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Sample records for line test pattern

  1. Quantitative texture analysis of electrodeposited line patterns

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by electrochemical deposition into lithographically prepared patterns. Electrodeposition was carried out on top of a highly oriented Au-layer physically vapor deposited on glass. Quantitative texture analysis carried out by means of x......-ray diffraction for both the substrate layer and the electrodeposits yielded experimental evidence for epitaxy between Cu and Au. An orientation relation between film and substrate was discussed with respect to various concepts of epitaxy. While the conventional mode of epitaxy fails for the Cu...

  2. Characterization of the Goubau line for testing beam diagnostic instruments

    Kim, S. Y.; Stulle, F.; Sung, C. K.; Yoo, K. H.; Seok, J.; Moon, K. J.; Choi, C. U.; Chung, Y.; Kim, G.; Woo, H. J.; Kwon, J.; Lee, I. G.; Choi, E. M.; Chung, M.

    2017-12-01

    One of the main characteristics of the Goubau line is that it supports a low-loss, non-radiated surface wave guided by a dielectric-coated metal wire. The dominant mode of the surface wave along the Goubau line is a TM01 mode, which resembles the pattern of the electromagnetic fields induced in the metallic beam pipe when the charged particle beam passes through it. Therefore, the Goubau line can be used for the preliminary bench test and performance optimization of the beam diagnostic instruments without requiring charged particle beams from the accelerators. In this paper, we discuss the basic properties of the Goubau line for testing beam diagnostic instruments and present the initial test results for button-type beam position monitors (BPMs). The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical estimations, which indicates that Goubau line allows effective testing of beam diagnostic equipment.

  3. Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern

    Bakhtiar Affendi Rosdi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP.

  4. Finger vein recognition using local line binary pattern.

    Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Shing, Chai Wuh; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP) is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP) which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP).

  5. Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern

    Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Shing, Chai Wuh; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP) is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP) which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP). PMID:22247670

  6. Transfer line tests take centre stage

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Last weekend, proton beams came knocking on the LHC's door. Shooting from the SPS and into the two LHC transfer lines, the proton beams were dumped just short of entering the accelerator.   The upper plot shows the trajectory of the first TI2 beam, which reached the end of the transfer line in a single attempt after 18 months of technical stop. Below, a smoother beam trajectory in TI2 after some corrections. For the first time since Run 1, the SPS to LHC transfer lines (TI8 and TI2) transported proton beams just short of the LHC. "We tested the beam instrumentation, the devices that measure the beam intensity, transverse beam profile, position and losses, as well as the beam collimators along the transfer lines," says Reyes Alemany Fernandez, the engineer in charge of the LHC. "We were also able to spot possible bottle necks in the beam trajectory and to perform the first optics measurements." Once the beams arrived at the transfer line beam dumps...

  7. Freeze block testing of buried waste lines

    Robbins, E.D.; Willi, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to demonstrate application of freeze blocking in waste transfer lines such that a hydrostatic pressure test can be applied. A shop test was conducted on a 20-foot length, 3-inch schedule 40, carbon steel pipe using a coolant of dry ice and Freon. The positive results from these tests prompted a similar employment of the freeze block method in hydrostatic pressure testing the feed inlet leading to 241-S-101 Waste Tank. This pipeline is a 3-inch schedule 10, stainless steel pipe approximately 800 feet long. The freeze block was formed near the lower end of the pipe as it entered the 101-S Waste Tank and a pressure hold test was applied to this pipeline. This test proved the integrity of the pipeline in question, and demonstrated the validity of freeze blocking an open-ended pipeline which could not be hydrotested in other conventional ways. The field demonstration facility, costing $30,200 was completed late in 1975

  8. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    2010-10-01

    ... pipe before it is installed. (b) Testing of repairs made by welding. Each repair made by welding in... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line is...

  9. Test Pattern Generator for Mixed Mode BIST

    Kim, Hong Sik; Lee, Hang Kyu; Kang, Sung Ho [Yonsei University (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    As the increasing integrity of VLSI, the BIST (Built-In Self Test) is used as an effective method to test chips. Generally the pseudo-random test pattern generation is used for BIST. But it requires lots of test patterns when there exist random resistant faults. Therefore deterministic testing is an interesting BIST technique due to the minimal number of test patterns and to its high fault coverage. However this is not applicable since the existing deterministic test pattern generators require too much area overhead despite their efficiency. Therefore we propose a mixed test scheme which applies to the circuit under test, a deterministic test sequence followed by a pseudo-random one. This scheme allows the maximum fault coverage detection to be achieved, furthermore the silicon area overhead of the mixed hardware generator can be reduced. The deterministic test generator is made with a finite state machine and a pseudo-random test generator is made with LFSR(linear feedback shift register). The results of ISCAS circuits show that the maximum fault coverage is guaranteed with small number of test set and little hardware overhead. (author). 15 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. A/T test system for production line; Seisan line yo A/T test system

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    This paper introduces an A/T test system for production line made by Meidensha, Inc. Rates and technology of mounting auto-transmissions (A/T) in recent automobiles are improving year after year. A/T production line testers were fabricated and supplied, including those for European countries. This system has the following features: the system employs low inertia AC motor, and is capable of performing tests in close conditions to actual cars; an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverter was employed to achieve control accuracy improvement and noise reduction; high-velocity transient measurement is possible by using a computer system based on the WindowsNT; a solenoid current slant control was employed to respond to electronically controlled A/T; and noise and vibration shift feeling instrumentation can also be used on option. Number of supply is four sets of front engine/front wheel drive (FF) car A/T testers for overseas countries, and two sets of FF A/T tests for use in Japan. (NEDO)

  11. Characterization and drug resistance patterns of Ewing's sarcoma family tumor cell lines.

    William A May

    Full Text Available Despite intensive treatment with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, over 70% of patients with metastatic Ewing's Sarcoma Family of Tumors (EFT will die of their disease. We hypothesize that properly characterized laboratory models reflecting the drug resistance of clinical tumors will facilitate the application of new therapeutic agents to EFT. To determine resistance patterns, we studied newly established EFT cell lines derived from different points in therapy: two established at diagnosis (CHLA-9, CHLA-32, two after chemotherapy and progressive disease (CHLA-10, CHLA-25, and two at relapse after myeloablative therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (post-ABMT (CHLA-258, COG-E-352. The new lines were compared to widely studied EFT lines TC-71, TC-32, SK-N-MC, and A-673. These lines were extensively characterized with regard to identity (short tandem repeat (STR analysis, p53, p16/14 status, and EWS/ETS breakpoint and target gene expression profile. The DIMSCAN cytotoxicity assay was used to assess in vitro drug sensitivity to standard chemotherapy agents. No association was found between drug resistance and the expression of EWS/ETS regulated genes in the EFT cell lines. No consistent association was observed between drug sensitivity and p53 functionality or between drug sensitivity and p16/14 functionality across the cell lines. Exposure to chemotherapy prior to cell line initiation correlated with drug resistance of EFT cell lines in 5/8 tested agents at clinically achievable concentrations (CAC or the lower tested concentration (LTC: (cyclophosphamide (as 4-HC and doxorubicin at CAC, etoposide, irinotecan (as SN-38 and melphalan at LTC; P<0.1 for one agent, and P<0.05 for four agents. This panel of well-characterized drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cell lines will facilitate in vitro preclinical testing of new agents for EFT.

  12. Susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation

    Ariel, Ellen; Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    and laboratories, but also between lineages of the same cell line. To minimise the occurrence of false negatives in a cell culture based surveillance system, we have investigated methods, to select cell lineages that are relatively superior in their susceptibility to a panel of virus isolates. The procedures...... cell lineages, we increased the number of isolates of each virus, propagated stocks in a given cell line and tested all lineages of that line in use in the laboratory. Testing of relative cell line susceptibility between laboratories is carried out annually via the Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test...... sensitivity for surveillance purposes within a cell line and between laboratories.In terms of economic and practical considerations as well as attempting to approach a realistic test system, we suggest the optimal procedure for susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation to be a combination...

  13. Spatial patterns in Central Asian climate and equilibrium line altitudes

    Rupper, Summer; Koppes, Michele

    2010-01-01

    A suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations and a glacier equilibrium line altitude (ELA) model are compared to reconstructed glacier advances from geomorphic data and used to test the sensitivity of Central Asian glaciers to simulated climate changes at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Results highlight temperature changes as being the most important influence on glacier ELA changes during the LGM. With the exception of the southern Himalaya, for much of Central Asia there is consistency between GCMs for simulated LGM temperature changes, with a mean cooling of 4 0 C. Further research will necessarily need to focus on detailed analysis of the inter-model differences in temperature in the southern Himalaya, and acquiring additional paleoclimate proxies in the region in order to further constrain the GCMs.

  14. Research on cutoff wavelength of dominant mode and field patterns in trapezoidal microshield lines

    SUN, Hai; WU, Yujiang

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the position of the metallic signal strip on the cutoff characteristic of the dominant mode and the field patterns in 3 types of trapezoidal microshield lines are calculated by the edge-based finite element method. These trapezoidal microshield lines include trapezoidal microshield lines with a single signal line, dual signal lines, and 3 signal lines. The cutoff wavelength of the dominant mode can be adjusted by changing the dimensions of metallic signal strips as w...

  15. Verification test for on-line diagnosis algorithm based on noise analysis

    Tamaoki, T.; Naito, N.; Tsunoda, T.; Sato, M.; Kameda, A.

    1980-01-01

    An on-line diagnosis algorithm was developed and its verification test was performed using a minicomputer. This algorithm identifies the plant state by analyzing various system noise patterns, such as power spectral densities, coherence functions etc., in three procedure steps. Each obtained noise pattern is examined by using the distances from its reference patterns prepared for various plant states. Then, the plant state is identified by synthesizing each result with an evaluation weight. This weight is determined automatically from the reference noise patterns prior to on-line diagnosis. The test was performed with 50 MW (th) Steam Generator noise data recorded under various controller parameter values. The algorithm performance was evaluated based on a newly devised index. The results obtained with one kind of weight showed the algorithm efficiency under the proper selection of noise patterns. Results for another kind of weight showed the robustness of the algorithm to this selection. (orig.)

  16. Correlation of antinuclear antibody immunofluorescence patterns with immune profile using line immunoassay in the Indian scenario

    Sebastian Wendy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunity status, individual response to disease and types of antibodies produced are well known to vary from person to person, place to place and probably from population to population. A broad spectrum of specific auto antibodies that have so far been associated with specific rheumatic diseases, as noted in Western literature, has been well taken as a reference standard all over the world. There is neither research work nor any data correlating the auto antibodies and their antinuclear antibody (ANA patterns with the immunoprofile in the Indian population to date. Aims: To understand a definite association between ANA patterns and specific antibodies in the serum in the Indian study population and to document similarities / differences with the West. Settings and Design: This prospective and retrospective double blind study was undertaken on the South Indian population referred for ANA testing by Indirect Immunofluorescence method and by immunoline methods. Materials and Methods: Serum samples of patients from a random South Indian population who sought medical help for rheumatic disease were subjected for ANA testing by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF method and line immunoassay during the study period of 27 months. Serum samples were processed in dilution of 1:100 using HEp - 2010 / liver biochip (Monkey (EUROIMMUN AG. The serum samples which were further processed for line immunoassay were treated in 1:100 dilution on nylon strips coated with recombinant and purified antigens as discrete lines with plastic backing (EUROIMMUN AG coated with antigens nRNP / Sm, Sm, SSA, Ro-52, SSB, Scl-70, PM-Scl, PCNA, Jo-1, CENP-B, dsDNA, nucleosomes, histones, ribosomal protein-P, anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA-M2 along with a control band. The analysis was done by comparing the intensity of the reaction with positive control line by image analysis. Results: The antinuclear antibody indirect immunofluorescence (ANA - IIF patterns obtained

  17. Effect of Flow on Cultured Cell at Micro-Pattern of Ridge Lines

    Haruka Hino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A flow channel with a micro-pattern of ridge lines of a scaffold has been designed to study quantitatively the effect of flow on an oriented cell in vitro. The lines of parallel micro ridges (0.001 mm height, 0.003 mm width, and 0.003 mm interval are made by the lithography technique on the lower surface of the channel as the scaffold to make orientation of each cell. Variation is made about the angle between the longitudinal direction of the ridge line and the direction of the flow: zero, 0.79 and 1.6 rad. The suspension of C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell line was injected to the channel, and incubated for two hours on the micro ridges before the flow test for four hours. The flow rate of 3/hour is controlled by a syringe pump to make variation of the wall shear stress of < 3 Pa. The action of each cell adhered on the micro pattern was analyzed at the time lapse images. The experimental results show that both the migration and the deformation of each myoblast along the micro ridge are restricted by the wall shear stress higher than 3 Pa.

  18. Start up testing for the secure automated fabrication line

    Gerber, E.W.; Benson, E.M.; Dahl, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The secure automated fabrication (SAF) line is a remotely operated, liquid metal reactor fuel fabrication process being built by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Department of Energy. All process and control equipment is installed and start up testing has been initiated. Start up testing is comprised of five phases, each incorporating higher degrees of equipment integration, automation, and remote control. Testing methodology for SAF line start up is described in this report

  19. Testing of Prototype Magnetic Suspension Cryogenic Transfer Line

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Nagy, Z. F.; Sojourner, S. J.; Shu, Q. S.; Cheng, G.; Susta, J. T.

    2006-04-01

    A 6-meter prototype cryogenic transfer line with magnetic suspension was tested for its mechanical and thermal performance at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A test facility with two cryogenic end-boxes was designed and commissioned for the testing. Suspension mechanisms were verified through a series of tests with liquid nitrogen. The thermal performance of the prototype was determined using the new test apparatus. The tested prototype has incorporated temperature and vacuum pressure data acquisition ports, customized interfaces to cryogenic end-boxes, and instrumentation. All tests were conducted under simulated onsite transfer line working conditions. A static (boiloff rate measurement) testing method was employed to demonstrate the gross heat leak in the tested article. The real-time temperature distribution, vacuum level, levitation distance, and mass flow rate were measured. The main purpose of this paper is to summarize the testing facility design and preparation, test procedure, and primary test results. Special arrangements (such as turning on/off mechanical support units, observing levitation gap, and setting up the flowmeter) in testing of such a magnetically levitated transfer line are also discussed. Preliminary results show that the heat leak reduction of approximately one-third to one-half is achievable through such transfer lines with a magnetic suspension system.

  20. Enhancing SAT-Based Test Pattern Generation

    LIU Xin; XIONG You-lun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents modeling tools based on Boolean satisfiability (SAT) to solve problems of test generation for combinational circuits. It exploits an added layer to maintain circuit-related information and value justification relations to a generic SAT algorithm. It dovetails binary decision graphs (BDD) and SAT techniques to improve the efficiency of automatic test pattern generation (ATPG). More specifically, it first exploits inexpensive reconvergent fanout analysis of circuit to gather information on the local signal correlation by using BDD learning, then uses the above learned information to restrict and focus the overall search space of SAT-based ATPG. Its learning technique is effective and lightweight. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  1. Collider detector beam line test table: a structural analysis

    Leininger, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus which sweeps calorimeter and endwall modules through the beam during testing is called a beam line test table. Because of rather stringent requirements for the physical positioning of the modules an analysis is done here to determine the modifications to the current test table design which will minimize deflections of the table under load

  2. Initial Beam Test of the Prototype Strip Line BPM

    Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Ryu, Jin Yeong; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub

    2011-01-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) was developed which would be used for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) beam line. It is a strip line BPM which is commonly used one for the proton beam. The BPM cross section was designed with the SUPERFISH code and the matching section to the feed through was designed by the MWS code. The design parameters of the BPM are shown in Table 1. The designed BPM was fabricated to verify the manufacturing process and check its electrical performance. After the low power test at the test stand, the BPM was installed at the 20-MeV proton accelerator beam line as shown in Fig. 1

  3. Leak test of the pipe line for radioactive liquid waste

    Machida, Chuji; Mori, Shoji.

    1976-01-01

    In the Tokai Research Establishment, most of the radioactive liquid waste is transferred to a wastes treatment facility through pipe lines. As part of the pipe lines a cast iron pipe for town gas is used. Leak test has been performed on all joints of the lines. For the joints buried underground, the test was made by radioactivity measurement of the soil; and for the joints in drainage ditch by the pressure and bubble methods. There were no leakage at all, indicating integrity of all the joints. On the other hand, it is also known by the other test that the corrosion of inner surface of the piping due to liquid waste is only slight. The pipe lines for transferring radioactive liquid waste are thus still usable. (auth.)

  4. Implementation Support of Security Design Patterns Using Test Templates

    Masatoshi Yoshizawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Security patterns are intended to support software developers as the patterns encapsulate security expert knowledge. However, these patterns may be inappropriately applied because most developers are not security experts, leading to threats and vulnerabilities. Here we propose a support method for security design patterns in the implementation phase of software development. Our method creates a test template from a security design pattern, consisting of an “aspect test template” to observe the internal processing and a “test case template”. Providing design information creates a test from the test template with a tool. Because our test template is reusable, it can easily perform a test to validate a security design pattern. In an experiment involving four students majoring in information sciences, we confirm that our method can realize an effective test, verify pattern applications, and support pattern implementation.

  5. Testing hypotheses for differences between linear regression lines

    Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2009-01-01

    Five hypotheses are identified for testing differences between simple linear regression lines. The distinctions between these hypotheses are based on a priori assumptions and illustrated with full and reduced models. The contrast approach is presented as an easy and complete method for testing for overall differences between the regressions and for making pairwise...

  6. Line roughness improvements on self-aligned quadruple patterning by wafer stress engineering

    Liu, Eric; Ko, Akiteru; Biolsi, Peter; Chae, Soo Doo; Hsieh, Chia-Yun; Kagaya, Munehito; Lee, Choongman; Moriya, Tsuyoshi; Tsujikawa, Shimpei; Suzuki, Yusuke; Okubo, Kazuya; Imai, Kiyotaka

    2018-04-01

    In integrated circuit and memory devices, size shrinkage has been the most effective method to reduce production cost and enable the steady increment of the number of transistors per unit area over the past few decades. In order to reduce the die size and feature size, it is necessary to minimize pattern formation in the advance node development. In the node of sub-10nm, extreme ultra violet lithography (EUV) and multi-patterning solutions based on 193nm immersionlithography are the two most common options to achieve the size requirement. In such small features of line and space pattern, line width roughness (LWR) and line edge roughness (LER) contribute significant amount of process variation that impacts both physical and electrical performances. In this paper, we focus on optimizing the line roughness performance by using wafer stress engineering on 30nm pitch line and space pattern. This pattern is generated by a self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) technique for the potential application of fin formation. Our investigation starts by comparing film materials and stress levels in various processing steps and material selection on SAQP integration scheme. From the cross-matrix comparison, we are able to determine the best stack of film selection and stress combination in order to achieve the lowest line roughness performance while obtaining pattern validity after fin etch. This stack is also used to study the step-by-step line roughness performance from SAQP to fin etch. Finally, we will show a successful patterning of 30nm pitch line and space pattern SAQP scheme with 1nm line roughness performance.

  7. BEAM LINE DESIGN FOR THE CERN HIRADMAT TEST FACILITY

    Hessler, C; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    The LHC phase II collimation project requires beam shock and impact tests of materials used for beam intercepting devices. Similar tests are also of great interest for other accelerator components such as beam entrance/exit windows and protection devices. For this purpose a dedicated High Radiation Material test facility (HiRadMat) is under study. This facility may be installed at CERN at the location of a former beam line. This paper describes the associated beam line which is foreseen to deliver a 450 GeV proton beam from the SPS with an intensity of up to 3×1013 protons per shot. Different beam line designs will be compared and the choice of the beam steering and diagnostic elements will be discussed, as well as operational issues.

  8. Beam Line Design for the CERN Hiradmat Test Facility

    Hessler, C; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M; Weterings, W

    2010-01-01

    The LHC phase II collimation project requires beam shock and impact tests of materials used for beam intercepting devices. Similar tests are also of great interest for other accelerator components such as beam entrance/exit windows and protection devices. For this purpose a dedicated High Radiation Material test facility (HiRadMat) is under study. This facility may be installed at CERN at the location of a former beam line. This paper describes the associated beam line which is foreseen to deliver a 450 GeV proton beam from the SPS with an intensity of up to 3×10**13 protons per shot. Different beam line designs will be compared and the choice of the beam steering and diagnostic elements will be discussed, as well as operational issues.

  9. Start up testing for the secure automated fabrication line

    Gerber, E.W.; Benson, E.M.; Dahl, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Line has been designed and built by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Department of Energy at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The SAF Line will provide the capability for remote manufacture of fuel for Liquid Metal Reactors, and will supply fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The SAF process is highly automated and represents a major advancement in nuclear fuel manufacturing, offering significant improvements in product quality, productivity, safety, and accountability of Special Nuclear Materials. The construction phase of the project is complete, and testing has been initiated to accomplish start up of the plant for manufacture of FFTF fuel. This paper describes the test methodology used for SAF Line start up

  10. Utility and recognition of lines and linear patterns on electronic displays depicting aeronautical charting information

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a study conducted to explore the utility and recognition of lines and linear patterns on electronic displays depicting aeronautical charting information. The study gathered data from a large number of pilots who conduct all type...

  11. Survey of symbology for aeronautical charts and electronic displays : navigation aids, airports, lines, and linear patterns

    2008-09-01

    This industry survey documents the symbols for navigation aids, airports, lines, and linear patterns currently in use by avionics manufactureres and chart providers for depicting aeronautical charting information. Nine avionics display manufacturers ...

  12. Flux line patterns in Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2Ox

    Weiss, F.; Hardy, V.; Provost, J.; Ruyter, A.; Simon, C.

    1994-01-01

    Results of the defect influence on the flux line lattice in Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O x single crystals are presented. These crystals, non irradiated or irradiated at GANIL with heavy ions (Pb 56+ , 6 GeV) have been decorated with Ni particles in the superconducting state using the Bitter technique. The defects involved are columnar defects. Resulting decorated flux line patterns have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy and computer image analysis. Disorder of the decorated flux line networks has been found to be strongly dependent on the defect density, which results from the irradiation. In order to characterize this disorder, a method for determining elastic energy terms in the deformation of flux line patterns has been investigated. This method can be applied if Fourier transforms of the decorated flux line patterns exhibit distinct reflections. (orig.)

  13. Optimization and Improvement of Test Processes on a Production Line

    Sujová, Erika; Čierna, Helena

    2018-06-01

    The paper deals with increasing processes efficiency at a production line of cylinder heads of engines in a production company operating in the automotive industry. The goal is to achieve improvement and optimization of test processes on a production line. It analyzes options for improving capacity, availability and productivity of processes of an output test by using modern technology available on the market. We have focused on analysis of operation times before and after optimization of test processes at specific production sections. By analyzing measured results we have determined differences in time before and after improvement of the process. We have determined a coefficient of efficiency OEE and by comparing outputs we have confirmed real improvement of the process of the output test of cylinder heads.

  14. Potential Errors and Test Assessment in Software Product Line Engineering

    Hartmut Lackner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Software product lines (SPL are a method for the development of variant-rich software systems. Compared to non-variable systems, testing SPLs is extensive due to an increasingly amount of possible products. Different approaches exist for testing SPLs, but there is less research for assessing the quality of these tests by means of error detection capability. Such test assessment is based on error injection into correct version of the system under test. However to our knowledge, potential errors in SPL engineering have never been systematically identified before. This article presents an overview over existing paradigms for specifying software product lines and the errors that can occur during the respective specification processes. For assessment of test quality, we leverage mutation testing techniques to SPL engineering and implement the identified errors as mutation operators. This allows us to run existing tests against defective products for the purpose of test assessment. From the results, we draw conclusions about the error-proneness of the surveyed SPL design paradigms and how quality of SPL tests can be improved.

  15. Electron diffraction patterns with thermal diffuse scattering maxima around Kikuchi lines

    Karakhanyan, R. K.; Karakhanyan, K. R.

    2011-01-01

    Transmission electron diffraction patterns of silicon with thermal diffuse maxima around Kikuchi lines, which are analogs of the maxima of thermal diffuse electron scattering around point reflections, have been recorded. Diffuse maxima are observed only around Kikuchi lines with indices that are forbidden for the silicon structure. The diffraction conditions for forming these maxima are discussed.

  16. Organic lining materials test in flue gas ducts

    Raveh, R.; Sfez, D.; Johannsson, L.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion protection solutions are being widely used in electric power plants equipped with Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) systems. Organic lining materials are one of many solutions available on the market for corrosion protection. This market segment is found in a continuous development in order to fulfill the severe demands of these materials. The main goal of this test is to obtain information about the high temperature resistance of the materials as occurs when the FGD system is by-passed. Aster initial investigation of this market segment only a few lining materials were found compatible according to their manufacturer data. Seven of these materials were installed in the outlet flue gas duct of the Israeli power station M.D. B. This power station is not equipped with a FGD system, thus it gives a real simulation of the environmental conditions into which the lining material is subjected when the FGD system is by-passed. The materials installation was observed carefully and performed by representatives from the manufacturers in order to avoid material failure due to a non-adequate application. The power station was shut down and the lining materials were inspected three and a half months after the lining materials were applied. The inspection results were good and besides changes in the lining color, most materials did not show any damages. During that time the flue gas temperature at the duct was 134?C except some temperature fluctuations

  17. PHEBUS on-line aerosol monitor development test program

    Sprenger, M.H.; Pentecost, C.G.

    1992-03-01

    EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. developed an on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM) for the French PHEBUS Fission Product Project. Part of the development was to manufacture and test an OLAM prototype. This report presents the results of the testing which determined the mechanical integrity of the monitor at operating temperature and pressure and performed a preliminary test of the optical system. A series of twenty different tests was conducted during the prototype testing sequence. Since no leaks were detected, the OLAM demonstrated that it could provide a pressure boundary at required test conditions. The optical and electrical system also proved its integrity by exceeding the design requirement of less than 105 optical signal drift during an actual two-hour test sequence

  18. Generalization of the photo process window and its application to OPC test pattern design

    Eisenmann, Hans; Peter, Kai; Strojwas, Andrzej J.

    2003-07-01

    From the early development phase up to the production phase, test pattern play a key role for microlithography. The requirement for test pattern is to represent the design well and to cover the space of all process conditions, e.g. to investigate the full process window and all other process parameters. This paper shows that the current state-of-the-art test pattern do not address these requirements sufficiently and makes suggestions for a better selection of test pattern. We present a new methodology to analyze an existing layout (e.g. logic library, test pattern or full chip) for critical layout situations which does not need precise process data. We call this method "process space decomposition", because it is aimed at decomposing the process impact to a layout feature into a sum of single independent contributions, the dimensions of the process space. This is a generalization of the classical process window, which examines defocus and exposure dependency of given test pattern, e.g. CD value of dense and isolated lines. In our process space we additionally define the dimensions resist effects, etch effects, mask error and misalignment, which describe the deviation of the printed silicon pattern from its target. We further extend it by the pattern space using a product based layout (library, full chip or synthetic test pattern). The criticality of pattern is defined by their deviation due to aerial image, their sensitivity to the respective dimension or several combinations of these. By exploring the process space for a given design, the method allows to find the most critical patterns independent of specific process parameters. The paper provides examples for different applications of the method: (1) selection of design oriented test pattern for lithography development (2) test pattern reduction in process characterization (3) verification/optimization of printability and performance of post processing procedures (like OPC) (4) creation of a sensitive process

  19. Experimental Program for the CLIC test facility 3 test beam line

    Adli, E; Dobert, S; Olvegaard, M; Schulte, D; Syratchev, I; Lillestol, Reidar

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility 3 Test Beam Line is the first prototype for the CLIC drive beam decelerator. Stable transport of the drive beam under deceleration is a mandatory component in the CLIC two-beam scheme. In the Test Beam Line more than 50% of the total energy will be extracted from a 150 MeV, 28 A electron drive beam, by the use of 16 power extraction and transfer structures. A number of experiments are foreseen to investigate the drive beam characteristics under deceleration in the Test Beam Line, including beam stability, beam blow up and the efficiency of the power extraction. General benchmarking of decelerator simulation and theory studies will also be performed. Specially designed instrumentation including precision BPMs, loss monitors and a time-resolved spectrometer dump will be used for the experiments. This paper describes the experimental program foreseen for the Test Beam Line, including the relevance of the results for the CLIC decelerator studies.

  20. Advanced photon source low-energy undulator test line

    Milton, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    The injector system of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac capable of producing 450-MeV positrons or > 650-MeV electrons, a positron accumulator ring (PAR), and a booster synchrotron designed to accelerate particles to 7 GeV. There are long periods of time when these machines are not required for filling the main storage ring and instead can be used for synchrotron radiation research. We describe here an extension of the linac beam transport called the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL). The LEUTL will have a twofold purpose. The first is to fully characterize innovative, future generation undulators, some of which may prove difficult or impossible to measure by traditional techniques. These might include small-gap and superconducting undulators, very long undulators, undulators with designed-in internal focusing, and helical undulators. This technique also holds the promise of extending the magnetic measurement sensitivity beyond that presently attainable. This line will provide the capability to directly test undulators before their possible insertion into operating storage rings. A second use for the test line will be to investigate the generation of coherent radiation at wavelengths down to a few tens of nanometers

  1. Research on the Test of Transmission Line Galloping

    Zhang, Lichun; Li, Qing; lv, Zhongbin; Ji, Kunpeng; Liu, Bin

    2018-03-01

    The load of iced transmission line and the load generated by galloping after the conductor are covered by ice all may cause severe circuit faults, such as tripping, conductor breaking, armor clamp damage and even tower collapse, thus severely threatening running safety of power system. The generation and development processes of galloping of power transmission line is very complicated, and numerous factors may influence the galloping excitation, such as environmental factors, terrain factors and structural parameters of power transmission line; in which, the ice covering of conductor is one of necessary factors causing galloping. Therefore, researches on ice covering increasing test of different types of conductors under different meteorological conditions have been conducted in large-sized multi-functional phytotron, thus obtaining the relation curve of ice covering increasing of conductor along with time under different conditions, and analyzing factors influencing increasing of ice covering. The research result shows that under the same ice covering conditions, the increasing of ice covering of conductor with small diameter is relatively rapid; both environmental temperature and wind speed have obvious influence on increasing of ice covering of conductor, and the environmental temperature will decide the type of ice covering of conductor surface. Meanwhile, after wind tunnel tests targeting conductors with different ice covering shapes, pneumatic stability loss characteristics of conductors with different ice shapes have been obtained. Research results have important scientific reference value for revealing the mechanism of galloping of iced power transmission line, and have relatively high engineering practicability value for promoting realization of early warning system for galloping of iced power transmission line.

  2. Dielectric strength test to protection elements for live lines works

    Carlos Eduardo Pinto-Salamanca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and assembly of a system of tests of sustained voltage to elements and equipment used in live line maneuvers through tests on gloves and dielectric rods, as these are the first points of contact to ensure safe operations. It means an advance for the creation of a laboratory certified in this type of tests at Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC Faculty of Duitama, considering that currently there are not laboratories that provide this service in Boyacá and Casanare. Dielectric strength tests were performed on personal protection elements and equipment under the parameters of ASTM D120, ASTM F496, ISO 60903, ASTM-F711 and IEEE 978, developing an assembly for testing gloves and dielectric rods with voltage levels up to 15 kV. The results validate the proposed system to outlook of circuit design and implementation, where tests were performed to establish dielectric capacities, in operating under open circuit conditions, with resistive load or short circuit. The compliance with the regulations established under the test sequences of safety parameters for the system and the follow-up to the tests was verified through the use of a management system for the generation of concepts of approval or rejection of the tested elements.

  3. Nondestructive analysis of lithographic patterns with natural line edge roughness from Mueller matrix ellipsometric data

    Chen, Xiuguo; Shi, Yating; Jiang, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zhang, Chuanwei [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wuhan Eoptics Technology Co. Ltd., Wuhan, Hubei 430075 (China); Liu, Shiyuan, E-mail: shyliu@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wuhan Eoptics Technology Co. Ltd., Wuhan, Hubei 430075 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • MME is applied to characterize lithographic patterns with natural LER. • A computationally efficient approach based on EMA is proposed to model LER. • Both theoretical and experimental results verify the effective modeling approach. • The comparison between MME and SEM results reveals the potential of this technique. - Abstract: Mueller matrix ellipsometry (MME) is applied to characterize lithographic patterns with natural line edge roughness (LER). A computationally efficient approach based on effective medium approximation is proposed to model the effects of LER in MME measurements. We present both the theoretical and experimental results on lithographic patterns with realistic LER which demonstrate that MME in combination with the proposed effective modeling method is capable of quantifying LER amplitudes. Quantitative comparisons between the MME and scanning electron microscopy measured results also reveal the strong potential of this technique for in-line nondestructive line roughness monitoring.

  4. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ishikura, Shuichi; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2003-03-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the steady state with mass loss independently of testing machines and the incubation period is very dependent on materials and imposed pressures. (author)

  5. Alternating current line-filter based on electrochemical capacitor utilizing template-patterned graphene

    Zhenkun Wu; Liyi Li; Ziyin Lin; Bo Song; Zhuo Li; Kyoung-Sik Moon; Ching-Ping Wong; Shu-Lin Bai

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) are widely used for alternating current (ac) line-filtering. However, their bulky size is becoming more and more incompatible with the rapid development of portable electronics. Here we report a scalable process to fabricate miniaturized graphene-based ac line-filters on flexible substrates at room temperature. In this work, graphene oxide (GO) is reduced by patterned metal interdigits at room temperature and used directly as the electrode material. The...

  6. Electrophoresis test prevalence, requesting patterns, yield and ...

    Most of the appropriate SPE test requests were from clinical haematology, renal ... implementation of principles of demand management and the ... electrophoresis (IFE)) in a South African (SA) pathology laboratory setting are limited. Objectives. ... (NHLS) hospital information system database from 1 July 2010 to. 30 June ...

  7. On line isotopic separator test benches at GANIL

    Anne, R.; Bru, B.; Joubert, A.; Leroy, R.; Obert, J.; Putaux, J.C.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P.; Orr, N.; Steckmeyer, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A first version of isotopic separator on line test bench has been built in order to test the feasibility of the production of radioactive species from 96 MeV/u of 20 Ne impinging a thick target of MgO. This test bench was equipped with a very compact ECR ion source (Nanogan) entirely made from permanent magnets and operating at 10 Ghz. 18 Ne 2,4+ ; 19N e 1,2,3,4+ and 23,24 Ne 1+ has been produced and ionized. A new more performing separator (SIRa) allowing the use of different types of ion sources will be completed by the end of 1993. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    Futakawa, M; Ishikura, S; Kogawa, H; Tsai, C C

    2003-01-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the s...

  9. RELAP5 analysis of PKL, main steam line break test

    Jonnet, J.R.; Stempniewicz, M.M., E-mail: stempniewicz@nrg.eu; With, A. de; Wakker, P.H.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • RELAP5/MOD 3.2 code validation is performed by analyzing a main steam line break test in the PKL large scale test facility. • The RELAP5 model reproduces well the important events of the PKL test. • RELAP5 transient results show noticeable sensitivity to small differences in the initial conditions. • Accurate prediction of the coolant temperature is essential for the assessment of potential core re-criticality. - Abstract: PKL is a large scale test facility of the primary system owned by AREVA NP GmbH. It is used for extensive experimental investigations to study the integral behavior of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plants under accident conditions. Since 2001, the test program is a part of an international cooperation project (SETH, followed by PKL1 and PKL2) set up by the OECD. The aim of the present work was to perform a short validation study of the thermo-hydraulics code RELAP5. A model of the PKL test facility has been developed, tested and applied to one of the experiments performed at the PKL. The chosen experiment was the test G3.1. In that experiment, a main steam line break occurs, causing a rapid depressurization of the affected steam generator. This leads to an increase of the heat transfer from the primary to the secondary side and thereby to a fast cool-down transient on the primary side. The main objective of this analysis was the qualification of the RELAP5 code results against heat transfer from the primary to the secondary side in both affected and intact loops, and temperatures in the primary system. The calculation results have been compared to the experimental results. It was concluded that the most important events during the test are reproduced relatively well by the model. The calculated coolant temperature in the core is higher than in the experiment. The minimum temperature is about 5% higher than measured. The secondary pressures in SG-1, 3, and 4 is in very good agreement with the experimental value, but in the

  10. Exploration of BEOL line-space patterning options at 12 nm half-pitch and below

    Decoster, S.; Lazzarino, F.; Petersen Barbosa Lima, L.; Li, W.; Versluijs, J.; Halder, S.; Mallik, A.; Murdoch, G.

    2018-03-01

    While the semiconductor industry is almost ready for high-volume manufacturing of the 7 nm technology node, research centers are defining and troubleshooting the patterning options for the 5 nm technology node (N5) and below. The target dimension for imec's N5 BEOL applications is 20-24 nm Metal Pitch (MP), which requires Self-Aligned multiple (Double/Quadruple/Octuple) Patterning approaches (SAxP) in combination with EUV or immersion lithography at 193 nm. There are numerous technical challenges to enable gratings at the hard mask level such as good uniformity across wafer, low line edge/width roughness (LER/LWR), large process window, and all of this at low cost. An even greater challenge is to transfer these gratings into the dielectric material at such critical dimensions, where increased line edge roughness, line wiggling and even pattern collapse can be expected for materials with small mechanical stability such as highly porous low-k dielectrics. In this work we first compare three different patterning options for 12 nm half-pitch gratings at the hard mask level: EUV-based SADP and 193i-based SAQP and SAOP. This comparison will be based on process window, line edge/width roughness and cost. Next, the transfer of 12 nm line/space gratings in the dielectric material is discussed and presented. The LER of the dielectric lines is investigated as a function of the dielectric material, the trench depth, and the stress in the sacrificial hard mask. Finally, we elaborate on the different options to enable scaling down from 24 nm MP to 16 nm MP, and demonstrate 8 nm line/space gratings with 193i-based SAOP.

  11. True-color 640 ppi OLED arrays patterned by CA i-line photolithography

    Malinowski, P.E.; Ke, T.; Nakamura, A.; Chang, T.-Y.; Gokhale, P.; Steudel, S.; Janssen, D.; Kamochi, Y.; Koyama, I.; Iwai,Y.; Heremans, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, side-by-side patterning of red, green and blue OLEDs is demonstrated. To achieve 640 ppi arrays with 20 µm subpixel pitch, chemically amplified, i-line photoresist system with submicron resolution was used. These results show feasibility of obtaining full-color displays with

  12. On tests of randomness for spatial point patterns

    Doguwa, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    New tests of randomness for spatial point patterns are introduced. These test statistics are then compared in a power study with the existing alternatives. These results of the power study suggest that one of the tests proposed is extremely powerful against both aggregated and regular alternatives. (author). 9 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Electrostatic induction under the Tanashi test transmission line

    Kitani, Y; Yokata, S

    1964-06-01

    Experimental results are given on the electrostatic voltage induced in small and medium-sized motorcars under the Tanashi 800 kV Test Transmission Line, which is of horizontal arrangement, 200 m span, four bundle conductors and average height of 13.52 m. The induced voltage was measured between 1600 and 3000 V under the line voltage of 520 kV. The voltage and current were measured with four kinds of model motorcars in air and water, and results of the measurements are compared with those of actual measurements with good agreements. The values of capacity and leakage resistance, whose parallel circuit was considered to represent an equivalent circuit of the motorcar, were measured with a Maxwell-Wien bridge at frequencies between 30 and 1000 c/s. It was found that the values at 60 c/s were measured to be approximately six or seven times higher than its values at 1000 c/s, and that new tires have higher conductivities than the old ones, reducing the electrostatic induction voltage by a large amount.

  14. Steam line rupture experiments with the PPOOLEX test facility

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.

    2008-07-01

    The results of the steam line rupture experiment series in 2007 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology are reported. The test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. Air was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool. Altogether five experiments, each consisting of several blows (tests), were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study the initial phase of a postulated steam line break accident inside a BWR containment. Specifically, thermal stratification in the dry well compartment and ejection of water plug from the blowdown pipe were of interest. In addition, the effect of counterpressure on bubble dynamics was studied. A temperature difference of approximately 15 deg. C between the upper and lower part of the dry well was measured. In the wet well gas space, a temperature difference of more than 30 deg. C was registered. These were measured during the compression period of the tests. Towards the end of the tests the temperature differences tended to disappear. To get a more detailed picture of temperature distribution in the wet well, especially close to the water level, a dense net of measurements is required in future experiments. In longer experiments, heat conduction to structures and heat losses to surroundings should also be taken into account. Ejection of water plugs from the blowdown pipe did not cause notable loads to the structures due to the suppressing effect of the dry well compartment. The maximum measured pressure pulse at the pool bottom was only 10 kPa and the maximum strain amplitude at the pool bottom rounding was negligible both in axial and circumferential direction. As the counterpressure of the system increased, but the flow rate remained the same, the maximum size of the air bubbles at the blowdown pipe outlet got smaller and

  15. Steam line rupture experiments with the PPOOLEX test facility

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    The results of the steam line rupture experiment series in 2007 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology are reported. The test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. Air was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool. Altogether five experiments, each consisting of several blows (tests), were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study the initial phase of a postulated steam line break accident inside a BWR containment. Specifically, thermal stratification in the dry well compartment and ejection of water plug from the blowdown pipe were of interest. In addition, the effect of counterpressure on bubble dynamics was studied. A temperature difference of approximately 15 deg. C between the upper and lower part of the dry well was measured. In the wet well gas space, a temperature difference of more than 30 deg. C was registered. These were measured during the compression period of the tests. Towards the end of the tests the temperature differences tended to disappear. To get a more detailed picture of temperature distribution in the wet well, especially close to the water level, a dense net of measurements is required in future experiments. In longer experiments, heat conduction to structures and heat losses to surroundings should also be taken into account. Ejection of water plugs from the blowdown pipe did not cause notable loads to the structures due to the suppressing effect of the dry well compartment. The maximum measured pressure pulse at the pool bottom was only 10 kPa and the maximum strain amplitude at the pool bottom rounding was negligible both in axial and circumferential direction. As the counterpressure of the system increased, but the flow rate remained the same, the maximum size of the air bubbles at the blowdown pipe outlet got smaller and

  16. Formation mechanism of dot-line square superlattice pattern in dielectric barrier discharge

    Liu, Weibo; Dong, Lifang, E-mail: donglfhbu@163.com, E-mail: pyy1616@163.com; Wang, Yongjie; Zhang, Xinpu [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); College of Quality and Technical Supervision, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Pan, Yuyang, E-mail: donglfhbu@163.com, E-mail: pyy1616@163.com [College of Quality and Technical Supervision, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the formation mechanism of the dot-line square superlattice pattern (DLSSP) in dielectric barrier discharge. The spatio-temporal structure studied by using the intensified-charge coupled device camera shows that the DLSSP is an interleaving of three different subpatterns in one half voltage cycle. The dot square lattice discharges first and, then, the two kinds of line square lattices, which form square grid structures discharge twice. When the gas pressure is varied, DLSSP can transform from square superlattice pattern (SSP). The spectral line profile method is used to compare the electron densities, which represent the amounts of surface charges qualitatively. It is found that the amount of surface charges accumulated by the first discharge of DLSSP is less than that of SSP, leading to a bigger discharge area of the following discharge (lines of DLSSP instead of halos of SSP). The spatial distribution of the electric field of the surface charges is simulated to explain the formation of DLSSP. This paper may provide a deeper understanding for the formation mechanism of complex superlattice patterns in DBD.

  17. Expression pattern of matrix metalloproteinases in human gynecological cancer cell lines

    Schröpfer, Andrea; Kammerer, Ulrike; Kapp, Michaela; Dietl, Johannes; Feix, Sonja; Anacker, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the degradation of protein components of the extracellular matrix and thus play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Their expression is related to the progression of gynecological cancers (e.g. endometrial, cervical or ovarian carcinoma). In this study we investigated the expression pattern of the 23 MMPs, currently known in humans, in different gynecological cancer cell lines. In total, cell lines from three endometrium carcinomas (Ishikawa, HEC-1-A, AN3 CA), three cervical carcinomas (HeLa, Caski, SiHa), three chorioncarcinomas (JEG, JAR, BeWo), two ovarian cancers (BG-1, OAW-42) and one teratocarcinoma (PA-1) were examined. The expression of MMPs was analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blot and gelatin zymography. We demonstrated that the cell lines examined can constitutively express a wide variety of MMPs on mRNA and protein level. While MMP-2, -11, -14 and -24 were widely expressed, no expression was seen for MMP-12, -16, -20, -25, -26, -27 in any of the cell lines. A broad range of 16 MMPs could be found in the PA1 cells and thus this cell line could be used as a positive control for general MMP experiments. While the three cervical cancer cell lines expressed 10-14 different MMPs, the median expression in endometrial and choriocarcinoma cells was 7 different enzymes. The two investigated ovarian cancer cell lines showed a distinctive difference in the number of expressed MMPs (2 vs. 10). Ishikawa, Caski, OAW-42 and BeWo cell lines could be the best choice for all future experiments on MMP regulation and their role in endometrial, cervical, ovarian or choriocarcinoma development, whereas the teratocarcinoma cell line PA1 could be used as a positive control for general MMP experiments

  18. Contrasted patterns of evolution of the LINE-1 retrotransposon in perissodactyls: the history of a LINE-1 extinction.

    Sookdeo, Akash; Hepp, Crystal M; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    LINE-1 (L1) is the dominant autonomously replicating non-LTR retrotransposon in mammals. Although our knowledge of L1 evolution across the tree of life has considerably improved in recent years, what we know of L1 evolution in mammals is biased and comes mostly from studies in primates (mostly human) and rodents (mostly mouse). It is unclear if patterns of evolution that are shared between those two groups apply to other mammalian orders. Here we performed a detailed study on the evolution of L1 in perissodactyls by making use of the complete genome of the domestic horse and of the white rhinoceros. This mammalian order offers an excellent model to study the extinction of L1 since the rhinoceros is one of the few mammalian species to have lost active L1. We found that multiple L1 lineages, carrying different 5'UTRs, have been simultaneously active during the evolution of perissodactyls. We also found that L1 has continuously amplified and diversified in horse. In rhinoceros, L1 was very prolific early on. Two successful families were simultaneously active until ~20my ago but became extinct suddenly at exactly the same time. The general pattern of L1 evolution in perissodactyls is very similar to what was previously described in mouse and human, suggesting some commonalities in the way mammalian genomes interact with L1. We confirmed the extinction of L1 in rhinoceros and we discuss several possible mechanisms.

  19. HIV Testing Patterns among Urban YMSM of Color

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Rajan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V.; Aregbesola, Temi

    2014-01-01

    The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multilevel influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high-HIV seroprevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high, with 42% of…

  20. Investigation of Pr I lines by a simulation of their hyperfine patterns: discovery of new levels

    Uddin, Zaheer; Siddiqui, Imran; Shamim, Khan; Windholz, L; Zafar, Roohi; Sikander, Rubeka

    2012-01-01

    Hyperfine structure (hf) patterns of unclassified spectral lines of the praseodymium atom, as appear in a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrum, have been simulated. In this way, the J-values and hf constants of the levels involved in the transitions were determined. Assuming that so far only one unknown level is participating in the transition, these constants were used to identify the known level. The second unknown level was found by performing subtraction or addition of the wave number of the transition to the wave number of the known level. The existence of the new level was then checked by explaining other unclassified lines with respect to the wave number and the hf pattern. In this way, 19 new levels of the praseodymium atom were discovered and are presented in this paper. In some cases, the accuracy of the hf constants was improved by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy.

  1. TEST OF COTTON LINES WITH DROUGHT TOLERANT INTERCROPPED WITH MAIZE

    Kadarwati F.T.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of cotton cultivation is mostly located in the sub-optimal land due to competition with the field crop. The cotton cultivation in Indonesia is always done through intercropping with pulses. This research aims to test the suitability of cotton lines with drought-tolerant intercropped with maize. The research is conducted in February to August 2016 at Asembagus Experimental Garden, Situbondo. Planting materials used in this research are 6 lines and 2 varieties of drought-tolerant cotton consist of strain 03001/9, 03008/24, 03008/25, 03017/13, 06062/3, 06063/3, kanesia 10 and kanesia 14. The research prepared by the draft randomized group with three replications. The observation parameter consists of plant height, canopy width, number of generative branches, number of fruits, fruits weight, the yield of seed cotton, and corn dry results. The research result shows that the strain 03017/13 and 03008/24 have the highest consecutive acceptance of IDR 17,860,681 and IDR 17,520,879, the increase in revenue compared to monoculture is IDR 6,278,473 and IDR 5,668,191, seed cotton production amounted to 2470.01 kg/ha and 2329.72 kg/ha, maize production amounted to 2001.54 kg/ha and 2112.74 kg/ha, LER 1.68 and 1.60, number of harvested fruit of 12.66 and 11.76 fruits/plant, fruit weight of 4.05 and 4.17 g/fruit.

  2. Alternating current line-filter based on electrochemical capacitor utilizing template-patterned graphene.

    Wu, Zhenkun; Li, Liyi; Lin, Ziyin; Song, Bo; Li, Zhuo; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Wong, Ching-Ping; Bai, Shu-Lin

    2015-06-17

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) are widely used for alternating current (ac) line-filtering. However, their bulky size is becoming more and more incompatible with the rapid development of portable electronics. Here we report a scalable process to fabricate miniaturized graphene-based ac line-filters on flexible substrates at room temperature. In this work, graphene oxide (GO) is reduced by patterned metal interdigits at room temperature and used directly as the electrode material. The as-fabricated device shows a phase angle of -75.4° at 120 Hz with a specific capacitance of 316 µF/cm(2) and a RC time constant of 0.35 ms. In addition, it retains 97.2% of the initial capacitance after 10000 charge/discharge cycles. These outstanding performance characteristics of our device demonstrate its promising to replace the conventional AECs for ac line filtering.

  3. Contrast of HOLZ lines in energy-filtered convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns from silicon

    Lehmpfuhl, G.; Krahl, D.; Uchida, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Higher-order Laue-zone (HOLZ) lines were investigated in convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns from silicon near the low-indexed zone axes [100], [110] and [111]. The visibility of these lines depends on the effective structure potentials of the reflections from the first Laue zone depending on their Debye-Waller factor. The contrast of the HOLZ lines is strongly reduced by inelastically scattered electrons. They can be excluded by an imaging Ω filter for energy losses above 2 eV. The diffraction patterns were compared with many-beam calculations. Without absorption, an excellent agreement could be achieved for the [111] and [100] zone axes, while the simulation of the [110] zone-axis pattern needed a calculation with absorption. The reason for this observation is explained in the Bloch-wave picture. Calculations with absorption, however, lead to artefacts in the intensity distribution of the [100] HOLZ pattern. In order to obtain agreement with the experiment, the Debye-Waller factor had to be modified in different ways for the different zone axes. This corresponds to a strong anisotropy of the Debye-Waller factor. To confirm this observation, the temperature dependence of the itensity distributions of the HOLZ patterns was investigated between 50 and 680 K. At room temperature, the parameter D in the Debye-Waller factor exp(-Ds 2 ) was determined as 0.13, 0.26 and 0.55 A 2 for the zone axes [100], [111] and [110], respectively. The reliability of the conclusions is discussed. (orig.)

  4. The status of the technical development for the Yamanashi Maglev test line

    Nakashima, Hiroshi [Maglev Systems Development Dept., Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Seki, Akio [Linear Express Research Development Div., Central Japan Railway Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The superconducting maglev system has been under development for the past 25 years in Japan. In last 17 years, running test on the 7 km Miyazaki test track has yielded important data for the maglev system development. In 1990, the maglev system gained the status of one of the national - funded projects in Japan. The government authorized the 42.8 km test line in Yamanashi Prefecture and R and D entered into a new phase. This new test line is planned to go through near Tokyo on the supposed Chuo line, which is expected to be a new important line connecting Tokyo and Osaka, the central part of Japan. This fact clearly explains the role of Yamanashi test line in the future. The construction of the Yamanashi test line is energetically promoted, to start running tests in spring of 1997. The situation of the technical development of the Yamanashi test line is reviewed here. (orig.)

  5. Demonstration of pattern transfer into sub-100 nm polysilicon line/space features patterned with extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Cardinale, G. F.; Henderson, C. C.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Mangat, P. J. S.; Cobb, J.; Hector, S. D.

    1999-01-01

    In two separate experiments, we have successfully demonstrated the transfer of dense- and loose-pitch line/space (L/S) photoresist features, patterned with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, into an underlying hard mask material. In both experiments, a deep-UV photoresist (∼90 nm thick) was spin cast in bilayer format onto a hard mask (50-90 nm thick) and was subsequently exposed to EUV radiation using a 10x reduction EUV exposure system. The EUV reticle was fabricated at Motorola (Tempe, AZ) using a subtractive process with Ta-based absorbers on Mo/Si multilayer mask blanks. In the first set of experiments, following the EUV exposures, the L/S patterns were transferred first into a SiO 2 hard mask (60 nm thick) using a reactive ion etch (RIE), and then into polysilicon (350 nm thick) using a triode-coupled plasma RIE etcher at the University of California, Berkeley, microfabrication facilities. The latter etch process, which produced steep (>85 degree sign ) sidewalls, employed a HBr/Cl chemistry with a large (>10:1) etch selectivity of polysilicon to silicon dioxide. In the second set of experiments, hard mask films of SiON (50 nm thick) and SiO 2 (87 nm thick) were used. A RIE was performed at Motorola using a halogen gas chemistry that resulted in a hard mask-to-photoresist etch selectivity >3:1 and sidewall profile angles ≥85 degree sign . Line edge roughness (LER) and linewidth critical dimension (CD) measurements were performed using Sandia's GORA(c) CD digital image analysis software. Low LER values (6-9 nm, 3σ, one side) and good CD linearity (better than 10%) were demonstrated for the final pattern-transferred dense polysilicon L/S features from 80 to 175 nm. In addition, pattern transfer (into polysilicon) of loose-pitch (1:2) L/S features with CDs≥60 nm was demonstrated. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  6. FIRST BEAM TESTS OF THE MUON COLLIDER TARGET TEST BEAM LINE AT THE AGS

    BROWN, K.A.; GASSNER, D.; GLENN, J.W.; PRIGL, R.; SIMOS, N.; SCADUTO, J.; TSOUPAS, N.

    2001-01-01

    In this report we will describe the muon collider target test beam line which operates off one branch of the AGS switchyard. The muon collider target test facility is designed to allow a prototype muon collider target system to be developed and studied. The beam requirements for the facility are ambitious but feasible. The system is designed to accept bunched beams of intensities up to 1.6 x 10 13 24 GeV protons in a single bunch. The target specifications require beam spot sizes on the order of 1 mm, 1 sigma rms at the maximum intensity. We will describe the optics design, the instrumentation, and the shielding design. Results from the commissioning of the beam line will be shown

  7. Pattern Of Skin Prick Allergy Test Results In Enugu | Mgbor ...

    In this study we report on pattern of allergy prick skin test results found among atopic patients attending the department of otorhinolargngology of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu and Hansa Clinics, Enugu and propose ways of minimizing the exposure of the population to allergens. Material and method

  8. SPACE code simulation of ATLAS DVI line break accident test (SB DVI 08 Test)

    Lim, Sang Gyu [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    APR1400 has adopted new safety design features which are 4 mechanically independent DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) systems and fluidic device in the safety injection tanks (SITs). Hence, DVI line break accident has to be evaluated as one of the small break LOCA (SBLOCA) to ensure the safety of APR1400. KAERI has been performed for DVI line break test (SB DVI 08) using ATLAS (Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) facility which is an integral effect test facility for APR1400. The test result shows that the core collapsed water level decreased before a loop seal clearance, so that a core uncover occurred. At this time, the peak cladding temperature (PCT) is rapidly increased even though the emergency core cooling (ECC) water is injected from safety injection pump (SIP). This test result is useful for supporting safety analysis using thermal hydraulic safety analysis code and increases the understanding of SBLOCA phenomena in APR1400. The SBLOCA evaluation methodology for APR1400 is now being developed using SPACE code. The object of the development of this methodology is to set up a conservative evaluation methodology in accordance with appendix K of 10 CFR 50. ATLAS SB DVI 08 test is selected for the evaluation of SBLOCA methodology using SPACE code. Before applying the conservative models and correlations, benchmark calculation of the test is performed with the best estimate models and correlations to verify SPACE code capability. This paper deals with benchmark calculations results of ATLAS SB DVI 08 test. Calculation results of the major hydraulics variables are compared with measured data. Finally, this paper carries out the SPACE code performances for simulating the integral effect test of SBLOCA.

  9. 40 CFR 1045.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line engines?

    2010-07-01

    ... production-line engines? 1045.305 Section 1045.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.305 How must I prepare and test my production-line engines...

  10. 40 CFR 1048.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line engines?

    2010-07-01

    ... production-line engines? 1048.305 Section 1048.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.305 How must I prepare and test my production-line engines? This...

  11. The tap test- an accurate First-line test for fetal lung maturity testing ...

    Objective. To determine the accuracy of near-patient and laboratory- based fetal lung maturity tests in predicting the need for neonatal ventilation. Design. A prospective descriptive study. Subjects. One hundred high-risk obstetric patients where confirmation of fetal lung maturity would initiate delivery. Methods. Fetal weight ...

  12. Stick-Slip Motion of Moving Contact Line on Chemically Patterned Surfaces

    Wu, Congmin; Lei, Siulong; Qian, Tiezheng; Wang, Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    Based on our continuum hydrodynamic model for immiscible two-phase flows at solid surfaces, the stick-slip motion has been predicted for moving contact line at chemically patterned surfaces [Wang et al., J. Fluid Mech., 605 (2008), pp. 59-78]. In this paper we show that the continuum predictions can be quantitatively verified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our MD simulations are carried out for two immiscible Lennard-Jones fluids confined by two planar solid walls in Poiseuille flow geometry. In particular, one solid surface is chemically patterned with alternating stripes. For comparison, the continuum model is numerically solved using material parameters directly measured in MD simulations. From oscillatory fluid-fluid interface to intermittent stick-slip motion of moving contact line, we have quantitative agreement between the continuum and MD results. This agreement is attributed to the accurate description down to molecular scale by the generalized Navier boundary condition in our continuum model. Numerical results are also presented for the relaxational dynamics of fluid-fluid interface, in agreement with a theoretical analysis based on the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation. © 2010 Global-Science Press.

  13. 16 CFR 1203.11 - Marking the impact test line.

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 1203.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT... (HPI), with the brow parallel to the basic plane. Place a 5-kg (11-lb) preload ballast on top of the... helmet coinciding with the intersection of the surface of the helmet with the impact line planes defined...

  14. Testing for coevolutionary diversification: linking pattern with process.

    Althoff, David M; Segraves, Kari A; Johnson, Marc T J

    2014-02-01

    Coevolutionary diversification is cited as a major mechanism driving the evolution of diversity, particularly in plants and insects. However, tests of coevolutionary diversification have focused on elucidating macroevolutionary patterns rather than the processes giving rise to such patterns. Hence, there is weak evidence that coevolution promotes diversification. This is in part due to a lack of understanding about the mechanisms by which coevolution can cause speciation and the difficulty of integrating results across micro- and macroevolutionary scales. In this review, we highlight potential mechanisms of coevolutionary diversification, outline approaches to examine this process across temporal scales, and propose a set of minimal requirements for demonstrating coevolutionary diversification. Our aim is to stimulate research that tests more rigorously for coevolutionary diversification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-kV Transmission Line.

    Lee, Jack M.

    1992-06-01

    Although several kinds of biological effects of electric and magnetic fields have been reported from laboratory studies, few have been independently replicated. When this study was being planned, the suppression of nighttime melatonin in rodents was thought to represent one of the strongest known effects of these fields. The effect had been replicated by a single laboratory for 60-Hz electric fields, and by multiple laboratories for d-c magnetic fields. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the effect of electric and magnetic fields on melatonin would also occur in sheep exposed to a high voltage transmission line. The specific hypothesis tested by this experiment was as follows: The electrical environment produced by a 60-Hz, 500-kV transmission line causes a depression in nocturnal melatonin in chronically exposed female lambs. This may mimic effects of pinealectomy or constant long-day photoperiods, thus delaying the onset of reproductive cycles. Results of the study do not provide evidence to support the hypothesis. Melatonin concentrations in the sheep exposed to the transmission line showed the normal pattern of low daytime and high nighttime serum levels. As compared to the control group, there were no statistically significant group differences in the mean amplitude, phase, or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation.

  16. Extrinsic Parameter Calibration for Line Scanning Cameras on Ground Vehicles with Navigation Systems Using a Calibration Pattern

    Alexander Wendel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Line scanning cameras, which capture only a single line of pixels, have been increasingly used in ground based mobile or robotic platforms. In applications where it is advantageous to directly georeference the camera data to world coordinates, an accurate estimate of the camera’s 6D pose is required. This paper focuses on the common case where a mobile platform is equipped with a rigidly mounted line scanning camera, whose pose is unknown, and a navigation system providing vehicle body pose estimates. We propose a novel method that estimates the camera’s pose relative to the navigation system. The approach involves imaging and manually labelling a calibration pattern with distinctly identifiable points, triangulating these points from camera and navigation system data and reprojecting them in order to compute a likelihood, which is maximised to estimate the 6D camera pose. Additionally, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to estimate the uncertainty of the offset. Tested on two different platforms, the method was able to estimate the pose to within 0.06 m/1.05 ∘ and 0.18 m/2.39 ∘ . We also propose several approaches to displaying and interpreting the 6D results in a human readable way.

  17. Sequence and expression pattern of the germ line marker vasa in honey bees and stingless bees

    2009-01-01

    Queens and workers of social insects differ in the rates of egg laying. Using genomic information we determined the sequence of vasa, a highly conserved gene specific to the germ line of metazoans, for the honey bee and four stingless bees. The vasa sequence of social bees differed from that of other insects in two motifs. By RT-PCR we confirmed the germ line specificity of Amvasa expression in honey bees. In situ hybridization on ovarioles showed that Amvasa is expressed throughout the germarium, except for the transition zone beneath the terminal filament. A diffuse vasa signal was also seen in terminal filaments suggesting the presence of germ line cells. Oocytes showed elevated levels of Amvasa transcripts in the lower germarium and after follicles became segregated. In previtellogenic follicles, Amvasa transcription was detected in the trophocytes, which appear to supply its mRNA to the growing oocyte. A similar picture was obtained for ovarioles of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, except that Amvasa expression was higher in the oocytes of previtellogenic follicles. The social bees differ in this respect from Drosophila, the model system for insect oogenesis, suggesting that changes in the sequence and expression pattern of vasa may have occurred during social evolution. PMID:21637523

  18. Sequence and expression pattern of the germ line marker vasa in honey bees and stingless bees

    Érica Donato Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Queens and workers of social insects differ in the rates of egg laying. Using genomic information we determined the sequence of vasa, a highly conserved gene specific to the germ line of metazoans, for the honey bee and four stingless bees. The vasa sequence of social bees differed from that of other insects in two motifs. By RT-PCR we confirmed the germ line specificity of Amvasa expression in honey bees. In situ hybridization on ovarioles showed that Amvasa is expressed throughout the germarium, except for the transition zone beneath the terminal filament. A diffuse vasa signal was also seen in terminal filaments suggesting the presence of germ line cells. Oocytes showed elevated levels of Amvasa transcripts in the lower germarium and after follicles became segregated. In previtellogenic follicles, Amvasa transcription was detected in the trophocytes, which appear to supply its mRNA to the growing oocyte. A similar picture was obtained for ovarioles of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, except that Amvasa expression was higher in the oocytes of previtellogenic follicles. The social bees differ in this respect from Drosophila, the model system for insect oogenesis, suggesting that changes in the sequence and expression pattern of vasa may have occurred during social evolution.

  19. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    Wasiolek, P.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  20. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibrations and Test Lines

    Wasiolek, Piotr T. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-12-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima NPP accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination, a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count data, expressed in counts per second (cps), need to be converted to a terrestrial component of the exposure rate at 1 meter (m) above ground, or surface activity of the isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large-scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, because production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish a common calibration line very early into the event. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and that are potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  1. Sensitivity Pattern of Second Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs against Clinical Isolates of Multidrug Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    Ghafoor, T.; Ikram, A.; Abbasi, S. A.; Zaman, G.; Ayyub, M.; Palomino, J. C.; Vandamme, P.; Martin, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the current sensitivity pattern of second line anti-tuberculosis drugs against clinical isolates of Multidrug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from November 2011 to April 2013. Methodology: Samples received during the study period were processed on BACTEC MGIT 960 system for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture followed by first line drugs susceptibility testing of culture proven MTB isolates. On the basis of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid, 100 clinical isolates of MDR-TB were further subjected to susceptibility testing against amikacin (AMK), capreomycin (CAP), ofloxacin (OFL) and ethionamide (ETH) as per standard BACTEC MGIT 960 instructions. Results: Out of 100 MDR-TB isolates, 62% were from male patients and 38% from female patients. 97% were sensitive to AMK, 53% to OFL, 87% to CAP; and 87% were sensitive to ETH. Conclusion: The majority of the MDR-TB isolates showed excellent sensitivity against AMK, CAP and ETH. However, sensitivity of MDR-TB isolates against fluoroquinolones like OFL was not encouraging. (author)

  2. Airflow Patterns In Nuclear Workplace - Computer Simulation And Qualitative Tests

    Haim, M.; Szanto, M.; Weiss, Y.; Kravchick, T.; Levinson, S.; German, U.

    1999-01-01

    Concentration of airborne radioactive materials inside a room can vary widely from one location to another, sometimes by orders of magnitude even for locations that are relatively close. Inappropriately placed samplers can give misleading results and. therefore, the location of air samplers is important. Proper placement of samplers cannot be determined simply by observing the position of room air supply and exhaust vents. Airflow studies, such as the release of smoke aerosols, should be used. The significance of airflow pattern studies depends on the purpose of sampling - for estimating worker intakes, warning of high concentrations. defacing airborne radioactive areas, testing for confinement of sealed radioactive materials. etc. When sampling air in rooms with complex airflow patterns, it may be useful to use qualitative airflow studies with smoke tubes, smoke candles or isostatic bubbles. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission - Regulatory Guide 8.25 [1]. suggests that an airflow study should be conducted after any changes at work area including changes in the setup of work areas, ventilation system changes, etc. The present work presents an airflow patterns study conducted in a typical room using two methods: a computer simulation and a qualitative test using a smoke tube

  3. Patterns of HIV-1 Drug Resistance After First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Failure in 6 Sub-Saharan African Countries: Implications for Second-Line ART Strategies

    Hamers, Raph L.; Sigaloff, Kim C. E.; Wensing, Annemarie M.; Wallis, Carole L.; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E.; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Stevens, Wendy S.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Schuurman, Rob; Siwale, M.; Njovu, C.; Labib, M.; Menke, J.; Botes, M. E.; Conradie, F.; Ive, P.; Sanne, I.; Wallis, C. L.; Letsoalo, E.; Stevens, W. S.; Hardman, M.; Wellington, M.; Luthy, R.; Mandaliya, K.; Abdallah, S.; Jao, I.; Dolan, M.; Namayanja, G.; Nakatudde, L.; Nankya, I.; Kiconco, M.; Abwola, M.; Mugyenyi, P.; Osibogun, A.; Akanmu, S.; Schuurman, R.; Wensing, A. M.; Straatsma, E.; Wit, F. W.; Dekker, J.; van Vugt, M.; Lange, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance may limit the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cohort study examined patterns of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in individuals with virological failure on first-line ART at 13 clinical sites in 6 African

  4. Fabrication and Tests of M240 Machine Gun Barrels Lined with Stellite 25

    2016-04-01

    ARL-TR-7662 ● APR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Fabrication and Tests of M240 Machine Gun Barrels Lined with Stellite 25...Fabrication and Tests of M240 Machine Gun Barrels Lined with Stellite 25 by William S de Rosset and Sean Fudger Weapons and Materials Research...

  5. 40 CFR 1048.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    2010-07-01

    ... engines? 1048.301 Section 1048.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.301 When must I test my production-line engines? (a) If you produce engines...

  6. 40 CFR 1051.301 - When must I test my production-line vehicles or engines?

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles or engines? 1051.301 Section 1051.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.301 When must I test my production-line vehicles or engines? (a...

  7. 40 CFR 1045.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    2010-07-01

    ... engines? 1045.301 Section 1045.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.301 When must I test my production-line engines? (a) If you produce...

  8. LOCAL LINE BINARY PATTERN FOR FEATURE EXTRACTION ON PALM VEIN RECOGNITION

    Jayanti Yusmah Sari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, palm vein recognition has been studied to overcome problems in conventional systems in biometrics technology (finger print, face, and iris. Those problems in biometrics includes convenience and performance. However, due to the clarity of the palm vein image, the veins could not be segmented properly. To overcome this problem, we propose a palm vein recognition system using Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP method that can extract robust features from the palm vein images that has unclear veins. LLBP is an advanced method of Local Binary Pattern (LBP, a texture descriptor based on the gray level comparison of a neighborhood of pixels. There are four major steps in this paper, Region of Interest (ROI detection, image preprocessing, features extraction using LLBP method, and matching using Fuzzy k-NN classifier. The proposed method was applied on the CASIA Multi-Spectral Image Database. Experimental results showed that the proposed method using LLBP has a good performance with recognition accuracy of 97.3%. In the future, experiments will be conducted to observe which parameter that could affect processing time and recognition accuracy of LLBP is needed

  9. IDENTIFIKASI PROFIL DASAR LAUT MENGGUNAKAN INSTRUMEN SIDE SCAN SONAR DENGAN METODE BEAM PATTERN DISCRETE-EQUI-SPACED UNSHADED LINE ARRAY

    Muhammad Zainuddin Lubis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laut Punggur merupakan laut yang terletak di Batam, Kepulauan Riau yang mempunyai beragam habitat objek,dan bentuk struktur bawah laut yang memiliki dinamika laut yang sangat tinggi. Side scan sonar (SSS merupakan instrumen pengembangan sistem sonar yang mampu menunjukkan dalam gambar dua dimensional permukaan dasar laut dengan kondisi kontur, topografi, dan target secara bersamaan. Metode Beam Pattern Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array digunakan untuk menghitung beam pattern dua dimensi yang tergantung pada sudut dari gelombang suara yang masuk dari sumbu array yang diterima tergantung pada sudut di mana sinar suara pada array. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada Desember 2016 di laut Punggur,Batam, Kepulauan Riau-Indonesia, dengan koordinat 104 ° 08,7102 E dan 1° 03,2448 N sampai 1 ° 03.3977 N dan 104 ° 08,8133 E, menggunakan instrumen Side Scan Sonar C-Max CM2 Tow fish dengan frekuensi 325 kHz. Hasil yang diperoleh dari perekaman terdapat 7 target, dan Beam pattern dari metode Beam Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array target 4 memiliki nilai tertinggi pada directivity Pattern yaitu 21.08 dB. Hasil model beam pattern ini memiliki nilai pusat pada incidence angle (o terhadap Directivity pattern (dB tidak berada di nilai 0 ataupun pada pusat beam pattern yang dihasilkan pada target 6 dengan nilai incident angle -1.5 o dan 1.5o mengalami penurunan hingga -40 dB. Karakteristik sedimen dasar perairan di laut punggur ditemukan lebih banyak pasir. Hasil metode Beam Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array ditemukan bangkai kapal tenggelam.Kata Kunci: Side Scan Sonar, Beam Pattern Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array, Incidence angle, Directivity pattern IDENTIFICATION OF SEABED PROFILE USING SIDE SCAN SONAR INSTRUMENT WITH PATTERN DISCRETE-EQUI-SPACED UNSHADED LINE ARRAY METHODRiau Islands is an island that has a variety of habitat objects, and forms of submarine structures that have a very high ocean dynamics, Punggur Sea is the sea

  10. LINES

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  11. Final design of the neutral beam lines for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Pittenger, L.C.; Valby, L.E.; Stone, R.R.; Pedrotti, L.R.; Denhoy, B.; Yoard, R.

    1979-01-01

    Final design of the neutral beam lines for TFTR has been completed. A prototype has been assembled at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and is undergoing testing as part of the Neutral Beam System Test Facility (NBSTF). The final neutral beam line (NBL) configuration differs in several details from that previously reported upon; certain components have been added; and testing of the cryopump system has led to some design simplification. It is these developments which are reported herein

  12. Dynamic evolving spiking neural networks for on-line spatio- and spectro-temporal pattern recognition.

    Kasabov, Nikola; Dhoble, Kshitij; Nuntalid, Nuttapod; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2013-05-01

    On-line learning and recognition of spatio- and spectro-temporal data (SSTD) is a very challenging task and an important one for the future development of autonomous machine learning systems with broad applications. Models based on spiking neural networks (SNN) have already proved their potential in capturing spatial and temporal data. One class of them, the evolving SNN (eSNN), uses a one-pass rank-order learning mechanism and a strategy to evolve a new spiking neuron and new connections to learn new patterns from incoming data. So far these networks have been mainly used for fast image and speech frame-based recognition. Alternative spike-time learning methods, such as Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) and its variant Spike Driven Synaptic Plasticity (SDSP), can also be used to learn spatio-temporal representations, but they usually require many iterations in an unsupervised or semi-supervised mode of learning. This paper introduces a new class of eSNN, dynamic eSNN, that utilise both rank-order learning and dynamic synapses to learn SSTD in a fast, on-line mode. The paper also introduces a new model called deSNN, that utilises rank-order learning and SDSP spike-time learning in unsupervised, supervised, or semi-supervised modes. The SDSP learning is used to evolve dynamically the network changing connection weights that capture spatio-temporal spike data clusters both during training and during recall. The new deSNN model is first illustrated on simple examples and then applied on two case study applications: (1) moving object recognition using address-event representation (AER) with data collected using a silicon retina device; (2) EEG SSTD recognition for brain-computer interfaces. The deSNN models resulted in a superior performance in terms of accuracy and speed when compared with other SNN models that use either rank-order or STDP learning. The reason is that the deSNN makes use of both the information contained in the order of the first input spikes

  13. Bliss and Loewe interaction analyses of clinically relevant drug combinations in human colon cancer cell lines reveal complex patterns of synergy and antagonism.

    Kashif, Muhammad; Andersson, Claes; Mansoori, Sharmineh; Larsson, Rolf; Nygren, Peter; Gustafsson, Mats G

    2017-11-28

    We analyzed survival effects for 15 different pairs of clinically relevant anti-cancer drugs in three iso-genic pairs of human colorectal cancer carcinoma cell lines, by applying for the first time our novel software (R package) called COMBIA. In our experiments iso-genic pairs of cell lines were used, differing only with respect to a single clinically important KRAS or BRAF mutation. Frequently, concentration dependent but mutation independent joint Bliss and Loewe synergy/antagonism was found statistically significant. Four combinations were found synergistic/antagonistic specifically to the parental (harboring KRAS or BRAF mutation) cell line of the corresponding iso-genic cell lines pair. COMBIA offers considerable improvements over established software for synergy analysis such as MacSynergy™ II as it includes both Bliss (independence) and Loewe (additivity) analyses, together with a tailored non-parametric statistical analysis employing heteroscedasticity, controlled resampling, and global (omnibus) testing. In many cases Loewe analyses found significant synergistic as well as antagonistic effects in a cell line at different concentrations of a tested drug combination. By contrast, Bliss analysis found only one type of significant effect per cell line. In conclusion, the integrated Bliss and Loewe interaction analysis based on non-parametric statistics may provide more robust interaction analyses and reveal complex patterns of synergy and antagonism.

  14. Generation of on-line test signals for nuclear instrumentation for PFBR

    Ram, Rajit; Bhatnagar, P.V.; Rajesh, M.G.; Das, Debashis

    2010-01-01

    Neutron flux monitoring system for PFBR employs pulse signal processing in start up and intermediate power range of reactor operation and Campbell signal processing in intermediate and full power range of reactor operation. Pulse signal processing unit as well as Campbell signal processing unit incorporates FPGA that generates pulse/white noise signal for on-line testing and diagnostic of the channels. In pulse channel fixed/linearly/exponentially varying pulse rate signal is generated over three decades of reactor operation. In the Campbell channel, Poisson distributed noise varying linearly/exponentially is generated over four decades of reactor operation. Multiple numbers of Poisson distributed random pulse trains are summed and amplified to get the white noise signal. Exponentially increasing gain pattern, generated by MATLAB is used to increase the RMS value of the generated noise. The paper discuses the successful testing and validation of pulse and Campbell channel by making use of the generated pulse/white noise signal over wide range of operation for nuclear instrumentation. (author)

  15. Extended ABCD matrix formalism for the description of femtosecond diffraction patterns; application to femtosecond digital in-line holography with anamorphic optical systems.

    Brunel, Marc; Shen, Huanhuan; Coetmellec, Sebastien; Lebrun, Denis

    2012-03-10

    We present a new model to predict diffraction patterns of femtosecond pulses through complex optical systems. The model is based on the extension of an ABCD matrix formalism combined with generalized Huygens-Fresnel transforms (already used in the CW regime) to the femtosecond regime. The model is tested to describe femtosecond digital in-line holography experiments realized in situ through a cylindrical Plexiglas pipe. The model allows us to establish analytical relations that link the holographic reconstruction process to the experimental parameters of the pipe and of the incident beam itself. Simulations and experimental results are in good concordance. Femtosecond digital in-line holography is shown to allow significant coherent noise reduction, and this model will be particularly efficient to describe a wide range of optical geometries. More generally, the model developed can be easily used in any experiment where the knowledge of the precise evolution of femtosecond transverse patterns is required.

  16. Microculture-based chemosensitivity testing: a feasibility study comparing freshly explanted human melanoma cells with human melanoma cell lines.

    Marshall, E S; Finlay, G J; Matthews, J H; Shaw, J H; Nixon, J; Baguley, B C

    1992-03-04

    The culture of cancer cells has many applications in chemosensitivity testing and new drug development. Our goal was to adapt simple semiautomated microculture methods for testing the chemosensitivity of melanoma cells freshly recovered from patients' tumors. Cells were cultured on a substrate of agarose and exposed continuously to cytotoxic drugs, the effects of which were measured by determining the uptake of [3H]thymidine 4-7 days later. Immunocytochemical staining of cells cultured with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine demonstrated that tumor cells were responsible for the measured thymidine incorporation. The effects of cytotoxic drugs were calculated as logarithmic 50% inhibitory concentrations and expressed as divergences from the mean in a log-mean graph. The inhibitory effects of amsacrine, etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin, mitomycin C, and fluorouracil were tested. Tumors differed widely in their sensitivity to these drugs, although sensitivity to the three topoisomerase-II-directed agents was highly correlated. Cells from two non-neoplastic hematopoietic progenitor cell lines (FT and 32D) showed chemosensitivity patterns distinct from those in the melanoma cells, indicating tissue selectivity. Two established melanoma cell lines, MM-96 and FME, were tested under the same conditions and showed sensitivity typical of at least some fresh specimens. These results support the validity of melanoma cell lines as models of freshly resected melanoma cells. If successfully applied to other tumor types, such semiautomated approaches could find wide application in routine hospital laboratories for the chemosensitivity testing of patients' tumor cells.

  17. Verification Image of The Veins on The Back Palm with Modified Local Line Binary Pattern (MLLBP) and Histogram

    Prijono, Agus; Darmawan Hangkawidjaja, Aan; Ratnadewi; Saleh Ahmar, Ansari

    2018-01-01

    The verification to person who is used today as a fingerprint, signature, personal identification number (PIN) in the bank system, identity cards, attendance, easily copied and forged. This causes the system not secure and is vulnerable to unauthorized persons to access the system. In this research will be implemented verification system using the image of the blood vessels in the back of the palms as recognition more difficult to imitate because it is located inside the human body so it is safer to use. The blood vessels located at the back of the human hand is unique, even humans twins have a different image of the blood vessels. Besides the image of the blood vessels do not depend on a person’s age, so it can be used for long term, except in the case of an accident, or disease. Because of the unique vein pattern recognition can be used in a person. In this paper, we used a modification method to perform the introduction of a person based on the image of the blood vessel that is using Modified Local Line Binary Pattern (MLLBP). The process of matching blood vessel image feature extraction using Hamming Distance. Test case of verification is done by calculating the percentage of acceptance of the same person. Rejection error occurs if a person was not matched by the system with the data itself. The 10 person with 15 image compared to 5 image vein for each person is resulted 80,67% successful Another test case of the verification is done by verified two image from different person that is forgery, and the verification will be true if the system can rejection the image forgery. The ten different person is not verified and the result is obtained 94%.

  18. Coastal Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics Imager Pointing Line-of-Sight Solution Development and Testing

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A stable pointing line of sight solution is developed and tested in support of the Coastal Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics Imager for the GEOstationary Coastal and Air...

  19. Room/corner tests of wall linings with 100/300 kW burner

    M. A. Dietenberger; O. Grexa; R. H. White; M. S. Sweet; M. Janssens

    1995-01-01

    Six room/comer tests of common wall linings were conducted with gypsum-lined ceiling exposed to propane burning at 100 kW for 10 min followed by 300 kW for 10 min. This test protocol is an option provided by ISO 9705. The flashover event occurred at 1,000 kW rate of heat release within several seconds of observing flames out the doorway. The time to flashover of the...

  20. Matched filtering Generalized Phase Contrast using binary phase for dynamic spot- and line patterns in biophotonics and structured lighting

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin

    2013-01-01

    as a combination of Generalized Phase Contrast and phase-only correlation. Such an analysis makes it convenient to optimize an mGPC system for different setup conditions. Results showing binary-only phase generation of dynamic spot arrays and line patterns are presented. © 201 Optical Society of America...

  1. FUROSEMIDE TEST: ITS PATTERN IN NOT SEVERE CHRONIC RENAL DISEASE

    Carlos G. Musso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Furosemide test is a simple and useful test of renal physiology used to evaluate the capability of the collecting tubules to secrete potassium under the effect of serum aldosterone. Its behaviour pattern has already been established in children and young adults but not described in chronic renal disease patients yet, which we explored in this study.Material & Method: Twenty-six young volunteers (between 20 and 40 years old, chronically on a low potassium diet (40 mmol of K day were studied: twenty of them were healthy young ( they were neither suffering form diseases nor on any medication, and the rest were young patients suffering from stage II / III chronic renal disease (damaged kidney with GFR between 83.1 ml-min to 39.2 ml-min secondary to glomerular diseases documented by kidney biopsy. None of the studied chronic renal disease patients were suffering from diabetes mellitus, urinary obstruction, nor treated with dyskalemia generating drugs, such as: diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists, etc. Before, while the test was being carried out and after 180 minutes of a single dose of intravenous furosemide (1 mg/kg, urine and blood samples were obtained, for creatinine and potassium levels. From these data we calculated fractional excretion (FE of potassium. Statistical analysis was performed applying Student´s t-test.Results: There was no significant difference neither in pre-furosemide (basal and post-furosemide average FE of potassium between the healthy and chronic renal disease (CRD group: 16.4 ± 8.6% (CRD vs 11.5 ± 4.6% (healthy (p = NS ; 40.8 ± 3.2 % (CRD vs 35.4 ± 8.9% (healthy (p = NS respectively. Conversely, there was a significant difference in post-furosemide peak FE of potassium value, which was higher and delayed in the CRD group compared to the healthy one: 49.5 ± 8.2 % at 118 mins (CRD vs 31.6 ± 11% at 30 mins (healthy (p = 0.001.Conclusion: Furosemide test showed a

  2. Identification of exotic genetic components and DNA methylation pattern analysis of three cotton introgression lines from Gossypium bickii.

    He, Shou-Pu; Sun, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Chao; Du, Xiong-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The impact of alien DNA fragments on plant genome has been studied in many species. However, little is known about the introgression lines of Gossypium. To study the consequences of introgression in Gossypium, we investigated 2000 genomic and 800 epigenetic sites in three typical cotton introgression lines, as well as their cultivar (Gossypium hirsutum) and wild parents (Gossypium bickii), by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP). The results demonstrate that an average of 0.5% of exotic DNA segments from wild cotton is transmitted into the genome of each introgression line, with the addition of other forms of genetic variation. In total, an average of 0.7% of genetic variation sites is identified in introgression lines. Simultaneously, the overall cytosine methylation level in each introgression line is very close to that of the upland cotton parent (an average of 22.6%). Further dividing patterns reveal that both hypomethylation and hypermethylation occurred in introgression lines in comparison with the upland cotton parent. Sequencing of nine methylation polymorphism fragments showed that most (7 of 9) of the methylation alternations occurred in the noncoding sequences. The molecular evidence of introgression from wild cotton into introgression lines in our study is identified by AFLP. Moreover, the causes of petal variation in introgression lines are discussed.

  3. Widespread molecular patterns associated with drug sensitivity in breast cancer cell lines, with implications for human tumors.

    Chad J Creighton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent landmark studies have profiled cancer cell lines for molecular features, along with measuring the corresponding growth inhibitory effects for specific drug compounds. These data present a tool for determining which subsets of human cancer might be more responsive to particular drugs. To this end, the NCI-DREAM-sponsored DREAM7: Drug Sensitivity Prediction Challenge (sub-challenge 1 set out to predict the sensitivities of 18 breast cancer cell lines to 31 previously untested compounds, on the basis of molecular profiling data and a training subset of cell lines. METHODS AND RESULTS: With 47 teams submitting blinded predictions, team Creighton scored third in terms of overall accuracy. Team Creighton's method was simple and straightforward, incorporated multiple expression data types (RNA-seq, gene array, RPPA, and incorporated all profiled features (not only the "best" predictive ones. As an extension of the approach, cell line data, from public datasets of expression profiling coupled with drug sensitivities (Barretina, Garnett, Heiser were used to "predict" the drug sensitivities in human breast tumors (using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Drug sensitivity correlations within human breast tumors showed differences by expression-based subtype, with many associations in line with the expected (e.g. Lapatinib sensitivity in HER2-enriched cancers and others inviting further study (e.g. relative resistance to PI3K inhibitors in basal-like cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular patterns associated with drug sensitivity are widespread, with potentially hundreds of genes that could be incorporated into making predictions, as well as offering biological clues as to the mechanisms involved. Applying the cell line patterns to human tumor data may help generate hypotheses on what tumor subsets might be more responsive to therapies, where multiple cell line datasets representing various drugs may be used, in order to assess consistency of

  4. Repositioning through Culture: Testing Change in Connectivity Patterns

    Beatriz Plaza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Symbolic knowledge-driven innovations can play an important role in the economic development of cities and regions. Cultural events and infrastructures can act as powerful connectivity engines, generating new connections, rewiring links, and repositioning institutions/cities/regions on the Internet map. Within this framework, this paper aims to contribute to the analytical understanding of culture-led repositioning. For this purpose we perform regression analysis with cultural networks (observational cross-sectional network data from digital media for a specific cultural case study: the Basque Culinary Center (BCC, a higher education faculty of haute cuisine promoted by the University of Mondragon along with a group of Michelin-starred chefs. Results show that a cultural sector, such as haute cuisine, can contribute to structural changes in connectivity patterns, putting an institution/city/region on the media map. It is the connection (in the online press of the BCC to the influential Michelin-starred chefs that can fuel the accumulation of press articles (media items on the BCC; and it is precisely this accumulation of press articles that can impact BCC revenues. Put differently, the co-branding between the influential Michelin chefs and the BCC may have put the BCC on the press map, promoting new student registrations and fostering Basque haute cuisine. The main contribution of this article is a prototype of regression analysis to test repositioning with network data.

  5. Overview and Example Test Results of Modern Pilot Schemes for Coordination of Line Distance Protection Relays

    Emil Bartosiewicz; Ryszard Kowalik; Marcin Januszewski

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a short review of pilot schemes which are available in modern line distance protection relays, and example results of common pilot scheme tests with the testing methods description. Some differences in implementations of selected pilot schemes have been shown for comparison reasons. Distance protection coordination functions have been tested for GE Multilin UR series devices. Every type of available pilot scheme has been checked in synthetic tests and during the real ...

  6. An Approach to a Comprehensive Test Framework for Analysis and Evaluation of Text Line Segmentation Algorithms

    Zoran N. Milivojevic

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a testing framework for the evaluation and validation of text line segmentation algorithms. Text line segmentation represents the key action for correct optical character recognition. Many of the tests for the evaluation of text line segmentation algorithms deal with text databases as reference templates. Because of the mismatch, the reliable testing framework is required. Hence, a new approach to a comprehensive experimental framework for the evaluation of text line segmentation algorithms is proposed. It consists of synthetic multi-like text samples and real handwritten text as well. Although the tests are mutually independent, the results are cross-linked. The proposed method can be used for different types of scripts and languages. Furthermore, two different procedures for the evaluation of algorithm efficiency based on the obtained error type classification are proposed. The first is based on the segmentation line error description, while the second one incorporates well-known signal detection theory. Each of them has different capabilities and convenience, but they can be used as supplements to make the evaluation process efficient. Overall the proposed procedure based on the segmentation line error description has some advantages, characterized by five measures that describe measurement procedures.

  7. McMurray's Test and Joint Line Tenderness for Medial Meniscus ...

    The wide variations reported have an impact on clinical decision concerning whether to go for other diagnostic tests before going for diagnostic arthroscopy, which is considered as the gold standard.The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of Joint line tenderness and McMurray's test, as clinical signs ...

  8. Basic Test Framework for the Evaluation of Text Line Segmentation and Text Parameter Extraction

    Darko Brodić

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Text line segmentation is an essential stage in off-line optical character recognition (OCR systems. It is a key because inaccurately segmented text lines will lead to OCR failure. Text line segmentation of handwritten documents is a complex and diverse problem, complicated by the nature of handwriting. Hence, text line segmentation is a leading challenge in handwritten document image processing. Due to inconsistencies in measurement and evaluation of text segmentation algorithm quality, some basic set of measurement methods is required. Currently, there is no commonly accepted one and all algorithm evaluation is custom oriented. In this paper, a basic test framework for the evaluation of text feature extraction algorithms is proposed. This test framework consists of a few experiments primarily linked to text line segmentation, skew rate and reference text line evaluation. Although they are mutually independent, the results obtained are strongly cross linked. In the end, its suitability for different types of letters and languages as well as its adaptability are its main advantages. Thus, the paper presents an efficient evaluation method for text analysis algorithms.

  9. Transmission line component testing for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System

    Goulding, Richard; Bell, G. L.; Deibele, C. E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Barber, G. C.; Barbier, C. N.; Cambell, I. H.; Moon, R. L.; Pesavento, P. V.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Kung, C.

    2014-10-01

    High power RF testing is underway to evaluate transmission line components for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System. The transmission line has a characteristic impedance Z0 = 50 Ω and a nominal outer diameter of 305 mm. It is specified to carry up to 6 MW at VSWR = 1.5 for 3600 s pulses, with transient voltages up to 40 kV. The transmission line is actively cooled, with turbulent gas flow (N2) used to transfer heat from the inner to outer conductor, which is water cooled. High voltage and high current testing of components has been performed using resonant lines generating steady state voltages of 35 kV and transient voltages up to 60 kV. A resonant ring, which has operated with circulating power of 6 MW for 1 hr pulses, is being used to test high power, low VSWR operation. Components tested to date include gas barriers, straight sections of various lengths, and 90 degree elbows. Designs tested include gas barriers fabricated from quartz and aluminum nitride, and transmission lines with quartz and alumina inner conductor supports. The latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. ATHLET calculations of the pressurizer surge line break (PH-SLB test) at the PMK-2 test facility

    Krepper, E.; Schaefer, F.

    2000-01-01

    At the Hungarian integral test facility PMK-2 a pressurizer surge line break experiment (PH-SLB test) was carried out with the PHARE 4.2.6b project. The primary objective of the test was to provide experimental data for a surge line break transient at VVER-440 reactors with reduced injection from the emergency core cooling systems (ECC). At the Institute of Safety Research calculations of the experiment were performed with the thermohydraulic computer code ATHLET, which was developed by GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit) mbH. In the context of the PHARE 4.2.6b project the Institute of Safety Research has also supplied the void fraction measurement system for the PMK-2 test facility and was involved in the evaluation of the experimental results. (orig.)

  11. Test and evaluation of the in-line plutonium solution K-absorption-edge densitometer at the Savannah River Plant. Phase I. Off-line testing results

    Smith, H.A. Jr.; Marks, T.; Johnson, S.S.

    1982-04-01

    An in-line, plutonium-solution, K-edge absorption densitometer has been developed at Los Alamos and is currently undergoing test and evaluation at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The first phase of the test and evaluation (off-line instrument calibration and solution assays) was completed, and preparations are under way to install the instrument in-line, as soon as process schedules permit. Calibration data in the design concentration range of 25 to 40 g Pu/L demonstrate routine achievement of densitometry assay precisions of 0.5% or better in 40 min. Plutonium assays at concentrations outside the calibration range were investigated in an effort to define better the limitations of the instrument and address other possible assay situations at SRP. Densitometry precisions obtained for 40-min assays range from 3% to 5 g Pu/L down to 0.4% at 70 g Pu/L. At higher plutonium concentrations, the precision deteriorated due to increasing gamma-ray absorption by the solution. In addition, with actinide concentrations above approximately 100 g/L, the assay accuracy also suffered because of enhanced small-angle scattering effects in the large sample cell. Measurements on mixed U/Pu solutions demonstrated the feasibility of accurate plutonium assays with correction for the large uranium matrix contributions being determined from the measurement data. The 239 240 Pu weight fractions and 241 Pu/ 239 Pu and 238 Pu/ 239 Pu isotopic ratios can be determined. In a mockup of the in-line solution plumbing system, all assay sequences, error conditions, and interlock criteria were exercised and verified to be working properly

  12. Patterns of relapse and outcome of elderly multiple myeloma patients treated as front-line therapy with novel agents combinations

    Aurelio Lopez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the characteristics of relapse, treatment response, and outcomes of 145 elderly patients with multiple myeloma in first relapse after front-line treatment with VMP or VTP. Reappearance of CRAB symptoms (113 patients and more aggressive forms of disease (32 patients were the most common patterns of relapse. After second-line therapy, 75 (51.7% patients achieved at partial response and 16 (11% complete response (CR. Overall survival was longer among patients receiving VMP as front-line induction (21.4 vs. 14.4 months, P=0.037, in patients achieving CR (28.3 vs. 14.8 months; P=0.04, and in patients without aggressive relapse (28.6 vs. 7.6 months; P=0.0007.

  13. Patterns of relapse and outcome of elderly multiple myeloma patients treated as front-line therapy with novel agents combinations☆

    Lopez, Aurelio; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Oriol, Albert; Valero, Marta; Martínez, Joaquín; Lorenzo, Jose Ignacio; Perez, Montserrat; Martinez, Rafael; de Paz, Raquel; Granell, Miguel; De Arriba, Felipe; Blanchard, M. Jesús; Peñalver, Francisco Javier; Bello, Jose Luis; Martin, Maria Luisa; Bargay, Joan; Blade, Joan; Lahuerta, Juan Jose; San Miguel, Jesús F.; de la Rubia, Javier

    2015-01-01

    We report the characteristics of relapse, treatment response, and outcomes of 145 elderly patients with multiple myeloma in first relapse after front-line treatment with VMP or VTP. Reappearance of CRAB symptoms (113 patients) and more aggressive forms of disease (32 patients) were the most common patterns of relapse. After second-line therapy, 75 (51.7%) patients achieved at partial response and 16 (11%) complete response (CR). Overall survival was longer among patients receiving VMP as front-line induction (21.4 vs. 14.4 months, P=0.037), in patients achieving CR (28.3 vs. 14.8 months; P=0.04), and in patients without aggressive relapse (28.6 vs. 7.6 months; P=0.0007). PMID:26500850

  14. Off-Line Testing of Tribo-Systems for Sheet Metal Forming Production

    Bay, Niels; Ceron, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Off-line testing of new tribo-systems for sheet metal forming production is an important issue, when new, environmentally benign lubricants are to be introduced. To obtain useful results it is, however, vital to ensure similar conditions as in the production process regarding the main tribo...... leading to very high tool/workpiece interface pressure and temperature in the second re-draw. Under such conditions only the best lubricant systems work satisfactory, and the paper shows how the performance of different tribo-systems in production may be predicted by off-line testing combined...

  15. Stability Test For Sorghum Mutant Lines Derived From Induced Mutations with Gamma-Ray Irradiation

    S. Human

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum breeding program had been conducted at the Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, BATAN. Plant genetic variability was increased through induced mutations using gamma-ray irradiation. Through selection process in successive generations, some promising mutant lines had been identified to have good agronomic characteristics with high grain yield. These breeding lines were tested in multi location trials and information of the genotypic stability was obtained to meet the requirements for officially varietal release by the Ministry of Agriculture. A total of 11 sorghum lines and varieties consisting of 8 mutant lines derived from induced mutations (B-100, B-95, B-92, B-83, B-76, B-75, B-69 and Zh-30 and 3 control varieties (Durra, UPCA-S1 and Mandau were included in the experiment. All materials were grown in 10 agro-ecologically different locations namely Gunungkidul, Bantul, Citayam, Garut, Lampung, Bogor, Anyer, Karawaci, Cianjur and Subang. In each location, the local adaptability test was conducted by randomized block design with 3 replications. Data of grain yield was used for evaluating genotypic stability using AMMI approach. Results revealed that sorghum mutation breeding had generated 3 mutant lines (B-100, B-76 and Zh-30 exhibiting grain yield significantly higher than the control varieties. These mutant lines were genetically stable in all locations so that they would be recommended for official release as new sorghum varieties to the Ministry of Agriculture

  16. Experimental verification of the CLIC Decelerator with the test Beam Line in the CLIC test facility 3

    Lillestøl, R L; Olvegård, M; Rabiller, A N; Sterbini, G; Adli, E

    2012-01-01

    The Test Beam Line in the CLIC Test Facility 3 is the first prototype of the CLIC drive beam decelerator. The main purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate efficient 12 GHz rf power production and stable transport of an electron drive beam during deceleration. The Test Beam Line consists of a FODO structure with high precision BPMs and quadrupoles mounted on mechanical movers for precisebeam alignment. Nine out of the planned 16 Power Extraction and Transfer Structures have currently been installed and commissioned. We correlate rf power production measurements with the drive beam deceleration measurements, and compare the two measurements to the theoretical predictions. We also discuss the impact of the drive beam bunch length and bunch combination on the measurements.

  17. High-resolution patterning of silver conductive lines by adhesion contrast planography

    Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Koutake, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    We developed printed electronics compatible planographic printing methods that enable single-micrometer-order patterning with high rectangularity and thickness uniformity. Instead of conventional planographic printing methods where selective wetting is used for pattern generation, an adhesive latent image produced on a silicone surface is exploited for patterning in the proposed printing methodologies. We further investigated the fundamental mechanisms of the proposed methods by focusing on adhesion contrasts between the blanket, printing area, and non-printing area of a printing plate (PP) and determined that printing is feasible when a simple magnitude relation of adhesions is satisfied for thin layers of size ranging from approximately 50 nm to 100 nm. Latent image formation can be carried out via a simple ultraviolet exposure of the silicone surface, thereby enabling the rapid prototyping of printed device fabrications. The easily preparable, single material-based flat PPs developed in this study have the advantages of flexibility in pattern designs, washing process, fabrication cost, and pattern-rewriting capability compared with the conventional printing methods in which raised surfaces such as stamps or clichés are required for patterning. (paper)

  18. DISCRETIZATION APPROACH USING RAY-TESTING MODEL IN PARTING LINE AND PARTING SURFACE GENERATION

    HAN Jianwen; JIAN Bin; YAN Guangrong; LEI Yi

    2007-01-01

    Surface classification, 3D parting line, parting surface generation and demoldability analysis which is helpful to select optimal parting direction and optimal parting line are involved in automatic cavity design based on the ray-testing model. A new ray-testing approach is presented to classify the part surfaces to core/cavity surfaces and undercut surfaces by automatic identifying the visibility of surfaces. A simple, direct and efficient algorithm to identify surface visibility is developed. The algorithm is robust and adapted to rather complicated geometry, so it is valuable in computer-aided mold design systems. To validate the efficiency of the approach, an experimental program is implemented. Case studies show that the approach is practical and valuable in automatic parting line and parting surface generation.

  19. A test of a 2 Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet system

    Piekarz, Henryk; Carcagno, Ruben; Claypool, Brad; Foster, George W.; Hays, Steven L.; Huang, Yuenian; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Malamud, Ernest; Mazur, Peter O.; Nehring, Roger; Oleck, Andrew; Rabehl, Roger; Schlabach, Phil; Sylvester, Cosmore; Velev, Gueorgui; Volk, James; Wake, Masayoshi

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting transmission line magnet test system for an injector accelerator of a staged VLHC proton-proton colliding beam accelerator has been built and operated at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, twin-aperture, combined function dipole magnet of 2 Tesla field is excited by a single turn 100 kA transmission line superconductor. The 100 kA dc current is generated using dc-dc switching converters powered by a bulk 240 kW supply. A pair of horizontally placed conventional leads facilitates transfer of this current to the magnet transmission line superconductor operating at liquid helium temperature. Fabrication of magnet components and magnet assembly work are described. The magnet test system and its operation are presented, and the performance is summarized

  20. A test of a 2 Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet system

    Piekarz, Henryk; Carcagno, Ruben; Claypool, Brad; Foster, George W.; Hays, Steven L.; Huang, Yuenian; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Malamud, Ernest; Mazur, Peter O.; Nehring,; Oleck, Andrew; Rabehl, Roger; Schlabach, Phil; Sylvester, Cosmore; Velev, Gueorgui; Volk, James; /Fermilab; Wake, Masayoshi; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    Superconducting transmission line magnet test system for an injector accelerator of a staged VLHC proton-proton colliding beam accelerator has been built and operated at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, twin-aperture, combined function dipole magnet of 2 Tesla field is excited by a single turn 100 kA transmission line superconductor. The 100 kA dc current is generated using dc-dc switching converters powered by a bulk 240 kW supply. A pair of horizontally placed conventional leads facilitates transfer of this current to the magnet transmission line superconductor operating at liquid helium temperature. Fabrication of magnet components and magnet assembly work are described. The magnet test system and its operation are presented, and the performance is summarized.

  1. Integration and test planning patterns in different organizations

    Jong, de I.S.M.; Boumen, R.; Mortel - Fronczak, van de J.M.; Rooda, J.E.; Tretmans, J.

    2007-01-01

    Planning an integration and test phase is often done by experts in the visited organizations. These experts have a thorough knowledge about the system, integration and testing and the business drivers of an organization. An integration and test plan developedfor an airplane is different than the

  2. An analysis of unit tests of a flight software product line

    Ganesan, D.; Lindvall, M.; McComas, D.; Bartholomew, M.; Slegel, S.; Medina, B.; Krikhaar, R.; Verhoef, C.; Dharmalingam, G.; Montgomery, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the unit testing approach developed and used by the Core Flight Software System (CFS) product line team at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The goal of the analysis is to understand, review, and recommend strategies for improving the CFS' existing unit

  3. An introduction to the Advanced Testing Line for Actinide Separations (ATLAS)

    Pope, N.G.; Yarbro, S.L.; Schreiber, S.B.; Day, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The Advanced Testing Line for Actinide Separations (ATLAS) will evaluate promising plutonium recovery process modifications and new technologies. It combines advances in process chemistry, process control, process analytical chemistry, and process engineering. ATLAS has a processing capability equal to other recovery systems but without the pressure to achieve predetermined recovery quotas

  4. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction.

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base.

  5. Time-Qualified Patterns of Variation of PPARγ, DNMT1, and DNMT3B Expression in Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines

    Valerio Pazienza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenesis is related to the loss of homeostatic control of cellular processes regulated by transcriptional circuits and epigenetic mechanisms. Among these, the activities of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs are crucial and intertwined. PPARγ is a key regulator of cell fate, linking nutrient sensing to transcription processes, and its expression oscillates with circadian rhythmicity. Aim of our study was to assess the periodicity of PPARγ and DNMTs in pancreatic cancer (PC. We investigated the time-related patterns of PPARG, DNMT1, and DNMT3B expression monitoring their mRNA levels by qRT-PCR at different time points over a 28-hour span in BxPC-3, CFPAC-1, PANC-1, and MIAPaCa-2 PC cells after synchronization with serum shock. PPARG and DNMT1 expression in PANC-1 cells and PPARG expression in MIAPaCa-2 cells were characterized by a 24 h period oscillation, and a borderline significant rhythm was observed for the PPARG, DNMT1, and DNMT3B expression profiles in the other cell lines. The time-qualified profiles of gene expression showed different shapes and phase relationships in the PC cell lines examined. In conclusion, PPARG and DNMTs expression is characterized by different time-qualified patterns in cell lines derived from human PC, and this heterogeneity could influence cell phenotype and human disease behaviour.

  6. Software Sub-system in Loading Automatic Test System for the Measurement of Power Line Filters

    Yu Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The loading automatic test system for measurement of power line filters are in urgent demand. So the software sub-system of the whole test system was proposed. Methods: structured the test system based on the virtual instrument framework, which consisted of lower and up computer and adopted the top down approach of design to perform the system and its modules, according to the measurement principle of the test system. Results: The software sub-system including human machine interface, data analysis and process software, expert system, communication software, control software in lower computer, etc. had been designed. Furthermore, it had been integrated into the entire test system. Conclusion: This sub-system provided a fiendly software platform for the whole test system, and had many advantages such as strong functions, high performances, low prices. It not only raises the test efficiency of EMI filters, but also renders some creativities.

  7. Patterns of HIV-1 drug resistance after first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure in 6 sub-Saharan African countries: implications for second-line ART strategies.

    Hamers, Raph L; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Wensing, Annemarie M; Wallis, Carole L; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Stevens, Wendy S; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Schuurman, Rob

    2012-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance may limit the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cohort study examined patterns of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in individuals with virological failure on first-line ART at 13 clinical sites in 6 African countries and predicted their impact on second-line drug susceptibility. A total of 2588 antiretroviral-naive individuals initiated ART consisting of different nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbones (zidovudine, stavudine, tenofovir, or abacavir, plus lamivudine or emtricitabine) with either efavirenz or nevirapine. Population sequencing after 12 months of ART was retrospectively performed if HIV RNA was >1000 copies/mL. The 2010 International Antiviral Society-USA list was used to score major DRMs. The Stanford algorithm was used to predict drug susceptibility. HIV-1 sequences were generated for 142 participants who virologically failed ART, of whom 70% carried ≥1 DRM and 49% had dual-class resistance, with an average of 2.4 DRMs per sequence (range, 1-8). The most common DRMs were M184V (53.5%), K103N (28.9%), Y181C (15.5%), and G190A (14.1%). Thymidine analogue mutations were present in 8.5%. K65R was frequently selected by stavudine (15.0%) or tenofovir (27.7%). Among participants with ≥1 DRM, HIV-1 susceptibility was reduced in 93% for efavirenz/nevirapine, in 81% for lamivudine/emtricitabine, in 59% for etravirine/rilpivirine, in 27% for tenofovir, in 18% for stavudine, and in 10% for zidovudine. Early failure detection limited the accumulation of resistance. After stavudine failure in African populations, zidovudine rather than tenofovir may be preferred in second-line ART. Strategies to prevent HIV-1 resistance are a global priority.

  8. Revealing the surface pattern of medieval pattern welded iron objects - etching tests conducted on reconstructed composites

    Thiele, Á.; Hošek, Jiří; Haramza, M.; Török, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2014), s. 18-24 ISSN 1805-7241 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2289 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : etching * pattern welding * phosphoric iron * archaeometallurgy Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  9. Commissioning status of the decelerator test beam line in CTF3

    Adli, E; Lillestol, R; Olvegaard, M; Syratchev, I; Carrillo, D; Toral, F; Faus-Golfe, A; Garcia-Garrigos, J J; Kubyshin, Y; Montoro, G

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN was constructed by the CTF3 collaboration to study the feasibility of the concepts for a compact linear collider. The test beam line (TBL) recently added to the CTF3 machine was designed to study the CLIC decelerator beam dynamics and 12 GHz power production. The beam line consists of a FODO lattice with high precision BPM’s and quadrupoles on movers for precise beam alignment. A total of 16 Power Extraction and Transfer Structures (PETS) will be installed in between the quadrupoles to extract 12 GHz power from the drive beam provided by the CTF3 machine. The CTF3 drive beam with a bunch-train length of 140 ns, 12 GHz bunch repetition frequency and an average current over the train of up to 28 A will be injected into the test beam line. Each PETS structure will produce 135 MW of 12 GHz power at nominal current. The beam will have lost more than 50 % of its initial energy of 150 MeV at the end of the beam line and will contain particles with energies between 65 MeV and 1...

  10. Pattern Generator for Bench Test of Digital Boards

    Berkun, Andrew C.; Chu, Anhua J.

    2012-01-01

    All efforts to develop electronic equipment reach a stage where they need a board test station for each board. The SMAP digital system consists of three board types that interact with each other using interfaces with critical timing. Each board needs to be tested individually before combining into the integrated digital electronics system. Each board needs critical timing signals from the others to be able to operate. A bench test system was developed to support test of each board. The test system produces all the outputs of the control and timing unit, and is delivered much earlier than the timing unit. Timing signals are treated as data. A large file is generated containing the state of every timing signal at any instant. This file is streamed out to an IO card, which is wired directly to the device-under-test (DUT) input pins. This provides a flexible test environment that can be adapted to any of the boards required to test in a standalone configuration. The problem of generating the critical timing signals is then transferred from a hardware problem to a software problem where it is more easily dealt with.

  11. T-DNA integration patterns in transgenic maize lines mediated by ...

    These results demonstrate that cleavage occurs not only during the T-DNA borders but also inside or outside the borders. The border sequences and some inside sequences can be deleted, and filler sequences can be inserted. Illegitimate recombination is a major pattern of T-DNA integration, while some hot spots and ...

  12. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approach for Model-Based Testing of Product Lines

    Stephan Weißleder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Systems tend to become more and more complex. This has a direct impact on system engineering processes. Two of the most important phases in these processes are requirements engineering and quality assurance. Two significant complexity drivers located in these phases are the growing number of product variants that have to be integrated into the requirements engineering and the ever growing effort for manual test design. There are modeling techniques to deal with both complexity drivers like, e.g., feature modeling and model-based test design. Their combination, however, has been seldom the focus of investigation. In this paper, we present two approaches to combine feature modeling and model-based testing as an efficient quality assurance technique for product lines. We present the corresponding difficulties and approaches to overcome them. All explanations are supported by an example of an online shop product line.

  13. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-KV Transmission Line

    Lee, Jack Monroe, Jr.

    There is ongoing controversy about the possibility of adverse biological effects from environmental exposures to electric and magnetic fields. These fields are produced by all electrical equipment and appliances including electrical transmission lines. The objective of this environmental science study was to investigate the possible effects of a high voltage transmission line on domestic sheep (Ovis aries L.), a species that can often be found near such lines. The study was primarily designed to determine whether a specific effect of electric and magnetic fields found in laboratory animals also occurs in livestock under natural environmental conditions. The effect is the ability of fields, at levels found in the environment, to significantly depress the normally high nocturnal concentrations of the pineal hormone-melatonin. Ten female Suffolk lambs were penned for 10 months directly beneath a 500-kV transmission line near Estacada, Oregon. Ten other lambs of the same type were penned in a control area away from the transmission line where electric and magnetic fields were at ambient levels. Serum melatonin was analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) from 6618 blood samples collected at 0.5 to 3-hour intervals over eight 48-hour periods. Serum progesterone was analyzed by RIA from blood samples collected twice weekly. Serum cortisol was also assayed by RIA from the blood samples collected during the 48-hour samples. Results showed that lambs in both the control and line groups had the typical pattern of melatonin secretion consisting of low daytime and high nighttime serum concentrations. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in melatonin levels, or in the phase or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation. Age at puberty and number of reproductive cycles also did not differ between groups. Serum cortisol showed a circadian rhythm with highest concentrations during the day. There were, however, no differences in cortisol concentrations

  14. Spatio Temporal Expression Pattern of an Insecticidal Gene (cry2A in Transgenic Cotton Lines

    Allah BAKHSH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of transgenic plants with stable, high-level transgene expression is important for the success of crop improvement programs based on genetic engineering. The present study was conducted to evaluate genomic integration and spatio temporal expression of an insecticidal gene (cry2A in pre-existing transgenic lines of cotton. Genomic integration of cry2A was evaluated using various molecular approaches. The expression levels of cry2A were determined at vegetative and reproductive stages of cotton at regular intervals. These lines showed a stable integration of insecticidal gene in advance lines of transgenic cotton whereas gene expression was found variable with at various growth stages as well as in different plant parts throughout the season. The leaves of transgenic cotton were found to have maximum expression of cry2A gene followed by squares, bolls, anthers and petals. The protein level in fruiting part was less as compared to other parts showing inconsistency in gene expression. It was concluded that for culturing of transgenic crops, strategies should be developed to ensure the foreign genes expression efficient, consistent and in a predictable manner.

  15. The use of safeguards data for process monitoring in the Advanced Test Line for Actinide Separations

    Barnes, J.W.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Los Alamos is constructing an integrated process monitoring/materials control and accounting (PM/MC and A) system in the Advanced Testing Line for Actinide Separations (ATLAS) at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The ATLAS will test and demonstrate new methods for aqueous processing of plutonium. The ATLAS will also develop, test, and demonstrate the concepts for integrated process monitoring/materials control and accounting. We describe how this integrated PM/MC and A system will function and provide benefits to both process research and materials accounting personnel

  16. Resist Parameter Extraction from Line-and-Space Patterns of Chemically Amplified Resist for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Itani, Toshiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2010-11-01

    The development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has progressed owing to worldwide effort. As the development status of EUV lithography approaches the requirements for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices with a minimum line width of 22 nm, the extraction of resist parameters becomes increasingly important from the viewpoints of the accurate evaluation of resist materials for resist screening and the accurate process simulation for process and mask designs. In this study, we demonstrated that resist parameters (namely, quencher concentration, acid diffusion constant, proportionality constant of line edge roughness, and dissolution point) can be extracted from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of patterned resists without the knowledge on the details of resist contents using two types of latest EUV resist.

  17. Time Resolved Spectrometry on the Test Beam Line at CTF3

    Olvegård, M; Lefèvre, T; Döbert, S; Adli, E

    2009-01-01

    The CTF3 provides a high current (28 A) high frequency (12 GHz) electron beam, which is used to generate high power radiofrequency pulses at 12 GHz by decelerating the electrons in resonant structures. A Test Beam Line (TBL) is currently being built in order to prove the efficiency and the reliability of the RF power production with the lowest level of particle losses. As the beam propagates along the line, its energy spread grows up to 60%. For instrumentation, this unusual characteristic implies the development of new and innovative techniques. One of the most important tasks is to measure the beam energy spread with a fast time resolution. The detector must be able to detect the energy transient due to beam loading in the decelerating structures (nanosecond) but should also be capable to measure bunch-to-bunch fluctuations (12 GHz). This paper presents the design of the spectrometer line detectors.

  18. Automatic test pattern generation for stuck-at and delay faults in combinational circuits

    Kim, Dae Sik

    1998-02-01

    The present studies are developed to propose the automatic test pattern generation (ATG) algorithms for combinational circuits. These ATG algorithms are realized in two ATG programs: One is the ATG program for stuck-at fault and the other one for delay faults. In order to accelerate the ATG process, these two ATG programs have a common feature (the search method based on the concept of the degree of freedom), whereas only ATG program for the delay fault utilizes the 19-valued logic, a type of composite valued logic. This difference between two ATG programs results from the difference of the target fault. Accelerating the ATG process is indispensable for improving the ATG algorithms. This acceleration is mainly achieved by reducing the number of the unnecessary backtrackings, making the earlier detection of the conflicts, and shortening the computation time between the implication. Because of this purpose, the developed ATG programs include the new search method based on the concept of the degree of freedom (DF). The DF concept, computed directly and easily from the system descriptions such as types of gates and their interconnections, is the criterion to decide which, among several alternate lines' logic values required along each path, promises to be the most effective in order to accelerate and improve the ATG process. This DF concept is utilized to develop and improve both of ATG programs for stuck-at and delay faults in combinational circuits. In addition to improving the ATG process, reducing number of test pattern is indispensable for testing the delay faults because the size of the delay faults grows rapidly as increasing the size of the circuit. In order to improve the compactness of the test set, 19-valued logic are derived. Unlike other TG logic systems, 19-valued logic is utilized to generate the robustly hazard-free test pattern. This is achieved by using the basic 5-valued logic, proposed in this work, where the transition with no hazard is

  19. 3D-shape of objects with straight line-motion by simultaneous projection of color coded patterns

    Flores, Jorge L.; Ayubi, Gaston A.; Di Martino, J. Matías; Castillo, Oscar E.; Ferrari, Jose A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we propose a novel technique to retrieve the 3D shape of dynamic objects by the simultaneous projection of a fringe pattern and a homogeneous light pattern which are both coded in two of the color channels of a RGB image. The fringe pattern, red channel, is used to retrieve the phase by phase-shift algorithms with arbitrary phase-step, while the homogeneous pattern, blue channel, is used to match pixels from the test object in consecutive images, which are acquired at different positions, and thus, to determine the speed of the object. The proposed method successfully overcomes the standard requirement of projecting fringes of two different frequencies; one frequency to extract object information and the other one to retrieve the phase. Validation experiments are presented.

  20. On-line test of power distribution prediction system for boiling water reactors

    Nishizawa, Y.; Kiguchi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Takumi, K.; Tanaka, H.; Tsutsumi, R.; Yokomi, M.

    1982-01-01

    A power distribution prediction system for boiling water reactors has been developed and its on-line performance test has proceeded at an operating commercial reactor. This system predicts the power distribution or thermal margin in advance of control rod operations and core flow rate change. This system consists of an on-line computer system, an operator's console with a color cathode-ray tube, and plant data input devices. The main functions of this system are present power distribution monitoring, power distribution prediction, and power-up trajectory prediction. The calculation method is based on a simplified nuclear thermal-hydraulic calculation, which is combined with a method of model identification to the actual reactor core state. It has been ascertained by the on-line test that the predicted power distribution (readings of traversing in-core probe) agrees with the measured data within 6% root-mean-square. The computing time required for one prediction calculation step is less than or equal to 1.5 min by an HIDIC-80 on-line computer

  1. Evaluation of MGIT 960 System for the Second-Line Drugs Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Hyejin Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many laboratories validate DST of the second-line drugs by BACTEC MGIT 960 system. The objective of this study is to evaluate the critical concentration and perform DST for the 2nd line drugs. We evaluated 193 clinical strains of M. tuberculosis isolated from patients in South Korea. Testing the critical concentration of six second-line drugs was performed by MGIT 960 and compared with L-J proportion method. The critical concentration was determined to establish the most one that gave the difference between drug resistance and susceptibility in MGIT960 system. Good agreement of the following concentrations was found: Concordance was 95% for 0.5 μg/mL of moxifloxacin; 93.6%, 1.0 μg/mL of levofloxacin; 97.5%, 2.5 μg/mL of kanamycin; 90.6%, 2.5 μg/mL of capreomycin; 86.2%, 5.0 μg/mL of ethionamide; and 90.8%, 2.0 μg/mL of ρ-aminosalicylic acid. The critical concentrations of the four drugs, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, kanamycin, and capreomycin, were concordant and reliable for testing 2nd line drug resistance. Further study of ethionamide and ρ-aminosalicylic acid is required.

  2. Patterns of Signs That Telephone Crisis Support Workers Associate with Suicide Risk in Telephone Crisis Line Callers.

    Hunt, Tara; Wilson, Coralie; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan

    2018-01-30

    Signs of suicide are commonly used in suicide intervention training to assist the identification of those at imminent risk for suicide. Signs of suicide may be particularly important to telephone crisis-line workers (TCWs), who have little background information to identify the presence of suicidality if the caller is unable or unwilling to express suicidal intent. Although signs of suicide are argued to be only meaningful as a pattern, there is a paucity of research that has examined whether TCWs use patterns of signs to decide whether a caller might be suicidal, and whether these are influenced by caller characteristics such as gender. The current study explored both possibilities. Data were collected using an online self-report survey in a Australian sample of 137 TCWs. Exploratory factor analysis uncovered three patterns of suicide signs that TCWs may use to identify if a caller might be at risk for suicide (mood, hopelessness, and anger), which were qualitatively different for male and female callers. These findings suggest that TCWs may recognise specific patterns of signs to identify suicide risk, which appear to be influenced to some extent by the callers' inferred gender. Implications for the training of telephone crisis workers and others including mental-health and medical professionals, as well as and future research in suicide prevention are discussed.

  3. Seed coat color, weight and eye pattern inheritance in gamma-rays induced cowpea M2-mutant line

    Reda M. Gaafar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gamma radiation is a very effective tool for inducing genetic variation in characters of many plants. Black seeds of M2 mutant were obtained after exposure of an Egyptian cowpea cultivar (Kaha 1 to a low dose of gamma rays. Segregation of seed coat color, weight of 100 seeds and seed eye pattern of the black seeds of this mutant line were further examined in this study. Four colors were observed for seed coat in the M3 plants ranging from cream to reddish brown and three eye patterns were distinguished from each other. SDS–PAGE of the seed storage proteins showed 18 protein bands; five of these bands disappeared in the seeds of M3 plants compared to M2 and M0 controls while other 5 protein bands were specifically observed in seeds of M3 plants. PCR analysis using twelve ISSR primers showed 47 polymorphic and 8 unique amplicons. The eight unique amplicons were characteristic of the cream coat color and brown wide eye pattern (M03-G10 while the polymorphic bands were shared by 6 coat-color groups. A PCR fragment of 850 bp was amplified, using primer HB-12, in M3-G04 which showed high-100 seed weight. These results demonstrated the mutagenic effects of gamma rays on seed coat color, weight of 100 seeds and eye pattern of cowpea M3 mutant plants.

  4. Printing line/space patterns on nonplanar substrates using a digital micromirror device-based point-array scanning technique

    Kuo, Hung-Fei; Kao, Guan-Hsuan; Zhu, Liang-Xiu; Hung, Kuo-Shu; Lin, Yu-Hsin

    2018-02-01

    This study used a digital micromirror device (DMD) to produce point-array patterns and employed a self-developed optical system to define line-and-space patterns on nonplanar substrates. First, field tracing was employed to analyze the aerial images of the lithographic system, which comprised an optical system and the DMD. Multiobjective particle swarm optimization was then applied to determine the spot overlapping rate used. The objective functions were set to minimize linewidth and maximize image log slope, through which the dose of the exposure agent could be effectively controlled and the quality of the nonplanar lithography could be enhanced. Laser beams with 405-nm wavelength were employed as the light source. Silicon substrates coated with photoresist were placed on a nonplanar translation stage. The DMD was used to produce lithographic patterns, during which the parameters were analyzed and optimized. The optimal delay time-sequence combinations were used to scan images of the patterns. Finally, an exposure linewidth of less than 10 μm was successfully achieved using the nonplanar lithographic process.

  5. Testing the Kerr black hole hypothesis: Comparison between the gravitational wave and the iron line approaches

    Cárdenas-Avendaño, Alejandro [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Programa de Matemática, Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz, 110231 Bogotá (Colombia); Jiang, Jiachen [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard-Karls Universität Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2016-09-10

    The recent announcement of the detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration has opened a new window to test the nature of astrophysical black holes. Konoplya & Zhidenko have shown how the LIGO data of GW 150914 can constrain possible deviations from the Kerr metric. In this letter, we compare their constraints with those that can be obtained from accreting black holes by fitting their X-ray reflection spectrum, the so-called iron line method. We simulate observations with eXTP, a next generation X-ray mission, finding constraints much stronger than those obtained by Konoplya & Zhidenko. Our results can at least show that, contrary to what is quite commonly believed, it is not obvious that gravitational waves are the most powerful approach to test strong gravity. In the presence of high quality data and with the systematics under control, the iron line method may provide competitive constraints.

  6. A Studentized Permutation Test for the Comparison of Spatial Point Patterns

    Hahn, Ute

    of empirical K-functions are compared by a permutation test using a studentized test statistic. The proposed test performs convincingly in terms of empirical level and power in a simulation study, even for point patterns where the K-function estimates on neighboring subsamples are not strictly exchangeable....... It also shows improved behavior compared to a test suggested by Diggle et al. (1991, 2000) for the comparison of groups of independently replicated point patterns. In an application to two point patterns from pathology that represent capillary positions in sections of healthy and tumorous tissue, our...

  7. Development of the automatic test pattern generation for NPP digital electronic circuits using the degree of freedom concept

    Kim, D.S.; Seong, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, an improved algorithm for automatic test pattern generation (ATG) for nuclear power plant digital electronic circuits--the combinational type of logic circuits is presented. For accelerating and improving the ATG process for combinational circuits the presented ATG algorithm has the new concept--the degree of freedom (DF). The DF, directly computed from the system descriptions such as types of gates and their interconnections, is the criterion to decide which among several alternate lines' logic values required along each path promises to be the most effective in order to accelerate and improve the ATG process. Based on the DF the proposed ATG algorithm is implemented in the automatic fault diagnosis system (AFDS) which incorporates the advanced fault diagnosis method of artificial intelligence technique, it is shown that the AFDS using the ATG algorithm makes Universal Card (UV Card) testing much faster than the present testing practice or by using exhaustive testing sets

  8. The study of CD side to side error in line/space pattern caused by post-exposure bake effect

    Huang, Jin; Guo, Eric; Ge, Haiming; Lu, Max; Wu, Yijun; Tian, Mingjing; Yan, Shichuan; Wang, Ran

    2016-10-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, as the design rule has decreased, the ITRS roadmap requires crucial tighter critical dimension (CD) control. CD uniformity is one of the necessary parameters to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit (IC) [1] [2], and towards the advanced technology nodes, it is a challenge to control CD uniformity well. The study of corresponding CD Uniformity by tuning Post-Exposure bake (PEB) and develop process has some significant progress[3], but CD side to side error happening to some line/space pattern are still found in practical application, and the error has approached to over the uniformity tolerance. After details analysis, even though use several developer types, the CD side to side error has not been found significant relationship to the developing. In addition, it is impossible to correct the CD side to side error by electron beam correction as such error does not appear in all Line/Space pattern masks. In this paper the root cause of CD side to side error is analyzed and the PEB module process are optimized as a main factor for improvement of CD side to side error.

  9. Scanning electron microscope measurement of width and shape of 10 nm patterned lines using a JMONSEL-modeled library

    Villarrubia, J.S., E-mail: john.villarrubia@nist.gov [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Vladár, A.E.; Ming, B. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Kline, R.J.; Sunday, D.F. [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Chawla, J.S.; List, S. [Intel Corporation, RA3-252, 5200 NE Elam Young Pkwy, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The width and shape of 10 nm to 12 nm wide lithographically patterned SiO{sub 2} lines were measured in the scanning electron microscope by fitting the measured intensity vs. position to a physics-based model in which the lines' widths and shapes are parameters. The approximately 32 nm pitch sample was patterned at Intel using a state-of-the-art pitch quartering process. Their narrow widths and asymmetrical shapes are representative of near-future generation transistor gates. These pose a challenge: the narrowness because electrons landing near one edge may scatter out of the other, so that the intensity profile at each edge becomes width-dependent, and the asymmetry because the shape requires more parameters to describe and measure. Modeling was performed by JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo Simulation of Secondary Electrons), which produces a predicted yield vs. position for a given sample shape and composition. The simulator produces a library of predicted profiles for varying sample geometry. Shape parameter values are adjusted until interpolation of the library with those values best matches the measured image. Profiles thereby determined agreed with those determined by transmission electron microscopy and critical dimension small-angle x-ray scattering to better than 1 nm.

  10. Scanning electron microscope measurement of width and shape of 10nm patterned lines using a JMONSEL-modeled library.

    Villarrubia, J S; Vladár, A E; Ming, B; Kline, R J; Sunday, D F; Chawla, J S; List, S

    2015-07-01

    The width and shape of 10nm to 12 nm wide lithographically patterned SiO2 lines were measured in the scanning electron microscope by fitting the measured intensity vs. position to a physics-based model in which the lines' widths and shapes are parameters. The approximately 32 nm pitch sample was patterned at Intel using a state-of-the-art pitch quartering process. Their narrow widths and asymmetrical shapes are representative of near-future generation transistor gates. These pose a challenge: the narrowness because electrons landing near one edge may scatter out of the other, so that the intensity profile at each edge becomes width-dependent, and the asymmetry because the shape requires more parameters to describe and measure. Modeling was performed by JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo Simulation of Secondary Electrons), which produces a predicted yield vs. position for a given sample shape and composition. The simulator produces a library of predicted profiles for varying sample geometry. Shape parameter values are adjusted until interpolation of the library with those values best matches the measured image. Profiles thereby determined agreed with those determined by transmission electron microscopy and critical dimension small-angle x-ray scattering to better than 1 nm. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Development and calibration of an on-line aerosol monitor for PHEBUS test FPT1

    O'Brien, J.E.; Carmack, W.J.; Sprenger, M.H.; Thurston, G.C.; Hunt, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    An on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM2) has been developed and tested for PHEBUS test FPT1. OLAM2 utilizes new detachable fiber optic cables and sapphire light pipes for light transmission between the OLAM and the electronics. This light transmission system was tested and found to provide better signal-to-noise performance than was achieved with the continuous fibers used for test FPT0. An additional advantage of the detachable fiber/light pipe system is ease of installation. Aerosol testing (OLAM calibration) was performed in order to verify adequate signal-to-noise performance of the new fiber optic system over the specified operating conditions and to check the quantitative light attenuation measurements against theoretical predictions. Results of the testing indicated that light extinction measurements obtained during Phebus tests could be used to estimate aerosol volume concentrations, if diamond window fouling can be avoided. OLAM2 was also subjected to a proof pressure test and a long-term thermal stability test. These tests verified the mechanical and thermal integrity of the OLAM within design specifications. Long-term output signal stability was also verified with the system maintained at design temperature and half-design pressure

  12. Closely related glycosylation patterns of recombinant human IL-2 expressed in a CHO cell line and natural IL-2

    Vita, N.; Magazin, M.; Marchese, E.; Lupker, J.; Ferrara, P.

    1990-01-01

    We report here the study of the glycosylation pattern of human recombinant (r) IL2 expressed in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. The human rIL2 secreted by this high-producing recombinant CHO cell line was metabolically radiolabelled with [35S]-methionine, or with [3H]-glucosamine and [3H]-galactose, purified to homogeneity, and then characterized. The electrophoretic analysis of the [35S]-methionine-labelled proteins present in the culture medium of the CHO cell line showed that the rIL2 represents approximately 12% of the total secreted proteins. Furthermore, pulse-chase experiments showed that the glycosylated rIL2 is synthesized and secreted within 30 min. The point of attachment and the structure of the carbohydrate moiety of the rIL2 was determined by: amino-terminal sequencing and fingerprint analysis of the 3H-labelled rIL2, mass spectroscopy of the amino-terminal tryptic octapeptide, and carbohydrate analysis after enzymatic (Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase and Aspergillus oryzae beta-galactosidase) or sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The results indicate that the recombinant protein possesses a sugar moiety O-linked to the threonine residue at position 3 of the polypeptide chain, and that sialic acid, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine are components of this carbohydrate moiety. Taken together these results suggest that the recombinant molecule is identical to natural IL2

  13. SSME Seal Test Program: Test results for sawtooth pattern damper seal

    Childs, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    Direct and transverse force coefficients for 11, sawtooth-pattern, and damper-seal configurations were examined. The designation damper seal uses a deliberately roughened stator and smooth rotor to increase the net damping force developed by a seal. The designation sawtooth-pattern refers to a stator roughness pattern. The sawtooth pattern yields axial grooves in the stator which are interrupted by spacer elements which act as flow constrictions or dams. All seals use the same smooth rotor and have the same, constant, minimum clearance. The stators examined the consequences of changes in the following design parameters: (1) axial-groove depth; (2) number of teeth: (3) number of sawtooth sections; (4) number of spacer elements; (5) dam width; (6) axially aligned sawtooth sections versus axially-staggered sawtooth sections; and (7) groove geometry. It is found that none of the sawtooth-pattern seal performs as well as the best round-hole-pattern seal. Maximum damping configurations for the sawtooth and round-hole-pattern stators have comparable stiffness performance. Several of the sawtooth pattern stators outperformed the best round-hole pattern seal.

  14. Line scan micro XRF analysis of engobe of whiteware painted with red, green and yellow patterns

    Yang Yimin; Wang Lihua; Zhu Jian; Wang Changsui; Yan Yan; Chen Dongliang; He Wei; Huang Yuying; Hua Wei; Xu Wei

    2008-01-01

    Whiteware painted with red, green and yellow patterns play an important role in China's development in glaze decoration. In this paper, cross-sections of the porcelain samples were scanned from glaze to body by synchrotron radiation and element contents of the samples were analyzed by SRXRF. The results revealed a transition between the glaze and engobe, and the engobe and body. In the transition area, elemental content changes were related to the raw material to form the glaze, engobe and body, and diffusing ability of the elements depended on thickness of the glaze and the elemental contents of each layer. The engobe had lower Fe and Ti concentrations than the body, hence improving the whiteness and quality of the porcelain. According to petrography, engobe was rich in mica minerals, leading to enhanced reflection effect of the white porcelain. This has not been reported before and further studies are underway. (authors)

  15. Health information exchange technology on the front lines of healthcare: workflow factors and patterns of use

    Johnson, Kevin B; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of how a health information exchange (HIE) fits into clinical workflow at multiple clinical sites. Materials and Methods The ethnographic qualitative study was conducted over a 9-month period in six emergency departments (ED) and eight ambulatory clinics in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Data were collected using direct observation, informal interviews during observation, and formal semi-structured interviews. The authors observed for over 180 h, during which providers used the exchange 130 times. Results HIE-related workflow was modeled for each ED site and ambulatory clinic group and substantial site-to-site workflow differences were identified. Common patterns in HIE-related workflow were also identified across all sites, leading to the development of two role-based workflow models: nurse based and physician based. The workflow elements framework was applied to the two role-based patterns. An in-depth description was developed of how providers integrated HIE into existing clinical workflow, including prompts for HIE use. Discussion Workflow differed substantially among sites, but two general role-based HIE usage models were identified. Although providers used HIE to improve continuity of patient care, patient–provider trust played a significant role. Types of information retrieved related to roles, with nurses seeking to retrieve recent hospitalization data and more open-ended usage by nurse practitioners and physicians. User and role-specific customization to accommodate differences in workflow and information needs may increase the adoption and use of HIE. Conclusion Understanding end users' perspectives towards HIE technology is crucial to the long-term success of HIE. By applying qualitative methods, an in-depth understanding of HIE usage was developed. PMID:22003156

  16. Design and initial tests of beam current monitoring systems for the APS transport lines

    Wang, Xucheng.

    1992-01-01

    The non-intercepting beam current monitoring systems suitable for a wide, range of beam parameters have been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines and high energy transport line. The positron or electron beam pulse in the transport lines wig have peak beam currents ranging from 8 mA to 29 A with pulse widths varying from 120 ps to 30 ns and pulse repetition rates from 2 Hz to 60 Hz. The peak beam current or total beam charge is measured with the fast or integrating current transformer, respectively, manufactured by Bergoz. In-house high speed beam signal processing electronics provide a DC level output proportional to the peak current or total charge for the digitizer input. The prototype systems were tested on the linacs which have beam pulse structures similar to that of the APS transport lines. This paper describes the design of beam signal processing electronics and grounding and shielding methods for current transformers. The results of the initial operations are presented. A short introduction on the preliminary design of current monitoring systems for the APS rings is also included

  17. Advanced power cycling test for power module with on-line on-state VCE measurement

    Choi, Ui-min; Trintis, Ionut; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    module. The proposed concept can perform various stress conditions which is valid in a real mission profile and it is using a real power converter application with small loss. The concept of the proposed test setup is first presented. Then, the on-line on-state collector-emitter voltage VCE measurement......Recent research has made an effort to improve the reliability of power electronic systems to comply with more stringent constraints on cost, safety, predicted lifetime and availability in many applications. For this, studies about failure mechanisms of power electronic components and lifetime...... estimation of power semiconductor devices and capacitors have been done. Accelerated power cycling test is one of the common tests to assess the power device module and develop the lifetime model considering the physics of failure. In this paper, a new advanced power cycling test setup is proposed for power...

  18. Thin blue lines: product placement and the drama of pregnancy testing in British cinema and television.

    Olszynko-Gryn, Jesse

    2017-09-01

    This article uses the case of pregnancy testing in Britain to investigate the process whereby new and often controversial reproductive technologies are made visible and normalized in mainstream entertainment media. It shows how in the 1980s and 1990s the then nascent product placement industry was instrumental in embedding pregnancy testing in British cinema and television's dramatic productions. In this period, the pregnancy-test close-up became a conventional trope and the thin blue lines associated with Unilever's Clearblue rose to prominence in mainstream consumer culture. This article investigates the aestheticization of pregnancy testing and shows how increasingly visible public concerns about 'schoolgirl mums', abortion and the biological clock, dramatized on the big and small screen, propelled the commercial rise of Clearblue. It argues that the Clearblue close-up ambiguously concealed as much as it revealed; abstraction, ambiguity and flexibility were its keys to success.

  19. Overview and Example Test Results of Modern Pilot Schemes for Coordination of Line Distance Protection Relays

    Emil Bartosiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a short review of pilot schemes which are available in modern line distance protection relays, and example results of common pilot scheme tests with the testing methods description. Some differences in implementations of selected pilot schemes have been shown for comparison reasons. Distance protection coordination functions have been tested for GE Multilin UR series devices. Every type of available pilot scheme has been checked in synthetic tests and during the real coordination between D60 and D90Plus devices. For the POTT scheme, coordination between two L90 protections has been carried out by a sort of available different data communication link types, for comparison reasons too.

  20. Successful beam test of the SPS-to-LHC transfer line TI2

    2007-01-01

    Image of the first beam spot on the last BTV screen traversed by the beam during the TI 2 test.At 12:03:47 on 28 October a beam passed down the 2.7 km of the new SPS-to-LHC transfer line TI 2 at the first attempt, to within some 50 m of the LHC tunnel. After initial tuning, a range of measurements was carried out with a low intensity proton beam and preliminary analyses look good. After the test, no increase in radiation levels was found in either the LHC or ALICE, and the zones were rapidly opened again for access. As from next year TI 2 will regularly transport a beam from the SPS to the LHC injection point of Ring 1, near Point 2 (ALICE). The TI 8 transfer line, which will bring particles from the SPS to the injection point in Ring 2, near Point 8 (LHCb), was commissioned successfully with low intensity beam in 2004. The two LHC injection lines have a combined length of 5.6 km and comprise some seven hundred warm magnets. While a...

  1. 'Fluorescent Cell Chip' for immunotoxicity testing: Development of the c-fos expression reporter cell lines

    Trzaska, Dominika; Zembek, Patrycja; Olszewski, Maciej; Adamczewska, Violetta; Ulleras, Erik; Dastych, JarosIaw

    2005-01-01

    The Fluorescent Cell Chip for in vitro immunotoxicity testing employs cell lines derived from lymphocytes, mast cells, and monocytes-macrophages transfected with various EGFP cytokine reporter gene constructs. While cytokine expression is a valid endpoint for in vitro immunotoxicity screening, additional marker for the immediate-early response gene expression level could be of interest for further development and refinement of the Fluorescent Cell Chip. We have used BW.5147.3 murine thymoma transfected with c-fos reporter constructs to obtain reporter cell lines expressing ECFP under the control of murine c-fos promoter. These cells upon serum withdrawal and readdition and incubation with heavy metal compounds showed paralleled induction of c-Fos expression as evidenced by Real-Time PCR and ECFP fluorescence as evidenced by computer-supported fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, we developed fluorescent reporter cell lines that could be employed in a simple and time-efficient screening assay for possible action of chemicals on c-Fos expression in lymphocytes. The evaluation of usefulness of these cells for the Fluorescent Cell Chip-based detection of immunotoxicity will require additional testing with a larger number of chemicals

  2. 40 CFR 1051.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line vehicles or engines?

    2010-07-01

    ... production-line vehicles or engines? 1051.305 Section 1051.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.305 How must I prepare and test my production...

  3. Development of real-time on-line vibration testing system for seismic experiments

    Horiuchi, T.; Nakagawa, M.; Kametani, M.

    1993-01-01

    An on-line vibration testing method is being developed for seismic experiments. This method combines computer simulation and an actuator for vibration testing of structures. A real-time, on-line testing system was developed to improve the method. In the system, the timing of the vibration testing and the computer simulation are the same. This allows time-dependent reaction forces, such as damping force, to be immediately considered in the computer simulation. The real-time system has many requirements, such as complicated matrix calculations within a small time step, and communication with outer devices like sensors and actuators through A/D and D/A converters. These functions arc accomplished by using a newly-developed, real-time controller that employs a parallel processing technique. A small structural model is used to demonstrate the system. The reliability and applicability of the system for seismic experiments can be demonstrated by comparing the results of the system and a shaking table, which are in almost agreement. (author)

  4. Effects of Analytical and Holistic Scoring Patterns on Scorer Reliability in Biology Essay Tests

    Ebuoh, Casmir N.

    2018-01-01

    Literature revealed that the patterns/methods of scoring essay tests had been criticized for not being reliable and this unreliability is more likely to be more in internal examinations than in the external examinations. The purpose of this study is to find out the effects of analytical and holistic scoring patterns on scorer reliability in…

  5. Reliability and normative values of the foot line test: a technique to assess foot posture

    Brushøj, C; Larsen, Klaus; Nielsen, MB

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerable...... limitations regarding reliability and validity. METHODS: One hundred thirty subjects with mean foot size 44 (41-50 European size) participated. Two examiners, blinded to each other's measurements, measured the right foot of the subjects twice and the left foot once. The position of the most medial aspect...... of the navicular in the mediolateral direction was projected vertically onto a piece of paper placed under the subject's foot, and compared to the position of the forefoot and hindfoot to obtain the FLT value. RESULTS: FLT values ranged from -8 to 14 mm, with a mean (+/-SD) of 3.7 +/- 3.4 mm. The intratester...

  6. The stripping foil test stand in the Linac4 transfer line

    Weterings, W; Noulibos, R; Sillanoli, Y; van Trappen, P

    2015-01-01

    The 160 MeV H− beam from the Linac4 (L4) linear accelerator at CERN will be injected into the proton synchrotron booster (PSB) with a new H− charge-exchange injection system. It will include a stripping foil, to convert H− into protons by stripping off the electrons. To gain experience with these very fragile foils, prior to the installation in the PSB, and test different foil materials and thicknesses, lifetimes of the foils, the foil changing mechanism and interlocking functions, a stripping foil test stand will be installed in the L4 transfer line in 2015. This paper describes the mechanical design of the system and discusses the test possibilities and parameters.

  7. The stripping foil test stand in the Linac4 transfer line

    Weterings, W.; Bracco, C.; Noulibos, R.; Sillanoli, Y.; Trappen van, P.

    2015-01-01

    The 160 MeV H - beam from the Linac4 (L4) linear accelerator at CERN will be injected into the proton synchrotron booster (PSB) with a new H - charge-exchange injection system. It will include a stripping foil, to convert H - into protons by stripping off the electrons. To gain experience with these very fragile foils, prior to the installation in the PSB, and test different foil materials and thicknesses, lifetimes of the foils, the foil changing mechanism and interlocking functions, a stripping foil test stand will be installed in the L4 transfer line in 2015. This paper describes the mechanical design of the system and discusses the test possibilities and parameters. (author)

  8. Development of data acquisition and control system for ICH & CD transmission line components test facility

    Patel, Manoj, E-mail: manoj.patel@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Jha, Akhil [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Patel, Nidhi [Department of Instrumentation & Control Engineering, Dharmsinh Desai University, Nadiad 387001, Gujarat (India); Krishna, J.V.S. Hari; Rajnish, Kumar; Soni, Dipal; Verma, Sriprakash; Patel, Hriday; Trivedi, Rajesh; Mukherjee, Aparajita [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Traveling Wave Resonator (TWR) gain achieved is 13.58 dB using 10 dB coupler. • Software module for Automatic calibration for power detector is developed and integrated. • Application module is developed using LabVIEW™ for high power RF operation of TWR. - Abstarct: India is developing a very high power test bed (∼MW level) based on concept of Travelling Wave Resonator (TWR) for testing of passive transmission line components [3]. Data acquisition and control system is required for safe and reliable operation of TWR. It includes online monitoring of input power and circulating ring power. Acquired RF signal provides information about forward and reflected RF power. For MW power level testing, system is protected against arc and thermal effect during CW operation. National Instrument make hardware and software have been used to acquire signals from RF detector, Arc detectors, IR camera and thermocouples etc. LabVIEW™ based software has been developed for calculation of RF parameters. Graphical user interface is developed for better visualization. Initial testing of the TWR setup with 10 dB coupler provides a power gain of 13.58 dB (22X). For future 3 MW TWR test bed the required power gain is ∼20 dB (100X) since the available source is ∼40 kW. This paper describes the detail design and integrated test results for data acquisition and control system for TWR test bed.

  9. A comparison of paper-and-pencil and computerized forms of Line Orientation and Enhanced Cued Recall Tests.

    Aşkar, Petek; Altun, Arif; Cangöz, Banu; Cevik, Vildan; Kaya, Galip; Türksoy, Hasan

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether a computerized battery of neuropsychological tests could produce similar results as the conventional forms. Comparisons on 77 volunteer undergraduates were carried out with two neuropsychological tests: Line Orientation Test and Enhanced Cued Recall Test. Firstly, students were assigned randomly across the test medium (paper-and-pencil versus computerized). Secondly, the groups were given the same test in the other medium after a 30-day interval between tests. Results showed that the Enhanced Cued Recall Test-Computer-based did not correlate with the Enhanced Cued Recall Test-Paper-and-pencil results. Line Orientation Test-Computer-based scores, on the other hand, did correlate significantly with the Line Orientation Test-Paper-and-pencil version. In both tests, scores were higher on paper-and-pencil tests compared to computer-based tests. Total score difference between modalities was statistically significant for both Enhanced Cued Recall Tests and for the Line Orientation Test. In both computer-based tests, it took less time for participants to complete the tests.

  10. Code Assessment of SPACE 2.19 using LSTF 10% Main Steam-Line-Break Test

    Kim, Minhee; Kim, Seyun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants (SPACE) has been developed in recent years by the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. through collaborative works with other Korean nuclear industries and research institutes. As a result of the development, the 2.19 version of the code was released through the successive various verification and validation works. In this study, results produced by the SPACE 2.19 code were compared with the experimental data from JAERI's LSTF Test Run SBSL- 01 for a 10% main steam line break transient in a pressurized water reactor. The LSTF 10% main steam line break test were simulated using the SPACE 2.19 for code V and V work. The overall comparisons between the SPACE 2.19 code prediction and the LSTF Test Run SB-SL-01 experimental data are reasonably satisfactory. The comparisons were conducted in terms of the variations of mass flow rate, void fraction, pressure, collapsed liquid level, temperature, and system flow rate for the transient. In addition, the input model was modified for simulation accuracy of PZR pressure based on the calculated results. The correction of PORV setpoint affects to simulate the PORV open and close phenomena similarly with experiments. From the modification, the computed results show a reasonable agreement with experimental data in overall transient time.

  11. Proposed particle-beam characterizations for the APS undulator test line

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Borland, M.; Milton, S.

    1993-09-01

    A research and development effort is underway at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to use an rf gun as a low-emittance electron source for injection into the 100- to 650-MeV linac subsystem and subsequently to an undulator test area. This configuration would combine the acceleration capability of the 200-MeV S-band electron linac and the in-line 450-MeV positron linac that normally provide positrons to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). A transport line that bypasses the PAR will bring the electrons to the undulator test area. Characterization techniques will be discussed for the electron beam with a normalized, rms emittance of <10 {pi} mm mrad (1{sigma}) at micropulse charges of up to 350 pC and micropulse durations of {approximately}5 ps (FWHM). Tests proposed include measurement of particle beam transport effects (at one-tenth the storage ring beam rigidity) caused by small undulator field errors as well as operations intended to produce coherent, short wavelength radiation (<200 nm).

  12. An integrated on-line system for the evaluation of ECG patterns with a small process computer

    Schoffa, G.; Eggenberger, O.; Krueger, G.; Karlsruhe Univ.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes an on-line system for ECG processing with a small computer (8K memory) and a magnetic tape cassette for mass storage capable to evaluate 30 ECG patterns in a twelfe lead system per day. The use of a small computer was possible by a compact and easy-to-handle operating system and space-saving programs. The system described was specifically intended for use in smaller hospitals with a low number of ECG's per day which do not allow an economic operation of greater DP installations. The economy calculations, based on the 'Break-even-point method' with special regard to the installations, mainennance and personnel costs already grant an economic operation of a small computer at a rate of 5 ECG's per day. (orig.) [de

  13. Computational fluid dynamics modeling patterns and force characteristics of flow over in-line four square cylinders

    Song Yidan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow over four square cylinders in an in-line, square arrangement was numerically investigated by using the finite volume method with CFD techniques. The working fluid is an incompressible ideal gas. The length of the sides of the array, L, is equal. The analysis is carried out for a Reynolds number of 300, with center-to-center distance ratios, L/D, ranging from 1.5 to 8.0. To fully understand the flow mechanism, details in terms of lift and drag coefficients and Strouhal numbers of the unsteady wake frequencies are analyzed, and the vortex shedding patterns around the four square cylinders are described. It is concluded that L/D has important effects on the drag and lift coefficients, vortex shedding frequencies, and flow field characteristics.

  14. On-line PWR RHR pump performance testing following motor and impeller replacement

    DiMarzo, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    On-line maintenance and replacement of safety-related pumps requires the performance of an inservice test to determine and confirm the operational readiness of the pumps. In 1995, major maintenance was performed on two Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Residual Heat Removal (RHR) Pumps. A refurbished spare motor was overhauled with a new mechanical seal, new motor bearings and equipped with pump's 'B' impeller. The spare was installed into the 'B' train. The motor had never been run in the system before. A pump performance test was developed to verify it's operational readiness and determine the in-situ pump performance curve. Since the unit was operating, emphasis was placed on conducting a highly accurate pump performance test that would ensure that it satisfied the NSSS vendors accident analysis minimum acceptance curve. The design of the RHR System allowed testing of one train while the other was aligned for normal operation. A test flow path was established from the Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST) through the pump (under test) and back to the RWST. This allowed staff to conduct a full flow range pump performance test. Each train was analyzed and an expression developed that included an error vector term for the TDH (ft), pressure (psig), and flow rate (gpm) using the variance error vector methodology. This method allowed the engineers to select a test instrumentation system that would yield accurate readings and minimal measurement errors, for data taken in the measurement of TDH (P,Q) versus Pump Flow Rate (Q). Test results for the 'B' Train showed performance well in excess of the minimum required. The motor that was originally in the 'B' train was similarly overhauled and equipped with 'A' pump's original impeller, re-installed in the 'A' train, and tested. Analysis of the 'A' train results indicate that the RHR pump's performance was also well in excess of the vendors requirements

  15. On-line PWR RHR pump performance testing following motor and impeller replacement

    DiMarzo, J.T.

    1996-12-01

    On-line maintenance and replacement of safety-related pumps requires the performance of an inservice test to determine and confirm the operational readiness of the pumps. In 1995, major maintenance was performed on two Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Residual Heat Removal (RHR) Pumps. A refurbished spare motor was overhauled with a new mechanical seal, new motor bearings and equipped with pump`s `B` impeller. The spare was installed into the `B` train. The motor had never been run in the system before. A pump performance test was developed to verify it`s operational readiness and determine the in-situ pump performance curve. Since the unit was operating, emphasis was placed on conducting a highly accurate pump performance test that would ensure that it satisfied the NSSS vendors accident analysis minimum acceptance curve. The design of the RHR System allowed testing of one train while the other was aligned for normal operation. A test flow path was established from the Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST) through the pump (under test) and back to the RWST. This allowed staff to conduct a full flow range pump performance test. Each train was analyzed and an expression developed that included an error vector term for the TDH (ft), pressure (psig), and flow rate (gpm) using the variance error vector methodology. This method allowed the engineers to select a test instrumentation system that would yield accurate readings and minimal measurement errors, for data taken in the measurement of TDH (P,Q) versus Pump Flow Rate (Q). Test results for the `B` Train showed performance well in excess of the minimum required. The motor that was originally in the `B` train was similarly overhauled and equipped with `A` pump`s original impeller, re-installed in the `A` train, and tested. Analysis of the `A` train results indicate that the RHR pump`s performance was also well in excess of the vendors requirements.

  16. Simulation and measurement of the electrostatic beam kicker in the low-energy undulator test line

    Waldschmidt, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    An electrostatic kicker has been constructed for use in the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The function of the kicker is to limit the amount of beam current to be accelerated by the APS linac. Two electrodes within the kicker create an electric field that adjusts the trajectory of the beam. This paper will explore the static fields that are set up between the offset electrode plates and determine the reaction of the beam to this field. The kicker was numerically simulated using the electromagnetic solver package MAFIA [1

  17. Implementation and Test of On-line Embedded Grid Impedance Estimation for PV-inverters

    Asiminoaei, Lucian; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    to evaluate the grid impedance directly by the PV-inverter, providing a fast and low cost implementation. This principle theoretically provides a correct result of the grid impedance but when using it into the context of PV integration, different implementation issues strongly affect the quality...... of the results. This paper presents a new impedance estimation method including typical implementation problems encountered and it also presents adopted solutions for on-line grid impedance measurement. Practical tests on an existing PV-inverter validate the chosen solutions....

  18. Off-line tests of superconducting resonators of the JAERI tandem booster

    Shibata, Michihiro; Ishii, Tetsuro; Takeuchi, Suehiro

    1993-01-01

    The JAERI tandem booster linac, which consists of 46 superconducting quarter wave resonators, is under construction. Off-line tests for resonators were performed. Accelerating field levels of 7MV/m were obtained at an rf input of 4W with most resonators. A maximum field level of 12.7MV/m was obtained. The Q-value was degraded when resonators were cooled down slowly around a temperature of 120K. We investigated this phenomenon by changing the cooling rate. (author)

  19. Dynamic analysis and vibration testing of CFRP drive-line system used in heavy-duty machine tool

    Mo Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low critical rotary speed and large vibration in the metal drive-line system of heavy-duty machine tool affect the machining precision seriously. Replacing metal drive-line with the CFRP drive-line can effectively solve this problem. Based on the composite laminated theory and the transfer matrix method (TMM, this paper puts forward a modified TMM to analyze dynamic characteristics of CFRP drive-line system. With this modified TMM, the CFRP drive-line of a heavy vertical miller is analyzed. And the finite element modal analysis model of the shafting is established. The results of the modified TMM and finite element analysis (FEA show that the modified TMM can effectively predict the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line. And the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line is 20% higher than that of the original metal drive-line. Then, the vibration of the CFRP and the metal drive-line were tested. The test results show that application of the CFRP drive shaft in the drive-line can effectively reduce the vibration of the heavy-duty machine tool. Keywords: CFRP drive-line system, Dynamic behavior, Transfer matrix, Vibration measurement

  20. Three-dimensional growth patterns of various human tumor cell lines in simulated microgravity of a NASA bioreactor.

    Ingram, M; Techy, G B; Saroufeem, R; Yazan, O; Narayan, K S; Goodwin, T J; Spaulding, G F

    1997-06-01

    Growth patterns of a number of human tumor cell lines that from three-dimensional structures of various architectures when cultured without carrier beads in a NASA rotary cell culture system are described and illustrated. The culture system, which was designed to mimic microgravity, maintained cells in suspension under very low-shear stress throughout culture. Spheroid (particulate) production occurred within a few hours after culture was started, and spheroids increased in size by cell division and fusion of small spheroids, usually stabilizing at a spheroid diameter of about 0.5 mm. Architecture of spheroids varied with cell type. Cellular interactions that occurred in spheroids resulted in conformation and shape changes of cells, and some cell lines produced complex, epithelial-like architectures. Expression of the cell adhesion molecules, CD44 and E cadherin, was upregulated in the three-dimensional constructs. Coculture of fibroblast spheroids with PC3 prostate cancer cells induced tenascin expression by the fibroblasts underlying the adherent prostate epithelial cells. Invasion of the fibroblast spheroids by the malignant epithelium was also demonstrated.

  1. Heavy metal incorporated helium ion active hybrid non-chemically amplified resists: Nano-patterning with low line edge roughness

    Pulikanti Guruprasad Reddy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Helium (He ion lithography is being considered as one of the most promising and emerging technology for the manufacturing of next generation integrated circuits (ICs at nanolevel. However, He-ion active resists are rarely reported. In this context, we are introducing a new non-chemically amplified hybrid resist (n-CAR, MAPDSA-MAPDST, for high resolution He-ion beam lithography (HBL applications. In the resist architecture, 2.15 % antimony is incorporated as heavy metal in the form of antimonate. This newly developed resists has successfully used for patterning 20 nm negative tone features at a dose of 60 μC/cm2. The resist offered very low line edge roughness (1.27±0.31 nm for 20 nm line features. To our knowledge, this is the first He-ion active hybrid resist for nanopatterning. The contrast (γ and sensitivity (E0 of this resist were calculated from the contrast curve as 0.73 and 7.2 μC/cm2, respectively.

  2. Heavy metal incorporated helium ion active hybrid non-chemically amplified resists: Nano-patterning with low line edge roughness

    Reddy, Pulikanti Guruprasad; Thakur, Neha; Lee, Chien-Lin; Chien, Sheng-Wei; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P.; Ghosh, Subrata; Tsai, Kuen-Yu; Gonsalves, Kenneth E.

    2017-08-01

    Helium (He) ion lithography is being considered as one of the most promising and emerging technology for the manufacturing of next generation integrated circuits (ICs) at nanolevel. However, He-ion active resists are rarely reported. In this context, we are introducing a new non-chemically amplified hybrid resist (n-CAR), MAPDSA-MAPDST, for high resolution He-ion beam lithography (HBL) applications. In the resist architecture, 2.15 % antimony is incorporated as heavy metal in the form of antimonate. This newly developed resists has successfully used for patterning 20 nm negative tone features at a dose of 60 μC/cm2. The resist offered very low line edge roughness (1.27±0.31 nm) for 20 nm line features. To our knowledge, this is the first He-ion active hybrid resist for nanopatterning. The contrast (γ) and sensitivity (E0) of this resist were calculated from the contrast curve as 0.73 and 7.2 μC/cm2, respectively.

  3. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  4. Neural Network Based Recognition of Signal Patterns in Application to Automatic Testing of Rails

    Tomasz Ciszewski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the application of neural network for recognition of signal patterns in measuring data gathered by the railroad ultrasound testing car. Digital conversion of the measuring signal allows to store and process large quantities of data. The elaboration of smart, effective and automatic procedures recognizing the obtained patterns on the basisof measured signal amplitude has been presented. The test shows only two classes of pattern recognition. In authors’ opinion if we deliver big enough quantity of training data, presented method is applicable to a system that recognizes many classes.

  5. Analog automatic test pattern generation for quasi-static structural test.

    Zjajo, A.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for structural, fault-oriented analog test generation methodology to test for the presence of manufacturing-related defects is proposed. The output of the test generator consists of optimized test stimuli, fault coverage and sampling instants that are sufficient to detect the failure

  6. Extruded Tunnel Lining System : Phase 1. Conceptual Design and Feasibility Testing.

    1979-09-01

    The Extruded Tunnel Lining System (ETLS) has been conceived as a means of continuously placing the final concrete tunnel lining directly behind a tunnel boring machine. The system will shorten the time required to excavate and line a tunnel section, ...

  7. Double-Ended Break Test of an 8.5 inch Direct Vessel Injection Line using the ATLAS

    Choi, Ki Yong; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Bok Deuk; Kim, Yeon Sik; Min, Kyoung Ho; Park, Choon Kyoung; Park, Hyun Sik; Baek, Won Pil; Cho, Seok; Choi, Nam Hyun

    2010-01-01

    A thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), has been constructed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). It is a 1/2 reduced height and 1/288-volume scaled test facility with respect to the APR1400, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor developed by the Korean industry. In 2008, an integral effect test for simulating a guillotine break of a DVI line of the APR1400 was carried out as the first DVI test item, named as SB-DVI-03, on May, 2008. With an improvement on the break flow measuring system, the second DVI test for a guillotine break of a DVI line of the APR1400, named as SB-DVI-08, was conducted for repeatability. The present data is the first integral effect test data of its kind for simulating a DVI line break accident. It will help in understanding the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring during the DVI line break accident. A post-test calculation was performed with a best-estimate safety analysis code MARS 3.1 to examine its prediction capability and to identify any code deficiencies for the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring during the DVI line break accidents. The present integral effect test data will be used to validate the current safety analysis methodology for the DVI line break accident

  8. Off-line testing of multifunctional surfaces for metal forming applications

    Godi, A.; Grønbæk, J.; De Chiffre, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, Bending-Under-Tension, an off-line test method simulating deep-drawing, is chosen for investigating the effectiveness of multifunctional (MUFU) surfaces in metal forming operations. Four different MUFU surfaces, characterized by a plateau bearing area and grooves for lubricant...... retention, are manufactured, together with two polished references. During the tests, surface texture is the only variable. The results show how MUFU surfaces perform better than the polished references, which produce severe galling, while MUFU surfaces with low bearing area display no clear evidence...... of galling. Metal-to-metal contact occurs anyway, but the strip material is pulverized and deposited onto the tool instead of cold-welding to it. The pockets create a discontinuity on the texture hindering pick-up propagation....

  9. Dynamic motion modes of high temperature superconducting maglev on a 45-m long ring test line

    Lei, W. Y.; Qian, N.; Zheng, J.; Jin, L. W.; Zhang, Y.; Deng, Z. G.

    2017-10-01

    With the development of high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev, studies on the running stability have become more and more significant to ensure the operation safety. An experimental HTS maglev vehicle was tested on a 45-m long ring test line under the speed from 4 km/h to 20 km/h. The lateral and vertical acceleration signals of each cryostat were collected by tri-axis accelerometers in real time. By analyzing the phase relationship of acceleration signals on the four cryostats, several typical motion modes of the HTS maglev vehicle, including lateral, yaw, pitch and heave motions were observed. This experimental finding is important for the next improvement of the HTS maglev system.

  10. Dosimetry of irradiation models. The 96-well clonogenic assay for testing radiosensitivity of cell lines

    Kulmala, J.; Rantanen, V.; Turku Univ.; Pekkola-Heino, K.; Turku Univ.; Tuominen, J.; Grenman, R.; Turku Univ.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation experiments with cells in single cell suspension in test tubes and on 96-well plates were carried out and compared. The cells originated from cell lines established from carcinomas of the floor of the mouth and from endometrical carcinoma. Two irradiation models were constructed. Both models allowed the absorbed doses to the cells to be administered with a high accuracy in both experimental settings (better than 5.0%). These irradiation models were compared on cancer cell lines with dissimilar inherent radiation sensitivity and histologic type (UM-SCC-1 resistant, UM-SCC-14A sensitive, and UT-EC-2B highly sensitive); various radiation doses were used. The fractions of surviving cells as a function of radiation dose were compared: there was no significant difference between cells irradiated in test tubes and cells irradiated in 96-well plates. Thus, if the absorbed doses in cells suspended in a tube and in a plate were the same, the survival was similar regardless of the type of irradiation model. (orig.)

  11. A test plan for an on-line whole building energy calculator

    Purdy, J.; Ferguson, A.; Mombourquette, S.; Haddad, K.; Lopez, P.; Wyndham-Wheeler, P.; Henry, S. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    This paper presents the testing of a dynamic on-line whole-building energy calculator. The tool consists of a web-based interface for user inputs; an application to create the simulation input files from these user inputs; a simulation engine; and an application for passing the simulation engine output back to the interface and user. A detailed test protocol, composed of three parts, was developed as part of the software development process for quality assurance purposes. This paper will present the tasks specific to the development of the simulation engine, including, the definition of the required user inputs, the creation of default house archetypes, and the definition of the results to be presented to the user. It will also investigate the three parts of the test plan as well as the task automation tools developed to facilitate the testing. The use of these tools proved very useful given the large number of combinations of user inputs at the web interface and input files to the simulation engine. The findings show the importance of having a detailed and comprehensive test protocol during the software development phase. (author)

  12. Characterization of DNA repair phenotypes of Xeroderma pigmentosum cell lines by a paralleled in vitro test

    Raffin, A.L.

    2009-06-01

    DNA is constantly damaged modifying the genetic information for which it encodes. Several cellular mechanisms as the Base Excision Repair (BER) and the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) allow recovering the right DNA sequence. The Xeroderma pigmentosum is a disease characterised by a deficiency in the NER pathway. The aim of this study was to propose an efficient and fast test for the diagnosis of this disease as an alternative to the currently available UDS test. DNA repair activities of XP cell lines were quantified using in vitro miniaturized and paralleled tests in order to establish DNA repair phenotypes of XPA and XPC deficient cells. The main advantage of the tests used in this study is the simultaneous measurement of excision or excision synthesis (ES) of several lesions by only one cellular extract. We showed on one hand that the relative ES of the different lesions depend strongly on the protein concentration of the nuclear extract tested. Working at high protein concentration allowed discriminating the XP phenotype versus the control one, whereas it was impossible under a certain concentration's threshold. On the other hand, while the UVB irradiation of control cells stimulated their repair activities, this effect was not observed in XP cells. This study brings new information on the XPA and XPC protein roles during BER and NER and underlines the complexity of the regulations of DNA repair processes. (author)

  13. Dynamic analysis and vibration testing of CFRP drive-line system used in heavy-duty machine tool

    Yang, Mo; Gui, Lin; Hu, Yefa; Ding, Guoping; Song, Chunsheng

    2018-03-01

    Low critical rotary speed and large vibration in the metal drive-line system of heavy-duty machine tool affect the machining precision seriously. Replacing metal drive-line with the CFRP drive-line can effectively solve this problem. Based on the composite laminated theory and the transfer matrix method (TMM), this paper puts forward a modified TMM to analyze dynamic characteristics of CFRP drive-line system. With this modified TMM, the CFRP drive-line of a heavy vertical miller is analyzed. And the finite element modal analysis model of the shafting is established. The results of the modified TMM and finite element analysis (FEA) show that the modified TMM can effectively predict the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line. And the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line is 20% higher than that of the original metal drive-line. Then, the vibration of the CFRP and the metal drive-line were tested. The test results show that application of the CFRP drive shaft in the drive-line can effectively reduce the vibration of the heavy-duty machine tool.

  14. Testing nanomaterial toxicity in unicellular eukaryotic algae and fish cell lines.

    Kroll, Alexandra; Kühnel, Dana; Schirmer, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Nanoecotoxicology as a sub-discipline of ecotoxicology aims to identify and predict effects elicited on ecosystems by nano-sized materials (NM). Two key groups of model organisms in this context are algae and fish. In this chapter, we present considerations for testing NM with respect to their impact on unicellular algae and cell lines derived from various organs of fish.Based on currently available literature on NM effects in unicellular algae and fish cell lines, and our own experience, we provide guidance on test design, including principle test considerations, materials, NM presentation to cells, exposure, bioavailability, and effect assessment. Assessment needs to be based on a meaningful choice of exposure scenario(s) related to the research question. As a first step, one needs to address whether effects of NMs are to be investigated under environmentally relevant or probable conditions, which may include processes such as agglomeration, or whether NM effects from mono-dispersed particles are of interest, which may require special steps to ensure stable NM suspension. Moreover, whether effects on cells are to be studied in the short- or long-term is important with regard to experimental design. Preparation of NM suspensions, which can be done in aqueous media different from the exposure medium, is addressed with regard to energy input, sterility (as required for algae and fish cell exposure) and particle purity.Specified for the two model systems, algae and fish cell lines, availability and choice of culture media are presented and discussed with regard to impact on NM behavior. Light, temperature, and agitation, which are variables during exposure, are discussed. We further provide guidance on the characterization of the NM in the chosen aqueous exposure media regarding size, zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility. The state of NM in exposure media is decisive for their bioavailability and therefore for potential particle effects. Therefore, we present

  15. A Psychometric Review of Norm-Referenced Tests Used to Assess Phonological Error Patterns

    Kirk, Celia; Vigeland, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors provide a review of the psychometric properties of 6 norm-referenced tests designed to measure children's phonological error patterns. Three aspects of the tests' psychometric adequacy were evaluated: the normative sample, reliability, and validity. Method: The specific criteria used for determining the psychometric…

  16. High power test of RF window and coaxial line in vacuum

    Sun, D.; Champion, M.; Gormley, M.; Kerns, Q.; Koepke, K.; Moretti, A.

    1993-01-01

    Primary rf input couplers for the superconducting accelerating cavities of the TESLA electron linear accelerator test to be performed at DESY, Hamburg, Germany are under development at both DESY and Fermilab. The input couplers consist of a WR650 waveguide to coaxial line transition with an integral ceramic window, a coaxial connection to the superconducting accelerating cavity with a second ceramic window located at the liquid nitrogen heat intercept location, and bellows on both sides of the cold window to allow for cavity motion during cooldown, coupling adjustments and easier assembly. To permit in situ high peak power processing of the TESLA superconducting accelerating cavities, the input couplers are designed to transmit nominally 1 ms long, 2 MW peak, 1.3 GHz rf pulses from the WR650 waveguide at room temperature to the cavities at 1.8 K. The coaxial part of the Fermilab TESLA input coupler design has been tested up to 1.7 MW using the prototype 805 MHz rf source located at the A0 service building of the Tevatron. The rf source, the testing system and the test results are described

  17. An Installation of IPS Bypass Line at the Fuel Test Loop

    Choi, Ho Young; Ahn, G. H.; Lee, M.; Kim, M. S.; Cho, S. H.; Han, J. S.; Hur, S. O. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The Fuel Test Loop(FTL) was installed for the national goal of self-supporting technology in the field of design and construction of nuclear power plant. The FTL with the fuel irradiation equipment is essential in developing, improving and inspecting the fuel of CANDU type or PWR type nuclear power plant. The FTL should be operated at the same conditions of commercial nuclear power plant such as temperature, pressure, flow rate, neutron flux and so on. Starting designing in December 2001, the FTL was installed from March 2007 to August 2008. Especially the In Pile Section(IPS) was installed at IR1 hole in August 2008. Until September 2009 after loading the test fuel, a series of power escalation tests (LSD, CSB1, CSB2, HSB, HOP) were conducted. And it was operated at the condition of CSB2 for the 8 cycles from October 2009 to July 2010. But it could not be normally operated in early 2010, because the high radiation released from irradiated materials due to the worn down bearing of main cooling pump. So, we removed the IPS and installed a newly designed IPS bypass line to prevent increasing high radiation. In this report we will present preliminary works, main works processes, devices of making work environments, a designing and manufacturing of IPS bypass line and a rack of IPS, installing know-hows, problems and solutions broke out during the work etc. We believe that our efforts to complete successful installing and operating of the FTL system will contribute for the efficient utilization of HANARO

  18. Performance test of Si PIN photodiode line scanner for thermal neutron detection

    Totsuka, Daisuke, E-mail: totsuka@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Nihon Kessho Kogaku Co., Ltd., 810-5 Nobe-cho Tatebayashi, Gunma 374-0047 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe) 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Fukuda, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Noriaki [Tokuyama Corp., 3 Shibuya Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8383 (Japan); Fujimoto, Yutaka [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Pejchal, Jan [Institute of Physics AS CR, Cukrovarnicka 10, Prague 6, 162-53 (Czech Republic); Yokota, Yuui [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe) 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-12-11

    Thermal neutron imaging using Si PIN photodiode line scanner and Eu-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} crystal scintillator has been developed. The pixel dimensions of photodiode are 1.18 mm (width) Multiplication-Sign 3.8 mm (length) with 0.4 mm gap and the module has 192 channels in linear array. The emission peaks of Eu-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} after thermal neutron excitation are placed at 370 and 590 nm, and the corresponding photon sensitivities of photodiode are 0.04 and 0.34 A/W, respectively. Polished scintillator blocks with a size of 1.18 mm (width) Multiplication-Sign 3.8 mm (length) Multiplication-Sign 5.0 mm (thickness) were wrapped by several layers of Teflon tapes as a reflector and optically coupled to the photodiodes by silicone grease. JRR-3 MUSASI beam line emitting 13.5 meV thermal neutrons with the flux of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2} s was used for the imaging test. As a subject for imaging, a Cd plate was moved at the speed of 50 mm/s perpendicular to the thermal neutron beam. Analog integration time was set to be 416.6 {mu}s, then signals were converted by a delta-sigma A/D converter. After the image processing, we successfully obtained moving Cd plate image under thermal neutron irradiation using PIN photodiode line scanner coupled with Eu-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} scintillator.

  19. Performance test of Si PIN photodiode line scanner for thermal neutron detection

    Totsuka, Daisuke; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fukuda, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Pejchal, Jan; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Thermal neutron imaging using Si PIN photodiode line scanner and Eu-doped LiCaAlF 6 crystal scintillator has been developed. The pixel dimensions of photodiode are 1.18 mm (width)×3.8 mm (length) with 0.4 mm gap and the module has 192 channels in linear array. The emission peaks of Eu-doped LiCaAlF 6 after thermal neutron excitation are placed at 370 and 590 nm, and the corresponding photon sensitivities of photodiode are 0.04 and 0.34 A/W, respectively. Polished scintillator blocks with a size of 1.18 mm (width)×3.8 mm (length)×5.0 mm (thickness) were wrapped by several layers of Teflon tapes as a reflector and optically coupled to the photodiodes by silicone grease. JRR-3 MUSASI beam line emitting 13.5 meV thermal neutrons with the flux of 8×10 5 n/cm 2 s was used for the imaging test. As a subject for imaging, a Cd plate was moved at the speed of 50 mm/s perpendicular to the thermal neutron beam. Analog integration time was set to be 416.6 μs, then signals were converted by a delta-sigma A/D converter. After the image processing, we successfully obtained moving Cd plate image under thermal neutron irradiation using PIN photodiode line scanner coupled with Eu-doped LiCaAlF 6 scintillator.

  20. "Eyeball test" of thermographic patterns for predicting a successful lateral infraclavicular block.

    Andreasen, Asger M; Linnet, Karen E; Asghar, Semera; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V; Lange, Kai H W; Lundstrøm, Lars H

    2017-11-01

    Increased distal skin temperature can be used to predict the success of lateral infraclavicular (LIC) block. We hypothesized that an "eyeball test" of specific infrared thermographic patterns after LIC block could be used to determine block success. In this observational study, five observers trained in four distinct thermographic patterns independently evaluated thermographic images of the hands of 40 patients at baseline and at one-minute intervals for 30 min after a LIC block. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of a positive and a negative test were estimated to evaluate the validity of specific thermographic patterns for predicting a successful block. Sensory and motor block of the musculocutaneous, radial, ulnar, and median nerves defined block success. Fleiss' kappa statistics of multiple interobserver agreements were used to evaluate reliability. As a diagnostic test, the defined specific thermographic patterns of the hand predicted a successful block with increasing accuracy over the 30-min observation period. Block success was predicted with a sensitivity of 92.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.8 to 96.2) and with a specificity of 84.0% (95% CI, 70.3 to 92.4) at min 30. The Fleiss' kappa for the five observers was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.96). We conclude that visual evaluation by an eyeball test of specific thermographic patterns of the blocked hands may be useful as a valid and reliable diagnostic test for predicting a successful LIC block.

  1. Induction of mutations in Thai rice varieties and subsequent selection and testing of beneficial mutant lines

    Dasananda, S; Khambanonda, P [Ministry of Agriculture, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1970-03-01

    Ionizing radiations were first used in the Thailand Rice Breeding Program in 1955 when seeds of two recommended varieties were sent to the United States of America for treatment. As a result, five promising mutant lines are at present in regional yield tests where they are being considered for recommendation to rice growers. During the period 1960-1961 an unsuccessful attempt was made to induce resistance to blast in three susceptible varieties by exposing seeds to a local source of ionizing radiation In 1964, after an elapse of about 4 years, another attempt was made to utilize ionizing radiations in the breeding program by treating seeds of two recommended varieties. In 1965, a co-ordinated rice mutation breeding program was initiated under the auspices of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture which resulted in treating seeds of twelve different rice varieties with both ethyl methane sulphonate and gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co gamma cell. The results so far indicate that mutagenic agents have been successful in producing genetic variability. Differences in heading date, mature plant height and plant type are frequently observed in the M{sub 2} and M{sub 3} generations. Several lines obtained from two of the irradiated varieties have exhibited a higher degree of resistance to blast than the parental material. From 15-kR treatments of non-glutinous varieties, mutants with glutinous endosperm have been obtained. Not all varieties gave the same response to treatment. (author)

  2. Evaluation of maize S2 lines in test cross combinations I : flowering and morphological traits

    Rahman, H.; Shah, A.Z.; Shah, S.M.A.; Khalil, I.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research work was conducted at N.W.F.P. Agricultural University, Peshawar to test 24 maize S2 lines using line x tester analysis. Data were recorded on days to 50% pollen shedding and silking, anthesis silking interval (ASI), ear height and plant height. Results revealed highly significant differences among the testcrosses for all these parameters. Maximum days to silking (62) were observed for TC-13, using WD 2x8 as a tester, while SCA for day to silking was recorded 3.15. Maximum days to anthesis were observed (60) for TC-36, using WD 3x6 as a tester. Maximum value (3 days) for anthesis silking interval was observed for TC-13, using WD 2x8 as a tester, while SCA for anthesis silking interval was recorded to be 1.60 days. Maximum ear height (82cm) was observed for the TC-21, using WD 3x6 as a tester, while SCA for ear height was 1.5 cm. Maximum plant eight (161 cm) was observed for TC-21, using WD 3x6 as a tester, while SCA for plant height was found to be -17.8 cm. These testcrosses are recommended to be included in further breeding programs for developing maize germplasm with earlier flowering and desirable plant and ear height attributes. (author)

  3. ISP-50 Specifications for a Direct Vessel Injection Line Break Test with the ATLAS

    Choi, Ki Yong; Baek, Won Pil; Kim, Yeon Sik; Park, Hyun Sik; Cho, Seok; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Choi, Nam Hyun; Min, Kyoung Ho

    2009-06-01

    An OECD/NEA International Standard Problem Exercise (ISP) focussing on a DVI line break simulation result with the ATLAS was approved by the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installation (CSNI) meeting in December 2008 and was numbered by ISP-50. The ISP-50 program will be operated by an operating agency, KAERI for three years starting from the physical year 2009. Fourteen international organizations confirmed their participation in the ISP-50, including NRC (USA), JAEA, JNES (Japan), GRS (Germany), KFKI-AEKI (Hungary), EDO Gidropress (Russia), VTT, Fortum (Finland), NRI (Czech Republic), Univ. of Pisa (Italy), KINS, KNF, KOPEC, and KAERI (Korea). In addition, KTH in Sweden and HSE in UK are considering late participation. Recently, NPIC and CIAE in China hope to join the ISP-50. As for the safety analysis codes, nine codes are expected to be used for the ISP-50: MARS-3D, RELAP5- 3D, RELAP5, TRACE, CATHARE, APROS, ATHELET, TRAP, and KORSAR. It is the first ISP exercise in Korea in which a domestic test facility is utilized by international nuclear society and this exercise will contribute to extending our physical understanding on thermal hydraulic phenomena during the DVI line break accidents and to verifying the best-estimate thermal-hydraulic safety analysis codes. This report was prepared to define technical specifications of the ISP-50 exercise according the guideline provided by OECD/CSNI. It includes general objectives, phases, deliverables to participants, parameters required for comparison and the time table

  4. A Study on the construction of 22.9 kV distribution test line of KEPCO

    Yang, Hi Kyun; Choi, Hung Sik; Hwang, Si Dole; Jung, Young Ho [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Kim, Dong Hwan; Choi, Chang Huk [Korea Power Engineering Company and Architecture Engineers (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    In order to enhance the reliability of power supply and the quality of electricity, a study on the construction of 22.9 kV distribution test line was performed. The main objective of this study was to establish a construction plan and a basic design to perform the construction and the detailed design of the test line effectively. (author). 21 refs., 45 figs.

  5. Acidosis-Induced Changes in Proteome Patterns of the Prostate Cancer-Derived Tumor Cell Line AT-1.

    Ihling, Angelika; Ihling, Christian H; Sinz, Andrea; Gekle, Michael

    2015-09-04

    Under various pathological conditions, such as inflammation, ischemia and in solid tumors, physiological parameters (local oxygen tension or extracellular pH) show distinct tissue abnormalities (hypoxia and acidosis). For tumors, the prevailing microenvironment exerts a strong influence on the phenotype with respect to proliferation, invasion, and metastasis formation and therefore influences prognosis. In this study, we investigate the impact of extracellular metabolic acidosis (pH 7.4 versus 6.6) on the proteome patterns of a prostate cancer-derived tumor cell type (AT-1) using isobaric labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis. In total, 2710 proteins were identified and quantified across four biological replicates, of which seven were significantly affected with changes >50% and used for validation. Glucose transporter 1 and farnesyl pyrophosphatase were found to be down-regulated after 48 h of acidic treatment, and metallothionein 2A was reduced after 24 h and returned to control values after 48 h. After 24 and 48 h at pH 6.6, glutathione S transferase A3 and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase 1, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2, and Na-bicarbonate transporter 3 levels were found to be increased. The changes in protein levels were confirmed by transcriptome and functional analyses. In addition to the experimental in-depth investigation of proteins with changes >50%, functional profiling (statistical enrichment analysis) including proteins with changes >20% revealed that acidosis upregulates GSH metabolic processes, citric acid cycle, and respiratory electron transport. Metabolism of lipids and cholesterol biosynthesis were downregulated. Our data comprise the first comprehensive report on acidosis-induced changes in proteome patterns of a tumor cell line.

  6. Instrumentation, Field Network And Process Automation for the LHC Cryogenic Line Tests

    Bager, T; Bertrand, G; Casas-Cubillos, J; Gomes, P; Parente, C; Riddone, G; Suraci, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the cryogenic control system and associated instrumentation of the test facility for 3 pre-series units of the LHC Cryogenic Distribution Line. For each unit, the process automation is based on a Programmable Logic Con-troller implementing more than 30 closed control loops and handling alarms, in-terlocks and overall process management. More than 160 sensors and actuators are distributed over 150 m on a Profibus DP/PA network. Parameterization, cali-bration and diagnosis are remotely available through the bus. Considering the diversity, amount and geographical distribution of the instru-mentation involved, this is a representative approach to the cryogenic control system for CERN's next accelerator.

  7. Second Line of Defense Megaports Initiative Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan Colon Container Terminal (CCT) Panama

    Newhouse, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    Report on the Operational Testing and Evaluation to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the Second Line of Defense (SLD) mission requirements. An SLD system is defined as the detection technology and associated equipment, the system operators from the host country, the standard operating procedures (SOPs), and other elements such as training and maintenance which support long-term system sustainment. To this end, the activities conducted during the OT&E phase must demonstrate that the Megaports System can be operated effectively in real-time by Panama Direccion General de Aduanas (DGA Panama Customs) personnel to the standards of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA).

  8. On-line reactor building integrity testing at Gentilly-2 (summary of results 1987-1994)

    Collins, N.; Lafreniere, P.

    1994-01-01

    In 1987, Hydro-0uebec embarked on an ambitious development program to provide the Gentilly-2 Nuclear Power Station with an effective and practical Reactor Building Containment integrity Test (CIT). In October 1992, the inaugural low pressure (3 kPa(g) nominal) CIT at 100% F.P was performed. The test was conclusive and the CIT was declared In-Service for containment integrity verification on-line. Five subsequent CITs performed in 1993 and 1994 have demonstrated the expected leak rate results and good reliability. The outstanding feature of the CITs is the demonstrated accurary of better than 5% of the measured leak rate. The CIT was developed with the primary goal of demonstrating 'overall' containment availability. Specifically it was designed to detect a 25 mm. diameter leak or hole in the Reactor Building. However, the remarkable CIT accuracy allows reliable detection of a 2 mm. hole. The Gentilly-2 CIT is an innovative approach based on the Temperature Compensation Method (TCM) which uses a reference volume composed of an extensive tubular network of several different diameters. This eliminates the need to track numerous temperature points. A second independent tubular network includes numerous humidity sampling points, thereby enabling the mearurernent of minute pressure variations inside the Reactor Building, independant of the spatial and temporal humidity behaviour. This Gentilly-2 TOM System has been demonstrated to work at both high and low test pressures. The GentiIly-2 design allows the CIT to be performed at a nominal 3 kPa(g) test pressure during a 12-hour period (28 hours total with alignment time) with the reactor at full power. The traditional Reactor Building Pressure Test (RBPT) is typically performed at high pressure (124 kPa(g) in a 5-day critical path window (7 days total with alignment time) during an annual shutdown

  9. An SBLOCA Test for Shutdown Cooling Line Break Using the SMART-ITL Facility

    Bae, Hwang; Kim, Dong Eok; Ryu, Sung Uk; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Yung Joo; Yi, Sung Jae; Park, Hyun Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The objectives of SMART-ITL are to investigate and understand the integral performance of the reactor systems and components, and the thermalhydraulic phenomena occurring in the system during normal, abnormal, and emergency conditions, and to verify the system safety during various design basis events of SMART. Its height was preserved and its area and volume were scaled down to 1/49 compared with the SMART prototype plant. The SMART-ITL consists of a primary system including a reactor pressure vessel with a pressurizer, four steam generators and four main coolant pumps, a secondary system, a safety system, and an auxiliary system. The SMART was installed at KAERI and several transient tests were recently finished. In this paper, the test results for a steady-state operation and a transient of the small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) are discussed. An SBLOCA test simulating the shutdown cooling line break was performed using SMART-ITL properly. All parameters were in good agreement with the target values during the steady-state operation period. The pressures and temperatures show reasonable behaviors during the SBLOCA test. SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which was designed by KAERI is an integral type reactor. The standard design approval for the SMART design was issued on July 4th of 2012 by a Korean regulatory body, the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC). The main components including a pressurizer, steam generators, and reactor coolant pumps are installed in a reactor pressure vessel, and there are no large-size pipes. The safety systems could be simplified as an LBLOCA (Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident) scenario is inherently excluded. An integral-effect test loop for SMART (SMART-ITL, or FESTA) was designed to simulate the integral thermal-hydraulic behavior of SMART. The SMART-ITL has been designed using a volume scaling methodology.

  10. Broadband strip-line ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy of soft magnetic CoFeTaZr patterned thin films

    Gupta, S.; Kumar, D.; Jin, T. L.; Nongjai, R.; Asokan, K.; Ghosh, A.; Aparnadevi, M.; Suri, P.; Piramanayagam, S. N.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, magnetic and magnetization dynamic properties of compositionally patterned Co46Fe40Ta9Zr5 thin films are investigated. A combination of self-assembly and ion-implantation was employed to locally alter the composition of Co46Fe40Ta9Zr5 thin film in a periodic manner. 20 keV O+ and 60 keV N+ ions were implanted at different doses in order to modify the magnetization dynamic properties of the samples in a controlled fashion. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements revealed significant changes in the coercivity for higher influences of 5 × 1016 ions per cm2. In particular, N+ implantation was observed to induce two phase formation with high and low coercivities. Broadband strip-line ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy over wide range of frequency (8 - 20 GHz) was used to study the magnetization dynamics as a function of ion-beam dosage. With higher fluences, damping constant showed a continuous increase from 0.0103 to 0.0430. Such control of magnetic properties at nano-scale using this method is believed to be useful for spintronics and microwave device applications.

  11. X-ray diffraction patterns and diffracted intensity of Kα spectral lines of He-like ions

    Goyal, Arun; Khatri, Indu; Singh, A. K.; Sharma, Rinku; Mohan, Man

    2017-09-01

    In the present paper, we have calculated fine-structure energy levels related to the configurations 1s2s, 1s2p, 1s3s and 1s3p by employing GRASP2K code. We have also computed radiative data for transitions from 1s2p 1 P1o, 1s2p 3 P2o, 1s2p 3 P1o and 1s2s 3S1 to the ground state 1s2. We have made comparisons of our presented energy levels and transition wavelengths with available results compiled by NIST and good agreement is achieved. We have also provided X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of Kα spectral lines, namely w, x, y and z of Cu XXVIII, Kr XXXV and Mo with diffraction angle and maximum diffracted intensity which is not published elsewhere in the literature. We believe that our presented results may be beneficial in determination of the order parameter, X-ray crystallography, solid-state drug analysis, forensic science, geological and medical applications.

  12. Understanding the logics of pheromone processing in the honeybee brain: from labeled-lines to across-fiber patterns

    Nina Deisig

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Honeybees employ a very rich repertoire of pheromones to ensure intraspecific communication in a wide range of behavioral contexts. This communication can be complex, since the same compounds can have a variety of physiological and behavioral effects depending on the receiver. Honeybees constitute an ideal model to study the neurobiological basis of pheromonal processing, as they are already one of the most infl uential animal models for the study of general odor processing and learning at behavioral, cellular and molecular levels. Accordingly, the anatomy of the bee brain is well characterized and electro- and opto-physiological recording techniques at different stages of the olfactory circuit are possible in the laboratory. Here we review pheromone communication in honeybees and analyze the different stages of olfactory processing in the honeybee brain, focusing on available data on pheromone detection, processing and representation at these different stages. In particular, we argue that the traditional distinction between labeled-line and across-fi ber pattern processing, attributed to pheromone and general odors respectively, may not be so clear in the case of honeybees, especially for social-pheromones. We propose new research avenues for stimulating future work in this area.

  13. First human hNT neurons patterned on parylene-C/silicon dioxide substrates: Combining an accessible cell line and robust patterning technology for the study of the pathological adult human brain.

    Unsworth, C P; Graham, E S; Delivopoulos, E; Dragunow, M; Murray, A F

    2010-12-15

    In this communication, we describe a new method which has enabled the first patterning of human neurons (derived from the human teratocarcinoma cell line (hNT)) on parylene-C/silicon dioxide substrates. We reveal the details of the nanofabrication processes, cell differentiation and culturing protocols necessary to successfully pattern hNT neurons which are each key aspects of this new method. The benefits in patterning human neurons on silicon chip using an accessible cell line and robust patterning technology are of widespread value. Thus, using a combined technology such as this will facilitate the detailed study of the pathological human brain at both the single cell and network level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anatomy of Forehead, Glabellar, Nasal and Orbital Muscles, and Their Correlation with Distinctive Patterns of Skin Lines on the Upper Third of the Face: Reviewing Concepts.

    Abramo, Antonio Carlos; Do Amaral, Thiago Paoliello Alves; Lessio, Bruno Pierotti; De Lima, Germano Andrighetto

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a relationship between the skin lines on the upper third of the face in cadavers, which represent the muscle activity in life and the skin lines achieved by voluntary contraction of the forehead, glabellar, and orbital muscles in patients. Anatomical dissection of fresh cadavers was performed in 20 fresh cadavers, 11 females and 9 males, with ages ranging from 53 to 77 years. Subcutaneous dissection identified the muscle shape and the continuity of the fibers of the eyebrow elevator and depress muscles. Subgaleal dissection identified the cutaneous insertions of the muscles. They were correlated with skin lines on the upper third of the face of the cadavers that represent the muscle activity in life. Voluntary contraction was performed by 20 voluntary patients, 13 females and 7 males, with ages ranging from 35 to 62 years. Distinct patterns of skin lines on the forehead, glabellar and orbital areas, and eyebrow displacement were identified. The frontalis exhibited four anatomical shapes with four different patterns of horizontal parallel lines on the forehead skin. The corrugator supercilii showed three shapes of muscles creating six patterns of vertical glabellar lines, three symmetrical and three asymmetrical. The orbicularis oculi and procerus had single patterns. The skin lines exhibited in voluntary contraction of the upper third of the face in patients showed the same patterns of the skin lines achieved in cadavers. Skin lines in cadavers, which are the expression of the muscle activity in life, were similar to those achieved in the voluntary contraction of patients, allowing us to assert that the muscle patterns of patients were similar to those identified in cadavers. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies

  15. Should laparoscopy and dye test be a first line evaluation for infertile women in southeast Nigeria?

    Ikechebelu, J I; Mbamara, S U

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopy and dye test is an important investigation in the evaluation of infertile women which has been underutilised in our practice. This review is aimed at determining whether the findings of this procedure are substantial enough to make it a first line evaluation for infertile women. A review of the laparoscopic findings in infertile women who presented for evaluation and treatment at a private fertility centre was carried out. A total of 253 day-case laparoscopy and dye test procedures were reviewed, 115 (45.0%) were done for primary infertility, 137 (54.5%) for secondary infertility and 1 (0.4%) for primary amenorrhoea and infertility. The mean period of infertility was 4.5 years with a range of 2-10 years and the women were aged between 19 and 52 years. Analysis of the result showed that 100 (39.5%) women had normal patent tubes while 153 (60.4%) had tubal pathologies like bilateral tubal occlusion in 97 (38.3%) and unilateral tubal occlusion in 56 (22.1%) women. Pelvic adhesion of varying degrees of severity was present in 108 (42.7%) women. Bilateral tubal occlusion was more common in nulliparous women and those aged between 30-39 years. One or both ovaries were normal (functional) in 189 (74.7%) women. Altogether, only 43 (17.0%) women were "normal" (had patent tubes, functional ovary and no pelvic adhesion). Additional pelvic pathology was present in 142 (56.1%) women. The commonest was uterine fibroid (leiomyomata) of various sizes in 100 (39.5%) of the women, followed by ovarian cyst in 56 (22.2%) and endometriosis in 11 (4.4%) women. Other pathologies observed include uterine abnormalities and unruptured ectopic pregnancy. Only 16 (37.2%) of the 43 "normal" women had no additional pelvic pathology. The high prevalence o tuboperitoneal factor and additional pelvic pathology in these infertile women reveal the importance of laparoscopic evaluation. We recommend the use of laparoscopy and dye test as a first line investigation in our environment to

  16. Gas dynamic design of the pipe line compressor with 90% efficiency. Model test approval

    Galerkin, Y.; Rekstin, A.; Soldatova, K.

    2015-08-01

    Gas dynamic design of the pipe line compressor 32 MW was made for PAO SMPO (Sumy, Ukraine). The technical specification requires compressor efficiency of 90%. The customer offered favorable scheme - single-stage design with console impeller and axial inlet. The authors used the standard optimization methodology of 2D impellers. The original methodology of internal scroll profiling was used to minimize efficiency losses. Radically improved 5th version of the Universal modeling method computer programs was used for precise calculation of expected performances. The customer fulfilled model tests in a 1:2 scale. Tests confirmed the calculated parameters at the design point (maximum efficiency of 90%) and in the whole range of flow rates. As far as the authors know none of compressors have achieved such efficiency. The principles and methods of gas-dynamic design are presented below. The data of the 32 MW compressor presented by the customer in their report at the 16th International Compressor conference (September 2014, Saint- Petersburg) and later transferred to the authors.

  17. Human vigilance investigation analysis of the pattern array test (further data analysis). Final report

    Have, A.C.

    1979-04-01

    This report analyzes a test which was designed to help solve problems of human vigilance encountered in a material safeguard system. The test was designed to determine the efficiency of an operator when processing large amounts of information from a video screen over extended periods of time. In the test eight objects, either circles, squares, or triangles, were set in a 5 x 5 matrix which appeared on a video screen. The eight objects were shown for a specified length of time, the screen blanked out for another specified period, then eight objects in the same 5 x 5 matrix were again shown. The observer was tested on his ability to discern changes in patterns and/or symbols from frame to frame. The testees were able to identify changes in pattern easier than changes in symbols

  18. Metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: consensus on pathology and molecular tests, first-line, second-line, and third-line therapy: 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in Lung Cancer; Lugano 2010

    Felip, E; Gridelli, C; Baas, P

    2011-01-01

    the conference, the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer to be addressed through discussion......The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21 and 22 May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics, medical oncology, surgical oncology and radiation oncology. Before...... at the Consensus Conference. All relevant scientific literature for each question was reviewed in advance. During the Consensus Conference, the panel developed recommendations for each specific question. The consensus agreement on three of these areas: NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, the treatment of first-line...

  19. GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

    2004-01-01

    GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

  20. Genetic line comparisons and genetic parameters for endoparasite infections and test-day milk production traits.

    May, Katharina; Brügemann, Kerstin; Yin, Tong; Scheper, Carsten; Strube, Christina; König, Sven

    2017-09-01

    Keeping dairy cows in grassland systems relies on detailed analyses of genetic resistance against endoparasite infections, including between- and within-breed genetic evaluations. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare different Black and White dairy cattle selection lines for endoparasite infections and (2) the estimation of genetic (co)variance components for endoparasite and test-day milk production traits within the Black and White cattle population. A total of 2,006 fecal samples were taken during 2 farm visits in summer and autumn 2015 from 1,166 cows kept in 17 small- and medium-scale organic and conventional German grassland farms. Fecal egg counts were determined for gastrointestinal nematodes (FEC-GIN) and flukes (FEC-FLU), and fecal larvae counts for the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus (FLC-DV). The lowest values for gastrointestinal nematode infections were identified for genetic lines adopted to pasture-based production systems, especially selection lines from New Zealand. Heritabilities were low for FEC-GIN (0.05-0.06 ± 0.04) and FLC-DV (0.05 ± 0.04), but moderate for FEC-FLU (0.33 ± 0.06). Almost identical heritabilities were estimated for different endoparasite trait transformations (log-transformation, square root). The genetic correlation between FEC-GIN and FLC-DV was 1.00 ± 0.60, slightly negative between FEC-GIN and FEC-FLU (-0.10 ± 0.27), and close to zero between FLC-DV and FEC-FLU (0.03 ± 0.30). Random regression test-day models on a continuous time scale [days in milk (DIM)] were applied to estimate genetic relationships between endoparasite and longitudinal test-day production traits. Genetic correlations were negative between FEC-GIN and milk yield (MY) until DIM 85, and between FEC-FLU and MY until DIM 215. Genetic correlations between FLC-DV and MY were negative throughout lactation, indicating improved disease resistance for high-productivity cows. Genetic relationships between FEC-GIN and FEC-FLU with milk

  1. Effect of precipitation pattern on leaching of preservative from treated wood and implications for accelerated testing

    Stan Lebow

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to develop improved accelerated test methods for evaluating the leaching of wood preservatives from treated wood exposed to precipitation. In this study the effects of rate of rainfall and length of intervals between rainfall events on leaching was evaluated by exposing specimens to varying patterns of simulated rainfall under controlled laboratory...

  2. Ecodriver. D23.1: Report on test scenarios for val-idation of on-line vehicle algorithms

    Seewald, P.; Ivens, T.W.T.; Spronkmans, S.

    2014-01-01

    This deliverable provides a description of test scenarios that will be used for validation of WP22’s on-line vehicle algorithms. These algorithms consist of the two modules VE³ (Vehicle Energy and Environment Estimator) and RSG (Reference Signal Genera-tor) and will be tested using the

  3. Automatic Test Pattern Generator for Fuzzing Based on Finite State Machine

    Ming-Hung Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the Internet, several emerging technologies are adopted to construct fancy, interactive, and user-friendly websites. Among these technologies, HTML5 is a popular one and is widely used in establishing modern sites. However, the security issues in the new web technologies are also raised and are worthy of investigation. For vulnerability investigation, many previous studies used fuzzing and focused on generation-based approaches to produce test cases for fuzzing; however, these methods require a significant amount of knowledge and mental efforts to develop test patterns for generating test cases. To decrease the entry barrier of conducting fuzzing, in this study, we propose a test pattern generation algorithm based on the concept of finite state machines. We apply graph analysis techniques to extract paths from finite state machines and use these paths to construct test patterns automatically. According to the proposal, fuzzing can be completed through inputting a regular expression corresponding to the test target. To evaluate the performance of our proposal, we conduct an experiment in identifying vulnerabilities of the input attributes in HTML5. According to the results, our approach is not only efficient but also effective for identifying weak validators in HTML5.

  4. Patterns of Limnohabitans Microdiversity across a Large Set of Freshwater Habitats as Revealed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    Jezbera, Jan; Jezberová, Jitka; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Šimek, Karel; Hahn, Martin W.

    2013-01-01

    Among abundant freshwater Betaproteobacteria, only few groups are considered to be of central ecological importance. One of them is the well-studied genus Limnohabitans and mainly its R-BT subcluster, investigated previously mainly by fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. We designed, based on sequences from a large Limnohabitans culture collection, 18 RLBH (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) probes specific for different groups within the genus Limnohabitans by targeting diagnostic sequences on their 16 S–23 S rRNA ITS regions. The developed probes covered in sum 92% of the available isolates. This set of probes was applied to environmental DNA originating from 161 different European standing freshwater habitats to reveal the microdiversity (intra-genus) patterns of the Limnohabitans genus along a pH gradient. Investigated habitats differed in various physicochemical parameters, and represented a very broad range of standing freshwater habitats. The Limnohabitans microdiversity, assessed as number of RLBH-defined groups detected, increased significantly along the gradient of rising pH of habitats. 14 out of 18 probes returned detection signals that allowed predictions on the distribution of distinct Limnohabitans groups. Most probe-defined Limnohabitans groups showed preferences for alkaline habitats, one for acidic, and some seemed to lack preferences. Complete niche-separation was indicated for some of the probe-targeted groups. Moreover, bimodal distributions observed for some groups of Limnohabitans, suggested further niche separation between genotypes within the same probe-defined group. Statistical analyses suggested that different environmental parameters such as pH, conductivity, oxygen and altitude influenced the distribution of distinct groups. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that the wide ecological distribution of Limnohabitans bacteria in standing freshwater habitats results from generalist adaptations of these bacteria

  5. Patterns of Limnohabitans microdiversity across a large set of freshwater habitats as revealed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization.

    Jan Jezbera

    Full Text Available Among abundant freshwater Betaproteobacteria, only few groups are considered to be of central ecological importance. One of them is the well-studied genus Limnohabitans and mainly its R-BT subcluster, investigated previously mainly by fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. We designed, based on sequences from a large Limnohabitans culture collection, 18 RLBH (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization probes specific for different groups within the genus Limnohabitans by targeting diagnostic sequences on their 16 S-23 S rRNA ITS regions. The developed probes covered in sum 92% of the available isolates. This set of probes was applied to environmental DNA originating from 161 different European standing freshwater habitats to reveal the microdiversity (intra-genus patterns of the Limnohabitans genus along a pH gradient. Investigated habitats differed in various physicochemical parameters, and represented a very broad range of standing freshwater habitats. The Limnohabitans microdiversity, assessed as number of RLBH-defined groups detected, increased significantly along the gradient of rising pH of habitats. 14 out of 18 probes returned detection signals that allowed predictions on the distribution of distinct Limnohabitans groups. Most probe-defined Limnohabitans groups showed preferences for alkaline habitats, one for acidic, and some seemed to lack preferences. Complete niche-separation was indicated for some of the probe-targeted groups. Moreover, bimodal distributions observed for some groups of Limnohabitans, suggested further niche separation between genotypes within the same probe-defined group. Statistical analyses suggested that different environmental parameters such as pH, conductivity, oxygen and altitude influenced the distribution of distinct groups. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that the wide ecological distribution of Limnohabitans bacteria in standing freshwater habitats results from generalist adaptations of

  6. Ultrasonic test results for the reactor pressure vessel of the HTTR. Longitudinal welding line of bottom dome

    Nojiri, Naoki; Ohwada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yasushi

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the inspection method, the measured area, etc. of the ultrasonic test of the in-service inspection (ISI) for welding lines of the reactor pressure vessel of the HTTR and the inspection results of the longitudinal welding line of the bottom dome. The pre-service inspection (PSI) results for estimation of occurrence and progression of defects to compare the ISI results is described also. (author)

  7. Second line drug susceptibility testing to inform the treatment of rifampin-resistant tuberculosis: a quantitative perspective

    Emily A. Kendall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment failure and resistance amplification are common among patients with rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (TB. Drug susceptibility testing (DST for second-line drugs is recommended for these patients, but logistical difficulties have impeded widespread implementation of second-line DST in many settings. To provide a quantitative perspective on the decision to scale up second-line DST, we synthesize literature on the prevalence of second-line drug resistance, the expected clinical and epidemiologic benefits of using second-line DST to ensure that patients with rifampin-resistant TB receive effective regimens, and the costs of implementing (or not implementing second-line DST for all individuals diagnosed with rifampin-resistant TB. We conclude that, in most settings, second-line DST could substantially improve treatment outcomes for patients with rifampin-resistant TB, reduce transmission of drug-resistant TB, prevent amplification of drug resistance, and be affordable or even cost-saving. Given the large investment made in each patient treated for rifampin-resistant TB, these payoffs would come at relatively small incremental cost. These anticipated benefits likely justify addressing the real challenges faced in implementing second-line DST in most high-burden settings.

  8. Validity and usefulness of the Line Drill test for adolescent basketball players: a Bayesian multilevel analysis.

    Carvalho, Humberto M; Gonçalves, Carlos E; Grosgeorge, Bernard; Paes, Roberto R

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the validity of the Line Drill test (LD) in male adolescent basketball players (10-15 years). Sensitiveness of the LD to changes in performance across a training and competition season (4 months) was also considered. Age, maturation, body size and LD were measured (n = 57). Sensitiveness of the LD was examined pre- and post-competitive season in a sub-sample (n = 44). The time at each of the four shuttle sprints of the LD (i.e. four stages) was modelled with Bayesian multilevel models. We observed very large correlation of performance at stage 4 (full LD protocol) with stage 3, but lower correlations with the early LD stages. Players' performance by somatic maturity differed substantially only when considering full LD protocol performance. Substantial improvements in all stages of the protocol were observed across the 4-month competitive season. The LD protocol should be shortened by the last full court shuttle sprint, remaining sensitive to training exposure, and independent of maturity status and body size.

  9. Experiment data of 200% recirculation pump discharge line break integral test run 961 with HPCS failure at ROSA-III and comparison with results of suction line break tests

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Tasaka, Kanji; Nakamura, Hideo; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Murata, Hideo; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1984-03-01

    This report presents the experimental data of RUN 961, a 200% double-ended break test at the recirculation pump discharge line in the ROSA-III test facility. The ROSA-III test facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) system of the BWR/6. The facility has the electrically heated core, the break simulator and the scaled ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System). The MSIV (Main Steam Isolation Valve) closure and the ECCS actuation were tripped by the liquid level in the upper downcomer. The PCT (Peak Cladding Temperature) was 894 K, which was 107 K higher than a 200% pump suction line break test (RUN 926) due to the smaller depressurization rate. The effect of break location on transient LOCA phenomena was clarified by comparing the discharge and suction break tests. The whole core was quenched 71 s after LPCI actuation and the effectiveness of ECCS has been confirmed. (author)

  10. Decay patterns of multi-quasiparticle bands—a model independent test of chiral symmetry

    Lawrie, E A

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear chiral systems exhibit chiral symmetry bands, built on left-handed and right-handed angular momentum nucleon configurations. The experimental search for such chiral systems revealed a number of suitable candidates, however an unambiguous identification of nuclear chiral symmetry is still outstanding. In this work it is shown that the decay patterns of chiral bands built on multi-quasiparticle configurations are different from those involving different single-particle configurations. It is suggested to use the observed decay patterns of chiral candidates as a new model-independent test of chiral symmetry. (paper)

  11. Chronic malaria revealed by a new fluorescence pattern on the antinuclear autoantibodies test.

    Benjamin Hommel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several clinical forms of malaria such as chronic carriage, gestational malaria or hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly may follow a cryptic evolution with afebrile chronic fatigue sometimes accompanied by anemia and/or splenomegaly. Conventional parasitological tests are often negative or not performed, and severe complications may occur. Extensive explorations of these conditions often include the search for antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA. METHODS: We analysed fluorescence patterns in the ANA test in patients with either chronic cryptic or acute symptomatic malaria, then conducted a one-year prospective study at a single hospital on all available sera drawn for ANA detections. We then identified autoantibodies differentially expressed in malaria patients and in controls using human protein microarray. RESULTS: We uncovered and defined a new, malaria-related, nucleo-cytoplasmic ANA pattern displaying the specific association of a nuclear speckled pattern with diffuse cytoplasmic perinuclearly-enhanced fluorescence. In the one-year prospective analysis, 79% of sera displaying this new nucleo-cytoplasmic fluorescence were from patients with malaria. This specific pattern, not seen in other parasitic diseases, allowed a timely reorientation of the diagnosis toward malaria. To assess if the autoantibody immune response was due to autoreactivity or molecular mimicry we isolated 42 autoantigens, targets of malarial autoantibodies. BLAST analysis indicated that 23 of recognized autoantigens were homologous to plasmodial proteins suggesting autoimmune responses directly driven by the plasmodial infection. CONCLUSION: In patients with malaria in whom parasitological tests have not been performed recognition of this new, malaria-related fluorescence pattern on the ANA test is highly suggestive of the diagnosis and triggers immediate, easy confirmation and adapted therapy.

  12. Robust real-time pattern matching using bayesian sequential hypothesis testing.

    Pele, Ofir; Werman, Michael

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes a method for robust real time pattern matching. We first introduce a family of image distance measures, the "Image Hamming Distance Family". Members of this family are robust to occlusion, small geometrical transforms, light changes and non-rigid deformations. We then present a novel Bayesian framework for sequential hypothesis testing on finite populations. Based on this framework, we design an optimal rejection/acceptance sampling algorithm. This algorithm quickly determines whether two images are similar with respect to a member of the Image Hamming Distance Family. We also present a fast framework that designs a near-optimal sampling algorithm. Extensive experimental results show that the sequential sampling algorithm performance is excellent. Implemented on a Pentium 4 3 GHz processor, detection of a pattern with 2197 pixels, in 640 x 480 pixel frames, where in each frame the pattern rotated and was highly occluded, proceeds at only 0.022 seconds per frame.

  13. The effect of surface modifications of carbon nanotubes on the electrical properties of inkjet-printed SWNT/PEDOT-PSS composite line patterns

    Najeeb, C K; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Chang, Jingbo; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2010-01-01

    We prepared nanocomposite inks of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) filled with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) purified by acidic treatment, carboxylated by chemical oxidation and carboxyl-functionalized nanotubes physically modified with a natural gum, gum arabic. Inkjet printing of line patterns with a feature size of 100 μm width and lengths ranging from 1 to 5 cm was performed on glass substrates with a piezoelectric inkjet printer. The carboxyl-functionalized SWNT-based composite demonstrated a significant decrease (fourfold) of electrical resistance for the line patterns compared to that with a purified CNT-based composite due to improved dispersability of nanotubes in the polymer matrix. The use of gum arabic for the dispersion of carboxyl-functionalized nanotubes demonstrated a further drastic decrease (18-fold) of the resistance compared with a purified CNT-based composite owing to the formation of an extended continuous network within the line pattern. The inkjet-printed conductive patterns can be applied in various fields, such as flexible high speed transistors, high efficiency solar cells and transparent electrodes.

  14. Understanding Referral Patterns for Bone Mineral Density Testing among Family Physicians: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    Sarah E. P. Munce

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Evidence of inappropriate bone mineral density (BMD testing has been identified in terms of overtesting in low risk women and undertesting among patients at high risk. In light of these phenomena, the objective of this study was to understand the referral patterns for BMD testing among Ontario’s family physicians (FPs. Methods. A qualitative descriptive approach was adopted. Twenty-two FPs took part in a semi-structured interview lasting approximately 30 minutes. An inductive thematic analysis was performed on the transcribed data in order to understand the referral patterns for BMD testing. Results. We identified a lack of clarity about screening for osteoporosis with a tendency for baseline BMD testing in healthy, postmenopausal women and a lack of clarity on the appropriate age for screening for men in particular. A lack of clarity on appropriate intervals for follow-up testing was also described. Conclusions. These findings lend support to what has been documented at the population level suggesting a tendency among FPs to refer menopausal women (at low risk. Emphasis on referral of high-risk groups as well as men and further clarification and education on the appropriate intervals for follow-up testing is warranted.

  15. Scientific design of the test facility for the KNGR DVI line small break LOCA

    Yun, Byong Jo; Park, Choon Kyung; Jun, Hyung Gil; Cho, Seok; Kwon, Tae Soon; Song, Chul Hwa; Kim, Jung Taek

    1999-03-01

    Scientific design of the experimental facility (OASIS) for the KNGR (Korea Next Generation Reactor) DVI line SB-LOCA simulation is carried out. Main purpose of the OASIS is to produce thermal-hydraulic data base for determining the best location of the DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) injection nozzle of the KNGR as well as verifying its design performance in view of the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System) effectiveness. The experimental facility is designed based on the Ishii's three-level scaling law. The facility has 1/4 height and 1/341 area scaling ratio. It corresponds to the volume scale of 1/1364. The power scaling is 1/682 and the system pressure is prototypic. The OASIS consists of a core, a downcomer, two steam generators, two pump simulators, a break simulator, a collection tank, primary piping as well as a circulation pump for initial test condition. Each component is designed based on the Ishill's global scaling and boundary flow scaling of mass, energy and momentum. In addition, local phenomena scaling is carried out for the design of major components to preserve key local phenomena in each component. Most of the key phenomena are well preserved in the OASIS. However, the local scaling analysis shows that distortions of the void fraction and mixture level can not be avoided in the core. It comes from the basic features of the Ishill's scaling law in case of the reduced-height simulation. However, it is expected that these distortions will be analyzed properly by a best estimate system analysis code. (Author). 22 refs., 20 tabs., 25 figs.

  16. Spectral Filtering Criteria for U-Band Test Light for In-Service Line Monitoring in Optical Fiber Networks

    Honda, Nazuki; Izumita, Hisashi; Nakamura, Minoru

    2006-06-01

    In the fiber-to-the-home era, thousands of optical fibers will have to be accommodated in the central offices of optical access networks. To reduce maintenance costs and improve the service reliability of optical fiber networks, the authors must develop an optical fiber line testing system with a function for in-service line monitoring that uses a test light with a wavelength different from the communication light wavelength. To monitor an in-service line in an optical network, the effective rejection ratio of the test light must be taken into account. This ratio depends on the spectrum of the test light from the optical time-domain reflectometer and the rejection band of the filter in front of the optical network unit. The dependence of the effective rejection ratio as a function of the sideband suppression ratio (SBSR) and of the ratio of the rejection band to the bandwidth of the sideband noise d/D is clarified. When d/D =0.1 and the target effective rejection ratio of the filter is -40 dB, the SBSR and the filter loss of the termination cable must be -70 and -43 dB, respectively, or the SBSR must be -80 dB. When d/D service line monitoring for a 10-Gb/s transmission using a 1650-nm test light with an SBSR of -80 dB is also demonstrated.

  17. Design of a synchrotron radiation detector for the test beam lines at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    Hutton, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the particle- and momentum-tagging instrumentation required for the test beam lines of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), the synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) was designed to provide electron tagging at momentum above 75 GeV. In a parallel effort to the three test beam lines at the SSC, schedule demands required testing and calibration operations to be initiated at Fermilab. Synchrotron radiation detectors also were to be installed in the NM and MW beam lines at Femilab before the test beam lines at the SSC would become operational. The SRD is the last instrument in a series of three used in the SSC test beam fines. It follows a 20-m drift section of beam tube downstream of the last silicon strip detector. A bending dipole just in of the last silicon strip detector produces the synchrotron radiation that is detected in a 50-mm-square cross section NaI crystal. A secondary scintillator made of Bicron BC-400 plastic is used to discriminate whether it is synchrotron radiation or a stray particle that causes the triggering of the NaI crystal's photo multiplier tube (PMT)

  18. Detection of boiling by Piety's on-line PSD-pattern recognition algorithm applied to neutron noise signals in the SAPHIR reactor

    Spiekerman, G.

    1988-09-01

    A partial blockage of the cooling channels of a fuel element in a swimming pool reactor could lead to vapour generation and to burn-out. To detect such anomalies, a pattern recognition algorithm based on power spectra density (PSD) proposed by Piety was further developed and implemented on a PDP 11/23 for on-line applications. This algorithm identifies anomalies by measuring the PSD on the process signal and comparing them with a standard baseline previously formed. Up to 8 decision discriminants help to recognize spectral changes due to anomalies. In our application, to detect boiling as quickly as possible with sufficient sensitivity, Piety's algorithm was modified using overlapped Fast-Fourier-Transform-Processing and the averaging of the PSDs over a large sample of preceding instantaneous PSDs. This processing allows high sensitivity in detecting weak disturbances without reducing response time. The algorithm was tested with simulation-of-boiling experiments where nitrogen in a cooling channel of a mock-up of a fuel element was injected. Void fractions higher than 30 % in the channel can be detected. In the case of boiling, it is believed that this limit is lower because collapsing bubbles could give rise to stronger fluctuations. The algorithm was also tested with a boiling experiment where the reactor coolant flow was actually reduced. The results showed that the discriminant D5 of Piety's algorithm based on neutron noise obtained from the existing neutron chambers of the reactor control system could sensitively recognize boiling. The detection time amounts to 7-30 s depending on the strength of the disturbances. Other events, which arise during a normal reactor run like scrams, removal of isotope elements without scramming or control rod movements and which could lead to false alarms, can be distinguished from boiling. 49 refs., 104 figs., 5 tabs

  19. On-line testing of response time and calibration of temperature and pressure sensors in nuclear power plants

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Periodic calibrations and response time measurements are necessary for temperature and pressure sensors in the safety systems of nuclear power plants. Conventional measurement methods require the test to be performed at the sensor location or involve removing the sensor from the process and performing the tests in a laboratory or on the bench. The conventional methods are time consuming and have the potential of causing wear and tear on the equipment, can expose the test personnel to radiation and other harsh environments, and increase the length of the plant outage. Also, the conventional methods do not account for the installation effects which may have an influence on sensor performance. On-line testing methods alleviate these problems by providing remote sensor response time and calibration capabilities. For temperature sensors such as Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) and thermocouples, an on-line test method called the Loop Current Step Response (LCSR) technique has been developed, and for pressure transmitters, an on-line method called noise analysis which was available for reactor diagnostics was validated for response time testing applications. Both the LCSR and noise analysis tests are performed periodically in U.S. nuclear power plants to meet the plant technical specification requirements for response time testing of safety-related sensors. Automated testing of the calibration of both temperature and pressure sensors can be accomplished through an on-line monitoring system installed in the plant. The system monitors the DC output of the sensors over the fuel cycle to determine if any calibration drift has occurred. Changes in calibration can be detected using signal averaging and intercomparison methods and analytical redundancy techniques. (author)

  20. Transformation and Tumorigenicity Testing of Simian Cell Lines and Evaluation of Poliovirus Replication.

    Silvia Dotti

    Full Text Available The key role of cell cultures in different scientific fields is worldwide recognized, both as in vitro research models alternative to laboratory animals and substrates for biological production. However, many safety concerns rise from the use of animal/human cell lines that may be tumorigenic, leading to potential adverse contaminations in cell-derived biologicals. In order to evaluate the suitability of 13 different cell lines for Poliovirus vaccine production, safety and quality, in vitro/in vivo tumorigenicity and Poliovirus propagation properties were evaluated. Our results revealed that non-human primate cell lines CYNOM-K1, FRhK-4, 4MBr-5 and 4647 are free of tumorigenic features and represent highly susceptible substrates for attenuated Sabin Poliovirus strains. In particular, FRhK-4 and 4647 cell lines are characterized by a higher in vitro replication, resulting indicated for the use in large-scale production field.

  1. GSA On-Line Procurement Programs Lack Documentation and Reliability Testing

    Perry, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    .... For example, as part of an effort to improve the functioning of the government and achieve efficiencies of operations, the President has requested agencies to expand their use of on-line procurement in fiscal year 2OO2...

  2. Observation and analysis of self-amplified spontaneous emission at the APS low-energy undulator test line

    Arnold, N. D.; Attig, J.; Banks, G.; Bechtold, R.; Beczek, K.; Benson, C.; Berg, S.; Berg, W.; Biedron, S. G.; Biggs, J. A.; Borland, M.; Boerste, K.; Bosek, M.; Brzowski, W. R.; Budz, J.; Carwardine, J. A.; Castro, P.; Chae, Y.-C.; Christensen, S.; Clark, C.; Conde, M.; Crosbie, E. A.; Decker, G. A.; Dejus, R. J.; DeLeon, H.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B. N.; Dohan, D.; Dombrowski, P.; Donkers, D.; Doose, C. L.; Dortwegt, R. J.; Edwards, G. A.; Eidelman, Y.; Erdmann, M. J.; Error, J.; Ferry, R.; Flood, R.; Forrestal, J.; Freund, H.; Friedsam, H.; Gagliano, J.; Gai, W.; Galayda, J. N.; Gerig, R.; Gilmore, R. L.; Gluskin, E.; Goeppner, G. A.; Goetzen, J.; Gold, C.; Gorski, A. J.; Grelick, A. E.; Hahne, M. W.; Hanuska, S.; Harkay, K. C.; Harris, G.; Hillman, A. L.; Hogrefe, R.; Hoyt, J.; Huang, Z.; Jagger, J. M.; Jansma, W. G.; Jaski, M.; Jones, S. J.; Keane, R. T.; Kelly, A. L.; Keyser, C.; Kim, K.-J.; Kim, S. H.; Kirshenbaum, M.; Klick, J. H.; Knoerzer, K.; Koldenhoven, R. J.; Knott, M.; Labuda, S.; Laird, R.; Lang, J.; Lenkszus, F.; Lessner, E. S.; Lewellen, J. W.; Li, Y.; Lill, R. M.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Makarov, O. A.; Markovich, G. M.; McDowell, M.; McDowell, W. P.; McNamara, P. E.; Meier, T.; Meyer, D.; Michalek, W.; Milton, S. V.; Moe, H.; Moog, E. R.; Morrison, L.; Nassiri, A.; Noonan, J. R.; Otto, R.; Pace, J.; Pasky, S. J.; Penicka, J. M.; Pietryla, A. F.; Pile, G.; Pitts, C.; Power, J.; Powers, T.; Putnam, C. C.; Puttkammer, A. J.; Reigle, D.; Reigle, L.; Ronzhin, D.; Rotela, E. R.; Russell, E. F.; Sajaev, V.; Sarkar, S.; Scapino, J. C.; Schroeder, K.; Seglem, R. A.; Sereno, N. S.; Sharma, S. K.; Sidarous, J. F.; Singh, O.; Smith, T. L.; Soliday, R.; Sprau, G. A.; Stein, S. J.; Stejskal, B.; Svirtun, V.; Teng, L. C.; Theres, E.; Thompson, K.; Tieman, B. J.; Torres, J. A.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Travish, G.; Trento, G. F.; Vacca, J.; Vasserman, I. B.; Vinokurov, N. A.; Walters, D. R.; Wang, J.; Wang, X. J.; Warren, J.; Wesling, S.; Weyer, D. L.; Wiemerslage, G.; Wilhelmi, K.; Wright, R.; Wyncott, D.; Xu, S.; Yang, B.-X.; Yoder, W.; Zabel, R. B.

    2001-12-01

    Exponential growth of self-amplified spontaneous emission at 530 nm was first experimentally observed at the Advanced Photon Source low-energy undulator test line in December 1999. Since then, further detailed measurements and analysis of the results have been made. Here, we present the measurements and compare these with calculations based on measured electron beam properties and theoretical expectations.

  3. 40 CFR 1051.325 - What happens if an engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.325 What happens if an engine... for an engine family if it fails under § 1051.315. The suspension may apply to all facilities producing vehicles or engines from an engine family, even if you find noncompliant vehicles or engines only...

  4. Compared behaviour of stainless steel and titanium tests lines for a L.H.H. grill launcher

    Rey, G.; Briand, P.; David, C.; Lamboley, G.; Moulin, D.; Tonon, G.

    1982-09-01

    The choice of the material as first wall of a grill is of major importance. It must satisfy eventually conficting demands: (i) mean secondary emission coefficient low enough to avoid multipactor effect, (ii) low gas absorption and desorption and (iii) easy manufacturing. Then two test lines, one made of pure titanium, the other made of 304 L stainless steel have been tested at RF power greater than 300 kW during 150 ms at 1,25 GHz. As reported in a previous paper, 360 kW have been transmitted in the titanium test line without or with a very slight change in phase between incident an transmitted wave ( 0 ) after application of low pressure argon glow discharges. We now report the first results obtained on a stainless steel test line after the use of the same conditioning procedure (baking and argon glow discharges) and the effects of a static magnetic field superimposed in the reduced size sections of the line (B parallel to the large dimension of the waveguide)

  5. Observation and analysis of self-amplified spontaneous emission at the APS low-energy undulator test line

    Arnold, N D; Banks, G; Bechtold, R; Beczek, K; Benson, C; Berg, S; Berg, W; Biedron, S G; Biggs, J A; Boerste, K; Borland, M; Bosek, M; Brzowski, W R; Budz, J; Carwardine, J A; Castro, P; Chae, Y C; Christensen, S; Clark, C; Conde, M; Crosbie, E A; Decker, G A; Dejus, Roger J; Deleon, H; Den Hartog, P K; Deriy, B N; Dohan, D; Dombrowski, P; Donkers, D; Doose, C L; Dortwegt, R J; Edwards, G A; Eidelman, Y; Erdmann, M J; Error, J J; Ferry, R; Flood, R; Forrestal, J; Freund, H; Friedsam, H; Gagliano, J; Gai, W; Galayda, J N; Gerig, R; Gilmore, R L; Gluskin, E; Goeppner, G A; Goetzen, J; Gold, C; Grelick, A E; Hahne, M W; Hanuska, S; Harkay, K C; Harris, G; Hillman, A L; Hogrefe, R; Hoyt, J; Huang, Z; Jagger, J M; Jansma, W G; Jaski, M; Jones, S J; Keane, R T; Kelly, A L; Keyser, C; Kim, K J; Kim, S H; Kirshenbaum, M; Klick, J H; Knoerzer, K; Knott, M; Koldenhoven, R J; Labuda, S; Laird, R; Lang, J; Lenkszus, F R; Lessner, E S; Lewellen, J W; Li, Y; Lill, R M; Lumpkin, Alex H; Makarov, O A; Markovich, G M; McDowell, M; McDowell, W P; McNamara, P E; Meier, T; Meyer, D; Michalek, W; Milton, S V; Moe, H; Moog, E; Morrison, L; Nassiri, A; Noonan, J R; Otto, R; Pace, J; Pasky, S J; Penicka, J M; Pietryla, A F; Pile, G; Pitts, C; Power, J; Powers, T; Putnam, C C; Puttkammer, A J; Reigle, D; Reigle, L; Ronzhin, D; Rotela, E R; Russell, E F; Sajaev, Vadim; Sarkar, S; Scapino, J C; Schröder, K; Seglem, R A; Sereno, N S; Sharma, S K; Sidarous, J F; Singh, O; Smith, T L; Soliday, R; Sprau, G A; Stein, S J; Stejskal, B; Svirtun, V; Teng, L C; Theres, E; Thompson, K; Tieman, B J; Torres, J A; Trakhtenberg, E; Travish, G; Trento, G F; Vacca, J; Vasserman, I B; Vinokurov, N A; Walters, D R; Wang, J; Wang, X J; Warren, J; Wesling, S; Weyer, D L; Wiemerslage, G; Wilhelmi, K; Wright, R; Wyncott, D; Xu, S; Yang, B X; Yoder, W; Zabel, R B

    2001-01-01

    Exponential growth of self-amplified spontaneous emission at 530 nm was first experimentally observed at the Advanced Photon Source low-energy undulator test line in December 1999. Since then, further detailed measurements and analysis of the results have been made. Here, we present the measurements and compare these with calculations based on measured electron beam properties and theoretical expectations.

  6. [Blood Test Patterns for Blood Donors after Nucleic Acid Detection in the Blood Center].

    Men, Shou-Shan; Lv, Lian-Zhi; Chen, Yuan-Feng; Han, Chun-Hua; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yan, Yan

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the blood test patterns for blood donors after nucleic acid detection in blood center. The collected blood samples after voluntary blood donors first were detected by conventional ELISA, then 31981 negative samples were detected via HBV/HCV/HIV combined nucleic acid test of 6 mixed samples(22716 cases) or single samples(9265 cases) by means of Roche cobas s201 instrument. The combined detection method as follows: the blood samples were assayed by conventional nucleic acid test of 6 mixed samples, at same time, 6 mixed samples were treated with polyethylene glycol precipitation method to concentrate the virus, then the nucleic acid test of blood samples was performed; the single detection method as follows: firstly the conventional nucleic acid test of single sample was performed, then the positive reactive samples after re-examination were 6-fold diluted to simulate the nucleic acid test of 6-mixed samples. The positive rate of positive samples detected by combined nucleic acid test, positive samples detected by nucleic acid test of mixed virus concentration and positive samples detected by single nucleic acid test was statistically analyzed. In addition, for HBV + persons the serological test yet should be performed. In 22 716 samples detected by nucleic acid test of 6 mixed samples (MP-6-NAT) , 9 cases were HBV + (0.40‰, 9/22716); at same time, the detection of same samples by nucleic acid test of mixed sample virus concentration showed 29 cases of HBV + (1.28‰, 29/22716). In 9265 samples detected by single nucleic acid test(ID-NAT) 12 cases showed HBV + (1.30‰, 12/9265), meanwhile the detection of these 12 samples with HBV + by 6-fold dilution for virus concentration found only 4 samples with HBV + . In serological qualified samples, ID-NAT unqualified rate was 1.28‰, which was higher than that of MP-6-NAT(0.4‰) (χ 2 =8.11, P0.05). In 41 samples with HBsAg - HBV DNA + detected by ELISA, 36 samples were confirmed to be occult HBV

  7. Comparative genotoxicity testing of Rhine river sediment extracts using the comet assay with permanent fish cell lines (RTG-2 and RTL-W1) and the Ames test

    Kosmehl, T.; Braunbeck, T.; Hollert, H. [Dept. of Zoology, Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Krebs, F.; Manz, W. [German Federal Inst. of Hydrology, Koblenz (Germany); Erdinger, L. [Dept. for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Inst. for Hygiene, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Whilst at least in Germany assessment strategies on the basis of chemical analysis and acute toxicity data dominated the last decades, the development of more specific biological endpoints and biomarkers in ecotoxicology is required in order to arrive at a good ecological potential and good chemical status of surface waters in the European river basins until the year 2015, as required by the European Water Framework Directive. Since sediments have for long been known to function both as a sink and as a source of pollutants in aquatic systems, and since part of the particle-associated substances have frequently been demonstrated to cause mutagenic and carcinogenic effects in aquatic organisms, particularly in fish, there is, among other requirements, an urgent need to develop, standardize and implement integrated vertebrate-based test systems addressing genotoxicity into recent sediment investigation strategies. Thus, the present study was designed to compare the suitability of two commonly used test systems, the comet assay and the Ames test, for the evaluation of the ecotoxicological burden of surface and core sediment samples from the river Rhine. Methods (or main features). In order to determine the importance of inherent enzymatic activities, two permanent fish cell lines with different biotransformation capacities, RTL-W1 and RTG-2, were compared with respect to their capability of detecting genotoxic effects in 18 surface and core sediment samples from 9 locations along the river Rhine in the comet assay with and without exogenous bioactivation. For further comparison, as a prokaryotic mutagenicity assay, the Salmonella plate incorporation assay (Ames test) with the test strains TA98 and TA100 with and without exogenous metabolic activation was used. Results and discussion. Whereas all sediment extracts induced genotoxic effects in the comet assay with RTL-W1 cells, only 12 out of 18 sediment extracts revealed significant genotoxicity in the tests with the

  8. Testing for myositis specific autoantibodies: Comparison between line blot and immunoprecipitation assays in 57 myositis sera.

    Cavazzana, Ilaria; Fredi, Micaela; Ceribelli, Angela; Mordenti, Cristina; Ferrari, Fabio; Carabellese, Nice; Tincani, Angela; Satoh, Minoru; Franceschini, Franco

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the performance of a line blot assay for the identification of autoantibodies in sera of patients affected by myositis, compared with immunoprecipitation (IP) as gold standard. 66 sera of patients with myositis (23 polymyositis, 8 anti-synthetase syndromes, 29 dermatomyositis and 6 overlap syndromes) were tested by commercial LB (Euroimmun, Lubeck, Germany); 57 sera were analyzed also by IP of K562 cell extract radiolabeled with (35)S-methionine. Inter-rater agreement was calculated with Cohen's k coefficient. Myositis-specific antibodies (MSA) were detected in 36/57 sera (63%) by IP and in 39/66 sera (59%) by LB. The most frequent MSA found by LB were anti-Jo1 and anti-Mi2 found in 15% (10/66) of sera, followed by anti-NXP2 and anti-SRP detected in 106% (7/66) of sera. Anti-TIF1gamma and anti-MDA5 were found in 6 (9%) and 5 sera (7.6%), respectively. A good agreement between methods was found only for anti-TIF1γ, anti-MDA5 and anti-NXP-2 antibodies, while a moderate agreement was estimated for anti-Mi2 and anti-EJ. By contrast, a high discordance rate for the detection of anti-Jo1 antibodies was evident (k: 0.3). Multiple positivity for MSA were found in 11/66 (17%) by LB and 0/57 by IP (p: 0001). Comparing the clinical features of these 11 sera, we found total discrepancies between assays in 3 sera (27.3%), a relative discrepancy due to the occurrence of one discordant autoantibody (not confirmed by IP) in 5 cases (45.5%) and a total discrepancy between LB and IP results, but with a relative concordance with clinical features were found in other 3 sera (27.3%). The semiquantitative results do not support the interpretation of the data. The use of LB assay allowed the detection of new MSA, such as anti-MDA5, anti-MJ and anti-TIF1gamma antibodies, previously not found with routine methods. However, the high prevalence of multiple positivities and the high discondant rate of anti-Jo1 antibodies could create some misinterpretation of the results from the

  9. Typhoid outbreak in Songkhla, Thailand 2009-2011: clinical outcomes, susceptibility patterns, and reliability of serology tests.

    Wannee Limpitikul

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical manifestations and outcomes, the reliability of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S ser. Typhi IgM and IgG rapid tests, and the susceptibility patterns and the response to treatment during the 2009-2011 typhoid outbreak in Songkhla province in Thailand. METHOD: The medical records of children aged <15 years with S ser. Typhi bacteremia were analysed. The efficacy of the typhoid IgM and IgG rapid tests and susceptibility of the S ser. Typhi to the current main antibiotics used for typhoid (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, co-trimoxazole, and ciprofloxacin, were evaluated. RESULTS: S ser. Typhi bacteremia was found in 368 patients, and all isolated strains were susceptible to all 6 antimicrobials tested. Most of the patients were treated with ciprofloxacin for 7-14 days. The median time (IQR of fever before treatment and duration of fever after treatment were 5 (4, 7 days and 4 (3, 5 days, respectively. Complications of ascites, lower respiratory symptoms, anemia (Hct <30%, and ileal perforation were found in 7, 7, 22, and 1 patients, respectively. None of the patients had recurrent infection or died. The sensitivities of the typhoid IgM and IgG tests were 58.3% and 25.6% respectively, and specificities were 74.1% and 50.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Most of the patients were diagnosed at an early stage and treated with a good outcome. All S ser. Typhi strains were susceptible to standard first line antibiotic typhoid treatment. The typhoid IgM and IgG rapid tests had low sensitivity and moderate specificity.

  10. Two-phase flow patterns recognition and parameters estimation through natural circulation test loop image analysis

    Mesquita, R.N.; Libardi, R.M.P.; Masotti, P.H.F.; Sabundjian, G.; Andrade, D.A.; Umbehaun, P.E.; Torres, W.M.; Conti, T.N.; Macedo, L.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Center], e-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Visualization of natural circulation test loop cycles is used to study two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. Experimental studies on natural circulation flow were originally related to accidents and transient simulations relative to nuclear reactor systems with light water refrigeration. In this regime, fluid circulation is mainly caused by a driving force ('thermal head') which arises from density differences due to temperature gradient. Natural circulation phenomenon has been important to provide residual heat removal in cases of 'loss of pump power' or plant shutdown in nuclear power plant accidents. The new generation of compact nuclear reactors includes natural circulation of their refrigerant fluid as a security mechanism in their projects. Two-phase flow patterns have been studied for many decades, and the related instabilities have been object of special attention recently. Experimental facility is an all glass-made cylindrical tubes loop which contains about twelve demineralized water liters, a heat source by an electrical resistor immersion heater controlled by a Variac, and a helicoidal heat exchanger working as cold source. Data is obtained through thermo-pairs distributed over the loop and CCD cameras. Artificial intelligence based algorithms are used to improve (bubble) border detection and patterns recognition, in order to estimate and characterize, phase transitions patterns and correlate them with the periodic static instability (chugging) cycle observed in this circuit. Most of initial results show good agreement with previous numerical studies in this same facility. (author)

  11. Two-phase flow patterns recognition and parameters estimation through natural circulation test loop image analysis

    Mesquita, R.N.; Libardi, R.M.P.; Masotti, P.H.F.; Sabundjian, G.; Andrade, D.A.; Umbehaun, P.E.; Torres, W.M.; Conti, T.N.; Macedo, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Visualization of natural circulation test loop cycles is used to study two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. Experimental studies on natural circulation flow were originally related to accidents and transient simulations relative to nuclear reactor systems with light water refrigeration. In this regime, fluid circulation is mainly caused by a driving force ('thermal head') which arises from density differences due to temperature gradient. Natural circulation phenomenon has been important to provide residual heat removal in cases of 'loss of pump power' or plant shutdown in nuclear power plant accidents. The new generation of compact nuclear reactors includes natural circulation of their refrigerant fluid as a security mechanism in their projects. Two-phase flow patterns have been studied for many decades, and the related instabilities have been object of special attention recently. Experimental facility is an all glass-made cylindrical tubes loop which contains about twelve demineralized water liters, a heat source by an electrical resistor immersion heater controlled by a Variac, and a helicoidal heat exchanger working as cold source. Data is obtained through thermo-pairs distributed over the loop and CCD cameras. Artificial intelligence based algorithms are used to improve (bubble) border detection and patterns recognition, in order to estimate and characterize, phase transitions patterns and correlate them with the periodic static instability (chugging) cycle observed in this circuit. Most of initial results show good agreement with previous numerical studies in this same facility. (author)

  12. Association between the gait pattern characteristics of older people and their two-step test scores.

    Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Toru

    2018-04-27

    The Two-Step test is one of three official tests authorized by the Japanese Orthopedic Association to evaluate the risk of locomotive syndrome (a condition of reduced mobility caused by an impairment of the locomotive organs). It has been reported that the Two-Step test score has a good correlation with one's walking ability; however, its association with the gait pattern of older people during normal walking is still unknown. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the associations between the gait patterns of older people observed during normal walking and their Two-Step test scores. We analyzed the whole waveforms obtained from the lower-extremity joint angles and joint moments of 26 older people in various stages of locomotive syndrome using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA was conducted using a 260 × 2424 input matrix constructed from the participants' time-normalized pelvic and right-lower-limb-joint angles along three axes (ten trials of 26 participants, 101 time points, 4 angles, 3 axes, and 2 variable types per trial). The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between the scores of the principal component vectors (PCVs) and the scores of the Two-Step test revealed that only one PCV (PCV 2) among the 61 obtained relevant PCVs is significantly related to the score of the Two-Step test. We therefore concluded that the joint angles and joint moments related to PCV 2-ankle plantar-flexion, ankle plantar-flexor moments during the late stance phase, ranges of motion and moments on the hip, knee, and ankle joints in the sagittal plane during the entire stance phase-are the motions associated with the Two-Step test.

  13. Testing Disk-Wind Models with Quasar CIV 1549Å Associated Absorption Lines

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Narrow associated C IV 1549Å absorption lines (NALs) with a rest equivalent width EW =3 Å detected in z ˜ 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, (a) exhibit evidence of an origin in radiatively accelerated gas, and (b) may be closely related to broad absorption line (BAL) outflows. These NALs...... and the few BALs detected in this quasar sample obey key predictions of models of radiatively driven disk-winds in which (1) the local disk luminosity launches the wind, (2) the central UV radiation drives it outwards, and (3) the wind acceleration (i.e., terminal velocity) depends on the strength of the X...

  14. Cost-effectiveness of HIV drug resistance testing to inform switching to second line antiretroviral therapy in low income settings

    Phillips, Andrew; Cambiano, Valentina; Nakagawa, Fumiyo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To guide future need for cheap resistance tests for use in low income settings, we assessed cost-effectiveness of drug resistance testing as part of monitoring of people on first line ART - with switching from first to second line ART being conditional on NNRTI drug resistance mutations...... being identified. METHODS: An individual level simulation model of HIV transmission, progression and the effect of ART which accounts for adherence and resistance development was used to compare outcomes of various potential monitoring strategies in a typical low income setting in sub-Saharan Africa....... Underlying monitoring strategies considered were based on clinical disease, CD4 count or viral load. Within each we considered a strategy in which no further measures are performed, one with a viral load measure to confirm failure, and one with both a viral load measure and a resistance test. Predicted...

  15. Developing a reproducible non-line-of-sight experimental setup for testing wireless medical device coexistence utilizing ZigBee.

    LaSorte, Nickolas J; Rajab, Samer A; Refai, Hazem H

    2012-11-01

    The integration of heterogeneous wireless technologies is believed to aid revolutionary healthcare delivery in hospitals and residential care. Wireless medical device coexistence is a growing concern given the ubiquity of wireless technology. In spite of this, a consensus standard that addresses risks associated with wireless heterogeneous networks has not been adopted. This paper serves as a starting point by recommending a practice for assessing the coexistence of a wireless medical device in a non-line-of-sight environment utilizing 802.15.4 in a practical, versatile, and reproducible test setup. This paper provides an extensive survey of other coexistence studies concerning 802.15.4 and 802.11 and reports on the authors' coexistence testing inside and outside an anechoic chamber. Results are compared against a non-line-of-sight test setup. Findings relative to co-channel and adjacent channel interference were consistent with results reported in the literature.

  16. BWR 200 % recirculation pump suction line break LOCA tests, RUNs 942 and 943 at ROSA-III without HPCS

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Tasaka, Kanji; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Murata, Hideo; Koizumi, Yasuo

    1986-03-01

    This report presents the experimental results of RUNs 942 and 943 in ROSA-III program, which are 200 % recirculation pump suction line break LOCA tests with assumption of HPCS failure. The ROSA-III test facility simulates a BWR system with volume scale of 1/424 and has four half-length electrically heated fuel bundles, two active recirculation loops, ECCS's, and steam and feedwater systems. Effects of initial core void distribution and other fluid conditions on overall LOCA phenomena with special interest on transient core cooling phenomena were investigated by comparing the present test results with those of RUN 926, a 200 % suction line break test with standard initial fluid conditions. The initial core outlet quality was changed between 5 % and 43 %. As conclusions, (1) the initial lower core flow and higher void fraction affected significantly the core cooling conditions and resulted in earlier and higher PCT. (2) The lower plenum flashing temporarily contributed to cool down the core. (3) Flashing of remained hot water in the feedwater line affected slightly the pressure response and delayed the actuation of LPCI by 11 seconds. (4) The whole core was completely cooled down within 104 seconds after the LPCI actuation in these large break tests. (author)

  17. On-line Flagging of Anomalies and Adaptive Sequential Hypothesis Testing for Fine-feature Characterization of Geosynchronous Satellites

    Chaudhary, A.; Payne, T.; Kinateder, K.; Dao, P.; Beecher, E.; Boone, D.; Elliott, B.

    evaluate satellite operational status and affirm its true identity. The process of ingesting photometry data and deriving satellite physical characteristics can be directed by analysts in a batch mode, meaning using a batch of recent data, or by automated algorithms in an on-line mode in which the assessment is updated with each new data point. Tools used for detecting change to satellite's status or identity, whether performed with a human in the loop or automated algorithms, are generally not built to detect with minimum latency and traceable confidence intervals. To alleviate those deficiencies, we investigate the use of Hidden Markov Models (HMM), in a Bayesian Network framework, to infer the hidden state (changed or unchanged) of a three-axis stabilized geostationary satellite using broadband and color photometry. Unlike frequentist statistics which exploit only the stationary statistics of the observables in the database, HMM also exploits the temporal pattern of the observables as well. The algorithm also operates in “learning” mode to gradually evolve the HMM and accommodate natural changes such as due to the seasonal dependence of GEO satellite's light curve. Our technique is designed to operate with missing color data. The version that ingests both panchromatic and color data can accommodate gaps in color photometry data. That attribute is important because while color indices, e.g. Johnson R and B, enhance the belief (probability) of a hidden state, in real world situations, flux data is collected sporadically in an untasked collect, and color data is limited and sometimes absent. Fluxes are measured with experimental error whose effect on the algorithm will be studied. Photometry data in the AFRL's Geo Color Photometry Catalog and Geo Observations with Latitudinal Diversity Simultaneously (GOLDS) data sets are used to simulate a wide variety of operational changes and identity cross tags. The algorithm is tested against simulated sequences of observed

  18. A Test of the Formation Mechanism of the Broad Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Czerny, B.; Du, P.; Wang, J.-M.; Karas, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 832, č. 1 (2016), 15/1-15/11 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxies * emission lines * active galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  19. THE ADAPTATION TEST ON YARDLONG BEAN LINES TOLERANT TO APHIDS AND HIGH YIELD

    Kuswanto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation trial was applied to determine the benefits of genotype-environmental inter-action, adaptability and stability of lines. The previous research successfully obtained 8 UB lines which had high yield and tolerant to aphids. These lines belong to plant breeding laboratory of Brawijaya University, which had stability and a high potential can be immediately released to the public. Research was conducted in 2010, dry and rainy season, on 3 locations of yardlong bean, namely Malang, Kediri and Jombang. Randomized Block Design was applied in these locations.Genotype-environment interaction was analyzed with combined analysis of nested design.The adaptability and stability were known from regression analysis based on the stability of Eberhart and Russel. There were 6 stabile lines, namely UB7070P1, UB24089X1, UB606572, UB61318, UB7023J44, and UB715, respectively. They were recommended to be released as new varieties which had pest tolerance and high yield. The UBPU was suitable to be developed in marginal land. The 6 new varieties had registered to Agriculture Department Republic of Indonesia, namely, Brawijaya 1, Brawijaya 3, Brawijaya 4, Bagong 2, Bagong 3 dan Bagong Ungu, respectively.

  20. Development of an in vitro skin sensitization test using human cell lines; human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT). II. An inter-laboratory study of the h-CLAT.

    Sakaguchi, H; Ashikaga, T; Miyazawa, M; Yoshida, Y; Ito, Y; Yoneyama, K; Hirota, M; Itagaki, H; Toyoda, H; Suzuki, H

    2006-08-01

    Recent regulatory changes have placed a major emphasis on in vitro safety testing and alternative models. In regard to skin sensitization tests, dendritic cells (DCs) derived from human peripheral blood have been considered in the development of new in vitro alternatives. Human cell lines have been also reported recently. In our previous study, we suggested that measuring CD86 and/or CD54 expression on THP-1 cells (human monocytic leukemia cell line) could be used as an in vitro skin sensitization method. An inter-laboratory study among two laboratories was undertaken in Japan in order to further develop an in vitro skin sensitization model. In the present study, we used two human cell lines: THP-1 and U-937 (human histiocytic lymphoma cell line). First we optimized our test protocol (refer to the related paper entitled "optimization of the h-CLAT protocol" within this journal) and then we did an inter-laboratory validation with nine chemicals using the optimized protocol. We measured the expression of CD86 and CD54 on the above cells using flow cytometry after a 24h and 48h exposure to six known allergens (e.g., DNCB, pPD, NiSO(4)) and three non-allergens (e.g., SLS, tween 80). For the sample test concentration, four doses (0.1x, 0.5x, 1x, and 2x of the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50))) were evaluated. IC(50) was calculated using MTT assay. We found that allergens/non-allergens were better predicted using THP-1 cells compared to U-937 cells following a 24 h and a 48 h exposure. We also found that the 24h treatment time tended to have a better accuracy than the 48 h treatment time for THP-1 cells. Expression of CD86 and CD54 were good predictive markers for THP-1 cells, but for U-937 cells, expression of CD86 was a better predictor than CD54, at the 24h and the 48 h treatment time. The accuracy also improved when both markers (CD86 and CD54) were used as compared with a single marker for THP-1 cells. Both laboratories gave a good prediction of allergen

  1. Recent Patterns in Shared Decision Making for Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing in the United States.

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Gansler, Ted; Smith, Robert; Sauer, Ann Goding; Wender, Richard; Brawley, Otis W; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies report infrequent use of shared decision making for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. It is unknown whether this pattern has changed recently considering increased emphasis on shared decision making in prostate cancer screening recommendations. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine recent changes in shared decision making. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study among men aged 50 years and older in the United States using 2010 and 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data (n = 9,598). Changes in receipt of shared decision making were expressed as adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were stratified on PSA testing (recent [in the past year] or no testing). Elements of shared decision making assessed included the patient being informed about the advantages only, advantages and disadvantages, and full shared decision making (advantages, disadvantages, and uncertainties). Among men with recent PSA testing, 58.5% and 62.6% reported having received ≥1 element of shared decision making in 2010 and 2015, respectively ( P = .054, aPR = 1.04; 95% CI, 0.98-1.11). Between 2010 and 2015, being told only about the advantages of PSA testing significantly declined (aPR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71-0.96) and full shared decision making prevalence significantly increased (aPR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.28-1.79) in recently tested men. Among men without prior PSA testing, 10% reported ≥1 element of shared decision making, which did not change with time. Between 2010 and 2015, there was no increase in shared decision making among men with recent PSA testing though there was a shift away from only being told about the advantages of PSA testing towards full shared decision making. Many men receiving PSA testing did not receive shared decision making. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  2. No effects of power line frequency extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on selected neurobehavior tests of workers inspecting transformers and distribution line stations versus controls.

    Li, Li; Xiong, De-fu; Liu, Jia-wen; Li, Zi-xin; Zeng, Guang-cheng; Li, Hua-liang

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the interference of 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure on the neurobehavior tests of workers performing tour-inspection close to transformers and distribution power lines. Occupational short-term "spot" measurements were carried out. 310 inspection workers and 300 logistics staff were selected as exposure and control. The neurobehavior tests were performed through computer-based neurobehavior evaluation system, including mental arithmetic, curve coincide, simple visual reaction time, visual retention, auditory digit span and pursuit aiming. In 500 kV areas electric field intensity at 71.98% of total measured 590 spots were above 5 kV/m (national occupational standard), while in 220 kV areas electric field intensity at 15.69% of total 701 spots were above 5 kV/m. Magnetic field flux density at all the spots was below 1,000 μT (ICNIRP occupational standard). The neurobehavior score changes showed no statistical significance. Results of neurobehavior tests among different age, seniority groups showed no significant changes. Neurobehavior changes caused by daily repeated ELF-EMF exposure were not observed in the current study.

  3. Validity and reliability of the single-trial line drill test of anaerobic power in basketball players.

    Fatouros, I G; Laparidis, K; Kambas, A; Chatzinikolaou, A; Techlikidou, E; Katrabasas, I; Douroudos, I; Leontsini, D; Berberidou, F; Draganidis, D; Christoforidis, C; Tsoukas, D; Kelis, S; Taxildaris, K

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the single-trial line drill test (SLDT) for anaerobic power assessment. Twenty-four volunteers were assigned to either a control (C, N.=12) or an experimental (BP, N.=12 basketball players) group. SLDT's (time-to-complete) concurrent validity was evaluated against the Wingate testing (WAnT: mean [MP] and peak power [PP]) and a 30-sec vertical jump testing test (VJT: mean height and MP). Blood lactate concentration was measured at rest and immediately post-test. SLDT's reliability [test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), Bland-Altman plots] and sensitivity were determined (one-way ANOVA). Kendall's tau correlation analysis revealed correlations (Pbasketball players.

  4. Essential roles for lines in mediating leg and antennal proximodistal patterning and generating a stable Notch signaling interface at segment borders.

    Greenberg, Lina; Hatini, Victor

    2009-06-01

    The Drosophila leg imaginal disc provides a paradigm with which to understand the fundamental developmental mechanisms that generate an intricate appendage structure. Leg formation depends on the subdivision of the leg proximodistal (PD) axis into broad domains by the leg gap genes. The leg gap genes act combinatorially to initiate the expression of the Notch ligands Delta (Dl) and Serrate (Ser) in a segmental pattern. Dl and Ser induce the expression of a set of transcriptional regulators along the segment border, which mediate leg segment growth and joint morphogenesis. Here we show that Lines accumulates in nuclei in the presumptive tarsus and the inter-joints of proximal leg segments and governs the formation of these structures by destabilizing the nuclear protein Bowl. Across the presumptive tarsus, lines modulates the opposing expression landscapes of the leg gap gene dachshund (dac) and the tarsal PD genes, bric-a-brac 2 (bab), apterous (ap) and BarH1 (Bar). In this manner, lines inhibits proximal tarsal fates and promotes medial and distal tarsal fates. Across proximal leg segments, lines antagonizes bowl to promote Dl expression by relief-of-repression. In turn, Dl signals asymmetrically to stabilize Bowl in adjacent distal cells. Bowl, then, acts cell-autonomously, together with one or more redundant factors, to repress Dl expression. Together, lines and bowl act as a binary switch to generate a stable Notch signaling interface between Dl-expressing cells and adjacent distal cell. lines plays analogous roles in developing antennae, which are serially homologous to legs, suggesting evolutionarily conserved roles for lines in ventral appendage formation.

  5. [Practice patterns in Mexican allergologists about skin tests with allergens during 2005-2006].

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée; Fogelbach, Guillermo Arturo Guidos; Cruz, Alfredo Arias

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapy has been practiced since over a hundred years. The exact composition of the immunotherapy concentrate, with which the patient is treated, depends partly on the results of the skin prick tests applied to the allergic patient. As such, the effectiveness of the immunotherapy depends heavily on the quality of the skin prick test. The detailed recommendations for the realization of the skin prick tests have evolved and changed over the years, leading to multiple variations in its application in Mexico. We tried to get a picture of the daily practice patterns of the members of CMICA and CoMPedIA concerning the application of skin prick tests. Aquestionnaire was sent in various occasions to all members of the Colegio Mexicano de Inmunologia Clinica y Alergia (CMICA) and of the Colegio Mexicano de Pediatras, Especialistas en Inmunologia y Alergia (CoMPedIA). The results are presented descriptively and by calculation of the frequency/percentages of intervals of replies, in the case of numerical responses. A response rate of 61 (17%) was obtained of the College members, showing consistency in some replies but a wide variation in others, for example in the time certain medication has to be suspended before the execution of the skin prick test. Comparing the replies obtained with recent recommendations in international publications, some discrepancy can be detected. In some aspects of the survey there is coincidence of the skin test practices among the participants; however, in other items there is an important variation.

  6. Trends in referral patterns, invasive management, and mortality in elderly patients referred for exercise stress testing.

    Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Peteiro, Jesús; Broullón, Francisco J; Calviño-Santos, Ramón; Mosquera, Víctor X; Barbeito-Caamaño, Cayetana; Larrañaga-Moreira, José María; Maneiro-Melón, Nicolás; Álvarez-García, Nemesio; Vázquez-Rodríguez, José Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Scarce data are available on the temporal patterns in clinical characteristics and outcomes of elderly patients referred for exercise stress testing. We aimed to assess the trends in baseline characteristics, tests results, referrals for invasive management, and mortality in these patients. We evaluated 11,192 patients aged ≥65years who were referred for exercise stress testing between January 1998 and December 2013. Calendar years were grouped into four quadrennia (1998-2001, 2002-2005, 2006-2009, and 2010-2013), and trends in clinical characteristics of the patients, type and results of the tests, referrals for invasive management, and mortality across the different periods were assessed. Despite a progressive decrease in the proportion of patients with non-interpretable baseline electrocardiograms or prior history of coronary artery disease, there was a gradual and marked increase in the use of cardiac imaging from 32.8% in 1998-2001 to 67.6% in 2010-2013 (pstress testing both without imaging (from 18.9 to 13.6%, pstress testing, we observed a decline over time in the probability of inducible myocardial ischemia, an increase in the use of cardiac imaging and in the rate of coronary revascularization, and an improvement in the survival rate at 1year. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on the deposition patterns of aerosol inhalation scintigraphy, 1; Comparison of the deposition patterns of aerosol inhalation scintigraphy with lung function tests in pulmonary diseases

    Watanabe, Hiroyuki [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1989-06-01

    The deposition patterns of aerosol inhalation scintigraphies and lung function tests were studied in 102 cases; 64 cases of obstructive pulmonary diseases (19 pulmonary emphysema, 27 diffuse panbronchiolitis, 18 chronic bronchitis) and 38 restrictive pulmonary disease (15 idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, 16 pulmonary asbestosis, 7 interstitial pneumonia due to collagen vascular disease). The deposition patterns were classified into 5 patterns (Type A:normal homogenous distribution; Type B: mildly unhomogenous distribution; Type C: severely unhomogenous distribution mingled with hot spots; Type D: non-hilar hot spots; and Type E: hilar hot spots). The deposition patterns of restrictive pulmonary diseases were markedly abnormal as well as obstructive pulmonary diseases. The deposition patterns showed mainly Types C, D and E in obstructive pulmonary diseases, Type B in restrictive pulmonary diseases. The deposition patterns showed mainly Type E in pulmonary emphysema, Types C and D in diffuse panbronchiolitis, Types A, B and C in chronic bronchitis, Type B in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia interstitial pneumonia due to collagen vascular disease, Types B and C in pulmonary asbestosis. The deposition patterns correlated well with %FEV{sub 1.0} which was a good indicator of the severity of obstructive pulmonary diseases and restrictive pulmonary diseases. Furthermore, the mean %FEV{sub 1.0} in obstructive pulmonary diseases was nearly equal to the mean %FEV{sub 1.0} in restrictive pulmonary diseases in each type of the deposition patterns. (J.P.N.).

  8. BWR recirculation loop discharge line break LOCA tests with break areas of 50 and 100% assuming HPCS failure at ROSA-III test facility

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Tasaka, Kanji; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Murata, Hideo; Shiba, Masayoshi; Iriko, Masanori.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the experimental results of RUN 962 and RUN 963 in ROSA-III program, which are 50 and 100 % break LOCA tests at the BWR recirculation pump discharge line, respectively. The ROSA-III test facility simulates a volumetrically scaled (1/424) BWR system and has four half-length electrically heated fuel bundles, two active recirculation loops, three types of ECCSs and steam and feedwater systems. The experimental data of RUN 962 and RUN 963 were compared with those of RUN 961, a 200 % discharge line break test to study the break area effects on the transient thermal hydraulic phenomena. The least flow areas at the jet pump drive nozzles and recirculation pump discharge nozzle in the broken recirculation loop limitted the discharge flows from the pressure vessel and the depressurization rate in the 100 and 200 % break tests, whereas the least flow area at break nozzle limitted the depressurization rate in the 50 % break test. The highest PCT was observed in the 50 % break test among the three tests. (author)

  9. Testing of the line element of special relativity with rotating systems

    Vargas, Jose G.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with rotating systems are examined from the point of view of a test theory of the Lorentz transformations (LTs), permitting, in principle, the verification of the simultaneity relation. The significance of the experiments involved in the testing of the LTs can be determined using Robertson's test theory (RTT). A revised RTT is discussed, and attention is given to the Ehrenfest paradox in connection with the testing of the LTs.

  10. 40 CFR 1048.310 - How must I select engines for production-line testing?

    2010-07-01

    ... intervals for a one-tail distribution. σ = Test sample standard deviation (see paragraph (c)(2) of this section). x = Mean of emission test results of the sample. STD = Emission standard. (1) Determine the 95...)). (e) After each new test, recalculate the required sample size using the updated mean values, standard...

  11. 40 CFR 1054.310 - How must I select engines for production-line testing?

    2010-07-01

    ...% confidence intervals for a one-tail distribution. σ = Test sample standard deviation (see paragraph (c)(2) of this section). x = Mean of emission test results of the sample. STD = Emission standard (or family...)). (e) After each new test, recalculate the required sample size using the updated mean values, standard...

  12. 40 CFR 1045.310 - How must I select engines for production-line testing?

    2010-07-01

    ... select and test one more engine. Then, calculate the required sample size for the model year as described.... It defines 95% confidence intervals for a one-tail distribution. σ = Test sample standard deviation (see paragraph (c)(2) of this section). x = Mean of emission test results of the sample. STD = Emission...

  13. TESTING THE POSSIBLE INTRINSIC ORIGIN OF THE EXCESS VERY STRONG Mg II ABSORBERS ALONG GAMMA-RAY BURST LINES-OF-SIGHT

    Cucchiara, A.; Jones, T.; Charlton, J. C.; Fox, D. B.; Einsig, D.; Narayanan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The startling discovery by Prochter et al. that the frequency of very strong (W r (2796)>1 A) Mg II absorbers along gamma-ray burst (GRB) lines of sight ([dN/dz] GRB = 0.90) is more than three times the frequency along quasar lines of sight ([dN/dz] QSO = 0.24), over similar redshift ranges, has yet to be understood. In particular, explanations appealing to dust antibias in quasar samples, partial covering of the quasar sources, and gravitational-lensing amplification of the GRBs have all been carefully examined and found wanting. We therefore reconsider the possibility that the excess of very strong Mg II absorbers toward GRBs is intrinsic either to the GRBs themselves or to their immediate environment, and associated with bulk outflows with velocities as large as v max ∼ 0.3c. In order to examine this hypothesis, we accumulate a sample of 27 W r (2796)>1 A absorption systems found toward 81 quasars, and compare their properties to those of 8 W r (2796) > 1 A absorption systems found toward six GRBs; all systems have been observed at high spectral resolution (R = 45, 000) using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. We make multiple comparisons of the absorber properties across the two populations, testing for differences in metallicity, ionization state, abundance patterns, dust abundance, kinematics, and phase structure. We find no significant differences between the two absorber populations using any of these metrics, implying that, if the excess of absorbers along GRB lines of sight are indeed intrinsic, they must be produced by a process which has strong similarities to the processes yielding strong Mg II systems associated with intervening galaxies. Although this may seem a priori unlikely, given the high outflow velocities required for any intrinsic model, we note that the same conclusion was reached, recently, with respect to the narrow absorption line systems seen in some quasars.

  14. Recirculation pump suction line 2.8% break integral test at ROSA-III with HPCS failure, RUN 984

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Anoda, Yoshinari; Tasaka, Kanji; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Murata, Hideo; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1984-06-01

    This report presents the experimental data of 2.8% suction line break test RUN 984 at ROSA-III, which was conducted as one of counterpart tests to FIST program sponsored by GE, EPRI and USNRC. The similarity study between the ROSA-III and FIST tests is on the way. The report also presents the information on the ROSA-III test facility, experiment results and the effects of the ADS flow rate and the MSIV trip level comparing with the previously conducted ROSA-III small break tests, RUNs 920 and 922. Major conclusions obtained are as follows. (1) Change of the MSIV trip level from L2 to L1 gives delay of MSIV closure and longer actuation of pressure control system in a small break LOCA. (2) Larger ADS flow gives faster depressurization rate and earlier ECCS actuation, which results in shorter fuel rod dryout period and lower PCT. (author)

  15. Postprandial Reactive Hypoglycaemia: Varying Presentation Patterns on Extended Glucose Tolerance Tests and Possible Therapeutic Approaches

    Kevin Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive hypoglycemia is a state characterised by sympathetic or neuroglycopenic symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia in the postprandial state resulting in considerable distress to the patient. It is our practice to carry out either extended glucose tolerance tests (eGTTs or mixed meal tests in these patients. We describe two patients who experienced hypoglycaemic symptoms early and late during eGTT. The patient who experienced symptoms early, in contrast to the patient who presented with late symptoms, did not possess any characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Based on clinical symptoms, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA levels, we speculate on possible mechanisms that may have accounted for each of their presentation patterns. We then discuss low glycaemic index diet which will be the mainstay of management.

  16. Immunophenotyping of Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia cell lines reveals distinct patterns of surface antigen expression: potential biological and therapeutic implications.

    Aneel Paulus

    Full Text Available Waldenströms macroglobulinemia (WM is a subtype of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in which the tumor cell population is markedly heterogeneous, consisting of immunoglobulin-M secreting B-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid lymphocytes and plasma cells. Due to rarity of disease and scarcity of reliable preclinical models, many facets of WM molecular and phenotypic architecture remain incompletely understood. Currently, there are 3 human WM cell lines that are routinely used in experimental studies, namely, BCWM.1, MWCL-1 and RPCI-WM1. During establishment of RPCI-WM1, we observed loss of the CD19 and CD20 antigens, which are typically present on WM cells. Intrigued by this observation and in an effort to better define the immunophenotypic makeup of this cell line, we conducted a more comprehensive analysis for the presence or absence of other cell surface antigens that are present on the RPCI-WM1 model, as well as those on the two other WM cell lines, BCWM.1 and MWCL-1. We examined expression of 65 extracellular and 4 intracellular antigens, comprising B-cell, plasma cell, T-cell, NK-cell, myeloid and hematopoietic stem cell surface markers by flow cytometry analysis. RPCI-WM1 cells demonstrated decreased expression of CD19, CD20, and CD23 with enhanced expression of CD28, CD38 and CD184, antigens that were differentially expressed on BCWM.1 and MWCL-1 cells. Due to increased expression of CD184/CXCR4 and CD38, RPCI-WM1 represents a valuable model in which to study the effects anti-CXCR4 or anti-CD38 targeted therapies that are actively being developed for treatment of hematologic cancers. Overall, differences in surface antigen expression across the 3 cell lines may reflect the tumor clone population predominant in the index patients, from whom the cell lines were developed. Our analysis defines the utility of the most commonly employed WM cell lines as based on their immunophenotype profiles, highlighting unique differences that can be further studied for

  17. Phoneme Error Pattern by Heritage Speakers of Spanish on an English Word Recognition Test.

    Shi, Lu-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Heritage speakers acquire their native language from home use in their early childhood. As the native language is typically a minority language in the society, these individuals receive their formal education in the majority language and eventually develop greater competency with the majority than their native language. To date, there have not been specific research attempts to understand word recognition by heritage speakers. It is not clear if and to what degree we may infer from evidence based on bilingual listeners in general. This preliminary study investigated how heritage speakers of Spanish perform on an English word recognition test and analyzed their phoneme errors. A prospective, cross-sectional, observational design was employed. Twelve normal-hearing adult Spanish heritage speakers (four men, eight women, 20-38 yr old) participated in the study. Their language background was obtained through the Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire. Nine English monolingual listeners (three men, six women, 20-41 yr old) were also included for comparison purposes. Listeners were presented with 200 Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 words in quiet. They repeated each word orally and in writing. Their responses were scored by word, word-initial consonant, vowel, and word-final consonant. Performance was compared between groups with Student's t test or analysis of variance. Group-specific error patterns were primarily descriptive, but intergroup comparisons were made using 95% or 99% confidence intervals for proportional data. The two groups of listeners yielded comparable scores when their responses were examined by word, vowel, and final consonant. However, heritage speakers of Spanish misidentified significantly more word-initial consonants and had significantly more difficulty with initial /p, b, h/ than their monolingual peers. The two groups yielded similar patterns for vowel and word-final consonants, but heritage speakers made significantly

  18. Present Status And First Results of the Final Focus Beam Line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    2010-01-01

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line which aims to focus the low emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a vertical size of about 37 nm and to demonstrate nanometer level beam stability. Several advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools are used. In December 2008, construction and installation were completed and beam commissioning started, supported by an international team of Asian, European, and U.S. scientists. The present status and first results are described.

  19. Present status and first results of the final focus beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    Bambade, P; Amann, J; Angal-Kalinin, D; Apsimon, R; Araki, S; Aryshev, A; Bai, S; Bellomo, P; Bett, D; Blair, G; Bolzon, B; Boogert, S; Boorman, G; Burrows, P N; Christian, G; Coe, P; Constance, B; Delahaye, J P; Deacon, L; Elsen, E; Faus-Golfe, A; Fukuda, M; Gao, J; Geffroy, N; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Guler, H; Hayano, H; Heo, A Y; Honda, Y; Huang, J Y; Hwang, W H; Iwashita, Y; Jeremie, A; Jones, J; Kamiya, Y; Karataev, P; Kim, E S; Kim, H S; Kim, S H; Komamiya, S; Kubo, K; Kume, T; Kuroda, S; Lam, B; Lyapin, A; Masuzawa, M; McCormick, D; Molloy, S; Naito, T; Nakamura, T; Nelson, J; Okamoto, D; Okugi, T; Oroku, M; Park, Y J; Parker, B; Paterson, E; Perry, C; Pivi, M; Raubenheimer, T; Renier, Y; Resta-Lopez, J; Rimbault, C; Ross, M; Sanuki, T; Scarfe, A; Schulte, D; Seryi, A; Spencer, C; Suehara, T; Sugahara, R; Swinson, C; Takahashi, T; Tauchi, T; Terunuma, N; Tomas, R; Urakawa, J; Urner, D; Verderi, M; Wang, M H; Warden, M; Wendt, M; White, G; Wittmer, W; Wolski, A; Woodley, M; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamanaka, T; Yan, Y; Yoda, H; Yokoya, K; Zhou, F; Zimmermann, F; 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.13.042801

    2010-01-01

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line which aims to focus the low emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a vertical size of about 37 nm and to demonstrate nanometer level beam stability. Several advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools are used. In December 2008, construction and installation were completed and beam commissioning started, supported by an international team of Asian, European, and U.S. scientists. The present status and first results are described.

  20. The relationship between CD86/CD54 expression and THP-1 cell viability in an in vitro skin sensitization test--human cell line activation test (h-CLAT).

    Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Kosaka, Nanae; Ito, Yuichi; Yoneyama, Katsurako; Sono, Sakiko; Itagaki, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2009-04-01

    Recent regulations for cosmetics in Europe prohibit animal testing for evaluating the sensitization potential of chemicals to improve animal welfare. Yet, there is not an acceptable Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development non-animal skin sensitization test method. Several in vitro skin sensitization methods that focus on the activation of Langerhans cells, including human cell lines, are being evaluated as possible alternatives. In our previous study, we optimized our human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) using THP-1 cells (monocytic leukemia cell line) and conducted an inter-laboratory study. We found that measuring CD86/CD54 expression may be useful for predicting skin sensitization. The aim of this study was to confirm the relationship between CD86/CD54 expression and THP-1 cell viability in the h-CLAT. In this study, 21 allergens (e.g., dinitrochlorobenzene, p-phenylenediamine, Ni) and 8 non-allergens (e.g., SLS, lactic acid) were evaluated. For each chemical, more than 10 concentrations that gave a predicted cell viability range of 20-95% were used. The data showed that expression patterns of CD86/CD54 differed depending on chemical. For most allergens, cytotoxicity (65-90% cell viability) was needed for enhancement of CD86/CD54 expression. The criteria of "CD86 > or = 150 or CD54 > or = 200" resulted in an accuracy of 93%, which confirms appropriate cut-off criteria for h-CLAT. Furthermore, a good correlation was observed between EC3 of local lymph node assay and EC150(CD86) or EC200(CD54) of h-CLAT (12 or 16 chemicals, respectively), which would provide a useful estimate of allergic potency. These findings suggest that h-CLAT would be a good robust in vitro skin sensitization test.

  1. Wave Pattern Peculiarities of Different Types of Explosions Conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site

    Sokolova, Inna

    2014-05-01

    The historical seismograms of the explosions conducted at the STS in 1949 - 1989 are of great interest for the researchers in the field of monitoring. Large number of air (86), surface (30) and underground nuclear explosions were conducted here in boreholes and tunnels (340). In addition to nuclear explosions, large chemical explosions were conducted at the Test Site. It is known that tectonic earthquakes occur on the Test Site territory and near it. Since 2005 the Institute of Geophysical Researches conducts works on digitizing the historical seismograms of nuclear explosions. Currently, the database contains more than 6000 digitized seismograms of nuclear explosions used for investigative monitoring tasks, major part of them (4000) are events from the STS region. Dynamic parameters of records of air, surface and underground nuclear explosions, as well as large chemical explosions with compact charge laying were investigated for seismic stations located on the territory of Kazakhstan using digitized records of the STS events. In addition, the comparison between salvo wave pattern and single explosions was conducted. The records of permanent and temporary seismic stations (epicentral distances range 100 - 800 km) were used for the investigations. Explosions spectra were analyzed, specific features of each class of events were found. The seismograms analysis shows that the wave pattern depends significantly on the explosion site and on the source type.

  2. A Cryogenic Test Set-Up for the Qualification of Pre-Series Test Cells for the LHC Cryogenic Distribution Line

    Livran, J; Parente, C; Riddone, G; Rybkowski, D; Veillet, N

    2000-01-01

    Three pre-series Test Cells of the LHC Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL) [1], manufactured by three European industrial companies, will be tested in the year 2000 to qualify the design chosen and verify the thermal and mechanical performances. A dedicated test stand (170 m x 13 m) has been built for extensive testing and performance assessment of the pre-series units in parallel. They will be fed with saturated liquid helium at 4.2 K supplied by a mobile helium dewar. In addition, LN2 cooled helium will be used for cool-down and thermal shielding. For each of the three pre-series units, a set of end boxes has been designed and manufactured at CERN. This paper presents the layout of the cryogenic system for the pre-series units, the calorimetric methods as well as the results of the thermal calculation of the end box test.

  3. Enclosure environment characterization testing for the base line validation of computer fire simulation codes

    Nowlen, S.P.

    1987-03-01

    This report describes a series of fire tests conducted under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary purpose of these tests was to provide data against which to validate computer fire environment simulation models to be used in the analysis of nuclear power plant enclosure fire situations. Examples of the data gathered during three of the tests are presented, though the primary objective of this report is to provide a timely description of the test effort itself. These tests were conducted in an enclosure measuring 60x40x20 feet constructed at the Factory Mutual Research Corporation fires test facility in Rhode Island. All of the tests utilized forced ventilation conditions. The ventilation system was designed to simulate typical nuclear power plant installation practices and ventilation rates. A total of 22 tests using simple gas burner, heptane pool, methanol pool, and PMMA solid fires was conducted. Four of these tests were conducted with a full-scale control room mockup in place. Parameters varied during testing were fire intensity, enclosure ventilation rate, and fire location. Data gathered include air temperatures, air velocities, radiative and convective heat flux levels, optical smoke densities, inner and outer enclosure surface temperatures, enclosure surface heat flux levels, and gas concentrations within the enclosure in the exhaust stream

  4. Establishment and cell cycle distribution pattern of a radioresistant subline from human lung cancer D6 cell line

    Wei Qichun; Zheng Shu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To establish a radioresistant cell subline from a human D6 lung cancer cell line and investigate the mechanism of radioresistance. Methods: D6 human NSCLC cells were exposed to X-rays generated by a linear accelerator(650 cGy per fraction). After a total exposure dose of 5200 cGy, a monoclone was obtained. The radiosensitivity and cell cycle distribution of this clone, together with its parent D6 cells, were measured by clonogenic assay and flow cytometry. Results: The new clone, namely D 6 -R subline, had a higher D 0 (D 0 =2.08 Gy) and a broader initial shoulder(Dq=1.64 Gy, N=2.20) than those of the parent D6 cell line (D 0 =1.84 Gy, Dq=0.34 Gy, N=1.20), being 1.65-fold increase in radioresistance as regards to the SF 2 . The D6-R subline also showed higher percentage of cells in S phase(53.4% vs 37.8%), but lower percentages in G 1 (44.1% vs 57.2%) and G 2 /M(2.5% vs 5%) phases. Conclusion: The new subline D6-R is more radioresistant as compare to its parent D6 cell line, and has a different cell cycle distribution

  5. Aberrant patterns of X chromosome inactivation in a new line of human embryonic stem cells established in physiological oxygen concentrations.

    de Oliveira Georges, Juliana Andrea; Vergani, Naja; Fonseca, Simone Aparecida Siqueira; Fraga, Ana Maria; de Mello, Joana Carvalho Moreira; Albuquerque, Maria Cecília R Maciel; Fujihara, Litsuko Shimabukuro; Pereira, Lygia Veiga

    2014-08-01

    One of the differences between murine and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is the epigenetic state of the X chromosomes in female lines. Murine ESCs (mESCs) present two transcriptionally active Xs that will undergo the dosage compensation process of XCI upon differentiation, whereas most human ESCs (hESCs) spontaneously inactivate one X while keeping their pluripotency. Whether this reflects differences in embryonic development of mice and humans, or distinct culture requirements for the two kinds of pluripotent cells is not known. Recently it has been shown that hESCs established in physiological oxygen levels are in a stable pre-XCI state equivalent to that of mESCs, suggesting that culture in low oxygen concentration is enough to preserve that epigenetic state of the X chromosomes. Here we describe the establishment of two new lines of hESCs under physiological oxygen level and the characterization of the XCI state in the 46,XX line BR-5. We show that a fraction of undifferentiated cells present XIST RNA accumulation and single H3K27me foci, characteristic of the inactive X. Moreover, analysis of allele specific gene expression suggests that pluripotent BR-5 cells present completely skewed XCI. Our data indicate that physiological levels of oxygen are not sufficient for the stabilization of the pre-XCI state in hESCs.

  6. 40 CFR 1045.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    2010-07-01

    ... must I send to EPA? 1045.345 Section 1045.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... nonroutine adjustment, modification, repair, preparation, maintenance, or test for the test engine if you did... sample-size calculation required in § 1045.310 for each engine family. (9) Report on each failed engine...

  7. 40 CFR 1048.345 - What production-line testing records must I send to EPA?

    2010-07-01

    ... must I send to EPA? 1048.345 Section 1048.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... nonroutine adjustment, modification, repair, preparation, maintenance, or test for the test engine if you did... the sample-size calculation required in § 1048.310 for each engine family. (9) Report on each failed...

  8. Second-line tests in the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome.

    Barbot, Mattia; Trementino, Laura; Zilio, Marialuisa; Ceccato, Filippo; Albiger, Nora; Daniele, Andrea; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Mardari, Rodica; Rolma, Giuseppe; Boscaro, Marco; Arnaldi, Giorgio; Scaroni, Carla

    2016-10-01

    Diagnosing Cushing's syndrome (CS) can be a challenge, especially in ACTH-dependent CS, when it comes to detecting the origin of ACTH secretion. Retrospective data were collected on 170 patients with ACTH-dependent CS (149 CD, 21 EAS) referring to two endocrinology units, focusing on three non-invasive tests: dexamethasone 8 mg overnight challenge (HDDST); corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) assay and the desmopressin (DDAVP) test. Patients with EAS were slightly older and had higher ACTH, serum and urinary cortisol levels than patients with CD (p 52.7 % below the basal level suggested a pituitary origin with a SE of 88 % (95 % CI 81-93) and a SP of 90 % (95 % CI 68-99). There were no cases of EAS with positive responses to both these tests. Increases in ACTH and cortisol levels after the DDAVP test were also higher in CD than in EAS (p < 0.01), though the SE and SP were lower. Patients with CD showed a stronger response to HDDST and CRH, and the adopted cut-offs showed a good SE and SP in discriminating them from patients with EAS. Concordant tests indicated CD when positive, whereas no response to either test was highly suggestive of EAS. The DDAVP test was of limited utility in the diagnostic phase. In conclusion, the choice of tests may play an important part in the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent CS.

  9. Post-Hoc Pattern-Oriented Testing and Tuning of an Existing Large Model: Lessons from the Field Vole

    Topping, Christopher John; Dalkvist, Trine; Grimm, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Pattern-oriented modeling (POM) is a general strategy for modeling complex systems. In POM, multiple patterns observed at different scales and hierarchical levels are used to optimize model structure, to test and select sub-models of key processes, and for calibration. So far, POM has been used f...

  10. Surface self-potential patterns related to transmissive fracture trends during a water injection test

    DesRoches, A. J.; Butler, K. E.; MacQuarrie, K. TB

    2018-03-01

    Variations in self-potential (SP) signals were recorded over an electrode array during a constant head injection test in a fractured bedrock aquifer. Water was injected into a 2.2 m interval isolated between two inflatable packers at 44 m depth in a vertical well. Negative SP responses were recorded on surface corresponding to the start of the injection period with strongest magnitudes recorded in electrodes nearest the well. SP response decreased in magnitude at electrodes further from the well. Deflation of the packer system resulted in a strong reversal in the SP signal. Anomalous SP patterns observed at surface at steady state were found to be aligned with dominant fracture strike orientations found within the test interval. Numerical modelling of fluid and current flow within a simplified fracture network showed that azimuthal patterns in SP are mainly controlled by transmissive fracture orientations. The strongest SP gradients occur parallel to hydraulic gradients associated with water flowing out of the transmissive fractures into the tighter matrix and other less permeable cross-cutting fractures. Sensitivity studies indicate that increasing fracture frequency near the well increases the SP magnitude and enhances the SP anomaly parallel to the transmissive set. Decreasing the length of the transmissive fractures leads to more fluid flow into the matrix and into cross-cutting fractures proximal to the well, resulting in a more circular and higher magnitude SP anomaly. Results from the field experiment and modelling provide evidence that surface-based SP monitoring during constant head injection tests has the ability to identify groundwater flow pathways within a fractured bedrock aquifer.

  11. The mutational profile and infiltration pattern of murine MLH1-/- tumors: concurrences, disparities and cell line establishment for functional analysis.

    Maletzki, Claudia; Beyrich, Franziska; Hühns, Maja; Klar, Ernst; Linnebacher, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Mice lines homozygous negative for one of the four DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, MSH6) were generated as models for MMR deficient (MMR-D) diseases. Clinically, hereditary forms of MMR-D include Lynch syndrome (characterized by a germline MMR gene defect) and constitutional MMR-D, the biallelic form. MMR-D knockout mice may be representative for both diseases. Here, we aimed at characterizing the MLH1-/- model focusing on tumor-immune microenvironment and identification of coding microsatellite mutations in lymphomas and gastrointestinal tumors (GIT).All tumors showed microsatellite instability (MSI) in non-coding mononucleotide markers. Mutational profiling of 26 coding loci in MSI+ GIT and lymphomas revealed instability in half of the microsatellites, two of them (Rfc3 and Rasal2) shared between both entities. MLH1-/- tumors of both entities displayed a similar phenotype (high CD71, FasL, PD-L1 and CTLA-4 expression). Additional immunofluorescence verified the tumors' natural immunosuppressive character (marked CD11b/CD200R infiltration). Vice versa, CD3+ T cells as well as immune checkpoints molecules were detectable, indicative for an active immune microenvironment. For functional analysis, a permanent cell line from an MLH1-/- GIT was established. The newly developed MLH1-/- A7450 cells exhibit stable in vitro growth, strong invasive potential and heterogeneous drug response. Moreover, four additional MSI target genes (Nktr1, C8a, Taf1b, and Lig4) not recognized in the primary were identified in this cell line.Summing up, molecular and immunological mechanisms of MLH1-/- driven carcinogenesis correlate well with clinical features of MMR-D. MLH1-/- knockout mice combine characteristics of Lynch syndrome and constitutional MMR-D, making them suitable models for preclinical research aiming at MMR-D related diseases.

  12. Quality of information accompanying on-line marketing of home diagnostic tests.

    Datta, Adrija K; Selman, Tara J; Kwok, Tony; Tang, Teresa; Khan, Khalid S

    2008-01-01

    To assess the quality of information provided to consumers by websites marketing medical home diagnostic tests. A cross-sectional analysis of a database developed from searching targeted websites. Data sources were websites written in English which marketed medical home diagnostic tests. A meta-search engine was used to identify the first 20 citations for each type of home diagnostic medical test. Relevant websites limited to those written in English were reviewed independently and in triplicate, with disputes resolved by two further reviewers. Information on the quality of these sites was extracted using a pre-piloted performer. 168 websites were suitable for inclusion in the review. The quality of these sites showed marked variation. Only 24 of 168 (14.2%) complied with at least three-quarters of the quality items and just over half (95 of 168, 56.5%) reported official approval or certification of the test. Information on accuracy of the test marketed was reported by 87 of 168 (51.7%) websites, with 15 of 168 (8.9%) providing a scientific reference. Instructions for use of the product were found in 97 of 168 (57.9%). However, the course of action to be taken after obtaining the test result was stated in only 63 of 168 (37.5%) for a positive result and 43 of 168 (25.5%) for a negative result. The quality of information posted on commercial websites marketing home tests online is unsatisfactory and potentially misleading for consumers.

  13. Using Line Profiles to Test the Fraternity of Type Ia Supernovae at High and Low Redshifts

    Blondin, Stéphane; Dessart, Luc; Leibundgut, Bruno; Branch, David; Höflich, Peter; Tonry, John L.; Matheson, Thomas; Foley, Ryan J.; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sollerman, Jesper; Spyromilio, Jason; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Aguilera, Claudio; Barris, Brian; Becker, Andrew C.; Challis, Peter; Covarrubias, Ricardo; Davis, Tamara M.; Garnavich, Peter; Hicken, Malcolm; Jha, Saurabh; Krisciunas, Kevin; Li, Weidong; Miceli, Anthony; Miknaitis, Gajus; Pignata, Giuliano; Prieto, Jose Luis; Rest, Armin; Riess, Adam G.; Salvo, Maria Elena; Schmidt, Brian P.; Smith, R. Chris; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2006-03-01

    Using archival data of low-redshift (z1.7] SNe Ia, which are also subluminous. In addition, we give the first direct evidence in two high-z SN Ia spectra of a double-absorption feature in Ca II λ3945, an event also observed, although infrequently, in low-redshift SN Ia spectra (6 out of 22 SNe Ia in our local sample). Moreover, echoing the recent studies of Dessart & Hillier in the context of Type II supernovae (SNe II), we see similar P Cygni line profiles in our large sample of SN Ia spectra. First, the magnitude of the velocity location at maximum profile absorption may underestimate that at the continuum photosphere, as observed, for example, in the optically thinner line S II λ5640. Second, we report for the first time the unambiguous and systematic intrinsic blueshift of peak emission of optical P Cygni line profiles in SN Ia spectra, by as much as 8000 km s-1. All the high-z SNe Ia analyzed in this paper were discovered and followed up by the ESSENCE collaboration and are now publicly available. Based in part on observations obtained at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF); the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO program 170.A-0519) the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by AURA under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership (the NSF [United States], the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council [United Kingdom], the National Research Council [Canada], CONICYT [Chile], the Australian Research Council [Australia], CNPq [Brazil], and CONICET [Argentina]) (programs GN-2002B-Q-14, GN-2003B-Q-11, and GS-2003B-Q-11) the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory; the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona; and the F. L. Whipple Observatory, which is operated by the Smithsonian

  14. Effects of vacuum ultraviolet photons, ion energy and substrate temperature on line width roughness and RMS surface roughness of patterned 193 nm photoresist

    Titus, M J; Graves, D B; Yamaguchi, Y; Hudson, E A

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparison of patterned 193 nm photoresist (PR) line width roughness (LWR) of samples processed in a well characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system to RMS surface roughness and bulk chemical modification of blanket 193 nm PR samples used as control samples. In the ICP system, patterned and blanket PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV) and Ar ions while sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR (blanket) and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). LWR of patterned samples are measured with scanning electron microscopy and blanket portions of the patterned PRs are measured with AFM. We demonstrate that with no RF-bias applied to the substrate the LWR of 193 nm PR tends to smooth and correlates with the smoothing of the RMS surface roughness. However, both LWR and RMS surface roughness increases with simultaneous high-energy (≥70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV-irradiation and is a function of exposure time. Both high- and low-frequency LWR correlate well with the RMS surface roughness of the patterned and blanket 193 nm PR samples. LWR, however, does not increase with temperatures ranging from 20 to 80 deg. C, in contrast to the RMS surface roughness which increases monotonically with temperature. It is unclear why LWR remains independent of temperature over this range. However, the fact that blanket roughness and LWR on patterned samples, both scale similarly with VUV fluence and ion energy suggests a similar mechanism is responsible for both types of surface morphology modifications.

  15. Effects of vacuum ultraviolet photons, ion energy and substrate temperature on line width roughness and RMS surface roughness of patterned 193 nm photoresist

    Titus, M J; Graves, D B [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Yamaguchi, Y; Hudson, E A, E-mail: graves@berkeley.edu [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Freemont, CA 94538 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    We present a comparison of patterned 193 nm photoresist (PR) line width roughness (LWR) of samples processed in a well characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system to RMS surface roughness and bulk chemical modification of blanket 193 nm PR samples used as control samples. In the ICP system, patterned and blanket PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV) and Ar ions while sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR (blanket) and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). LWR of patterned samples are measured with scanning electron microscopy and blanket portions of the patterned PRs are measured with AFM. We demonstrate that with no RF-bias applied to the substrate the LWR of 193 nm PR tends to smooth and correlates with the smoothing of the RMS surface roughness. However, both LWR and RMS surface roughness increases with simultaneous high-energy ({>=}70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV-irradiation and is a function of exposure time. Both high- and low-frequency LWR correlate well with the RMS surface roughness of the patterned and blanket 193 nm PR samples. LWR, however, does not increase with temperatures ranging from 20 to 80 deg. C, in contrast to the RMS surface roughness which increases monotonically with temperature. It is unclear why LWR remains independent of temperature over this range. However, the fact that blanket roughness and LWR on patterned samples, both scale similarly with VUV fluence and ion energy suggests a similar mechanism is responsible for both types of surface morphology modifications.

  16. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    Geslot, B.; Vermeeren, L.; Filliatre, P.; Lopez, A. Legrand; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Bréaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F.

    2011-03-01

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 × 1020 n/cm2. A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  17. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    Geslot, B.; Filliatre, P.; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Breaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, SPEx/LDCI, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vermeeren, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Lopez, A. Legrand [CEA, DEN, Saclay, SIREN/LECSI, F-91400 Saclay (France)

    2011-03-15

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2}. A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  18. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    Geslot, B.; Filliatre, P.; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Breaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F.; Vermeeren, L.; Lopez, A. Legrand

    2011-01-01

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 x 10 20 n/cm 2 . A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  19. Comparison of the commercial color LCD and the medical monochrome LCD using randomized object test patterns.

    Jay Wu

    Full Text Available Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p = 0.265 and OT (p = 0.07. The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration.

  20. Pre-test analysis results of a PWR steel lined pre-stressed concrete containment model

    Basha, S.M.; Ghosh, Barnali; Patnaik, R.; Ramanujam, S.; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2000-02-01

    Pre-stressed concrete nuclear containment serves as the ultimate barrier against the release of radioactivity to the environment. This ultimate barrier must be checked for its ultimate load carrying capacity. BARC participated in a Round Robin analysis activity which is co-sponsored by Sandia National Laboratory, USA and Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation Japan for the pre-test prediction of a 1:4 size Pre-stressed Concrete Containment Vessel. In house finite element code ULCA was used to make the test predictions of displacements and strains at the standard output locations. The present report focuses on the important landmarks of the pre-test results, in sequential terms of first crack appearance, loss of pre-stress, first through thickness crack, rebar and liner yielding and finally liner tearing at the ultimate load. Global and local failure modes of the containment have been obtained from the analysis. Finally sensitivity of the numerical results with respect to different types of liners and different constitutive models in terms of bond strength between concrete and steel and tension-stiffening parameters are examined. The report highlights the important features which could be observed during the test and guidelines are given for improving the prediction in the post test computation after the test data is available. (author)

  1. On-Line Radiation Test Facility for Industrial Equipment needed for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    Rausch, R

    1999-01-01

    The future Large Hadron Collider to be built at CERN will use superconducting magnets cooled down to 1.2 K. To preserve the superconductivity, the energy deposition dose levels in equipment located outside the cryostat, in the LHC tunnel, are calculated to be of the order of 1 to 10 Gy per year. At such dose levels, no major radiation-damage problems are to be expected, and the possibility of installing Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) electronic equipment in the LHC tunnel along the accelerator is considered. To this purpose, industrial electronic equipment and circuits have to be qualified and tested against radiation to insure their long term stability and reliability. An on-line radiation test facility has been setup at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and a program of on-line tests for electronic equipment is ongoing. Equipment tested includes Industrial Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) from several manufacturers, standard VME modules, Fieldbuses like Profibus, WorldFIP and CAN, various electro...

  2. Murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vector has differential integration patterns in human cell lines used to produce recombinant factor VIII

    Marcela Cristina Correa de Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nowadays recombinant factor VIII is produced in murine cells including in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO and baby hamster kidney cells (BHK. Previous studies, using the murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vector pMFG-FVIII-P140K, modified two recombinant human cell lines, HepG2 and Hek293 to produce recombinant factor VIII. In order to characterize these cells, the present study aimed to analyze the integration pattern of retroviral vector pMFG-FVIII-P140K.METHODS: This study used ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction to locate the site of viral vector integration by sequencing polymerase chain reaction products. The sequences were compared to genomic databases to characterize respective clones.RESULTS: The retroviral vector presented different and non-random profiles of integration between cells lines. A preference of integration for chromosomes 19, 17 and 11 was observed for HepG2FVIIIdB/P140K and chromosome 9 for Hek293FVIIIdB/P140K. In genomic regions such as CpG islands and transcription factor binding sites, there was no difference in the integration profiles for both cell lines. Integration in intronic regions of encoding protein genes (RefSeq genes was also observed in both cell lines. Twenty percent of integrations occurred at fragile sites in the genome of the HepG2 cell line and 17% in Hek293.CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the cell type can affect the profile of chromosomal integration of the retroviral vector used; these differences may interfere in the level of expression of recombinant proteins.

  3. The touchscreen operant platform for testing working memory and pattern separation in rats and mice.

    Oomen, Charlotte A; Hvoslef-Eide, Martha; Heath, Christopher J; Mar, Adam C; Horner, Alexa E; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2013-10-01

    The automated touchscreen operant chamber for rats and mice allows for the assessment of multiple cognitive domains within the same testing environment. This protocol presents the location discrimination (LD) task and the trial-unique delayed nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task, which both assess memory for location. During these tasks, animals are trained to a predefined criterion during ∼20-40 daily sessions. In LD sessions, touching the same location on the screen is rewarded on consecutive trials, followed by a reversal of location-reward contingencies. TUNL, a working memory task, requires animals to 'nonmatch' to a sample location after a delay. In both the LD and TUNL tasks, spatial similarity can be varied, allowing assessment of pattern separation ability, a function that is thought to be performed by the dentate gyrus (DG). These tasks are therefore particularly useful in animal models of hippocampal, and specifically DG, function, but they additionally permit discernment of changes in pattern separation from those in working memory.

  4. Quality of information accompanying on-line marketing of home diagnostic tests

    Datta, Adrija K; Selman, Tara J; Kwok, Tony; Tang, Teresa; Khan, Khalid S

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the quality of information provided to consumers by websites marketing medical home diagnostic tests. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a database developed from searching targeted websites. Setting Data sources were websites written in English which marketed medical home diagnostic tests. Main outcome measures A meta-search engine was used to identify the first 20 citations for each type of home diagnostic medical test. Relevant websites limited to those written in English were reviewed independently and in triplicate, with disputes resolved by two further reviewers. Information on the quality of these sites was extracted using a pre-piloted performer. Results 168 websites were suitable for inclusion in the review. The quality of these sites showed marked variation. Only 24 of 168 (14.2%) complied with at least three-quarters of the quality items and just over half (95 of 168, 56.5%) reported official approval or certification of the test. Information on accuracy of the test marketed was reported by 87 of 168 (51.7%) websites, with 15 of 168 (8.9%) providing a scientific reference. Instructions for use of the product were found in 97 of 168 (57.9%). However, the course of action to be taken after obtaining the test result was stated in only 63 of 168 (37.5%) for a positive result and 43 of 168 (25.5%) for a negative result. Conclusions The quality of information posted on commercial websites marketing home tests online is unsatisfactory and potentially misleading for consumers. PMID:18263912

  5. Brief report: eye-movement patterns during an embedded figures test in children with ASD.

    Keehn, Brandon; Brenner, Laurie A; Ramos, Aurora I; Lincoln, Alan J; Marshall, Sandra P; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2009-02-01

    The present study examined fixation frequency and duration during an Embedded Figures Test (EFT) in an effort to better understand the attentional and perceptual processes by which individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) achieve accelerated EFT performance. In particular, we aimed to elucidate differences in the patterns of eye-movement in ASD and typically developing (TD) children, thus providing evidence relevant to the competing theories of weak central coherence (WCC) and enhanced perceptual functioning. Consistent with prior EFT studies, we found accelerated response time (RT) in children with ASD. No group differences were seen for fixation frequency, but the ASD group made significantly shorter fixations compared to the TD group. Eye-movement results indicate that RT advantage in ASD is related to both WCC and enhanced perceptual functioning.

  6. Helium leak testing of superconducting magnets, thermal shields and cryogenic lines of SST -1

    Thankey, P.L.; Joshi, K.S.; Semwal, P.; Pathan, F.S.; Raval, D.C.; Khan, Z.; Patel, R.J.; Pathak, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tokamak SST - 1 is under commissioning at Institute for Plasma Research. It comprises of a toroidal doughnut shaped plasma chamber, surrounded by liquid helium cooled superconducting magnets, housed in a cryostat chamber. The cryostat has two cooling circuits, (1) liquid nitrogen cooling circuit operating at 80 K to minimize the radiation heat load on the magnets, and (2) liquid helium cooling circuit to cool magnets and cold mass support structure to 4.5 K. In this paper we describe (a) the leak testing of copper - SS joints, brazing joints, interconnecting joints of the superconducting magnets, and (b) the leak testing of the liquid nitrogen cooling circuit, comprising of the main supply header, the thermal shields, interconnecting pipes, main return header and electrical isolators. All these tests were carried out using both vacuum and sniffer methods. (author)

  7. Computational wavelength resolution for in-line lensless holography: phase-coded diffraction patterns and wavefront group-sparsity

    Katkovnik, Vladimir; Shevkunov, Igor; Petrov, Nikolay V.; Egiazarian, Karen

    2017-06-01

    In-line lensless holography is considered with a random phase modulation at the object plane. The forward wavefront propagation is modelled using the Fourier transform with the angular spectrum transfer function. The multiple intensities (holograms) recorded by the sensor are random due to the random phase modulation and noisy with Poissonian noise distribution. It is shown by computational experiments that high-accuracy reconstructions can be achieved with resolution going up to the two thirds of the wavelength. With respect to the sensor pixel size it is a super-resolution with a factor of 32. The algorithm designed for optimal superresolution phase/amplitude reconstruction from Poissonian data is based on the general methodology developed for phase retrieval with a pixel-wise resolution in V. Katkovnik, "Phase retrieval from noisy data based on sparse approximation of object phase and amplitude", http://www.cs.tut.fi/ lasip/DDT/index3.html.

  8. Design and Construction of a Beam Position Monitor Prototype for the Test Beam Line of the CTF3

    Garcia Garrigos, Juan Jose

    2008-01-01

    A prototype of Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the Test Beam Line (TBL) of the 3rd CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN has been designed and constructed at IFIC in collaboration with the CERN CTF3 team. The design is a scaled version of the BPMs of the CTF3 linac. The design goals are a resolution of 5 μm, an overall precision of 50 μm, in a circular vacuum chamber of 24 mm, in a frequency bandwidth between 10 kHz and 100MHz.The BPMis an inductive type BPM. Beam positions are derived from the image current created by a high frequency electron bunch beam into four electrodes surrounding the vacuum chamber. In this work we describe the mechanical design and construction, the description of the associated electronics together with the first calibration measurements performed in a wire test bench at CERN.

  9. Development and flight test of metal-lined CFRP cryogenic tank for reusable rocket

    Higuchi, Ken; Takeuchi, Shinsuke; Sato, Eiichi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Namiki, Fumiharu; Tanaka, Kohtaro; Watabe, Yoko

    2005-07-01

    A cryogenic tank made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) shell with aluminum thin liner has been designed as a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank for an ISAS reusable launch vehicle, and the function of it has been proven by repeated flights onboard the test vehicle called reusable vehicle testing (RVT) in October 2003. The liquid hydrogen tank has to be a pressure vessel, because the fuel of the engine of the test vehicle is supplied by fuel pressure. The pressure vessel of a combination of the outer shell of CFRP for strength element at a cryogenic temperature and the inner liner of aluminum for gas barrier has shown excellent weight merit for this purpose. Interfaces such as tank outline shape, bulk capacity, maximum expected operating pressure (MEOP), thermal insulation, pipe arrangement, and measurement of data are also designed to be ready onboard. This research has many aims, not only development of reusable cryogenic composite tank but also the demonstration of repeated operation including thermal cycle and stress cycle, familiarization with test techniques of operation of cryogenic composite tanks, and the accumulation of data for future design of tanks, vehicle structures, safety evaluation, and total operation systems.

  10. Application of an In-Line Contamination Monitoring Unit to the AHT-64 Hydraulic Test Stand.

    1981-06-04

    suction return connection port will require the operator to secuire same from a squatting position. The present stowage arrangement on the test stand... SPC FC sample~~~ Iepal" -a *Tpoa _______Rate 7 eo3,t Sq,’ TPc owe te - U Enciosure ULeeds & Northrup N’AFC- 92- 1 0 Typical Plumbing Connections for

  11. On-line testing of calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. Phase 2, Final report

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1995-11-01

    The nuclear industry is interested in automating the calibration of process instrumentation channels; this report provides key results of one of the sponsored projects to determine the validity of automated calibrations. Conclusion is that the normal outputs of instrument channels in nuclear plants can be monitored over a fuel cycle while the plant is operating to determine calibration drift in the field sensors and associated signal conversion and signal conditioning equipment. The procedure for on-line calibration tests involving calculating the deviation of each instrument channel from the best estimate of the process parameter that the instrument is measuring. Methods were evaluated for determining the best estimate. Deviation of each signal from the best estimate is updated frequently while the plant is operating and plotted vs time for entire fuel cycle, thereby providing time history plots that can reveal channel drift and other anomalies. Any instrument channel that exceeds allowable drift or channel accuracy band is then scheduled for calibration during a refueling outage or sooner. This provides calibration test results at the process operating point, one of the most critical points of the channel operation. This should suffice for most narrow-range instruments, although the calibration of some instruments can be verified at other points throughout their range. It should be pointed out that the calibration of some process signals such as the high pressure coolant injection flow in BWRs, which are normally off- scale during plant operation, can not be tested on-line

  12. Antimutagenic, Antirecombinogenic, and Antitumor Effect of Amygdalin in a Yeast Cell-Based Test and Mammalian Cell Lines.

    Todorova, Atanaska; Pesheva, Margarita; Iliev, Ivan; Bardarov, Krum; Todorova, Teodora

    2017-04-01

    Amygdalin is a major component of the seeds of Rosaceae family of plants such as apricots, peaches, cherry, nectarines, apples, plums, and so on, as well as almonds. It is used in alternative medicine for cancer prevention, alleviation of fever, cough suppression, and quenching thirst. The aim of the present study is to determine the mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of amygdalin in a test system Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to evaluate its potential antitumor effect in a yeast cell-based test and colon cancer cell lines. Results obtained show that concentrations 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL did not have any cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effect in yeast cell-based tests. Pretreatment with amygdalin at concentration 100 μg/mL leads to around twofold of the cell survival and decrease of reverse mutation frequency, induced by the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. The frequency of gene conversion and mitotic crossing-over is around threefold lower. The anticarcinogenic potential of amygdalin at the same concentration is presented as around fourfold reduction of Ty1 retrotransposition induced by hexavalent chromium. In summary, data presented in this study provide evidence concerning the inability of amygdalin itself to provoke events related to the initial steps of tumorigenesis. In addition, the observed antimutagenic/antirecombinogenic effect could be activation of error-free and error-prone recombination events. Based on the high selectivity toward normal or tumor cell lines, it could be speculated that amygdalin has higher cytotoxic effect in cell lines with higher proliferative and metabolic activity, which are the majority of fast developing tumors.

  13. Analysis of Patterns of Interaction and Knowledge Construction in On-Line Learning Environments: A Methodological Strategy

    Benilde García Cabrero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A model of analysis of interaction and construction of knowledge in educational environments based on computer-mediated communication (CMC is proposed. This proposal considers: 1 the contextual factors that constitute the input and the scenario of interaction, 2 the interaction processes: types of interaction and its contents (Garrison, Anderson and Archer, 2000 as well as the discursive strategies (Lemke, 1997, and 3 learning results that involve the quality of the knowledge constructed by the participants (Gunawardena, Lowe and Anderson, 1997. This model was applied to the analysis of the interaction among a group of participants in two web forums (with or without the presence of a teacher, during the teaching of a PhD in Psychology program. The results show evidence of the model’s viability to describe the patterns of interaction and the levels of construction of knowledge in web forums.

  14. Present status and first results of the final focus beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line which aims to focus the low emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a vertical size of about 37 nm and to demonstrate nanometer level beam stability. Several advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools are used. In December 2008, construction and installation were completed and beam commissioning started, supported by an international team of Asian, European, and U.S. scientists. The present status and first results are described.

  15. Second Line of Defense, Port of Buenos Aires and Exolgan Container Terminal Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Roberts, Bryan W.

    2012-08-23

    The Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Megaports project team for Argentina will conduct operational testing and evaluation (OT&E) at Exolgan Container Terminal at the Port of Dock Sud from July 16-20, 2012; and at the Port of Buenos Aires from September 3-7, 2012. SLD is installing radiation detection equipment to screen export, import, and transshipment containers at these locations. The purpose of OT&E is to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the SLD mission and to ensure the system continues to perform as expected in an operational environment with Argentina Customs effectively adjudicating alarms.

  16. Temperature and vital effect controls on Bamboo coral (Isididae) isotopegeochemistry: A test of the "lines method"

    Hill, T M; Spero, H J; Guilderson, T P; LaVigne, M; Clague, D; Macalello, S; Jang, N

    2011-03-01

    Deep-sea bamboo corals hold promise as long-term climatic archives, yet little information exists linking bamboo coral geochemistry to measured environmental parameters. This study focuses on a suite of 10 bamboo corals collected from the Pacific and Atlantic basins (250-2136 m water depth) to investigate coral longevity, growth rates, and isotopic signatures. Calcite samples for stable isotopes and radiocarbon were collected from the base the corals, where the entire history of growth is recorded. In three of the coral specimens, samples were also taken from an upper branch for comparison. Radiocarbon and growth band width analyses indicate that the skeletal calcite precipitates from ambient dissolved inorganic carbon and that the corals live for 150-300 years, with extension rates of 9-128 {micro}m/yr. A linear relationship between coral calcite {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C indicates that the isotopic composition is influenced by vital effects ({delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C slope of 0.17-0.47). As with scleractinian deep-sea corals, the intercept from a linear regression of {delta}{sup 18}O versus {delta}{sup 13}C is a function of temperature, such that a reliable paleotemperature proxy can be obtained, using the 'lines method.' Although the coral calcite {delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C slope is maintained throughout the coral base ontogeny, the branches and central cores of the bases exhibit {delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C values that are shifted far from equilibrium. We find that a reliable intercept value can be derived from the {delta}{sup 18}O:{delta}{sup 13}C regression of multiple samples distributed throughout one specimen or from multiple samples within individual growth bands.

  17. Photovoltaic power system tests on an 8-kilowatt single-phase line-commutated inverter

    Stover, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Efficiency and power factor were measured as functions of solar array voltage and current. The effects of input shunt capacitance and series inductance were determined. Tests were conducted from 15 to 75 percent of the 8 kW rated inverter input power. Measured efficiencies ranged from 76 percent to 88 percent at about 50 percent of rated inverter input power. Power factor ranged from 36 percent to 72 percent.

  18. Surveying Indian gay men for coping skills and HIV testing patterns using the internet

    K S Jethwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surveying vulnerable and incarcerated populations is often challenging. Newer methods to reach and collect sensitive information in a safe, secure, and valid manner can go a long way in addressing this unmet need. Homosexual men in India live with inadequate social support, marginalization, and lack legal recognition. These make them less reachable by public health agencies, and make them more likely to continue with high-risk behaviors, and contract human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Aims: To understand coping skills and HIV testing patterns of homosexual men versus heterosexual men. Materials and Methods: An internet based study using a secure web platform and an anonymised questionnaire. The brief COPE Inventory was used to assess coping styles. Results: A total of 124 respondents were studied. Homosexual men used negative coping skills such as behavioral disengagement and tested for HIV significantly more often than heterosexual men. Heterosexual respondents used positive coping skills more often. The most commonly used coping skill by heterosexual men was instrumental coping and by homosexual men was acceptance. Discussion: Overall, homosexual men used negative coping mechanisms, like behavioral disengagement more often. The Indian family structure and social support is probably responsible for heterosexual men′s over-reliance on instrumental coping, while resulting in disengagement in homosexuals. Conclusion: The lack of legal and social recognition of homosexuality has negatively impacted lives of gay men in India. This is strongly linked to harmful psychological and public health implications for HIV prevention and mental health for homosexual men.

  19. Using landscape ecology to test hypotheses about large-scale abundance patterns in migratory birds

    Flather, C.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The hypothesis that Neotropical migrant birds may be undergoing widespread declines due to land use activities on the breeding grounds has been examined primarily by synthesizing results from local studies. Growing concern for the cumulative influence of land use activities on ecological systems has heightened the need for large-scale studies to complement what has been observed at local scales. We investigated possible landscape effects on Neotropical migrant bird populations for the eastern United States by linking two large-scale inventories designed to monitor breeding-bird abundances and land use patterns. The null hypothesis of no relation between landscape structure and Neotropical migrant abundance was tested by correlating measures of landscape structure with bird abundance, while controlling for the geographic distance among samples. Neotropical migrants as a group were more 'sensitive' to landscape structure than either temperate migrants or permanent residents. Neotropical migrants tended to be more abundant in landscapes with a greater proportion of forest and wetland habitats, fewer edge habitats, large forest patches, and with forest habitats well dispersed throughout the scene. Permanent residents showed few correlations with landscape structure and temperate migrants were associated with habitat diversity and edge attributes rather than with the amount, size, and dispersion of forest habitats. The association between Neotropical migrant abundance and forest fragmentation differed among physiographic strata, suggesting that land-scape context affects observed relations between bird abundance and landscape structure. Finally, associations between landscape structure and temporal trends in Neotropical migrant abundance were negatively correlated with forest habitats. These results suggest that extrapolation of patterns observed in some landscapes is not likely to hold regionally, and that conservation policies must consider the variation in landscape

  20. Low Bone Mineral Density Risk Factors and Testing Patterns in Institutionalized Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Hess, Mailee; Campagna, Elizabeth J.; Jensen, Kristin M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Adults with intellectual or developmental disability (ID/DD) have multiple risks for low bone mineral density (BMD) without formal guidelines to guide testing. We sought to identify risk factors and patterns of BMD testing among institutionalized adults with ID/DD. Methods: We evaluated risk factors for low BMD (Z-/T-score < -1) and…

  1. Trajectory measurements and correlations in the final focus beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    Renier, Y.; Bambade, P.; Tauchi, T.; White, G. R.; Boogert, S.

    2013-06-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) commissioning group aims to demonstrate the feasibility of the beam delivery system of the next linear colliders (ILC and CLIC) as well as to define and to test the tuning methods. As the design vertical beam sizes of the linear colliders are about few nanometers, the stability of the trajectory as well as the control of the aberrations are very critical. ATF2 commissioning started in December 2008, and thanks to submicron resolution beam position monitors (BPMs), it has been possible to measure the beam position fluctuation along the final focus of ATF2 during the 2009 runs. The optics was not the nominal one yet, with a lower focusing to make the tuning easier. In this paper, a method to measure the noise of each BPM every pulse, in a model-independent way, will be presented. A method to reconstruct the trajectory’s fluctuations is developed which uses the previously determined BPM resolution. As this reconstruction provides a measurement of the beam energy fluctuations, it was also possible to measure the horizontal and vertical dispersion function at each BPMs parasitically. The spatial and angular dispersions can be fitted from these measurements with uncertainties comparable with usual measurements.

  2. Trajectory measurements and correlations in the final focus beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    Y. Renier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2 commissioning group aims to demonstrate the feasibility of the beam delivery system of the next linear colliders (ILC and CLIC as well as to define and to test the tuning methods. As the design vertical beam sizes of the linear colliders are about few nanometers, the stability of the trajectory as well as the control of the aberrations are very critical. ATF2 commissioning started in December 2008, and thanks to submicron resolution beam position monitors (BPMs, it has been possible to measure the beam position fluctuation along the final focus of ATF2 during the 2009 runs. The optics was not the nominal one yet, with a lower focusing to make the tuning easier. In this paper, a method to measure the noise of each BPM every pulse, in a model-independent way, will be presented. A method to reconstruct the trajectory’s fluctuations is developed which uses the previously determined BPM resolution. As this reconstruction provides a measurement of the beam energy fluctuations, it was also possible to measure the horizontal and vertical dispersion function at each BPMs parasitically. The spatial and angular dispersions can be fitted from these measurements with uncertainties comparable with usual measurements.

  3. Lesser Neural Pattern Similarity across Repeated Tests Is Associated with Better Long-Term Memory Retention.

    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea; Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Eriksson, Johan; Andersson, Micael; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2015-07-01

    Encoding and retrieval processes enhance long-term memory performance. The efficiency of encoding processes has recently been linked to representational consistency: the reactivation of a representation that gets more specific each time an item is further studied. Here we examined the complementary hypothesis of whether the efficiency of retrieval processes also is linked to representational consistency. Alternatively, recurrent retrieval might foster representational variability--the altering or adding of underlying memory representations. Human participants studied 60 Swahili-Swedish word pairs before being scanned with fMRI the same day and 1 week later. On Day 1, participants were tested three times on each word pair, and on Day 7 each pair was tested once. A BOLD signal change in right superior parietal cortex was associated with subsequent memory on Day 1 and with successful long-term retention on Day 7. A representational similarity analysis in this parietal region revealed that beneficial recurrent retrieval was associated with representational variability, such that the pattern similarity on Day 1 was lower for retrieved words subsequently remembered compared with those subsequently forgotten. This was mirrored by a monotonically decreased BOLD signal change in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on Day 1 as a function of repeated successful retrieval for words subsequently remembered, but not for words subsequently forgotten. This reduction in prefrontal response could reflect reduced demands on cognitive control. Collectively, the results offer novel insights into why memory retention benefits from repeated retrieval, and they suggest fundamental differences between repeated study and repeated testing. Repeated testing is known to produce superior long-term retention of the to-be-learned material compared with repeated encoding and other learning techniques, much because it fosters repeated memory retrieval. This study demonstrates that repeated memory

  4. Applicability test of glass lining material for high-temperature acidic solutions of sulfuric acid in thermochemical water-splitting IS process

    Iwatsuki, Jin; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Onuki, Kaoru; Watanabe, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    A key issue for realizing the thermochemical IS process for hydrogen production is the selection of materials for working with high-temperature acidic solutions of sulfuric acid and hydriodic acid. Glass lining material is a promising candidate, which is composed of steel having good strength and glass having good corrosion resistance. Since the applicability of glass lining material depends strongly on the service condition, corrosion tests using glass used in glass lining material and heat cycle tests using glass lining piping were carried out to examine the possibility of using the glass lining material with high-temperature acidic solutions of sulfuric acid. It was confirmed that the glass lining materials exhibited sufficient corrosion resistance and heat resistance in high-temperature sulfuric acid of the IS process. (author)

  5. Investigating the application of a nitroreductase-expressing transgenic zebrafish line for high-throughput toxicity testing

    Anna C. Chlebowski

    Full Text Available Nitroreductase enzymes are responsible for the reduction of nitro functional groups to amino functional groups, and are found in a range of animal models, zebrafish (Danio rerio excluded. Transgenic zebrafish models have been developed for tissue-specific cell ablation, which use nitroreductase to ablate specific tissues or cell types following exposure to the non-toxic pro-drug metronidazole (MTZ. When metabolized by nitroreductase, MTZ produces a potent cytotoxin, which specifically ablates the tissue in which metabolism occurs. Uses, beyond tissue-specific cell ablation, are possible for the hepatocyte-specific Tg(l-fabp:CFP-NTRs891 zebrafish line, including investigations of the role of nitroreductase in the toxicity of nitrated compounds. The hepatic ablation characteristics of this transgenic line were explored, in order to expand its potential uses. Embryos were exposed at 48, 72, or 96 h post fertilization (hpf to a range of MTZ concentrations, and the ablation profiles were compared. Ablation occurred at a 10-fold lower concentration than previously reported. Embryos were exposed to a selection of other compounds, with and without MTZ, in order to investigate alternative uses for this transgenic line. Test compounds were selected based on: their ability to undergo nitroreduction, known importance of hepatic metabolism to toxicity, and known pharmaceutical hepatotoxins. Selected compounds included nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs, the PAHs retene and benzo[a]pyrene, and the pharmaceuticals acetaminophen and flutamide. The results suggest a range of potential roles of the liver in the toxicity of these compounds, and highlight the additional uses of this transgenic model in toxicity testing. Keywords: Zebrafish, Transgenic, Nitroreductase, Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Tissue ablation, Pharmaceuticals

  6. Monitoring of Bridges by a Laser Pointer: Dynamic Measurement of Support Rotations and Elastic Line Displacements: Methodology and First Test.

    Artese, Serena; Achilli, Vladimiro; Zinno, Raffaele

    2018-01-25

    Deck inclination and vertical displacements are among the most important technical parameters to evaluate the health status of a bridge and to verify its bearing capacity. Several methods, both conventional and innovative, are used for structural rotations and displacement monitoring; however, none of these allow, at the same time, precision, automation, static and dynamic monitoring without using high cost instrumentation. The proposed system uses a common laser pointer and image processing. The elastic line inclination is measured by analyzing the single frames of an HD video of the laser beam imprint projected on a flat target. For the image processing, a code was developed in Matlab ® that provides instantaneous rotation and displacement of a bridge, charged by a mobile load. An important feature is the synchronization of the load positioning, obtained by a GNSS receiver or by a video. After the calibration procedures, a test was carried out during the movements of a heavy truck maneuvering on a bridge. Data acquisition synchronization allowed us to relate the position of the truck on the deck to inclination and displacements. The inclination of the elastic line at the support was obtained with a precision of 0.01 mrad. The results demonstrate the suitability of the method for dynamic load tests, and the control and monitoring of bridges.

  7. Monitoring of Bridges by a Laser Pointer: Dynamic Measurement of Support Rotations and Elastic Line Displacements: Methodology and First Test

    Serena Artese

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deck inclination and vertical displacements are among the most important technical parameters to evaluate the health status of a bridge and to verify its bearing capacity. Several methods, both conventional and innovative, are used for structural rotations and displacement monitoring; however, none of these allow, at the same time, precision, automation, static and dynamic monitoring without using high cost instrumentation. The proposed system uses a common laser pointer and image processing. The elastic line inclination is measured by analyzing the single frames of an HD video of the laser beam imprint projected on a flat target. For the image processing, a code was developed in Matlab® that provides instantaneous rotation and displacement of a bridge, charged by a mobile load. An important feature is the synchronization of the load positioning, obtained by a GNSS receiver or by a video. After the calibration procedures, a test was carried out during the movements of a heavy truck maneuvering on a bridge. Data acquisition synchronization allowed us to relate the position of the truck on the deck to inclination and displacements. The inclination of the elastic line at the support was obtained with a precision of 0.01 mrad. The results demonstrate the suitability of the method for dynamic load tests, and the control and monitoring of bridges.

  8. On-line irradiation testing of a Giant Magneto-Resistive (GMR) sensor

    Olfert, J.; Luloff, B.; MacDonald, D.; Lumsden, R., E-mail: jeff.olfert@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Magneto-resistive sensors are rapidly gaining favour for magnetic field sensing applications owing to their high sensitivity, small size, and low cost. Their metallic, nonsemiconductor construction makes them excellent candidates for use in the harsh environments present in nuclear and space applications. In this work, a commercially available magneto-resistive sensor was irradiated up to a total gamma dose of 2 MGy (200 Mrad), and online testing was performed to monitor the sensor throughout the irradiation to detect any degradation. No significant evidence of degradation of the sensor characteristics was observed. A very small (< 1%) change in the bridge balance of the sensor as a function of accumulated dose was detected. (author)

  9. The retrieval efficiency test of descriptors and free vocabulary terms in INIS on-line search

    Ebinuma, Yukio; Takahashi, Satoko

    1981-01-01

    The test was done for 1) search topics with appropriate descriptors, 2) search topics with considerably broader descriptors, 3) search topics with no appropriate descriptors. As to (1) and (2) the retrieval efficiency was the same both on descriptor system and on keyword system (descriptors + free terms), and the search formulas were easily constructed. As to (3) the descriptor system ensured the recall ratio but decreased the precision ratio. On the other hand the keyword system made the construction of search formulas easy and resulted in good retrieval efficiency. The search system which is available both for full match method of descriptors and truncation method of keywords is desirable because each method can be selected according to the searcher's strategy and search topics. Free-term system seems unnecessary. (author)

  10. Molecular Line Emission from Multifluid Shock Waves. I. Numerical Methods and Benchmark Tests

    Ciolek, Glenn E.; Roberge, Wayne G.

    2013-05-01

    We describe a numerical scheme for studying time-dependent, multifluid, magnetohydrodynamic shock waves in weakly ionized interstellar clouds and cores. Shocks are modeled as propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field and consist of a neutral molecular fluid plus a fluid of ions and electrons. The scheme is based on operator splitting, wherein time integration of the governing equations is split into separate parts. In one part, independent homogeneous Riemann problems for the two fluids are solved using Godunov's method. In the other, equations containing the source terms for transfer of mass, momentum, and energy between the fluids are integrated using standard numerical techniques. We show that, for the frequent case where the thermal pressures of the ions and electrons are Lt magnetic pressure, the Riemann problems for the neutral and ion-electron fluids have a similar mathematical structure which facilitates numerical coding. Implementation of the scheme is discussed and several benchmark tests confirming its accuracy are presented, including (1) MHD wave packets ranging over orders of magnitude in length- and timescales, (2) early evolution of multifluid shocks caused by two colliding clouds, and (3) a multifluid shock with mass transfer between the fluids by cosmic-ray ionization and ion-electron recombination, demonstrating the effect of ion mass loading on magnetic precursors of MHD shocks. An exact solution to an MHD Riemann problem forming the basis for an approximate numerical solver used in the homogeneous part of our scheme is presented, along with derivations of the analytic benchmark solutions and tests showing the convergence of the numerical algorithm.

  11. MOLECULAR LINE EMISSION FROM MULTIFLUID SHOCK WAVES. I. NUMERICAL METHODS AND BENCHMARK TESTS

    Ciolek, Glenn E.; Roberge, Wayne G.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a numerical scheme for studying time-dependent, multifluid, magnetohydrodynamic shock waves in weakly ionized interstellar clouds and cores. Shocks are modeled as propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field and consist of a neutral molecular fluid plus a fluid of ions and electrons. The scheme is based on operator splitting, wherein time integration of the governing equations is split into separate parts. In one part, independent homogeneous Riemann problems for the two fluids are solved using Godunov's method. In the other, equations containing the source terms for transfer of mass, momentum, and energy between the fluids are integrated using standard numerical techniques. We show that, for the frequent case where the thermal pressures of the ions and electrons are << magnetic pressure, the Riemann problems for the neutral and ion-electron fluids have a similar mathematical structure which facilitates numerical coding. Implementation of the scheme is discussed and several benchmark tests confirming its accuracy are presented, including (1) MHD wave packets ranging over orders of magnitude in length- and timescales, (2) early evolution of multifluid shocks caused by two colliding clouds, and (3) a multifluid shock with mass transfer between the fluids by cosmic-ray ionization and ion-electron recombination, demonstrating the effect of ion mass loading on magnetic precursors of MHD shocks. An exact solution to an MHD Riemann problem forming the basis for an approximate numerical solver used in the homogeneous part of our scheme is presented, along with derivations of the analytic benchmark solutions and tests showing the convergence of the numerical algorithm.

  12. BWR 2 % main recirculation line break LOCA tests RUNs 915 and 920 without HPCS in ROSA-III program

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Hideo; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Koizumi, Yasuo; Tasaka, Kanji

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the experimental results of BWR LOCA integral tests, RUNs 915 and 920, which are performed in the ROSA-III program simulating 2 % main recirculation line break LOCA tests with and without pressure control system operation. The ROSA-III test facility simulates a BWR system with volume scale of 1/424 and has four half-length electrically heated fuel bundles, two active recirculation loops, four types of ECCS's, and steam and feedwater systems. The report presents (1) the experimental results of 2 % small break LOCA phanomena in the ROSA-III system and (2) the effects of the pressure control system on the LOCA phenomena. The pressure control system contributed to (A) prevent bulk flashing in the early blowdown phase, (B) early closure of MSIV by L2 level trip, (C) early actuation of ADS by L1 level trip. However, the core thermal responses of the two tests were similar because of the similar mass inventory in PV after the ADS actuation in both tests. (author)

  13. A comparative evaluation of in vitro skin sensitisation tests: the human cell-line activation test (h-CLAT) versus the local lymph node assay (LLNA).

    Ashikaga, Takao; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Sono, Sakiko; Kosaka, Nanae; Ishikawa, Makie; Nukada, Yuko; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Ito, Yuichi; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    We previously developed the human cell-line activation test (h-CLAT) in vitro skin sensitisation test, based on our reported finding that a 24-hour exposure of THP-1 cells (a human monocytic leukaemia cell line) to sensitisers is sufficient to induce the augmented expression of CD86 and CD54. The aim of this study is to confirm the predictive value of h-CLAT for skin sensitisation activity by employing a larger number of test chemicals. One hundred chemicals were selected, according to their categorisation in the local lymph node assay (LLNA), as being: extreme, strong, moderate and weak sensitisers, and non-sensitisers. The correlation of the h-CLAT results with the LLNA results was 84%. There were some false negatives (e.g. benzoyl peroxide, hexyl cinnamic aldehyde) and some false positives (e.g. 1-bromobutane, diethylphthalate). Eight out of the 9 false negatives (89%) were water-insoluble chemicals. The h-CLAT could positively predict not only extreme and strong sensitisers, but also moderate and weak sensitisers, though the detection rates of weak sensitisers and non-sensitisers were comparatively low. Some sensitisers enhanced both CD86 and CD54 levels, and some enhanced the level of only one of them. The use of the combination of CD86 and CD54 induction as a positive indicator, improved the accuracy of the test. In conclusion, the h-CLAT is expected to be a useful cell-based in vitro method for predicting skin sensitisation potential. 2010 FRAME.

  14. Consumption, Saving, Investment, and Unemployment. SVAR Tests of the Effects of Changes in the Consumption-Saving Pattern

    Roberto Bande Ramudo; Manuel Fernández Grela; Mª Dolores Riveiro García

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we aim to provide information about the transmission mechanism at work between investment and unemployment by looking at the consumption-saving pattern as a determinant of investment behaviour. Our starting hypothesis is that permanent shifts in the consumption-saving pattern will have permanent effects on investment, with subsequent consequences for the unemployment rate. To test this hypothesis we build an SVAR model for the Spanish economy seeking information about the respon...

  15. Joint line tenderness and McMurray tests for the detection of meniscal lesions: what is their real diagnostic value?

    Galli, Marco; Ciriello, Vincenzo; Menghi, Amerigo; Aulisa, Angelo G; Rabini, Alessia; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2013-06-01

    To assess the interobserver concordance of the joint line tenderness (JLT) and McMurray tests, and to determine their diagnostic efficiency for the detection of meniscal lesions. Prospective observational study. Orthopedics outpatient clinic, university hospital. Patients (N=60) with suspected nonacute meniscal lesions who underwent knee arthroscopy. Not applicable. Patients were examined by 3 independent observers with graded levels of experience (>10y, 3y, and 4mo of practice). The interobserver concordance was assessed by Cohen-Fleiss κ statistics. Accuracy, negative and positive predictive values for prevalence 10% to 90%, positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios, and the Bayesian posttest probability with a positive or negative result were also determined. The diagnostic value of the 2 tests combined was assessed by logistic regression. Arthroscopy was used as the reference test. No interobserver concordance was determined for the JLT. The McMurray test showed higher interobserver concordance, which improved when judgments by the less experienced examiner were discarded. The whole series studied by the "best" examiner (experienced orthopedist) provided the following values: (1) JLT: sensitivity, 62.9%; specificity, 50%; LR+, 1.26; LR-, .74; (2) McMurray: sensitivity, 34.3%; specificity, 86.4%; LR+, 2.52; LR-, .76. The combination of the 2 tests did not offer advantages over the McMurray alone. The JLT alone is of little clinical usefulness. A negative McMurray test does not modify the pretest probability of a meniscal lesion, while a positive result has a fair predictive value. Hence, in a patient with a suspected meniscal lesion, a positive McMurray test indicates that arthroscopy should be performed. In case of a negative result, further examinations, including imaging, are needed. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patterns of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe bats: Testing Rensch's rule and potential causes.

    Wu, Hui; Jiang, Tinglei; Huang, Xiaobin; Feng, Jiang

    2018-02-08

    Rensch's rule, stating that sexual size dimorphism (SSD) becomes more evident and male-biased with increasing body size, has been well supported for taxa that exhibit male-biased SSD. Bats, primarily having female-biased SSD, have so far been tested for whether SSD allometry conforms to Rensch's rule in only three studies. However, these studies did not consider phylogeny, and thus the mechanisms underlying SSD variations in bats remain unclear. Thus, the present study reviewed published and original data, including body size, baculum size, and habitat types in 45 bats of the family Rhinolophidae to determine whether horseshoe bats follow Rensch's rule using a phylogenetic comparative framework. We also investigated the potential effect of postcopulatory sexual selection and habitat type on SSD. Our findings indicated that Rensch's rule did not apply to Rhinolophidae, suggesting that SSD did not significantly vary with increasing size. This pattern may be attributable interactions between weak sexual selection to male body size and strong fecundity selection for on female body size. The degree of SSD among horseshoe bats may be attributed to a phylogenetic effect rather than to the intersexual competition for food or to baculum length. Interestingly, we observed that species in open habitats exhibited greater SSD than those in dense forests, suggesting that habitat types may be associated with variations in SSD in horseshoe bats.

  17. Tests of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors for active target time projection chambers in nuclear physics

    Pancin, J., E-mail: pancin@ganil.fr [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Damoy, S.; Perez Loureiro, D. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Chambert, V.; Dorangeville, F. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Druillole, F. [CEA, DSM/Irfu/SEDI, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Grinyer, G.F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Lermitage, A.; Maroni, A.; Noël, G. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Porte, C.; Roger, T. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Rosier, P. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Suen, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France)

    2014-01-21

    Active target detection systems, where the gas used as the detection medium is also a target for nuclear reactions, have been used for a wide variety of nuclear physics applications since the eighties. Improvements in Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) and in micro-electronics achieved in the last decade permit the development of a new generation of active targets with higher granularity pad planes that allow spatial and time information to be determined with unprecedented accuracy. A novel active target and time projection chamber (ACTAR TPC), that will be used to study reactions and decays of exotic nuclei at facilities such as SPIRAL2, is presently under development and will be based on MPGD technology. Several MPGDs (Micromegas and Thick GEM) coupled to a 2×2 mm{sup 2} pixelated pad plane have been tested and their performances have been determined with different gases over a wide range of pressures. Of particular interest for nuclear physics experiments are the angular and energy resolutions. The angular resolution has been determined to be better than 1° FWHM for short traces of about 4 cm in length and the energy resolution deduced from the particle range was found to be better than 5% for 5.5 MeV α particles. These performances have been compared to Geant4 simulations. These experimental results validate the use of these detectors for several applications in nuclear physics.

  18. Tests of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors for active target time projection chambers in nuclear physics

    Pancin, J.; Damoy, S.; Perez Loureiro, D.; Chambert, V.; Dorangeville, F.; Druillole, F.; Grinyer, G.F.; Lermitage, A.; Maroni, A.; Noël, G.; Porte, C.; Roger, T.; Rosier, P.; Suen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Active target detection systems, where the gas used as the detection medium is also a target for nuclear reactions, have been used for a wide variety of nuclear physics applications since the eighties. Improvements in Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) and in micro-electronics achieved in the last decade permit the development of a new generation of active targets with higher granularity pad planes that allow spatial and time information to be determined with unprecedented accuracy. A novel active target and time projection chamber (ACTAR TPC), that will be used to study reactions and decays of exotic nuclei at facilities such as SPIRAL2, is presently under development and will be based on MPGD technology. Several MPGDs (Micromegas and Thick GEM) coupled to a 2×2 mm 2 pixelated pad plane have been tested and their performances have been determined with different gases over a wide range of pressures. Of particular interest for nuclear physics experiments are the angular and energy resolutions. The angular resolution has been determined to be better than 1° FWHM for short traces of about 4 cm in length and the energy resolution deduced from the particle range was found to be better than 5% for 5.5 MeV α particles. These performances have been compared to Geant4 simulations. These experimental results validate the use of these detectors for several applications in nuclear physics

  19. Tests for improvement of decontamination factors on RWTP technological line of precipitation

    Popovici, C.

    1998-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are produced from diverse applications of radionuclides and radioactive materials in industry, medicine, agriculture and research. Many of the liquid wastes need treatment for safe management. Chemical precipitation process is well established for the removal of radioactive from LLW and ILW. The precipitation of insoluble compounds is one of the oldest and most used process for the treatment of aqueous waste. The precipitation can be performed either in a simple step or by combined chemical treatment which mainly includes as radioactive carries iron oxo-hydroxides, iron phosphate, calcium phosphate and cooper ferrocyanide. The contaminants are removed from LLW and ILW during precipitation by different mechanisms such as: coagulation and flocculation process, precipitation and co-precipitation, adsorption on the coagulant aid, ion exchange and physical enmeshment by coagulant aid. All these processes are directly dependent on the precipitate properties and its structure which are connected with the initial system composition and the precipitation procedure. Chemical precipitation method for treatment of LLW and ILW by co-precipitation of caesium with cooper ferrocyanide was employed on the real radioactive wastes where the volumes were 3 m 3 , 24 m 3 and 30 m 3 . The percentage removals of Cs-137 from 2285 Bq, 1310 Bq and 1232 Bq per litre of real effluents were 98.8%, 98.9% and 99.1%, respectively. Test runs for removal of Cs-137 from the wastes varied from 90% to 95%. High decontamination factors were observed in the pH range of 9 to 10.5. (author)

  20. FEDIX on-line information service: Design, develop, test, and implement an on-line research and education information service. Annual status report, September 1992--August 1993

    Rodman, J.A.

    1993-08-01

    Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE) is a diversified information services company that is recognized as the major electronic link between the higher education community and the Federal government in the field of research administration. FIE provides a range of information related services to the government, academic and private sectors, including database management, software development and technical support. FEDIX is the on-line information service designed, developed and implemented by FIE to accomplish the following objectives: (1). Broaden the participation of the education community in Federal research and education programs by providing free and unrestricted on-line access to information from all participating Federal agencies; and (2). Provide the education community with on-line access to a single keyword-searchable system for research and educational funding opportunities at the participating Federal agencies.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing before first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance.

    Cosme, Angel; Montes, Milagrosa; Ibarra, Begoña; Tamayo, Esther; Alonso, Horacio; Mendarte, Usua; Lizasoan, Jacobo; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Bujanda, Luis

    2017-05-14

    To evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial susceptibility-guided therapy before first-line treatment for infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance. A total of 1034 patients infected by Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) during 2013-2014 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. 157 of 1034 (15%) patients showed resistance to two (127/1034; 12%) and to three (30/1034; 3%) antibiotics. Sixty-eight patients with dual H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin) were treated for 10 d with triple therapies: OAL (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and levofloxacin 500 mg b.i.d.) 43 cases, OAM (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d.) 12 cases and OAC (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.) 13 cases based on the antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Twelve patients showed triple H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin) and received for 10 d triple therapy with OAR (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and rifabutin 150 mg b.i.d.). Eradication was confirmed by 13C-urea breath test. Adverse effects and compliance were assessed by a questionnaire. Intention-to-treat eradication rates were: OAL (97.6%), OAM (91.6%), OAC (92.3%) and OAR (58.3%). Cure rate was significantly higher in naïve patients treated with OAR-10 compared to patients who had two or three previous treatment failures (83% vs 33%). Adverse events rates for OAL, OAM, OAC and OAR were 22%, 25%, 23% and 17%, respectively, all of them mild-moderate. Antimicrobial susceptibility-guided triple therapies during 10 d for first-line treatment leads to an eradication rate superior to 90% in patients with dual antibiotic H. pylori resistance.

  2. Defect Localization Capabilities of a Global Detection Scheme: Spatial Pattern Recognition Using Full-field Vibration Test Data in Plates

    Saleeb, A. F.; Prabhu, M.; Arnold, S. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a conceptually simple approach, based on the notion of defect energy in material space has been developed and extensively studied (from the theoretical and computational standpoints). The present study focuses on its evaluation from the viewpoint of damage localization capabilities in case of two-dimensional plates; i.e., spatial pattern recognition on surfaces. To this end, two different experimental modal test results are utilized; i.e., (1) conventional modal testing using (white noise) excitation and accelerometer-type sensors and (2) pattern recognition using Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), a full field method capable of analyzing the mechanical vibration of complex structures. Unlike the conventional modal testing technique (using contacting accelerometers), these emerging ESPI technologies operate in a non-contacting mode, can be used even under hazardous conditions with minimal or no presence of noise and can simultaneously provide measurements for both translations and rotations. Results obtained have clearly demonstrated the robustness and versatility of the global NDE scheme developed. The vectorial character of the indices used, which enabled the extraction of distinct patterns for localizing damages proved very useful. In the context of the targeted pattern recognition paradigm, two algorithms were developed for the interrogation of test measurements; i.e., intensity contour maps for the damaged index, and the associated defect energy vector field plots.

  3. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for SN-635 transfer line (241-AY-01A to 241-AY-02A) and SN-633 transfer line tie in

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    This Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) defines the test and evaluation activities encompassing the installation of the SN-635 transfer line for the W-314 Project. The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made by the addition of the SN-635 transfer line and the tie in of SN-633 to the AY-02A pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system's performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP)

  4. On-line ethics education for occupational therapy clinician-educators: a single-group pre-/post-test study.

    VanderKaay, Sandra; Letts, Lori; Jung, Bonny; Moll, Sandra E

    2018-05-20

    Ethics education is a critical component of training rehabilitation practitioners. There is a need for capacity-building among ethics educators regarding facilitating ethical decision-making among students. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of an on-line ethics education module for occupational therapy clinician-educators (problem-based learning tutors/clinical placement preceptors/evidence-based practice facilitators). The Knowledge-to-Action Process informed development and evaluation of the module. Clinician-educators (n = 33) viewed the module and reported on its impact on knowledge and facilitation practices via pre, post, and follow-up questionnaires. Pre- and post-test data indicated improvement in self-reported ethics knowledge (t = 8.275, p ethics education module for clinician-educators. Future recommendations include broader consideration of context, adding supplemental knowledge translation components, and further research exploring outcomes with larger samples, longer follow-up and randomized trial methodology. Implications for Rehabilitation The on-line ethics module has potential to improve rehabilitation practice by addressing the noted gap in knowledge among clinician-educators. Viewing an on-line module regarding approaches to ethics education may not be sufficient to change clinician-educators' teaching practices. More time and opportunities to discuss ethics with student occupational therapists may be required to effect practice change among clinician-educators. Developing ethics education tools for clinician-educators requires ongoing and iterative input from knowledge users to optimize translation of ideas to practice.

  5. Test of the Capability of Laser Line Scan Technology to Support Benthic Habitat Mapping in Coral Reef Ecosystems, Maui Island, November 2006

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The utility of Laser Line Scan (LLS) Technology for optical validation of benthic habitat map data from coral reef ecosystems was tested with a deployment of a...

  6. Power of automated algorithms for combining time-line follow-back and urine drug screening test results in stimulant-abuse clinical trials.

    Oden, Neal L; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C; Wakim, Paul G; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Somoza, Eugene; Lewis, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    In clinical trials of treatment for stimulant abuse, researchers commonly record both Time-Line Follow-Back (TLFB) self-reports and urine drug screen (UDS) results. To compare the power of self-report, qualitative (use vs. no use) UDS assessment, and various algorithms to generate self-report-UDS composite measures to detect treatment differences via t-test in simulated clinical trial data. We performed Monte Carlo simulations patterned in part on real data to model self-report reliability, UDS errors, dropout, informatively missing UDS reports, incomplete adherence to a urine donation schedule, temporal correlation of drug use, number of days in the study period, number of patients per arm, and distribution of drug-use probabilities. Investigated algorithms include maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimates, self-report alone, UDS alone, and several simple modifications of self-report (referred to here as ELCON algorithms) which eliminate perceived contradictions between it and UDS. Among the algorithms investigated, simple ELCON algorithms gave rise to the most powerful t-tests to detect mean group differences in stimulant drug use. Further investigation is needed to determine if simple, naïve procedures such as the ELCON algorithms are optimal for comparing clinical study treatment arms. But researchers who currently require an automated algorithm in scenarios similar to those simulated for combining TLFB and UDS to test group differences in stimulant use should consider one of the ELCON algorithms. This analysis continues a line of inquiry which could determine how best to measure outpatient stimulant use in clinical trials (NIDA. NIDA Monograph-57: Self-Report Methods of Estimating Drug Abuse: Meeting Current Challenges to Validity. NTIS PB 88248083. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1985; NIDA. NIDA Research Monograph 73: Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NTIS PB 89151971. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1987; NIDA. NIDA Research

  7. Testing a Conceptual Model of Working through Self-Defeating Patterns

    Wei, Meifen; Ku, Tsun-Yao

    2007-01-01

    The present study developed and examined a conceptual model of working through self-defeating patterns. Participants were 390 college students at a large midwestern university. Results indicated that self-defeating patterns mediated the relations between attachment and distress. Also, self-esteem mediated the link between self-defeating patterns…

  8. Patterns of cytosine methylation in an elite rice hybrid and its parental lines, detected by a methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism technique.

    Xiong, L Z; Xu, C G; Saghai Maroof, M A; Zhang, Q

    1999-04-01

    DNA methylation is known to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. In this study, we assessed the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation in the rice genome, using the technique of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP), which is a modification of the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method that makes use of the differential sensitivity of a pair of isoschizomers to cytosine methylation. The tissues assayed included seedlings and flag leaves of an elite rice hybrid, Shanyou 63, and the parental lines Zhenshan 97 and Minghui 63. In all, 1076 fragments, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both of the isoschizomers, were amplified using 16 pairs of selective primers. A total of 195 sites were found to be methylated at cytosines in one or both parents, and the two parents showed approximately the same overall degree of methylation (16.3%), as revealed by the incidence of differential digestion by the isoschizomers. Four classes of patterns were identified in a comparative assay of cytosine methylation in the parents and hybrid; increased methylation was detected in the hybrid compared to the parents at some of the recognition sites, while decreased methylation in the hybrid was detected at other sites. A small proportion of the sites was found to be differentially methylated in seedlings and flag leaves; DNA from young seedlings was methylated to a greater extent than that from flag leaves. Almost all of the methylation patterns detected by MSAP could be confirmed by Southern analysis using the isolated amplified fragments as probes. The results clearly demonstrate that the MSAP technique is highly efficient for large-scale detection of cytosine methylation in the rice genome. We believe that the technique can be adapted for use in other plant species.

  9. Transport of liquid state nitrogen through long length service lines during thermal/vacuum testing. [in a Nimbus 6 satellite

    Florio, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and analytical aspects associated with the transport are presented. Included is a definition of the problems and difficulties imposed by the servicing of a typical solid cryogen system, as well as a discussion of the transport requirements and of the rationale which governed their solution. A successful detailed transport configuration is defined, and the application of established mathematics to the design approach is demonstrated. The significance of head pressure, pressure drop, line friction, heat leak, Reynolds number, and the fundamental equilibrium demands of pressure and temperature were examined as they relate to the achievement of liquid state flow. Performance predictions were made for the transport system, and several analytical quantities are tabulated. These data are analyzed and compared with measured and calculated results obtained while actually servicing a solid cryogen system during thermal/vacuum testing.

  10. Assessing UAS Flight Testing and It's Importance for Beyond-Line-of-Sight UAS Control in Cooperation with Partnering Organizations

    de Jong, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    From the 1st of June until the 21st of August, the internship has been conducted at NASA Ames Research Center as part of the Master of Space Studies at the International Space University. The main activities consisted of doing research on UAV flight-­-testing and the assessing of safety with respect to Beyond-­-Line-­-Of-­-Sight operations. Further activities consisted of accommodating international partners and potential partners at the NASA Ames site, in order to identify mutual interest and future collaboration. Besides those activities, the report describes the planning process of the ISU Space Coast Trip to 10 different space related companies on the west-­-coast of California. Key words: UAS, UAV, BLOS, Ames, ISU Trip

  11. FLEXURAL TESTING MACHINE AS AN OFF-LINE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR QUALITY MONITORING IN THE PRODUCTION OF BENDED CERAMIC TILES

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The capability to bend in a controlled manner Gres Porcelain stoneware tiles passing by a very exclusive process of pyroplastic deformation opens up entirely new opportunities in utilisation of this important family of ceramics. A bended tile can be exploited in innovative applications, such as stairs, shelves, benches and even radiators, turning this element from a simple piece of furnishing in a modern functional component. But this change in functionality also requires a different approach in the quality control, both at the product and process levels, that can no longer be limited to the use of tests specified in the regulations for traditional ceramics (e.g. colour, porosity, hygroscopic .... This article describes the first device so far devised for the verification of resistance to bending of curved tiles, discussing the correct way of use. The adoption of this particular equipment as an off-line control device can represent a valid strategy for monitoring the product and process quality.

  12. Development of large high-voltage pressure insulators for the Princeton TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] flexible transmission lines

    Scalise, D.T.; Fong, E.; Haughian, J.; Prechter, R.

    1986-10-01

    Specially formulated insulator materials with improved strength and high-voltage properties were developed and used for critical components of the flexible transmission lines to the TFTR neutral beam ion sources. These critical components are plates which support central conductors as they exit the high-voltage power supply and enter the ion source enclosure. Each plate acts both as a high-voltage insulator and as a pressure barrier to the SF 6 insulating gas. The original plate was made of commercial glass-epoxy laminate which limited the plate voltage capacity. The newly developed insulator is made of specially-formulated cycloalphatic Di-epoxide whose isotropic properties exhibit increased arc resistance. It is cast in one piece with skirts which greatly increase the breakdown voltage. This paper discusses the design, fabrication and testing of the new insulator

  13. Testing of the method for water microleakage detection from OH hydroxyl spectral lines at the L-2M stellarator

    Voronov, G. S.; Berezhetskii, M. S.; Bondar’, Yu. F.; Vafin, I. Yu.; Vasil’kov, D. G.; Voronova, E. V.; Grebenshchikov, S. E.; Grishina, I. A.; Larionova, N. F.; Letunov, A. A.; Logvinenko, V. P.; Meshcheryakov, A. I.; Pleshkov, E. I.; Khol’nov, Yu. V.; Fedyanin, O. I.; Tsygankov, V. A.; Shchepetov, S. V.; Kurnaev, V. A.; Vizgalov, I. V.; Urusov, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Results are presented from L-2M stellarator experiments on testing a possible method for detection of water microleakages in the cooling system of the first wall and vacuum chamber of ITER. The method consists in the spectroscopic detection of spectral lines of the OH hydroxyl, which forms via the dissociation of water molecules in plasma. Emission in the spectral band of 305–310 nm can be detected even at water leakage rates less than 10 −4 Pa m 3 /s. Chemical reactions between water and boron compounds on the vacuum chamber wall delay the detection of leakages up to ∼2000 s. A similar phenomenon can be expected when a leakage will occur in ITER, where the materials suggested for the first wall (Be, Li) can also chemically react with water.

  14. Large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading.

    Kavazanjian, Edward; Gutierrez, Angel

    2017-10-01

    A large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading was conducted to help validate a numerical model for performance based design of geomembrane liner systems. The test was conducted using the 240g-ton centrifuge at the University of California at Davis under the U.S. National Science Foundation Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research (NEESR) program. A 0.05mm thin film membrane was used to model the liner. The waste was modeled using a peat-sand mixture. The side slope membrane was underlain by lubricated low density polyethylene to maximize the difference between the interface shear strength on the top and bottom of the geomembrane and the induced tension in it. Instrumentation included thin film strain gages to monitor geomembrane strains and accelerometers to monitor seismic excitation. The model was subjected to an input design motion intended to simulate strong ground motion from the 1994 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. Results indicate that downdrag waste settlement and seismic loading together, and possibly each phenomenon individually, can induce potentially damaging tensile strains in geomembrane liners. The data collected from this test is publically available and can be used to validate numerical models for the performance of geomembrane liner systems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Pattern and density of vascularization in mammalian testes, ovaries, and ovotestes.

    Lupiáñez, Darío G; Real, Francisca M; Dadhich, Rajesh K; Carmona, Francisco D; Burgos, Miguel; Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Jiménez, Rafael

    2012-05-01

    According to the classical paradigm, the vasculature of the embryonic testis is more dense and complex than that of the ovary, but recent studies based on whole-mount detection of Caveolin-1 (CAV1) as an endothelial cell marker, have suggested that the level of ovarian vascularization is higher than previously assumed. However, this new hypothesis has been neither tested using alternative methodology nor investigated in other mammalian species. In this paper, we have studied the vascularization process in the gonads of males and females of two mammalian species, the mouse (Mus musculus) and the Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis). Our results show that the pattern of testis vascularization is very well conserved among mammals, including both pre- and postnatal stages of development and, at least in the mole, it is conserved irrespectively of whether the testicular tissue is XY or XX. We have shown that CAV1 is present not only in endothelial cells but also in prefollicular oocytes and in an ovarian population of somatic cortical cells. These data clearly establish that: (1) according to the classical hypothesis, the degree of vascularization of the developing ovary is lower than that of the testis, (2) ovarian vascularization is also evolutionarily conserved as it occurs similarly both in moles and in mice, and (3) that the degree of vascular development of the mammalian ovary is age-dependent increasing significatively at puberty. The expression of CAV1 in the ovary of most animal taxa, from nematodes to mammals, strongly suggests a role for this gene in the female meiosis. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. On-Line Tests

    Florentina Anica Pintea

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interactive implementation which makes the link between a human operator and a system of an administration of relational databases MySQL. This application conceived as a multimedia presentations is illustrative for the way in which the transfer and the remaking of the information between the human operator, the module of data processing and the database which stores the information can be solved (with help of the PHP language and the web use.

  17. Determination of specificity and pattern of antinuclear antibodies (ana) in systemic rheumatic disease patients positive for ana testing

    Nawaz, H.; Bashir, M.M.; Iqbal, W.

    2018-01-01

    To determine probability of finding antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) positive samples and associating ANA patterns with anti-ENA reactivities among a consecutive cohort of samples of systemic rheumatic disease patients referred for ANA testing. Study Design:Prospective cohort study. Place and Duration of Study:Immunology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January to June 2016. Methodology:All the samples referred for ANA testing with clinical suspicion of systemic rheumatic disease were included. After screening, ANA positive samples were subjected to anti-ENA antibodies testing (including anti-SSA, anti-SSB, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-SCL-70 and anti-Jo-1 antibodies) and ANA pattern and titer determination. Results:Of 4,347 samples received, 397 were positive for ANA (9%). Of 397, 96 (24%) samples positive on ENA screen were tested for anti-ENA reactivity. Anti-SSA antibodies were found in 59 samples. Commonest ANA patterns were coarse and fine speckled (43 and 22 samples of 81 tested), while majority of samples carried ANA in titers of 1:40 and 1:80 (22 and 18 samples of 81 tested). No specific ANA pattern was associated with any particular anti-ENA reactivity. Conclusion:Among samples/patients referred for investigations of autoimmune disorders, probability of finding positive ANA is approximately 9%. Of these 9%, about 24% also show reactivity against ENA. Commonest ANA pattern is coarse speckled and majority of such patients carry ANA in titers ranging from 1:40 to 1:80. Commonest ENA reactivity was against SSA. (author)

  18. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for SN-633 transfer line (241-AX-B to 241-AY-02A)

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made by the addition of the SN-633 transfer line by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system's performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP). This STEP encompasses all testing activities required to demonstrate compliance to the project design criteria as it relates to the addition of transfer line SN-633. The Project Design Specifications (PDS) identify the specific testing activities required for the Project. Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the transfer line addition. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation

  19. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements and Groove Chambers Tests in the PEP-II Beam Line Straights Sections

    Pivi, M

    2008-01-01

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders such as ILC and CLIC [1, 2]. In the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed vacuum chambers with rectangular grooves in a straight magnetic-free section to test this promising possible electron cloud mitigation technique. We have also installed a special chamber to monitor the secondary electron yield of TiN and TiZrV (NEG) coating, Copper, Stainless Steel and Aluminum under the effect of electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R and D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the ILC damping ring, the latest results on in situ secondary electron yield conditioning and recent update on the groove tests in PEP-II

  20. Post-hoc pattern-oriented testing and tuning of an existing large model: lessons from the field vole.

    Christopher J Topping

    Full Text Available Pattern-oriented modeling (POM is a general strategy for modeling complex systems. In POM, multiple patterns observed at different scales and hierarchical levels are used to optimize model structure, to test and select sub-models of key processes, and for calibration. So far, POM has been used for developing new models and for models of low to moderate complexity. It remains unclear, though, whether the basic idea of POM to utilize multiple patterns, could also be used to test and possibly develop existing and established models of high complexity. Here, we use POM to test, calibrate, and further develop an existing agent-based model of the field vole (Microtus agrestis, which was developed and tested within the ALMaSS framework. This framework is complex because it includes a high-resolution representation of the landscape and its dynamics, of the individual's behavior, and of the interaction between landscape and individual behavior. Results of fitting to the range of patterns chosen were generally very good, but the procedure required to achieve this was long and complicated. To obtain good correspondence between model and the real world it was often necessary to model the real world environment closely. We therefore conclude that post-hoc POM is a useful and viable way to test a highly complex simulation model, but also warn against the dangers of over-fitting to real world patterns that lack details in their explanatory driving factors. To overcome some of these obstacles we suggest the adoption of open-science and open-source approaches to ecological simulation modeling.

  1. A global RNA-seq-driven analysis of CHO host and production cell lines reveals distinct differential expression patterns of genes contributing to recombinant antibody glycosylation.

    Könitzer, Jennifer D; Müller, Markus M; Leparc, Germán; Pauers, Martin; Bechmann, Jan; Schulz, Patrick; Schaub, Jochen; Enenkel, Barbara; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Hampel, Martin; Tolstrup, Anne B

    2015-09-01

    Boehringer Ingelheim uses two CHO-DG44 lines for manufacturing biotherapeutics, BI-HEX-1 and BI-HEX-2, which produce distinct cell type-specific antibody glycosylation patterns. A recently established CHO-K1 descended host, BI-HEX-K1, generates antibodies with glycosylation profiles differing from CHO-DG44. Manufacturing process development is significantly influenced by these unique profiles. To investigate the underlying glycosylation related gene expression, we leveraged our CHO host and production cell RNA-seqtranscriptomics and product quality database together with the CHO-K1 genome. We observed that each BI-HEX host and antibody producing cell line has a unique gene expression fingerprint. CHO-DG44 cells only transcribe Fut10, Gfpt2 and ST8Sia6 when expressing antibodies. BI-HEX-K1 cells express ST8Sia6 at host cell level. We detected a link between BI-HEX-1/BI-HEX-2 antibody galactosylation and mannosylation and the gene expression of the B4galt gene family and genes controlling mannose processing. Furthermore, we found major differences between the CHO-DG44 and CHO-K1 lineages in the expression of sialyl transferases and enzymes synthesizing sialic acid precursors, providing a rationale for the lack of immunogenic NeuGc/NGNA synthesis in CHO. Our study highlights the value of systems biotechnology to understand glycoprotein synthesis and product glycoprofiles. Such data improve future production clone selection and process development strategies for better steering of biotherapeutic product quality. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Dynamic analysis and vibration testing of CFRP drive-line system used in heavy-duty machine tool

    Mo Yang; Lin Gui; Yefa Hu; Guoping Ding; Chunsheng Song

    2018-01-01

    Low critical rotary speed and large vibration in the metal drive-line system of heavy-duty machine tool affect the machining precision seriously. Replacing metal drive-line with the CFRP drive-line can effectively solve this problem. Based on the composite laminated theory and the transfer matrix method (TMM), this paper puts forward a modified TMM to analyze dynamic characteristics of CFRP drive-line system. With this modified TMM, the CFRP drive-line of a heavy vertical miller is analyzed. ...

  3. Studies of a full-scale mechanical prototype line for the ANTARES neutrino telescope and tests of a prototype instrument for deep-sea acoustic measurements

    Ageron, M. [CPPM-Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Aguilar, J.A. [IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Albert, A. [GRPHE-Groupe de Recherche en Physique des Hautes Energies, Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 Rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Ameli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' La Sapienza' e Sezione INFN, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Anghinolfi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione INFN, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F. [DSM/DAPNIA-Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Laboratoire de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J. [CPPM-Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Auer, R. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Barbarito, E. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica e Sezione INFN, Via E. Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Basa, S. [LAM-Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS/INSU et Universite de Provence, Traverse du Siphon-Les Trois Lucs, BP 8, 13012 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Battaglieri, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione INFN, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione INFN, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)] (and others)

    2007-11-01

    A full-scale mechanical prototype line was deployed to a depth of 2500 m to test the leak tightness of the electronics containers and the pressure-resistant properties of an electromechanical cable under evaluation for use in the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope. During a month-long immersion study, line parameter data were taken using miniature autonomous data loggers and shore-based optical time domain reflectometry. Details of the mechanical prototype line, the electromechanical cable and data acquisition are presented. Data taken during the immersion study revealed deficiencies in the pressure resistance of the electromechanical cable terminations at the entry points to the electronics containers. The improvements to the termination, which have been integrated into subsequent detection lines, are discussed. The line also allowed deep-sea acoustic measurements with a prototype hydrophone system. The technical setup of this system is described, and the first results of the data analysis are presented.

  4. Studies of a full-scale mechanical prototype line for the ANTARES neutrino telescope and tests of a prototype instrument for deep-sea acoustic measurements

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J.A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A full-scale mechanical prototype line was deployed to a depth of 2500 m to test the leak tightness of the electronics containers and the pressure-resistant properties of an electromechanical cable under evaluation for use in the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope. During a month-long immersion study, line parameter data were taken using miniature autonomous data loggers and shore-based optical time domain reflectometry. Details of the mechanical prototype line, the electromechanical cable and data acquisition are presented. Data taken during the immersion study revealed deficiencies in the pressure resistance of the electromechanical cable terminations at the entry points to the electronics containers. The improvements to the termination, which have been integrated into subsequent detection lines, are discussed. The line also allowed deep-sea acoustic measurements with a prototype hydrophone system. The technical setup of this system is described, and the first results of the data analysis are presented

  5. Toxicology Study No. S.0024589d 15, Human Cell Line Activation Test of the Novel Energetic, 3,4 -Dinitropyrazole (DNP)

    2016-04-01

    Assay 1 0.259 0.278 Assay 2 0.299 6.3 CD54 and CD86 expression in response to DNP exposure of THP -1 cells Three independent tests were...2 Toxicology Study No. S.0024589d-15, April 2016 Toxicology Directorate Human Cell Line Activation Test of the Novel Energetic 3,4...report. 17-05-2016 Technical Report March 2016-April 2016 Toxicology Study No. S.0024589d-15 Human Cell Line Activation Test of the Novel

  6. DISAIN SISTEM KENDALI MESIN AIR LEAK TEST MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM KENDALI PLC OMRON CJ2M DI HVAC (HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING LINE 6

    Syahril Ardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada proses produksi pembuatan komponen HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning dari perusahaan manufaktur di Indonesia, memerlukan proses pengecekan kebocoran pada bagian HVAC. Proses pengecekan ini dilakukan untuk memastikan tidak ada komponen HVAC yang bocor sebelum dikirim ke pihak pelanggan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membuat system dan alat air leak test. Mesin air leak test ini menggunakan prinsip kerja differential pressure air leak test, yaitu metode yang membandingkan antara tekanan udara yang diberikan ke produk dan master produk. Pada penelitian ini, kami membuat disain mesin air leak test menggunakan sistem kendali berupa air leak tester, PLC, dan HMI. Berdasarkan kondisi dengan kapasitas produksi yang meningkat karena bertambahnya permintaan dari customer, dapat ditanggulangi dengan adanya share loading produksi dari HVAC line 4 ke line baru, yaitu HVAC line 6. Hasil yang didapat dari pengujian deteksi kebocoran produk,didapat nilai parameter kebocoran produk sebesar 2.23 ml/min.

  7. Photo-identification in amphibian studies: a test of I3S Pattern

    Marco Sannolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Photo-identification is used for individual recognition of several animal species. It gives the possibility to take photos of large species from a distance or to avoid invasive marking techniques in small animals. For amphibians, the use of non-invasive marking methods is even more relevant in the light of their global decline. Here we use the photo-identification data from a population of Triturus carnifex to validate the photo-identification software I3S Pattern. This recently developed utility has never been applied to amphibians. The software proved to be efficient and accurate for individual recognition for this species. Contrarily to the previous releases of the I3S family, I3S Pattern is particularly suitable for amphibians characterized by a complex individual pattern of large blotches or irregular spots, which are not readily identified by eye.

  8. Patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men living in Scotland: a qualitative study

    Nicola Boydell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing overall rates, and frequency, of HIV testing in populations at risk is a key public health objective and a critical dimension of HIV prevention efforts. In the UK, men who have sex with men (MSM remain one of the communities most at risk of HIV and, within this, young gay men are a key risk group. Understanding HIV testing practices is important in the development of interventions to promote testing among young gay and bisexual men. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirty young gay and bisexual men (aged 18–29 in Scotland. Thematic analysis of men’s accounts of their approach to HIV testing identified three overarching patterns of testing: ‘habitual’, ‘reactive’ and ‘ ad hoc’. Results This qualitative study, the first to explore patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men in the UK, contributes novel findings around the role of social support and ‘community’ in shaping young men’s approaches to HIV testing. The findings suggest that social support can play an important role in encouraging and facilitating HIV testing among young gay men, however, social norms of non-testing also have the potential to act as a barrier to development of a regular routine. Men with habitual testing practices framed HIV testing as both a personal and ‘community’ responsibility, and more effective than testing in response to risk events or emergent symptoms. Men who reported reactive testing practices described testing for HIV primarily in response to perceived exposure to sexual risk, along with ‘transitional moments’ such as starting, ending or changes to a relationship. Among young men who reported testing on an ad hoc basis, inconvenience and disruptions to HIV testing practices, particularly where men lacked social support, acted as a barrier to developing a routine of regular testing. Conclusions Our findings suggest that interventions which seek to increase

  9. Patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men living in Scotland: a qualitative study.

    Boydell, Nicola; Buston, Katie; McDaid, Lisa Margaret

    2017-08-17

    Increasing overall rates, and frequency, of HIV testing in populations at risk is a key public health objective and a critical dimension of HIV prevention efforts. In the UK, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain one of the communities most at risk of HIV and, within this, young gay men are a key risk group. Understanding HIV testing practices is important in the development of interventions to promote testing among young gay and bisexual men. Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirty young gay and bisexual men (aged 18-29) in Scotland. Thematic analysis of men's accounts of their approach to HIV testing identified three overarching patterns of testing: 'habitual', 'reactive' and ' ad hoc'. This qualitative study, the first to explore patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men in the UK, contributes novel findings around the role of social support and 'community' in shaping young men's approaches to HIV testing. The findings suggest that social support can play an important role in encouraging and facilitating HIV testing among young gay men, however, social norms of non-testing also have the potential to act as a barrier to development of a regular routine. Men with habitual testing practices framed HIV testing as both a personal and 'community' responsibility, and more effective than testing in response to risk events or emergent symptoms. Men who reported reactive testing practices described testing for HIV primarily in response to perceived exposure to sexual risk, along with 'transitional moments' such as starting, ending or changes to a relationship. Among young men who reported testing on an ad hoc basis, inconvenience and disruptions to HIV testing practices, particularly where men lacked social support, acted as a barrier to developing a routine of regular testing. Our findings suggest that interventions which seek to increase rates of HIV testing and testing frequency among young gay and bisexual men should include a

  10. Exposure to nickel, chromium, or cadmium causes distinct changes in the gene expression patterns of a rat liver derived cell line.

    Matthew G Permenter

    Full Text Available Many heavy metals, including nickel (Ni, cadmium (Cd, and chromium (Cr are toxic industrial chemicals with an exposure risk in both occupational and environmental settings that may cause harmful outcomes. While these substances are known to produce adverse health effects leading to disease or health problems, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. To elucidate the processes involved in the toxicity of nickel, cadmium, and chromium at the molecular level and to perform a comparative analysis, H4-II-E-C3 rat liver-derived cell lines were treated with soluble salts of each metal using concentrations derived from viability assays, and gene expression patterns were determined with DNA microarrays. We identified both common and unique biological responses to exposure to the three metals. Nickel, cadmium, chromium all induced oxidative stress with both similar and unique genes and pathways responding to this stress. Although all three metals are known to be genotoxic, evidence for DNA damage in our study only exists in response to chromium. Nickel induced a hypoxic response as well as inducing genes involved in chromatin structure, perhaps by replacing iron in key proteins. Cadmium distinctly perturbed genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and invoked the unfolded protein response leading to apoptosis. With these studies, we have completed the first gene expression comparative analysis of nickel, cadmium, and chromium in H4-II-E-C3 cells.

  11. Differences in Env and Gag protein expression patterns and epitope availability in feline immunodeficiency virus infected PBMC compared to infected and transfected feline model cell lines.

    Roukaerts, Inge D M; Grant, Chris K; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Christiaens, Isaura; Acar, Delphine D; Van Bockstael, Sebastiaan; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2017-01-02

    Env and Gag are key components of the FIV virion that are targeted to the plasma membrane for virion assembly. They are both important stimulators and targets of anti-FIV immunity. To investigate and compare the expression pattern and antigenic changes of Gag and Env in various research models, infected PBMC (the natural FIV host cells) and GFox, and transfected CrFK were stained over time with various Env and Gag specific MAbs. In FIV infected GFox and PBMC, Env showed changes in epitope availability for antibody binding during processing and trafficking, which was not seen in transfected CrFK. Interestingly, epitopes exposed on intracellular Env and Env present on the plasma membrane of CrFK and GFox seem to be hidden on plasma membrane expressed Env of FIV infected PBMC. A kinetic follow up of Gag and Env expression showed a polarization of both Gag and Env expression to specific sites at the plasma membrane of PBMC, but not in other cell lines. In conclusion, mature trimeric cell surface expressed Env might be antigenically distinct from intracellular monomeric Env in PBMC and might possibly be unrecognizable by feline humoral immunity. In addition, Env expression is restricted to a small area on the plasma membrane and co-localizes with a large moiety of Gag, which may represent a preferred FIV budding site, or initiation of virological synapses with direct cell-to-cell virus transmission. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. A RADIAL VELOCITY TEST FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES AS AN EXPLANATION FOR BROAD, DOUBLE-PEAKED EMISSION LINES IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Liu, Jia; Halpern, Jules P. [Astronomy Department, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Institute for Gravitation and The Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    One of the proposed explanations for the broad, double-peaked Balmer emission lines observed in the spectra of some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is that they are associated with sub-parsec supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. Here, we test the binary broad-line region hypothesis through several decades of monitoring of the velocity structure of double-peaked Hα emission lines in 13 low-redshift, mostly radio-loud AGNs. This is a much larger set of objects compared to an earlier test by Eracleous et al. and we use much longer time series for the three objects studied in that paper. Although systematic changes in radial velocity can be traced in many of their lines, they are demonstrably not like those of a spectroscopic binary in a circular orbit. Any spectroscopic binary period must therefore be much longer than the span of the monitoring (assuming a circular orbit), which in turn would require black hole masses that exceed by 1–2 orders of magnitude the values obtained for these objects using techniques such as reverberation mapping and stellar velocity dispersion. Moreover, the response of the double-peaked Balmer line profiles to fluctuations of the ionizing continuum and the shape of the Lyα profiles are incompatible with an SMBH binary. The binary broad-line region hypothesis is therefore disfavored. Other processes evidently shape these line profiles and cause the long-term velocity variations of the double peaks.

  13. Modeling bubble condenser containment with computer code COCOSYS: post-test calculations of the main steam line break experiment at ELECTROGORSK BC V-213 test facility

    Lola, I.; Gromov, G.; Gumenyuk, D.; Pustovit, V.; Sholomitsky, S.; Wolff, H.; Arndt, S.; Blinkov, V.; Osokin, G.; Melikhov, O.; Melikhov, V.; Sokoline, A.

    2005-01-01

    Containment of the WWER-440 Model 213 nuclear power plant features a Bubble Condenser, a complex passive pressure suppression system, intended to limit pressure rise in the containment during accidents. Due to lack of experimental evidence of its successful operation in the original design documentation, the performance of this system under accidents with ruptures of large high-energy pipes of the primary and secondary sides remains a known safety concern for this containment type. Therefore, a number of research and analytical studies have been conducted by the countries operating WWER-440 reactors and their Western partners in the recent years to verify Bubble Condenser operation under accident conditions. Comprehensive experimental research studies at the Electrogorsk BC V-213 test facility, commissioned in 1999 in Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre (EREC), constitute essential part of these efforts. Nowadays this is the only operating large-scale facility enabling integral tests on investigation of the Bubble Condenser performance. Several large international research projects, conducted at this facility in 1999-2003, have covered a spectrum of pipe break accidents. These experiments have substantially improved understanding of the overall system performance and thermal hydraulic phenomena in the Bubble Condenser Containment, and provided valuable information for validating containment codes against experimental results. One of the recent experiments, denoted as SLB-G02, has simulated steam line break. The results of this experiment are of especial value for the engineers working in the area of computer code application for WWER-440 containment analyses, giving an opportunity to verify validity of the code predictions and identify possibilities for model improvement. This paper describes the results of the post-test calculations of the SLB-G02 experiment, conducted as a joint effort of GRS, Germany and Ukrainian technical support organizations for

  14. Testing of DRAINMOD for Forested Watersheds with Non-Pattern Drainage

    Devendra M. Amatya; Ge Sun; R. Wayne Skaggs; Carl C. Trettin

    2003-01-01

    Models like DRAINMOD and its forestry version, DRAINLOB, have been specifically developed as a field scale model for evaluating hydrologic effects of crops (trees), soil, and water management practices for lands with pattern drainage (i.e. with parallel ditches) on relatively flat, high water table soils. These models conduct a water balance between the ditches to...

  15. Comparison of tests for spatial heterogeneity on data with global clustering patterns and outliers

    Hachey Mark

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to evaluate geographic heterogeneity of cancer incidence and mortality is important in cancer surveillance. Many statistical methods for evaluating global clustering and local cluster patterns are developed and have been examined by many simulation studies. However, the performance of these methods on two extreme cases (global clustering evaluation and local anomaly (outlier detection has not been thoroughly investigated. Methods We compare methods for global clustering evaluation including Tango's Index, Moran's I, and Oden's I*pop; and cluster detection methods such as local Moran's I and SaTScan elliptic version on simulated count data that mimic global clustering patterns and outliers for cancer cases in the continental United States. We examine the power and precision of the selected methods in the purely spatial analysis. We illustrate Tango's MEET and SaTScan elliptic version on a 1987-2004 HIV and a 1950-1969 lung cancer mortality data in the United States. Results For simulated data with outlier patterns, Tango's MEET, Moran's I and I*pop had powers less than 0.2, and SaTScan had powers around 0.97. For simulated data with global clustering patterns, Tango's MEET and I*pop (with 50% of total population as the maximum search window had powers close to 1. SaTScan had powers around 0.7-0.8 and Moran's I has powers around 0.2-0.3. In the real data example, Tango's MEET indicated the existence of global clustering patterns in both the HIV and lung cancer mortality data. SaTScan found a large cluster for HIV mortality rates, which is consistent with the finding from Tango's MEET. SaTScan also found clusters and outliers in the lung cancer mortality data. Conclusion SaTScan elliptic version is more efficient for outlier detection compared with the other methods evaluated in this article. Tango's MEET and Oden's I*pop perform best in global clustering scenarios among the selected methods. The use of SaTScan for

  16. HIV drug resistance testing among patients failing second line antiretroviral therapy. Comparison of in-house and commercial sequencing.

    Chimukangara, Benjamin; Varyani, Bhavini; Shamu, Tinei; Mutsvangwa, Junior; Manasa, Justen; White, Elizabeth; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Luethy, Ruedi; Katzenstein, David

    2017-05-01

    HIV genotyping is often unavailable in low and middle-income countries due to infrastructure requirements and cost. We compared genotype resistance testing in patients with virologic failure, by amplification of HIV pol gene, followed by "in-house" sequencing and commercial sequencing. Remnant plasma samples from adults and children failing second-line ART were amplified and sequenced using in-house and commercial di-deoxysequencing, and analyzed in Harare, Zimbabwe and at Stanford, U.S.A, respectively. HIV drug resistance mutations were determined using the Stanford HIV drug resistance database. Twenty-six of 28 samples were amplified and 25 were successfully genotyped. Comparison of average percent nucleotide and amino acid identities between 23 pairs sequenced in both laboratories were 99.51 (±0.56) and 99.11 (±0.95), respectively. All pairs clustered together in phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing analysis identified 6/23 pairs with mutation discordances resulting in differences in phenotype, but these did not impact future regimens. The results demonstrate our ability to produce good quality drug resistance data in-house. Despite discordant mutations in some sequence pairs, the phenotypic predictions were not clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of acoustically lined ejector technology for multitube jet noise suppressor nozzles by model and engine tests over a wide range of jet pressure ratios and temperatures

    Atvars, J.; Paynter, G. C.; Walker, D. Q.; Wintermeyer, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental program comprising model nozzle and full-scale engine tests was undertaken to acquire parametric data for acoustically lined ejectors applied to primary jet noise suppression. Ejector lining design technology and acoustical scaling of lined ejector configurations were the major objectives. Ground static tests were run with a J-75 turbojet engine fitted with a 37-tube, area ratio 3.3 suppressor nozzle and two lengths of ejector shroud (L/D = 1 and 2). Seven ejector lining configurations were tested over the engine pressure ratio range of 1.40 to 2.40 with corresponding jet velocities between 305 and 610 M/sec. One-fourth scale model nozzles were tested over a pressure ratio range of 1.40 to 4.0 with jet total temperatures between ambient and 1088 K. Scaling of multielement nozzle ejector configurations was also studied using a single element of the nozzle array with identical ejector lengths and lining materials. Acoustic far field and near field data together with nozzle thrust performance and jet aerodynamic flow profiles are presented.

  18. Patterned Fibers Embedded Microfluidic Chips Based on PLA and PDMS for Ag Nanoparticle Safety Testing

    Yaowen Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new method to integrate poly-dl-lactide (PLA patterned electrospun fibers with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microfluidic chip was successfully developed via lithography. Hepatocyte behavior under static and dynamic conditions was investigated. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated good hepatocyte survival under the dynamic culture system with effective hepatocyte spheroid formation in the patterned microfluidic chip vs. static culture conditions and tissue culture plate (TCP. In particular, hepatocytes seeded in this microfluidic chip under a flow rate of 10 μL/min could re-establish hepatocyte polarity to support biliary excretion and were able to maintain high levels of albumin and urea secretion over 15 days. Furthermore, the optimized system could produce sensitive and consistent responses to nano-Ag-induced hepatotoxicity during culture. Thus, this microfluidic chip device provides a new means of fabricating complex liver tissue-engineered scaffolds, and may be of considerable utility in the toxicity screening of nanoparticles.

  19. Brief Report: Eye-Movement Patterns during an Embedded Figures Test in Children with ASD

    Keehn, Brandon; Brenner, Laurie A.; Ramos, Aurora I.; Lincoln, Alan J.; Marshall, Sandra P.; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined fixation frequency and duration during an EFT in an effort to better understand the attentional and perceptual processes by which individuals with ASD achieve accelerated EFT performance. In particular, we aimed to elucidate differences in the patterns of eye-movement in ASD and TD children, thus providing evidence relevant to the competing weak central coherence and enhanced perceptual functioning theories. Consistent with prior EFT studies, we found accelerated RT...

  20. Radioactive tracer method as an instrument for testing effectiveness of effluent treatment installations and mixing patterns in natural streams

    Szpilowski, S; Strzelczak, G; Winnicki, R [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    The radiotracer methods of evaluation of sewage flow rate, testing of effluent treatment plants and mixing patterns in natural streams have been described. Experimental works were carried out for industrial installations and natural streams. As a tracer of liquid phase an aqueous KBr solution labelled with /sup 82/Br have been used. The sediment materials have been labelled with /sup 198/Au in the form of colloidal gold. The results of investigations have been utilized for treatment process analysis and water pollution control.

  1. Theoretical study of fabrication of line-and-space patterns with 7 nm quarter-pitch using electron beam lithography with chemically amplified resist process: III. Post exposure baking on quartz substrates

    Kozawa, Takahiro

    2015-09-01

    Electron beam (EB) lithography is a key technology for the fabrication of photomasks for ArF immersion and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography and molds for nanoimprint lithography. In this study, the temporal change in the chemical gradient of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch (7 nm space width and 21 nm line width) was calculated until it became constant, independently of postexposure baking (PEB) time, to clarify the feasibility of single nano patterning on quartz substrates using EB lithography with chemically amplified resist processes. When the quencher diffusion constant is the same as the acid diffusion constant, the maximum chemical gradient of the line-and-space pattern with a 7 nm quarter-pitch did not differ much from that with a 14 nm half-pitch under the condition described above. Also, from the viewpoint of process control, a low quencher diffusion constant is considered to be preferable for the fabrication of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch on quartz substrates.

  2. The pattern and technique in the clinical evaluation of the adult hip: the common physical examination tests of hip specialists.

    Martin, Hal D; Kelly, Bryan T; Leunig, Michael; Philippon, Marc J; Clohisy, John C; Martin, RobRoy L; Sekiya, Jon K; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Mohtadi, Nicholas G; Sampson, Thomas G; Safran, Marc R

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the technique and tests used in the physical examination of the adult hip performed by multiple clinicians who regularly treat patients with hip problems and identify common physical examination patterns. The subjects included 5 men and 6 women with a mean age (+/-SD) of 29.8 +/- 9.4 years. They underwent physical examination of the hip by 6 hip specialists with a strong interest in hip-related problems. All examiners were blind to patient radiographs and diagnoses. Patient examinations were video recorded and reviewed. It was determined that 18 tests were most frequently performed (>or=40%) by the examiners, 3 standing, 11 supine, 3 lateral, and 1 prone. Of the most frequently performed tests, 10 were performed more than 50% of the time. The tests performed in the supine position were as follows: flexion range of motion (ROM) (percentage of use, 98%), flexion internal rotation ROM (98%), flexion external rotation ROM (86%), passive supine rotation test (76%), flexion/adduction/internal rotation test (70%), straight leg raise against resistance test (61%), and flexion/abduction/external rotation test (52%). The tests performed in the standing position were the gait test (86%) and the single-leg stance phase test (77%). The 1 test in the prone position was the femoral anteversion test (58%). There are variations in the testing that hip specialists perform to examine and evaluate their patients, but there is enough commonality to form the basis to recommend a battery of physical examination maneuvers that should be considered for use in evaluating the hip. Patients presenting with groin, abdominal, back, and/or hip pain need to have a basic examination to ensure that the hip is not overlooked. A comprehensive physical examination of the hip will benefit the patient and the physician and serve as the foundation for future multicenter clinical studies. (c) 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published

  3. Further improvement of genetic and cytogenetic test pattern with increased relevance predicting carcinogenic and pharmacological effects

    Siebert, D.

    1982-08-01

    Testing of chemicals for their genetic activity by applying only one method has the disadvantage, that the results are of limited value. However, a combination of several test systems in such a manner that the apparent difference between the results allows additional conclusions about the pharmacokinetic properties of the substances tested, the correlation between molecular mutations and cytogenetic effects and the possible carcinogenic activity. Three nitrofuran derivatives (nitrofurantoin, carofur and FANFT) tested in six different in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity tests partly showed strong genetic activity without metabolic activation and weak cytogenetic effects. However, polycyclic hydrocarbons needed mammalian metabolism to display their mutagenicity: Dimethylbenzoanthracene and benzo(a)pyrene could be activated by liver microsomes and showed also cytogenetic effects, but phenanthrene was only active in the SCE-test. Out of nine heavy metal salts potassium chromate, potassium dichromate, calcium chromate and cis-dichloro diammine-Pt(II) were effective in at least one genetic and one cytogenetic test. The correlation between mutagenic and the known carcinogenic activity of all test substances was good in the case of the hydrocarbons and the nitrofuran derivatives; the heavy metal salts, however, are of low relevance for the carcinogenicity of the metals itself.

  4. The challenges encountered in the integration of an early test wafer surface scanning inspection system into a 450mm manufacturing line

    Lee, Jeffrey; McGarvey, Steve

    2013-04-01

    The introduction of early test wafer (ETW) 450mm Surface Scanning Inspection Systems (SSIS) into Si manufacturing has brought with it numerous technical, commercial, and logistical challenges on the path to rapid recipe development and subsequent qualification of other 450mm wafer processing equipment. This paper will explore the feasibility of eliminating the Polystyrene Latex Sphere deposition process step and the subsequent creation of SSIS recipes based upon the theoretical optical properties of both the SSIS and the process film stack(s). The process of Polystyrene Latex Sphere deposition for SSIS recipe generation and development is generally accepted on the previous technology nodes for 150/200/300mm wafers. PSL is deposited with a commercially available deposition system onto a non-patterned bare Si or non-patterned filmed Si wafer. After deposition of multiple PSL spots, located in different positions on a wafer, the wafer is inspected on a SSIS and a response curve is generated. The response curve is based on the the light scattering intensity of the NIST certified PSL that was deposited on the wafer. As the initial 450mm Si wafer manufacturing began, there were no inspection systems with sub-90nm sensitivities available for defect and haze level verification. The introduction of a 450mm sub-30nm inspection system into the manufacturing line generated instant challenges. Whereas the 450mm wafers were relatively defect free at 90nm, at 40nm the wafers contained several hundred thousand defects. When PSL was deposited onto wafers with these kinds of defect levels, PSL with signals less than the sub-90nm defects were difficult to extract. As the defectivity level of the wafers from the Si suppliers rapidly improves the challenges of SSIS recipe creation with high defectivity decreases while at the same time the cost of PSL deposition increases. The current cost per wafer is fifteen thousand dollars for a 450mm PSL deposition service. When viewed from the

  5. Lexical patterns in the reading comprehension section of the toefl test

    Fabiana Macmillan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language is currently one of the most widely accepted English language proficiency tests. Designed by the ETS (Educational Testing Service, the main purpose of the TOEFL is to determine whether the English language skills of a student applying to a North American college or university are adequate for enrollment into the selected program of study. This study will focus upon the third section of the TOEFL, Reading Comprehension, which consists of several passages followed by questions with different testing purposes. An adaptation of Hoey's (1991 analytical system for the analysis of lexical cohesion in authentic texts will be used to identify bonds connecting reading comprehension questions on the test to key excerpts in the passages they are related to. A number of sample reading comprehension questions taken from practice tests produced by the ETS will be analyzed. The analysis will focus on the relationship between the testing purpose of each question and the type(s of lexical link involved in the identification of the correct answer.

  6. Patterns of Cancer Genetic Testing: A Randomized Survey of Oregon Clinicians

    Cox, S. L.; Zlot, A. I.; Silvey, S. K.; Silvey, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Appropriate use of genetic tests for population-based cancer screening, diagnosis of inherited cancers, and guidance of cancer treatment can improve health outcomes. We investigated clinicians’ use and knowledge of eight breast, ovarian, and colorectal cancer genetic tests. Methods. We conducted a randomized survey of 2,191 Oregon providers, asking about their experience with fecal DNA, OncoVue, BRCA, MMR, CYP2D6, tumor gene expression profiling, UGT1A1, and KRAS. Results. Clinicians reported low confidence in their knowledge of medical genetics; most confident were OB-GYNs and specialists. Clinicians were more likely to have ordered/recommended BRCA and MMR than the other tests, and OB-GYNs were twice as likely to have ordered/recommended BRCA testing than primary care providers. Less than 10% of providers ordered/recommended OncoVue, fecal DNA, CYP2D6, or UGT1A1; less than 30% ordered/recommended tumor gene expression profiles or KRAS. The most common reason for not ordering/recommending these tests was lack of familiarity. Conclusions. Use of appropriate, evidence-based testing can help reduce incidence and mortality of certain cancers, but these tests need to be better integrated into clinical practice. Continued evaluation of emerging technologies, dissemination of findings, and an increase in provider confidence and knowledge are necessary to achieve this end.

  7. Design and testing of the first 2D Prototype Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory

    Liu, T.; Deptuch, G.; Hoff, J.; Jindariani, S.; Joshi, S.; Olsen, J.; Tran, N.; Trimpl, M.

    2015-02-01

    An associative memory-based track finding approach has been proposed for a Level 1 tracking trigger to cope with increasing luminosities at the LHC. The associative memory uses a massively parallel architecture to tackle the intrinsically complex combinatorics of track finding algorithms, thus avoiding the typical power law dependence of execution time on occupancy and solving the pattern recognition in times roughly proportional to the number of hits. This is of crucial importance given the large occupancies typical of hadronic collisions. The design of an associative memory system capable of dealing with the complexity of HL-LHC collisions and with the short latency required by Level 1 triggering poses significant, as yet unsolved, technical challenges. For this reason, an aggressive R&D program has been launched at Fermilab to advance state of-the-art associative memory technology, the so called VIPRAM (Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory) project. The VIPRAM leverages emerging 3D vertical integration technology to build faster and denser Associative Memory devices. The first step is to implement in conventional VLSI the associative memory building blocks that can be used in 3D stacking, in other words, the building blocks are laid out as if it is a 3D design. In this paper, we report on the first successful implementation of a 2D VIPRAM demonstrator chip (protoVIPRAM00). The results show that these building blocks are ready for 3D stacking.

  8. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests: Plasmodium falciparum infections with high parasite densities may generate false positive Plasmodium vivax pLDH lines

    van Esbroeck Marjan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs detect Plasmodium falciparum and an antigen common to the four species. Plasmodium vivax-specific RDTs target P. vivax-specific parasite lactate dehydrogenase (Pv-pLDH. Previous observations of false positive Pv-pLDH test lines in P. falciparum samples incited to the present study, which assessed P. vivax-specific RDTs for the occurrence of false positive Pv-pLDH lines in P. falciparum samples. Methods Nine P. vivax-specific RDTs were tested with 85 P. falciparum samples of high (≥2% parasite density. Mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax infections were ruled out by real-time PCR. The RDTs included two-band (detecting Pv-pLDH, three-band (detecting P. falciparum-antigen and Pv-pLDH and four-band RDTs (detecting P. falciparum, Pv-pLDH and pan-pLDH. Results False positive Pv-pLDH lines were observed in 6/9 RDTs (including two- three- and four-band RDTs. They occurred in the individual RDT brands at frequencies ranging from 8.2% to 29.1%. For 19/85 samples, at least two RDT brands generated a false positive Pv-pLDH line. Sixteen of 85 (18.8% false positive lines were of medium or strong line intensity. There was no significant relation between false positive results and parasite density or geographic origin of the samples. Conclusion False positive Pv-pLDH lines in P. falciparum samples with high parasite density occurred in 6/9 P. vivax-specific RDTs. This is of concern as P. falciparum and P. vivax are co-circulating in many regions. The diagnosis of life-threatening P. falciparum malaria may be missed (two-band Pv-pLDH RDT, or the patient may be treated incorrectly with primaquine (three- or four-band RDTs.

  9. Head and Shoulders: Testing the Profitability of this Chart Pattern of Technical Analysis in the Brazilian Stock Market

    Pedro Gabriel Boainain

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from an adapted version of Osler and Chang (1995 methodology, this article empirically evaluates the profitability of investment strategies based on identification of the Head and Shoulders chart pattern in the Brazilian stock market. For that purpose, several investment strategies conditioned by the identification of the Head and Shoulders pattern (in its basic and inverted forms by a computer algorithm in daily price series of 30 stocks from January 1994 to January 2009 were defined. Confidence intervals consistent with the null hypothesis that no strategies with positive returns can be based only on historical data were constructed using the Bootstrap sample inference technique in order to test the predictive power of each strategy. More specifically, the mean returns obtained by each strategy when applied to the stock's price series were compared to those obtained by the same strategies when applied to 1.000 artificial price series -- for each stock -- generated in a parametric manner, by an E-GARCH, and in a nonparametric one. Overall, our results show that it is possible to create strategies conditioned by the occurrence of Head and Shoulders, with positive returns, which indicates that these patterns can capture from stock historical prices some signals about their future price trend that makes possible to create profitable strategies. Nevertheless, the same conclusions are not valid for the pattern in its inverted form and when the effects of taxes and transaction costs are considered, depending on their magnitude, neither in its basic form.

  10. On-Line Flutter Prediction Tool for Wind Tunnel Flutter Testing using Parameter Varying Estimation Methodology, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc. (ZONA) proposes to develop an on-line flutter prediction tool for wind tunnel model using the parameter varying estimation (PVE) technique to...

  11. Analysis of dynamic accumulative damage about the lining structure of high speed railway’s tunnel based on ultrasonic testing technology

    Wang, Xiang-qiu; Zhang, Huojun; Xie, Wen-xi

    2017-08-01

    Based on the similar material model test of full tunnel, the theory of elastic wave propagation and the testing technology of intelligent ultrasonic wave had been used to research the dynamic accumulative damage characteristics of tunnel’s lining structure under the dynamic loads of high speed train. For the more, the dynamic damage variable of lining structure of high speed railway’s tunnel was obtained. The results shown that the dynamic cumulative damage of lining structure increases nonlinearly with the times of cumulative vibration, the weakest part of dynamic cumulative damage is the arch foot of tunnel. Much more attention should be paid to the design and operation management of high speed railway’s tunnel.

  12. Performance test of a micro-pattern stereo detector with two gas electron multipliers

    Barvich, T.; Bluem, P.; Erdmann, M.; Fahrer, M.; Kaercher, K.; Kuehn, F.; Moermann, D.; Mueller, Th.; Neuberger, D.; Roederer, F.; Simonis, H.J.; Skiba, A.; Thuemmel, W.H.; Weiler, Th.; Weseler, S.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the performance of a large micro-pattern detector with two gas electron multiplier foils and a two-layer readout structure at ground potential. The two readout layers each have a 406 μm pitch and cross at an effective angle of 6.7 deg. . This structure allows for two orthogonal coordinates to be determined. Using a muon beam at CERN together with a silicon tracking system, the position resolutions of the two coordinates are measured to be 50 μm and 1 mm respectively (1 standard deviation). The muon detection efficiency for the two-dimensional space points reaches 96%. The detector was found to be well operational over a wide range in the settings of the different electrical fields

  13. Patterns in the Parathyroid Response to Sodium Bicarbonate Infusion Test in Healthy Volunteers

    Theodossis S. Papavramidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The sodium bicarbonate infusion test evaluates the function of the parathyroid glands. The present study aims to evaluate the range of parathyroid response in healthy individuals and the potential influence of various factors. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers were subjected to the test. Levels of vitamin D, calcium, albumin, and PTH were measured before infusion. PTH was measured at 3, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after infusion. Results. A curve describing the response of parathyroids to the test was drawn. Twenty percent of the subjects had blunted PTH response. No significant difference was observed between normal and blunted responders concerning age, BMI, baseline PTH, or calcium levels. Nonetheless, there was a significant difference in vitamin D levels (P=0.024. Interpretation. The test is easy to perform and may be used for everyday screening. It has to be clarified whether our observations are, at least partly, produced due to the presence of individuals with a constitutively blunted response or if low levels of vitamin D decrease the ability of the parathyroids to respond. Whichever the case, PTH response of normal individuals to sodium bicarbonate infusion test is more varied than previously thought and vitamin D levels influence it.

  14. Studies of a full-scale mechanical prototype line for the ANTARES neutrino telescope and tests of a prototype instrument for deep-sea acoustic measurements

    Ageron, M.; Kooijman, P.

    2007-01-01

    A full-scale mechanical prototype line was deployed to a depth of 2500 m to test the leak tightness of the electronics containers and the pressure-resistant properties of an electromechanical cable under evaluation for use in the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope. During a month-long immersion

  15. Evaluation of the Sensititre MycoTB plate for susceptibility testing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex against first- and second-line agents.

    Hall, Leslie; Jude, Kurt P; Clark, Shirley L; Dionne, Kim; Merson, Ryan; Boyer, Ana; Parrish, Nicole M; Wengenack, Nancy L

    2012-11-01

    The Sensititre MycoTB plate (TREK Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) uses a microtiter plate MIC format for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates against first- and second-line antituberculosis agents. Categorical agreement versus the agar proportion method for 122 M. tuberculosis complex isolates was 94% to 100%.

  16. Normal and abnormal patterns of cerebrovascular reserve tested by 133 Xe inhalation

    Meyer, J.S.; Sakai, F.; Naritomi, H.; Grant, P.

    1978-01-01

    Cerebrovascular functional reserve was tested by noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (nrCBF) at rest in quiet darkness and when repeated during standard multiple psychophysiologic activation. The test was applied to normal volunteers and patients with different neurologic disorders. The test included counting, conversation, music, and observing movements, while rCBF was measured over both cerebral hemispheres, brain stem, and cerebellum. In normal persons at rest, mean gray matter flow (Fg) values were the same for each hemisphere. Highest Fg values were observed in brain stem and both frontal regions. During activation in normal persons, there was a significant increase in Fg values over both hemispheres and in brain stem. During activation, three types of abnormal rCBF responses were seen: Demented patients showed no change, patients with vascular occlusion showed little or no increase over the ischemic hemisphere, and some patients with epilepsy showed excessive increases

  17. Using an On-Line Test To Assess Reading Skills and Predict the Ability To Successfully Pass a Reading SOL Test.

    Simpson, Katherine P.

    Designing a remediation program to meet students' needs involves finding out what a student knows and needs to know. An online testing program, such as eduTest, may provide the answers. This test is a versatile instrument that offers benchmark tests, grade specific tests, and strand tests in the four content areas for grades K through 8. The…

  18. The cross-national pattern of happiness. Test of predictions implied in three theories of happiness

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); J.J. Ehrhardt (Joop)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT. Predictions about level and dispersion of happiness in nations are derived from three theories of happiness: comparison-theory, folklore-theory and livability-theory. The predictions are tested on two cross national data-sets: a comparative survey among university students in

  19. The Impact of Various Quizzing Patterns on the Test Performance of High School Economics Students

    Robertson, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Presenting college students, in a wide variety of content areas, with frequent announced and unannounced quizzes appears to correlate positively with enhanced test performance. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine if similar results can be achieved with high school students in a standard economics class. Based on a theoretical…

  20. Expressing best practices in (risk) analysis and testing of safety-critical systems using patterns

    Herzner, Wolfgang; Sieverding, Sven; Kacimi, Omar

    2014-01-01

    The continuing pervasion of our society with safety-critical cyber-physical systems not only demands for adequate (risk) analysis, testing and verification techniques, it also generates growing experience on their use, which can be considered as important as the tools themselves for their efficient...

  1. Probability of acoustic transmitter detections by receiver lines in Lake Huron: results of multi-year field tests and simulations

    Hayden, Todd A.; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Binder, Thomas; Dettmers, John M.; Cooke, Steven J.; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAdvances in acoustic telemetry technology have led to an improved understanding of the spatial ecology of many freshwater and marine fish species. Understanding the performance of acoustic receivers is necessary to distinguish between tagged fish that may have been present but not detected and from those fish that were absent from the area. In this study, two stationary acoustic transmitters were deployed 250 m apart within each of four acoustic receiver lines each containing at least 10 receivers (i.e., eight acoustic transmitters) located in Saginaw Bay and central Lake Huron for nearly 2 years to determine whether the probability of detecting an acoustic transmission varied as a function of time (i.e., season), location, and distance between acoustic transmitter and receiver. Distances between acoustic transmitters and receivers ranged from 200 m to >10 km in each line. The daily observed probability of detecting an acoustic transmission was used in simulation models to estimate the probability of detecting a moving acoustic transmitter on a line of receivers.ResultsThe probability of detecting an acoustic transmitter on a receiver 1000 m away differed by month for different receiver lines in Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay but was similar for paired acoustic transmitters deployed 250 m apart within the same line. Mean probability of detecting an acoustic transmitter at 1000 m calculated over the study period varied among acoustic transmitters 250 m apart within a line and differed among receiver lines in Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay. The simulated probability of detecting a moving acoustic transmitter on a receiver line was characterized by short periods of time with decreased detection. Although increased receiver spacing and higher fish movement rates decreased simulated detection probability, the location of the simulated receiver line in Lake Huron had the strongest effect on simulated detection probability.ConclusionsPerformance of receiver

  2. Cadmium chloride, benzo[a]pyrene and cyclophosphamide tested in the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test (MNvit) in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6 at Covance laboratories, Harrogate UK in support of OECD draft Test Guideline 487.

    Fowler, Paul; Whitwell, James; Jeffrey, Laura; Young, Jamie; Smith, Katie; Kirkland, David

    2010-10-29

    The following genotoxic chemicals were tested in the in vitro micronucleus assay, at Covance Laboratories, Harrogate, UK in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6. Cadmium chloride (an inorganic carcinogen), benzo[a]pyrene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon requiring metabolic activation) and cyclophosphamide (an alkylating agent requiring metabolic activation) were treated with and without cytokinesis block (by addition of cytochalasin B). This work formed part of a collaborative evaluation of the toxicity measures recommended in the draft OECD Test Guideline 487 for the in vitro micronucleus test. The toxicity measures used, capable of detecting both cytostasis and cell death, were relative population doubling, relative increase in cell counts and relative cell counts for treatments in the absence of cytokinesis block, and replication index or cytokinesis blocked proliferation index in the presence of cytokinesis block. All of the chemicals tested gave significant increases in the percentage of micronucleated cells with and without cytokinesis block at concentrations giving approximately 60% toxicity (cytostasis and cell death) or less by all of the toxicity measures used. The outcomes from this series of tests support the use of relative increase in cell counts and relative population doubling, as well as relative cell counts, as appropriate measures of cytotoxicity for the non-cytokinesis blocked in the in vitro micronucleus assay. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The triple line pattern on carotid intima media thickness imaging and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in patients on lipid lowering therapy

    Singh TA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tania A Singh,1 Todd C Villines,2 Allen J Taylor31Division of Cardiology, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, 2Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, 3Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Background: Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT infrequently identifies a triple line pattern (TLP in the visualization of the internal elastic lamina. We examined the prevalence and predictors of the TLP among a consecutive series of subjects enrolled in a CIMT clinical trial, and also the effects of lipid lowering therapy.Methods: Baseline CIMT studies of subjects with known heart disease, or high risk for heart disease, were evaluated from a single site of the Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies in Atherosclerosis trial (N=120. One sonographer obtained four views of the right and left far wall common CIMT, using a 13 MHz ultrasound probe. Images were blindly reviewed for the presence of the TLP. The TLP was defined as absent (0, possible (1, or definite (2. A composite score from all four views was calculated. A patient was defined as having the TLP if the composite score was ≥4. Univariate predictors of the TLP were explored. Follow-up ultrasounds at 14 months were also reviewed for presence of the TLP.Results: The prevalence of the TLP at baseline was 22.5%. Among cardiovascular risk variables, systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in subjects displaying the TLP (141.3±15.6 mmHg versus 133.1±18.4 mmHg; P=0.036. There were no differences among those with, and without, the TLP, with respect to other cardiovascular risk variables (age, sex, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, weight, waist girth, tobacco use, medications, quantitative CIMT, or image quality. During ongoing lipid lowering therapy, the prevalence of the TLP increased to 54

  4. Patterns, Policy and Appropriateness: A 12-Year Utilization Review of Blood Glucose Test Strip Use in Insulin Users.

    Falk, Jamie; Friesen, Kevin J; Okunnu, Anuoluwapo; Bugden, Shawn

    2017-08-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the rising costs of the use of blood glucose test strips (BGTS). Insulin users have generally been treated as a single homogeneous group, resulting in policies that cap usage (8.2 strips/day) in provincial drug insurance programs. The objective of this study was to conduct a utilization review of BGTS by insulin users and to evaluate use patterns against current insulin use patterns and BGTS policy. BGTS usage was examined in a cohort of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes over a 12-year period (2001 to 2013) using the population-based administrative data in Manitoba, Canada. Total BGTS strip use increased by 121%, from $4.3 to $9.5 million. However, the number of insulin users also increased by 115%. Use has been stable at 1.5 strips per day per person since 2004 by insulin users with type 2 diabetes but has risen from 1.9 to 3.0 strips per day per person in those with type 1 diabetes. Mean daily test strip use was below the number of daily tests recommended for patients using insulin as per the current Canadian guidelines, with 11% and 15% of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes not claiming any BGTS use and a further 15% (type 1) and 28% (type 2) using fewer than 1 strip per day. BGTS use per insulin user has been stable for most of the past decade, and the vast majority of use falls well below provincial insurance caps. The amount of low-level testing (0 to <1 strip/day) suggests that greater attention should be directed to ensuring a safe level of testing by all insulin users. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of radiation sensitivity for three cell lines as measured by the cloning assay and the micro-nucleus test

    Stap, J.; Aten, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    The correlation between cell killing and the induction of micro-nuclei was studied for three cell lines after treatment with gamma radiation to investigate whether the frequency of micro-nucleated cells can be used to determine the radiation sensitivity of a cell type. R1 rat rhabdomyosarcoma cells

  6. Technical Note: Validation of halo modeling for proton pencil beam spot scanning using a quality assurance test pattern

    Lin, Liyong, E-mail: linl@uphs.upenn.edu; Huang, Sheng; Kang, Minglei; Solberg, Timothy D.; McDonough, James E.; Ainsley, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the utility of a comprehensive test pattern in validating calculation models that include the halo component (low-dose tails) of proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) spots. Such a pattern has been used previously for quality assurance purposes to assess spot shape, position, and dose. Methods: In this study, a scintillation detector was used to measure the test pattern in air at isocenter for two proton beam energies (115 and 225 MeV) of two IBA universal nozzles (UN #1 and UN #2). Planar measurements were compared with calculated dose distributions based on the weighted superposition of location-independent (UN #1) or location-dependent (UN #2) spot profiles, previously measured using a pair-magnification method and between two nozzles. Results: Including the halo component below 1% of the central dose is shown to improve the gamma-map comparison between calculation and measurement from 94.9% to 98.4% using 2 mm/2% criteria for the 115 MeV proton beam of UN #1. In contrast, including the halo component below 1% of the central dose does not improve the gamma agreement for the 115 MeV proton beam of UN #2, due to the cutoff of the halo component at off-axis locations. When location-dependent spot profiles are used for calculation instead of spot profiles at central axis, the gamma agreement is improved from 98.0% to 99.5% using 2 mm/2% criteria. The two nozzles clearly have different characteristics, as a direct comparison of measured data shows a passing rate of 89.7% for the 115 MeV proton beam. At 225 MeV, the corresponding gamma comparisons agree better between measurement and calculation, and between measurements in the two nozzles. Conclusions: In addition to confirming the primary component of individual PBS spot profiles, a comprehensive test pattern is useful for the validation of the halo component at off-axis locations, especially for low energy protons.

  7. Pattern of c-Fos expression induced by tail suspension test in the mouse brain

    Kentaro Hiraoka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The tail suspension test (TST has been widely used as a screening assay for antidepressant drugs. However, the neural substrates underlying the stress response and antidepressant-like effect during the TST remain largely unknown despite the prevalence of this test. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine alterations in c-Fos expression as a measure of neuronal activity in the mouse brain after acute administration of the antidepressant drugs nortriptyline or escitalopram (or saline as a control with or without a subsequent TST session. We found that without the TST session, nortriptyline administration enhanced the density of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells in regions of the central extended amygdala, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, and relevant regions of the brain stem, whereas escitalopram did not change c-Fos expression in any region. Following the TST in the absence of antidepressant drugs, we observed a significant increase in c-Fos-positive cell density in a number of brain regions within the limbic telencephalon, hypothalamus, and brain stem. We detected a statistically significant interaction using an analysis of variance between the main effects of the drug and stress response in four regions: the infralimbic cortex, lateral septal nucleus (intermediate part, ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, and solitary nucleus. Following the TST, escitalopram but not nortriptyline increased c-Fos-positive cell density in the infralimbic cortex and ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, whereas nortriptyline but not escitalopram increased c-Fos expression in the solitary nucleus. Both antidepressants significantly increased c-Fos expression in the lateral septal nucleus (intermediate part. The present results indicate that neuronal activity increases in septo-hypothalamic regions and related structures, especially the lateral septal nucleus, following administration of drugs producing an antidepressant-like effect in mice subjected to

  8. SPES-2, AP600 intergral system test S01007 2 inch CL to core make-up tank pressure balance line break

    Bacchiani, M.; Medich, C.; Rigamonti, M. [SIET S.p.A. Piacenza (Italy)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The SPES-2 is a full height, full pressure experimental test facility reproducing the Westinghouse AP600 reactor with a scaling factor of 1/395. The experimental plant, designed and operated by SIET in Piacenza, consists of a full simulation of the AP600 primary core cooling system including all the passive and active safety systems. In 1992, Westinghouse, in cooperation with ENEL (Ente Nazionale per l` Energia Elettrica), ENEA (Enter per le numove Technlogie, l` Energia e l` Ambient), Siet (Societa Informazioni Esperienze Termoidraulich) and ANSALDO developed an experimental program to test the integrated behaviour of the AP600 passive safety systems. The SPES-2 test matrix, concluded in November 1994, has examined the AP600 passive safety system response for a range of small break LOCAs at different locations on the primary system and on the passive system lines; single steam generator tube ruptures with passive and active safety systems and a main steam line break transient to demonstrate the boration capability of passive safety systems for rapid cooldown. Each of the tests has provided detailed experimental results for verification of the capability of the analysis methods to predict the integrated passive safety system behaviour. Cold and hot shakedown tests have been performed on the facility to check the characteristics of the plant before starting the experimental campaign. The paper first presents a description of the SPES-2 test facility then the main results of S01007 test {open_quotes}2{close_quotes} Cold Leg (CL) to Core Make-up Tank (CMT) pressure balance line break{close_quotes} are reported and compared with predictions performed using RELAP5/mod3/80 obtained by ANSALDO through agreement with U.S.N.R.C. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission). The SPES-2 nodalization and all the calculations here presented were performed by ANSALDO and sponsored by ENEL as a part of pre-test predictions for SPES-2.

  9. TRAC-PF1/MOD 1 independent assessment: Semiscale MOD-2A feedwater-line break (S-SF-3) and steam-line break (S-SF-5) tests

    Dobranich, D.

    1985-11-01

    The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 independent assessment project at Sandia is part of an overall effort funded by the NRC to determine the ability of various systems codes to predict the detailed thermal/hydraulic response of LWRs during accident and off-normal conditions. As part of this effort, calculations for Semiscale Mod-2A test S-SF-3, a feedwater-line break test, and S-SF-5, a steam-line break test, were performed with TRAC-PF1/MOD1. Most aspects of both the S-SF-3 and S-SF-5 steady-state calculations were found to be in good agreement with data. However, the need for a better steam separator model was identified from the S-SF-3 calculation. Overall, the qualitative behavior of both transients was calculated reasonably well; however, there were some discrepancies in the prediction of the quantitative behavior. The results for the S-SF-3 transient calculation indicate that the primary-to-secondary heat transfer degradation began too early. This was possibly due to overprediction of entrainment in the steam generator boiler, leading to an incorrect calculation of the secondary-side fluid distribution during the steady state. However, there was insufficient data to verify this. Results for the S-SF-5 transient calculation indicate that the primary-side fluid temperature response to a steam-line break was in reasonable agreement with data but the pressure response did not coincide with the data. Uncertainties in the data are sufficient to prevent us from determining the exact cause of this discrepancy, but there is indirect evidence that the calculated rate of phase change in the pressurizer was incorrect. 16 refs., 73 figs., 13 tabs

  10. RF design and tests on a broadband, high-power coaxial quadrature hybrid applicable to ITER ICRF transmission line system for load-resilient operations

    Kim, Hae Jin; Wang, Son Jong; Park, Byoung Ho; Kwak, Jong-Gu; Hillairet, Julien; Choi, Jin Joo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Amplitude balanced 3 dB coaxial hybrid splitter has been designed and rf tested. • The proposed hybrid is applicable to ITER ICRF transmission line for load resilience. • Two-section, broadband coaxial hybrid can be tunable by changing dielectric insulator. - Abstract: RF design and network analyzer tests of broadband, amplitude-balanced coaxial hybrid junctions are presented. We have designed two 3 dB hybrid splitters with 9 and 12 in. coaxial transmission lines applicable to ITER ICRF for load-resilient operations using ANSYS HFSS. Amplitude-balanced broadband responses were obtained with the combination of impedance reductions of longitudinal and transverse branches in unequal proportion, length change of 50 Ω lines and diameter change of high impedance lines connected transversely to the T-section of the hybrid splitter, respectively. We have fabricated and RF tested the 9 in. coaxial hybrid coupler. We obtained an excellent coupling flatness of −3.2 ± 0.2 dB, phase difference of 4 degrees and return loss of 16 dB in 40–55 MHz. The measured data of 9 in. hybrid splitter is highly consistent with HFSS simulations. We found that the proposed 3 dB hybrid splitter can be tunable with amplitude-balanced, broadband response by changing dielectric insulators to keep the inner and outer conductors of coaxial line apart. The proposed 3 dB hybrid splitter can be utilized for load-resilient operations in a wide range of antenna load variations due to mode transitions or edge localized modes (ELMs) in fusion plasmas.

  11. RF design and tests on a broadband, high-power coaxial quadrature hybrid applicable to ITER ICRF transmission line system for load-resilient operations

    Kim, Hae Jin, E-mail: haejin@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Son Jong; Park, Byoung Ho; Kwak, Jong-Gu [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hillairet, Julien [CEA/IRFM, Saint-lez-Durance (France); Choi, Jin Joo [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Amplitude balanced 3 dB coaxial hybrid splitter has been designed and rf tested. • The proposed hybrid is applicable to ITER ICRF transmission line for load resilience. • Two-section, broadband coaxial hybrid can be tunable by changing dielectric insulator. - Abstract: RF design and network analyzer tests of broadband, amplitude-balanced coaxial hybrid junctions are presented. We have designed two 3 dB hybrid splitters with 9 and 12 in. coaxial transmission lines applicable to ITER ICRF for load-resilient operations using ANSYS HFSS. Amplitude-balanced broadband responses were obtained with the combination of impedance reductions of longitudinal and transverse branches in unequal proportion, length change of 50 Ω lines and diameter change of high impedance lines connected transversely to the T-section of the hybrid splitter, respectively. We have fabricated and RF tested the 9 in. coaxial hybrid coupler. We obtained an excellent coupling flatness of −3.2 ± 0.2 dB, phase difference of 4 degrees and return loss of 16 dB in 40–55 MHz. The measured data of 9 in. hybrid splitter is highly consistent with HFSS simulations. We found that the proposed 3 dB hybrid splitter can be tunable with amplitude-balanced, broadband response by changing dielectric insulators to keep the inner and outer conductors of coaxial line apart. The proposed 3 dB hybrid splitter can be utilized for load-resilient operations in a wide range of antenna load variations due to mode transitions or edge localized modes (ELMs) in fusion plasmas.

  12. CO2 line-mixing database and software update and its tests in the 2.1 μm and 4.3 μm regions

    Lamouroux, J.; Régalia, L.; Thomas, X.; Vander Auwera, J.; Gamache, R.R.; Hartmann, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    An update of the former version of the database and software for the calculation of CO 2 –air absorption coefficients taking line-mixing into account [Lamouroux et al. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2010;111:2321] is described. In this new edition, the data sets were constructed using parameters from the 2012 version of the HITRAN database and recent measurements of line-shape parameters. Among other improvements, speed-dependent profiles can now be used if line-mixing is treated within the first order approximation. This new package is tested using laboratory spectra measured in the 2.1 μm and 4.3 μm spectral regions for various pressures, temperatures and CO 2 concentration conditions. Despite improvements at 4.3 μm at room temperature, the conclusions on the quality of this update are more ambiguous at low temperature and in the 2.1 μm region. Further tests using laboratory and atmospheric spectra are thus required for the evaluation of the performances of this updated package. - Highlights: • High resolution infrared spectroscopy. • CO 2 in air. • Updated tools. • Line mixing database and software

  13. Fine-scale patterns of population stratification confound rare variant association tests.

    Timothy D O'Connor

    Full Text Available Advances in next-generation sequencing technology have enabled systematic exploration of the contribution of rare variation to Mendelian and complex diseases. Although it is well known that population stratification can generate spurious associations with common alleles, its impact on rare variant association methods remains poorly understood. Here, we performed exhaustive coalescent simulations with demographic parameters calibrated from exome sequence data to evaluate the performance of nine rare variant association methods in the presence of fine-scale population structure. We find that all methods have an inflated spurious association rate for parameter values that are consistent with levels of differentiation typical of European populations. For example, at a nominal significance level of 5%, some test statistics have a spurious association rate as high as 40%. Finally, we empirically assess the impact of population stratification in a large data set of 4,298 European American exomes. Our results have important implications for the design, analysis, and interpretation of rare variant genome-wide association studies.

  14. Analysis of Daily Laboratory Orders at a Large Urban Academic Center: A Multifaceted Approach to Changing Test Ordering Patterns.

    Rudolf, Joseph W; Dighe, Anand S; Coley, Christopher M; Kamis, Irina K; Wertheim, Bradley M; Wright, Douglas E; Lewandrowski, Kent B; Baron, Jason M

    2017-08-01

    We sought to address concerns regarding recurring inpatient laboratory test order practices (daily laboratory tests) through a multifaceted approach to changing ordering patterns. We engaged in an interdepartmental collaboration to foster mindful test ordering through clinical policy creation, electronic clinical decision support, and continuous auditing and feedback. Annualized daily order volumes decreased from approximately 25,000 to 10,000 during a 33-month postintervention review. This represented a significant change from preintervention order volumes (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.64; P < 10-16). Total inpatient test volumes were not affected. Durable changes to inpatient order practices can be achieved through a collaborative approach to utilization management that includes shared responsibility for establishing clinical guidelines and electronic decision support. Our experience suggests auditing and continued feedback are additional crucial components to changing ordering behavior. Curtailing daily orders alone may not be a sufficient strategy to reduce in-laboratory costs. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. 40 CFR 1051.310 - How must I select vehicles or engines for production-line testing?

    2010-07-01

    ... engines, randomly select and test one more engine. Then, calculate the required sample size for the model... distribution. σ = Test sample standard deviation (see paragraph (c)(2) of this section). x = Mean of emission... sample size for the model year as described in paragraph (c) of this section. (3) In the first test...

  16. Navigation strategies as revealed by error patterns on the Magic Carpet test in children with cerebral palsy

    Vittorio eBelmonti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionShort-term memory develops differently in navigation vs. manual space. The Magic Carpet (MC is a novel navigation test derived from the Walking Corsi Test and the manual Corsi Block-tapping Task (CBT. The MC requires mental rotations and executive function. In Cerebral Palsy (CP, CBT and MC scores relate differently to clinical and lesional factors. Hypotheses of this study are: that frontal lesions specifically affect navigation in CP; that brain lesions affect MC cognitive strategies.Material and methodsTwenty-two children with spastic CP, aged 5 to 14 years, 14 with a unilateral and 8 with a bilateral form, underwent the CBT and the MC. Errors were classified into 7 patterns by a recently described algorithm. Brain lesions were quantified according to a novel semi-quantitative MRI scale. Control data were partially drawn from a previous study on 91 typically developing children.ResultsChildren with CP performed worse than controls on both tests. Right hemispheric impairment correlated with spatial memory. MC span was reduced less than CBT span and was more selectively related to right middle white-matter and frontal lesions. Error patterns were differently distributed in CP than in typical development and depended on right brain impairment: children with more extensive right lesions made more positional than sequential errors.DiscussionIn CP, navigation is affected only by extensive lesions involving the right frontal lobe. In addition, these are associated with abnormal cognitive strategies. Whereas in typical development positional errors, preserving serial order, increase with age and performance, in CP they are associated with poorer performance and more extensive right-brain lesions. The explanation may lie in lesion side: right brain is crucial for mental rotations, necessary for spatial updating. Left-lateralized spatial memory strategies, relying on serial order, are not efficient if not accompanied by right-brain spatial

  17. On line test of trip channels and actuators in primary shutdown system for RAPP-3,4/KAIGA-1,2 reactors

    Pramanik, M.; Gupta, P.K.; Ravi Prakash

    1997-01-01

    Several types of system design and logic arrangements have been used for reactor shutdown systems to avoid the possibility that a single failure within the trip channels/shutdown system actuators can prevent a shutdown system actuation. The trip channels and the logic arrangements associated with the shutdown systems use redundancy to allow them to continue to operate successfully even after having a certain number of failures. A periodic test is thus needed to detect and repair/replace failed elements to prevent accumulation and eventual system failure. The test must be capable of detecting the first failure. The design initiates shutdown system actuation by deenergising the logic relays and turning off the power to the final electrical actuators. Thus, the systems are fail safe with respect to loss of electrical power to the instruments, logic channels and the actuators. Several system/logic arrangements are used to reduce the chances of spurious actuation caused by the loss of a single power supply and other single failures. In general, the systems use coincidence of instrument channel trips and have separate power supplies for the individual instrument channel and dual power supplies where a single final control element is used. These features also permit on line test of instrument channels and logic train. On line test detects component failures not found by other means. The test determines whether gross failure has occurred rather than perform a calibration. As far as practicable the whole channel from sensors to logic and final control element is to be tested. (author)

  18. Exploration of alternative test methods to evaluate phototoxicity of ophthalmic agents by using Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea cell lines and 3D human reconstituted cornea models.

    Soyoung Kim

    Full Text Available Many chemicals have been reported to induce phototoxicity. The absorbance of light energy within the sunlight range is a common characteristic of phototoxicity. The 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (PT in 3T3 mouse skin fibroblasts has been used to identify the phototoxic potential induced by excited chemicals after exposure to ultra violet (UV. However, as phototoxicity may occur in ocular cells, it is necessary to develop a more suitable test for cornea-derived cells. In this study, we attempted to establish a new in vitro PT method in rabbit corneal cell lines (SIRC. We evaluated five ophthalmic agents, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin, and tetracycline, for their cytotoxic potential and in vitro phototoxicity. The results obtained using 3D human corneal models revealed that the UV-induced eye tissue toxicity by the test substances showed good correlation with those obtained using the in vitro phototoxicity test. However, the results from the 3D PT for ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and tetracycline in the 3D human cornea model were only partially comparable. Therefore, we suggest the SIRC cell line as a new phototoxicity test model; however, a sequential testing strategy, such as 3D PT, was also proposed to obtain relevant information for topical eye agents.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of EGFR mutation testing and gefitinib as first-line therapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

    Narita, Yusuke; Matsushima, Yukiko; Shiroiwa, Takeru; Chiba, Koji; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Kurokawa, Tatsuo; Urushihara, Hisashi

    2015-10-01

    The combination use of gefitinib and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) testing is a standard first-line therapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we examined the cost-effectiveness of this approach in Japan. Our analysis compared the 'EGFR testing strategy', in which EGFR mutation testing was performed before treatment and patients with EGFR mutations received gefitinib while those without mutations received standard chemotherapy, to the 'no-testing strategy,' in which genetic testing was not conducted and all patients were treated with standard chemotherapy. A three-state Markov model was constructed to predict expected costs and outcomes for each strategy. We included only direct medical costs from the healthcare payer's perspective. Outcomes in the model were based on those reported in the Iressa Pan-Asia Study (IPASS). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were conducted. The incremental cost and effectiveness per patient of the 'EGFR testing strategy' compared to the 'no-testing strategy' was estimated to be approximately JP¥122,000 (US$1180; US$1=JP¥104 as of February 2014) and 0.036 QALYs. The ICER was then calculated to be around JP¥3.38 million (US$32,500) per QALY gained. These results suggest that the 'EGFR testing strategy' is cost-effective compared with the 'no-testing strategy' when JP¥5.0 million to 6.0 million per QALY gained is considered an acceptable threshold. These results were supported by the sensitivity and scenario analyses. The combination use of gefitinib and EGFR testing can be considered a cost-effective first-line therapy compared to chemotherapy such as carboplatin-paclitaxel for the treatment for NSCLC in Japan. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of HIV testing algorithms in Ethiopia: the role of the tie-breaker algorithm and weakly reacting test lines in contributing to a high rate of false positive HIV diagnoses.

    Shanks, Leslie; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Muluneh, Libsework; Pirou, Erwan; Ritmeijer, Koert; Masiga, Johnson; Abebe, Almaz

    2015-02-03

    In Ethiopia a tiebreaker algorithm using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in series is used to diagnose HIV. Discordant results between the first 2 RDTs are resolved by a third 'tiebreaker' RDT. Médecins Sans Frontières uses an alternate serial algorithm of 2 RDTs followed by a confirmation test for all double positive RDT results. The primary objective was to compare the performance of the tiebreaker algorithm with a serial algorithm, and to evaluate the addition of a confirmation test to both algorithms. A secondary objective looked at the positive predictive value (PPV) of weakly reactive test lines. The study was conducted in two HIV testing sites in Ethiopia. Study participants were recruited sequentially until 200 positive samples were reached. Each sample was re-tested in the laboratory on the 3 RDTs and on a simple to use confirmation test, the Orgenics Immunocomb Combfirm® (OIC). The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. 2620 subjects were included with a HIV prevalence of 7.7%. Each of the 3 RDTs had an individual specificity of at least 99%. The serial algorithm with 2 RDTs had a single false positive result (1 out of 204) to give a PPV of 99.5% (95% CI 97.3%-100%). The tiebreaker algorithm resulted in 16 false positive results (PPV 92.7%, 95% CI: 88.4%-95.8%). Adding the OIC confirmation test to either algorithm eliminated the false positives. All the false positives had at least one weakly reactive test line in the algorithm. The PPV of weakly reacting RDTs was significantly lower than those with strongly positive test lines. The risk of false positive HIV diagnosis in a tiebreaker algorithm is significant. We recommend abandoning the tie-breaker algorithm in favour of WHO recommended serial or parallel algorithms, interpreting weakly reactive test lines as indeterminate results requiring further testing except in the setting of blood transfusion, and most importantly, adding a confirmation test

  1. Analysis of lines and breeds of sires in the breeding of the Czech warmblood horses based on grading their offspring in rearing facilities for testing young horses (RFT

    Hana Černohorská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the breed of sire and line of sire on grading of the body conformation and performance of colts of warmblood horses in rearing facilities for testing young horses (RFT. The groundwork database contained data from 2001 to 2011 from nine RFT’s. The database was processed statistically using the GLM method to assess the statistical significance of the effect of the breed of the sire and line of the sire on body conformation and performance of the colts. By multiple comparisons of the individual effects using the Tukey-B method we discovered statistically significant differences in the body conformation and performance of colts of sires among the respective breeds and lines. The performance of the offspring of Dutch warmblood, Hanoverian horse and Holsteiner horse sires is better than of the offspring of sires of the Thoroughbred, Czech warmblood and Selle Francais. The conformation of the offspring by sires of the Holsteiner horse and Hanoverian horse breeds is superior to that of offspring by sires of the Selle Francais and Czech warmblood. The mechanics of movement of the offspring of the 2300 Shagya XVIII-Báb. line is inferior to the offspring of the following lines: 3100 Adeptus xx, 67 Dark Ronald, 1000 Der Lowe xx, 3250 Dwinger 3257, 4800 Ladykiller xx, Orange Peel xx – Alme Z, 1100 Przedswit VI-Rad., 4900 Rantzau xx – Cor De La Bryere, 4600 Rittersporn xx – Ramzes 4028, 60 St. Simon and 88 Teddy. The effect of the line of the sires on the body conformation of colts has not been proved.

  2. Decontamination and decommissioning of the initial engine test facility and the IET two-inch hot-waste line

    Stoll, F.E.

    1987-04-01

    The Initial Engine Test Decommissioning Project is described in this report. The Initial Engine Test facility was constructed and operated at the National Reactor Testing Station, now known as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, to support the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program and the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power Transient test program, circa 1950 through 1960s. Due to the severe nature of these nuclear test programs, a significant amount of radioactive contamination was deposited in various portions of the Initial Engine Test Facility. Characterizations, decision analyses, and plans for decontamination and decommissioning were prepared from 1982 through 1985. Decontamination and decommissioning activities were performed in such a way that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory remains. These decontamination and decommissioning activities began in 1985 and were completed in 1987. 13 figs

  3. Preventive testing and leakage detection in pipe-lines of steam condensers and generators of a PWR type reactor

    Canalini, A.; Carvalho, N.C. de

    1985-01-01

    The non-destructive methods: Spum, Helium and Hydrostatic used in leakage detection in condenser pipelines for PWR type reactors are presented. The time, costs, sensitivity, resources necessary and personnel development factors are considered to choose adequated method, in function of nuclear power plant conditions. The leakage tests are applied in pressurized systems or vacuum. Eddy Current testing is used in condensers and steam generators aiming to avoid leakage in these equipments. The spume testing for leakage detection in condenser pipelines - which operation - and hydrostatic testing for leakage detection through reaming with shutdown - were most efficients. The Helium testing applied in pressurized systems or submitted to vacuum systems presented satisfactory results. The Eddy Current testing in condenser and steam generator pipelines reached desired objective, reducing leakage in the first and preserving the integrity in the second. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. A visual study of forced convection boiling. Part 2: Flow patterns and burnout for a round test section

    Kirby, G.J.; Staniforth, R.; Kinneir, J.H.

    1967-03-01

    The studies of boiling water at 25 p.s.i.a. reported here show the same flow patterns as in earlier tests in that the bubbles formed on the heater regained close to the heated surface to coalesce into large bubbles which eventually spanned the flow channel. Burnout tests were made and it was found there was a change of slope of the heat flux-subcooling curve. Further tests showed that this effect was due to a change in flow regime between burnout with much vapour present and burnout with just nucleate bubbles present. In the latter regime it was found that burnout is dependent only on the conditions local to the burnout point. Photography of the burnout region was practicable only when few bubbles were present but although pictures of the bubble over the burnout point were taken, no clear evidence on the mechanism of formation of the bubble could be gleaned. Some speculation on the cause of burnout in this regime is made in the light of these experiments. (author)

  5. K-Line Patterns’ Predictive Power Analysis Using the Methods of Similarity Match and Clustering

    Lv Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock price prediction based on K-line patterns is the essence of candlestick technical analysis. However, there are some disputes on whether the K-line patterns have predictive power in academia. To help resolve the debate, this paper uses the data mining methods of pattern recognition, pattern clustering, and pattern knowledge mining to research the predictive power of K-line patterns. The similarity match model and nearest neighbor-clustering algorithm are proposed for solving the problem of similarity match and clustering of K-line series, respectively. The experiment includes testing the predictive power of the Three Inside Up pattern and Three Inside Down pattern with the testing dataset of the K-line series data of Shanghai 180 index component stocks over the latest 10 years. Experimental results show that (1 the predictive power of a pattern varies a great deal for different shapes and (2 each of the existing K-line patterns requires further classification based on the shape feature for improving the prediction performance.

  6. [Cultivation of a permanent fish cell line in serum-free media special experiences with a cytotoxicity test for waste water samples

    Kohlpoth, Martin; Rusche, Brigitte

    1997-01-01

    The use of fetal calf serum (FCS) as standard medium additive for the cell cultivation must be regarded critically from the point of view of animal welfare as well as for scientific reasons and makes it necessary to look for alternatives. In the last years an in vitro cytotoxicity assay for the testing of industrial waste waters with the permanent fish cell line RTG-2 was established and pre-validated as an alternative to the fish test with the golden orfe. The application of FCS is also a special problem with regard to the testing of waste waters in a cytotoxicity test so that FCS-alternatives were tested. The RTG-2 cells were successfully adapted to the two solvents Basal Medium Supplement (BMS) and Ultroser-G (U-G) that are used to replace serum. The characterisation of these adapted cell lines showed no significant differences in growth rate, adhesion rate, viability and sensitivity to chemicals in comparison to the original RTG-2 cells. On the determination of the cytotoxicity of industrial waste waters the RTG-2 cells adapted to the BMS medium indicated a clearly higher toxicity of the waste water samples than the original RTG-2 cells. This result confirms the thesis that serum components react with waste water elements and thus change the bio-availability of toxic compounds.

  7. 40 CFR 53.55 - Test for effect of variations in power line voltage and ambient temperature.

    2010-07-01

    .... Determine the test results as follows: (1) Mean sample flow rate. (i) From the certified measurements (Qref... definition. Sample flow rate means the quantitative volumetric flow rate of the air stream caused by the... temperatures used in the tests and shall be checked at zero and at least one flow rate within ±3 percent of 16...

  8. Predicting skin sensitization potential and inter-laboratory reproducibility of a human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) in the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA) ring trials.

    Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Ryan, Cindy; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Schroeder, Klaus R; Ashikaga, Takao

    2010-09-01

    Regulatory policies in Europe prohibited the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for a number of toxicological endpoints. Currently no validated non-animal test methods exist for skin sensitization. Evaluation of changes in cell surface marker expression in dendritic cell (DC)-surrogate cell lines represents one non-animal approach. The human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) examines the level of CD86 and CD54 expression on the surface of THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, following 24h of chemical exposure. To examine protocol transferability, between-lab reproducibility, and predictive capacity, the h-CLAT has been evaluated by five independent laboratories in several ring trials (RTs) coordinated by the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA). The results of the first and second RTs demonstrated that the protocol was transferable and basically had good between-lab reproducibility and predictivity, but there were some false negative data. To improve performance, protocol and prediction model were modified. Using the modified prediction model in the first and second RT, accuracy was improved. However, about 15% of the outcomes were not correctly identified, which exposes some of the limitations of the assay. For the chemicals evaluated, the limitation may due to chemical being a weak allergen or having low solubility (ex. alpha-hexylcinnamaldehyde). The third RT evaluated the modified prediction model and satisfactory results were obtained. From the RT data, the feasibility of utilizing cell lines as surrogate DC in development of in vitro skin sensitization methods shows promise. The data also support initiating formal pre-validation of the h-CLAT in order to fully understand the capabilities and limitations of the assay. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Second-line therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): treatment patterns and outcomes in older patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy.

    Danese, Mark D; Griffiths, Robert I; Gleeson, Michelle L; Dalvi, Tapashi; Li, Jingyi; Mikhael, Joseph R; Deeter, Robert; Dreyling, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Using SEER-Medicare linked data we identified elderly patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) between January 2000 and December 2007 who received second-line outpatient chemotherapy for relapsed or refractory disease. Second-line regimens were classified into three mutually exclusive groups: aggressive, conventional, and palliative. Of the 632 (426 relapsed, 206 refractory) patients in the cohort, 27.8% received aggressive second-line therapy, 39.1% received conventional therapy, and 33.1% received palliative therapy. There were no differences in survival by type of therapy received, either for relapsed or refractory patients, although the patient risk profile differed significantly. However, duration of remission, male gender, and anemia at diagnosis were important predictors in relapsed patients, and male gender, B-symptoms, comorbidity burden, and poverty status were important predictors in refractory patients. Survival in elderly patients receiving second-line therapy remains poor, and the 24-month cost of all care exceeds $97,000. Patients would benefit from improved treatment options.

  10. Development and performance evaluation of 32-channel gamma densitometer for the measurement of flow pattern and void fraction in the downcomer of MIDAS test facility

    Chu, In Cheol; Kim, Y. K.; Yun, B. J.; Kwon, T. S.; Euh, D. J.; Song, C.

    2002-03-01

    APR 1400, which adopts DVI type of ECCS, is expected to show its unique thermal hydraulic phenomena. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate whether existing safety analysis code can correctly predict the thermal hydraulic phenomena. Among the several phenomena, void fraction and flow pattern govern the other major phenomena. Therefore, the main objective of the present study is to develop the 32-channel gamma densitometer which can measure the void fraction and flow pattern in the downcomer at various locations. The 32-channel gamma densitometer for MIDAS test apparatus has been developed. Throughout the performance evaluation test, the integrity of the 32 channel gamma densitometer has been validated. The measurement error of water film thickness is expected to be less than ±0.5mm. Also, it can correctly predict the flow patterns and the transition location of flow pattern in the downcomer of MIDAS test apparatus

  11. Simulation and experimental determination of the macro-scale layer thickness distribution of electrodeposited Cu-line patterns on a wafer substrate

    Pantleon, Karen; Bossche, Bart van den; Purcar, Marius

    2005-01-01

    The impact of adjacent patterned zones with different active area densities on the current density and electrodeposited layer thickness distribution over a wafer substrate is examined, both by experiment and numerical simulation. The experiments consist in running an acid copper plating process o......) approach to compute the current density distribution over the electrodes. Experimental and computed layer thickness distributions are in very good agreement.......The impact of adjacent patterned zones with different active area densities on the current density and electrodeposited layer thickness distribution over a wafer substrate is examined, both by experiment and numerical simulation. The experiments consist in running an acid copper plating process...... on the patterned wafer, and layer thickness measurements by means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The simulations are based on a potential model approach taking into account electrolyte ohmic drop and electrode polarization effects, combined to a boundary element method (BEM...

  12. Hand interception of occluded motion in humans: a test of model-based vs. on-line control.

    La Scaleia, Barbara; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    Two control schemes have been hypothesized for the manual interception of fast visual targets. In the model-free on-line control, extrapolation of target motion is based on continuous visual information, without resorting to physical models. In the model-based control, instead, a prior model of target motion predicts the future spatiotemporal trajectory. To distinguish between the two hypotheses in the case of projectile motion, we asked participants to hit a ball that rolled down an incline at 0.2 g and then fell in air at 1 g along a parabola. By varying starting position, ball velocity and trajectory differed between trials. Motion on the incline was always visible, whereas parabolic motion was either visible or occluded. We found that participants were equally successful at hitting the falling ball in both visible and occluded conditions. Moreover, in different trials the intersection points were distributed along the parabolic trajectories of the ball, indicating that subjects were able to extrapolate an extended segment of the target trajectory. Remarkably, this trend was observed even at the very first repetition of movements. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of model-based control, but not with on-line control. Indeed, ball path and speed during the occlusion could not be extrapolated solely from the kinematic information obtained during the preceding visible phase. The only way to extrapolate ball motion correctly during the occlusion was to assume that the ball would fall under gravity and air drag when hidden from view. Such an assumption had to be derived from prior experience. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Integral effect test and code analysis on the cooling performance of the PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) during an FLB (feedwater line break) accident

    Bae, Byoung-Uhn; Kim, Seok; Park, Yu-Sun; Kang, Kyoung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study focuses on the experimental validation of the operational performance of the PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system). • A transient simulation of the FLB (feedwater line break) in the integral effect test facility, ATLAS-PAFS, was performed to investigate thermal hydraulic behavior during the PAFS actuation. • The test result confirmed that the APR+ has the capability of coping with the FLB scenario by adopting the PAFS and proper set-points for its operation. • The experimental result was utilized to evaluate the prediction capability of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS-KS. - Abstract: APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), which is a GEN-III+ nuclear power plant developed in Korea, adopts PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) as an advanced safety feature. The PAFS can completely replace an active auxiliary feedwater system by cooling down the secondary side of steam generators with a natural convection mechanism. This study focuses on experimental and analytical investigation for cooling and operational performance of the PAFS during an FLB (feedwater line break) transient with an integral effect test facility, ATLAS-PAFS. To realistically simulate the FLB accident of the APR+, the three-level scaling methodology was taken into account to design the test facility and determine the test condition. From the test result, the PAFS was actuated to successfully cool down the decay heat of the reactor core by the condensation heat transfer at the PCHX (passive condensation heat exchanger), and thus it could be confirmed that the APR+ has the capability of coping with a FLB scenario by adopting the PAFS and proper set-points for its operation. This integral effect test data were used to evaluate the prediction capability of a thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS-KS. The code analysis result proved that it could reasonably predict the FLB transient including the actuation of the PAFS and the natural convection

  14. Digital implementation, simulation and tests in MATLAB of the models of Steam line, the turbines, the pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric power plant

    Lopez R, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this phase of the project they were carried out exhaustive tests to the models of the steam lines, turbines and pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric central for to verify that their tendencies and behaviors are it more real possible. For it, it was necessary to also analyze the transfer functions of the different components along the steam line until the power generator. Such models define alone the dominant poles of the system, what is not limitation to reproduce a wide range of anticipated transitoriness of a power station operation. In the same manner, it was integrated and proved the integrated model form with the models of feeding water of the SUN-RAH, simulating the nuclear reactor starting from predetermined entrances of the prospective values of the vessel. Also it was coupled with the graphic interface developed with the libraries DirectX implementing a specific monitoring panel for this system. (Author)

  15. In vitro toxicity test and searching the possibility of cancer cell line extermination by magnetic heating with using Fe3O4 magnetic fluid

    Pham Hoai Linh; Nguyen Chi Thuan; Nguyen Anh Tuan; Pham Van Thach; Nguyen Xuan Phuc; Le Van Hong; Tran Cong Yen; Nguyen Thi Quy; Hoang Thi My Nhung; Phi Thi Xuyen

    2009-01-01

    A Fe 3 O 4 based magnetic fluid with different concentrations ranged between 0.15 ng/cell to 10 ng/cell (nano gram/cell) was used in the in vitro toxicity test on several cancer cell lines, Sarcoma 180, HeLa and H358. It shows that the fluid with a concentration of Fe 3 O 4 below 1.2 ng/cell is completely non-toxic for these cell lines. Even through in the presence of the highest concentration of 10 ng/cell, the cell viability still reaches more than 60%. The magnetic fluid with Fe 3 O 4 concentration of about 0.1 ng/cell was also used to search ex-vivo the possibility of Sarcoma 180 extermination by magnetic heating with an AC field of 120Oe and 184 KHz. The result shows that after a heat treatment for 30 min., 40% of Sarcoma 180 cells was killed.

  16. Primary cultured fibroblasts derived from patients with chronic wounds: a methodology to produce human cell lines and test putative growth factor therapy such as GMCSF

    Coppock Donald L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple physiologic impairments are responsible for chronic wounds. A cell line grown which retains its phenotype from patient wounds would provide means of testing new therapies. Clinical information on patients from whom cells were grown can provide insights into mechanisms of specific disease such as diabetes or biological processes such as aging. The objective of this study was 1 To culture human cells derived from patients with chronic wounds and to test the effects of putative therapies, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF on these cells. 2 To describe a methodology to create fibroblast cell lines from patients with chronic wounds. Methods Patient biopsies were obtained from 3 distinct locations on venous ulcers. Fibroblasts derived from different wound locations were tested for their migration capacities without stimulators and in response to GM-CSF. Another portion of the patient biopsy was used to develop primary fibroblast cultures after rigorous passage and antimicrobial testing. Results Fibroblasts from the non-healing edge had almost no migration capacity, wound base fibroblasts were intermediate, and fibroblasts derived from the healing edge had a capacity to migrate similar to healthy, normal, primary dermal fibroblasts. Non-healing edge fibroblasts did not respond to GM-CSF. Six fibroblast cell lines are currently available at the National Institute on Aging (NIA Cell Repository. Conclusion We conclude that primary cells from chronic ulcers can be established in culture and that they maintain their in vivo phenotype. These cells can be utilized for evaluating the effects of wound healing stimulators in vitro.

  17. Investigation on the applicability of Piety's on-line PSD-pattern recognition algorithm to boiling detection by neutron-noise at a swimming-pool reactor

    Behringer, K.; Spiekerman, G.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1984-11-01

    The neutron noise signal of an initiation-of-boiling experiment performed at the SAPHIR reactor has been analyzed by the PSD-pattern recognition algorithm of Piety (1977); the results indicate that the onset of boiling can be detected by this method. Improved confidence statements for the statistical decision discriminants are given. (Auth.)

  18. A comparative study of protein patterns of human estrogen receptor positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines

    Flodrová, Dana; Toporová, L.; Macejová, D.; Laštovičková, Markéta; Brtko, J.; Bobálová, Janette

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2016), s. 387-392 ISSN 0231-5882 Grant - others:Akademie věd - GA AV ČR(CZ) SAV-15-01 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : cell line * breast cancer * protein * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2016

  19. IN VITRO BIOACTIVITY TEST OF IRRADIATED MAHKOTA DEWA BARK [Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl.] AGAINST HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES

    Ermin Katrin Winarno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation has been used to preserve an herbal medicine, but it has not been known the effects of gamma irradiation on their bioactivity as an anticancer agent yet. In the previous study, the gamma irradiation on mahkota dewa bark with the optimum dose of 7.5 kGy could be used for decontamination of bacteria and fungus/yeast. In this report, the effect of gamma irradiation with the dose of 7.5 kGy on the bioactivities of mahkota dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff Boerl. bark against leukemia L1210 cells was studied. The control and irradiated samples were successively macerated with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. In the previous results, silica gel column chromatography of ethyl acetate extract of non irradiated sample (control gave 8 fractions. Among these fractions, fraction 6 indicated the most cytotoxic-potential fraction, so that in this experiment, the ethyl acetate extract of irradiated and non irradiated sample were fractionated with the same manner as previous fractionation. The fraction 6 obtained both from control and irradiated samples were then assayed their inhibitory activities against 4 kinds of human cancer lines, i.e. HeLa, THP-1, HUT-78 and A-549. The results showed that the fraction 6 from control sample gave IC50 values of 3.65, 5.59, 3.55, and 4.06 µg/mL, against HeLa, THP-1, HUT-78 and A-549, respectively, meanwhile fraction 6 from irradiated sample gave IC50 values of 8.26, 7.02, 5.03, and 5.59 µg/mL, respectively. Gamma irradiation dose of 7.5 kGy on mahkota dewa bark could decreased the cytotoxic activity of fraction 6 as the most cytotoxic-potential fraction against HeLa, THP-1, HUT-78 and A-549 cancer cell lines, but decreasing the cytotoxic activity has not exceeded the limit of an extract and the fraction declared inactive. So that the irradiation dose of 7.5 kGy can be use for decontamination of bacteria and fungus/yeast without eliminating the cytotoxic activity.

  20. Establishment of a new immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line (iHCE-NY1) for use in evaluating eye irritancy by in vitro test methods.

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Kato, Yoshinao; Sato, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Noriko; Yamashita, Hiromi; Ohkuma, Mahito; Miyachi, Ei-Ichi; Horiguchi, Masayuki; Hirano, Koji; Kojima, Hajime

    2016-08-01

    In vitro test methods that use human corneal epithelial cells to evaluate the eye irritation potency of chemical substances do not use human corneal epithelium because it has been difficult to maintain more than four passages. In this study, we make a new cell line comprising immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (iHCE-NY1). The IC50 of iHCE-NY1 cells is slightly higher than that of Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea (SIRC) cells, which are currently used in some in vitro test methods. CDKN1A in iHCE-NY1 cells was used as a marker of gene expression to indicate cell cycle activity. This enabled us to evaluate cell recovery characteristics at concentrations lower than the IC50 of cytotoxic tests.

  1. How Are Fishing Patterns and Fishing Communities Responding to Climate Change? A Test Case from the Northwest Atlantic

    Young, T.; Fuller, E.; Coleman, K.; Provost, M.; Pinsky, M. L.; St Martin, K.

    2016-02-01

    We know climate is changing and fish are moving in response to those changes. But we understand less about how harvesters are responding to these changes in fish distribution and the ramifications of those changes for fishing communities. Ecological and evolutionary theory suggests that organisms must move, adapt, or die in response to environmental changes, and a related frame may be relevant for human harvesters in the face of climate change. Furthermore, research suggests that there may be a portfolio effect: a wider diversity of catch may buffer harvesters from some effects of climate change. To get at these questions, we explored changes in fishing patterns among commercial fishing communities in the northeast US from 1997-2014 using NOAA-collected logbook data. We found that communities using more mobile gear (large trawl vessels) demonstrated a greater range of latitudinal shift than communities using any other gear. Latitudinal shift was also inversely related to species diversity of catch and port latitude in those communities: southern communities that caught few species shifted dramatically northward, and northern communities that caught many species did not demonstrate marked latitudinal shifts. Those communities that demonstrated larger latitudinal shifts also demonstrated smaller changes in catch composition than their more stationary counterparts. We also found that vessels are indeed leaving many, but not all, fisheries in this region. These results suggest that harvesters are moving, adapting, and leaving fisheries, and that there does appear to be a portfolio effect, with catch diversity mediating some of these responses. While these changes in fishing patterns cannot all be directly attributed to climate change per se, marine fishes in this region are shifting north rapidly, as is expected under climate change. This study provides a valuable test case for exploring the potential ramifications of climate change on coastal socio-ecological systems.

  2. Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation Change Patterns During 6-min Walk Test in Subjects With Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Inagaki, Takeshi; Terada, Jiro; Yahaba, Misuzu; Kawata, Naoko; Jujo, Takayuki; Nagashima, Kengo; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-12-26

    The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is commonly performed to assess functional status in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. However, changes in heart rate and oxygen saturation ( S pO 2 ) patterns during 6MWT in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension remain unclear. Thirty-one subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were retrospectively evaluated to examine the relationships between the change in heart rate (Δheart rate), heart rate acceleration time, slope of heart rate acceleration, heart rate recovery during the first minute after 6MWT (HRR1), change in S pO 2 (Δ S pO 2 ), S pO 2 reduction time, and S pO 2 recovery time during 6MWT, and the severity of pulmonary hemodynamics assessed by right heart catheterization and echocardiography. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension had significantly longer heart rate acceleration time (144.9 ± 63.9 s vs 96.0 ± 42.5 s, P = .033), lower Δheart rate (47.4 ± 16.9 vs 61.8 ± 13.6 beats, P = .02), and lower HRR1 (13.3 ± 9.0 beats vs 27.1 ± 9.2 beats, P pulmonary hypertension. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension also had significantly longer S pO 2 reduction time (178.3 ± 70.3 s vs 134.3 ± 58.4 s, P = .03) and S pO 2 recovery time (107.6 ± 35.3 s vs 69.8 ± 32.7 s, P = .004) than did subjects with mild chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed only mean pulmonary arterial pressure independently was associated with heart rate acceleration time and slope of heart rate acceleration. Heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT is predominantly associated with pulmonary hemodynamics in subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Evaluating heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT may serve a safe and convenient way to follow the change in pulmonary hemodynamics. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. Development and testing of on-line analytical instrumentation for alkali and heavy metal release in pressurised conversion processes

    Hernberg, R; Haeyrinen, V; Oikari, R [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of the project is to demonstrate in industrial conditions and further develop the continuous alkali measurement method plasma excited alkali resonance line spectroscopy (PEARLS) developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT). The demonstration takes place in joint measuring campaigns, where two other continuous alkali measurement methods, ELIF and surface ionisation, are being simultaneously demonstrated. A modification of PEARLS will also be developed for the continuous measurement of heavy metal concentrations. A market study of continuous measuring techniques for alkali and heavy metals is further part of the project. The method will be demonstrated in two pressurised fluidised bed combustion facilities. One of these is the 10 MW PCFB of Foster Wheeler Energia Oy in Karhula. The second one is yet to be decided. The first measuring campaign is scheduled for the spring of 1997 in Karhula. In 1996 the group at TUT participated in the performance of a market study regarding continuous measuring techniques for alkali and heavy metal concentrations. A draft report was submitted to and approved by the EC. Development work on PEARLS in 1996 has centered around the construction of a calibration device for alkali measurements. The device can be used by all three measuring techniques in the project to check readings against a known alkali concentration at controlled and known conditions. In 1996 PEARLS was applied for alkali measurement at several pressurised combustion installations of laboratory and industrial pilot scale

  4. Manipulator-controlled manufacturing and on-line testing of composite materials. Subproject: Development and trial of test techniques. Final report

    Nuding, W.; Schroeder, P.

    1991-10-01

    ZAT Juelich was in charge of the assessment of the basic nondestructive materials testing requirements relevant to manufacturing, the application and testing of the hardware and software developed by ITS, the supply of the required X-ray systems including sensors and basic manipulation systems, microfocus X-raying of the newly developed special welding materials, hard-facing parameter studies applicable to components which consist of different composite materials and are characterized by complex geometries, and computer-aided evaluation and scanning of components. The ITS developments were based on nondestructive radiography because radiography provides reliable data about the types, location and sizes of defects. The test object is X-rayed by means of an X-ray tube, and radiograph is displayed on a TV monitor by means of an image intensifying TV chain after improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio by an image processing system. (orig.) [de

  5. Thermal-Hydraulic Integral Effect Test with ATLAS for an Intermediate Break Loss of Coolant Accident at a Pressurizer Surge Line

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Seok Cho; Park, Hyun Sik; Choi, Nam Hyun; Park, Yu Sun; Kim, Jong Rok; Bae, Byoung Uhn; Kim, Yeon Sik; Kim, Kyung Doo; Choi, Ki Yong; Song, Chul Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The main objectives of this test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response of the APR1400 during the pressurizer surge line break accident but also to produce an integral effect test data to validate the SPACE code. In order to simulate a double-ended guillotine break of a pressurizer surge line in the APR1400, the IB-SUR-01R test was performed with ATLAS. The major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate were presented and discussed. Despite the core was uncovered, no excursion in the cladding temperature was observed. The pressurizer surge line break can be classified as a hot leg break from a break location point of view. Compared with a cold leg break, coolability in the core may be better in case of a hot leg break due to the enhanced flow in the core region. This integral effect test data will be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of the MARS and the RELAP5 as well as the SPACE code. Furthermore, this data can be utilized to identify any code deficiency for an IBLOCA simulation, especially for DVI-adapted plants. Redefinition of break size for design basis accident (DBA) based on risk information is being extensively investigated due to the potential for safety benefits and unnecessary burden reduction from current LBLOCA (large break loss of coolant accident)-based ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) Acceptance Criteria. As a transition break size (TBS), the rupture of medium-size pipe is considered to be more important than ever in risk-informed regulation (RIR)-relevant safety analysis. As plants age, are up-rated, and continue to seek improved operating efficiencies, the small break and intermediate break LOCA (IBLOCA) can become a concern. In particular, IBLOCA with DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) features will be addressed to support redefinition of a design-basis LOCA. With an aim of expanding code validation to address small

  6. Directed Self-Assembly of Poly(2-vinylpyridine)-b-polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) Triblock Copolymer with Sub-15 nm Spacing Line Patterns Using a Nanoimprinted Photoresist Template.

    Sun, Zhiwei; Chen, Zhenbin; Zhang, Wenxu; Choi, Jaewon; Huang, Caili; Jeong, Gajin; Coughlin, E Bryan; Hsu, Yautzong; Yang, XiaoMin; Lee, Kim Y; Kuo, David S; Xiao, Shuaigang; Russell, Thomas P

    2015-08-05

    Low molecular weight P2VP-b-PS-b-P2VP triblock copolymer (poly(2-vinlypyridine)-block-polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)] is doped with copper chloride and microphase separated into lamellar line patterns with ultrahigh area density. Salt-doped P2VP-b-PS-b-P2VP triblock copolymer is self-assembled on the top of the nanoimprinted photoresist template, and metallic nanowires with long-range ordering are prepared with platinum-salt infiltration and plasma etching. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The CEBAF test package: A symbolic and dynamic test, histogram and parameter package for on- and off-line particle physics data analysis

    Wood, S.A.; Abbott, S.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear physics data analysis programs often use packages, such as Q, that allow parameter values, test definitions and histogram booking parameters to be controlled at run time through external files or shared memory. Data within a physics analyzer are usually referenced by indices, leading to a high use of equivalence statements and to extra bookkeeping. In the CEBAF Test Package (CTP), parameters, tests and histogram definitions defined in external files all refer to data elements by the same variable names as used in the C or Fortran source code for the analyzer. This is accomplished by requirieng the analyzer developer to open-quotes registerclose quotes each variable and array that is to be accessible by the package. Any registered variable as well as the test and histogram definitions may be dynamically read and modified by tasks that communicate via standard networking calls. As this package is implemented in C and requires only HBOOK and SUN RPC networking, it is highly portable. CTP works with the CEBAF Online Data Acquisition system (CODA), but may be used with other data acquisition systems or stand alone

  8. Comparison of explicit calculations for n = 3 to 8 dielectronic satellites of the FeXXV Kα resonance line with experimental data from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Decaux, V.; Bitter, M.; Hsuan, H.; Hill, K.W.; von Goeler, S.; Park, H.; Bhalla, C.P.

    1991-12-01

    Dielectronic satellite spectra of the FeXXV Kα resonance line observed from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasmas have been compared with recent explicit calculations for the n = 3 to 8 dielectronic satellites as well as the earlier theoretical predictions, which were based on the 1/n 3 scaling law for n > 4 satellites. The analysis has been performed by least-squares fits of synthetic spectra to the experimental data. The synthetic spectra constructed from both theories are in good agreement with the observed data. However, the electron temperature values obtained from the fit of the present explicit calculations are in better agreement with independent measurements. 20 refs., 4 figs

  9. On-line Flagging of Anomalies and Adaptive Sequential Hypothesis Testing for Fine-feature Characterization of Geosynchronous Satellites

    2015-10-18

    model-based evidence. This work resolves cross-tag using three methods (Z-test for dependent data, classical sequential analysis and Brownian motion...Slider Movement The two-facet model is used as the Inversion Model. It represents a three-axis stabilized satellite as two facets, namely a body...the sequential analysis. If is independent and has an approximately normal distribution then Brownian motion drift analysis is used. If is

  10. On-Line Fuel Failure Monitor for Fuel Testing and Monitoring of Gas Cooled Very High Temperature Reactors

    Hawari, Ayman I.; Bourham, Mohamed A.

    2010-01-01

    Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR) utilize the TRISO microsphere as the fundamental fuel unit in the core. The TRISO microsphere (∼ 1-mm diameter) is composed of a UO2 kernel surrounded by a porous pyrolytic graphite buffer, an inner pyrolytic graphite layer, a silicon carbide (SiC) coating, and an outer pyrolytic graphite layer. The U-235 enrichment of the fuel is expected to range from 4%-10% (higher enrichments are also being considered). The layer/coating system that surrounds the UO2 kernel acts as the containment and main barrier against the environmental release of radioactivity. To understand better the behavior of this fuel under in-core conditions (e.g., high temperature, intense fast neutron flux, etc.), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a fuel testing program that will take place at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). During this project North Carolina State University (NCSU) researchers will collaborate with INL staff for establishing an optimized system for fuel monitoring for the ATR tests. In addition, it is expected that the developed system and methods will be of general use for fuel failure monitoring in gas cooled VHTRs.

  11. Cytotoxicity test of 40, 50 and 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner by using MTT assay on culture cell line

    Christian Khoswanto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Open dentin is always covered by smear layer, therefore before restoration is performed, cavity or tooth which has been prepared should be clean from dirt. The researchers suggested that clean dentin surface would reach effective adhesion between resin and tooth structure, therefore dentin conditioner like citric acid was used to reach the condition. Even though citric acid is not strong acid but it can be very erosive to oral mucous. Several requirements should be fulfilled for dental product such as non toxic, non irritant, biocompatible and should not have negative effect against local, systemic or biological environment. Cytotoxicity test was apart of biomaterial evaluation and needed for standard screening. Purpose: This study was to know the cytotoxicity of 40, 50, 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner using MTT assay. Method: This study is an experimental research using the Post-Test Only Control Group Design. Six samples of each 40, 50 and 60% citric acid for citotoxicity test using MTT assay. The density of optic formazan indicated the number of living cells. All data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. Result: The percentage of living cells in 40, 50 and 60% citric acid were 95.14%, 93.42% and 93.14%. Conclusion: Citric acid is non toxic and safe to be used as dentine conditioner.

  12. A stepwise algorithm using an at-a-glance first-line test for the non-invasive diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

    Boursier, Jérôme; de Ledinghen, Victor; Leroy, Vincent; Anty, Rodolphe; Francque, Sven; Salmon, Dominique; Lannes, Adrien; Bertrais, Sandrine; Oberti, Frederic; Fouchard-Hubert, Isabelle; Calès, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Chronic liver diseases (CLD) are common, and are therefore mainly managed by non-hepatologists. These physicians lack access to the best non-invasive tests of liver fibrosis, and consequently cannot accurately determine the disease severity. Referral to a hepatologist is then needed. We aimed to implement an algorithm, comprising a new first-line test usable by all physicians, for the detection of advanced liver fibrosis in all CLD patients. Diagnostic study: 3754 CLD patients with liver biopsy were 2:1 randomized into derivation and validation sets. Prognostic study: longitudinal follow-up of 1275 CLD patients with baseline fibrosis tests. Diagnostic study: the easy liver fibrosis test (eLIFT), an "at-a-glance" sum of points attributed to age, gender, gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), platelets and prothrombin time, was developed for the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis. In the validation set, eLIFT and fibrosis-4 (FIB4) had the same sensitivity (78.0% vs. 76.6%, p=0.470) but eLIFT gave fewer false positive results, especially in patients ≥60years old (53.8% vs. 82.0%, ptest. FibroMeter with vibration controlled transient elastography (VCTE) was the most accurate among the eight fibrosis tests evaluated. The sensitivity of the eLIFT-FM VCTE algorithm (first-line eLIFT, second-line FibroMeter VCTE ) was 76.1% for advanced fibrosis and 92.1% for cirrhosis. Prognostic study: patients diagnosed as having "no/mild fibrosis" by the algorithm had excellent liver-related prognosis with thus no need for referral to a hepatologist. The eLIFT-FM VCTE algorithm extends the detection of advanced liver fibrosis to all CLD patients and reduces unnecessary referrals of patients without significant CLD to hepatologists. Blood fibrosis tests and transient elastography accurately diagnose advanced liver fibrosis in the large population of patients having chronic liver disease, but these non-invasive tests are only currently available in specialized

  13. RAS testing of liquid biopsy correlates with the outcome of metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with first-line FOLFIRI plus cetuximab in the CAPRI-GOIM trial.

    Normanno, N; Esposito Abate, R; Lambiase, M; Forgione, L; Cardone, C; Iannaccone, A; Sacco, A; Rachiglio, A M; Martinelli, E; Rizzi, D; Pisconti, S; Biglietto, M; Bordonaro, R; Troiani, T; Latiano, T P; Giuliani, F; Leo, S; Rinaldi, A; Maiello, E; Ciardiello, F

    2018-01-01

    Liquid biopsy is an alternative to tissue for RAS testing in metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) patients. Little information is available on the predictive role of liquid biopsy RAS testing in patients treated with first-line anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody-based therapy. In the CAPRI-GOIM trial, 340 KRAS exon-2 wild-type mCRC patients received first-line cetuximab plus FOLFIRI. Tumor samples were retrospectively assessed by next generation sequencing (NGS). Baseline plasma samples were analyzed for KRAS and NRAS mutations using beads, emulsion, amplification, and magnetics digital PCR (BEAMing). Discordant cases were solved by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) or deep-sequencing. A subgroup of 92 patients with available both NGS data on tumor samples and baseline plasma samples were included in this study. Both NGS analysis of tumor tissue and plasma testing with BEAMing identified RAS mutations in 33/92 patients (35.9%). However, 10 cases were RAS tissue mutant and plasma wild-type, and additional 10 cases were tissue wild-type and plasma mutant, resulting in a concordance rate of 78.3%. Analysis of plasma samples with ddPCR detected RAS mutations in 2/10 tissue mutant, plasma wild-type patients. In contrast, in all tissue wild-type and plasma mutant cases, ddPCR or deep-sequencing analysis of tumor tissue confirmed the presence of RAS mutations at allelic frequencies ranging between 0.15% and 1.15%. The median progression-free survival of RAS mutant and wild-type patients according to tissue (7.9 versus 12.6 months; P = 0.004) and liquid biopsy testing (7.8 versus 13.8 moths; P < 0.001) were comparable. Similar findings were observed for the median overall survival of RAS mutant and wild-type patients based on tissue (22.1 versus 35.8 months; P = 0.016) and plasma (19.9 versus 35.8 months; P = 0.013) analysis. This study indicates that RAS testing of liquid biopsy results in a similar outcome when compared with tissue testing in mCRC patients

  14. The donor line break cannula: effect on the donation process, blood component quality and transfusion microbiology testing of an important new blood bag safety feature.

    Nightingale, M J; Beard, M J; Bennett, J; Hambleton, R; Ramskill, S; Thomas, S

    2013-08-01

    The use of blood packs with an integral sampling system can result in anti-coagulant from the main bag reaching the sample pouch via the donor line, causing delayed coagulation of blood samples. In NHS Blood and Transplant, this has prevented the use of serum, the preferred matrix for transfusion microbiology (TM) testing, which has led to an increased false positive rate with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma. There is also a remote possibility of false negative results owing to sample dilution. Manufacturers have responded by offering packs with a donor line break cannula (DLBC) to prevent these adverse effects. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of DLBC packs on donation, blood component quality and of the potential return to serum for TM testing. DLBC packs from three manufacturers were assessed against control packs of the same dimensions and configuration. Donation duration, flow rate, platelet factor 4, prothrombin fragment 1+2, haemolysis and collection and processing incidents were compared. Results indicated no clinically significant adverse effect from the DLBC on the activation state of platelets, the coagulation cascade or increased haemolysis. Donation duration and blood collection and processing incident rates for DLBC packs were not significantly different to controls. The use of DLBC packs would reduce the complexity of manipulations during blood collection and therefore the likelihood of microbially contaminated donations (incorrect skin core diversion) and false negative TM tests. DLBC packs would enable the use of serum for TM testing with a significant reduction in false positive tests compared to EDTA plasma. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  15. Using a commercial mathematics software package for on-line analysis at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility

    Malone, R.; Wang, X.J.

    1999-01-01

    BY WRITING BOTH A CUSTOM WINDOWS(NTTM) DYNAMIC LINK LIBRARY AND GENERIC COMPANION SERVER SOFTWARE, THE INTRINSIC FUNCTIONS OF MATHSOFT MATHCAD(TM) HAVE BEEN EXTENDED WITH NEW CAPABILITIES WHICH PERMIT DIRECT ACCESS TO THE CONTROL SYSTEM DATABASES OF BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY. UNDER THIS SCHEME, A MATHCAD WORKSHEET EXECUTING ON A PERSONAL COMPUTER BECOMES A CLIENT WHICH CAN BOTH IMPORT AND EXPORT DATA TO A CONTROL SYSTEM SERVER VIA A NETWORK STREAM SOCKET CONNECTION. THE RESULT IS AN ALTERNATIVE, MATHEMATICALLY ORIENTED VIEW OF CONTROLLING THE ACCELERATOR INTERACTIVELY

  16. Influences of Traction Load Shock on Artificial Partial Discharge Faults within Traction Transformer—Experimental Test for Pattern Recognition

    Shuaibing Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD measurement and its pattern recognition are vital to fault diagnosis of transformers, especially to those traction substation transformers undergoing repetitive traction load shocks. This paper presents the primary factors induced by traction load shocks including high total harmonics distortion (THD, transient voltage impulse and high-temperature rise, and their effects on the feature parameters of PD. Experimental tests are conducted on six artificial PD models with these factors introduced one by one. Results reveal that the maximum PD quantity and the PD repetitive rate are favorable to be enlarged when the oil temperature exceeds 80 °C or the THD is higher than 16% with certain orders of harmonic. The decline in PD inception voltage can mainly be attributed to the transient voltage impulse. The variation in central frequency of the fast Fourier transformation (FFT spectra transformed from ultra-high frequency signals can mainly be attributed to high THD, especially when it exceeds 20%. The temperature rise has no significant influence on the FFT spectra; the transient voltage impulse, however, can result in a central frequency shift of the floating particle discharge. With the rapid development of high-speed railways, the study presented in this paper will be helpful for field PD detection and recognition of traction substation transformers in the future.

  17. Seasonal patterns in reproductive success of temperate-breeding birds: Experimental tests of the date and quality hypotheses.

    Harriman, Vanessa B; Dawson, Russell D; Bortolotti, Lauren E; Clark, Robert G

    2017-04-01

    For organisms in seasonal environments, individuals that breed earlier in the season regularly attain higher fitness than their late-breeding counterparts. Two primary hypotheses have been proposed to explain these patterns: The quality hypothesis contends that early breeders are of better phenotypic quality or breed on higher quality territories, whereas the date hypothesis predicts that seasonally declining reproductive success is a response to a seasonal deterioration in environmental quality. In birds, food availability is thought to drive deteriorating environmental conditions, but few experimental studies have demonstrated its importance while also controlling for parental quality. We tested predictions of the date hypothesis in tree swallows ( Tachycineta bicolor ) over two breeding seasons and in two locations within their breeding range in Canada. Nests were paired by clutch initiation date to control for parental quality, and we delayed the hatching date of one nest within each pair. Subsequently, brood sizes were manipulated to mimic changes in per capita food abundance, and we examined the effects of manipulations, as well as indices of environmental and parental quality, on nestling quality, fledging success, and return rates. Reduced reproductive success of late-breeding individuals was causally related to a seasonal decline in environmental quality. Declining insect biomass and enlarged brood sizes resulted in nestlings that were lighter, in poorer body condition, structurally smaller, had shorter and slower growing flight feathers and were less likely to survive to fledge. Our results provide evidence for the importance of food resources in mediating seasonal declines in offspring quality and survival.

  18. BWR 1 % main recirculation line break LOCA tests, RUNs 917 and 918, without HPCS at ROSA-III program

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Okazaki, Motoaki; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Koizumi, Yasuo; Tasaka, Kanji

    1988-07-01

    In a case of small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) at a boiling water reactor (BWR) system, it is important to lower the system pressure to cool down the reactor system by using either the high pressure core spray (HPCS) or the automatic depressurization system (ADS). The report presents characteristic test results of RUNs 918 and 917, which were performed at the rig-of-safety assessment (ROSA)-III program simulating a 1 % break BWR LOCA with an assumption of HPCS failure, and clarifies effects of the ADS delay time on a small break LOCA. The ROSA-III test facility simulates principal components of a BWR/6 system with volumetric scaling factor of 1/424. It is experimentally concluded that the ADS delay time shorter than 4 minutes results in a similar PCT as that in a standard case, in which the PCT is observed after actuation of the low pressure core spray (LPCS). And the ADS delay time longer than 4 minutes results in higher PCT than in the standard case. In the latter, the PCT depends on the ADS time, a 220 K higher PCT, for example, in a case of 10 minutes ADS delay compared with the standard case. (author) 52 refs. 299 figs

  19. Flight Test Evaluation of an Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) Concept for Multiple Beyond-Visual-Line-of-Sight (BVLOS) Operations

    Johnson, Marcus; Jung, Jaewoo; Rios, Joseph; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Prevot, Thomas; Mulfinger, Daniel; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2017-01-01

    Many applications of small Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) have been envisioned. These include surveillance of key assets such as pipelines, rail, or electric wires, deliveries, search and rescue, traffic monitoring, videography, and precision agriculture. These operations are likely to occur in the same airspace in the presence of many static and dynamic constraints such as airports, and high wind areas. Therefore, operations of small UAS need to be managed to ensure safety and operation efficiency is maintained. NASA has advanced a concept for UAS Traffic Management (UTM) and has initiated a research effort to refine that concept and develop operational and system requirements. A UTM research platform is in development and flight test activities to evaluate core functions and key assumptions focusing exclusively on UAS operations in different environments are underway. This seminar will present lessons learned from a recent flight test focused on enabling operations of multiple UAS in lower-risk environments within and beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS).

  20. Evaluation of the effect of Dardia Lipo Line on skin inflammation induced by surfactants using the repeated open-application test.

    Ortonne, J-P; Queille-Roussel, C

    2007-09-01

    Medical skin care products are topical preparations with mainly moisturizing properties. A new line of medical skin products with an excellent tolerability profile and improved hydration for dry skin has been developed, but beneficial effects have not yet been investigated on damaged skin. To investigate if these products maintain barrier function and hydration status, improve subjective symptoms due to irritant contact dermatitis and to prove their tolerability on damaged skin. Single-centre, blinded, randomized, controlled study in 20 healthy Caucasian women. 5% sodium lauryl sulphate solution was used to induce skin irritation. Two sites on the inside surface of both forearms of each subject were treated daily for 5 days (irritation period). Lipo Cream, Lipo Milk (water-in-oil emulsions) and Lipo Ointment (water-free formulation) were applied twice daily to three of the four test sites on days 1-5. The fourth site was used as a control. Visual readings, subjective symptom assessments, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and colorimetric measurements, corneometry and skin microrelief macrophotographies were done on days 1-6. On day 6, TEWL was increased vs baseline on all sites; however, TEWL with Lipo Cream or Lipo Ointment was significantly lower than control. At day 6, skin capacitance was 94%, 100% and 85% of baseline value for the cream, milk and ointment, respectively, versus 72% for control. All test products were well tolerated. Lipo Line products showed both protective properties against epidermal dysfunction and significant hydrating effect.

  1. Simulation of an SBLOCA Test of Shutdown Cooling System Line Break with the SMARTITL Facility using the MARS-KS Code

    Cho, Yeon-Sik; Suh, Jae-Seung [System Engineering and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung-Uk; Yi, Sung-Jae; Park, Hyun-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    An LBLOCA (Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident) was inherently eliminated in the design stage. The SMART design has a thermal power of 330MW. Its core exit temperature and pressurizer pressure are 323 .deg. C and 15MPa during normal operating conditions, respectively. An integral-effect test loop for SMART (SMARTITL), called FESTA (Facility for Experimental Simulation of Transients and Accidents), was designed to simulate the integral thermal-hydraulic behavior of SMART. The objectives of SMART-ITL are to investigate and understand the integral performance of reactor systems and components, and the thermal-hydraulic phenomena occurring in the system during normal, abnormal, and emergency conditions, and to verify the system safety during various design basis events of SMART. SMART-ITL with four steam generators and PRHRS, has an advantage for a multi-loop effect compared with VISTA-ITL with a single loop. The integral-effect test data will also be used to validate the related thermal-hydraulic models of the safety analysis code such as TASS/SMR-S which is used for a performance and accident analysis of the SMART design. In addition, a scoping analysis on the scaling difference between the standard design of SMART and the basic design of SMART-ITL was performed for an SBLOCA (Small-Break Loss of Coolant Accident) scenario using a best-estimate safety analysis code, MARS-KS. This paper introduces a comparison of an SBLOCA test of a shutdown cooling system line break using SMART-ITL with its post-test calculation using the MARS-KS code. An SBLOCA test and its post-test calculation were successfully performed using the SMART-ITL facility and MARS-KS code. The SBLOCA break is a guillotine break, and its location is on the SCS line (nozzle part of the RCP suction). The steady-state conditions were achieved to satisfy the initial test conditions presented in the test requirement and its boundary conditions were properly simulated.

  2. Linear scleroderma following Blaschko′s lines

    Mukhopadhyay Amiya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Blaschko′s lines form a pattern, which many diseases are found to follow, but linear scleroderma following Blaschko′s lines is a controversial entity rarely reported in the literature. A 24-year-old man presented with multiple linear, atrophic, hyperpigmented lesions punctuated by areas of depigmentations on the left half of the trunk distributed on the anterior, lateral and posterior aspects. The lesions were distributed in a typical S-shaped line. Antinuclear antibody and antihistone antibody tests were negative. Histopathological examination of the skin from the affected area showed features suggestive of scleroderma. Here, we present a case of linear scleroderma following Blaschko′s lines in a male patient - an entity reported only three times so far.

  3. Diurnal Cortisol Patterns and Dexamethasone Suppression Test Responses in Healthy Young Adults Born Preterm at Very Low Birth Weight.

    Nina Kaseva

    Full Text Available Early life stress, such as painful and stressful procedures during neonatal intensive care after preterm birth, can permanently affect physiological, hormonal and neurobiological systems. This may contribute to altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA and provoke changes in HPAA function with long-term health impacts. Previous studies suggest a lower HPAA response to stress in young adults born preterm compared with controls born at term. We assessed whether these differences in HPAA stress responsiveness are reflected in everyday life HPAA functioning, i.e. in diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, and reactivity to a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST, in unimpaired young adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g.The participants were recruited from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults cohort study. At mean age 23.3 years (2.1 SD, 49 VLBW and 36 controls born at term participated in the study. For cortisol analyzes, saliva samples were collected on two consecutive days at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after wake-up, at 12:00 h, 17:00 h and 22:00 h. After the last salivary sample of the first study day the participants were instructed to take a 0.5 mg dexamethasone tablet.With mixed-effects model no difference was seen in overall diurnal salivary cortisol between VLBW and control groups [13.9% (95% CI: -11.6, 47.0, P = 0.31]. Salivary cortisol increased similarly after awakening in both VLBW and control participants [mean difference -2.9% (29.2, 33.0, P = 0.85]. Also reactivity to the low-dose DST (awakening cortisol ratio day2/day1 was similar between VLBW and control groups [-1.1% (-53.5, 103.8, P = 0.97].Diurnal cortisol patterns and reactivity to a low-dose DST in young adulthood were not associated with preterm birth.

  4. Analysis of Dietary Pattern Impact on Weight Status for Personalised Nutrition through On-Line Advice: The Food4Me Spanish Cohort.

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne; Lovegrove, Julie A; Daniel, Hannelore; Saris, Wim H M; Traczyk, Iwonna; Manios, Yannis; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J; Mathers, John C; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2015-11-17

    Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups' intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of "Mediterranean diet" foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (β = 0.226; r² = 0.259; p dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products.

  5. Analysis of Dietary Pattern Impact on Weight Status for Personalised Nutrition through On-Line Advice: The Food4Me Spanish Cohort

    Rodrigo San-Cristobal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups’ intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of “Mediterranean diet” foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (β = 0.226; r2 = 0.259; p < 0.001, while the association with Factor 2 was inverse (β = −0.037; r2 = 0.230; p = 0.348. A total of four categories were defined (Prudent, Healthy, Western, and Compensatory through classification of the sample in higher or lower adherence to each factor and combining the possibilities. Western and Compensatory dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products.

  6. Atypical performance patterns on Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System Color-Word Interference Test: Cognitive switching and learning ability in older adults.

    Berg, Jody-Lynn; Swan, Natasha M; Banks, Sarah J; Miller, Justin B

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive set shifting requires flexible application of lower level processes. The Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DKEFS) Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT) is commonly used to clinically assess cognitive set shifting. An atypical pattern of performance has been observed on the CWIT; a subset of individuals perform faster, with equal or fewer errors, on the more difficult inhibition/switching than the inhibition trial. This study seeks to explore the cognitive underpinnings of this atypical pattern. It is hypothesized that atypical patterns on CWIT will be associated with better performance on underlying cognitive measures of attention, working memory, and learning when compared to typical CWIT patterns. Records from 239 clinical referrals (age: M = 68.09 years, SD = 10.62; education: M = 14.87 years, SD = 2.73) seen for a neuropsychological evaluation as part of diagnostic work up in an outpatient dementia and movement disorders clinic were sampled. The standard battery of tests included measures of attention, learning, fluency, executive functioning, and working memory. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to compare the cognitive performance of those with typical versus atypical CWIT patterns. An atypical pattern of performance was confirmed in 23% of our sample. Analyses revealed a significant group difference in acquisition of information on both nonverbal (Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, BVMT-R total recall), F(1, 213) = 16.61, p < .001, and verbal (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, HVLT-R total recall) learning tasks, F(1, 181) = 6.43, p < .01, and semantic fluency (Animal Naming), F(1, 232) = 7.57, p = .006, with the atypical group performing better on each task. Effect sizes were larger for nonverbal (Cohen's d = 0.66) than verbal learning (Cohen's d = 0.47) and semantic fluency (Cohen's d = 0.43). Individuals demonstrating an atypical pattern of performance on the CWIT inhibition/switching trial also demonstrated relative

  7. Improvement of human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) using short-time exposure methods for prevention of false-negative results.

    Narita, Kazuto; Ishii, Yuuki; Vo, Phuc Thi Hong; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Ogata, Shinichi; Yamashita, Kunihiko; Kojima, Hajime; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Recently, animal testing has been affected by increasing ethical, social, and political concerns regarding animal welfare. Several in vitro safety tests for evaluating skin sensitization, such as the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT), have been proposed. However, similar to other tests, the h-CLAT has produced false-negative results, including in tests for acid anhydride and water-insoluble chemicals. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the cause of false-negative results from phthalic anhydride was hydrolysis by an aqueous vehicle, with IL-8 release from THP-1 cells, and that short-time exposure to liquid paraffin (LP) dispersion medium could reduce false-negative results from acid anhydrides. In the present study, we modified the h-CLAT by applying this exposure method. We found that the modified h-CLAT is a promising method for reducing false-negative results obtained from acid anhydrides and chemicals with octanol-water partition coefficients (LogK ow ) greater than 3.5. Based on the outcomes from the present study, a combination of the original and the modified h-CLAT is suggested for reducing false-negative results. Notably, the combination method provided a sensitivity of 95% (overall chemicals) or 93% (chemicals with LogK ow > 2.0), and an accuracy of 88% (overall chemicals) or 81% (chemicals with LogK ow > 2.0). We found that the combined method is a promising evaluation scheme for reducing false-negative results seen in existing in vitro skin-sensitization tests. In the future, we expect a combination of original and modified h-CLAT to be applied in a newly developed in vitro test for evaluating skin sensitization.

  8. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    1993-08-24

    This document contains the third quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale flotation circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan, as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelve-month project schedule. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I -- Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing; Phase II -- ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project was performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through June, 1993, and was the major focus of the project. It involved testing of the continuous 200--300 lb/hr. circuit; and Phase III -- Project Finalization: The project finalization phase is occurring from July through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and involves finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This Third Quarterly Technical Progress Report principally summarizes the results from the benchscale testing with the second coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Coal), which occurred in April through June, 1993. It also contains preliminary economic evaluations that will go into the Final Report, as well as the plan for the final reporting task.

  9. Influence of pressure changes on recruitment pattern and neck muscle activities during Cranio-Cervical Flexion Tests (CCFTs).

    Park, Junhyung; Hur, Jingang; Ko, Taesung

    2015-01-01

    The muscle activity of the deep cervical flexors is emphasized more than that of the superficial cervical flexors, and it has been reported that functional disorders of the longuscolli are found in patients who experience neck pain. The objective of this study was to analyze the recruitment patterns and muscle activities of the cervical flexors during Cranio-Cervical Flexion Tests (CCFTs) through real-time ultrasonography and surface electromyography with a view to presenting appropriate pressure levels for deep cervical flexor exercise protocols based on the results of the analysis. The twenty subjects without neck pain were trained until they became accustomed to CCFTs, and the pressure level was increased gradually from 20 mmHg to 40 mmHg by increasing the pressure level 5 mmHg at a time. Real-time ultrasonography images of the longuscolli and the sternocleidomastoid were taken to measure the amounts of changes in the thicknesses of these muscles, and surface electromyography was implemented to observe the muscle activity of the sternocleidomastoid. The measured value is RMS. According to the results of the ultrasonography, the muscle thicknesses of both the longuscolli and the sternocleidomastoid showed significant increases, as the pressure increased up to 40 mmHg (p< 0.05). The differences in the muscle thicknesses at all individual pressure levels showed significant increases (p< 0.05). According to the results of the electromyography, the muscle activity of the sternocleidomastoid gradually increased as the pressure increased up to 40 mmHg, the increases were significant between 20 mmHg and 25 mmHg, between 30 mmHg and 35 mmHg (p< 0.05). The pressure levels of exercise methods at which the muscle activity of the deep cervical flexors is maximally increased and the muscle activity of the superficial cervical flexors is minimally increased are 25 mmHg-30 mmHg.

  10. On-Line High Dose-Rate Gamma Ray Irradiation Test of the CCD/CMOS Cameras

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, test results of gamma ray irradiation to CCD/CMOS cameras are described. From the CAMS (containment atmospheric monitoring system) data of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant station, we found out that the gamma ray dose-rate when the hydrogen explosion occurred in nuclear reactors 1{approx}3 is about 160 Gy/h. If assumed that the emergency response robot for the management of severe accident of the nuclear power plant has been sent into the reactor area to grasp the inside situation of reactor building and to take precautionary measures against releasing radioactive materials, the CCD/CMOS cameras, which are loaded with the robot, serve as eye of the emergency response robot. In the case of the Japanese Quince robot system, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras are used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. In the preceding assumptions, a major problem which arises when dealing with CCD/CMOS cameras in the severe accident situations of the nuclear power plant is the presence of high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. In the case of the DBA (design basis accident) situations of the nuclear power plant, in order to use a CCD/CMOS camera as an ad-hoc monitoring unit in the vicinity of high radioactivity structures and components of the nuclear reactor area, a robust survivability of this camera in such intense gamma-radiation fields therefore should be verified. The CCD/CMOS cameras of various types were gamma irradiated at a

  11. Investigating univariate temporal patterns for intrinsic connectivity networks based on complexity and low-frequency oscillation: a test-retest reliability study.

    Wang, X; Jiao, Y; Tang, T; Wang, H; Lu, Z

    2013-12-19

    Intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are composed of spatial components and time courses. The spatial components of ICNs were discovered with moderate-to-high reliability. So far as we know, few studies focused on the reliability of the temporal patterns for ICNs based their individual time courses. The goals of this study were twofold: to investigate the test-retest reliability of temporal patterns for ICNs, and to analyze these informative univariate metrics. Additionally, a correlation analysis was performed to enhance interpretability. Our study included three datasets: (a) short- and long-term scans, (b) multi-band echo-planar imaging (mEPI), and (c) eyes open or closed. Using dual regression, we obtained the time courses of ICNs for each subject. To produce temporal patterns for ICNs, we applied two categories of univariate metrics: network-wise complexity and network-wise low-frequency oscillation. Furthermore, we validated the test-retest reliability for each metric. The network-wise temporal patterns for most ICNs (especially for default mode network, DMN) exhibited moderate-to-high reliability and reproducibility under different scan conditions. Network-wise complexity for DMN exhibited fair reliability (ICC<0.5) based on eyes-closed sessions. Specially, our results supported that mEPI could be a useful method with high reliability and reproducibility. In addition, these temporal patterns were with physiological meanings, and certain temporal patterns were correlated to the node strength of the corresponding ICN. Overall, network-wise temporal patterns of ICNs were reliable and informative and could be complementary to spatial patterns of ICNs for further study. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing the variability of PSA expression by different human prostate cancer cell lines by means of a new potentiometric device employing molecularly antibody assembled on graphene surface

    Rebelo, Tânia S.C.R.; Noronha, João P.; Galésio, Marco; Santos, Hugo; Diniz, Mário; Sales, M. Goreti F.; Fernandes, Maria H.; Costa-Rodrigues, João

    2016-01-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is widely used as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Recently, an electrochemical biosensor for PSA detection by means of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed. This work evaluated the performance and the effectiveness of that PSA biosensor in screening the biomarker PSA in biological media with complex composition, collected from different human prostate cell line cultures. For that, the prostate cancer LNCaP and PC3 cells, and the non-cancerous prostate cell line PNT2 were cultured for 2, 7 and 14 days in either α-MEM or RPMI in the presence of 10% or 30% fetal bovine serum. Human gingival fibroblasts were used as a non-cancerous non-prostatic control. The different culture conditions modulated cellular proliferation and the expression of several prostate markers, including PSA. The electrochemical biosensor was able to specifically detect PSA in the culture media and values obtained were similar to those achieved by a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit, the most commonly used method for PSA quantification in prostate cancer diagnosis. Thus, the tested biosensor may represent a useful alternative as a diagnostic tool for PSA determination in biological samples. - Highlights: • PSA quantification was performed in prostate cancer cell culture media. • Culture media composition and culture period significantly affect PSA production. • The PSA biosensor detected a wide range of PSA levels in complex media. • A high data correlation was observed between the biosensor and the ELISA analysis.

  13. In line inspection of multi-diameter and high-pressure pipelines in Brazil using combined technologies: magnetic flux leakage and ultrasonic testing

    Ginten, Markus; Brockhaus, Stephan; Bouaoua, Nourreddine; Klein, Stefan [ROSEN Technology and Research Center, Lingen (Germany); Bruening, Franz [ROSEN Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The simultaneous use of the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method and the ultrasonic testing (UT) method on a single in line inspection (ILI) tool has been identified as a versatile and accurate solution for liquid pipelines. The combination of the two methods is complementary to the restrictions of each other. Also, the overall scope of the inspection is enlarged. General wall thinning and largely corroded areas are accurately and reliably scanned with the UT unit, while very detailed information about pitting corrosion is obtained from the MFL measurement. Blind spots of echo loss, as occasionally observed for the UT channels is compensated by the more robust measurement from the MFL sensors. Consequently, this technology has been the method of choice in an in line inspection project of an onshore long distance pipeline in Brazil, facing a variety of corrosion threats. The pipeline consists of several multi-diameter sections of 18/20 inches and 20/22 inches. Furthermore, the high gravity of product in combination with a height profile, an altitude of 1152 m MSL (Mean Sea Level) had to be crossed, leads to a maximum pressure of 220 bar. These boundary conditions had to be considered during the design of the ILI-tool. The paper discusses the experience made so far with the combined technology MFL and UT. The effective use of the inspection tool for the above mentioned pipeline as well as field results from a previous inspection are described. (author)

  14. On-line testing of nuclear plant temperature and pressure instrumentation and other critical plant equipment. IAEA regional workshop. Working material

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    Under European regional TC project RER/4/011, IAEA and VUJE Training centre organized a workshop on On-line Testing of Nuclear Power Plant Temperature and Pressure Instrumentation and Other Critical Plant Equipment in Trnava, Slovak Republic, from 25 to 29 May 1998. The objective of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in NPP instrumentation, cover typical instrumentation problems and solutions, describe technical and regulatory requirements for verifying the performance of nuclear power plant instrumentation, describe new methods developed and applied in NPPs for on-line verification and performance of instrumentation and present new techniques using existing instrumentation to identify the on-set problems in the plant electrical, mechanical and thermal hydraulic systems. Particular emphasis was placed on temperature measurements by Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) and thermocouples and pressure measurements using motion-balanced and forced-balanced pressure transmitters. This proceedings includes papers presented by the invited speakers and the participants each with an abstract as wells as a summary of the Round-Table discussions Refs, figs, tabs

  15. On-line testing of nuclear plant temperature and pressure instrumentation and other critical plant equipment. IAEA regional workshop. Working material

    1998-01-01

    Under European regional TC project RER/4/011, IAEA and VUJE Training centre organized a workshop on On-line Testing of Nuclear Power Plant Temperature and Pressure Instrumentation and Other Critical Plant Equipment in Trnava, Slovak Republic, from 25 to 29 May 1998. The objective of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in NPP instrumentation, cover typical instrumentation problems and solutions, describe technical and regulatory requirements for verifying the performance of nuclear power plant instrumentation, describe new methods developed and applied in NPPs for on-line verification and performance of instrumentation and present new techniques using existing instrumentation to identify the on-set problems in the plant electrical, mechanical and thermal hydraulic systems. Particular emphasis was placed on temperature measurements by Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) and thermocouples and pressure measurements using motion-balanced and forced-balanced pressure transmitters. This proceedings includes papers presented by the invited speakers and the participants each with an abstract as wells as a summary of the Round-Table discussions

  16. Testing the variability of PSA expression by different human prostate cancer cell lines by means of a new potentiometric device employing molecularly antibody assembled on graphene surface

    Rebelo, Tânia S.C.R. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Noronha, João P.; Galésio, Marco; Santos, Hugo; Diniz, Mário [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Sales, M. Goreti F. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Maria H. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Costa-Rodrigues, João, E-mail: jrodrigues@fmd.up.pt [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); ESTSP — Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal)

    2016-02-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is widely used as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Recently, an electrochemical biosensor for PSA detection by means of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed. This work evaluated the performance and the effectiveness of that PSA biosensor in screening the biomarker PSA in biological media with complex composition, collected from different human prostate cell line cultures. For that, the prostate cancer LNCaP and PC3 cells, and the non-cancerous prostate cell line PNT2 were cultured for 2, 7 and 14 days in either α-MEM or RPMI in the presence of 10% or 30% fetal bovine serum. Human gingival fibroblasts were used as a non-cancerous non-prostatic control. The different culture conditions modulated cellular proliferation and the expression of several prostate markers, including PSA. The electrochemical biosensor was able to specifically detect PSA in the culture media and values obtained were similar to those achieved by a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit, the most commonly used method for PSA quantification in prostate cancer diagnosis. Thus, the tested biosensor may represent a useful alternative as a diagnostic tool for PSA determination in biological samples. - Highlights: • PSA quantification was performed in prostate cancer cell culture media. • Culture media composition and culture period significantly affect PSA production. • The PSA biosensor detected a wide range of PSA levels in complex media. • A high data correlation was observed between the biosensor and the ELISA analysis.

  17. An Analysis of Differential Response Patterns on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB in Struggling Adult Readers and Third-Grade Children

    Pae, Hye K.; Greenberg, Daphne; Williams, Rihana S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB (PPVT-IIIB) performance of 130 adults identified as struggling readers, in comparison to 175 third-grade children. Response patterns to the items on the PPVT-IIIB by these two groups were investigated, focusing on items, semantic categories, and lexical features, including word length,…

  18. Effects of the Maximum Luminance in a Medical-grade Liquid-crystal Display on the Recognition Time of a Test Pattern: Observer Performance Using Landolt Rings.

    Doi, Yasuhiro; Matsuyama, Michinobu; Ikeda, Ryuji; Hashida, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to measure the recognition time of the test pattern and to investigate the effects of the maximum luminance in a medical-grade liquid-crystal display (LCD) on the recognition time. Landolt rings as signals of the test pattern were used with four random orientations, one on each of the eight gray-scale steps. Ten observers input the orientation of the gap on the Landolt rings using cursor keys on the keyboard. The recognition times were automatically measured from the display of the test pattern on the medical-grade LCD to the input of the orientation of the gap in the Landolt rings. The maximum luminance in this study was set to one of four values (100, 170, 250, and 400 cd/m(2)), for which the corresponding recognition times were measured. As a result, the average recognition times for each observer with maximum luminances of 100, 170, 250, and 400 cd/m(2) were found to be 3.96 to 7.12 s, 3.72 to 6.35 s, 3.53 to 5.97 s, and 3.37 to 5.98 s, respectively. The results indicate that the observer's recognition time is directly proportional to the luminance of the medical-grade LCD. Therefore, it is evident that the maximum luminance of the medical-grade LCD affects the test pattern recognition time.

  19. Genomic structure and expression pattern of MHC IIα and IIβ genes reveal an unusual immune trait in lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus.

    Luo, Wei; Wang, Xin; Qu, Hongyue; Qin, Geng; Zhang, Huixian; Lin, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are crucial in the adaptive immune system, and the gene duplication of MHC in animals can generally result in immune flexibility. In this study, we found that the lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) has only one gene copy number (GCN) of MHC IIα and IIβ, which is different from that in other teleosts. Together with the lack of spleen and gut-associated lymphatic tissue (GALT), the seahorse may be referred to as having a partial but natural "immunodeficiency". Highly variable amino acid residues were found in the IIα and IIβ domains, especially in the α1 and β1 domains with 9.62% and 8.43% allelic variation, respectively. Site models revealed seven and ten positively selected positions in the α1 and β1 domains, respectively. Real-time PCR experiments showed high expression levels of the MHC II genes in intestine (In), gill (Gi) and trunk kidney (TK) and medium in muscle (Mu) and brood pouch (BP), and the expression levels were significantly up-regulated after bacterial infection. Specially, relative higher expression level of both MHC IIα and IIβ was found in Mu and BP when compared with other fish species, in which MHC II is expressed negligibly in Mu. These results indicate that apart from TK, Gi and In, MU and BP play an important role in the immune response against pathogens in the seahorse. In conclusion, high allelic variation and strong positive selection in PBR and relative higher expression in MU and BP are speculated to partly compensate for the immunodeficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of the Thessaly test, standardised clinical history and other clinical examination tests (Apley's, McMurray's and joint line tenderness) for meniscal tears in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis.

    Blyth, Mark; Anthony, Iain; Francq, Bernard; Brooksbank, Katriona; Downie, Paul; Powell, Andrew; Jones, Bryn; MacLean, Angus; McConnachie, Alex; Norrie, John

    2015-08-01

    Reliable non-invasive diagnosis of meniscal tears is difficult. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used but is expensive and incidental findings are problematic. There are a number of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of meniscal tears that are simple, cheap and non-invasive. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Thessaly test and to determine if the Thessaly test (alone or in combination with other physical tests) can obviate the need for further investigation by MRI or arthroscopy for patients with a suspected meniscal tear. Single-centre prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Although the study was performed in a secondary care setting, it was designed to replicate the results that would have been achieved in a primary care setting. Two cohorts of patients were recruited: patients with knee pathology (n = 292) and a control cohort with no knee pathology (n = 75). Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of the Thessaly test in determining the presence of meniscal tears. Participants were assessed by both a primary care clinician and a musculoskeletal clinician. Both clinicians performed the Thessaly test, McMurray's test, Apley's test, joint line tenderness test and took a standardised clinical history from the patient. The Thessaly test had a sensitivity of 0.66, a specificity of 0.39 and a diagnostic accuracy of 54% when utilised by primary care clinicians. This compared with a sensitivity of 0.62, a specificity of 0.55 and diagnostic accuracy of 59% when used by musculoskeletal clinicians. The diagnostics accuracy of the other tests when used by primary care clinicians was 54% for McMurray's test, 53% for Apley's test, 54% for the joint line tenderness test and 55% for clinical history. For primary care clinicians, age and past history of osteoarthritis were both significant predictors of MRI diagnosis of meniscal tears. For musculoskeletal clinicians age and a positive diagnosis of meniscal tears on clinical history

  1. AssesSeg—A Command Line Tool to Quantify Image Segmentation Quality: A Test Carried Out in Southern Spain from Satellite Imagery

    Antonio Novelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents the capabilities of a command line tool created to assess the quality of segmented digital images. The executable source code, called AssesSeg, was written in Python 2.7 using open source libraries. AssesSeg (University of Almeria, Almeria, Spain; Politecnico di Bari, Bari, Italy implements a modified version of the supervised discrepancy measure named Euclidean Distance 2 (ED2 and was tested on different satellite images (Sentinel-2, Landsat 8, and WorldView-2. The segmentation was applied to plastic covered greenhouse detection in the south of Spain (Almería. AssesSeg outputs were utilized to find the best band combinations for the performed segmentations of the images and showed a clear positive correlation between segmentation accuracy and the quantity of available reference data. This demonstrates the importance of a high number of reference data in supervised segmentation accuracy assessment problems.

  2. Flight Test Evaluation of an Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) Concept for Multiple Beyond-Visual-Line-of-Sight (BVLOS) Operations

    Johnson, Marcus; Jung, Jaewoo; Rios, Joseph; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Prevot, Thomas; Mulfinger, Daniel; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates a traffic management concept designed to enable simultaneous operations of multiple small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace system (NAS). A five-day flight-test activity is described that examined the feasibility of operating multiple UAS beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) of their respective operators in the same airspace. Over the five-day campaign, three groups of five flight crews operated a total of eleven different aircraft. Each group participated in four flight scenarios involving five simultaneous missions. Each vehicle was operated BVLOS up to 1.5 miles from the pilot in command. Findings and recommendations are presented to support the feasibility and safety of routine BVLOS operations for small UAS.

  3. Flight Test Evaluation of an Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) Concept for Multiple Beyond-Visual-Line-of-Sight Operations

    Johnson, Marcus; Jung, Jaewoo; Rios, Joseph; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Prevot, Thomas; Mulfinger, Daniel; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates a traffic management concept designed to enable simultaneous operations of multiple small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace system (NAS). A five-day flight-test activity is described that examined the feasibility of operating multiple UAS beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) of their respective operators in the same airspace. Over the five-day campaign, three groups of five flight crews operated a total of eleven different aircraft. Each group participated in four flight scenarios involving five simultaneous missions. Each vehicle was operated BVLOS up to 1.5 miles from the pilot in command. Findings and recommendations are presented to support the feasibility and safety of routine BVLOS operations for small UAS.

  4. High Intensity Beam Test of Low Z Materials for the Upgrade of SPS-to-LHC Transfer Line Collimators and LHC Injection Absorbers

    Maciariello, Fausto; Butcher, Mark; Calviani, Marco; Folch, Ramon; Kain, Verena; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Lamas Garcia, Inigo; Lechner, Anton; Nuiry, Francois-Xavier; Steele, Genevieve; Uythoven, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) and High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, the collimators in the SPS-to LHC transfer lines will undergo important modifications. The changes to these collimators will allow them to cope with beam brightness and intensity levels much increased with respect to their original design parameters: nominal and ultimate LHC. The necessity for replacement of the current materials will need to be confirmed by a test in the High Radiation to Materials (HRM) facility at CERN. This test will involve low Z materials (such as Graphite and 3-D Carbon/Carbon composite), and will recreate the worst case scenario those materials could see when directly impacted by High luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) or Batch Compression Merging and Splitting (BCMS) beams. Thermo-structural simulations used for the material studies and research, the experiment preparation phase, the experiment itself, pre irradiation analysis (including ultrasound and metrology tests on the target materials), the resul...

  5. L-line x-ray fluorescence of cortical bone lead compared with the CaNa2EDTA test in lead-toxic children: public health implications

    Rosen, J.F.; Markowitz, M.E.; Bijur, P.E.; Jenks, S.T.; Wielopolski, L.; Kalef-Ezra, J.A.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    Mild to moderate lead toxicity (blood lead, 25-55 micrograms/dl) is a preventable pediatric illness affecting several million preschool children (lead-toxic children) in the United States. In-hospital lead-chelation treatment is predicated upon a positive CaNa 2 EDTA test, which is difficult to perform and impractical in large populations. After the development of an L-line x-ray fluorescence technique (LXRF) that measures cortical bone lead content safely, rapidly, and noninvasively, this study was initiated in lead-toxic children to compare LXRF with the CaNa 2 EDTA test. Moreover, LXRF provided the opportunity to quantify bone lead content. From blood lead and LXRF alone, 90% of lead-toxic children were correctly classified as being CaNa 2 EDTA-positive or -negative. In 76% of 59 lead-toxic children, bone lead values measured by LXRF were equal to or greater than those measured in normal and industrially exposed adults. These results indicate that LXRF may be capable of replacing the CaNa 2 EDTA test. When considered with the known neurotoxic effects on children of low levels of exposure to lead, these results also suggest that either an excessively narrow margin of safety or insufficient safety is provided by present U.S. guidelines, which classify an elevated blood lead concentration as 25 micrograms/dl or greater

  6. On-line monitoring of in-vitro oral bioaccessibility tests as front-end to liquid chromatography for determination of chlorogenic acid isomers in dietary supplements.

    Kremr, Daniel; Cocovi-Solberg, David J; Bajerová, Petra; Ventura, Karel; Miró, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    A novel fully automated in-vitro oral dissolution test assay as a front-end to liquid chromatography has been developed and validated for on-line chemical profiling and monitoring of temporal release profiles of three caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) isomers, namely, 3-CQA,4-CQA and 5-CQA, known as chlorogenic acids, in dietary supplements. Tangential-flow filtration is harnessed as a sample processing approach for on-line handling of CQA containing extracts of hard gelatin capsules and introduction of protein-free samples into the liquid chromatograph. Oral bioaccessibility/dissolution test assays were performed at 37.0±0.5°C as per US Pharmacopeia recommendations using pepsin with activity of ca. 749,000 USP units/L in 0.1mol/L HCl as the extraction medium and a paddle apparatus stirred at 50rpm. CQA release rates and steady-state dissolution conditions were determined accurately by fitting the chromatographic datasets, namely, the average cumulative concentrations of bioaccessible pools of every individual isomer monitored during 200min, with temporal resolutions of ≥10min, to a first-order dissolution kinetic model. Distinct solid-to-liquid phase ratios in the mimicry of physiological extraction conditions were assessed. Relative standard deviations for intra-day repeatability and inter-day intermediate precision of 5-CQA within the 5-40µg/mL concentration range were <3.4% and <5.5%, respectively. Trueness of the automatic flow method for determination of 5-CQA released from dietary supplements in gastric fluid surrogate was demonstrated by spike recoveries, spanning from 91.5-104.0%, upon completion of the dissolution process. The proposed hyphenated setup was resorted for evaluating potential differences in dissolution profiles and content of the three most abundant chlorogenic acid isomers in dietary supplements from varied manufacturers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of DNA repair phenotypes of Xeroderma pigmentosum cell lines by a paralleled in vitro test; Phenotypage de la reparation de l'ADN de lignees Xeroderma pigmentosum, par un test in vitro multiparametrique

    Raffin, A.L.

    2009-06-15

    DNA is constantly damaged modifying the genetic information for which it encodes. Several cellular mechanisms as the Base Excision Repair (BER) and the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) allow recovering the right DNA sequence. The Xeroderma pigmentosum is a disease characterised by a deficiency in the NER pathway. The aim of this study was to propose an efficient and fast test for the diagnosis of this disease as an alternative to the currently available UDS test. DNA repair activities of XP cell lines were quantified using in vitro miniaturized and paralleled tests in order to establish DNA repair phenotypes of XPA and XPC deficient cells. The main advantage of the tests used in this study is the simultaneous measurement of excision or excision synthesis (ES) of several lesions by only one cellular extract. We showed on one hand that the relative ES of the different lesions depend strongly on the protein concentration of the nuclear extract tested. Working at high protein concentration allowed discriminating the XP phenotype versus the control one, whereas it was impossible under a certain concentration's threshold. On the other hand, while the UVB irradiation of control cells stimulated their repair activities, this effect was not observed in XP cells. This study brings new information on the XPA and XPC protein roles during BER and NER and underlines the complexity of the regulations of DNA repair processes. (author)

  8. Predictive performance of the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) for lipophilic chemicals with high octanol-water partition coefficients.

    Takenouchi, Osamu; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Saito, Kazutoshi; Ashikaga, Takao; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    To meet the urgent need for a reliable alternative test for predicting skin sensitizing potential of many chemicals, we have developed a cell-based in vitro test, human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT). However, the predictive performance for lipophilic chemicals in the h-CLAT still remains relatively unknown. Moreover, it's suggested that low water solubility of chemicals might induce false negative outcomes. Thus, in this study, we tested relatively low water soluble 37 chemicals with log Kow values above and below 3.5 in the h-CLAT. The small-scale assessment resulted in nine false negative outcomes for chemicals with log Kow values greater than 3.5. We then created a dataset of 143 chemicals by combining the existing dataset of 106 chemicals and examined the predictive performance of the h-CLAT for chemicals with a log Kow of less than 3.5; a total of 112 chemicals from the 143 chemicals in the dataset. The sensitivity and overall accuracy for the 143 chemicals were 83% and 80%, respectively. In contrast, sensitivity and overall accuracy for the 112 chemicals with log Kow values below 3.5 improved to 94% and 88%, respectively. These data suggested that the h-CLAT could successfully detect sensitizers with log Kow values up to 3.5. When chemicals with log Kow values greater than 3.5 that were deemed positive by h-CLAT were included with the 112 chemicals, the sensitivity and accuracy in terms of the resulting applicable 128 chemicals out of the 143 chemicals became 95% and 88%, respectively. The use of log Kow values gave the h-CLAT a higher predictive performance. Our results demonstrated that the h-CLAT could predict sensitizing potential of various chemicals, which contain lipophilic chemicals using a large-scale chemical dataset.

  9. Aplicação dos testes de padrão temporal em crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental persistente Application of temporal pattern tests in children with persistent developmental stuttering

    Rosimeire da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar e comparar o desempenho das crianças com diagnóstico de gagueira nos testes de padrão temporal, com crianças sem queixas e/ou sinais de transtornos psiquiátricos ou neurológicos, dificuldades de fala, audição, linguagem e/ou aprendizagem. MÉTODO: participaram 30 crianças entre 9 e 12 anos de idade, de ambos os gêneros, divididas em dois grupos: GI - 15 crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental persistente; GII - 15 crianças sem queixas e/ou sinais de transtornos psiquiátricos ou neurológicos, dificuldades de fala, audição, linguagem e/ou aprendizagem. Para avaliação do processamento auditivo temporal, foi aplicado os Testes Tonais de Padrão de Frequência (PPS-Pitch Pattern Sequence Test e Testes Tonais de Padrão de Duração (DPS - Duration Pattern Sequence Test. RESULTADOS: o grupo II apresentou desempenho superior no teste de padrão de frequência e de padrão de duração quando comparado ao grupo I. Os resultados indicaram que houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: os participantes do grupo I apresentaram desempenho alterado nos testes de padrão temporal, o que indica que existe relação entre a gagueira e o transtorno do processamento auditivo.PURPOSE: to characterize and compare the performance of children with diagnosis of stuttering under temporal pattern tests with the performance of children without complaints. METHOD: we evaluated 30 children between 9 and 12-year old, both genders, divided in two groups: GI - 15 children with persistent development stuttering; GII - 15 children without complaints and/or signals of psychiatric or neurological upheavals, speech, hearing, language and/or learning difficulties. To evaluate the auditory processing we applied Pitch Pattern Sequence Test (PPS and Duration Pattern Sequence Test (DPS. RESULTS: group II showed a better performance on PPS and DPS tests when compared with group I. The results indicated

  10. In vitro H2O2 stress and patterns of mitochondrial damage in the NCTC 2544 continuous cell line--a morphologic and morphometric study.

    Pugnaloni, A; Giantomassi, F; Armeni, T; Serresi, M; Principato, G; Fazioli, F; Biagini, G

    2004-01-01

    The morpho-functional and energy condition of NCTC 2544 cells exposed for 1 hr to a high concentration of H2O2 (500 microM) was studied at 4 and 24 hr to investigate the short- and medium-term biomolecular mechanisms affecting energetic mitochondrial capability. Morphometric data obtained from ultrastructural investigations clearly showed significant modifications of the different mitochondrial parameters--numerical density (Nv), volume density (Vv) and Vv/Nv ratio, in interkinetic, apoptotic and mitotic cells after H2O2 exposure (from 4 to 24 hr). These results were confirmed by the detection at 24 hr of mitochondrial cytochrome c release in the cytosol, indicating impairment in mitochondrial membrane permeability. Data supporting these observations were obtained from the MTT test which showed reduced cell viability in H2O2 treated cultures at 4 hr and an even greater decrement at 24 hr. In conclusion our data imply that significant cause-effect relationships exist between the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (i.e. 500 microM H2O2) and morpho-structural mitochondrial damage in interkinetic, apoptotic and mitotic cells, respectively. They support previous results present both in the literature and also in one of our earlier papers which show that early nuclear DNA damage could initiate mitochondrial or intrinsic apoptotic pathway after H2O2 exposure.

  11. Consumption, investment and unemployment: SVAR tests of the effects of changes in the consumption-saving pattern

    Roberto Bande-Ramudo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that permanent shifts in the consumption-saving pattern will have permanent effects on investment, with subsequent consequences for the unemployment rate, by estimating a structural vector autoregression model for the Spanish economy. Our results suggest a significant impact of consumption shocks on unemployment through changes in investment.

  12. The effect of PD-L1 testing on the cost-effectiveness and economic impact of immune checkpoint inhibitors for the second-line treatment of NSCLC.

    Aguiar, P N; Perry, L A; Penny-Dimri, J; Babiker, H; Tadokoro, H; de Mello, R A; Lopes, G L

    2017-09-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors improve outcomes compared with chemotherapy in lung cancer. Tumor PD-L1 receptor expression is being studied as a predictive biomarker. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness and economic impact of second-line treatment with nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab with and without the use of PD-L1 testing for patient selection. We developed a decision-analytic model to determine the cost-effectiveness of PD-L1 assessment and second-line immunotherapy versus docetaxel. The model used outcomes data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and drug acquisition costs from the United States. Thereafter, we used epidemiologic data to estimate the economic impact of the treatment. We included four RCTs (2 with nivolumab, 1 with pembrolizumab, and 1 with atezolizumab). The incremental quality-adjusted life year (QALY) for nivolumab was 0.417 among squamous tumors and 0.287 among non-squamous tumors and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were $155 605 and $187 685, respectively. The QALY gain in the base case for atezolizumab was 0.354 and the ICER was $215 802. Compared with treating all patients, the selection of patients by PD-L1 expression improved incremental QALY by up to 183% and decreased the ICER by up to 65%. Pembrolizumab was studied only in patients whose tumors expressed PD-L1. The QALY gain was 0.346 and the ICER was $98 421. Patient selection also reduced the budget impact of immunotherapy. The use of PD-L1 expression as a biomarker increases cost-effectiveness of immunotherapy but also diminishes the number of potential life-years saved. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Preliminary Characterization Tests of Detectors of on-Line Monitor Systems of the Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-Therapy (CNAO

    Abdolkazem Ansarinejad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hadron-therapy is an effective technique used to treat tumors that are located between or nearby vital organs. The Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-therapy (CNAO has been realized as the first facility in Italy to treat very difficult tumors with protons and Carbon ions. The on-line monitor system for CNAO has been developed by the Department of Physics of the University of Torino and Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN. The monitoring system performs the on-line checking of the beam intensity, dimension, and beam position. Materials and Methods The monitor system is based on parallel plate ionization chambers and is composed of five ionization chambers with the anodes fully integrated or segmented in pixels or strips that are placed in two boxes. A series of measurements were performed that involve the background current and the detectors have been characterized by means of a series of preliminary testes in order to verify reproducibility and uniformity of the chambers using an X-ray source. Results The measured background currents for StripX, StripY and Pixel chambers are five orders of magnitude smaller than the nominal treatment current. The reproducibility error of chambers is less than 1%. The analysis of the uniformity showed that the monitor devices have a spread in gain that varies, but only about 2%. Conclusion The reproducibility and the uniformity values are considered as a good result, taking into account that the X-ray energy range is several orders of magnitude smaller than the particle energies used at CNAO.

  14. A Holocene temperature reconstruction from northern New Zealand: a test of North Atlantic Holocene climate patterns as a global template

    van den Bos, Valerie; Rees, Andrew; Newnham, Rewi; Augustinus, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Holocene climate variability has been well defined in the North Atlantic (Walker et al., 2012), but the global extent of this climate change stratigraphy is debatable. If the North Atlantic serves as a global template for Holocene climate, then New Zealand (NZ) is ideally positioned to test this assertion, as it is distal from the northern drivers. Additionally, it is one of the few landmasses in the Southern Hemisphere that is influenced by both sub-tropical and extra-tropical climatic regimes, which may be more important controls in the southern mid-latitudes. Although much work has been done to characterise the Holocene in NZ using pollen, most of these records lack the resolution or sensitivity to determine whether abrupt or short-lived events occurred. The NZ-INTIMATE climate event stratigraphy lacks a type section for the Holocene (Alloway et al., 2007). Records from northern NZ typically show little change, other than a possible early Holocene warming. Here, we present a combined pollen and chironomid temperature reconstruction from Lake Pupuke (northern NZ), the first of its kind in NZ that covers the entire Holocene. By comparing mean annual temperatures reconstructed from fossil pollen and mean summer temperatures inferred from chironomid remains, we can assess changes in seasonality. Mean summer temperature was reconstructed from the chironomid record using a weighted averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS) model (n comp = 2, r2booth = 0.77, RMSEP = 1.4°C) developed from an expanded version of Dieffenbacher-Krall et al. (2007)'s chironomid training set. Preliminary results show evidence for cool summers during the early Holocene as well as around the period of the Little Ice Age as defined in the North Atlantic region. These and other climate patterns determined from the Pupuke chironomid and pollen records will be compared with other evidence from northern New Zealand and with the North Atlantic record of Holocene climate variability. References

  15. Factored Facade Acquisition using Symmetric Line Arrangements

    Ceylan, Duygu

    2012-05-01

    We introduce a novel framework for image-based 3D reconstruction of urban buildings based on symmetry priors. Starting from image-level edges, we generate a sparse and approximate set of consistent 3D lines. These lines are then used to simultaneously detect symmetric line arrangements while refining the estimated 3D model. Operating both on 2D image data and intermediate 3D feature representations, we perform iterative feature consolidation and effective outlier pruning, thus eliminating reconstruction artifacts arising from ambiguous or wrong stereo matches. We exploit non-local coherence of symmetric elements to generate precise model reconstructions, even in the presence of a significant amount of outlier image-edges arising from reflections, shadows, outlier objects, etc. We evaluate our algorithm on several challenging test scenarios, both synthetic and real. Beyond reconstruction, the extracted symmetry patterns are useful towards interactive and intuitive model manipulations.

  16. Patterns and predictors of repeat fecal immunochemical and occult blood test screening in four large health care systems in the United States.

    Singal, Amit G; Corley, Douglas A; Kamineni, Aruna; Garcia, Michael; Zheng, Yingye; Doria-Rose, Paul V; Quinn, Virginia P; Jensen, Christopher D; Chubak, Jessica; Tiro, Jasmin; Doubeni, Chyke A; Ghai, Nirupa R; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Wernli, Karen; Halm, Ethan A

    2018-02-27

    Effectiveness of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening depends on annual testing, but little is known about patterns of repeat stool-based screening within different settings. Our study's objective was to characterize screening patterns and identify factors associated with repeat screening among patients who completed an index guaiac FOBT (gFOBT) or fecal immunochemical test (FIT). We performed a multi-center retrospective cohort study among people who completed a FOBT between January 2010 and December 2011 to characterize repeat screening patterns over the subsequent 3 years. We studied at 4 large health care delivery systems in the United States. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with repeat screening patterns. We included individuals aged 50-71 years who completed an index FOBT and had at least 3 years of follow-up. We excluded people with a history of CRC, colonoscopy within 10 years or flexible sigmoidoscopy within 5 years before the index test, or positive index stool test. Consistent screening was defined as repeat FOBT within every 15 months and inconsistent screening as repeat testing at least once during follow-up but less than consistent screening. Among 959,857 eligible patients who completed an index FIT or gFOBT, 344,103 had three years of follow-up and met inclusion criteria. Of these, 46.6% had consistent screening, 43.4% inconsistent screening, and 10% had no repeat screening during follow-up. Screening patterns varied substantially across healthcare systems, with consistent screening proportions ranging from 1 to 54.3% and no repeat screening proportions ranging from 6.9 to 42.8%. Higher consistent screening proportions were observed in health systems with screening outreach and in-reach programs, whereas the safety-net health system, which uses opportunistic clinic-based screening, had the lowest consistent screening. Consistent screening increased with older age but was less

  17. Simplified clinical prediction scores to target viral load testing in adults with suspected first line treatment failure in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Johan van Griensven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For settings with limited laboratory capacity, 2013 World Health Organization (WHO guidelines recommend targeted HIV-1 viral load (VL testing to identify virological failure. We previously developed and validated a clinical prediction score (CPS for targeted VL testing, relying on clinical, adherence and laboratory data. While outperforming the WHO failure criteria, it required substantial calculation and review of all previous laboratory tests. In response, we developed four simplified, less error-prone and broadly applicable CPS versions that can be done 'on the spot'. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL: Findings From May 2010 to June 2011, we validated the original CPS in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia applying the CPS to adults on first-line treatment >1 year. Virological failure was defined as a single VL >1000 copies/ml. The four CPSs included CPS1 with 'current CD4 count' instead of %-decline-from-peak CD4; CPS2 with hemoglobin measurements removed; CPS3 having 'decrease in CD4 count below baseline value' removed; CPS4 was purely clinical. Score development relied on the Spiegelhalter/Knill-Jones method. Variables independently associated with virological failure with a likelihood ratio ≥ 1.5 or ≤ 0.67 were retained. CPS performance was evaluated based on the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUROC and 95% confidence intervals (CI. The CPSs were validated in an independent dataset. A total of 1490 individuals (56.6% female, median age: 38 years (interquartile range (IQR 33-44; median baseline CD4 count: 94 cells/µL (IQR 28-205, median time on antiretroviral therapy 3.6 years (IQR 2.1-5.1, were included. Forty-five 45 (3.0% individuals had virological failure. CPS1 yielded an AUROC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.62-0.75 in validation, CPS2 an AUROC of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.62-0.74, and CPS3, an AUROC of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.61-0.73. The purely clinical CPS4 performed poorly (AUROC-0.59; 95% CI: 0.53-0.65. CONCLUSIONS: Simplified CPSs retained

  18. An in vitro test to screen skin sensitizers using a stable THP-1-derived IL-8 reporter cell line, THP-G8.

    Takahashi, Toshiya; Kimura, Yutaka; Saito, Rumiko; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2011-12-01

    Several studies have suggested that interleukin (IL)-8 can serve as a biomarker for discrimination of skin sensitizers from nonsensitizers. We established a stable THP-1-derived IL-8 reporter cell line, THP-G8, which harbors SLO and SLR luciferase genes under the control of IL-8 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoters, respectively. After 6 h treatment with chemicals, normalized SLO luciferase activity (nSLO-LA) was calculated by dividing SLO-LA by SLR-LA, and the fold induction of nSLO-LA (FInSLO-LA) was calculated by dividing nSLO-LA of chemically treated cells by that of nontreated cells. The nSLO-LA of THP-G8 cells increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and several sensitizers. The FInSLO-LA in THP-G8 cells induced by LPS or sensitizers positively correlated with their induction of IL-8 messenger RNA in THP-1 cells. The nSLO-LA value of THP-G8 cells was significantly increased (FInSLO-LA ≥ 1.4) by 13 of the 15 sensitizers as well as by 5 of the 7 nonsensitizers. Interestingly, pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine suppressed the increase in FInSLO-LA induced by all sensitizers (inhibition index (II) ≤ 0.8) but did not suppress that induced by most of the nonsensitizers. We then evaluated the performance of this assay using values of FInSLO-LA ≥ 1.4 and II ≤ 0.8 in at least two of three independent experiments as the criteria of a sensitizer, which resulted in test accuracies of 82% for the 22 chemicals used and of 88% for the chemicals proposed by European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods. This newly developed assay is a candidate replacement for animal tests of skin sensitization because of its accuracy, convenience, and high throughput performance.

  19. Tyre-pavement contact stress patterns from the test tyres of the Gautrans heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) MK IV+

    De Beer, Morris

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available premises. A test matrix of five load levels and six inflation pressures was used on both HVS test tyres at creep speed conditions (<6km/hr). The results indicated that at constant inflation pressure the vertical tyre contactpattern (“fingerprint”) is highly...

  20. Theoretical investigations into the influence of the position of a breaking line on the tensile failure of flat, round, bevel-edged tablets using finite element methodology (FEM) and its practical relevance for industrial tablet strength testing.

    Podczeck, Fridrun; Newton, J Michael; Fromme, Paul

    2014-12-30

    Flat, round tablets may have a breaking ("score") line. Pharmacopoeial tablet breaking load tests are diametral in their design, and industrially used breaking load testers often have automatic tablet feeding systems, which position the tablets between the loading platens of the machine with the breaking lines in random orientation to the applied load. The aim of this work was to ascertain the influence of the position of the breaking line in a diametral compression test using finite element methodology (FEM) and to compare the theoretical results with practical findings using commercially produced bevel-edged, scored tablets. Breaking line test positions at an angle of 0°, 22.5°, 45°, 67.5° and 90° relative to the loading plane were studied. FEM results obtained for fully elastic and elasto-plastic tablets were fairly similar, but they highlighted large differences in stress distributions depending on the position of the breaking line. The stress values at failure were predicted to be similar for tablets tested at an angle of 45° or above, whereas at lower test angles the predicted breaking loads were up to three times larger. The stress distributions suggested that not all breaking line angles would result in clean tensile failure. Practical results, however, did not confirm the differences in the predicted breaking loads, but they confirmed differences in the way tablets broke. The results suggest that it is not advisable to convert breaking loads obtained on scored tablets into tablet tensile strength values, and comparisons between different tablets or batches should carefully consider the orientation of the breaking line with respect to the loading plane, as the failure mechanisms appear to vary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.