino acid concentrations in the rat vestibular nuclei after inferior cerebellar peduncle transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yizhe; Godfrey, Donald A; Godfrey, Timothy G; Rubin, Allan M

    2007-02-15

    Although there is a close relationship between the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) and the cerebellum, little is known about the contribution of cerebellar inputs to amino acid neurotransmission in the VNC. Microdissection of freeze-dried brain sections and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were combined to measure changes of amino acid concentrations within the VNC of rats following transection of the cerebellovestibular connections in the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Distributions of 12 amino acids within the VNC at 2, 4, 7, and 30 days after surgery were compared with those for control and sham-lesioned rats. Concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) decreased by 2 days after unilateral peduncle transection in nearly all VNC regions on the lesioned side and to lesser extents on the unlesioned side and showed partial recovery up to 30 days postsurgery. Asymmetries between the two sides of the VNC were maintained through 30 days. Glutamate concentrations were reduced bilaterally in virtually all regions of the VNC by 2 days and showed complete recovery in most VNC regions by 30 days. Glutamine concentrations increased, starting 2 days after surgery, especially on the lesioned side, so that there was asymmetry generally opposite that of glutamate. Concentrations of taurine, aspartate, and glycine also underwent partially reversible changes after peduncle transection. The results suggest that GABA and glutamate are prominent neurotransmitters in bilateral projections from the cerebellum to the VNC and that amino acid metabolism in the VNC is strongly influenced by its cerebellar connections.

  8. Multifractal analyis of soil invertebrates along a transect under different land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Siqueira, Glécio; Alves Silva, Raimunda; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva; Paz-González, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Soil fauna play a central role in many essential ecosystem processes. Land use and management can have a dramatic effect upon soil invertebrate community. Indices based on soil invertebrates abundance and diversity are fundamental for soil quality assessment. Many soil properties and attributes have been shown to exhibit spatial variabilityThe aim of this study was to analyze the scaling heterogeneity of the soil invertebrate community sampled using pitfall traps across a transect. The field study was conducted at Mata Roma municipality, Maranhão State, Brazil. Transects were marked under seven different agricultural/forestry land uses (millet, soybean, maize, eucalyptus, pasture, secondary savannah and native savannah). Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. Along these transects 130 pitfall per land use were installed. First, differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems were evaluated using classical indices. Then, the spatial distribution of soil fauna trapped by pitfall techniques, characterized through generalized dimension, Dq, and singularity spectra, f(α) - α, showed a well-defined multifractal structure. Differences in scaling heterogeneity and other multifractal characteristics were examined in relation to land use intensification.

  9. Fish, Benthic and Urchin Survey Data from Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (HFMA), Maui since 2008 (NCEI Accession 0146683)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data are summary fish, benthic and urchin data from belt transect surveys conducted by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program within the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries...

  10. Fish, Benthic and Urchin Survey Data from Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (HFMA), Maui, HI since 2008 (NCEI Accession 0165015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data are summary fish, benthic and urchin data from belt transect surveys conducted by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program within the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries...

  11. FBSAD Reef Fish-Habitat Quadrat Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat quadrats were surveyed at 8-13 m depths using shore-based transects swum at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the...

  12. The transect method: a novel approach to on-farm welfare assessment of commercial turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Joanna; Estevez, Inma; Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Ferrante, Valentina; Makagon, Maja M

    2015-01-01

    Currently, no animal-based protocol for on-farm welfare assessment of commercial turkeys is available. The birds' size and flighty nature make obtaining a representative sample using traditional methods difficult. The transect walks (TW) approach provides a potential alternative for on-farm assessments of turkey welfare. We compared the TW approach with a traditional method, and data collected as the birds were moved out of the house during the load out process (L). Ten commercial 19- to 20-week-old Hybrid turkey flocks were evaluated (1 flock/house/farm). Half of the flocks were housed on farms deemed as "faring well" by the company, the other half were on "suboptimal" farms. Each house was subdivided longitudinally into 4 transects. Two observers walked the transects in random order, recording the total number of birds per transect that were immobile; lame; aggressive towards a mate; interacting with humans; with visible head, vent, or back wounds; engaging in mounting behaviors; small; featherless; dirty; sick; terminal; or dead. Flocks were re-evaluated on the same day using the individual sampling method (S), where randomly selected birds were scored as they took 10 steps. Flocks were re-assessed within 48 h of the transect evaluation, as birds were funneled out of the house during load out. Using ANOVAs we determined the effects of observers, method, management, and their interactions on proportions of turkeys per house within each category. Outcome parameters were not affected by management (P>0.05 for all) or observer (P>0.05 for most), but an assessment method effect was detected (P<0.05). S differed from the 2 other methods (P<0.05) for most parameters except aggression towards a mate, back wounds, dirty, sick, and vent wounds. Differences were not detected between data collected using TW and during L, except for dead (P=0.0007) and immobile (P=0.007). Results suggest that the TW method is a promising tool for on-farm turkey welfare assessment as it

  13. Evaluating Opportunities to Enhance Hoosier State Train Ridership through a Survey of Riders’ Opinions and an Assessment of Access to the Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Passenger rail is an integral part of intercity transportation networks, especially in areas where residents do not have access to a car or there are not any other options for intercity travel. The Hoosier State Train (HST) line connects five station...

  14. Groundwater Dynamics along Forest-Marsh-Tidal Creek Transects in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1994-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Ground water level elevations were collected every 10 to 15 days from piezometers stationed along three forest-marsh-tidal creek transects (B, C, and D) across the...

  15. Influence of Electrical and Electromagnetic Stimulation on Nerve Regeneration in the Transected Mouse Sciatic Nerve : An Electron Microscopic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ogata, Akiko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Matsubara, Takako; Miki, Akinori

    2001-01-01

    Influence of electrical and electromagnetic stimulation on nerve regeneration was electron microscopically examined in the transected mouse sciatic nerve. Two days after the transection, several thin regenerating axons (daughter axons) were observed between the myelin sheath and basal lamina of Schwann cells in the proximal stump. Growth cones of the daughter axons contained several small round vesicles and mitochondria, and the shaft of them, neurofilaments, neurotubules and profiles of smoo...

  16. The Subaru FMOS galaxy redshift survey (FastSound). V. Intrinsic alignments of emission-line galaxies at z ˜ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonegawa, Motonari; Okumura, Teppei; Totani, Tomonori; Dalton, Gavin; Glazebrook, Karl; Yabe, Kiyoto

    2018-04-01

    Intrinsic alignments (IA), the coherent alignment of intrinsic galaxy orientations, can be a source of a systematic error of weak lensing surveys. The redshift evolution of IA also contains information about the physics of galaxy formation and evolution. This paper presents the first measurement of IA at high redshift, z ˜ 1.4, using the spectroscopic catalog of blue star-forming galaxies of the FastSound redshift survey, with the galaxy shape information from the Canada-Hawaii-France telescope lensing survey. The IA signal is consistent with zero with power-law amplitudes fitted to the projected correlation functions for density-shape and shape-shape correlation components, Aδ+ = -0.0071 ± 0.1340 and A++ = -0.0505 ± 0.0848, respectively. These results are consistent with those obtained from blue galaxies at lower redshifts (e.g., A _{δ +}=0.0035_{-0.0389}^{+0.0387} and A_{++}=0.0045_{-0.0168}^{+0.0166} at z = 0.51 from the WiggleZ survey). The upper limit of the constrained IA amplitude corresponds to a few percent contamination to the weak-lensing shear power spectrum, resulting in systematic uncertainties on the cosmological parameter estimations by -0.052 < Δσ8 < 0.039 and -0.039 < ΔΩm < 0.030.

  17. 238 series isotopes at different soil depths and disequilibrium over various geology and soil classifications along transects in selected parts of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAulay, I.R.; Hayes, A.

    1996-01-01

    Sampling of soils was carried out along linear transects in selected regions of the country, a technique known as Transect Sampling. This was a controlled rather than a random sampling technique. The transects were located in regions which were previously known to contain high levels of the 226 Ra isotope, from the 238 U series. The soil sampling was carried out at selected sites along these transects. At each transect site, two different soil depths were examined and the soil samples collected were identified as the top and bottom soil samples. This transect data set, consisting of the isotope activity levels and the influencing variables transect geology and soil types, provided a data base for investigation. Comparisons were made between the soil isotope activity levels measured at different soil depths. An examination of the 238 U decay series showed the existence of disequilibrium. Relationships between the disequilibrium data and the associated geology and soil types were investigated. (author)

  18. Survey of the effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract of white Morus alba leaf on apoptosis induction in a-172 GBM cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabili, Sheyda; Fallah, Soudabeh; Aein, Mojdeh; Vatannejad, Akram; Panahi, Ghodratollah; Fadaei, Reza; Moradi, Nariman; Shojaii, Asie

    2018-02-20

    In this study, the effect of doxorubicin, flavonoid extract of white Morus alba leaf (MFE) and a combination of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on Bax and Bcl2 levels and caspase 3 activity of cancer A-172 GBM cell line was investigated. Bax/Bcl2 levels of treated A-172 GBM cell line with flavonoid extract of white mulberry leaf were estimated by ELISA methods. Caspase 3 activity of treated A-172 GBM cells was determined by calorimetric assay. The flow cytometry assessment was used to estimate the apoptosis percent of treated A-172 GBM cells. Treatment of A-172 GBM cells with MFE, doxorubicin and a combination of MFE and doxorubicin caused a significant decrease in Bcl2 level and an increase in Bax level. The apoptosis percent of treated cells were also elevated significantly. Present results suggest that concomitant use of herbal medicine and chemotherapy may be an effective alternative method for the treatment of cancers.

  19. Beyond the transect: An alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, Nicole; Fowler, Ashley M.; Parkinson, Kerryn; Bishop, David P.; Ganio, Katherine; Doble, Philip A.; Booth, David J.; Hare, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    scanning has no significant advantage over line scans. - Highlights: • Ba and Sr levels in otoliths from P. coelestis were imaged using LA-ICP-MS. • Longerich's calibration method was applied to quantitative otolith imaging. • An alternative to single line transects for microchemical analysis is presented

  20. Beyond the transect: An alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Nicole [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); CCFS ARC Centre of Excellence, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia); Fowler, Ashley M.; Parkinson, Kerryn [Fish Ecology Laboratory, School of the Environment, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Bishop, David P. [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Ganio, Katherine [Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Doble, Philip A. [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Booth, David J. [Fish Ecology Laboratory, School of the Environment, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Hare, Dominic J., E-mail: dominic.hare@uts.edu.au [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    scanning has no significant advantage over line scans. - Highlights: • Ba and Sr levels in otoliths from P. coelestis were imaged using LA-ICP-MS. • Longerich's calibration method was applied to quantitative otolith imaging. • An alternative to single line transects for microchemical analysis is presented.

  1. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered

  2. Gas hydrate drilling transect across northern Cascadia margin - IODP Expedition 311

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, M.; Collett, T.; Malone, M.J.; Collett, T.S.; Mitchell, M.; Guerin, G.; Akiba, F.; Blanc-Valleron, M.; Ellis, M.; Hashimoto, Y.; Heuer, V.; Higashi, Y.; Holland, M.; Jackson, P.D.; Kaneko, M.; Kastner, M.; Kim, J.-H.; Kitajima, H.; Long, P.E.; Malinverno, A.; Myers, Gwen E.; Palekar, L.D.; Pohlman, J.; Schultheiss, P.; Teichert, B.; Torres, M.E.; Trehu, A.M.; Wang, Jingyuan; Worthmann, U.G.; Yoshioka, H.

    2009-01-01

    A transect of four sites (U1325, U1326, U1327 and U1329) across the northern Cascadia margin was established during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311 to study the occurrence and formation of gas hydrate in accretionary complexes. In addition to the transect sites, a fifth site (U1328) was established at a cold vent with active fluid flow. The four transect sites represent different typical geological environments of gas hydrate occurrence across the northern Cascadia margin from the earliest occurrence on the westernmost first accreted ridge (Site U1326) to the eastward limit of the gas hydrate occurrence in shallower water (Site U1329). Expedition 311 complements previous gas hydrate studies along the Cascadia accretionary complex, especially ODP Leg 146 and Leg 204 by extending the aperture of the transect sampled and introducing new tools to systematically quantify the gas hydrate content of the sediments. Among the most significant findings of the expedition was the occurrence of up to 20 m thick sand-rich turbidite intervals with gas hydrate concentrations locally exceeding 50% of the pore space at Sites U1326 and U1327. Moreover, these anomalous gas hydrate intervals occur at unexpectedly shallow depths of 50-120 metres below seafloor, which is the opposite of what was expected from previous models of gas hydrate formation in accretionary complexes, where gas hydrate was predicted to be more concentrated near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone just above the bottom-simulating reflector. Gas hydrate appears to be mainly concentrated in turbidite sand layers. During Expedition 311, the visual correlation of gas hydrate with sand layers was clearly and repeatedly documented, strongly supporting the importance of grain size in controlling gas hydrate occurrence. The results from the transect sites provide evidence for a structurally complex, lithology-controlled gas hydrate environment on the northern Cascadia margin. Local shallow

  3. Diversity and distribution of hyperiid amphipods along a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Alice K.; Tump, Marloes; Vonk, Ronald; Goetze, Erica; Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A.

    2017-11-01

    As commensals and parasitoids of gelatinous plankton, hyperiid amphipods play unique and important ecological roles in pelagic food webs. Because the diversity and biogeography of this group in oceanic waters is poorly known, we examined diversity and distribution patterns of hyperiids along a basin-scale meridional transect in the Atlantic Ocean (Atlantic Meridional Transect cruise 22). Hyperiids were collected from epipelagic and upper mesopelagic depths at 27 stations between 39°N and 45°S. A total of 70 species in 36 genera and 17 families were identified, the majority of which belonged to the epipelagic Physocephalata infraorder. We observed maximum species and genus richness in the equatorial upwelling region (up to 35 species, 27 genera per station; 7°N-8°S), which appeared largely driven by increased diversity in the superfamily Platysceloidea, as well as a significant and positive relationship between species richness and sea surface temperature. Cluster analyses of hyperiid species assemblages along the transect broadly supported a division into gyral, equatorial, transitional, and subantarctic assemblages, congruent with Longhurst's biogeochemical provinces. Steepest transitions in hyperiid species composition occurred at the southern subtropical convergence zone (34-38°S). The majority of zooplankton groups show maximal diversity in subtropical waters, and our observations of equatorial maxima in species and genus richness for hyperiids suggest that the mechanisms controlling diversity in this group are distinct from other zooplanktonic taxa. These patterns may be driven by the distribution and diversity of gelatinous hosts for hyperiids, which remain poorly characterized at ocean basin scales. The data reported here provide new distributional records for epipelagic and upper mesopelagic hyperiids across six major oceanic provinces in the Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Mercury distribution and transport in the North Atlantic Ocean along the GEOTRACES-GA01 transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossa, Daniel; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Pérez, Fiz F.; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Planquette, Hélène; Lherminier, Pascale; Boutorh, Julia; Cheize, Marie; Lukas Menzel Barraqueta, Jan; Shelley, Rachel; Sarthou, Géraldine

    2018-04-01

    We report here the results of total mercury (HgT) determinations along the 2014 Geotraces Geovide cruise (GA01 transect) in the North Atlantic Ocean (NA) from Lisbon (Portugal) to the coast of Labrador (Canada). HgT concentrations in unfiltered samples (HgTUNF) were log-normally distributed and ranged between 0.16 and 1.54 pmol L-1, with a geometric mean of 0.51 pmol L-1 for the 535 samples analysed. The dissolved fraction (waters. The HgTUNF concentrations were similarly low in the subpolar gyre waters ( ˜ 0.45 pmol L-1), whereas they exceeded 0.60 pmol L-1 in the subtropical gyre waters. The HgTUNF distribution mirrored that of dissolved oxygen concentration, with highest concentration levels associated with oxygen-depleted zones. The relationship between HgTF and the apparent oxygen utilization confirms the nutrient-like behaviour of Hg in the NA. An extended optimum multiparameter analysis allowed us to characterize HgTUNF concentrations in the different source water types (SWTs) present along the transect. The distribution pattern of HgTUNF, modelled by the mixing of SWTs, show Hg enrichment in Mediterranean waters and North East Atlantic Deep Water and low concentrations in young waters formed in the subpolar gyre and Nordic seas. The change in anthropogenic Hg concentrations in the Labrador Sea Water during its eastward journey suggests a continuous decrease in Hg content in this water mass over the last decades. Calculation of the water transport driven by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation across the Portugal-Greenland transect indicates northward Hg transport within the upper limb and southward Hg transport within the lower limb, with resulting net northward transport of about 97.2 kmol yr-1.

  5. Retinal glutamate transporter changes in experimental glaucoma and after optic nerve transection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith R G; Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Valenta, Danielle; Baumrind, Lisa; Pease, Mary Ellen; Quigley, Harry A

    2002-07-01

    High levels of glutamate can be toxic to retinal ganglion cells. Effective buffering of extracellular glutamate by retinal glutamate transporters is therefore important. This study was conducted to investigate whether glutamate transporter changes occur with two models of optic nerve injury in the rat. Glaucoma was induced in one eye of 35 adult Wistar rats by translimbal diode laser treatment to the trabecular meshwork. Twenty-five more rats underwent unilateral optic nerve transection. Two glutamate transporters, GLAST (EAAT-1) and GLT-1 (EAAT-2), were studied by immunohistochemistry and quantitative Western blot analysis. Treated and control eyes were compared 3 days and 1, 4, and 6 weeks after injury. Optic nerve damage was assessed semiquantitatively in epoxy-embedded optic nerve cross sections. Trabecular laser treatment resulted in moderate intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in all animals. After 1 to 6 weeks of experimental glaucoma, all treated eyes had significant optic nerve damage. Glutamate transporter changes were not detected by immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis demonstrated significantly reduced GLT-1 in glaucomatous eyes compared with control eyes at 3 days (29.3% +/- 6.7%, P = 0.01), 1 week (55.5% +/- 13.6%, P = 0.02), 4 weeks (27.2% +/- 10.1%, P = 0.05), and 6 weeks (38.1% +/- 7.9%, P = 0.01; mean reduction +/- SEM, paired t-tests, n = 5 animals per group, four duplicate Western blot analyses per eye). The magnitude of the reduction in GLT-1 correlated significantly with mean IOP in the glaucomatous eye (r(2) = 0.31, P = 0.01, linear regression). GLAST was significantly reduced (33.8% +/- 8.1%, mean +/- SEM) after 4 weeks of elevated IOP (P = 0.01, paired t-test, n = 5 animals per group). In contrast to glaucoma, optic nerve transection resulted in an increase in GLT-1 compared with the control eye (P = 0.01, paired t-test, n = 15 animals). There was no significant change in GLAST after transection. GLT-1 and GLAST were significantly

  6. Blunt traumatic bronchial transection in a 28-month-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Mi Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracheobronchial injury is uncommon in children, but may result in life-threatening conditions. We present a case of transection of the right intermediate bronchus, right middle lobe bronchus and right lower lobe bronchus in a 28-month-old child with blunt chest injury. The gold standard for diagnosis is tracheobronchoscopy, however, the bronchoscopy may not always be available for little children. For diagnosis in similar cases, a high index of suspicion should be needed based on symptoms, chest X-ray and computed tomography findings. In addition, anesthesiologists should be aware of this dangerous condition and must be fully prepared for rapid and appropriate management during operation.

  7. Outcome of prolonged acute vena cava occlusion after iatrogenic transection and repair in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwagi, Marie-Chantal; Crawford, Evan; Hoddinott, Katie; Oblak, Michelle L

    2017-08-01

    A 12-year-old castrated male Airedale terrier dog was diagnosed with a hepatocellular carcinoma in the right medial liver lobe. During tumor resection, inadvertent stapling and transection of the caudal vena cava occurred. Complete caval occlusion was required for 18 minutes and primary anastomosis was completed. The dog received 2 blood transfusions and developed mild pelvic limb edema after surgery. Computed tomography evaluation 9 months after surgery showed collateral circulation and suspected stricture of the vena cava with an absence of clinical effect. The dog remained alive and asymptomatic more than 1 year after surgery.

  8. G-CSF prevents caspase 3 activation in Schwann cells after sciatic nerve transection, but does not improve nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Hanna K; Kodama, Akira; Ekström, Per; Dahlin, Lars B

    2016-10-15

    Exogenous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has emerged as a drug candidate for improving the outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. We raised the question if exogenous G-CSF can improve nerve regeneration following a clinically relevant model - nerve transection and repair - in healthy and diabetic rats. In short-term experiments, distance of axonal regeneration and extent of injury-induced Schwann cell death was quantified by staining for neurofilaments and cleaved caspase 3, respectively, seven days after repair. There was no difference in axonal outgrowth between G-CSF-treated and non-treated rats, regardless if healthy Wistar or diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were examined. However, G-CSF treatment caused a significant 13% decrease of cleaved caspase 3-positive Schwann cells at the lesion site in healthy rats, but only a trend in diabetic rats. In the distal nerve segments of healthy rats a similar trend was observed. In long-term experiments of healthy rats, regeneration outcome was evaluated at 90days after repair by presence of neurofilaments, wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle, and perception of touch (von Frey monofilament testing weekly). The presence of neurofilaments distal to the suture line was similar in G-CSF-treated and non-treated rats. The weight ratio of ipsi-over contralateral gastrocnemius muscles, and perception of touch at any time point, were likewise not affected by G-CSF treatment. In addition, the inflammatory response in short- and long-term experiments was studied by analyzing ED1 stainable macrophages in healthy rats, but in neither case was any attenuation seen at the injury site or distal to it. G-CSF can prevent caspase 3 activation in Schwann cells in the short-term, but does not detectably affect the inflammatory response, nor improve early or late axonal outgrowth or functional recovery. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical element concentrations in four lichens on a transect entering Voyageurs National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    A three factor transect study was conducted to test the hypothesis that chemical elements from air emissions in the vicinity of International Falls, Minnesota could not be detected in lichens along a 24 km transect reaching into Voyageurs National Park. It was hypothesized that element concentrations in lichens would decline exponentially downwind and would reach background values at a distance before the park boundary. Four species (Cladina rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypogymnia physodes, and Parmelia sulcata) were sampled at ten sites for 3 years and 17 chemical elements were measured. The most notable result was a curvilinear geographic trend for many elements, which decreased from International Falls and then increased towards the park. This trend was significant for many anthropogenic elements, including S, Hg, Cd, and Cr, and for all four species. This type of distribution pattern has been observed in Hypogymnia physodes in other studies downwind of a steel mill and an oil refinery. Cladina, a ground-dwelling lichen, generally had lower tissue concentrations of the elements than the three epiphytic species. Tissue concentrations over the 3 years of sampling declined an average of 12%. Sufficient evidence exists to conclude that lichen tissue element concentrations in the vicinity of International Falls may be related to local air emissions, and that an exponential decline of element concentrations downwind of the sources does not apply to this situation.

  10. A chronology for glacial Lake Agassiz shorelines along Upham's namesake transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, Kenneth; Buell, Alex W.; Fisher, Timothy G.; Lowell, Thomas V.

    2013-07-01

    Four traditionally recognized strandline complexes in the southern basin of glacial Lake Agassiz are the Herman, Norcross, Tintah and Campbell, whose names correspond to towns in west-central Minnesota that lie on a linear transect defined by the Great Northern railroad grade; the active corridor for commerce at the time when Warren Upham was mapping and naming the shorelines of Lake Agassiz (ca.1880-1895). Because shorelines represent static water planes, their extension around the lake margin establishes time-synchronous lake levels. Transitions between shoreline positions represent significant water-level fluctuations. However, geologic ages have never been obtained from sites near the namesake towns in the vicinity of the southern outlet. Here we report the first geologic ages for Lake Agassiz shorelines obtained at field sites along the namesake transect, and evaluate the emerging chronology in light of other paleoclimate records. Our current work from 11 sampling sites has yielded 16 independent ages. These results combined with a growing OSL age data set for Lake Agassiz's southern basin provide robust age constraints for the Herman, Norcross and Campbell strandlines with averages and standard deviations of 14.1 ± 0.3 ka, 13.6 ± 0.2 ka, and 10.5 ± 0.3 ka, respectively.

  11. Simulating forest productivity along a neotropical elevational transect: temperature variation and carbon use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthews, T.; Malhi, Y.; Girardin, C.; Silva-Espejo, J.; Aragão, L.; Metcalfe, D.; Rapp, J.; Mercado, L.; Fisher, R.; Galbraith, D.; Fisher, J.; Salinas-Revilla, N.; Friend, A.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Williams, R.

    2012-04-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms controlling the magnitude and sign of carbon components in tropical forest ecosystems is important for reliable estimation of this important regional component of the global carbon cycle. We used the JULES vegetation model to simulate all components of the carbon balance at six sites along an Andes-Amazon transect across Peru and Brazil and compared the results to published field measurements. In the upper montane zone the model predicted a vegetation dieback, indicating a need for better parameterisation of cloud forest vegetation. In the lower montane and lowland zones simulated ecosystem productivity and respiration were predicted with reasonable accuracy, although not always within the error bounds of the observations. Model-predicted carbon use efficiency in this transect surprisingly did not increase with elevation, but remained close to the 'temperate' value 0.5. This may be explained by elevational changes in the balance between growth and maintenance respiration within the forest canopy, as controlled by both temperature- and pressure-mediated processes.

  12. Vegetation Cover based on Eagleson's Ecohydrological Optimality in Northeast China Transect (NECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Z.; Mo, K.; Qinshu, L.; Zhang, L.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation is considered as the indicator of climate, thus the study of vegetation growth and distribution is of great importance to cognize the ecosystem construction and functions. Vegetation cover is used as an important index to describe vegetation conditions. In Eagleson's ecohydrological optimality, the theoretical optimal vegetation cover M* can be estimated by solving water balance equations. In this study, the theory is applied in the Northeast China Transect (NECT), one of International Geosphere-Biosphere Programs (IGBP) terrestrial transects. The spatial distribution of actual vegetation cover M, which is derived from Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), shows that there is a significant gradient ranging from 1 in the east forests to 0 in the west desert. The result indicates that the theoretical M* fits the actual M well (for forest, M* = 0.822 while M = 0.826; for grassland, M* = 0.353 while M = 0.352; the correlation coefficient between M and M* is 0.81). The reasonable calculated proportion of water balance components further demonstrates the applicability of the ecohydrological optimality theory. M* increases with the increase of LAI, leaf angle, stem fraction and temperature, and decreases with the increase of precipitation amount. This method offers the possibility to analyze the impacts of climate change to vegetation cover quantitatively, thus providing advices for eco-restoration projects.

  13. Transection of inferior orbital fissure contents for improved access and visibility in orbital surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Sophie; Chew, Hall F; Sunderland, Ian R P; Kiss, Alex; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2014-03-01

    Selective inferior orbital fissure (IOF) content transection for the purpose of surgical access to the posterior orbital floor is a technique that facilitates visualization of the posterior bony ledges of traumatic orbital floor defects. It also has potential advantages in achieving stable placement of reconstructive materials. Although not new, the surgical technique has not yet been described, and the morbidity of the technique has not been quantified. This article describes the procedure and assesses the morbidity specific to the division of related neural structures. The technique and surgical anatomy are described and illustrated with intraoperative photographs. Postoperative assessment of neural structures relevant to the division of IOF contents is performed. These values are compared with the nonoperated side to evaluate the morbidity of the technique. The technique, which is consistently used by the senior author in the repair of orbital floor defects with very small posterior ledges or which extend to and involve the IOF, facilitates better visualization of the posterior ledge and posterolateral ledge in such cases. Surgical outcomes including facial sensation and lacrimal function on the operated side remain within the reference range and are not significantly different when compared with the contralateral nonoperated side. Selective IOF transection aids in the direct visualization of the posterior bony ledges in the repair of posterior orbital floor defects. It therefore may facilitate the placement of reconstructive materials on bony ledges circumferentially, providing stable reconstruction, potentially reducing implant-related complications without causing increased morbidity.

  14. Importance of designated thoracic trauma surgeons in the management of traumatic aortic transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M H; Rodriguez, E; England, G J; McKeown, P P; Hurst, J M; Rosemurgy, A S

    1994-04-01

    The medical literature is replete with reports on traumatic aortic transection. These reports have delineated many factors regarding the morbidity and high mortality of this ominous injury. Most reports are reviews of the collective experience of a single institution over a period of years. It is likely that many authors writing on the subject of traumatic aortic transection have no experience with operative repair of the lesion. There has been debate about the various techniques of primary repair versus graft insertion, as well as the question of whether cardiopulmonary bypass is superior to the "clamp and sew" methods. No studies have directly examined the skills of individual surgeons with respect to outcome. We present the results of a study from a university-affiliated level I trauma center in which the outcomes from various groups of surgeons were compared over a 5-year period. The information in this study strongly suggests that designated thoracic trauma surgeons who are promptly available and have dedicated interests in trauma patients achieve better results.

  15. Utility of Glissonean Pedicle Transection for Surgical Treatment of Severe Liver Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Koizumi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The most common initial strategy for treatment of severe liver trauma is damage control in which hemostasis is achieved by perihepatic gauze packing and/or vascular embolization. However, we encounter patients in whom this strategy alone is not adequate. We have applied the principles of Glissonean pedicle transection, a technique that was originally devised to ensure safe and quick performance of planned hepatectomy for liver cancer, to 3 cases of severe liver trauma. We performed Glissonean pedicle ligation during damage control surgery in 2 patients and Glissonean pedicle transection during the definitive surgery in 1 patient. We describe the approaches and our experience with them, including operation times and outcomes. From our experience thus far, it seems that 8–12 h after the damage control procedure is appropriate for performing the definitive surgery. Although there are some problems posed by this strategy and cases to which it will not be applicable, the method seems to be particularly useful for cases of severe liver trauma in which the damage is extensive and involves the Glissonean pedicles near the hepatic hilus. We describe our 3 cases in detail and review our experience in light of the available literature.

  16. Potential of human dental stem cells in repairing the complete transection of rat spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Xinghan; Sun, Liang; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2017-04-01

    Objective. The adult spinal cord of mammals contains a certain amount of neural precursor cells, but these endogenous cells have a limited capacity for replacement of lost cells after spinal cord injury. The exogenous stem cells transplantation has become a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord repairing because of their immunomodulatory and differentiation capacity. In addition, dental stem cells originating from the cranial neural crest might be candidate cell sources for neural engineering. Approach. Human dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were isolated and identified in vitro, then green GFP-labeled stem cells with pellets were transplanted into completely transected spinal cord. The functional recovery of rats and multiple neuro-regenerative mechanisms were explored. Main results. The dental stem cells, especially DFSCs, demonstrated the potential in repairing the completely transected spinal cord and promote functional recovery after injury. The major involved mechanisms were speculated below: First, dental stem cells inhibited the expression of interleukin-1β to reduce the inflammatory response; second, they inhibited the expression of ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) to promote neurite regeneration; third, they inhibited the sulfonylurea receptor1 (SUR-1) expression to reduce progressive hemorrhagic necrosis; lastly, parts of the transplanted cells survived and differentiated into mature neurons and oligodendrocytes but not astrocyte, which is beneficial for promoting axons growth. Significance. Dental stem cells presented remarkable tissue regenerative capability after spinal cord injury through immunomodulatory, differentiation and protection capacity.

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across American Samoa in 2015 as a part of...

  18. Conduction of impulses by axons regenerated in a Schwann cell graft in the transected adult rat thoracic spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, A; Calancie, B; Oudega, M; Noga, B R

    2001-06-01

    Central nervous system axons regenerate into a Schwann cell implant placed in the transected thoracic spinal cord of an adult rat. The present study was designed to test whether these regenerated axons are capable of conducting action potentials. Following the transection and removal of a 4- to 5-mm segment of the thoracic spinal cord (T8-T9), a polymer guidance channel filled with a mixture of adult rat Schwann cells and Matrigel was grafted into a 4- to 5-mm-long gap in the transected thoracic spinal cord. The two cut ends of the spinal cord were eased into the guidance channel openings. Transected control animals received a channel containing Matrigel only. Three months after implantation, electrophysiological studies were performed. Tungsten microelectrodes were used for monopolar stimulation of regenerated axons within the Schwann cell graft. Glass microelectrodes were used to record responses in the spinal cord rostral to the stimulation site. Evoked responses to electrical stimulation of the axon cable were found in two out of nine Schwann cell-grafted animals. These responses had approximate latencies in the range of those of myelinated axons. No responses were seen in any of the Matrigel-grafted animals. Histological analysis revealed that the two cases that showed evoked potentials had the largest number of myelinated axons present in the cable. This study demonstrates that axons regenerating through Schwann cell grafts in the complete transected spinal cord can produce measurable evoked responses following electrical stimulation. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Cross-continental comparison of the functional composition and carbon allocation of two altitudinal forest transects in Ecuador and Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeeck, Hans; Bauters, Marijn; Bruneel, Stijn; Demol, Miro; Taveirne, Cys; Van Der Heyden, Dries; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Cizungu, Landry; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Tropical forests are key actors in the global carbon cycle. Predicting future responses of these forests to global change is challenging, but important for global climate models. However, our current understanding of such responses is limited, due to the complexity of forest ecosystems and the slow dynamics that inherently form these systems. Our understanding of ecosystem ecology and functioning could greatly benefit from experimental setups including strong environmental gradients in the tropics, as found on altitudinal transects. We setup two such transects in both South-America and Central Africa, focussing on shifts in carbon allocation, forest structure, nutrient cycling and functional composition. The Ecuadorian transect has 16 plots (40 by 40 m) and ranges from 400 to 3000 m.a.s.l., and the Rwandan transect has 20 plots (40 by 40 m) from 1500 to 3000 m.a.s.l. All plots were inventoried and canopy, litter and soil were extensively sampled. By a cross-continental comparison of both transects, we will gain insight in how different or alike both tropical forests biomes are in their responses, and how universal the observed altitudinal adaption mechanisms are. This could provide us with vital information of the ecological responses of both biomes to future global change scenarios. Additionally, comparison of nutrient shifts and trait-based functional composition allows us to compare the biogeochemical cycles of African and South-American tropical forests.

  20. Historical and Retrospective Survey of Monitored Natural Attenuation: A Line of Inquiry Supporting Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOONEY, BB.

    2004-01-01

    As requested by the Savannah River Technology Center, Groundwater Services, Inc. (GSI), has conducted a historical analysis of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) application at chlorinated solvent sites. The objective of the analysis was to document trends, characteristics, successes, and barriers in the use of MNA as a remedy at chlorinated solvent sites. The analysis consisted of the following: (1) a review of recent literature regarding application of natural attenuation at chlorinated solvent sites, (2) a review of regulatory and industry guidance directing evaluation and implementation of MNA as a remedy at chlorinated solvent sites, and (3) a historical survey distributed to MNA experts, which requested data relating to the evaluation and implementation of MNA at chlorinated solvent sites

  1. Spatial patterns of bee captures in North American bowl trapping surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, Sam; Tepedino, Vincent J.; Lebuhn, Gretchen; Link, William; Minckley, Robert L.; Chen, Qian; Conrad, Casey

    2010-01-01

    1. Bowl and pan traps are now commonly used to capture bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) for research and surveys. 2. Studies of how arrangement and spacing of bowl traps affect captures of bees are needed to increase the efficiency of this capture technique. 3. We present results from seven studies of bowl traps placed in trapping webs, grids, and transects in four North American ecoregions (Mid-Atlantic, Coastal California, Chihuahuan Desert, and Columbia Plateau). 4. Over 6000 specimens from 31 bee genera were captured and analysed across the studies. 5. Based on the results from trapping webs and distance tests, the per bowl capture rate of bees does not plateau until bowls are spaced 3–5 m apart. 6. Minor clumping of bee captures within transects was detected, with 26 of 56 transects having index of dispersion values that conform to a clumped distribution and 39 transects having positive Green's index values, 13 with zero, and only four negative. However, degree of clumping was slight with an average value of only 0.06 (the index ranges from -1 to 1) with only five values >0.15. Similarly, runs tests were significant for only 5.9% of the transects. 7. Results indicate that (i) capture rates are unaffected by short distances between bowls within transects and (ii) that bowls and transects should be dispersed throughout a study site.

  2. The DAFT/FADA survey. I. Photometric redshifts along lines of sight to clusters in the z = [0.4, 0.9] interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennou, L.; Adami, C.; Ulmer, M. P.; Lebrun, V.; Durret, F.; Johnston, D.; Ilbert, O.; Clowe, D.; Gavazzi, R.; Murphy, K.; Schrabback, T.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Basa, S.; Benoist, C.; Biviano, A.; Cappi, A.; Kubo, J. M.; Marshall, P.; Mazure, A.; Rostagni, F.; Russeil, D.; Slezak, E.

    2010-11-01

    Context. As a contribution to the understanding of the dark energy concept, the Dark energy American French Team (DAFT, in French FADA) has started a large project to characterize statistically high redshift galaxy clusters, infer cosmological constraints from weak lensing tomography, and understand biases relevant for constraining dark energy and cluster physics in future cluster and cosmological experiments. Aims: The purpose of this paper is to establish the basis of reference for the photo-z determination used in all our subsequent papers, including weak lensing tomography studies. Methods: This project is based on a sample of 91 high redshift (z ≥ 0.4), massive (⪆3 × 1014 M_⊙) clusters with existing HST imaging, for which we are presently performing complementary multi-wavelength imaging. This allows us in particular to estimate spectral types and determine accurate photometric redshifts for galaxies along the lines of sight to the first ten clusters for which all the required data are available down to a limit of IAB = 24./24.5 with the LePhare software. The accuracy in redshift is of the order of 0.05 for the range 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 1.5. Results: We verified that the technique applied to obtain photometric redshifts works well by comparing our results to with previous works. In clusters, photo-z accuracy is degraded for bright absolute magnitudes and for the latest and earliest type galaxies. The photo-z accuracy also only slightly varies as a function of the spectral type for field galaxies. As a consequence, we find evidence for an environmental dependence of the photo-z accuracy, interpreted as the standard used spectral energy distributions being not very well suited to cluster galaxies. Finally, we modeled the LCDCS 0504 mass with the strong arcs detected along this line of sight. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Institute and the Space Telescope European

  3. The Sidi Ifni transect across the rifted margin of Morocco (Central Atlantic): Vertical movements constrained by low-temperature thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charton, Rémi; Bertotti, Giovanni; Arantegui, Angel; Bulot, Luc

    2018-05-01

    The occurrence of km-scale exhumations during syn- and post-rift stages has been documented along Atlantic continental margins, which are also characterised by basins undergoing substantial subsidence. The relationship between the exhuming and subsiding domains is poorly understood. In this study, we reconstruct the evolution of a 50 km long transect across the Moroccan rifted margin from the western Anti-Atlas to the Atlantic basin offshore the city of Sidi Ifni. Low-temperature thermochronology data from the Sidi Ifni area document a ca. 8 km exhumation between the Permian and the Early/Middle Jurassic. The related erosion fed sediments to the subsiding Mesozoic basin to the NW. Basement rocks along the transect were subsequently buried by 1-2 km between the Late Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous. From late Early/Late Cretaceous onwards, rocks present along the transect were exhumed to their present-day position.

  4. Pituitary stalk transection syndrome: Comparison of clinico-radiological features in adults and children with review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Chinmay; Moorthy, Srikanth; Pullara, Sreekumar K; Rajeshkannan, R; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G

    2012-01-01

    Hypo-pituitarism results from impaired production of one or more of anterior pituitary trophic hormones. A rare cause of hypo-pituitarism is pituitary stalk transection syndrome. The MRI features of this condition in children and its association with hormonal deficiencies have been reported earlier. Reports on adults with this disorder are scarce, with only one small case series published in the recent literature. We studied the hormonal deficiency pattern and MRI findings of 12 patients with pituitary stalk transection syndrome who presented to our department between 2004 and 2011. Six patients were children and six were adults (≥18 years). This article compares the adult clinico-radiological phenotype of pituitary transection syndrome with the pediatric group of patients with same condition

  5. [Urethroplasty with transection of urethral orifice and preservation and lengthening of urethral plate: highly applicable to the treatment of hypospadias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Min; Qiu, Wei-Feng; Qian, Chong

    2010-07-01

    To explore the feasibility of urethroplasty with transection of the urethral orifice and preservation and lengthening of the urethral plate in the treatment of hypospadias. Forty-eight patients with hypospadias (18 of the coronal type, 21 the penile type, 8 the penoscrotal type and 1 the perineal type) underwent urethroplasty with transection of the urethral orifice and preservation and lengthening of the urethral plate. The surgical effects were observed by following up the patients for 3-27 months. One-stage surgical success was achieved in 44 of the cases, with satisfactory functional and cosmetic results but no complications. Two cases developed urinary fistula and another 2 urethral stricture, but all cured by the second surgery. Urethroplasty with transection of the urethral orifice and preservation and lengthening of the urethral plate is a simple, safe and effective surgical procedure for the treatment of hypospadias.

  6. Mercury distribution and transport in the North Atlantic Ocean along the GEOTRACES-GA01 transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cossa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report here the results of total mercury (HgT determinations along the 2014 Geotraces Geovide cruise (GA01 transect in the North Atlantic Ocean (NA from Lisbon (Portugal to the coast of Labrador (Canada. HgT concentrations in unfiltered samples (HgTUNF were log-normally distributed and ranged between 0.16 and 1.54 pmol L−1, with a geometric mean of 0.51 pmol L−1 for the 535 samples analysed. The dissolved fraction (< 0.45 µm of HgT (HgTF, determined on 141 samples, averaged 78 % of the HgTUNF for the entire data set, 84 % for open seawaters (below 100 m and 91 % if the Labrador Sea data are excluded, where the primary production was high (with a winter convection down to 1400 m. HgTUNF concentrations increased eastwards and with depth from Greenland to Europe and from subsurface to bottom waters. The HgTUNF concentrations were similarly low in the subpolar gyre waters ( ∼  0.45 pmol L−1, whereas they exceeded 0.60 pmol L−1 in the subtropical gyre waters. The HgTUNF distribution mirrored that of dissolved oxygen concentration, with highest concentration levels associated with oxygen-depleted zones. The relationship between HgTF and the apparent oxygen utilization confirms the nutrient-like behaviour of Hg in the NA. An extended optimum multiparameter analysis allowed us to characterize HgTUNF concentrations in the different source water types (SWTs present along the transect. The distribution pattern of HgTUNF, modelled by the mixing of SWTs, show Hg enrichment in Mediterranean waters and North East Atlantic Deep Water and low concentrations in young waters formed in the subpolar gyre and Nordic seas. The change in anthropogenic Hg concentrations in the Labrador Sea Water during its eastward journey suggests a continuous decrease in Hg content in this water mass over the last decades. Calculation of the water transport driven by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation across the Portugal

  7. Upper Cretaceous molluscan record along a transect from Virden, New Mexico, to Del Rio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobban, W.A.; Hook, S.C.; McKinney, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Updated age assignments and new collections of molluscan fossils from lower Cenomanian through upper Campanian strata in Texas permit a much refined biostratigraphic correlation with the rocks of New Mexico and the Western Interior. Generic names of many Late Cretaceous ammonites and inoceramid bivalves from Texas are updated to permit this correlation. Strata correlated in the west-to-east transect include the lower Cenomanian Beartooth Quartzite and Sarten Sandstone of southwest New Mexico, and the Eagle Mountains Formation, Del Rio Clay, Buda Limestone, and. basal beds of the Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations of the Texas-Mexico border area. Middle Cenomanian strata are lacking in southwestern New Mexico but are present in the lower parts of the Chispa Summit and Boquillas Formations in southwest Texas. Upper Cenomanian and lower Turonian rocks are present at many localities in New Mexico and Texas in the Mancos Shale and Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations. Middle Turonian and younger rocks seem to be entirely nonmarine in southwestern New Mexico, but they are marine in the Rio Grande area in the Chispa. Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations. The upper part of the Chispa Summit and Boquillas contain late Turonian fossils. Rocks of Coniacian and Santonian age are present high in the Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations, and in the lower part of the Austin. The San Carlos, Aguja, Pen, and Austin Formations contain fossils of Campanian age. Fossils representing at least 38 Upper Cretaceous ammonite zones are present along the transect. Collections made in recent years in southwestern New Mexico and at Sierra de Cristo Rey just west of downtown El Paso, Texas, have been well treated and do not need revision. Taxonomic names and zonations published in the pre-1970 literature on the Rio Grande area of Texas have been updated. New fossil collections from the Big Bend National Park, Texas, allow for a much refined correlation

  8. Front-line management, staffing and nurse-doctor relationships as predictors of nurse and patient outcomes. a survey of Icelandic hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, Sigrún; Clarke, Sean P; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Nutbeam, Don

    2009-07-01

    To investigate aspects of nurses' work environments linked with job outcomes and assessments of quality of care in an Icelandic hospital. Prior research suggests that poor working environments in hospitals significantly hinder retention of nurses and high quality patient care. On the other hand, hospitals with high retention rates (such as Magnet hospitals) show supportive management, professional autonomy, good inter-professional relations and nurse job satisfaction, reduced nurse burnout and improved quality of patient care. Cross-sectional survey of 695 nurses at Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavík. Nurses' work environments were measured using the nursing work index-revised (NWI-R) and examined as predictors of job satisfaction, the Maslach burnout inventory (MBI) and nurse-assessed quality of patient care using linear and logistic regression approaches. An Icelandic adaptation of the NWI-R showed a five-factor structure similar to that of Lake (2002). After controlling for nurses' personal characteristics, job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion and nurse rated quality of care were found to be independently associated with perceptions of support from unit-level managers, staffing adequacy, and nurse-doctor relations. The NWI-R measures elements of hospital nurses' work environments that predict job outcomes and nurses' ratings of the quality of patient care in Iceland. Efforts to improve and maintain nurses' relations with nurse managers and doctors, as well as their perceptions of staffing adequacy, will likely improve nurse job satisfaction and employee retention, and may improve the quality of patient care.

  9. Tracing variability in the iodine isotopes and species along surface water transect from the North Sea to the Canary Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng He; Ala Aldahan; Uppsala University, Uppsala; Xiaolin Hou; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an; Possnert, Goran

    2016-01-01

    A complete transect of surface water samples from the North Sea to the Canary Islands was collected during a continuous period in 2010. The samples were analyzed for total 129 I and 127 I isotopes and their iodide and iodate species. The results indicate a large variability in the total 129 I and its species along the transect, whereas less change and variation are observed for the total 127 I and its species. Transport of 129 I from the western English Channel via Biscay Bay is the main source of 129 I in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. (author)

  10. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY. II. INVESTIGATING MASS-DENSITY PROFILE EVOLUTION IN THE SLACS+BELLS STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Shu Yiping; Arneson, Ryan A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Connolly, Natalia [Department of Physics, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Maraston, Claudia [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: bolton@astro.utah.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We present an analysis of the evolution of the central mass-density profile of massive elliptical galaxies from the SLACS and BELLS strong gravitational lens samples over the redshift interval z Almost-Equal-To 0.1-0.6, based on the combination of strong-lensing aperture mass and stellar velocity-dispersion constraints. We find a significant trend toward steeper mass profiles (parameterized by the power-law density model with {rho}{proportional_to}r {sup -{gamma}}) at later cosmic times, with magnitude d < {gamma} > /dz = -0.60 {+-} 0.15. We show that the combined lens-galaxy sample is consistent with a non-evolving distribution of stellar velocity dispersions. Considering possible additional dependence of <{gamma} > on lens-galaxy stellar mass, effective radius, and Sersic index, we find marginal evidence for shallower mass profiles at higher masses and larger sizes, but with a significance that is subdominant to the redshift dependence. Using the results of published Monte Carlo simulations of spectroscopic lens surveys, we verify that our mass-profile evolution result cannot be explained by lensing selection biases as a function of redshift. Interpreted as a true evolutionary signal, our result suggests that major dry mergers involving off-axis trajectories play a significant role in the evolution of the average mass-density structure of massive early-type galaxies over the past 6 Gyr. We also consider an alternative non-evolutionary hypothesis based on variations in the strong-lensing measurement aperture with redshift, which would imply the detection of an 'inflection zone' marking the transition between the baryon-dominated and dark-matter halo-dominated regions of the lens galaxies. Further observations of the combined SLACS+BELLS sample can constrain this picture more precisely, and enable a more detailed investigation of the multivariate dependences of galaxy mass structure across cosmic time.

  11. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  12. Ethnobotanical survey of \\'wild\\' woody plant resources at Mount ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the naming and use of plants by Taita who live at Mount Kasigau in Kenya's Eastern Arc Mountains. Plant vouchers and ethnobotanical data were compiled from transects and within 55 ecological plots, and during participant observations, home surveys, and semi-structured interviews with residents.

  13. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  14. A molecular line survey toward the nearby galaxies NGC 1068, NGC 253, and IC 342 at 3 mm with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope: Impact of an AGN on 1 kpc scale molecular abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Taku; Takano, Shuro; Kohno, Kotaro; Harada, Nanase; Herbst, Eric

    2018-01-01

    It is important to investigate the relationships between the power sources and the chemical compositions of galaxies in order to understand the scenario of galaxy evolution. We carried out an unbiased molecular line survey towards active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxy NGC1068, and prototypical starburst galaxies, NGC 253 and IC 342, with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope in the 3 mm band. The advantage of this line survey is that the obtained spectra have the highest angular resolution ever obtained with single-dish telescopes. In particular, the beam size of this telescope is ˜15″-19″, which is able to separate spatially the nuclear molecular emission from that of the starburst ring (d ˜ 30″) in NGC 1068. We successfully detected approximately 23 molecular species in each galaxy, and calculated rotation temperatures and column densities. We estimate the molecular fractional abundances with respect to 13CO and CS molecules and compare them among three galaxies in order to investigate the chemical signatures of an AGN environment. As a result, we found clear trends in the abundances of molecules surrounding the AGN on a 1-kpc scale. HCN, H13CN, CN, 13CN, and HC3N are more abundant, and CH3CCH is deficient in NGC 1068 compared with the starburst galaxies. High abundances of HCN, H13CN, and HC3N suggest that the circumnuclear disk in NGC 1068 is in a high-temperature environment. The reason for the non-detection of CH3CCH is likely to be dissociation by high-energy radiation or less sublimation of a precursor of CH3CCH from grains.

  15. Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Cristina; Jones, Eppie R; Teasdale, Matthew D; McLaughlin, Russell L; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Domboróczki, László; Kővári, Ivett; Pap, Ildikó; Anders, Alexandra; Whittle, Alasdair; Dani, János; Raczky, Pál; Higham, Thomas F G; Hofreiter, Michael; Bradley, Daniel G; Pinhasi, Ron

    2014-10-21

    The Great Hungarian Plain was a crossroads of cultural transformations that have shaped European prehistory. Here we analyse a 5,000-year transect of human genomes, sampled from petrous bones giving consistently excellent endogenous DNA yields, from 13 Hungarian Neolithic, Copper, Bronze and Iron Age burials including two to high (~22 × ) and seven to ~1 × coverage, to investigate the impact of these on Europe's genetic landscape. These data suggest genomic shifts with the advent of the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, with interleaved periods of genome stability. The earliest Neolithic context genome shows a European hunter-gatherer genetic signature and a restricted ancestral population size, suggesting direct contact between cultures after the arrival of the first farmers into Europe. The latest, Iron Age, sample reveals an eastern genomic influence concordant with introduced Steppe burial rites. We observe transition towards lighter pigmentation and surprisingly, no Neolithic presence of lactase persistence.

  16. Early hemi-diaphragmatic plication following intraoperative phrenic nerve transection during complete AV canal repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamad Alowayshiq

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral diaphragmatic palsy reduces pulmonary function by about 25% in older children and usually it is well tolerated; however, it causes severe respiratory distress in infants and young children. Diaphragmatic plication performed later than 10 days after cardiac surgery for patients under 1 year of age was associated with higher incidence of pneumonia and mortality. The management of the diaphragmatic paralysis due to phrenic nerve injury aiming mainly to preserve the respiratory function. Until now, the optimal management of diaphragmatic palsy in children who have undergone cardiac surgery remains controversial and consists of prolonged ventilation or diaphragmatic plication. In our case, many factors supported early diaphragmatic plication, the age of the patient, post-operative AV canal repair with severe pulmonary hypertension, and clear transection of the left phrenic nerve diagnosed intraoperatively.

  17. Seasonal variability and geostrophic circulation in the eastern Mediterranean as revealed through a repeated XBT transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zervakis

    Full Text Available The evolution of the upper thermocline on a section across the eastern Mediterranean was recorded bi-weekly through a series of XBT transects from Piraeus, Greece to Alexandria, Egypt, extending from October 1999 to October 2000 on board Voluntary Observing Ships in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project. The data acquired provided valuable information on the seasonal variability of the upper ocean thermal structure at three different regions of the eastern Mediterranean: the Myrtoan, Cretan and Levantine Seas. Furthermore, the horizontal distance (~12 miles between successive profiles provides enough spatial resolution to analyze mesoscale features, while the temporal distance between successive expeditions (2–4 weeks allows us to study their evolution. Sub-basin scale features are identified using contemporaneous sea surface temperature satellite images. The cross-transect geostrophic velocity field and corresponding volume fluxes for several sub-basin scale features of the Levantine Sea are estimated by exploiting monthly q / S diagrams from operational runs of the Princeton Ocean Model in use at NCMR. A southwestward transport in the proximity of the southeast tip of Crete was estimated between 1–3 Sv. The transport increases after the winter formation of dense intermediate water in the Cretan Sea strengthens the pressure gradient across the Cretan Straits. The Mersah-Matruh anticyclone was identified as a closed gyre carrying about 2–6 Sv. This feature was stable throughout the stratified period and disappeared from our records in March 2000. Finally, our data reveal the existence of an eastward-flowing coastal current along the North African coast, transporting a minimum of 1–2 Sv.

    Key words. Oceanography: physical (eddies and mesoscale processes; currents; marginal and semi-closed seas

  18. A free vein graft cap influences neuroma formation after nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Mariarosaria; Manasseri, Benedetto; Risitano, Giovanni; Geuna, Stefano; Di Scipio, Federica; La Rosa, Paola; Delia, Gabriele; D'Alcontres, Francesco Stagno; Colonna, Michele R

    2009-01-01

    : Neuroma formation is a major problem in nerve surgery and consensus about its prevention has not been reached. It has been suggested that vein covering can reduce neuroma formation in transected nerves. In this article, the Authors propose an easy and novel method of covering by nerve stump capping with a free vein graft. : Neuroma-like lesions were created on the rat thigh sectioning the femoral nerve above its division in 16 animals. The proximal nerve stump was invaginated into the lumen of a 1.5 cm long femoral free vein graft on the right side, and the vein was closed on itself by microsurgical sutures to form a cap for the nerve stump. On the left side acting as the control neuroma, the nerve was cut and left uncovered. Histological and immunohistochemical assessment was used to quantify the degree of neuroma formation. : Significant differences were found in both neuroma size and axon-glia organization between the treated and control sides indicating that free vein graft capping reduced neuroma formation in comparison to uncovered nerve stumps. : Our results confirm that vein-covering of a transected nerve stump can be effective in reducing neuroma formation. Moreover, unlike previous works that buried the nerve into an adjacent vein left in place, our experiments showed that also the use of a free vein graft cap can hinder neuroma formation. Although translation of rat experiments to the clinics should be dealt with caution, our data suggest a careful clinical use of the technique. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2009.

  19. Nerve transection repair using laser-activated chitosan in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Neel K; Khan, Taleef R; Mejias, Christopher; Paniello, Randal C

    2017-08-01

    Cranial nerve transection during head and neck surgery is conventionally repaired with microsuture. Previous studies have demonstrated recovery with laser nerve welding (LNW), a novel alternative to microsuture. LNW has been reported to have poorer tensile strength, however. Laser-activated chitosan, an adhesive biopolymer, may promote nerve recovery while enhancing the tensile strength of the repair. Using a rat posterior tibial nerve injury model, we compared four different methods of nerve repair in this pilot study. Animal study. Animals underwent unilateral posterior tibial nerve transection. The injury was repaired by potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser alone (n = 20), KTP + chitosan (n = 12), microsuture + chitosan (n = 12), and chitosan alone (n = 14). Weekly walking tracks were conducted to measure functional recovery (FR). Tensile strength (TS) was measured at 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, KTP laser alone had the best recovery (FR = 93.4% ± 8.3%). Microsuture + chitosan, KTP + chitosan, and chitosan alone all showed good FR (87.4% ± 13.5%, 84.6% ± 13.0%, and 84.1% ± 10.0%, respectively). One-way analysis of variance was performed (F(3,56) = 2.6, P = .061). A TS threshold of 3.8 N was selected as a control mean recovery. Three groups-KTP alone, KTP + chitosan, and microsuture + chitosan-were found to meet threshold 60% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.1%-88.3%), 75% (95% CI: 46.8%-91.1%), and 100% (95% CI: 75.8%-100.0%), respectively. In the posterior tibial nerve model, all repair methods promoted nerve recovery. Laser-activated chitosan as a biopolymer anchor provided good TS and appears to be a novel alternative to microsuture. This repair method may have surgical utility following cranial nerve injury during head and neck surgery. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E253-E257, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Potentially toxic metals in ombrotrophic peat along a 400 km English-Scottish transect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Hughes, S. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Bangor), Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UP (United Kingdom); Lawlor, A.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Lofts, S. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Simon, B.M. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Stevens, P.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Bangor), Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UP (United Kingdom); Stidson, R.T. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk; Vincent, C.D. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-15

    Four samples of ombrotrophic peat were collected from each of 10 upland locations in a transect from the southern Pennines to the Highland Boundary Fault, a total distance of ca. 400 km. Bulk compositions and other properties were determined. Total contents of Al and heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were determined following digestion with hydrofluoric acid, and concentrations of metals extractable with dilute nitric acid were also measured. Supernatants obtained from aqueous extractions of the peat samples were analysed for pH, major cations and anions, dissolved organic carbon and dissolved metals, and concentrations of free metal ions (Al{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}, etc.) were estimated by applying a chemical speciation model. Both total and HNO{sub 3}-extractable metal concentrations varied along the transect, the highest values being found at locations close to industrial and former mining areas. The HNO{sub 3}-extractable soil metal contents of Ni, Cu and Cd were appreciably lower than lowest-observed-effect-concentrations (LOEC) for toxicity towards microorganisms in acid, organic rich soils. However, the contents of Zn at two locations, and of Pb at five locations exceeded LOECs, suggesting that they may be exerting toxic effects in the peats. Soil solution concentrations of free heavy metal ions (Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}) were substantially lower than LOECs for toxicity towards vascular plants, whereas concentrations of Al{sup 3+} were near to toxic levels at two locations. - P eat metal contents depend upon proximity to industrial and mining areas; the metals may be exerting toxic effects in some places.

  1. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  2. Coral reef ecosystem marine protected area monitoring in Fagamalo, American Samoa: benthic images collected during belt transect surveys in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010 the village of Fagamalo, Tutuila, American Samoa, designated a no-take Marine Protected Area that sees the protection of 2.25 square kilometers of ocean....

  3. A Gravity data along LARSE (Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment) Line II, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed gravity study along part of the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment (LARSE) transect across the San Fernando Basin and Transverse Ranges to help characterize the structure underlying this area. 249 gravity measurements were collected along the transect and to augment regional coverage near the profile. An isostatic gravity low of 50-60 mGal reflects the San Fernando-East Ventura basin. Another prominent isostatic gravity with an amplitude of 30 mGal marks the Antelope Valley basin. Gravity highs occur over the Santa Monica Mountains and the Transverse Ranges. The highest isostatic gravity values coincide with outcrops of Pelona schist.

  4. Structural remodeling of the heart and its premotor cardioinhibitory vagal neurons following T(5) spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Heidi L; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2014-05-01

    Midthoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with enhanced cardiac sympathetic activity and reduced cardiac parasympathetic activity. The enhanced cardiac sympathetic activity is associated with sympathetic structural plasticity within the stellate ganglia, spinal cord segments T1-T4, and heart. However, changes to cardiac parasympathetic centers rostral to an experimental SCI are relatively unknown. Importantly, reduced vagal activity is a predictor of high mortality. Furthermore, this autonomic dysregulation promotes progressive left ventricular (LV) structural remodeling. Accordingly, we hypothesized that midthoracic spinal cord injury is associated with structural plasticity in premotor (preganglionic parasympathetic neurons) cardioinhibitory vagal neurons located within the nucleus ambiguus as well as LV structural remodeling. To test this hypothesis, dendritic arborization and morphology (cholera toxin B immunohistochemistry and Sholl analysis) of cardiac projecting premotor cardioinhibitory vagal neurons located within the nucleus ambiguus were determined in intact (sham transected) and thoracic level 5 transected (T5X) rats. In addition, LV chamber size, wall thickness, and collagen content (Masson trichrome stain and structural analysis) were determined. Midthoracic SCI was associated with structural changes within the nucleus ambiguus and heart. Specifically, following T5 spinal cord transection, there was a significant increase in cardiac parasympathetic preganglionic neuron dendritic arborization, soma area, maximum dendritic length, and number of intersections/animal. This parasympathetic structural remodeling was associated with a profound LV structural remodeling. Specifically, T5 spinal cord transection increased LV chamber area, reduced LV wall thickness, and increased collagen content. Accordingly, results document a dynamic interaction between the heart and its parasympathetic innervation.

  5. Repair of the transected spinal cord at different stages of development in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, J R; Wang, X M; Martin, G F

    2000-12-01

    When the thoracic spinal cord is transected on postnatal day (PD) 5 in the North American opossum, descending and ascending axons grow through the lesion site. When the lesion is made on PD20, comparable growth is limited to a subset of descending axons. To better understand the mechanisms underlying these differences, we analyzed the transection site at different times after lesioning at both ages. Axons which crossed the lesion site could be identified using silver impregnation and immunostaining for neurofilament. Nissl stains revealed that abnormal appearing grey matter was also present in some of the PD5 cases. In many PD5 cases, however, and in all of the animals transected at PD20, grey matter was not present at the lesion site. Immunostaining with a neuron specific antibody supported that conclusion. However, immunostaining with phenotypic specific antibodies revealed that glial cells were present in all cases. Immunostaining for Schwann cells was negative. Fibronectin-positive cells were also present at the lesion site after transection of the thoracic cord at PD20, but their identity was uncertain. When injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog, were made at different times after lesioning and the pups were sacrificed for BrdU immunohistochemistry up to 40 days later, labeled cells were found in the tissue which bridged the lesion site indicating that cell proliferation contributed to reconstruction at the lesion site.

  6. Phytoplankton, Bacteria and Heterotrophic Nanoflagellate studies using ship and OCM-2 data along a coastal transect in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Basu, S.; Parab, S.G.; Pednekar, S.; Niyati Hede, N.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Babu, K.N.; Shukla, A; Shirdhankar, M.M.

    by the riverine discharge of fresh-water. The impacts of fresh-water on the components of the food chain were studied. A total of 40 stations distributed over 3 transects were sampled off the coast of Goa, off Ratnagiri and off Dabhol. Physical conditions like...

  7. Tracing variability in the iodine isotopes and species along surface water transect from the North Sea to the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Peng; Aldahan, Ala; Hou, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    A complete transect of surface water samples from the North Sea to the Canary Islands was collected during a continuous period in 2010. The samples were analyzed for total 129I and 127I isotopes and their iodide and iodate species. The results indicate a large variability in the total 129I and its...

  8. Fungiform taste bud degeneration in C57BL/6J mice following chorda-lingual nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardo, Nick A; Hill, David L

    2007-09-10

    Taste buds are dependent on innervation for normal morphology and function. Fungiform taste bud degeneration after chorda tympani nerve injury has been well documented in rats, hamsters, and gerbils. The current study examines fungiform taste bud distribution and structure in adult C57BL/6J mice from both intact taste systems and after unilateral chorda-lingual nerve transection. Fungiform taste buds were visualized and measured with the aid of cytokeratin 8. In control mice, taste buds were smaller and more abundant on the anterior tip (taste buds were smaller and fewer on the side of the tongue ipsilateral to the transection and continued to decrease in both size and number until 15 days posttransection. Degenerating fungiform taste buds were smaller due to a loss of taste bud cells rather than changes in taste bud morphology. While almost all taste buds disappeared in more posterior fungiform papillae by 15 days posttransection, the anterior tip of the tongue retained nearly half of its taste buds compared to intact mice. Surviving taste buds could not be explained by an apparent innervation from the remaining intact nerves. Contralateral effects of nerve transection were also observed; taste buds were larger due to an increase in the number of taste bud cells. These data are the first to characterize adult mouse fungiform taste buds and subsequent degeneration after unilateral nerve transection. They provide the basis for more mechanistic studies in which genetically engineered mice can be used. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across the Mariana Archipelago from 2014-03-25 to 2014-05-07 (NCEI Accession 0159148)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Mariana archipelago in 2014 as a...

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across American Samoa in 2015 (NCEI Accession 0157752)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across American Samoa in 2015 as a part of...

  12. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: benthic cover derived from analysis of benthic images collected during stratified random surveys (StRS) across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-13 to 2016-09-27 (NCEI Accession 0164295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Hawaiian archipelago in 2016 as a...

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2013 (NCEI Accession 0159140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Hawaiian archipelago in 2013 as a...

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0159165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since...

  15. Potential of Gdgts as Temperature Proxies Along Altitudinal Transects in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinet, Sarah; Huguet, Arnaud; Omuombo, Christine; Williamson, David; Fosse, Céline; Anquetil, Christine; Derenne, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are lipids of high molecular weight and include the isoprenoid GDGTs (iGDGTs) produced by Archaea and the branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) produced by unknown bacteria. Several indices were developed to describe the relationship between GDGT distribution and environmental parameters: the TEX86 (tetraether index of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbons), based on the relative abundances of iGDGTs in sediments, and the MBT (methylation index of branched tetraethers) and CBT (cyclisation ratio of branched tetraethers), based on the relative abundance of brGDGTs in soils. The TEX86 was shown to correlate well with water surface temperature, and the MBT and CBT with mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH. The GDGTs are increasingly used as temperature proxies. In this study, 41 surface soils were sampled along two altitudinal transects, from 500 to 2800 meters in Mount Rungwe (South western, Tanzania) and from 1897 to 3268 meters in Mount Kenya (Central Kenya). MAAT was reconstructed along the two transects using the MBT/CBT proxies. A linear correlation between the MBT/CBT-derived temperatures and the altitude (R2=0.83) was obtained by combining results of the two transects. The reconstructed temperature lapse rate (0.5 ° C/100 m) was consistent with the one determined from temperature measurements at six altitudes. These results show that the MBT/CBT is a suitable and robust temperature proxy in East Africa. In Mt. Rungwe soil samples, the TEX86 index, which was mainly used to reconstruct water surface temperatures until now, was found to vary linearly with altitude (R2=0.50). Such a relationship between TEX86 and altitude in organic soils has also been recently noticed in Mt. Xiangpi, China (Liu et al., 2013; R2=0.68). The adiabatic cooling of air with altitude could explain the TEX86 variation with altitude. If such a relationship is confirmed, the use of the TEX86 as a temperature proxy could be extended to soil

  16. Results from an onshore/offshore seismic transect of southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, K. D.; van Avendonk, H. J.; Wu, F. T.; Okaya, D. A.; Wang, C.

    2010-12-01

    The TAIGER project is a large research program focused on the processes and dynamics of arc-continent collision. As part of the project we recorded marine and onshore-offshore seismic data in summer 2009 using the R/V Langseth, ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) from the U.S. OBS instrument pool and from National Taiwan Ocean University, and land instruments from PASSCAL and Taiwan. Because the region from north of Luzon to northern Taiwan encompasses a multiphase transition from oceanic subduction to arc-continent collision, the TAIGER data sets along with state of the art geodynamic modeling are starting to provide fundamental insights into this complex process. This presentation focuses on initial results of an onshore/offshore seismic transect across southern Taiwan. One of the keys to success in studying the arc-continent collision in Taiwan is to document the crustal structure in the developing collision zone of southern Taiwan. This is where we hope to be able to view the transition from what looks like subduction to the south, to the more complex collision zone to the north. In this area we acquired an ~east-west seismic transect using 4 OBSs west of Taiwan, 40 portable land seismometers crossing the island from near Kaohsiung (W) to near Taitung (E) , and 14 OBSs east of Taiwan. As expected, data quality is extremely variable due to local geology at each station and, for land instruments, the level of cultural noise near each station. In fact, some of the land stations show no usable signals from seismic source pulses either east or west of Taiwan. However, other more fortuitously located instrument show clear arrivals at offsets of up to 280 km. As expected, all the best stations are located in mountainous areas where there is a minimum of unconsolidated material and less cultural noise. The land station data include primarily Pg and Pn arrivals, while the OBS data include a full range of reflected and refracted arrivals. The marine wide-angle data will also

  17. Microbial processes and communities in sediment samples along a transect across the Lusi mud volcano, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin; Straaten, Nontje; Mazzini, Adriano

    2015-04-01

    The Lusi eruption represents one of the largest ongoing sedimentary hosted geothermal systems. This eruption started in 2006 following to a 6.3 M earthquake that stroke Java Island. Since then it has been spewing boiling mud from a central crater with peaks reaching 180.000 m3 per day. Today an area of about 8 km2 is covered by locally dried mud breccia where a network of hundreds of satellite seeping pools is active. Numerous investigations focused on the study of offshore microbial colonies that commonly thrive at offshore methane seeps and mud volcanoes, however very little has been done for onshore seeping structures. Lusi represents a unique opportunity to complete a comprehensive study of onshore microbial communities fed by the seepage of CH4 and CO2 as well as of heavier liquid hydrocarbons originating from several km below the surface. We conducted a sampling campaign at the Lusi site collecting samples of fresh mud close to the erupting crater using a remote controlled drone. In addition we completed a transect towards outer parts of the crater to collect older, weathered samples for comparison. In all samples active microorganisms were present. The highest activities for CO2 and CH4 production as well as for CH4 oxidation and hydrocarbon degradation were observed in medium-age mud samples collected roughly in the middle of the transect. Rates for aerobic methane oxidation were high, as was the potential of the microbial communities to degrade hydrocarbons (oils, alkanes, BTEX tested). The data suggests a transition of microbial populations from an anaerobic, hydrocarbon-driven metabolism in fresher samples from center or from small seeps to more generalistic, aerobic microbial communities in older, more consolidated sediments. Currently, the microbial communities in the different sediment samples are analyzed using quantitative PCR and T-RFLP combined with MiSeq sequencing. This study represents an initial step to better understand onshore seepage

  18. Spinal cord transection-induced allodynia in rats--behavioral, physiopathological and pharmacological characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saïd M'Dahoma

    Full Text Available In humans, spinal cord lesions induce not only major motor and neurovegetative deficits but also severe neuropathic pain which is mostly resistant to classical analgesics. Better treatments can be expected from precise characterization of underlying physiopathological mechanisms. This led us to thoroughly investigate (i mechanical and thermal sensory alterations, (ii responses to acute treatments with drugs having patent or potential anti-allodynic properties and (iii the spinal/ganglion expression of transcripts encoding markers of neuronal injury, microglia and astrocyte activation in rats that underwent complete spinal cord transection (SCT. SCT was performed at thoracic T8-T9 level under deep isoflurane anaesthesia, and SCT rats were examined for up to two months post surgery. SCT induced a marked hyper-reflexia at hindpaws and strong mechanical and cold allodynia in a limited (6 cm2 cutaneous territory just rostral to the lesion site. At this level, pressure threshold value to trigger nocifensive reactions to locally applied von Frey filaments was 100-fold lower in SCT- versus sham-operated rats. A marked up-regulation of mRNAs encoding ATF3 (neuronal injury and glial activation markers (OX-42, GFAP, P2×4, P2×7, TLR4 was observed in spinal cord and/or dorsal root ganglia at T6-T11 levels from day 2 up to day 60 post surgery. Transcripts encoding the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were also markedly but differentially up-regulated at T6-T11 levels in SCT rats. Acute treatment with ketamine (50 mg/kg i.p., morphine (3-10 mg/kg s.c. and tapentadol (10-20 mg/kg i.p. significantly increased pressure threshold to trigger nocifensive reaction in the von Frey filaments test, whereas amitriptyline, pregabalin, gabapentin and clonazepam were ineffective. Because all SCT rats developed long lasting, reproducible and stable allodynia, which could be alleviated by drugs effective in humans, thoracic cord transection might be a

  19. Spatial variability of detrended soil plow layer penetrometer resistance transect in a sugarcane field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Luis D.; Cumbrera, Ramiro; Mato, Juan; Millán, Humberto; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variability of soil properties is relevant for identifying those zones with physical degradation. In this sense, one has to face the problem of identifying the origin and distribution of spatial variability patterns (Brouder et al., 2001; Millán et al., 2012). The objective of the present work was to quantify the spatial structure of soil penetrometer resistance (PR) collected from a transect data consisted of 221 points equidistant. In each sampling, readings were obtained from 0 cm till 70 cm of depth, with an interval of 5 cm (Pérez, 2012). The study was conducted on a Vertisol (Typic Hapludert) dedicated to sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) production during the last sixty years (Pérez et al., 2010). Recently, scaling approach has been applied on the determination of the scaling data properties (Tarquis et al., 2008; Millán et al., 2012; Pérez, 2012). We focus in the Hurst analysis to characterize the data variability for each depth. Previously a detrended analysis was conducted in order to better study de intrinsic variability of the series. The Hurst exponent (H) for each depth was estimated showing a characteristic pattern and differentiating PR evolution in depth. References Brouder, S., Hofmann, B., Reetz, H.F., 2001. Evaluating spatial variability of soil parameters for input management. Better Crops 85, 8-11. Millán, H; AM Tarquís, Luís D. Pérez, Juan Mato, Mario González-Posada, 2012. Spatial variability patterns of some Vertisol properties at a field scale using standardized data. Soil and Tillage Research, 120, 76-84. Pérez, Luís D. 2012. Influencia de la maquinaria agrícola sobre la variabilidad espacial de la compactación del suelo. Aplicación de la metodología geoestadística-fractal. PhD thesis, UPM (In Spanish). Pérez, Luís D., Humberto Millán, Mario González-Posada 2010. Spatial complexity of soil plow layer penetrometer resistance as influenced by sugarcane harvesting: A prefractal approach. Soil and Tillage

  20. Google Street View as an alternative method to car surveys in large-scale vegetation assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, Ernesto; Silva, Joaquim S; Catry, Filipe X; Rocha, Miguel; Moreira, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Car surveys (CS) are a common method for assessing the distribution of alien invasive plants. Google Street View (GSV), a free-access web technology where users may experience a virtual travel along roads, has been suggested as a cost-effective alternative to car surveys. We tested if we could replicate the results from a countrywide survey conducted by car in Portugal using GSV as a remote sensing tool, aiming at assessing the distribution of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wildlings on roadsides adjacent to eucalypt stands. Georeferenced points gathered along CS were used to create road transects visible as lines overlapping the road in GSV environment, allowing surveying the same sampling areas using both methods. This paper presents the results of the comparison between the two methods. Both methods produced similar models of plant abundance, selecting the same explanatory variables, in the same hierarchical order of importance and depicting a similar influence on plant abundance. Even though the GSV model had a lower performance and the GSV survey detected fewer plants, additional variables collected exclusively with GSV improved model performance and provided a new insight into additional factors influencing plant abundance. The survey using GSV required ca. 9 % of the funds and 62 % of the time needed to accomplish the CS. We conclude that GSV may be a cost-effective alternative to CS. We discuss some advantages and limitations of GSV as a survey method. We forecast that GSV may become a widespread tool in road ecology, particularly in large-scale vegetation assessments.

  1. Engraftment, neuroglial transdifferentiation and behavioral recovery after complete spinal cord transection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Luzzi; Maria, Crovace Alberto; Luca, Lacitignola; Valerio, Valentini; Edda, Francioso; Giacomo, Rossi; Gloria, Invernici; Juan, Galzio Renato; Antonio, Crovace

    2018-01-01

    Proof of the efficacy and safety of a xenogeneic mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) transplant for spinal cord injury (SCI) may theoretically widen the spectrum of possible grafts for neuroregeneration. Twenty rats were submitted to complete spinal cord transection. Ovine bone marrow MSCs, retrovirally transfected with red fluorescent protein and not previously induced for neuroglial differentiation, were applied in 10 study rats (MSCG). Fibrin glue was injected in 10 control rats (FGG). All rats were evaluated on a weekly basis and scored using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale for 10 weeks, when the collected data were statistically analyzed. The spinal cords were then harvested and analyzed with light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Ovine MSCs culture showed positivity for Nestin. MSCG had a significant and durable recovery of motor functions ( P <.001). Red fluorescence was found at the injury sites in MSCG. Positivity for Nestin, tubulin βIII, NG2 glia, neuron-specific enolase, vimentin, and 200 kD neurofilament were also found at the same sites. Xenogeneic ovine bone marrow MSCs proved capable of engrafting into the injured rat spinal cord. Transdifferentiation into a neuroglial phenotype was able to support partial functional recovery.

  2. Linking primary production, climate and land use along an urban-wildland transect: a satellite view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yonghong; Jia Gensuo; Guo Huadong

    2009-01-01

    Variation of green vegetation cover influences local climate dynamics, exchange of water-heat between land and atmosphere, and hydrological processes. However, the mechanism of interaction between vegetation and local climate change in subtropical areas under climate warming and anthropogenic disturbances is poorly understood. We analyzed spatial-temporal trends of vegetation with moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index datasets over three sections, namely urban, urban-rural fringe and wildland along an urban-wildland transect in a southern mega-city area in China from 2000-2008. The results show increased photosynthetic activity occurred in the wildland and the stable urban landscape in correspondence to the rising temperature, and a considerable decrease of vegetation activity in the urban-rural fringe area, apparently due to urban expansion. On analyzing the controlling factors of climate change and human drivers of vegetation cover change, we found that temperature contributed to vegetation growth more than precipitation and that rising temperature accelerated plant physiological activity. Meanwhile, human-induced dramatic modification of land cover, e.g. conversion of natural forest and cropland to built-up areas in the urban-rural fringe, has caused significant changes of green vegetation fraction and overall primary production, which may further influence local climate.

  3. The transect of happiness and community’s capability in urbanizing Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, RWD

    2018-03-01

    The idea of this paper is that happy-friendly city is it that able to support capability. In addition to factors affixed to an individual, an important element determining someone’s happiness is the quality of a place. This research tries to explain the role of quality of place formed by urbanization process by taking Yogyakarta case as the sample. The importance of variation of particular area caused by urbanization is revealed using transect method. This method showed the shifting gradation from the very center of the city that first experienced urbanization up to the peripheral that experienced it last. The initial result of this clustered-multistage random sampling shows a gradation in capability. It also describes the similar tendency regarding self-evaluation against happiness although not very clear. Further analysis is conducted to define influencing factors. They consist of 40 capability assets that belong to Individual Tangible Asset, Public Tangible Asset, Individual Intangible Asset, Social Institutional Asset, and Economic Institutional Asset. However, the focus of analysis will be on variables included in Public Tangible Asset, Social Institutional Asset, and Economic Institutional Asset called as place-attached assets.

  4. Structural and functional assessment of intense therapeutic ultrasound effects on partial Achilles tendon transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Rice, Photini S.; Howard, Caitlin C.; Koevary, Jen W.; Danford, Forest; Gonzales, David A.; Vande Geest, Jon; Latt, L. Daniel; Szivek, John A.; Amodei, Richard; Slayton, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Tendinopathies and tendon tears heal slowly because tendons have a limited blood supply. Intense therapeutic ultrasound (ITU) is a treatment modality that creates very small, focal coagula in tissue, which can stimulate a healing response. This pilot study investigated the effects of ITU on rabbit and rat models of partial Achilles tendon rupture. The right Achilles tendons of 20 New Zealand White rabbits and 118 rats were partially transected. Twenty-four hours after surgery, ITU coagula were placed in the tendon and surrounding tissue, alternating right and left legs. At various time points, the following data were collected: ultrasound imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, mechanical testing, gene expression analysis, histology, and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) of sectioned tissue. Ultrasound visualized cuts and treatment lesions. OCT showed the effect of the interventions on birefringence banding caused by collagen organization. MPM showed inflammatory infiltrate, collagen synthesis and organization. By day 14- 28, all tendons had a smooth appearance and histology, MPM and OCT still could still visualize residual healing processes. Few significant results in gene expression were seen, but trends were that ITU treatment caused an initial decrease in growth and collagen gene expression followed by an increase. No difference in failure loads was found between control, cut, and ITU treatment groups, suggesting that sufficient healing had occurred by 14 days to restore all test tissue to control mechanical properties. These results suggest that ITU does not cause harm to tendon tissue. Upregulation of some genes suggests that ITU may increase healing response.

  5. The molecular chemistry of diffuse and translucent clouds in the line-of-sight to Sgr B2: Absorption by simple organic and inorganic molecules in the GBT PRIMOS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, J. F.; McGuire, B. A.; Herbst, E.; Remijan, A. J.

    2018-02-01

    The 1-50 GHz PRebiotic Interstellar MOlecular Survey (PRIMOS) contains 50 molecular absorption lines observed in clouds located in the line-of-sight to Sgr B2(N). The line-of-sight material is associated with diffuse and translucent clouds located in the Galactic center, bar, and spiral arms in the disk. We measured the column densities and estimate abundances, relative to H2, of 11 molecules and additional isotopologues observed in this material. We used absorption by optically thin transitions of c-C3H2 to estimate the molecular hydrogen columns, and argue that this method is preferable to more commonly used methods. We discuss the kinematic structure and abundance patterns of small molecules including the sulfur-bearing species CS, SO, CCS, H2CS, and HCS+; oxygen-bearing molecules OH, SiO, and H2CO; and simple hydrocarbon molecules c-C3H2, l-C3H, and l-C3H+. Finally, we discuss the implications of the observed chemistry for the structure of the gas and dust in the ISM. Highlighted results include the following. First, whereas gas in the disk has a molecular hydrogen fraction of 0.65, clouds on the outer edge of the Galactic bar and in or near the Galactic center have molecular fractions of 0.85 and >0.9, respectively. Second, we observe trends in isotope ratios with Galactocentric distance; while carbon and silicon show enhancement of the rare isotopes at low Galactocentric distances, sulfur exhibits no trend with Galactocentric distance. We also determine that the ratio of c-C3H2/c-H13CCCH provides a good estimate of the 12C/13C ratio, whereas H2CO/H213CO exhibits fractionation. Third, we report the presence of l-C3H+ in diffuse clouds for the first time. Finally, we suggest that CS has an enhanced abundance within higher density clumps of material in the disk, and therefore may be diagnostic of cloud conditions. If this holds, the diffuse clouds in the Galactic disk contain multiple embedded hyperdensities in a clumpy structure, and the density profile is not

  6. Histological Changes in the Proximal and Distal Tendon Stumps Following Transection of Achilles Tendon in the Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Mawlana, Ola Helmi; Mohammed Ahmed, Raeesa Abdel-Twab; Hawary, Khalid

    2016-05-01

    To determine tendon stump changes following unrepaired Achilles tendon lacerations in an animal model. An experimental study. King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to January 2014. Arabbit model was developed and studied tendon retraction and histological changes in the proximal and distal stumps following transection of the Achilles tendon. Over a period of 12 weeks, retraction of the distal tendon stump was minimal (2 - 3 mm). In contrast, retraction of the proximal tendon stump peaked to reach 6 mm at 4 weeks post-injury and plateaued to reach 7 - 8 mm at the 12-week interval. Following complete transection of the Achilles tendon, tendon retraction correlated with the density of myofibroblast expression within the tendon stump. Further research is needed to investigate the pathophysiology of these findings.

  7. Histological Changes in the Proximal and Distal Tendon Stumps Following Transection of Achilles Tendon in the Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qattan, M. M.; Hawary, K.; Mawlana, O. H.; Ahmed, R. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine tendon stump changes following unrepaired Achilles tendon lacerations in an animal model. Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to January 2014. Methodology: Arabbit model was developed and studied tendon retraction and histological changes in the proximal and distal stumps following transection of the Achilles tendon. Result: Over a period of 12 weeks, retraction of the distal tendon stump was minimal (2 - 3 mm). In contrast, retraction of the proximal tendon stump peaked to reach 6 mm at 4 weeks post-injury and plateaued to reach 7 - 8 mm at the 12-week interval. Conclusion: Following complete transection of the Achilles tendon, tendon retraction correlated with the density of myofibroblast expression within the tendon stump. Further research is needed to investigate the pathophysiology of these findings. (author)

  8. Erythropoietin improves place learning in fimbria-fornix-transected rats and modifies the search pattern of normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2004-01-01

    administration of EPO significantly improves the posttraumatic functional recovery of the presently studied place learning task after transections of the fimbria-fornix. Additionally, administration of EPO influences the strategy, although not quality, of task solution in normal (sham-operated) rats.......The acquisition of a water-maze-based allocentric place learning task was studied in four groups of rats: two groups subjected to bilateral transections of the fimbria-fornix and two groups undergoing a sham control operation. At the moment of surgery all animals were given one systemic......-associated impairment. The two sham-operated groups did not differ with respect to the proficiency of task acquisition. But administration of EPO to intact animals caused a significant modification of swim patterns-apparently reflecting a somewhat modified strategy of task solution. It is concluded that systemic...

  9. Yeast and bacterial diversity along a transect in an acidic, As-Fe rich environment revealed by cultural approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavat, François; Lett, Marie-Claire; Lièvremont, Didier

    2013-10-01

    Acid mine drainages (AMDs) are often thought to harbour low biodiversity, yet little is known about the diversity distribution along the drainages. Using culture-dependent approaches, the microbial diversity from the Carnoulès AMD sediment was investigated for the first time along a transect showing progressive environmental stringency decrease. In total, 20 bacterial genera were detected, highlighting a higher bacterial diversity than previously thought. Moreover, this approach led to the discovery of 16 yeast species, demonstrating for the first time the presence of this important phylogenetic group in this AMD. All in all, the location of the microbes along the transect helps to better understand their distribution in a pollution gradient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  11. Accelerated axon outgrowth, guidance, and target reinnervation across nerve transection gaps following a brief electrical stimulation paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhagat; Xu, Qing-Gui; Franz, Colin K; Zhang, Rumi; Dalton, Colin; Gordon, Tessa; Verge, Valerie M K; Midha, Rajiv; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2012-03-01

    Regeneration of peripheral nerves is remarkably restrained across transection injuries, limiting recovery of function. Strategies to reverse this common and unfortunate outcome are limited. Remarkably, however, new evidence suggests that a brief extracellular electrical stimulation (ES), delivered at the time of injury, improves the regrowth of motor and sensory axons. In this work, the authors explored and tested this ES paradigm, which was applied proximal to transected sciatic nerves in mice, and identified several novel and compelling impacts of the approach. Using thy-1 yellow fluorescent protein mice with fluorescent axons that allow serial in vivo tracking of regeneration, the morphological, electrophysiological, and behavioral indices of nerve regrowth were measured. The authors show that ES is associated with a 30%-50% improvement in several indices of regeneration: regrowth of axons and their partnered Schwann cells across transection sites, maturation of regenerated fibers in gaps spanning transection zones, and entry of axons into their muscle and cutaneous target zones. In parallel studies, the authors analyzed adult sensory neurons and their response to extracellular ES while plated on a novel microelectrode array construct designed to deliver the identical ES paradigm used in vivo. The ES accelerated neurite outgrowth, supporting the concept of a neuron-autonomous mechanism of action. Taken together, these results support a robust role for brief ES following peripheral nerve injuries in promoting regeneration. Electrical stimulation has a wider repertoire of impact than previously recognized, and its impact in vitro supports the hypothesis that a neuron-specific reprogrammed injury response is recruited by the ES protocol.

  12. A case report of a Wada test after dominant hemisphere multiple hippocampal transections: Pathophysiology of confusion after amobarbital injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Landazuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialepsis is defined as a predominant alteration of consciousness with preservation of motor tone and the ability to perform movements. While dialepsis is a common feature of both focal and generalized epilepsies, its precise symptomatogenic zone and pathogenesis remain undefined. This case report describes a patient who underwent intracarotid amobarbital procedures before and after dominant hemisphere multiple hippocampal transections. From our observations, we propose a possible pathogenesis for the generation of dialeptic seizures.

  13. A Summary of Results From the IPOD Transects Across the Japan, Mariana, and Middle-America Convergent Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Von Huene, R; Uyeda, S

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of convergent margins along the IPOD transects support the concept of ocean floor spreading in back-arc basins and the concept of tectonically accreted sediment at the front of convergent margins. However, not all convergent margins have large accreted complexes, and other less frequently used concepts are required in the interpretations of these convergent margins. If the present rates of plate convergence are accepted, then much sediment that entered the trenches studied is p...

  14. Molecular changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomized models of osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo Ya; Hayami Tadashi; Pickarski Maureen; Duong Le T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating, progressive joint disease. Methods Similar to the disease progression in humans, sequential events of early cartilage degradation, subchondral osteopenia followed by sclerosis, and late osteophyte formation were demonstrated in the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) or ACLT with partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT + MMx) rat OA models. We describe a reliable and consistent method to examine the time dependent changes in the g...

  15. The Effect of a Third Generation Hemostatic Dressing in a Subclavian Artery and Vein Transection Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    small skin incision. The exposed subclavian vessels were treated with lidocaine , transected and allowed to free bleed for thirty seconds prior to...achieve hemorrhage control (Butler & Blackbourne, 2012) is typically ineffective in this region because pressure over the clavicle will not be...cavity depth, and cavity volume. The subclavian vessels were then immersed in 30 mL of 2% lidocaine (Phoenix Pharmaceuticals, St. Joseph, MO) for 10

  16. Major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from two continental-scale transects of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Garrett, Robert G.; Klassen, Rodney; Kilburn, James E.; Horton, John D.; King, Harley D.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Morrison, Jean M.

    2005-01-01

    This report contains major- and trace-element concentration data for soil samples collected from 265 sites along two continental-scale transects in North America. One of the transects extends from northern Manitoba to the United States-Mexico border near El Paso, Tex. and consists of 105 sites. The other transect approximately follows the 38th parallel from the Pacific coast of the United States near San Francisco, Calif., to the Atlantic coast along the Maryland shore and consists of 160 sites. Sampling sites were defined by first dividing each transect into approximately 40-km segments. For each segment, a 1-km-wide latitudinal strip was randomly selected; within each strip, a potential sample site was selected from the most representative landscape within the most common soil type. At one in four sites, duplicate samples were collected 10 meters apart to estimate local spatial variability. At each site, up to four separate soil samples were collected as follows: (1) material from 0-5 cm depth; (2) O horizon, if present; (3) a composite of the A horizon; and (4) C horizon. Each sample collected was analyzed for total major- and trace-element composition by the following methods: (1) inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES) for aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfur, tellurium, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, and zinc; (2) cold vapor- atomic absorption spectrometry for mercury; (3) hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry for antimony and selenium; (4) coulometric titration for carbonate carbon; and (5) combustion for total carbon and total sulfur.

  17. First Case of Autonomic Dysreflexia Following Elective Lower Thoracic Spinal Cord Transection in a Spina Bifida Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Juanita; Mathkour, Mansour; Scullen, Tyler; Kahn, Lora; Biro, Erin; Pham, Alex; Sulaiman, Olawale A R; Smith, Roger; Bui, Cuong J

    2017-12-01

    Spinal cord transection is a radical but effective treatment for highly selective cases of symptomatic spinal retethering in paraplegic spina bifida patients. Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome involving a dysregulated sympathetic discharge reflex commonly seen following cervical and high thoracic spinal cord injury, leading to a disconnect between autonomic pathways above and below the lesion that can lead to severe complications including uncontrolled hypertension, bradycardia, stroke, and potentially death. Herein we present a case in which a paraplegic spina bifida patient presenting with symptomatic spinal retethering experienced autonomic dysreflexia following an elective spinal cord transection. A 51-year-old male with a history of complex spina bifida presented with an active cerebrospinal fluid leak. Physical examination revealed a thin covering of abnormal epidermis over the large placode. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large myelomeningocele defect with posterior element defects spanning from L2 to the sacrum with evidence of tethering. The patient underwent an intradural transection of the spinal cord with a "blind-pouch" closure of the dura at the level of T12/L1. Postoperatively, the patient developed intermittent episodes of hypertension, bradycardia, headaches, altered mental status, severe perspiration, and red flushing of the upper torso, face, and arms. The diagnosis of AD was made clinically and managed with a positive response to a combination of beta- and alpha-blockade along with patient education on avoidance of common AD triggers. At 5-year follow-up the patient has continued to do well on medication. This case highlights a potential major side effect from elective transection of the spinal cord. If unrecognized and untreated, AD can cause significant distress and morbidity. We hope this first case report serves to supplement existing data and aid in future surgical and medical decision

  18. Fungiform Taste Bud Degeneration in C57BL/6J Mice Following Chorda-Lingual Nerve Transection

    OpenAIRE

    Guagliardo, Nick A.; Hill, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Taste buds are dependent on innervation for normal morphology and function. Fungiform taste bud degeneration after chorda tympani nerve injury has been well documented in rats, hamsters, and gerbils. The current study examines fungiform taste bud distribution and structure in adult C57BL/6J mice from both intact taste systems and after unilateral chorda-lingual nerve transection. Fungiform taste buds were visualized and measured with the aid of cytokeratin 8. In control mice, taste buds were ...

  19. Salix transect of Europe: variation in ploidy and genome size in willow-associated common nettle, Urtica dioica L. sens. lat., from Greece to arctic Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronk, Quentin; Hidalgo, Oriane; Pellicer, Jaume; Percy, Diana; Leitch, Ilia J

    2016-01-01

    The common stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L. sensu lato, is an invertebrate "superhost", its clonal patches maintaining large populations of insects and molluscs. It is extremely widespread in Europe and highly variable, and two ploidy levels (diploid and tetraploid) are known. However, geographical patterns in cytotype variation require further study. We assembled a collection of nettles in conjunction with a transect of Europe from the Aegean to Arctic Norway (primarily conducted to examine the diversity of Salix and Salix -associated insects). Using flow cytometry to measure genome size, our sample of 29 plants reveals 5 diploids and 24 tetraploids. Two diploids were found in SE Europe (Bulgaria and Romania) and three diploids in S. Finland. More detailed cytotype surveys in these regions are suggested. The tetraploid genome size (2C value) varied between accessions from 2.36 to 2.59 pg. The diploids varied from 1.31 to 1.35 pg per 2C nucleus, equivalent to a haploid genome size of c. 650 Mbp. Within the tetraploids, we find that the most northerly samples (from N. Finland and arctic Norway) have a generally higher genome size. This is possibly indicative of a distinct population in this region.

  20. Effects of GGCX overexpression on anterior cruciate ligament transection-induced osteoarthritis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoling; Qiu, Ruiyun; Tang, Chunfang; Wang, Xiaomei; Cheng, Xigao; Yin, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Effective therapeutic methods for osteoarthritis (OA) are lacking. γ‑glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) is a key enzyme that regulates carboxylation of cartilage matrix Gla protein (MGP). Whether GGCX overexpression protects against OA remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of GGCX overexpression on anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)‑induced OA and its mechanisms in Japanese white rabbits. ACLT surgery was used to establish an OA model in rabbits. A total of 48 rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: Sham, OA model + GGCX overexpression plasmid, OA model + saline and OA model + empty vector. The expression of uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP), carboxylated MGP (cMGP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑13, collagen type X, collagen type II, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and interleukin (IL)‑1β were detected by ELISA, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Morphological changes to tibial cartilage were assessed by Giemsa and safranin O‑fast green staining, respectively. Compared with the Sham control, GGCX expression was significantly decreased in the OA Model group. GGCX expression was increased by injection of a lentivirus‑carried overexpression plasmid that encoded GGCX. GGCX overexpression ameliorated ATLC‑induced damage in articular cartilage. OA Model rabbits exhibited significantly decreased expression levels of cMGP and collagen type II, and increased expression of ucMGP, collagen type X, MMP‑13, IL‑1β and TNF‑α. Notably, these expression levels were reversed by GGCX overexpression in OA Model rabbits. Results from the present study indicated that GGCX expression was decreased in OA Model rabbits, whereas overexpression of GGCX was able to promote carboxylation of MGP, reduce inflammation, decrease MMP‑13 expression and regulate collagen expression. The results also indicated that GGCX may serve as a therapeutic target for OA.

  1. Crustal structure along the DESERT 2000 Transect inferred from 3-D gravity modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kelani, R.; Goetze, H.; Rybakov, M.; Hassouneh, M.; Schmidt, S.

    2003-12-01

    A three-dimensional interpretation of the newly compiled Bouguer anomaly map is part of the DESERT 2000 Transect. That is multi-disciplinary and multinational project studying for first time the Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system (DST) from the Mediterranean Sea to Saudi Arabia across the international border in the NW-SE direction. The negative Bouguer anomalies (with magnitude reached "C130 mGal), located into transform valley, are caused by the internal sedimentary basins filled by the light density young sediments (­Y10 km). A high-resolution 3-D model constrained with the seismic results reveals a possible crustal thickness and density distribution beneath the DST valley. The inferred zone of intrusion coincides with the maximum gravity anomaly over the eastern flank of the DST. The intrusion is displaced at different sectors along the NW-SE direction. The zone of the maximum crustal thinning (­30 km) is attained in the western sector at the Mediterranean. The southeastern plateau, on the other hand, shows by far the largest crustal thickness in the region (38-42 km). Linked to the left lateral movement of ~ 105 km at the boundary between the African and Arabian plate, and constrained with the DESERT 2000 seismic data, a small asymmetric topography of the Moho beneath the DST was modelled. The thickness and density of the crust suggest that a continental crust underlies the DST. The deep basins, the relatively large nature of the intrusion and the asymmetric topography of the Moho lead to the conclusion that a small-scale asthenospheric upwelling(?) might be responsible for the thinning of the crust and subsequent rifting of the Dead Sea graben during the left lateral movement.

  2. Robustness of xylem properties in conifers: analyses of tracheid and pit dimensions along elevational transects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losso, Adriano; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Ganthaler, Andrea; Kofler, Werner; Markl, Yvonne; Nardini, Andrea; Oberhuber, Walter; Purin, Gerhard; Mayr, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    In alpine regions, tree hydraulics are limited by low temperatures that restrict xylem growth and induce winter frost drought and freezing stress. While several studies have dealt with functional limitations, data on elevational changes in functionally relevant xylem anatomical parameters are still scarce. In wood cores of Pinus cembra L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst. trunks, harvested along five elevational transects, xylem anatomical parameters (tracheid hydraulic diameter dh, wall reinforcement (t/b)2), pit dimensions (pit aperture Da, pit membrane Dm and torus Dt diameters) and respective functional indices (torus overlap O, margo flexibility) were measured. In both species, tracheid diameters decreased and (t/b)2 increased with increasing elevation, while pit dimensions and functional indices remained rather constant (P. cembra: Dt 10.3 ± 0.2 μm, O 0.477 ± 0.005; P. abies: Dt 9.30 ± 0.18 μm, O 0.492 ± 0.005). However, dh increased with tree height following a power trajectory with an exponent of 0.21, and also pit dimensions increased with tree height (exponents: Dm 0.18; Dt 0.14; Da 0.11). Observed elevational trends in xylem structures were predominantly determined by changes in tree size. Tree height-related changes in anatomical traits showed a remarkable robustness, regardless of the distributional ranges of study species. Despite increasing stress intensities towards the timberline, no adjustment in hydraulic safety at the pit level was observed. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Growth, carbon-isotope discrimination, and drought-associated mortality across a Pinus ponderosa elevational transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, N.G.; Allen, Craig D.; Marshall, L.

    2010-01-01

    Drought- and insect-associated tree mortality at low-elevation ecotones is a widespread phenomenon but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. Enhanced growth sensitivity to climate is widely observed among trees that die, indicating that a predisposing physiological mechanism(s) underlies tree mortality. We tested three, linked hypotheses regarding mortality using a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) elevation transect that experienced low-elevation mortality following prolonged drought. The hypotheses were: (1) mortality was associated with greater growth sensitivity to climate, (2) mortality was associated with greater sensitivity of gas exchange to climate, and (3) growth and gas exchange were correlated. Support for all three hypotheses would indicate that mortality results at least in part from gas exchange constraints. We assessed growth using basal area increment normalized by tree basal area [basal area increment (BAI)/basal area (BA)] to account for differences in tree size. Whole-crown gas exchange was indexed via estimates of the CO2 partial pressure difference between leaf and atmosphere (pa−pc) derived from tree ring carbon isotope ratios (δ13C), corrected for temporal trends in atmospheric CO2 and δ13C and elevation trends in pressure. Trees that survived the drought exhibited strong correlations among and between BAI, BAI/BA, pa−pc, and climate. In contrast, trees that died exhibited greater growth sensitivity to climate than trees that survived, no sensitivity of pa−pc to climate, and a steep relationship between pa−pc and BAI/BA. The pa−pc results are consistent with predictions from a theoretical hydraulic model, suggesting trees that died had a limited buffer between mean water availability during their lifespan and water availability during drought – i.e., chronic water stress. It appears that chronic water stress predisposed low-elevation trees to mortality during drought via constrained gas exchange. Continued intensification of

  4. Segmental neuropathic pain does not develop in male rats with complete spinal transections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubscher, Charles H; Kaddumi, Ezidin G; Johnson, Richard D

    2008-10-01

    In a previous study using male rats, a correlation was found between the development of "at-level" allodynia in T6-7 dermatomes following severe T8 spinal contusion injury and the sparing of some myelinated axons within the core of the lesion epicenter. To further test our hypothesis that this sparing is important for the expression of allodynia and the supraspinal plasticity that ensues, an injury that severs all axons (i.e., a complete spinal cord transection) was made in 15 male rats. Behavioral assessments were done at level throughout the 30-day recovery period followed by terminal electrophysiological recordings (urethane anesthesia) from single medullary reticular formation (MRF) neurons receiving convergent nociceptive inputs from receptive fields above, at, and below the lesion level. None of the rats developed signs of at-level allodynia (versus 18 of 26 male rats following severe contusion). However, the terminal recording (206 MRF neurons) data resembled those obtained previously post-contusion. That is, there was evidence of neuronal hyper-excitability (relative to previous data from intact controls) to high- and low-threshold mechanical stimulation for "at-level" (dorsal trunk) and "above-level" (eyelids and face) cutaneous territories. These results, when combined with prior data on intact controls and severe/moderate contusions, indicate that (1) an anatomically incomplete injury (some lesion epicenter axonal sparing) following severe contusion is likely important for the development of allodynia and (2) the neuronal hyper-excitability at the level of the medulla is likely involved in nociceptive processes that are not directly related to the conscious expression of pain-like avoidance behaviors that are being used as evidence of allodynia.

  5. Laparoscopic ovariectomy using sequential electrocoagulation and sharp transection of the equine mesovarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgerson, D H; Belknap, J K; Wilson, D A

    2001-01-01

    To describe in horses and ponies a laparoscopic ovariectomy technique facilitated by electrosurgical instrumentation. Elective ovariectomy was performed in 23 mares using laparoscopic electrosurgical instrumentation. Twenty-three mares (13 horses, 10 ponies), aged from 2 to 21 years and weighing 90 to 545 kg. Food was withheld for a minimum of 12 hours. Mares were sedated with detomidine hydrochloride (0.02 to 0.03 mg/kg) or xylazine hydrochloride (0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg). Excluding the pony mares, all other mares were restrained in stocks. Portal sites in the paralumbar fossa region were desensitized with 2% mepivacaine. Abdominal insufflation was achieved through a teat cannula positioned in the ventral abdomen or a Verres-type needle placed through the paralumbar fossa. After trocar and laparoscope insertion, the ipsilateral ovary and mesovarium were identified, and the mesovarium, tubal membrane, and proper ligament were infiltrated with 2% mepivacaine. The mesovarium was coagulated using bipolar or monopolar electrosurgical forceps and transected sequentially from cranial to caudal until the ovary was completely freed and then removed. The contralateral ovary was removed in a similar fashion through the opposite paralumbar fossa. Bipolar and monopolar electrosurgical forceps were easy to use and provided adequate coagulation of vessels within the mesovarium. Two mares were euthanatized after the procedure for unrelated reasons. One mare had mild signs of colic 24 hours after ovariectomy. In 1 pony mare, the incision used to remove one ovary dehisced on the 5th postoperative day and was allowed to heal by second-intention. No long-term complications had occurred in 11 horses and 10 ponies, 6 to 24 months after surgery. Laparoscopic ovariectomy and hemostasis of the mesovarium can be easily accomplished using electrosurgical instrumentation. Standing laparoscopic ovariectomy, using electrosurgical instrumentation, is an effective and safe technique to provide

  6. Participation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in experimental neuropathic pain induced by sciatic nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chacur

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nerve injury leads to a neuropathic pain state that results from central sensitization. This phenomenom is mediated by NMDA receptors and may involve the production of nitric oxide (NO. In this study, we investigated the expression of the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS in the spinal cord of 3-month-old male, Wistar rats after sciatic nerve transection (SNT. Our attention was focused on the dorsal part of L3-L5 segments receiving sensory inputs from the sciatic nerve. SNT resulted in the development of neuropathic pain symptoms confirmed by evaluating mechanical hyperalgesia (Randall and Selitto test and allodynia (von Frey hair test. Control animals did not present any alteration (sham-animals. The selective inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (0.2 and 2 µg in 50 µL, blocked hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by SNT. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that nNOS was increased (48% by day 30 in the lumbar spinal cord after SNT. This increase was observed near the central canal (Rexed’s lamina X and also in lamina I-IV of the dorsal horn. Real-time PCR results indicated an increase of nNOS mRNA detected from 1 to 30 days after SNT, with the highest increase observed 1 day after injury (1469%. Immunoblotting confirmed the increase of nNOS in the spinal cord between 1 and 15 days post-lesion (20%, reaching the greatest increase (60% 30 days after surgery. The present findings demonstrate an increase of nNOS after peripheral nerve injury that may contribute to the increase of NO production observed after peripheral neuropathy.

  7. Water Futures for Cold Mountain Ecohydrology under Climate Change - Results from the North American Cordilleran Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, K.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Fang, X.; Whitfield, P. H.; Marks, D. G.; Janowicz, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    A transect comprising three intensively researched mountain headwater catchments stretching from the northern US to northern Canada provides the basis to downscale climate models outputs for mountain hydrology and insight for an assessment of water futures under changing climate and vegetation using a physically based hydrological model. Reynolds Mountain East, Idaho; Marmot Creek, Alberta and Wolf Creek, Yukon are high mountain catchments dominated by forests and alpine shrub and grass vegetation with long-term snow, hydrometric and meteorological observations and extensive ecohydrological process studies. The physically based, modular, flexible and object-oriented Cold Regions Hydrological Modelling Platform (CRHM) was used to create custom spatially distributed hydrological models for these three catchments. Model parameterisations were based on knowledge of hydrological processes, basin physiography, soils and vegetation with minimal or no calibration from streamflow measurements. The models were run over multidecadal periods using high-elevation meteorological observations to assess the recent ecohydrological functioning of these catchments. The results showed unique features in each catchment, from snowdrift-fed aspen pocket forests in Reynolds Mountain East, to deep late-lying snowdrifts at treeline larch forests in Marmot Creek, and snow-trapping shrub tundra overlying discontinuous permafrost in Wolf Creek. The meteorological observations were then perturbed using the changes in monthly temperature and precipitation predicted by the NARCCAP modelling outputs for the mid-21st C. In all catchments there is a dramatic decline in snow redistribution and sublimation by wind and of snow interception by and sublimation from evergreen canopies that is associated with warmer winters. Reduced sublimation loss only partially compensated for greater rainfall fractions of precipitation. Under climate change, snowmelt was earlier and slower and at the lowest elevations

  8. Use of bipolar radiofrequency in parenchymal transection of the liver, pancreas and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Madhava; Spalding, Duncan; Jiao, Long; Habib, Nagy

    2012-01-01

    Intraoperative blood loss has been shown to be an important factor correlating with increased morbidity and mortality in oncological surgery. Despite technological advances in parenchymal transection devices, bleeding remains the single most important complication. To address this, we designed and developed a bipolar radiofrequency (RF) device, the Habib 4X (Angiodynamics, Inc., Queensbury, N.Y., USA), which was initially used specifically for liver resections. A search using Medline, Embase and Google™ Scholar was performed for the period January 2001 to August 2011. The following Mesh terms were used: 'bipolar radiofrequency', 'Habib 4X', 'laparoscopic', 'liver resection', 'partial nephrectomy' and 'distal pancreatectomy'. The references of the studies included were also reviewed. Series from our centre were excluded. There were seven series published, reporting a total of 188 liver resections [113 minor (Habib 4X) device over this period. The median blood loss reported ranged from 15 to 427 ml with a transfusion rate of 0-14% In addition, five series of partial nephrectomies were also identified, reporting a total of 149 (45 open and 104 laparoscopic) cases. Hilar clamping was not used in any of the cases, and the mean blood loss reported was 100-337 ml whilst the transfusion rate ranged from 0 to 7.1%. There was only one published series of distal pancreatectomies; these were laparoscopic and included 14 patients. This review of bipolar RF-assisted liver resections, partial nephrectomies and distal pancreatectomies reported in the literature to date shows that there are significant advantages in using this device in these types of operation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Data management for support of the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, J. W.; Angelici, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    Management of data collected during projects that involve large numbers of scientists is an often overlooked aspect of the experimental plan. Ecosystem science projects like the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) Project that involve many investigators from many institutions and that run for multiple years, collect and archive large amounts of data. These data range in size from a few kilobytes of information for such measurements as canopy chemistry and meteorological variables, to hundreds of megabytes of information for such items as views from multi-band spectrometers flown on aircraft and scenes from imaging radiometers aboard satellites. Organizing and storing data from the OTTER Project, certifying those data, correcting errors in data sets, validating the data, and distributing those data to other OTTER investigators is a major undertaking. Using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Pilot Land Data System (PLDS), a Support mechanism was established for the OTTER Project which accomplished all of the above. At the onset of the interaction between PLDS and OTTER, it was not certain that PLDS could accomplish these tasks in a manner that would aid researchers in the OTTER Project. This paper documents the data types that were collected under the auspices of the OTTER Project and the procedures implemented to store, catalog, validate, and certify those data. The issues of the compliance of investigators with data-management requirements, data use and certification, and the ease of retrieving data are discussed. We advance the hypothesis that formal data management is necessary in ecological investigations involving multiple investigators using many data gathering instruments and experimental procedures. The issues and experience gained in this exercise give an indication of the needs for data management systems that must be addressed in the coming decades when other large data-gathering endeavors are undertaken by the ecological

  10. Two chronic motor training paradigms differentially influe nce acute instrume ntal learning in spinally transected rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigbee, Allison J.; Crown, Eric D.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Roy, Roland R.; Tillakaratne, Niranjala J.K.; Grau, James W.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2008-01-01

    The effect of two chronic motor training paradigms on the ability of the lumbar spinal cord to perform an acute instrumental learning task was examined in neonatally (postnatal day 5; P5) spinal cord transected (i.e., spinal) rats. At ∼P30, rats began either unipedal hindlimb stand training (Stand-Tr; 20-25 min/day, 5 days/wk), or bipedal hindlimb step training (Step-Tr; 20 min/day; 5 days/wk) for 7 wks. Non-trained spinal rats (Non-Tr) served as controls. After 7 wks all groups were tested on the flexor-biased instrumental learning paradigm. We hypothesized that 1) Step-Tr rats would exhibit an increased capacity to learn the flexor-biased task relative to Non-Tr subjects, as locomotion involves repetitive training of the tibialis anterior (TA), the ankle flexor whose activation is important for successful instrumental learning, and 2) Stand-Tr rats would exhibit a deficit in acute motor learning, as unipedal training activates the ipsilateral ankle extensors, but not flexors. Results showed no differences in acute learning potential between Non-Tr and Step-Tr rats, while the Stand-Tr group showed a reduced capacity to learn the acute task. Further investigation of the Stand-Tr group showed that, while both the ipsilateral and contralateral hindlimbs were significantly impaired in their acute learning potential, the contralateral, untrained hindlimbs exhibited significantly greater learning deficits. These results suggest that different types of chronic peripheral input may have a significant impact on the ability to learn a novel motor task, and demonstrate the potential for experience-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord in the absence of supraspinal connectivity. PMID:17434606

  11. Abiotic versus biotic controls on soil nitrogen cycling in drylands along a 3200 km transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongwei; Zhu, Weixing; Wang, Xiaobo; Pan, Yuepeng; Wang, Chao; Xi, Dan; Bai, Edith; Wang, Yuesi; Han, Xingguo; Fang, Yunting

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) cycling in drylands under changing climate is not well understood. Our understanding of N cycling over larger scales to date relies heavily on the measurement of bulk soil N, and the information about internal soil N transformations remains limited. The 15N natural abundance (δ15N) of ammonium and nitrate can serve as a proxy record for the N processes in soils. To better understand the patterns and mechanisms of N cycling in drylands, we collected soils along a 3200 km transect at about 100 km intervals in northern China, with mean annual precipitation (MAP) ranging from 36 to 436 mm. We analyzed N pools and δ15N of ammonium, dual isotopes (15N and 18O) of nitrate, and the microbial gene abundance associated with soil N transformations. We found that N status and its driving factors were different above and below a MAP threshold of 100 mm. In the arid zone with MAP below 100 mm, soil inorganic N accumulated, with a large fraction being of atmospheric origin, and ammonia volatilization was strong in soils with high pH. In addition, the abundance of microbial genes associated with soil N transformations was low. In the semiarid zone with MAP above 100 mm, soil inorganic N concentrations were low and were controlled mainly by biological processes (e.g., plant uptake and denitrification). The preference for soil ammonium over nitrate by the dominant plant species may enhance the possibility of soil nitrate losses via denitrification. Overall, our study suggests that a shift from abiotic to biotic controls on soil N biogeochemistry under global climate changes would greatly affect N losses, soil N availability, and other N transformation processes in these drylands in China.

  12. Therapy induces widespread reorganization of motor cortex after complete spinal transection that supports motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, Patrick D; Manohar, Anitha; Shumsky, Jed S; Moxon, Karen A

    2016-05-01

    Reorganization of the somatosensory system and its relationship to functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been well studied. However, little is known about the impact of SCI on organization of the motor system. Recent studies suggest that step-training paradigms in combination with spinal stimulation, either electrically or through pharmacology, are more effective than step training alone at inducing recovery and that reorganization of descending corticospinal circuits is necessary. However, simpler, passive exercise combined with pharmacotherapy has also shown functional improvement after SCI and reorganization of, at least, the sensory cortex. In this study we assessed the effect of passive exercise and serotonergic (5-HT) pharmacological therapies on behavioral recovery and organization of the motor cortex. We compared the effects of passive hindlimb bike exercise to bike exercise combined with daily injections of 5-HT agonists in a rat model of complete mid-thoracic transection. 5-HT pharmacotherapy combined with bike exercise allowed the animals to achieve unassisted weight support in the open field. This combination of therapies also produced extensive expansion of the axial trunk motor cortex into the deafferented hindlimb motor cortex and, surprisingly, reorganization within the caudal and even the rostral forelimb motor cortex areas. The extent of the axial trunk expansion was correlated to improvement in behavioral recovery of hindlimbs during open field locomotion, including weight support. From a translational perspective, these data suggest a rationale for developing and optimizing cost-effective, non-invasive, pharmacological and passive exercise regimes to promote plasticity that supports restoration of movement after spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Regeneration of supraspinal axons after transection of the thoracic spinal cord in the developing opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X M; Terman, J R; Martin, G F

    1998-08-17

    When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum is transected early in development, supraspinal axons grow through the lesion. In the experiments reported here, we asked whether regeneration of cut axons contributes to such growth. Fast Blue (FB) was injected into the lumbar cord on postnatal day (PD)5, 8, 15, or 20. Five days later, FB was removed by gentle suction, and the spinal cord was transected at thoracic levels. Fourteen days later, rhodamine B dextran was injected between the site of the FB injection and the lesion. The pups were maintained for an additional 7-10 days before killing and perfusion. We assumed that supraspinal neurons that contained FB survived axotomy and those that contained both FB and rhodamine B dextran supported regenerating axons. In the PD5 group (lesioned at PD10), regenerative growth was documented for axons originating in all of the supraspinal nuclei that innervate the lumbar cord by PD10. When the injections were made at the later ages, however, neurons that supported regenerative growth were fewer in number and regionally restricted. In some cases, they were limited primarily to the red nucleus, the medullary raphe, and the adjacent reticular formation. Our results show that regeneration of cut axons contributes to growth of supraspinal axons through the lesion after transection of the thoracic cord in developing opossums and that the critical period for regenerative growth is not the same for all axons.

  14. Measurement of amino acid levels in the vitreous humor of rats after chronic intraocular pressure elevation or optic nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Martin, Keith R G; Quigley, Harry A; Baumrind, Lisa A; Pease, Mary Ellen; Valenta, Danielle

    2002-10-01

    To investigate whether the levels of free amino acids and protein in the vitreous of rat eyes are altered with chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation or after optic nerve transection. The concentrations of 20 amino acids in the vitreous humor were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in both eyes of 41 rats with unilateral IOP elevation induced by translimbal photocoagulation. Eyes were studied 1 day and 1, 2, 4, and 9 weeks after initial IOP elevation. The same amino acids were measured in 41 rats 1 day and 2, 4, and 9 weeks after unilateral transection of the orbital optic nerve. The intravitreal protein level was assayed in additional 22 rats with IOP elevation and 12 rats after nerve transection. Two masked observers evaluated the amount of optic nerve damage with a semiquantitative, light-microscopic technique. In rats with experimental glaucoma, amino acid concentrations were unchanged 1 day after treatment. At 1 week, 4 of 20 amino acids (aspartate, proline, alanine, and lysine) were higher than in control eyes ( 0.05). Vitreous protein level was significantly higher in glaucomatous eyes than their paired controls at 1 day ( 0.01).

  15. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  16. Paleo-Productivity across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Walvis Ridge Transect (ODP Sites 1262, 1263, and 1266)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, C. O.; Delaney, M. L.; Zachos, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Walvis Ridge transect (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 208) provides the first high-resolution depth-transect of deep-sea sediments recovered from the south Atlantic across the P/E boundary. A geographically restricted depth transect (~ 2.2 km, water depths between 2500 and 4770 m) allows us to constrain the surface waters by assuming marine productivity conditions in the overlying water column are similar across all sites. The sediment record will reveal variations for processes that are water-depth dependent. We use the geochemical tracers; biogenic barium, phosphorus, calcium carbonate, and the redox sensitive trace elements manganese and uranium, to reconstruct nutrient burial, paleoproductivity, and bottom water redox chemistry across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). We calculate our concentrations on a calcium carbonate-free basis to account for dilution by non-carbonate sediments. Trace metal enrichment factors (EFs) are calculated relative to bulk crustal averages. We chose three sites from the depth transect: the shallowest (Site 1263, 2717 m water depth), an intermediate site (Site 1266, 3798 m water depth), and the deepest site (Site 1262, 4755 m water depth). We sampled each site at a sample resolution of ~ 1-2 kyr for 5 m.y. centered at 55 Ma. Uranium EFs at the shallow site exhibits values ~ 5 pre-event and drop to values near crustal averages during and after the carbon isotope excursion (CIE). No dramatic changes in U EFs across the P/E boundary are recorded at the deep and intermediate sites. Mn EFs range between 2.9 -8.6 prior to the event across all three sites, suggesting an oxygenated depositional environment. At the boundary, Mn EFs drop to crustal averages at all sites, then gradually return to pre-event values, indicating more reducing environments during the CIE, a possible explanation for the benthic extinction event (BEE) observed across this transect. Ba excess and reactive phosphorus exhibit decreased concentrations during

  17. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  18. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  19. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Howland Island, Phoenix Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at...

  20. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiiian Islands, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at French Frigate Shoals...