WorldWideScience

Sample records for line strength indices

  1. Line strengths in WN stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leep, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The author has analyzed high-dispersion spectra of over 100 WN stars in the Galaxy and the Large Magellenic Cloud (LMC). Most of the spectra were obtained through 4-m telescopes (Conti, Leep, and Perry 1981). The measured strengths of the WN classification lines N III lambdalambda4634-41, N IV lambda4057, N V lambda4604 (Smith 1968) for stars on WN subtypes 2.5-8 are shown. The assignments of WN subtypes are based on visual estimates of ratios of line strengths according to the scheme of Smith (1968), except that stars appearing to be earlier than WN3 are classified as WN2 or WN2.5 as explained by van der Hucht et al. (1981) and by Conti, Leep and Perry (1981). (Auth.)

  2. Reactive Strength Index: A Poor Indicator of Reactive Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Robin; Kenny, Ian; Harrison, Drew

    2017-11-28

    The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. Twenty eight national and international level sprinters, consisting of fourteen men and women, participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes performed drop jumps from a 0.3 m box onto a force platform with dependent variables contact time (CT), landing time (TLand), push-off time (TPush), flight time (FT), jump height (JH), reactive strength index (RSI, calculated as JH / CT), reactive strength ratio (RSR, calculated as FT / CT) and vertical leg spring stiffness (Kvert) recorded. Pearson's correlation test found very high to near perfect relationships between RSI and RSR (r = 0.91 to 0.97), with mixed relationships found between RSI, RSR and the key performance variables, (Men: r = -0.86 to -0.71 between RSI/RSR and CT, r = 0.80 to 0.92 between RSI/RSR and JH; Women: r = -0.85 to -0.56 between RSR and CT, r = 0.71 between RSI and JH). This study demonstrates that the method of assessing reactive strength (RSI versus RSR) may be influenced by the performance strategies adopted i.e. whether an athlete achieves their best reactive strength scores via low CTs, high JHs or a combination. Coaches are advised to limit the variability in performance strategies by implementing upper and / or lower CT thresholds to accurately compare performances between individuals.

  3. Handgrip Strength: Indications of Paternal Inheritance in Three European Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cournil, Amandine; Jeune, Bernard; Skytthe, Axel

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Handgrip strength is an indicator of overall muscle strength. Poor handgrip strength is a risk factor for disability and mortality. We aimed to investigate the pattern of inheritance of handgrip strength in a sample of parent-offspring pairs from three different European regions...

  4. Effective collision strengths of quasar ultraviolet emission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.; Wallace, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The best available published collision strengths for excitation of permitted and semiforbidden emission lines of abundant ions observed or expected in quasars have been collected and averaged over Maxwellian velocity distributions. For a few ions for which calculations are not available, extrapolation along isoelectronic sequences or in principal quantum number n was used to estimate values. These collision strengths were used to correct differentially published photoionization models of quasars, and the corrected models compared with published observational data

  5. Catalogue of oscillator strengths for Ti II lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savanov, I.S.; Huovelin, J.; Tuominen, I.

    1990-01-01

    We have revised the published values of oscillator strengths for ionized titanium. The zero point of gf-values has been established using the lifetime measurements of excited states of atoms. The data on the adopted oscillator strengths for 419 Ti II lines are compiled. Using the adopted gf-values and the analysis by Biemont for the titanium in the solar atmosphere determined from the Ti II lines and the HOLMU model, we obtained the abundance log A(Ti) = 4.96 ± 0.05

  6. Nanotechnology strength indicators: international rankings based on US patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Dora; McAleer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Technological strength indicators (TSIs) based on patent statistics for 1975-2000 are used to analyse patenting of nanotechnology in the USA, and to compile international rankings for the top 12 foreign patenting countries (namely Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Taiwan). As the indicators are not directly observable, various proxy variables are used, namely the technological specialization index for national priorities, patent shares for international presence, citation rate for the contribution of patents to knowledge development and rate of assigned patents for potential commercial benefits. The best performing country is France, followed by Japan and Canada. It is shown that expertise and strength in nanotechnology are not evenly distributed among the technologically advanced countries, with the TSIs revealing different emphases in the development of nanotechnology.

  7. Skeletal Geometry and Indices of Bone Strength in Artistic Gymnasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowthwaite, Jodi N.; Scerpella, Tamara A.

    2010-01-01

    This review addresses bone geometry and indices of skeletal strength associated with exposure to gymnastic loading during growth. A brief background characterizes artistic gymnastics as a mechanical loading model and outlines densitometric techniques, skeletal outcomes and challenges in assessment of skeletal adaptation. The literature on bone geometric adaptation to gymnastic loading is sparse and consists of results for disparate skeletal sites, maturity phases, gender compositions and assessment methods, complicating synthesis of an overriding view. Furthermore, most studies assess only females, with little information on males and adults. Nonetheless, gymnastic loading during growth appears to yield significant enlargement of total and cortical bone geometry (+10 to 30%) and elevation of trabecular density (+20%) in the forearm, yielding elevated indices of skeletal strength (+20 to +50%). Other sites exhibit more moderate geometric and densitometric adaptations (5 to 15%). Mode of adaptation appears to be site-specific; some sites demonstrate marked periosteal and endosteal expansion, whereas other sites exhibit negligible or moderate periosteal expansion coupled with endocortical contraction. Further research is necessary to address sex-, maturity- and bone tissue-specific adaptation, as well as maintenance of benefits beyond loading cessation. PMID:19949278

  8. Dielectric strength test to protection elements for live lines works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pinto-Salamanca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and assembly of a system of tests of sustained voltage to elements and equipment used in live line maneuvers through tests on gloves and dielectric rods, as these are the first points of contact to ensure safe operations. It means an advance for the creation of a laboratory certified in this type of tests at Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC Faculty of Duitama, considering that currently there are not laboratories that provide this service in Boyacá and Casanare. Dielectric strength tests were performed on personal protection elements and equipment under the parameters of ASTM D120, ASTM F496, ISO 60903, ASTM-F711 and IEEE 978, developing an assembly for testing gloves and dielectric rods with voltage levels up to 15 kV. The results validate the proposed system to outlook of circuit design and implementation, where tests were performed to establish dielectric capacities, in operating under open circuit conditions, with resistive load or short circuit. The compliance with the regulations established under the test sequences of safety parameters for the system and the follow-up to the tests was verified through the use of a management system for the generation of concepts of approval or rejection of the tested elements.

  9. Photospheric Ca and Mg line-strength variations in G29-38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, Ted von; Thompson, Susan E; Reach, W T; Mullally, F; Kilic, Mukremin; Nitta, Atsuko

    2009-01-01

    Temporal variations in metal-line strengths in H-atmosphere white dwarfs hold the potential to test the timescales of gravitational settling theory. These short timescales, in turn, require that DAZs are currently accreting. Such temporal variations would also indicate that accretion from a circumstellar dust disk can be episodic. We are compiling increasing evidence for time-variable Ca and Mg line-strength variations in the best studied DAZ, G29-38. Our evidence to date supports the gravitational settling timescales of Koester and Wilken (2006) and episodic accretion from G29-38's debris disk. Furthermore, we have detected evidence for time-variable accretion with a timescale = 24 hours, and typical variability of ∼4% during the 100 days of our autumn 2007 monitoring campaign.

  10. Photospheric Ca and Mg line-strength variations in G29-38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippel, Ted von [Physics Department, Siena College, Loudonville, NY (United States); Thompson, Susan E [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Reach, W T [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Mullally, F [Department of Astronomy, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Kilic, Mukremin [Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Nitta, Atsuko, E-mail: tvonhippel@siena.ed, E-mail: sthomp@physics.udel.ed, E-mail: reach@ipac.caltech.ed, E-mail: fergal@astro.princeton.ed, E-mail: kilic@astronomy.ohio-state.ed, E-mail: anitta@gemini.ed [Gemini Observatory, Hilo, HI (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Temporal variations in metal-line strengths in H-atmosphere white dwarfs hold the potential to test the timescales of gravitational settling theory. These short timescales, in turn, require that DAZs are currently accreting. Such temporal variations would also indicate that accretion from a circumstellar dust disk can be episodic. We are compiling increasing evidence for time-variable Ca and Mg line-strength variations in the best studied DAZ, G29-38. Our evidence to date supports the gravitational settling timescales of Koester and Wilken (2006) and episodic accretion from G29-38's debris disk. Furthermore, we have detected evidence for time-variable accretion with a timescale = 24 hours, and typical variability of approx4% during the 100 days of our autumn 2007 monitoring campaign.

  11. Handgrip Strength as a Darwinian Fitness Indicator in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Gallup

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Handgrip strength (HGS is a robust measure of overall muscular strength and function, and has long been predictive of a multitude of health factors and physical outcomes for both men and women. The fact that HGS represents such a ubiquitous measure of health and vitality may reflect the significance of this trait during human evolution. This trait is also highly sexually dimorphic due to influences of androgenic hormones and fat-free body mass, suggesting that it has been further elaborated through sexual selection. Consistent with this view, research within evolutionary psychology and related fields has documented distinct relationships between HGS and measures of social and sexual behavior, especially in men. Here, we review studies across different societies and cultural contexts showing that male HGS predicts measures of aggression and social dominance, perceived formidability, male-typical body morphology and movement, courtship display, physical attractiveness, and sexual behavior and reproductive fitness. These findings underscore the value of including HGS as an independent measure within studies examining human sexual selection, and corroborate existing research suggesting that specific features of physical strength have and continue to be under positive directional selection in men.

  12. Handgrip Strength as a Darwinian Fitness Indicator in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Andrew C; Fink, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    Handgrip strength (HGS) is a robust measure of overall muscular strength and function, and has long been predictive of a multitude of health factors and physical outcomes for both men and women. The fact that HGS represents such a ubiquitous measure of health and vitality may reflect the significance of this trait during human evolution. This trait is also highly sexually dimorphic due to influences of androgenic hormones and fat-free body mass, suggesting that it has been further elaborated through sexual selection. Consistent with this view, research within evolutionary psychology and related fields has documented distinct relationships between HGS and measures of social and sexual behavior, especially in men. Here, we review studies across different societies and cultural contexts showing that male HGS predicts measures of aggression and social dominance, perceived formidability, male-typical body morphology and movement, courtship display, physical attractiveness, and sexual behavior and reproductive fitness. These findings underscore the value of including HGS as an independent measure within studies examining human sexual selection, and corroborate existing research suggesting that specific features of physical strength have and continue to be under positive directional selection in men.

  13. 21 CFR 872.1850 - Lead-lined position indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1850 Lead-lined position indicator. (a... dental x-ray tube and intended to aid in positioning the tube, to prevent the misfocusing of the x-rays by absorbing divergent radiation, and to prevent leakage of radiation. (b) Classification. Class I...

  14. Robustness and discriminatory strength of citation-based journal indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Peter; Christensen, Anette Luther

    AIM: A plethora of journal indicators exists, and are used e.g. in national assessment exercises as part of the basis for university funding. Recent studies report as many as 39 indicators of which the major part are citation based. While studies have shown these citation-based journal indicators...

  15. Neutron source strength determination for on-line reactivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.; Sluijs, A.R. van der

    1988-01-01

    A method is described to determine the effective neutron source strength in a nuclear reactor, which must be known when calculating the time-varying reactivity from inverse reactor kinetics for a reactor at low power. When for an initially subcritical reactor the reactivity is changed and kept constant after the change, the effective source strength can be determined from a linear regression of reactor power to a function proportional to the emission rate of delayed neutrons, which can be calculated from the reactor power history. In view of the relatively strong noise present in the reactor power signal at low power, a grouping method for the regression is preferred over the least-squares method. Experiments with a reactor simulator with known source strength showed good agreement. Application to actual reactor signals gave consistent and satisfactory results.

  16. Cyclotron Lines: From Magnetic Field Strength Estimators to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chandreyee Maitra

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... context can provide, to build a complete picture for the physics of accretion and ... cesses which occur near the NS surface, where the ... CRSF) which is the focal point of discussion in this arti- .... first direct measurement of the magnetic field strength of .... The above model requires a gradient in the magnetic.

  17. Design of block copolymer membranes using segregation strength trend lines

    KAUST Repository

    Sutisna, Burhannudin; Polymeropoulos, Georgios; Musteata, Valentina-Elena; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    composition, polymer molecular weights, casting solution concentration, and evaporation time. We propose here an effective method for designing new block copolymer membranes. The method consists of predetermining a trend line for the preparation of isoporous

  18. Genetic analysis of processed in-line mastitis indicator data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Løvendahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    indicates high risk of mastitis. The EMR values were summarized for each cow using the log-transformed median EMR. A second trait was defined as the median of the log-transformed SCC values from 5 to 305 d in milk. A bivariate animal model was used for estimation of co-variance components for the 2 traits......The aim of this study was to estimate heritability of elevated mastitis risk (EMR), a trait derived from in-line measurements of cell counts expressing risk of mastitis on a continuous scale, and its genetic correlation with in-line somatic cell counts. Log-transformed somatic cell counts (SCC; n...... = 855,181) based on in-line measurements (OCC, DeLaval, Sweden) in automatic milking systems were collected from 2007 to2013 in 7 herds from a total of 1986 first and second parity cows (5 to 305 d in milk). Only data from the lactation with most measurements was used from each cow. A bio-model based...

  19. Argon line broadening by neutral atoms and application to the measurement of oscillator strengths of AI resonance lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, O.; Ranson, P.; Chapelle, J.

    1977-01-01

    AI line broadening was studied from collisions between neutral argon atoms (3p 5 4p-3p 5 4s transitions) in a weakly ionised plasma jet (neutral atoms temperature T 0 approximately 4000K, electrons temperature Tsub(e) approximately 6000K, electronic density Nsub(e) 15 cm -3 , ionisation rate α -4 , and pressure range from 1 to 3 kg/cm 2 ). A satisfactory description of Van der Waals broadened lines is obtained by means of a Lennard-Jones potential. Measurement of line widths whose corresponding transitions occur on resonant levels, gives with relatively good accuracy the oscillator strength of the argon resonance lines [fr

  20. Design of block copolymer membranes using segregation strength trend lines

    KAUST Repository

    Sutisna, Burhannudin

    2016-05-18

    Block copolymer self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation are now being combined to fabricate membranes with narrow pore size distribution and high porosity. The method has the potential to be used with a broad range of tailor-made block copolymers to control functionality and selectivity for specific separations. However, the extension of this process to any new copolymer is challenging and time consuming, due to the complex interplay of influencing parameters, such as solvent composition, polymer molecular weights, casting solution concentration, and evaporation time. We propose here an effective method for designing new block copolymer membranes. The method consists of predetermining a trend line for the preparation of isoporous membranes, obtained by computing solvent properties, interactions and copolymer block sizes for a set of successful systems and using it as a guide to select the preparation conditions for new membranes. We applied the method to membranes based on poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) diblocks and extended it to newly synthesized poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) terpolymers. The trend line method can be generally applied to other new systems and is expected to dramatically shorten the path of isoporous membrane manufacture. The PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO membrane formation was investigated by in situ Grazing Incident Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS), which revealed a hexagonal micelle order with domain spacing clearly correlated to the membrane interpore distances.

  1. Spectro web: oscillator strength measurements of atomic absorption lines in the sun and procyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobel, A

    2008-01-01

    We update the online SpectroWeb database of spectral standard reference stars with 1178 oscillator strength values of atomic absorption lines observed in the optical spectrum of the Sun and Procyon (α CMi A). The updated line oscillator strengths are measured with best fits to the disk-integrated KPNO-FTS spectrum of the Sun observed between 4000 A and 6800 A using state-of-the-art detailed spectral synthesis calculations. A subset of 660 line oscillator strengths is validated with synthetic spectrum calculations of Procyon observed with ESO-UVES between 4700 A and 6800 A. The new log(gf)-values in SpectroWeb are improvements upon the values offered in the online Vienna Atomic Line Database (VALD). We find for neutral iron-group elements, such as Fe I, Ni I, Cr I, and Ti I, a statistically significant over-estimation of the VALD log((gf)-values for weak absorption lines with normalized central line depths below 15 %. For abundant lighter elements (e.g. Mg I and Ca I) this trend is statistically not significantly detectable, with the exception of Si I for which the log(gf)-values of 60 weak and medium-strong lines are substantially decreased to best fit the observed spectra. The newly measured log(gf)-values are available in the SpectroWeb database at http://spectra.freeshell.org, which interactively displays the observed and computed stellar spectra, together with corresponding atomic line data.

  2. Can double-peaked lines indicate merging effects in AGNs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović L.Č.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of merging effects in the central part of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN on the emission spectral line shapes are discussed. We present a model of close binary Broad Line Region. The numerical experiments show that the merging effects can explain double peaked lines. The merging effects may also be present in the center of AGNs, although they emit slightly asymmetric as well as symmetric and relatively stable (in profile shape spectral lines. Depending on the black hole masses and their orbit elements such model may explain some of the line profile shapes observed in AGNs. This work shows that if one is looking for the merging effects in the central region as well as in the wide field structure of AGNs, he should first pay attention to objects which have double peaked lines.

  3. Absorption-line strengths of 18 late-type spiral galaxies observed with SAURON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganda, Katia; Peletier, Reynier F.; McDermid, Richard M.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Sarzi, Marc; van de Ven, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    We present absorption line strength maps for a sample of 18 Sb-Sd galaxies observed using the integral-field spectrograph SAURON operating at the William Herschel Telescope on La Palma, as part of a project devoted to the investigation of the kinematics and stellar populations of late-type spirals,

  4. The SAURON project - VI. Line strength maps of 48 elliptical and lenticular galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Emsellem, Eric; Bacon, R.; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We present absorption line strength maps of 48 representative elliptical and lenticular galaxies obtained as part of a survey of nearby galaxies using our custom-built integral-field spectrograph, SAURON, operating on the William Herschel Telescope. Using high-quality spectra, spatially binned to a

  5. The SAURON project : XVIII. The integrated UV-line-strength relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bureau, Martin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Sohn, Young-Jong; Thomas, Daniel; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) photometry from guest investigator programmes on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite, optical photometry from the MDM Observatory and optical integral-field spectroscopy from SAURON, we explore the UV-line-strength relations of the

  6. Biot's coefficient as an indicator of strength and porosity reduction: Calcareous sediments from Kerguelen Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Borre, Mai Kirstine; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2010-01-01

    β to fall, even when porosity remains constant. Biot's coefficient correlates with strength-indicating properties: compressional and shear modulus, oedometer modulus, yield strength, strain from direct loading and creep strain. Our data indicate that β may be used for predicting the diagenetic...... Biot's coefficient, β. In calcareous ooze, β is one. Mechanical compaction reduces porosity, but only leads to a minor decrease in β. Recrystallization renders particles smoother, but does not lead to reduction in β unless it gives rise to pore stiffening cementation. Pore stiffening cementation causes...

  7. SHEAR STRENGTH IN THE GLUE LINE OF Eucalyptus sp. AND Pinus sp.WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jerásio Bianche

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To evaluate the adhesive efficiency on the union of glued joints in a particular temperature and humidity conditions for a specified time the adhesive must be submitted to specific load tests, such as shear in the glue line. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shear strength in the glue line of Eucalyptus sp and Pinus sp.woods. Five adhesives (castor oil, sodium silicate, modified silicate, , PVA and resorcinol-formaldehyde, three weights (150 g/m2, 200 g/m2, and 250 g/m2 and two species (Eucalyptus sp. and Pinus sp. of wood were used. Twelve specimens were obtained from each repetition per treatment, corresponding to 108 specimens that were conditioned at a temperature of 23 ± 1°C and relative humidity of 50 ± 2%. The interaction between the weight and type of adhesive was significant for the shear strength in the glue line of eucalyptus wood. However, no interaction between the weight and the adhesive was found for pinus, only the isolated from the adhesive effect. Chemical bonds originated in the polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives and castor bi-component conferred upon these adhesives the greatest resistance in the glue line. Castor and resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives showed the highest shear strength values in the line of glue and wood failure. Castor adhesive presented satisfactory performance for bonding of eucalyptus and pine woods.

  8. CALCULATION METHOD OF ELECTRIC POWER LINES MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH BASED ON CYLINDRICAL SPATIAL HARMONICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Erisov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Simplification of accounting ratio to determine the magnetic field strength of electric power lines, and assessment of their environmental safety. Methodology. Description of the transmission lines of the magnetic field by using techniques of spatial harmonic analysis in the cylindrical coordinate system is carried out. Results. For engineering calculations of electric power lines magnetic field with sufficient accuracy describes their first spatial harmonic magnetic field. Originality. Substantial simplification of the definition of the impact of the construction of transmission line poles on the value of its magnetic field and the bands of land alienation sizes. Practical value. The environmentally friendly projection electric power lines on the level of the magnetic field.

  9. A study of the oscillator strengths and line strenghts of Agl and AuI Using the Coulomb approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soltanolkotabi

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available   Single-valence electron atoms are an important class of atoms. Their oscillator strengths are their important properties. Knowing the oscillator strengths one can easity calculate the transition probabilities of the spectral lines and hence the lifetimes of energy levels of most atoms. The oscillator strengths of the spectral lines of most atoms are not knoen with sufficient accuracy due to the experimental difficulties. The results of most measurements are subject to large inaccuracies due to uncertainties in vapor pressure data. A quick and simple theoretical method for calculation of atomic oscillator strength seems to be the Coulomb approximation of Bates and Damagaard. This method reveals some interesting properties that are generally confirmed by experimental results. In this paper, we have studied oscillator strengths and line strengths of the different allowed transitions in AgI and AuI using the Coulomb approximation. The log (λfg curves(λ, f and g are the wavelength of transition, oscillator strength and statistical weight of upper level, respectively versus the reciprocal of the principal quantum number of upper level, 1/n, show a linear behavior only for large values of the principal quantum number of lower level. The effect of change of total angular momentum,Δ J, in the curvature and slope of the plotted curves has been also investigated. The deviation of the curves from straight lines, which indicates failure of the Coulomb approximation is due to the exchange forces. In addition, the n3fg curves   (n , the effective total quantum number of upper level have been plotted versus n for different allowed transitions in AgL and AuI. It has been found that f is proportional to 1/n and this proportionality is linear for large values of n . For some transitions, however, there is a significant deviation from the linear dependence for large values of n , which can be attributed to the signature of total angular momentum quantum

  10. Reviewing the strength of evidence of biodiversity indicators for forest ecosystems in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Tian; Nielsen, Anders Busse; Hedblom, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    .e. the indicated aspect of biodiversity); (2) assess the strength of scientific evidence for individual indicators; and (3) identify a set of indicators with confirmed validity for further scientific testing and inclusion in long-term reporting and decision-making regarding forest biodiversity. Ten indicator...... groups and 83 individual indicators were identified with application from stand scale up to landscape scale in 142 eligible scientific papers. In 62 of the 142 studies no statistical correlations between indicator(s) and indicandum were performed and 42 (out of the 62) did not even present a clear...... indicandum. In the remaining 80 studies, 412 correlations between indicator and indicandum were identified. However, only six correlations were assessed as being supported by strong evidence, i.e. three or more studies found statistical correlation between the indicator and indicandum, and no studies...

  11. Coulomb field strength measurement by electro-optic spectral decoding system at the CALIFES beam line

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, R; Lefevre, T; Gillepsie, WA; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Electro-optic (EO) techniques are increasingly used for longitudinal bunch profile measurements. A bunch profile monitor, based on electro-optic spectral decoding(EOSD), has been developed and demonstrated on the CALIFES beam line at CERN. The EO response is analysed using a frequency domain description, and two methods for extraction of absolute Coulomb field strengths from the electron bunch are demonstrated. Measurements at field strengths up to 1.3 MV/m agree with the expectation based on independent charge measurements.

  12. Biotic indices for assessing the status of coastal waters: a review of strengths and weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Crego, Begoña; Alcoverro, Teresa; Romero, Javier

    2010-05-01

    Biotic indices have become key assessment tools in most recent national and trans-national policies aimed at improving the quality of coastal waters and the integrity of their associated ecosystems. In this study we analyzed 90 published biotic indices, classified them into four types, and analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of each type in relation to the requirements of these policies. We identified three main type-specific weaknesses. First, the problems of applicability, due to practical and conceptual difficulties, which affect most indices related to ecosystem function. Second, the failure of many indices based on structural attributes of the community (e.g. taxonomic composition) to link deterioration with causative stressors, or to provide an early-detection capacity. Third, the poor relevance to the ecological integrity of indices based on attributes at the sub-individual level (e.g. multi-biomarkers). Additionally, most indices still fail on two further aspects: the broad-scale applicability and the definition of reference conditions. Nowadays, the most promising approach seems to be the aggregation of indices with complementary strengths, and obtained from different biological communities.

  13. Polarized Line Formation in Arbitrary Strength Magnetic Fields Angle-averaged and Angle-dependent Partial Frequency Redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru 560 034 (India); Stenflo, J. O., E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in, E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in, E-mail: stenflo@astro.phys.ethz.ch [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere leave their fingerprints in the polarized spectrum of the Sun via the Hanle and Zeeman effects. While the Hanle and Zeeman effects dominate, respectively, in the weak and strong field regimes, both these effects jointly operate in the intermediate field strength regime. Therefore, it is necessary to solve the polarized line transfer equation, including the combined influence of Hanle and Zeeman effects. Furthermore, it is required to take into account the effects of partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in scattering when dealing with strong chromospheric lines with broad damping wings. In this paper, we present a numerical method to solve the problem of polarized PRD line formation in magnetic fields of arbitrary strength and orientation. This numerical method is based on the concept of operator perturbation. For our studies, we consider a two-level atom model without hyperfine structure and lower-level polarization. We compare the PRD idealization of angle-averaged Hanle–Zeeman redistribution matrices with the full treatment of angle-dependent PRD, to indicate when the idealized treatment is inadequate and what kind of polarization effects are specific to angle-dependent PRD. Because the angle-dependent treatment is presently computationally prohibitive when applied to realistic model atmospheres, we present the computed emergent Stokes profiles for a range of magnetic fields, with the assumption of an isothermal one-dimensional medium.

  14. The Importance of Strength and Power on Key Performance Indicators in Elite Youth Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Christopher E; Turner, Anthony N; Bishop, Chris J

    2018-01-24

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the importance of strength and power in relation to key performance indicators (KPI's) within competitive soccer match play. This was achieved through using an experimental approach where fifteen subjects were recruited from a professional soccer club's scholarship squad during the 2013/14 season. Following anthropometric measures, power and strength were assessed across a range of tests which included the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20 metre (m) sprint and arrowhead change of direction test. A predicted 1-repetition maximum (RM) was also obtained for strength by performing a 3RM test for both the back squat and bench press and a total score of athleticism (TSA) was provided by summing z-scores for all fitness tests together, providing one complete score for athleticism. Performance analysis data was collected during 16 matches for the following KPIs: passing, shooting, dribbling, tackling and heading. Alongside this, data concerning player ball involvements (touches) was recorded. Results showed that there was a significant correlation (p soccer performance, particularly when players are required to win duels of a physical nature. There were no other relationships found between the fitness data and the KPI's recorded during match play which may indicate that other aspects of player's development such as technical skill, cognitive function and sensory awareness are more important for soccer-specific performance.

  15. Research of hands' strength and endurance indications of arm sport athletes having different levels of skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Podrigalo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : comparative study of indicators of hands’ strength and endurance at athletes of arm sport of different skill levels. Material : the study involved 50 athletes. Athletes were divided into two groups: 1 - 15 athletes with high skill levels (age 25,25 ± 0,62 years and 2 - 35 athletes and fans of mass categories (age 22,21 ± 0,35 years. Results : it is shown that the results of carpal dynamometry right and left hands were significantly higher in group 1 (respectively: 60,50 ± 0,91 kg and 53,75 ± 0,83 kg against 52,35 ± 0,51 kg and 48 53 ± 0,46 kg. Strength endurance was significantly higher in group 2 (respectively: 32,97 ± 0,61 sec 33,09 ± 0,62 sec against 23,78 ± 0,85 sec and 24,66 ± 0,78 sec. Found that carpal dynamometry has a maximum contribution to the system (in group 1 for the right hand - 18.17, for the left - 23.50, in group 2 - 7.44 and 7.10. Correlation coefficients dynamometry in group 1 were significantly higher. Strength endurance had almost no connection with the study of reliable performance. Conclusions : it is proved that the level of carpal dynamometry is an important informative and adequate criterion. This indicator is characterized by a maximum contribution backbone.

  16. The McLean-Watson line strength formula and its implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, J D

    2009-01-01

    We consider the application of the line strength formula recently derived by Watson (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 L291) to transitions between states of high principal quantum number in hydrogenic atoms and ions (Rydberg-Rydberg transitions). Apparent difficulties in the implementation of this formula are overcome by the use of recurrence relations derived by the ladder operator technique of Infeld and Hull (1951 Rev. Mod. Phys. 23 21), and set out in an earlier paper by the present author (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 2641). The use of the McLean-Watson formula for such cases is illustrated by the determination of the radiative lifetimes for levels with n ∼ 1000 and comparison of present results with approximate formulae. Interest in this work on the radial matrix elements for large n and n' is related both to measurements of radio recombination lines from tenuous space plasmas, e.g. Stepkin et al (2007 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 374 852) and to the calculation of Stark broadening for such spectra, e.g. Gigosos et al (2007 Astron. Astrophys. 466 1189), Stambulchik et al (2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 016401) and Stambulchik and Maron (2008 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41 095703). In addition, we discuss the question of inaccuracy caused by the omission of fine structure in such calculations, and the numerical stability of the recurrence relations used to implement the line strength formulae.

  17. A surface acoustic wave electric field strength meter for environmental studies of HV transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandolfo, M.; Ranghiasci, C.; Verona, E.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in concern over the health and safety aspects of high voltage transmission lines (HVTL). The majority of research has focused on effects directly or indirectly involved with the central nervous system, including physiological, ultrastructural, and biochemical alterations, changes in blood composition, behaviour, reproduction, and development. Several recent epidemiological reports have presented preliminary data suggesting an increase in the incidence of cancer among children and adults exposed to magnetic fields through living close to various types of electrical power lines or devices. With the increase in environmental concerns there has been a concomitant consideration of biological effects and health implications related to presently existing HVTL and those planned in the future. It was concluded that the electric and magnetic field strengths and the electrical discharges are the most important electrophysical factors. Thus, it has been deemed necessary to develop measuring means to determine the field strengths in areas surrounding electric installations, in particular at ground level. In the present paper an electric field meter, based on the use of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line, is presented and the experimental results obtained are discussed

  18. Electron-impact excitation collision strengths and theoretical line intensities for transitions in S III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieve, M. F. R.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Hudson, C. E. [Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Keenan, F. P., E-mail: c.ramsbottom@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    We present Maxwellian-averaged effective collision strengths for the electron-impact excitation of S III over a wide range of electron temperatures of astrophysical importance, log T{sub e} (K) = 3.0-6.0. The calculation incorporates 53 fine-structure levels arising from the six configurations—3s {sup 2}3p {sup 2}, 3s3p {sup 3}, 3s {sup 2}3p3d, 3s {sup 2}3p4s, 3s {sup 2}3p4p, and 3s {sup 2}3p4d—giving rise to 1378 individual lines and is undertaken using the recently developed RMATRX II plus FINE95 suite of codes. A detailed comparison is made with a previous R-matrix calculation and significant differences are found for some transitions. The atomic data are subsequently incorporated into the modeling code CLOUDY to generate line intensities for a range of plasma parameters, with emphasis on allowed ultraviolet extreme-ultraviolet emission lines detected from the Io plasma torus. Electron density-sensitive line ratios are calculated with the present atomic data and compared with those from CHIANTI v7.1, as well as with Io plasma torus spectra obtained by Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer. The present line intensities are found to agree well with the observational results and provide a noticeable improvement on the values predicted by CHIANTI.

  19. Line strength variations in gamma-ray burst GB870303: Possible evidence of neutron star rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, C.; Fenimore, E.E.; Murakami, T.; Yoshida, A.; Lamb, D.Q.; Wang, J.C.L.; Loredo, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    An exhaustive search of the Ginga data on γ-ray burst GB870303 reveals two separate time intervals during which statistically significant line features are evident. One (previously unreported) interval shows a single prominent line feature at ∼20 keV; a second, corresponding to the interval reported by Murakami et al., shows two line features at ∼20 and 40 keV. From model fits to the data, we find that both sets of lines are well-described by cyclotron resonant scattering in a magnetic field B∼1.8x10 12 G, and that the differences in the line strengths between the two intervals are significant. The variations are qualitatively similar to those produced by a change in the viewing angle θ relative the magnetic field. We conjecture that the change in θ is due to rotation of the neutron star, and derive limits 45 sec approx-lt P approx-lt 180 sec on the rotation period P

  20. Non-LTE calculations of Al III line strengths in early-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufton, P.L.; Brown, P.J.F.; Lennon, D.J.; Lynas-Gray, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Non-LTE line formation calculations, based on the 'complete linearization method' are presented for the Al III ion in early-type stars. Equivalent widths, together with the corresponding LTE values, are tabulated for 15 ultraviolet and visible region transitions, for effective temperatures from 20 000 to 35 000 K, logarithmic gravities of 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5, microturbulent velocities of 0 and 5 km s -1 and logarithmic aluminium abundances of 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0. The non-LTE line strengths are significantly larger than the LTE values particularly for the visible region transitions and the implications of this are briefly discussed. (author)

  1. Fibroblast implantation enhances wound healing as indicated by breaking strength determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W W; Goepfert, H; Romsdahl, M; Hersen, J; Withers, R H; Jesse, R H

    1978-09-01

    Irradiation of normal tissues at the dose/time factor employed in the treatment of solid tumors impairs the subsequent healing of surgical wounds made in those tissues. Irreversible radiation damage to regional fibroblasts is one cause of impared healing. This study was conducted to determine whether syngeneic guinea pig fibroblasts is one cause of impared healing. This study was conducted to determine whether syngeneic guinea pig fibroblasts, harvested from tissue culture when injected into irradiated guinea pig skin at the time of wound closure, could improve wound healing. Breaking strength determinations indicate that irradiated wounds demonstrate enhanced wound healing if implanted with fibroblasts.

  2. On the discovery of K I 7699 Å line strength variation during the 1982-1984 eclipse of ε Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, M.

    2017-02-01

    The discovery of K I 7699 Å line strength variations during the 1982-1984 eclipse of ε Aurigae is described. The equivalent widths and radial velocities of the K I 7699 Å line derived from spectra obtained during 1981 November-1983 July with the 2.1 m Otto Struve reflector telescope of the McDonald observatory are presented.

  3. CT-derived indices of canine osteosarcoma-affected antebrachial strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tanya C; Steffey, Michele A; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Daniel, Leticia; Stover, Susan M

    2017-05-01

    To improve the prediction of fractures in dogs with bone tumors of the distal radius by identifying computed tomography (CT) indices that correlate with antebrachial bone strength and fracture location. Prospective experimental study. Dogs with antebrachial osteosarcoma (n = 10), and normal cadaver bones (n=9). Antebrachia were imaged with quantitative CT prior to biomechanical testing to failure. CT indices of structural properties were compared to yield force and maximum force using Pearson correlation tests. Straight beam failure (Fs), axial rigidity, curved beam failure (Fc), and craniocaudal bending moment of inertia (MOICrCd) CT indices most highly correlated (0.77 > R > 0.57) with yield and maximum forces when iOSA-affected and control bones were included in the analysis. Considering only OSA-affected bones, Fs, Fc, and axial rigidity correlated highly (0.85 > R > 0.80) with maximum force. In affected bones, the location of minimum axial rigidity and maximum MOICrCd correlated highly (R > 0.85) with the actual fracture location. CT-derived axial rigidity, Fs, and MOICrCd have strong linear relationships with yield and maximum force. These indices should be further evaluated prospectively in OSA-affected dogs that do, and do not, experience pathologic fracture. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. Effects of aerobic and strength-based training on metabolic health indicators in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Sean P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weakening of the cardiovascular system associated with aging could be countered by increasing levels of physical activity and functional fitness. However, inconsistent findings have been found, and the variety of characteristics of exercise used in previous studies may partly explain that inconsistent results. Objective To investigate the training effect of sixteen weeks of moderate intensity, progressive aerobic and strength-based training on metabolic health of older women and men. Methods Sixty three sedentary individuals (mean (SD age 76 (8 years were randomly assigned to control (n = 31 or exercising (n = 32 groups. The training group was separated to aerobic (n = 18 or strength-based (n = 14. Training took place three times a week. Subjects agreed not to change their diet or lifestyle over the experimental period. Results Exercising group attained after treatment significant differences on body weight, waist circumference, body mass index, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol relationship, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and 6-minute walk distance. The control group only had significant differences on waist circumference. Conclusion The training programs produced significant benefits on metabolic health indicators of sedentary older women and men.

  5. Advanced technologies for manufacturing high strength sour grade UOE line pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Omura, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Minato, Izuru; Yamamoto, Akio [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Kashima, (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    A new kind of high strength pipeline has been manufactured for sour service in offshore pipelines. This paper first presents a review of developments in manufacturing technology to improve sour resistance. This was particularly the case with Grade UOE line pipe. The improvement was achieved by optimizing the continuous casting process, monitoring the shape of inclusions (such as MnS, CaS, Al2O3, CaO-Al2O3) and decreasing coarse precipitates (Nb(C,N), TiN). The study then used the HIC evaluation method to determine hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) resistance of the material and HAZ test for sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance. The evaluation of the NACE TM0284 solution A showed that these pipelines are able to resist severe sour conditions because of good HIC and SSC resistance. Optimizing others components like alloying elements and the ACC process would improve sour resistance in future applications.

  6. Experimental determination of line strengths for selected carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide absorption lines at temperatures between 295 and 1250 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvecz, P.J.; Nichols, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used for the determination of the line strengths of 41 CO and CO 2 absorption lines at temperatures between 295 and 1250 K. The CO vibrational-rotational lines were from the P branch of the fundamental absorption band (2150--1950 cm -1 ) while the CO 2 vibrational-rotational lines were from the far wing of the R branch of the ν 3 fundamental band (2395--2380 cm -1 ). The intensities of the lines were measured from absorption spectra recorded in a high-temperature gas cell containing known concentrations of CO/CO 2 /N 2 gas mixtures at atmospheric pressure. Absorption spectra were recorded through the cell with the use of a moderate-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The absorption spectra were mathematically corrected for distortions resulting from the finite resolution of the spectrometer and for peak overlap. Line strength measurements were made from the corrected peaks by using the Bouguer-Lambert law and assuming a Lorentzian line profile. The experimentally obtained line strengths were evaluated by statistical calculations, by consideration of the validity of the Bouguer-Lambert assumption for these data, by comparison with existing room-temperature and high-temperature data, and by comparison with theoretical calculations. For CO, the statistical analysis suggests that the reported values have an uncertainty of ±10--12%, which is similar to the observed discrepancies with other reported values at room temperature. At high temperatures, the difference between these data and previously reported data and theoretical predictions is less than 10%. For CO 2 , the statistical uncertainty associated with the line strength calculations is less than 5%, which is also the approximate level of agreement with existing room-temperature data

  7. Spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars. I. Optical line strengths and the hydrogen-to-helium ratios in WN type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Leep, E.M.; Perry, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    We begin a series of systematic studies of spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars by examining the optical line strengths of WN stars in the Galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud to see what similarities and differences exist among them. Tables of equivalent widths extracted from spectra are presented and some conclusions are drawn. We have found that there is a wide dispersion, up to a factor of 10 or more, in line strengths for all ions even among stars of the same subtype, with WN 7 stars weaker overall than surrounding types. Type-to-type trends are consistent with changing ionization balance in the stellar wind. Nitrogen line ratios indicate that the WN subtypes represent an ionization sequence, but one with considerable overlap: the classification scheme is not single valued; other physical parameters must play a role. The line strength dispersion does not appear to be primarily due to ionization, or luminosity. The Balmer-Pickering decrement has been used to estimate the H/He ratio for most of the WN stars with available spectra; semiquantitative results are presented. Significant differences in H/He are observed (10 stars may have H/He>2). At a given subclass, the strongest line stars have no detectable H. The abundance of H probably relates to structural differences in the winds that, in part, give rise to a dispersion in observed line strengths. Finally, we have estimated the C/N ratio from the C IV lambda5805/N IV lambda4057 line ratio. In most cases our observations suggest that the C/N ratio is consistent with ''evolved'' models for WN stars. A few stars show strong C IV implying much larger values for C/N, but hydrogen was not detected in them. These stars may be in transition from the WN to WC classes

  8. Exploiting Wireless Received Signal Strength Indicators to Detect Evil-Twin Attacks in Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanyong Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evil-Twin is becoming a common attack in smart home environments where an attacker can set up a fake AP to compromise the security of the connected devices. To identify the fake APs, The current approaches of detecting Evil-Twin attacks all rely on information such as SSIDs, the MAC address of the genuine AP, or network traffic patterns. However, such information can be faked by the attacker, often leading to low detection rates and weak protection. This paper presents a novel Evil-Twin attack detection method based on the received signal strength indicator (RSSI. Our approach considers the RSSI as a fingerprint of APs and uses the fingerprint of the genuine AP to identify fake ones. We provide two schemes to detect a fake AP in two different scenarios where the genuine AP can be located at either a single or multiple locations in the property, by exploiting the multipath effect of the Wi-Fi signal. As a departure from prior work, our approach does not rely on any professional measurement devices. Experimental results show that our approach can successfully detect 90% of the fake APs, at the cost of a one-off, modest connection delay.

  9. Intelligent Security IT System for Detecting Intruders Based on Received Signal Strength Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsick Sung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Given that entropy-based IT technology has been applied in homes, office buildings and elsewhere for IT security systems, diverse kinds of intelligent services are currently provided. In particular, IT security systems have become more robust and varied. However, access control systems still depend on tags held by building entrants. Since tags can be obtained by intruders, an approach to counter the disadvantages of tags is required. For example, it is possible to track the movement of tags in intelligent buildings in order to detect intruders. Therefore, each tag owner can be judged by analyzing the movements of their tags. This paper proposes a security approach based on the received signal strength indicators (RSSIs of beacon-based tags to detect intruders. The normal RSSI patterns of moving entrants are obtained and analyzed. Intruders can be detected when abnormal RSSIs are measured in comparison to normal RSSI patterns. In the experiments, one normal and one abnormal scenario are defined for collecting the RSSIs of a Bluetooth-based beacon in order to validate the proposed method. When the RSSIs of both scenarios are compared to pre-collected RSSIs, the RSSIs of the abnormal scenario are about 61% more different compared to the RSSIs of the normal scenario. Therefore, intruders in buildings can be detected by considering RSSI differences.

  10. INVESTIGATION OF MICROPROCESSOR CURRENT PROTECTION LINES WITH IMPROVED INDICES OF TECHNICAL PERFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Buloichyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Technical perfection improvement of microprocessor current protection of distribution networks lines is provided by introduction of asymmetrical fault mode determination and fault location functions in the algorithm of its functioning. As a result of computing experiment the basic indices of the technical perfection of current protection have been obtained in the paper. The paper proves high efficiency of the proposed methods that ensure selective and proper operation in the different modes of the controlled line.

  11. Epigenomic diversity of colorectal cancer indicated by LINE-1 methylation in a database of 869 tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schernhammer Eva S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation plays a role in genomic instability and carcinogenesis. LINE-1 (L1 retrotransposon constitutes a substantial portion of the human genome, and LINE-1 methylation correlates with global DNA methylation status. LINE-1 hypomethylation in colon cancer has been strongly associated with poor prognosis. However, whether LINE-1 hypomethylators constitute a distinct cancer subtype remains uncertain. Recent evidence for concordant LINE-1 hypomethylation within synchronous colorectal cancer pairs suggests the presence of a non-stochastic mechanism influencing tumor LINE-1 methylation level. Thus, it is of particular interest to examine whether its wide variation can be attributed to clinical, pathologic or molecular features. Design Utilizing a database of 869 colorectal cancers in two prospective cohort studies, we constructed multivariate linear and logistic regression models for LINE-1 methylation (quantified by Pyrosequencing. Variables included age, sex, body mass index, family history of colorectal cancer, smoking status, tumor location, stage, grade, mucinous component, signet ring cells, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, microsatellite instability, expression of TP53 (p53, CDKN1A (p21, CTNNB1 (β-catenin, PTGS2 (cyclooxygenase-2, and FASN, and mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA. Results Tumoral LINE-1 methylation ranged from 23.1 to 90.3 of 0-100 scale (mean 61.4; median 62.3; standard deviation 9.6, and distributed approximately normally except for extreme hypomethylators [LINE-1 methylation Conclusions LINE-1 extreme hypomethylators appear to constitute a previously-unrecognized, distinct subtype of colorectal cancers, which needs to be confirmed by additional studies. Our tumor LINE-1 methylation data indicate enormous epigenomic diversity of individual colorectal cancers.

  12. Microstructure, Composition, and Impact Toughness Across the Fusion Line of High-Strength Bainitic Steel Weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Liangyun; Kong, Xiangwei; Chang, Zhiyuan; Qiu, Chunlin; Zhao, Dewen

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzed the evolution of microstructure, composition, and impact toughness across the fusion line of high-strength bainitic steel weldments with different heat inputs. The main purpose was to develop a convenient method to evaluate the HAZ toughness quickly. The compositions of HAZ were insensitive to higher contents of alloy elements ( e.g., Ni, Mo) in the weld metal because their diffusion distance is very short into the HAZ. The weld metal contained predominantly acicular ferrite at any a heat input, whereas the main microstructures in the HAZ changed from lath martensite/bainite to upper bainite with the increasing heat input. The evolution of HAZ toughness in relation to microstructural changes can be revealed clearly combined with the impact load curve and fracture morphology, although the results of impact tests do not show an obvious change with heat input because the position of Charpy V notch contains the weld metal, HAZ as well as a part of base metal. As a result, based on the bead-on-plate welding tests, the welding parameter affecting the HAZ toughness can be evaluated rapidly.

  13. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhixiong Zhou,1,2 Lu Zheng,3 Dengyun Wei,4 Ming Ye,3 Xun Li2 1School of Physical Education and Coaching Science, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Graduate School, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Kinesiology and Health Education, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Physical Education, Anhui Normal University, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Background: The literature is inconsistent and inconclusive on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and muscular strength in postmenopausal women. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between isokinetically and isometrically determined muscle strength and BMD in postmenopausal women of different age groups. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 293; mean age, 54.22 ± 3.85 years were enrolled in this study. They were grouped by age according to World Health Organization life expectancy: 45–50 years, 51–53 years, 54–56 years, 57–59 years, and 60–64 years. Total BMD, L2–4 BMD, and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry; isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of the right hip and trunk muscles were measured during contractile exercise. Stepwise regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between BMD and strength measures, controlling for subject age and years since menopause. Results: Results of stepwise regression showed that hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 26% total BMD variance among menopausal subjects, 19% L2–4 BMD variance, and 15% femoral neck BMD variance; in postmenopausal women of different age groups, hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 25%–35% total BMD variance. Conclusion: Different optimal strength

  14. The SAURON project - XI. Stellar populations from absorption-line strength maps of 24 early-type spirals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Ganda, Katia; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; van de Ven, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    We present absorption-line strength maps of a sample of 24 representative early-type spiral galaxies, mostly of type Sa, obtained as part of the SAURON (Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae) survey of nearby galaxies using our custom-built integral-field spectrograph. Using

  15. Terahertz spectroscopy applied to the measurement of strengths and self-broadening coefficients for high- J lines of OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matton, S.; Rohart, F.; Bocquet, R.; Mouret, G.; Bigourd, D.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.

    2006-10-01

    A spectrometer operating in the 100-2000 GHz range and allowing for absolute line strength measurements has been developed. The continuous wave terahertz radiation is generated by mixing two Ti:Sapphire laser beams in a vertically integrated low temperature grown GaAs (LTG-GaAs) photomixer. Pure rotational lines of 16O 12C 32S in the ground vibrational state have been considered for J values up to 90. Observed self-broadening parameters are in agreement with those deduced from infrared experiments. For the first time in the submillimeter range, absolute line strengths have been determined, allowing for a determination of the electric dipole moment in good agreement with the value previously obtained from Stark effect measurements.

  16. Strength-based well-being indicators for Indigenous children and families: A literature review of Indigenous communities' identified well-being indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Jennifer; Smith, Addie

    2016-01-01

    Mainstream child and family well-being indicators frequently are based on measuring health, economic, and social deficits, and do not reflect Indigenous holistic and strength-based definitions of health and well-being. The present article is a review of literature that features Indigenous communities' self-identified strength-based indicators of child and family well-being. The literature search included Indigenous communities from across the world, incorporating findings from American Indians and Alaska Natives, First Nations, Native Hawaiians, Māori, Aboriginal Australians, and Sámi communities. Sorting the identified indicators into the quadrants of the Relational Worldview, an Indigenous framework for well-being based on medicine wheel teachings that views health and well-being as a balance among physical, mental, contextual, and spiritual factors, the authors discuss the findings.

  17. Grip Strength as an Indicator of Health-Related Quality of Life in Old Age-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Christina; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2017-11-24

    Over the last century life expectancy has increased dramatically nearly all over the world. This dramatic absolute and relative increase of the old aged people component of the population has influenced not only population structure but also has dramatic implications for the individuals and public health services. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine the impact of physical well-being assessed by hand grip strength and social factors estimated by social contact frequency on health-related quality of life among 22 men and 41 women ranging in age between 60 and 94 years. Physical well-being was estimated by hand grip strength, data concerning subjective wellbeing and health related quality of life were collected by personal interviews based on the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Number of offspring and intergenerational contacts were not related significantly to health-related quality of life, while social contacts with non-relatives and hand grip strength in contrast had a significant positive impact on health related quality of life among old aged men and women. Physical well-being and in particular muscle strength-estimated by grip strength-may increase health-related quality of life and is therefore an important source for well-being during old age. Grip strength may be used as an indicator of health-related quality of life.

  18. The effect of display movement angle, indicator type and display location on control/display stereotype strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S

    2017-08-01

    Much research on stereotype strength relating display and control movements for displays moving in the vertical or horizontal directions has been reported. Here we report effects of display movement angle, where the display moves at angles (relative to the vertical) of between 0° and 180°. The experiment used six different controls, four display locations relative to the operator and three types of indicator. Indicator types were included because of the strong effects of the 'scale-side principle' that are variable with display angle. A directional indicator had higher stereotype strength than a neutral indicator, and showed an apparent reversal in control/display stereotype direction beyond an angle of 90°. However, with a neutral indicator this control reversal was not present. Practitioner Summary: The effects of display moving at angles other than the four cardinal directions, types of control, location of display and types of indicator are investigated. Indicator types (directional and neutral) have an effect on stereotype strength and may cause an apparent control reversal with change of display movement angle.

  19. Clustering analysis of line indices for LAMOST spectra with AstroStat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Xin; Sun, Wei-Min; Yan, Qi

    2018-06-01

    The application of data mining in astronomical surveys, such as the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) survey, provides an effective approach to automatically analyze a large amount of complex survey data. Unsupervised clustering could help astronomers find the associations and outliers in a big data set. In this paper, we employ the k-means method to perform clustering for the line index of LAMOST spectra with the powerful software AstroStat. Implementing the line index approach for analyzing astronomical spectra is an effective way to extract spectral features for low resolution spectra, which can represent the main spectral characteristics of stars. A total of 144 340 line indices for A type stars is analyzed through calculating their intra and inter distances between pairs of stars. For intra distance, we use the definition of Mahalanobis distance to explore the degree of clustering for each class, while for outlier detection, we define a local outlier factor for each spectrum. AstroStat furnishes a set of visualization tools for illustrating the analysis results. Checking the spectra detected as outliers, we find that most of them are problematic data and only a few correspond to rare astronomical objects. We show two examples of these outliers, a spectrum with abnormal continuumand a spectrum with emission lines. Our work demonstrates that line index clustering is a good method for examining data quality and identifying rare objects.

  20. Investigation of Bond Strength in Centrifugal Lining of Babbitt on Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Papa; Jones, Alan

    2010-03-01

    The quality of the bond between Babbitt metal and a cast iron substrate was evaluated for centrifugal casting and static casting using the Chalmers bond strength method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of three different centrifugal casting parameters, the speed of revolution, the pouring rate, and the cooling rate, was investigated. The bond strength and the microstructure at the bond interface were predominantly affected by the cooling rate, with a fast cooling rate resulting in better properties. The speed of revolution and the pouring rate only had a small effect on the bond strength, with faster revolution and faster pouring rate resulting in slightly better bonds.

  1. Retrival experience as an accurate indicator of person identification in line-ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Contreras

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Responses in eyewitness identification of a person in a line-up may be based on two types of recovery experiences, remember and know experiences. Remember responses involve eyewitness identification of the target person as an episodic memory task, because it implies retrieving information about the target person in the place and at the time of the event. Know responses, in contrast, engage recognition based on familiarity or perceptual facilitation, that is, as a semantic memory task. To explore the relation between retrieval experiences and recognition accuracy, 86 participants took part in a recognition task with two conditions: one with an interpolated target absent line-up and the other only with the target present line-up. Accuracy of recognition and retrieval experience was measured. The results showed that, having previously participated in a target-absent line-up, increased omissions, while the number of hits decreased. Furthermore, participants’ know responses were associated to false recognition, whilst remember responses were associated to hits in recognition. Thus, asking eyewitnesses to inform about the kind of retrieval experience in which they based their recognition responses, may serve as a reliable indicator of accuracy in recognition. Future studies are needed to investigate whether this is also the case in natural settings.

  2. Effect of surface treatments on the bond strength of soft denture lining materials to an acrylic resin denture base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Mustafa; Yesil Duymus, Zeynep; Alkurt, Murat

    2014-10-01

    Adhesive failure between acrylic resin and resilient liner material is commonly encountered in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the bond strength of 2 different resilient lining materials to an acrylic resin denture base. Ninety-six dumbbell-shaped specimens were fabricated from heat-polymerized acrylic resin, and 3 mm of the material was cut from the thin midsection. The specimens were divided into 6 groups according to their surface treatments: no surface treatment (control group), 36% phosphoric acid etching (acid group), erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser (laser group), airborne-particle abrasion with 50-μm Al2O3 particles (abrasion group), an acid+laser group, and an abrasion+laser group. The specimens in each group were divided into 2 subgroups according to the resilient lining material used: heat-polymerized silicone based resilient liner (Molloplast B) and autopolymerized silicone-based resilient liner (Ufi Gel P). After all of the specimens had been polymerized, they were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 1 week. A tensile bond strength test was then performed. Data were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA, and the Sidak multiple comparison test was used to identify significant differences (α=.05). The effects of the surface treatments and resilient lining materials on the surface of the denture base resin were examined with scanning electron microscopy. The tensile bond strength was significantly different between Molloplast B and Ufi Gel P (P<.001). The specimens of the acid group had the highest tensile bond strength, whereas those of the abrasion group had the lowest tensile bond strength. The scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the application of surface treatments modified the surface of the denture base resin. Molloplast B exhibited significantly higher bond strength than Ufi Gel P. Altering the surface of the acrylic resin denture base with 36

  3. The Fishery Performance Indicators: A Management Tool for Triple Bottom Line Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James L.; Anderson, Christopher M.; Chu, Jingjie; Meredith, Jennifer; Asche, Frank; Sylvia, Gil; Smith, Martin D.; Anggraeni, Dessy; Arthur, Robert; Guttormsen, Atle; McCluney, Jessica K.; Ward, Tim; Akpalu, Wisdom; Eggert, Håkan; Flores, Jimely; Freeman, Matthew A.; Holland, Daniel S.; Knapp, Gunnar; Kobayashi, Mimako; Larkin, Sherry; MacLauchlin, Kari; Schnier, Kurt; Soboil, Mark; Tveteras, Sigbjorn; Uchida, Hirotsugu; Valderrama, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Pursuit of the triple bottom line of economic, community and ecological sustainability has increased the complexity of fishery management; fisheries assessments require new types of data and analysis to guide science-based policy in addition to traditional biological information and modeling. We introduce the Fishery Performance Indicators (FPIs), a broadly applicable and flexible tool for assessing performance in individual fisheries, and for establishing cross-sectional links between enabling conditions, management strategies and triple bottom line outcomes. Conceptually separating measures of performance, the FPIs use 68 individual outcome metrics—coded on a 1 to 5 scale based on expert assessment to facilitate application to data poor fisheries and sectors—that can be partitioned into sector-based or triple-bottom-line sustainability-based interpretative indicators. Variation among outcomes is explained with 54 similarly structured metrics of inputs, management approaches and enabling conditions. Using 61 initial fishery case studies drawn from industrial and developing countries around the world, we demonstrate the inferential importance of tracking economic and community outcomes, in addition to resource status. PMID:25946194

  4. The effects of resistance training on explosive strength indicators in adolescent basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a lower- and upper-body 10-week in-season resistance training program on explosive strength development in young basketball players. Twenty-five adolescent male athletes, aged 14-15 years old, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n = 15) and a control group (CG; n = 10). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after training for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test, drop jump, and seated medicine ball throw (MBT). The EG showed significant increases (p training program with moderate volume and intensity loads increased vertical jump and MBT performance in adolescent male basketball players. Coaches should know that such a short resistance training program specifically designed for young basketball players induce increased explosivity levels, which are essential to a better basketball performance, with no extra overload on adolescents' skeletal muscle development.

  5. Laboratory methodologies for indicators of iron status: strengths, limitations, and analytical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Looker, Anne C

    2017-12-01

    Biochemical assessment of iron status relies on serum-based indicators, such as serum ferritin (SF), transferrin saturation, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), as well as erythrocyte protoporphyrin. These indicators present challenges for clinical practice and national nutrition surveys, and often iron status interpretation is based on the combination of several indicators. The diagnosis of iron deficiency (ID) through SF concentration, the most commonly used indicator, is complicated by concomitant inflammation. sTfR concentration is an indicator of functional ID that is not an acute-phase reactant, but challenges in its interpretation arise because of the lack of assay standardization, common reference ranges, and common cutoffs. It is unclear which indicators are best suited to assess excess iron status. The value of hepcidin, non-transferrin-bound iron, and reticulocyte indexes is being explored in research settings. Serum-based indicators are generally measured on fully automated clinical analyzers available in most hospitals. Although international reference materials have been available for years, the standardization of immunoassays is complicated by the heterogeneity of antibodies used and the absence of physicochemical reference methods to establish "true" concentrations. From 1988 to 2006, the assessment of iron status in NHANES was based on the multi-indicator ferritin model. However, the model did not indicate the severity of ID and produced categorical estimates. More recently, iron status assessment in NHANES has used the total body iron stores (TBI) model, in which the log ratio of sTfR to SF is assessed. Together, sTfR and SF concentrations cover the full range of iron status. The TBI model better predicts the absence of bone marrow iron than SF concentration alone, and TBI can be analyzed as a continuous variable. Additional consideration of methodologies, interpretation of indicators, and analytic standardization is important for further

  6. Evaluation of Drought response in Some Rice Mutant Lines Using Stress Tolerance Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aminpanah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought is a major problem that limits the adoption of high-yielding rice varieties in drought-prone rainfed rice environments. To improve crop productivity, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of plant responses to drought conditions with the ultimate goal of improving crop performance in the vast areas of the world where rainfall is limiting or unreliable. Safaei Chaeikar et al. (2008 reported that MP, GMP, HM and STI indices, which showed the highest correlation with grain yield under both optimal and stress conditions, can be used as the best indices to introduce drought-tolerant genotypes in rice breeding programs. They also were introduced Nemat, Sepidrood, IR64, IR50 and Bejar genotypes as tolerant varieties. The present study was conducted to determine how drought affects grain yield in rice mutant lines and also to test this hypothesis in order to identify the most suitable indices/genotypes. Materials and Methods A field trial was conducted at Iranian Rice Research Centers in North of Iran, Rasht (latitude 37◦28', longitude 49◦28'E and altitude 7m below the sea level, during the 2014-2015 growing season. The seeds were sown in a nursery on the 10 May and 25 day old seedlings were transplanted to the field. Two separately experiment was carried out under reproductive stage drought stress and controlled conditions based on randomized complete block design with three replications, in four-row plots of three m length. Transplanting was done using 1 seedling per hill; at hill spacing of 25 cm × 25 cm. 18 rice genotypes were consisted 14 M5 mutant lines and their four parental cultivars. Results and Discussion Analysis of variance indicated significant effects of drought stress, genotype and interaction effects of two factors on grain yield, plant height, flag leaf area, tiller number and grain fertility percentage. Drought stress at reproductive stage caused reduction in grain yield (59.47%, grain fertility

  7. Energy levels, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and transition probabilities in Si-like ions of La XLIII, Er LIV, Tm LV, and Yb LVI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhan-Bin, E-mail: chenzb008@qq.com [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); Ma, Kun [School of Information Engineering, Huangshan University, Huangshan 245041 (China); Wang, Hong-Jian [Chongqing Key Laboratory for Design and Control of Manufacturing Equipment, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 40067 (China); Wang, Kai, E-mail: wangkai@hbu.edu.cn [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, The College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Liu, Xiao-Bin [Department of Physics, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741001 (China); Zeng, Jiao-Long [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Detailed calculations using the multi-configuration Dirac–Fock (MCDF) method are carried out for the lowest 64 fine-structure levels of the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2}, 3s{sup 2}3p3d, 3s3p{sup 3}, 3s3p{sup 2}3d, 3s{sup 2}3d{sup 2}, and 3p{sup 4} configurations in Si-like ions of La XLIII, Er LIV, Tm LV, and Yb LVI. Energies, oscillator strengths, wavelengths, line strengths, and radiative electric dipole transition rates are given for all ions. A parallel calculation using the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) method is also carried out to assess the present energy levels accuracy. Comparisons are performed between these two sets of energy levels, as well as with other available results, showing that they are in good agreement with each other within 0.5%. These high accuracy results can be used to the modeling and the interpretation of astrophysical objects and fusion plasmas. - Highlights: • Energy levels and E1 transition rates of Si-like ions are presented. • Breit interaction and Quantum Electrodynamics effects are discussed. • Present results should be useful in the astrophysical application and plasma modeling.

  8. Krohne Flow Indicator and High Flow Alarm - Local Indicator and High Flow Alarm of Helium Flow from the SCHe Purge Lines C and D to the Process Vent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Flow Indicators/alarms FI/FSH-5*52 and -5*72 are located in the process vent lines connected to the 2 psig SCHe purge lines C and D. They monitor the flow from the 2 psig SCHe purge going to the process vent. The switch/alarm is non-safety class GS

  9. Energy Levels and Spectral Lines of Li Atoms in White Dwarf Strength Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. B.

    2018-04-01

    A theoretical approach based on B-splines has been developed to calculate atomic structures and discrete spectra of Li atoms in a strong magnetic field typical of magnetic white dwarf stars. Energy levels are presented for 20 electronic states with the symmetries 20+, 20‑, 2(‑1)+, 2(‑1)‑, and 2(‑2)+. The magnetic field strengths involved range from 0 to 2350 MG. The wavelengths and oscillator strengths for the electric dipole transitions relevant to these magnetized atomic states are reported. The current results are compared to the limited theoretical data in the literature. A good agreement has been found for the lower energy levels, but a significant discrepancy is clearly visible for the higher energy levels. The existing discrepancies of the wavelengths and oscillator strengths are also discussed. Our investigation shows that the spectrum data of magnetized Li atoms previously published are obviously far from meeting requirements of analyzing discrete atomic spectra of magnetic white dwarfs with lithium atmospheres.

  10. On the calculation of line strengths, oscillator strengths and lifetimes for very large principal quantum numbers in hydrogenic atoms and ions by the McLean–Watson formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, J D

    2014-01-01

    As a sequel to an earlier study (Hey 2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 125701), we consider further the application of the line strength formula derived by Watson (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 L291) to transitions arising from states of very high principal quantum number in hydrogenic atoms and ions (Rydberg–Rydberg transitions, n > 1000). It is shown how apparent difficulties associated with the use of recurrence relations, derived (Hey 2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 2641) by the ladder operator technique of Infeld and Hull (1951 Rev. Mod. Phys. 23 21), may be eliminated by a very simple numerical device, whereby this method may readily be applied up to n ≈ 10 000. Beyond this range, programming of the method may entail greater care and complexity. The use of the numerically efficient McLean–Watson formula for such cases is again illustrated by the determination of radiative lifetimes and comparison of present results with those from an asymptotic formula. The question of the influence on the results of the omission or inclusion of fine structure is considered by comparison with calculations based on the standard Condon–Shortley line strength formula. Interest in this work on the radial matrix elements for large n and n′ is related to measurements of radio recombination lines from tenuous space plasmas, e.g. Stepkin et al (2007 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 374 852), Bell et al (2011 Astrophys. Space Sci. 333 377), to the calculation of electron impact broadening parameters for such spectra (Watson 2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 1889) and comparison with other theoretical methods (Peach 2014 Adv. Space Res. in press), to the modelling of physical processes in H II regions (Roshi et al 2012 Astrophys. J. 749 49), and the evaluation bound–bound transitions from states of high n during primordial cosmological recombination (Grin and Hirata 2010 Phys. Rev. D 81 083005, Ali-Haïmoud and Hirata 2010 Phys. Rev. D 82 063521

  11. Relationship Between Selected Strength and Power Assessments to Peak and Average Velocity of the Drive Block in Offensive Line Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Bert H; Conchola, Eric C; Smith, Doug B; Akehi, Kazuma; Glass, Rob G

    2016-08-01

    Jacobson, BH, Conchola, EC, Smith, DB, Akehi, K, and Glass, RG. Relationship between selected strength and power assessments to peak and average velocity of the drive block in offensive line play. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2202-2205, 2016-Typical strength training for football includes the squat and power clean (PC) and routinely measured variables include 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat and 1RM PC along with the vertical jump (VJ) for power. However, little research exists regarding the association between the strength exercises and velocity of an actual on-the-field performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of peak velocity (PV) and average velocity (AV) of the offensive line drive block to 1RM squat, 1RM PC, the VJ, body mass (BM), and body composition. One repetition maximum assessments for the squat and PC were recorded along with VJ height, BM, and percent body fat. These data were correlated with PV and AV while performing the drive block. Peal velocity and AV were assessed using a Tendo Power and Speed Analyzer as the linemen fired, from a 3-point stance into a stationary blocking dummy. Pearson product analysis yielded significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlations between PV and AV and the VJ, the squat, and the PC. A significant inverse association was found for both PV and AV and body fat. These data help to confirm that the typical exercises recommended for American football linemen is positively associated with both PV and AV needed for the drive block effectiveness. It is recommended that these exercises remain the focus of a weight room protocol and that ancillary exercises be built around these exercises. Additionally, efforts to reduce body fat are recommended.

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of fiber strength in upland cotton chromosome introgression lines carrying different Gossypium barbadense chromosomal segments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fang

    Full Text Available Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes, and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes, etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process.

  13. Scientific centres in Europe: An analysis of research strength and patterns of specialisation based on bibliometric indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, C. W.; Schwarz, Annette Winkel

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the first analysis of scientific strength by output (papers in the Science Citation Index 1994-96) produced by authors from the 'greater' urban regions of Europe, Top lists of European centres are indicated, Four agglomerations constitute the European super-league of science......: London, Paris, Moscow and the Dutch urban agglomeration of Amsterdam, the Hague, Rotterdam and Utrecht, The next layer could be named the primary league and comprises 19 large research centres, A third group of 16 cities forms a secondary league of 16 smaller research centres, These upper-level research...

  14. Effect of prestrain on ductility and toughness in high strength line pipe steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Y.; Besson, J. [Paristech, Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris; Madi, Y. [Ecole d' Ingenieurs, Sceaux (France). Ermess EPF; Paristech, Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris

    2009-07-01

    The anisotropic plasticity, ductility and toughness of an X100 steel pipeline was investigated both before and after a series of prestraining experiments. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of prestraining on ductility and toughness in high strength pipe steels. Results of the study showed that primary void growth and coalescence was dependent on initial plastic anisotropy and not dependent on tensile prestrain. Secondary void nucleation and growth was not influenced by either the initial plastic anisotropy or by prestraining. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the main damage mechanism was the void growth of primary dimples. Dimples in the prestrained materials were larger than those observed in materials that had not been prestrained. However, the effect on prestrain on dimple size was limited. Results showed both plastic and rupture anisotropies. It was concluded that prestraining induces a decrease in ductility, but has a significant impact on toughness. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  15. CI+MBPT calculations of Ar I energies, g factors, and transition line strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukov, I. M.

    2018-03-01

    Excited states of noble gas atoms present certain challenges to atomic theory for several reasons: first, relativistic effects are important and LS coupling is not optimal; second, energy intervals can be quite small, leading to strong mixing of states; third, many-body perturbation theory for hole states does not converge well. Previously, some attempts were made to solve this problem, using for example the all-order coupled-cluster approach and particle-hole configuration-interaction many-body perturbation theory (CI-MBPT) with modified denominators. However, while these approaches were promising, the accuracy was still limited. In this paper, we calculate Ar I energies, g factors, and transition amplitudes using ab initio CI-MBPT with eight valence electrons to avoid the problem of slow convergence of MBPT due to strong interaction between 3p and 3s states. We also included in CI many dominant states obtained by double excitations of the ground state configuration. Thus perturbation corrections were needed only for 1s, 2s, 2p core electrons non-included in valence-valence CI, which are quite small. We found that energy, g factors, and electric dipole matrix elements are in reasonable agreement with experiments. It is noteworthy that the theory agreed well with accurately measured g factors. Experimental oscillator strengths have large uncertainty, so in some cases we made a comparison with average values.

  16. Hollow-cathode lamps as optical frequency standards: the influence of optical imaging on the line-strength ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huke, Philipp; Tal-Or, Lev; Sarmiento, Luis Fernando; Reiners, Ansgar

    2016-07-01

    Hollow cathode discharge lamps (HCLs) have been successfully used in recent years as calibration sources of optical astronomical spectrographs. The numerous narrow metal lines have stable wavelengths, which makes them well suited for m/s calibration accuracy of high-resolution spectrographs, while the buffer-gas lines are less stable and less useful. Accordingly, an important property is the metal-to-gas line-strength ratio (Rmetal/gas). Processes inside the lamp cause the light to be emitted from different regions between the cathode and the anode leaing to the emission of different beams with different values of Rmetal/gas. We used commercially- available HCLs to measure and characterize these beams with respect to their spatial distribution, their angle of propagation relative to the optical axis, and their values of Rmetal/gas. We conclude that a good imaging of an HCL into a fiber-fed spectrograph would consist of an aperture close to its front window in order to filter out the parts of the beam with low Rmetal/gas, and of a lens to collimate the important central beam. We show that Rmetal/gas can be further improved with only minor adjustments of the imaging parameters, and that the imaging scheme that yields the highest Rmetal/gas does not necessarily provide the highest flux.

  17. Effective line strengths of trans-nitrous acid near 1275 cm−1 and cis-nitrous acid at 1660 cm−1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.H.; Wood, E.C.; Wormhoudt, J.; Shorter, J.H.; Herndon, S.C.; Zahniser, M.S.; Munger, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    We determined the effective line strengths of the trans conformer of nitrous acid (HONO) near 1275 cm −1 (R-branch of ν 3 mode, N---O---H bend) and of the cis conformer at 1660 cm −1 (R-branch of ν 2 mode, N=O stretch), both at a spectral resolution of 0.001 cm −1 by tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) utilizing continuous-wave quantum cascade (cw-QC) lasers. Absorbance of one conformer was measured while simultaneously quantifying the mixing ratio of total HONO by catalytic conversion to nitric oxide (NO) followed by calibrated absorption spectroscopy. Line strengths obtained here are consistent with previously reported band strengths for the trans conformer but are lower by a factor of approximately 2.4 for the cis conformer. -- Highlights: ► Effective line strengths for the cis-HONO at 1660 cm −1 was quantified. ► Effective line strengths for the trans conformer near 1275 cm −1 was also quantified. ► Results for trans-HONO are in agreement with previously published band strength. ► Previous cis band strength is high by factor of 2.4 due to spectral interference.

  18. Long-term rupture strength as a criterion of operational durability of steam line metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofman, Yu.M.

    2000-01-01

    The method for substantiation of the steam line service life prolongation, depending on the achieved level of the metal vulnerability to damage, is proposed. The methodology for evaluating the metal state is developed on the basis of the durability bond with the level of the vulnerability to damage through micropores and the ferrite dislocation structure state. The main changes in the metal at the 1-3 stages of its creep are presented. The micropores are absent at the 1 stage. the micropores of about 0.1 μm in diameter are identified at the beginning of the 2 stage. The ferrite grains on the transition from the 2 to the 3 creep stage are mainly fragmentary. There takes place further micropores growth on the grain boundaries up to 1 - 3 μm. Significant number of recrystallized volumes in the ferrite is observed at the 3 creep stage. The number of micropores of 1 - 3μm in size sharply increases, and, as a rule, chains of micropores are observed. The pores of 5 μm in size are formed at the pre-destruction stage, the fusion whereof leads to microcracks formation [ru

  19. The mechanical properties and microstructures of vanadium bearing high strength dual phase steels processed with continuous galvanizing line simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu

    For galvanized or galvannealed steels to be commercially successful, they must exhibit several attributes: (i) easy and inexpensive processing in the hot mill, cold mill and on the coating line, (ii) high strength with good formability and spot weldability, and (iii) good corrosion resistance. At the beginning of this thesis, compositions with a common base but containing various additions of V or Nb with or without high N were designed and subjected to Gleeble simulations of different galvanizing(GI), galvannealing(GA) and supercooling processing. The results revealed the phase balance was strongly influenced by the different microalloying additions, while the strengths of each phase were somewhat less affected. Our research revealed that the amount of austenite formed during intercritical annealing can be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature and the pre-annealing conditions of the hot band (coiling temperature) and cold band (% cold reduction). In the late part of this thesis, the base composition was a low carbon steel which would exhibit good spot weldability. To this steel were added two levels of Cr and Mo for strengthening the ferrite and increasing the hardenability of intercritically formed austenite. Also, these steels were produced with and without the addition of vanadium in an effort to further increase the strength. Since earlier studies revealed a relationship between the nature of the starting cold rolled microstructure and the response to CGL processing, the variables of hot band coiling temperature and level of cold reduction prior to annealing were also studied. Finally, in an effort to increase strength and ductility of both the final sheet (general formability) and the sheared edges of cold punched holes (local formability), a new thermal path was developed that replaced the conventional GI ferrite-martensite microstructure with a new ferrite-martensite-tempered martensite and retained austenite microstructure. The new

  20. A novel health indicator for on-line lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yapeng; Huang, Miaohua; Chen, Yupu; Tao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life (RUL) plays an important role in an intelligent battery management system. The capacity and internal resistance are often used as the batteries health indicator (HI) for quantifying degradation and predicting RUL. However, on-line measurement of capacity and internal resistance are hardly realizable due to the not fully charged and discharged condition and the extremely expensive cost, respectively. Therefore, there is a great need to find an optional way to deal with this plight. In this work, a novel HI is extracted from the operating parameters of lithium-ion batteries for degradation modeling and RUL prediction. Moreover, Box-Cox transformation is employed to improve HI performance. Then Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses are utilized to evaluate the similarity between real capacity and the estimated capacity derived from the HI. Next, both simple statistical regression technique and optimized relevance vector machine are employed to predict the RUL based on the presented HI. The correlation analyses and prediction results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed HI for battery degradation modeling and RUL prediction.

  1. Analyzing the Relationship of Strengths to Personality Preferences and Vocational Interests Utilizing Clifton StrengthsFinder, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and Strong Interest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Paulette M.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of vocational psychology, career counselors have constantly searched for, devised, and implemented practices and techniques to best prepare clients for the world of work. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between strengths to personality preference and vocational interests utilizing the Myers-Briggs…

  2. Study of improvement of indices maize line to establish their position in hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana DIRZU-COCOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. crop that is grown on large areas - over 140 million hectares worldwide, and 400-500 thousand ha in Moldova due to production potential broad diversity of use as food for humans, animals, birds raw material for industrial processing. The upward trend in average yields achieved is largely attributed to the improvement of scientific programs. Select the line with the characters and traits that are transmitted hereditary hybrids and contribute to their performance, ensure progress in improvement. Therefore, the process of creating inbred lines associated with combining ability testing as a measure of productivity conferred hybrids, is significant research programs. Orientation purpose of improved maize hybrids to formulas and simple change to a superior capitalization heterosis effect and perfect uniformity of plant requires changes in methodology for the creation, evaluation and classification of inbred lines.

  3. Survey of Cold Water Lines in Protoplanetary Disks : Indications of Systematic Volatile Depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, F.; Bergin, E.A.; Hogerheijde, M.; van Dishoeck, E.F.; Blake, G.; Bruderer, S.; Cleeves, I.; Dominik, C.; Fedele, D.; Lis, D.C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Pearson, J.; Yıldız, U.

    2017-01-01

    We performed very deep searches for 2 ground-state water transitions in 13 protoplanetary disks with the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory, with integration times up to 12 hr per line. We also searched for, with shallower integrations, two other water transitions that sample

  4. Absence or interruption of the supra-acetabular line: a subtle plain film indicator of hip pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, N.M.; Helms, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To show that absence or interruption of the supraacetabular line is a subtle plain film indicator of pathology in the acetabulum. Design. Nineteen hips from 17 patients with known disease processes involving the acetabulum as demonstrated by subsequent magnetic resonance imaging, bone scan or plain film follow-up were evaluated with antero-posterior (AP) plain films of the pelvis. Three additional cases were diagnosed prospectively using interruption of the supra-acetabular line as the criterion for inclusion. Fifty AP plain films of the pelvis in patients without hip pain were examined prospectively to determine normal imaging criteria. Results and conclusions. The normal supra-acetabular line measures 2-3 mm in thickness superiorly and is a thin sclerotic line in the medial aspect. In all 22 hips (with pathology) in this series, the line was interrupted or absent. Loss or interruption of the supra-acetabular line may thus be a subtle pain film indicator of a disease process involving the acetabulum. This plain film sign has not previously been reported. (orig.). With 8 figs., 1 tab

  5. The molecule HLA-G: radiosensitivity indicator of a human melanoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelin, S.C.; Gallegos, C.E.; Dubner, D.L.; Baffa Trasci, S.; Favier, B.; Carosella, E.D.

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and pathological relevance of the HLA-G molecule (non-classical Human Leukocyte Antigen) has been motif of important research studies. Its distribution is restricted to only few tissues. HLA-G takes part in the implantation after in vitro fecundation, in graft tolerance, in auto-immune diseases, and in tumoral immune escape. Its expression has been demonstrated in more than 30% of tumors of 15 different histological types. Gamma radiation modulates HLA-G expression at the cell surface. However, its involvement in tumoral radiosensitivity has not been demonstrated yet. The objective of this work was to demonstrate if the HLA-G molecule intervenes in the radiosensibility of human melanoma cells cultured in vitro. For this purpose we used the human melanoma cell line M8, which was transfected with the plasmid containing the HLA-G gene (M8 HLA-G+) or with the plasmid alone, without the HLA-G gene (M8 pc DNA). Both cell lines were irradiated with 0, 2, 5 y 10 Gy and in all cases survival frequency was determined with the clonogenic assay. We observed a significant reduction in M8 HLA-G+ survival with respect to M8 pc DNA for all irradiation doses and was independent of doses. These results, if confirmed in other histological types, could postulate the HLA-G molecule as a tumoral radiosensitivity marker. The specific mechanism involved in the radiosensibility modification exerted by HLA-G has not been elucidated yet. (authors) [es

  6. IMPACT OF FORMULA-TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON CONCRETE STRENGTH INDICATORS FOR INJECTING WITH TWO-STAGE EXPANSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana N. Zhilnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the study is to clarify the dependence of the cement stone strength on additional porosity that is formed owing both to the cement stone’s development of free deformations and the expansion of the hardening concrete in the second stage as caused by the action of the expanding additive. Method The study is based on the introduction of a sulphoaluminate-type expanding additive in the composition of a binder based on alumina cement, natural gypsum stone and nitrilotrimethylphosphonic acid. Results It is shown that an important role is played in the technology of expanding concrete not only by the degree of expansion of the cement stone, but also by its strength, both during the development of deformations and following stabilisation. Among factors influencing the kinetics of hardening are not only recipe-related (composition and dosage of the additive, mineralogical composition of Portland cement clinker, composition of the concrete, presence of chemical additives, but also technological (fineness of cement grinding, hardening temperature, etc. that makes the management of the processes of structure formation quite complex. The dependence of the strength of cement stone on the additional porosity formed due to the growth of the cement stone own free deformations and expansion of the hardening concrete in the second stage due to the action of the expanding additive is revealed; dependence of the influence of kinetics of the structure formation regulator - nitrilotrimethylphosphonic acid - on the consistency of the development of the intrinsic free expansion deformations and the formation of the strength of the cement stone in the second stage; the dependence of the strength of the cement stone on the additional porosity formed due to gas evolution and expansion of the mixture in the first stage due to the action of the gas-forming additive; the influence of the constraint of expansion on the formation of the

  7. EVALUATION OF QUALITY INDICATORS RELATED TO QUALITY BREAD WHEAT PROMISING LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Munyanyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bread waste is one of the important socio-economic's issues country now, the urgent need is feeling to improve the wheat quality. Therefore, using the methods of farming and breeding is necessary to improve the quality of this strategic product. As a result, tests of quality's traits in wheat promising lines in Isfahan climate took place. In this study, the choice 17 advanced lines of compare the performances,s experiments, an experiment was conducted for two consecutive cropping (2011-2012 at cultural experiment and research centre in Isfahan located in Kabutar Abad region. Randomized complete block designs with 3 replications were compared with Spring variety (for control. Traits including: 1000 grain weight, hectolitre weight, protein content, Zeleny sedimentation rate, bread volume, grain moisture content, grain hardness, water absorption, falling number, percentage of dry gluten, gluten index, sedimentation rates were SDS.The results of the combined analysis of variance qualitative characteristics,s for two consecutive cropping showed that treatments with compare together and control variety had significant influence in 1% probability.Correlation coefficients of two years showed that the compound test significant positive correlation within grain hardness index and protein content, wet gluten and dry deposition rates of SDS. Also, significant positive correlation with the percentage of protein content of dry gluten. In view of the high correlation with protein content of dry gluten (quantity. However, grain hardness and relatively high correlation with SDS sedimentation as an important measure of protein quality. Therefore, the test results of dry gluten grains can be tough to choose in order to improve the quality of wheat bread may be used.

  8. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF STRENGTH INDICES OF BOGIE FRAME TRANSOMS FOR TRAILING CARS OF ELECTRIC TRAINS ER9M, ER9E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Bondarev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article objectives are to identify the factors, which can contribute to the formation of cracks and to develop the measures on improving the strength indices of bogie frame transoms of trailing cars. Methodology. In order to achieve these objectives, in performing the work it was conducted the inspection of the technical condition of supporting structures for bogie frames of trailing cars; measured the Brіnell hardness numbers and estimated the endurance limits of transom material; tested on determination of the levels of efforts and stresses being created in the specified transoms under operation; developed the computational models for the theoretical determination of stress levels in the transom by simulating both normal and abnormal conditions of operating loading. Findings. Based on the analysis of results obtained: the situations with the highest stress levels were found; the measures on improving the strength indices of bogie frame transoms of trailing cars were developed. Originality. Based on the experimental and theoretical studies, the scientific monitoring of works to develop the measures on improving the strength indices of bogie frame transoms of trailing cars was carried out. Practical value. The developed measures on improving the strength indices were passed to professionals of Ukrzaliznytsia to introduce the proposed activities during the repairs of electric trains of specified series.

  9. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  10. Peak lean tissue mass accrual precedes changes in bone strength indices at the proximal femur during the pubertal growth spurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, Stefan A; Faulkner, Robert A; Farthing, Jonathan P; Kontulainen, Saija A; Beck, Thomas J; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G

    2009-06-01

    We examined the timing of the age and the magnitude of peak lean tissue mass accrual (PLTV) relative to the age and magnitude of two variables of bone strength [peak cross sectional area velocity (PCSAV), and peak section modulus velocity, (PZV)] at the proximal femur in males and females during the adolescent growth spurt. We hypothesized that the age of PLTV would precede the ages of PCSAV and PZV and that there is a positive relationship between the magnitude of PLTV and both PCSAV and PZV in both genders. 41 males and 42 females aged 8-18 years were selected from the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (1991-2005). Participants' total body lean tissue mass was assessed annually for 6 consecutive years using DXA. Narrow neck and femoral shaft cross sectional areas (CSA) and section modulus (Z) were determined using the hip structural analysis (HSA) program. Participants were aligned by maturational age (years from peak height velocity). Lean tissue mass, CSA, and Z were converted into whole year velocities and the maturational age of peak tissue velocities was determined using a cubic spline curve fitting procedure. A 2 x 3 (gender x tissue) factorial MANOVA with repeated measures was used to test for differences between age of PLTV and the ages of PCSAV and PZV between genders. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between PLTV and both PCSAV and PZV. There were no sex differences in the ages at which tissue peaks occurred when aligned by maturational age. There were significant differences between the age of PLTV and both PCSAV and PZV at the narrow neck (p=0.001) and femoral shaft (p=0.03), where the age of PLTV preceded both PCSAV and PZV when pooled by gender. PLTV was a significant predictor of the magnitude of both PCSAV and PZV at all sites (ptheory that muscle development is an important factor in affecting bone strength.

  11. Steep Hard-X-ray Spectra Indicate Extremely High Accretion Rates in Weak Emission-Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlar, Andrea; Shemmer, Ohad; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. Niel; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Luo, Bin; Plotkin, Richard; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Wu, Jianfeng

    2018-06-01

    We present XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of ten weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) at 0.928 ≤ z ≤ 3.767, six of which are radio quiet and four which are radio intermediate. The new X-ray data enabled us to measure the hard-X-ray power-law photon index (Γ) in each source with relatively high accuracy. These measurements allowed us to confirm previous reports that WLQs have steeper X-ray spectra, therefore indicating higher accretion rates with respect to "typical" quasars. A comparison between the Γ values of our radio-quiet WLQs and those of a carefully-selected, uniform sample of 84 quasars shows that the first are significantly higher, at the ≥ 3σ level. Collectively, the four radio-intermediate WLQs have lower Γ values with respect to the six radio-quiet WLQs, as may be expected if the spectra of the first group are contaminated by X-ray emission from a jet. These results suggest that, in the absence of significant jet emission along our line of sight, WLQs constitute the extreme high end of the accretion rate distribution in quasars. We detect soft excess emission in our lowest-redshift radio-quiet WLQ, in agreement with previous findings suggesting that the prominence of this feature is associated with a high accretion rate. We have not detected signatures of Compton reflection, Fe Kα lines, or strong variability between two X-ray epochs in any of our WLQs.

  12. A state indicator on regional scale for high-voltage power lines: Defining a priority for in situ inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comelli, M.; Colonna, N.; Martini, L.; Licitra, G.

    2009-01-01

    An integrated system to evaluate the magnetic field generated by power lines exposure has been developed using a specific simulation model (PLEIA-EMF). This is part of a software tool-set, subjected to internal suitability verifications and in-field validations. A state indicator related to each span has been determined using the data extracted from digital cartography, the magnetic field calculated by PLEIA and the number of people living in the nearest buildings. In this way, it is possible to determine eventual criticalities in the considered area, focusing attention on those cases with more considerable exposure levels and involving a higher number of people. A campaign of inspections has been planned using PLEIA simulations. The reliability of stored technical data and the real population exposure levels have been evaluated in critical cases, individuated through the following described methodology. The procedures leading to the indicator determination and the modalities of in situ inspections are here presented. (authors)

  13. DEVELOPING MEASURES TO IMPROVE STRENGTH INDICES OF SUPPORTING STRUCTURES FOR HEAD CARS OF DIESEL TRAINS DR1A ON THE BASIS OF EXPERIMENTAL-AND-THEORETICAL WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Bondarev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective is to determine the stress-strain state of supporting structures of the head car body and the traction transmission unit, which can be created in the operation of emergency situations, and to develop the measures aimed at improving the stress-strain state of these elements. Methodology. In order to achieve this objective, in performing the work an experimental determination of efforts and stress levels in the most loaded elements of supporting structures as well as the traction transmission units was conducted; design models for the theoretical determination of stress and effort levels were developed. Findings. Based on the analysis of the calculation results the best options for the upgrades, which have been put into the basis of proposals aimed at improving the strength indices, were revealed. Originality. Based on the experimental and theoretical studies, scientific monitoring of development works on modernization and improvement of strength indices of supporting structures of head cars of diesel trains DR1A was performed. Practical value. The technical solution to the measures, which are to be carried out beyond the limits of assigned operation lifetime for diesel train of the series specified was developed and transferred to the Ukrzaliznytsia experts to introduce the proposed measures on improving the strength indices.

  14. Gastrocnemius recession leads to medial shift of gait line, impairment of muscle strength and improved dorsal extension in forefoot overload syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Walther, Markus; Hirschmüller, Anja

    2018-01-01

    . A strength power analysis of plantar flexors and a pedobarography was performed. Clinical outcome was measured by Foot Function Index (FFI). RESULTS: Plantarflexors are impaired about 40% six weeks and around 10% 24 weeks following GR compared to the contralateral side. Patients experienced a pain relief...... and an improvement of ankle dorsiflexion from 2° to 15°. An increased contact time of the heel (15%) and a shift of metatarsal plantar pressure from lateral to medial could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that GR leads to pain reduction by an increase in heel contact time and a shift of gait line...

  15. Hydrogen Atom Collision Processes in Cool Stellar Atmospheres: Effects on Spectral Line Strengths and Measured Chemical Abundances in Old Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklem, Paul S

    2012-01-01

    The precise measurement of the chemical composition of stars is a fundamental problem relevant to many areas of astrophysics. State-of-the-art approaches attempt to unite accurate descriptions of microphysics, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) line formation and 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. In this paper I review progress in understanding inelastic collisions of hydrogen atoms with other species and their influence on spectral line formation and derived abundances in stellar atmospheres. These collisions are a major source of uncertainty in non-LTE modelling of spectral lines and abundance determinations, especially for old, metal-poor stars, which are unique tracers of the early evolution of our galaxy. Full quantum scattering calculations of direct excitation processes X(nl) + H ↔ X(n'l') + H and charge transfer processes X(nl) + H ↔ X + + H − have been done for Li, Na and Mg [1,2,3] based on detailed quantum chemical data, e.g. [4]. Rate coefficients have been calculated and applied to non-LTE modelling of spectral lines in stellar atmospheres [5,6,7,8,9]. In all cases we find that charge transfer processes from the first excited S-state are very important, and the processes affect measured abundances for Li, Na and Mg in some stars by as much as 60%. Effects vary with stellar parameters (e.g. temperature, luminosity, metal content) and so these processes are important not only for accurate absolute abundances, but also for relative abundances among dissimilar stars.

  16. Accuracy of the models for the evaluation of strength under non-standard lightning impulse (overvoltages transmitted from overhead lines)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigini, A.; Rizzi, G.; Garbagnati, E.; Porrino, A.; Baldo, G.; Pesavento, G.

    1987-10-01

    Approaches to evaluate the strength of external insulation exposed to lightning overvoltages can be grouped into: physical approaches, which, in their general form, evaluate the time to breakdown for a given applied voltage as the sum of the times necessary for the development of the various phenomena involved in the discharge; integration methods, which consider the time integral of the difference between the applied and fixed voltages. From an analysis of the results of systematic tests conducted on rod plane, rod rod and conductor structure configurations, with clearances from 2 to 4 meters, it was concluded that the integration methods are generally less accurate than the use of physical models, the only approach which takes into account the interaction between test circuit and test object.

  17. Development of high-strength heavy-wall sour-service seamless line pipe for deep water by applying inline heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Y.; Kondo, K.; Hamada, M.; Hisamune, N.; Murao, N.; Murase, T.; Osako, H. [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provided details of a new high-strength heavy-wall sour service seamless line pipe developed for use in deep water applications. Pig iron was processed in a blast furnace and refined. Molten steel was degassed to reduce impurities and poured into a continuous caster with a round mold. Billets were then heated in a walking-beam furnace and then pierced to form a hollow shell. The shell was then rolled to a specific thickness in a compact mandrel mill and rolled to a specified outer diameter by an extracting sizer. A heating furnace was used to improve the uniformity of the pipes. The heated pipes were then moved to a cooling zone, then rotated quickly while a high-pressured jet flow was injected inside the pipe at the same time as a slit laminar flow was applied to the outside of the pipe. Higher strength was achieved by using the high performance quenching device. It was noted that while pipes manufactured using the inline heat treatment process were able to achieve higher strengths, toughness was reduced. Metallurgical tests were conducted to improve the toughness value of the seamless pipe. Both the microstructure and the fracture surface of test specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Results of the tests showed that lowering sulphur (S) and titanium (Ti) content improved the toughness properties of the pipes. It was concluded that control of microalloys is important to secure improved toughness for pipes manufactured using inline heat treatments. 5 tabs., 12 figs.

  18. Milk line as an indicator of the harvesting time of three hybrid seeds of corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Trzeciak dos Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the time for harvesting seeds of three hybrids of corn (Zea mays L. at their best physiological quality and the use of the milk line as an indicator of the physiological seed maturity. Single hybrids CD 1723 and CD 5501 and double hybrid OC 705 seeds were collected for 59 days, every four days, starting 23 days after female flowering. Seed dry weight, moisture content, germination, vigour (cold and accelerated aging tests, black layer formation and seed milk line development were analysed. The harvesting time started 47 days after female flowering with high physiological quality of the seeds identified by a joint analysis of those seven characteristics of them. The milk line at stage 4 proved to be the best indicator of the time to harvest corn seeds for maximum physiological quality, because different stages of milk line development in corn seeds could be easily identified in the filed without any special equipment.O experimento foi conduzido durante o ano agrícola de 1996/97 em área experimental da Cooperativa de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Tecnológico (Coodetec, em Cascavel, Paraná, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da época de colheita de três híbridos de milho (Zea mays L. na qualidade fisiológica das sementes e o uso da linha de solidificação do endosperma como indicativo da maturidade fisiológica das sementes. O plantio foi realizado em 30 de setembro de 1996. Amostras de sementes dos híbridos simples CD 1723 e CD 5501, bem como do híbrido duplo OC 705, foram colhidas em intervalos de quatro dias, durante 59 dias, iniciando-se a colheita no vigésimo terceiro dia após o florescimento feminino. As características avaliadas nas sementes foram o acúmulo de matéria seca, o conteúdo de umidade, a germinação, o vigor (pelos testes de frio e de envelhecimento acelerado, a formação da camada preta e o desenvolvimento da linha de solidificação do endosperma. A colheita dos tr

  19. Can the snowline be used as an indicator of the equilibrium line and mass balance for glaciers in the outer tropics ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rabatel, A.; Bermejo, A.; Loarte, E.; Soruco, A.; Gomez, J.; Leonardini, G.; Vincent, C.; Sicart, Jean-Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Because the glacier snowline is easy to identify on optical satellite images and because in certain conditions it can be used as an indicator of the equilibrium line, it may be a relevant parameter for the study of the relationships between climate and glaciers. Although several studies have shown that the snowline altitude (SLA) at the end of the hydrological year is a good indicator of the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) for mid-latitude glaciers, such a relationship remains conjectural for...

  20. Redox Buffer Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Levie, Robert

    1999-04-01

    The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. The ability of pH buffers to stabilize the pH is indicated by the buffer value b introduced in 1922 by van Slyke. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication we define the redox buffer strength by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.

  1. A method to reduce the number of measured parameters when using isokinetic muscle strength as a clinical indicator in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Theil Skovgaard, Lene; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present a method enabling a reduction of the number of measurements when quantifying isokinetic muscle strength (IMS), and to describe an expression for IMS which is independent of measuring conditions. IMS is a measure of muscle strength used to categorise patients...

  2. Observing and Understanding an On-Line Learning Activity: A Model-Based Approach for Activity Indicator Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouad, Tarek; Mille, Alain

    2018-01-01

    Although learning indicators are now properly studied and published, it is still very difficult to manage them freely within most distance learning platforms. As all activity indicators need to collect and analyze properly traces of the learning activity, we propose to use these traces as a starting point for a platform independent Trace…

  3. Adaptive Spatial Filter Based on Similarity Indices to Preserve the Neural Information on EEG Signals during On-Line Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Delisle-Rodriguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new on-line adaptive filter, which is based on a similarity analysis between standard electrode locations, in order to reduce artifacts and common interferences throughout electroencephalography (EEG signals, but preserving the useful information. Standard deviation and Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC between target electrodes and its correspondent neighbor electrodes are analyzed on sliding windows to select those neighbors that are highly correlated. Afterwards, a model based on CCC is applied to provide higher values of weight to those correlated electrodes with lower similarity to the target electrode. The approach was applied to brain computer-interfaces (BCIs based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA to recognize 40 targets of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP, providing an accuracy (ACC of 86.44 ± 2.81%. In addition, also using this approach, features of low frequency were selected in the pre-processing stage of another BCI to recognize gait planning. In this case, the recognition was significantly ( p < 0.01 improved for most of the subjects ( A C C ≥ 74.79 % , when compared with other BCIs based on Common Spatial Pattern, Filter Bank-Common Spatial Pattern, and Riemannian Geometry.

  4. Evaluation of drought stress tolerance in promising lines of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. using drought resistance indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Shabani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an annual grain legume or “pulse crop” that is 2th legume after soybean in the world and was cultivated in 60 country. Legume, spatially chickpea is the most important tolerant crop in arid and semi-arid country in western of Asia such as Iran. Chickpea can growth in poor soil and undesirable environment conditions. Drought is an important factors that influencing chickpea production and quality. As area of cultivation is in dryland conditions thus aim of researches is reach to tolerant genotypes. The objective of current study was to evaluate the genetic variation and drought resistance advanced genotypes in chickpea Materials and methods For investigation of genetic variation and drought resistance, 64 advanced genotypes were evaluated in a simple latis (LD with two replications under normal and drought stress conditions in deputy of Dryland Agricultural Research Institute of Kermanshah during 2013-2014 cropping season. Plant spacing was as plots with four rows in 4 m in length, 30 cm apart. The seed were sowed in row with 10 cm distance and the seeding rate was 33 seeds per m2 for all plots. At maturity stage after separation of border effects from each plot, grain yield was measured. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS, SPSS and STATISTICA packages. some drought resistance indices such as mean productivity (MP, geometric mean productivity (GMP, harmonic mean (HAM, stress tolerance index (STI, stress susceptibility index (SSI, yield index (YI, K1 and K2 were measured based on yield in both conditions. Also we used stress tolerance score (STS method for selection genotypes according to all indices. Results and discussion Study on correlation between Yp, Ys and drought resistance indices showed that Yp and Ys had positive and significant correlated with MP, GMP, STI, YI, HAM, K1 and K2 thus these indices were the most suitable drought tolerance criteria for screening of chickpea

  5. Monitoring Activity for Recognition of Illness in Experimentally Infected Weaned Piglets Using Received Signal Strength Indication ZigBee-based Wireless Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Tabasum Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we proposed and implemented a disease forecasting system using a received signal strength indication ZigBee-based wireless network with a 3-axis acceleration sensor to detect illness at an early stage by monitoring movement of experimentally infected weaned piglets. Twenty seven piglets were divided into control, Salmonella enteritidis (SE infection, and Escherichia coli (EC infection group, and their movements were monitored for five days using wireless sensor nodes on their backs. Data generated showed the 3-axis movement of piglets (X-axis: left and right direction, Y-axis: anteroposterior direction, and Z-axis: up and down direction at five different time periods. Piglets in both infected groups had lower weight gain and feed intake, as well as higher feed conversion ratios than the control group (p<0.05. Infection with SE and EC resulted in reduced body temperature of the piglets at day 2, 4, and 5 (p<0.05. The early morning X-axis movement did not differ between groups; however, the Y-axis movement was higher in the EC group (day 1 and 2, and the Z-axis movement was higher in the EC (day 1 and SE group (day 4 during different experimental periods (p<0.05. The morning X and Y-axis movement did not differ between treatment groups. However, the Z-axis movement was higher in both infected groups at day 1 and lower at day 4 compared to the control (p<0.05. The midday X-axis movement was significantly lower in both infected groups (day 4 and 5 compared to the control (p<0.05, whereas the Y-axis movement did not differ. The Z-axis movement was highest in the SE group at day 1 and 2 and lower at day 4 and 5 (p<0.05. Evening X-axis movement was highest in the control group throughout the experimental period. During day 1 and 2, the Z-axis movement was higher in both of the infected groups; whereas it was lower in the SE group during day 3 and 4 (p<0.05. During day 1 and 2, the night X-axis movement was lower and the Z

  6. Monitoring the residual life of atomic power station equipment based on the indices of stress-corrosion strength of constructional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, I.A.

    1994-01-01

    The properties of a constructional material determining life are strength, plasticity, and crack resistance. Loss of properties occurs as the result of corrosion, temperature action, actual and residual stresses, and neutron and gamma-radiation. Corrosion leads to a decrease in thickness, loss of density, changes in the composition and structure of the surface layers, and a reduction in strength, plasticity, and crack resistance of constructional materials. The influence of temperature on the loss of properties of materials is revealed as possible phase and structural transformations of the metal and the surface layers and a reduction in the stress-rupture, plastic, and thermal-fatigue properties. The actual and residual stresses not only strengthen the influence of corrosive media but also directly determine the stress-rupture strength and cyclic life. The influence of neutron and gamma-radiation is based o the change in composition of the corrosive medium (radiolysis), radiation embrittlement of the material, and the change in properties of the surface and oxide layers. The authors discuss the concepts and design of automated monitoring systems for determining the fitness of the components of on atomic power plant

  7. STAR CLUSTERS IN M31. IV. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ABSORPTION LINE INDICES IN OLD M31 AND MILKY WAY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Caldwell, Nelson; Morrison, Heather; Harding, Paul; Courteau, Stéphane; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Graves, Genevieve J.

    2012-01-01

    We present absorption line indices measured in the integrated spectra of globular clusters both from the Galaxy and from M31. Our samples include 41 Galactic globular clusters, and more than 300 clusters in M31. The conversion of instrumental equivalent widths into the Lick system is described, and zero-point uncertainties are provided. Comparison of line indices of old M31 clusters and Galactic globular clusters suggests an absence of important differences in chemical composition between the two cluster systems. In particular, CN indices in the spectra of M31 and Galactic clusters are essentially consistent with each other, in disagreement with several previous works. We reanalyze some of the previous data, and conclude that reported CN differences between M31 and Galactic clusters were mostly due to data calibration uncertainties. Our data support the conclusion that the chemical compositions of Milky Way and M31 globular clusters are not substantially different, and that there is no need to resort to enhanced nitrogen abundances to account for the optical spectra of M31 globular clusters.

  8. STAR CLUSTERS IN M31. IV. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ABSORPTION LINE INDICES IN OLD M31 AND MILKY WAY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Gemini Observatory, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Morrison, Heather; Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Courteau, Stephane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); MacArthur, Lauren A. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada/University of Victoria, Victoria, B.C. V9E 2E7 (Canada); Graves, Genevieve J., E-mail: rschiavon@gemini.edu, E-mail: caldwell@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: paul.harding@case.edu, E-mail: heather@vegemite.case.edu, E-mail: courteau@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: Lauren.MacArthur@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: graves@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We present absorption line indices measured in the integrated spectra of globular clusters both from the Galaxy and from M31. Our samples include 41 Galactic globular clusters, and more than 300 clusters in M31. The conversion of instrumental equivalent widths into the Lick system is described, and zero-point uncertainties are provided. Comparison of line indices of old M31 clusters and Galactic globular clusters suggests an absence of important differences in chemical composition between the two cluster systems. In particular, CN indices in the spectra of M31 and Galactic clusters are essentially consistent with each other, in disagreement with several previous works. We reanalyze some of the previous data, and conclude that reported CN differences between M31 and Galactic clusters were mostly due to data calibration uncertainties. Our data support the conclusion that the chemical compositions of Milky Way and M31 globular clusters are not substantially different, and that there is no need to resort to enhanced nitrogen abundances to account for the optical spectra of M31 globular clusters.

  9. EFFECT OF HARDENING TIME ON DEFORMATION-STRENGTH INDICATORS OF CONCRETE FOR INJECTION WITH A TWO-STAGE EXPANSION DURING HARDENING IN WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana N. Zhilnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives Concretes for injection with a two-stage expansion are a kind of selfstressing concrete obtained with the use of self-stressing cement.The aim of the work is to study the influence of the duration of aging on the porosity, strength and self-stress of concrete hardening in water, depending on the expansion value at the first stage. At the first stage, the compacted concrete mixture is expanded to ensure complete filling of the formwork space. At the second stage, the hardening concrete expands due to the formation of an increased amount of ettringite. This process is prolonged in time, with the amount of self-stress and strength dependant on the conditions of hardening. Methods  Experimental evaluation of self-stress, strength and porosity of concretes that are permanently hardened in water, under air-moist and air-dry conditions after different expansion at the first stage. The self-stress of cement stone is the result of superposition of two processes: the hardening of the structure due to hydration of silicates and its expansion as a result of hydration of calcium aluminates with the subsequent formation of ettringite. The magnitude of self-stress is determined by the ratio of these two processes. The self-stress of the cement stone changes in a manner similar to the change in its expansion. The stabilisation of expansion is accompanied by stabilisation of self-stress of cement stone. Results  The relationship of self-stress, strength and porosity of concrete for injection with a two-stage expansion on the duration and humidity conditions of hardening, taking into account the conditions of deformation limitation at the first stage, is revealed. Conclusion During prolonged hardening in an aqueous medium, self-stresses are reduced up to 25% with the exception of expansion at the first stage and up to 20% with an increase in volume up to 5% at the first stage. The increase in compressive strength is up to 28% relative to

  10. The puzzling interpretation of NIR indices: The case of NaI2.21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röck, B.; Vazdekis, A.; La Barbera, F.; Peletier, R. F.; Knapen, J. H.; Allende-Prieto, C.; Aguado, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the Na I line strength index centred in the K band at 22 100 Å (NaI2.21 hereafter) relying on different samples of early-type galaxies. Consistent with previous studies, we find that the observed line strength indices cannot be fit by state-of-the-art scaled-solar

  11. Characteristics of structural loess strength and preliminary framework for joint strength formula

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-jian Li; Jun-ding Liu; Rui Yan; Wen Zheng; Sheng-jun Shao

    2014-01-01

    The strength of structural loess consists of the shear strength and tensile strength. In this study, the stress path, the failure envelope of principal stress (Kf line), and the strength failure envelope of structurally intact loess and remolded loess were analyzed through three kinds of tests: the tensile strength test, the uniaxial compressive strength test, and the conventional triaxial shear strength test. Then, in order to describe the tensile strength and shear strength of structural lo...

  12. A Longitudinal Study into Indicators of Mental Health, Strengths and Difficulties Reported by Boarding Students as They Transition from Primary School to Secondary Boarding Schools in Perth, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, David J.; Lester, Leanne

    2017-01-01

    This study examined indicators of mental health, as well as strengths and difficulties, as reported by same-age boarding and non-boarding students spanning four time points over a 2-year period as they transitioned from primary to boarding school in Western Australia (i.e., at the end of Grade 7, beginning of Grade 8, end of Grade 8, and end of…

  13. Exploring the Strengths and Limits of Strong and Weak Sustainability Indicators: A Case Study of the Assessment of China’s Megacities with EF and GPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspective of strong/weak sustainability has a great impact on sustainability assessment. In this study, two most widely used indices, Ecological Footprint (EF and Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI for strong and weak sustainability assessment, were employed to evaluate the sustainability of China’s ten megacities between 1978 and 2015. The results showed that the ecological footprint had been enlarged in the past twenty years; while the genuine economic welfare started to increase since 2005. The cities of Xi’an, Chengdu, Chongqing, and Shanghai met the threshold of below 2.5 global hectares for EF/capita, and over 3000 dollars/capita (in 2010 US$ for GPI/capita. By analyzing and comparing the characteristics, the processes and results, and the complementary features of evaluation methods of EF and GPI, the research suggested that: (1 Strong and weak sustainability indicators, with their own pros/cons in sustainability assessment, should be used carefully; (2 Weak sustainability indicators could be analyzed from the perspective of strong sustainability; (3 Strong sustainability indicators need to be developed urgently. The results in this study could guide the selection of sustainability indicators, and help interpret the results of sustainability assessment.

  14. Theoretical investigations into the influence of the position of a breaking line on the tensile failure of flat, round, bevel-edged tablets using finite element methodology (FEM) and its practical relevance for industrial tablet strength testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podczeck, Fridrun; Newton, J Michael; Fromme, Paul

    2014-12-30

    Flat, round tablets may have a breaking ("score") line. Pharmacopoeial tablet breaking load tests are diametral in their design, and industrially used breaking load testers often have automatic tablet feeding systems, which position the tablets between the loading platens of the machine with the breaking lines in random orientation to the applied load. The aim of this work was to ascertain the influence of the position of the breaking line in a diametral compression test using finite element methodology (FEM) and to compare the theoretical results with practical findings using commercially produced bevel-edged, scored tablets. Breaking line test positions at an angle of 0°, 22.5°, 45°, 67.5° and 90° relative to the loading plane were studied. FEM results obtained for fully elastic and elasto-plastic tablets were fairly similar, but they highlighted large differences in stress distributions depending on the position of the breaking line. The stress values at failure were predicted to be similar for tablets tested at an angle of 45° or above, whereas at lower test angles the predicted breaking loads were up to three times larger. The stress distributions suggested that not all breaking line angles would result in clean tensile failure. Practical results, however, did not confirm the differences in the predicted breaking loads, but they confirmed differences in the way tablets broke. The results suggest that it is not advisable to convert breaking loads obtained on scored tablets into tablet tensile strength values, and comparisons between different tablets or batches should carefully consider the orientation of the breaking line with respect to the loading plane, as the failure mechanisms appear to vary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Change in indicators of physical development of young footballers with different strength of the nervous system according to the excitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiy Polevoy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The topicality of the research problem is connected with the search for new ways to improve the educational and training process of young footballers that would strengthen or improve the physical development of the athletes involved and enhance the result of competition and gaming activities. The purpose of this article is to get and synthesize data, which were obtained in the course of the study, namely the change in indicators of physical development of football players aged 11-12 who have different typological peculiarities of nervous system properties. The leading approaches to the study of this problem are pedagogical experiment, theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature and methods of mathematical statistics. The research resulted in the change in the indicators of physical development of children at the age of 11-12 years old playing football due to the methodology of differentiated development of 11- and 12-year-old footballers’ coordination abilities with different typological peculiarities of nervous system properties. The article can be useful for updating the content of professional training of football coaches and be used in the educational and training process of football players of different ages and fitness level.

  16. Systemic analysis of different colorectal cancer cell lines and TCGA datasets identified IGF-1R/EGFR-PPAR-CASPASE axis as important indicator for radiotherapy sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhu, Zhe; Gao, Wei; Jiang, Qixin; Yu, Jiangming; Fu, Chuangang

    2017-09-05

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is proved to contribute the development of many types of cancers. But, little is known about its roles in radio-resistance of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we demonstrated that low IGF-1R expression value was associated with the better radiotherapy sensitivity of CRC. Besides, through Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), the elevated expression value of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was observed in CRC cell lines (HT29, RKO) with high radio-sensitivity compared with those with low sensitivity (SW480, LOVO). The irradiation induced apoptosis rates of wild type and EGFR agonist (EGF) or IGF-1R inhibitor (NVP-ADW742) treated HT29 and SW480 cells were quantified by flow cytometry. As a result, the apoptosis rate of EGF and NVP-ADW742 treated HT29 cells was significantly higher than that of those wild type ones, which indicated that high EGFR and low IGF-1R expression level in CRC was associated with the high sensitivity to radiotherapy. We next conducted systemic bioinformatics analysis of genome-wide expression profiles of CRC samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differential expression analysis between IGF-1R and EGFR abnormal CRC samples, i.e. CRC samples with higher IGF-1R and lower EGFR expression levels based on their median expression values, and the rest of CRC samples identified potential genes contribute to radiotherapy sensitivity. Functional enrichment of analysis of those differential expression genes (DEGs) in the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) indicated PPAR signaling pathway as an important pathway for the radio-resistance of CRC. Our study identified the potential biomarkers for the rational selection of radiotherapy for CRC patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of surface markers on the human monocytic leukaemia cell line, THP-1, as indicators for the sensitizing potential of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Susun; Kim, Seoyoung; Huh, Yong; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kim, Han-Kon; Park, Kui-Lea; Eun, Hee Chul

    2009-04-01

    Evaluation of skin sensitization potential is an important part of the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and topical drugs. Recently, evaluation of changes in surface marker expression induced in dendritic cells (DC) or DC surrogate cell lines following exposure to chemicals represents one approach for in vitro test methods. The study aimed to test the change of expression patterns of surface markers on THP-1 cells by chemicals as a predictive in vitro method for contact sensitization. We investigated the expression of CD54, CD86, CD83, CD80, and CD40 after a 1-day exposure to sensitizers (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene; 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene; benzocaine; 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one; hexyl cinnamic aldehyde; eugenol; nickel sulfate hexahydrate; potassium dichromate; cobalt sulfate; 2-mercaptobenzothiazole; and ammonium tetrachloroplatinate) and non-sensitizers (sodium lauryl sulfate, benzalkonium chloride, lactic acid, salicylic acid, isopropanol, and dimethyl sulphoxide). The test concentrations were 0.1x, 0.5x, and 1x of the 50% inhibitory concentration, and the relative fluorescence intensity was used as an expression indicator. By evaluating the expression patterns of CD54, CD86, and CD40, we could classify the chemicals as sensitizers or non-sensitizers, but CD80 and CD83 showed non-specific patterns of expression. These data suggest that the THP-1 cells are good model for screening contact sensitizers and CD40 could be a useful marker complementary to CD54 and CD86.

  18. Indication of the Hanle Effect by Comparing the Scattering Polarization Observed by CLASP in the Ly α and Si iii 120.65 nm Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, R.; Kubo, M.; Kano, R.; Narukage, N.; Bando, T.; Katsukawa, Y.; Giono, G.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Science, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Bueno, J. Trujillo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Uitenbroek, H. [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Tsuneta, S.; Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Goto, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Cirtain, J. [University of Virginia, Department of Astronomy, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Champey, P. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); and others

    2017-05-20

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter is a sounding rocket experiment that has provided the first successful measurement of the linear polarization produced by scattering processes in the hydrogen Ly α line (121.57 nm) radiation of the solar disk. In this paper, we report that the Si iii line at 120.65 nm also shows scattering polarization and we compare the scattering polarization signals observed in the Ly α and Si iii lines in order to search for observational signatures of the Hanle effect. We focus on four selected bright structures and investigate how the U / I spatial variations vary between the Ly α wing, the Ly α core, and the Si iii line as a function of the total unsigned photospheric magnetic flux estimated from Solar Dynamics Observatory /Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager observations. In an internetwork region, the Ly α core shows an antisymmetric spatial variation across the selected bright structure, but it does not show it in other more magnetized regions. In the Si iii line, the spatial variation of U / I deviates from the above-mentioned antisymmetric shape as the total unsigned photospheric magnetic flux increases. A plausible explanation of this difference is the operation of the Hanle effect. We argue that diagnostic techniques based on the scattering polarization observed simultaneously in two spectral lines with very different sensitivities to the Hanle effect, like Ly α and Si iii, are of great potential interest for exploring the magnetism of the upper solar chromosphere and transition region.

  19. Weighted f-values, A-values, and line strengths for the E1 transitions among 3d6, 3d54s, and 3d54p levels of Fe III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, Narayan C.; Hibbert, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Weighted oscillator strengths, weighted radiative rates, and line strengths for all the E1 transitions between 285 fine-structure levels belonging to the 3d 6 , 3d 5 4s, and 3d 5 4p configurations of Fe III are presented, in ascending order of wavelength. Calculations have been undertaken using the general configuration interaction (CI) code CIV3. The large configuration set is constructed by allowing single and double replacements from any of 3d 6 , 3d 5 4s, 3d 5 4p, and 3d 5 4d configurations to nl orbitals with n≤5,l≤3 as well as 6p. Additional selective promotions from 3s and 3p subshells are also included in the CI expansions to incorporate the important correlation effects in the n=3 shell. Results of some strong transitions between levels of 3d 6 , 3d 5 4s, and 3d 5 4p configurations are also presented and compared with other available calculations. It is found that large disagreements occur in many transitions among the existing calculations

  20. Oscillator strengths for neutral technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garstang, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Oscillator strengths have been calculated for most of the spectral lines of TcI which are of interest in the study of stars of spectral type S. Oscillator strengths have been computed for the corresponding transitions in MnI as a partial check of the technetium calculations

  1. Holocene tree-line variability in the Kauner Valley, Central Eastern Alps, indicated by dendrochronological analysis of living trees and subfossil logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolussi, Kurt; Kaufmann, Matthias; Patzelt, Gernot; van der Plicht, Johannes; Thurner, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    The altitude of the Alpine tree-line has often been used as proxy for the climatic conditions in the Holocene epoch. The usual approach for establishing a record for this proxy is the analysis of pollen and macro remains. We analysed living trees and subfossil logs from the timberline ecotone in the

  2. Epigenetic variants of a transgenic petunia line show hypermethylation in transgene DNA: an indication for specific recognition of foreign DNA in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P; Heidmann, I

    1994-05-25

    We analysed de novo DNA methylation occurring in plants obtained from the transgenic petunia line R101-17. This line contains one copy of the maize A1 gene that leads to the production of brick-red pelargonidin pigment in the flowers. Due to its integration into an unmethylated genomic region the A1 transgene is hypomethylated and transcriptionally active. Several epigenetic variants of line 17 were selected that exhibit characteristic and somatically stable pigmentation patterns, displaying fully coloured, marbled or colourless flowers. Analysis of the DNA methylation patterns revealed that the decrease in pigmentation among the epigenetic variants was correlated with an increase in methylation, specifically of the transgene DNA. No change in methylation of the hypomethylated integration region could be detected. A similar increase in methylation, specifically in the transgene region, was also observed among progeny of R101-17del, a deletion derivative of R101-17 that no longer produces pelargonidin pigments due to a deletion in the A1 coding region. Again de novo methylation is specifically directed to the transgene, while the hypomethylated character of neighbouring regions is not affected. Possible mechanisms for transgene-specific methylation and its consequences for long-term use of transgenic material are discussed.

  3. The cytotoxicity of a 2-chloroethylnitrosourea analog of sarcosinamide in the SK-MG-1 human glioma cell line as a possible indicator for transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, V.; Feindel, W.; Panasci, L.C. (Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-07-01

    The cytotoxicities of a new sarcosinamide analog of chloroethylnitrosourea (SarCNU) and of BCNU were examined in the glioma cell line SK-MG-1 in the presence or absence of excess concentrations of amino acids and sarcosinamide. The cytotoxicity of SarCNU, but not of BCNU, was significantly reduced in the presence of excess sarcosinamide. The stability of SarCNU was not significantly altered by increasing concentrations of sarcosinamide. In order to investigate the possibility that sarcosinamide inhibits the uptake of SarCNU, the transport of tritiated sarcosinamide was examined in SK-MG-1 cells. The uptake of 3H-sarcosinamide was inhibited by excess, unlabelled sarcosinamide and SarCNU but not by BCNU, glycine or sarcosine. These results suggest the existence of a carrier-mediated transport for sarcosinamide which can accomodate SarCNU in SK-MG-1 cells.

  4. New β-delayed proton lines from 23Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsebom, O.S.; Fynbo, H.O.U.; Riisager, K.; Jokinen, A.; Saastamoinen, A.; Aeystoe, J.; Madurga, M.; Tengblad, O.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a new measurement of the β-delayed proton spectrum of 23 Al. Higher statistics compared to previous measurements allow us to identify new proton lines in the energy range 1-2 MeV. A statistical analysis of the observed β strength shows that the B (GT) values are fully consistent with having a Porter-Thomas distribution. This is indicative of chaotic behaviour and implies that only the average β strength carries physical meaning. (orig.)

  5. Constancy of spectral-line bisectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.F.

    1983-01-01

    Bisectors of spectral line profiles in cool stars indicate the strength of convection in the photospheres of these objects. The present investigation is concerned with the feasibility of studying time variations in line bisectors, the reality of apparent line-to-line differences within the same stellar spectrum, and bisector differences between stars of identical spectral types. The differences considered pertain to the shape of the bisector. The material used in the investigation was acquired at the McDonald Observatory using a 1728 diode Reticon array at the coudefocus of the 2.1-m telescope. Observed bisector errors are discussed. It is established that different lines in the same star show significantly different bisectors. The observed error bands are shown by the shaded regions. The slope and curvature are unique for each case

  6. Northern entanglement : Arctic gas pipeline plans caught in web of competing interests, but dire supply-demand forecasts indicate line will be built

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2005-01-01

    This article discussed land access and regulatory issues surrounding decisions to stop field work of the Mackenzie Valley pipeline in the spring of 2005. Although current supply and demand balances in natural gas markets argue that the pipeline will be beneficial, Imperial Oil and its partners have halted activities such as geotechnical data-gathering programs and preparatory work on contracting construction. The project's future depends on the successful resolution of First Nations land claims, governmental disputes and various activist groups protesting the pipeline's construction. Imperial Oil has suggested that the pipeline presents a significant opportunity for the people of the North to reduce their reliance on government and will create jobs and business opportunities for Aboriginal people. In the aftermath of work stoppage, Alberta's former Energy Minister stated that imports of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Alaska gas from the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project may arrive on the market in advance of the Mackenzie Valley project, which would affect the project's financial future. It was noted that access and benefits agreements with First Nations stakeholders have yet to be reached. Lawsuits involving the Deh Cho First Nations were examined. It was also suggested that Imperial Oil has not included information on the Alberta portion of the project in its environmental impact assessment. It was concluded that if the Mackenzie Delta line isn't in service by 2010, North American consumers can expect to spend an extra $190 billion on gas from 2011 to 2020. 3 figs

  7. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  8. Off-line wafer level reliability control: unique measurement method to monitor the lifetime indicator of gate oxide validated within bipolar/CMOS/DMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnard, Xavier; Bonnaud, Olivier

    2000-08-01

    We have recently published a paper on a new rapid method for the determination of the lifetime of the gate oxide involved in a Bipolar/CMOS/DMOS technology (BCD). Because this previous method was based on a current measurement with gate voltage as a parameter needing several stress voltages, it was applied only by lot sampling. Thus, we tried to find an indicator in order to monitor the gate oxide lifetime during the wafer level parametric test and involving only one measurement of the device on each wafer test cell. Using the Weibull law and Crook model, combined with our recent model, we have developed a new test method needing only one electrical measurement of MOS capacitor to monitor the quality of the gate oxide. Based also on a current measurement, the parameter is the lifetime indicator of the gate oxide. From the analysis of several wafers, we gave evidence of the possibility to detect a low performance wafer, which corresponds to the infantile failure on the Weibull plot. In order to insert this new method in the BCD parametric program, a parametric flowchart was established. This type of measurement is an important challenges, because the actual measurements, breakdown charge, Qbd, and breakdown electric field, Ebd, at parametric level and Ebd and interface states density, Dit during the process cannot guarantee the gate oxide lifetime all along fabrication process. This indicator measurement is the only one, which predicts the lifetime decrease.

  9. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  10. 46 CFR 45.107 - Strength of hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength of hull. 45.107 Section 45.107 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.107 Strength of hull. The general structural strength of the hull must be sufficient for the...

  11. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  12. Tools for Building on Youth Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    While rhetoric about strength-based approaches abounds, this perspective has not penetrated the front lines of practice. Many programs serving troubled youngsters are still mired in a deficit and deviance orientation. This article provides practical strategies for assessing the strengths of children and developing interventions to tap their assets…

  13. K-line photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is given of more than a decade of work involving measurement of the strength of the K line of calcium in A-type stars. The effects of interstellar reddening are reexamined, and an improved estimate for the range in calcium abundance among field stars is obtained. (Auth.)

  14. Corium crust strength measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomperski, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: lomperski@anl.gov; Farmer, M.T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: farmer@anl.gov

    2009-11-15

    Corium strength is of interest in the context of a severe reactor accident in which molten core material melts through the reactor vessel and collects on the containment basemat. Some accident management strategies involve pouring water over the melt to solidify it and halt corium/concrete interactions. The effectiveness of this method could be influenced by the strength of the corium crust at the interface between the melt and coolant. A strong, coherent crust anchored to the containment walls could allow the yet-molten corium to fall away from the crust as it erodes the basemat, thereby thermally decoupling the melt from the coolant and sharply reducing the cooling rate. This paper presents a diverse collection of measurements of the mechanical strength of corium. The data is based on load tests of corium samples in three different contexts: (1) small blocks cut from the debris of the large-scale MACE experiments, (2) 30 cm-diameter, 75 kg ingots produced by SSWICS quench tests, and (3) high temperature crusts loaded during large-scale corium/concrete interaction (CCI) tests. In every case the corium consisted of varying proportions of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and the constituents of concrete to represent a LWR melt at different stages of a molten core/concrete interaction. The collection of data was used to assess the strength and stability of an anchored, plant-scale crust. The results indicate that such a crust is likely to be too weak to support itself above the melt. It is therefore improbable that an anchored crust configuration could persist and the melt become thermally decoupled from the water layer to restrict cooling and prolong an attack of the reactor cavity concrete.

  15. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths......-based intervention program in order to explore the strengths. Finally different methods to apply the strength in everyday life at school were applied. The paper presentation will show the results for strengths display for children aged 6-16 in different categories: Different age groups: Are the same strengths...... present in both small children and youths? Gender: Do the results show differences between the two genders? Danish as a mother- tongue language: Do the results show any differences in the strengths display when considering different language and cultural backgrounds? Children with Special Needs: Do...

  16. Extended analysis of the high resolution FTIR spectrum of 32S16O2 in the region of the ν2 band: Line positions, strengths, and pressure broadening widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Gromova, O. V.; Quack, M.; Mellau, G. Ch.; Sydow, C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2018-05-01

    The high resolution infrared spectra of sulfur dioxide (32S16O2) were recorded with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Zürich prototype ZP2001) in combination with a Ge:Cu detector and analyzed in the ν2 fundamental band region (400-650 cm-1 , ν0 ˜ = 517.8725691(77) cm-1). More than 4200 transitions were assigned in the experimental spectra to the ν2 band (the maximum values of the quantum numbers are Jmax. = 96 and Kamax. = 25). The subsequent weighted fit of experimentally assigned transitions was made with the Watson Hamiltonian. The 148 highly accurate MW transitions known from the literature have been also taken into account in the fit, resulting in a set of 33 parameters which reproduces the initial 1295 infrared ro-vibrational energy values from more than 4200 experimental line positions with a root mean square deviation drms = 1.5 ×10-4 cm-1. An analysis of 992 experimental ro-vibrational line intensities of the ν2 band was made, and a set of four effective dipole moment parameters was obtained which reproduces the initial experimental line intensities with a relative drms = 5.7 % . The half-widths of 146 ro-vibrational lines (Jmax. = 53 and Kamax. = 20) were analyzed from the multi-spectrum fit, and self-pressure broadening coefficients were determined.

  17. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  18. Indicators and their functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Joumard, Robert; Aschemann, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... for indicators and assessments. As the decision making context influences the perceived and actual needs for indicators and methods, we also analysed the dimensions and context of decision making. We derived criteria and methods for the assessment and selection of indicators of environmental sustainability......This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...

  19. The strength compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    of agreement/disagreement. Also the child/teacher is asked whether the actual strength is important and if he or she has the possibilities to apply the strength in the school. In a PhDproject ‘Strengths-based Learning - Children’s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential’ 750 Danish children......Individual paper presentation: The ‘Strength Compass’. The results of a PhDresearch project among schoolchildren (age 6-16) identifying VIAstrengths concerning age, gender, mother-tongue-langue and possible child psychiatric diagnosis. Strengths-based interventions in schools have a theoretical...... Psychological Publishing Company. ‘The Strength Compass’ is a computer/Ipad based qualitative tool to identify the strengths of a child by a self-survey or a teacher’s survey. It is designed as a visual analogue scale with a statement of the strength in which the child/teacher may declare the degree...

  20. Nuclear vorticity and the low-energy nuclear response. Towards the neutron drip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papakonstantinou, P.; Athens Univ.; Wambach, J.; Ponomarev, V.Y.; Mavrommatis, E.

    2004-01-01

    The transition density and current provide valuable insight into the nature of nuclear vibrations. Nuclear vorticity is a quantity related to the transverse transition current. In this work, we study the evolution of the strength distribution, related to density fluctuations, and the vorticity strength distribution, as the neutron drip line is approached. Our results on the isoscalar, natural-parity multipole response of Ni isotopes, obtained by using a self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+continuum RPA model, indicate that, close to the drip line, the low-energy response is dominated by L > 1 vortical transitions. (orig.)

  1. Float level indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishchuk, M.Kh.; Laptev, A.G.; Pashkov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Specially developed level indicator is suggested with differential to-transformer converter of the float motion, operating in line with a movable electronic block, intended for indicating the level of the dissociating nitrogen tetroxide liquid phase. On the basis of the indicator elements the device is realized to measure the time of calibrated volume fillino. in by liquid nitrogen tetroxide in steady state operation of the experimental bench-marks [ru

  2. Strength and Microstructure of Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Forex - one particular alumina ceramic, I our own detailed crack ample, the relatively large values of r, and c* for the VI observations, and those of...particularly toughness indices, 1i71", indicating that there is sonic the c° , T parameters. However, the indentation mcth- kind of trade -o1Tbetwecn...macroscopic and microsnpic odology takes us closer to the strengths of specimens toughness levels, and that this trade -off is cont’olled by with natural

  3. Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity

  4. On the interpretation and rotational assignment of degenerate four-wave mixing spectra: Four-photon line strengths for crossover resonances in NO A 2Σ+--X 2Π

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman-Hill, E.J.; Rahn, L.A.; Farrow, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    We present here a set of equations specifically adapted to simulation of fully resonant, high-resolution, phase-conjugate degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) in molecular gases. Signal-intensity dependence on molecular wave functions, lifetimes, and laser beam polarizations is explicitly included in these equations. The emphasis of the presentation is on both physically intuitive interpretation and a practical, ''cookbook'' approach to spectral simulation. We present experimental verification of our calculations drawn from the spectrum of dilute NO in N 2 at low pressures. Both degenerate two-level and three-level (crossover) resonances were observed. The experimental spectral intensities are accurately reproduced by the expressions presented here. We point out some of the subtleties of DFWM spectra that could be used as aids to interpretation, especially the use of laser polarization as a probe for spectral line assignments

  5. Strengths-based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    -being. The Ph.D.-project in Strength-based learning took place in a Danish school with 750 pupils age 6-16 and a similar school was functioning as a control group. The presentation will focus on both the aware-explore-apply processes and the practical implications for the schools involved, and on measurable......Strength-based learning - Children͛s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential͛ is a Ph.D.-project aiming to create a strength-based mindset in school settings and at the same time introducing strength-based interventions as specific tools to improve both learning and well...

  6. Presença de "Linha Morgan" como indicador de displasia coxofemoral em cães da raça Pastor-Alemão Presence of Morgan-Line as an indicator of canine hip dysplasia in German Shepherd dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.S. Tôrres

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of Morgan line and hip dysplasia. From June, 1986 to October, 1993, 190 X-ray plates of German Shepherd dogs, from both sexes were collected and analyzed. The results showed that out of the 190 dogs evaluated, 136 (71.6% had hip dysplasia, 43 (22.6% presented Morgan line and 41 (21.5% showed both of them. Just two (1.1% dogs presented Morgan line without hip dysplasia. No statistically significant difference was found between males (21.8% and females (23.3%. From this study it can be concluded that the presence of the Morgan line can be considered indicative to hip dysplasia diagnosis, even though the absence of the line does not exclude the possibility of hip dysplasia.

  7. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  8. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  9. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  10. Maximal Strength Testing in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Milliken, Laurie A.; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the safety and efficacy of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing in healthy children age 6-12 years. Data were collected on 96 children who performed a 1RM test on one upper body and one lower body exercise using child-sized weight machines. Findings indicated that children could safely perform 1RM strength tests provided…

  11. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  12. Design of the Yang magnetically-insulated transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yuanchao; Song Shenyi

    2002-01-01

    The authors have designed a new magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) for the Yang accelerator. The differences between the existing line and the designing one are given. The electric strength of some special regions on the lines and the inductance of the lines have been calculated. The authors have checked the states of magnetic insulation on the designing line

  13. Accelerated Strength Testing of Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, J. R.; Allen, D. H.; Bradley, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    Constant ramp strength tests on unidirectional thermoplastic composite specimens oriented in the 90 deg. direction were conducted at constant temperatures ranging from 149 C to 232 C. Ramp rates spanning 5 orders of magnitude were tested so that failures occurred in the range from 0.5 sec. to 24 hrs. (0.5 to 100,000 MPa/sec). Below 204 C, time-temperature superposition held allowing strength at longer times to be estimated from strength tests at shorter times but higher temperatures. The data indicated that a 50% drop in strength might be expected for this material when the test time is increased by 9 orders of magnitude. The shift factors derived from compliance data applied well to the strength results. To explain the link between compliance and strength, a viscoelastic fracture model was investigated. The model, which used compliance as input, was found to fit the strength data only if the critical fracture energy was allowed to vary with temperature reduced stress rate. This variation in the critical parameter severely limits its use in developing a robust time-dependent strength model. The significance of this research is therefore seen as providing both the indication that a more versatile acceleration method for strength can be developed and the evidence that such a method is needed.

  14. effect of compactive effort on strength indices of laterite treated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    Atterberg's limits test, compaction test, California bearing ratio (CBR) and unconfined ... size, highclay content, and the degree to which the soils have been ... in the stabilization of Ikpayongo laterite with cement. However lime which seems to be the conventional ... as soil modification or stabilization, depending on treatment ...

  15. Give Me Strength.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    维拉

    1996-01-01

    Mort had an absolutely terrible day at the office.Everythingthat could go wrong did go wrong.As he walked home he could beheard muttering strange words to himself:“Oh,give me strength,give me strength.”Mort isn’t asking for the kind of strength thatbuilds strong muscles:he’s asking for the courage or ability to

  16. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  17. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  18. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  19. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  20. Interviewing to Understand Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  1. Joint laxity and the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Esch, M; Steultjens, M; Knol, D L; Dinant, H; Dekker, J

    2006-12-15

    To establish the impact of knee joint laxity on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A cross-sectional study of 86 patients with OA of the knee was conducted. Tests were performed to determine varus-valgus laxity, muscle strength, and functional ability. Laxity was assessed using a device that measures the angular deviation of the knee in the frontal plane. Muscle strength was measured using a computer-driven isokinetic dynamometer. Functional ability was assessed by observation (100-meter walking test) and self report (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC]). Regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of joint laxity on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability. In regression analyses, the interaction between muscle strength and joint laxity contributed to the variance in both walking time (P = 0.002) and WOMAC score (P = 0.080). The slope of the regression lines indicated that the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability (walking time, WOMAC) was stronger in patients with high knee joint laxity. Patients with knee OA and high knee joint laxity show a stronger relationship between muscle strength and functional ability than patients with OA and low knee joint laxity. Patients with OA, high knee joint laxity, and low muscle strength are most at risk of being disabled.

  2. WEAK LINE QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: EXTREMELY HIGH ACCRETION RATES OR ANEMIC BROAD-LINE REGIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Netzer, Hagai; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z = 3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z = 3.49. In both sources, we detect an unusually weak broad Hβ line and place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, Hβ-based black hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L Edd =0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Γ = 1.91 +0.24 -0.22 , which supports the virial L/L Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad emission line region properties.

  3. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  4. Precision measurement of relative oscillator strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, D.E.; Ibbetson, P.A.; Petford, A.D.; Shallis, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The accuracy of the Oxford method of comparing oscillator strengths has been improved by a factor of 10 to 0.5 per cent (0.002 dex) for low excitation lines. The improvements made to the apparatus are briefly described and its new performance discussed. A test for LTE in the furnace is also described. Relative oscillator strengths for 60 lines of Fe I with excitation potentials between 0.00 and 0.12 eV are given. Those with lambda > 320 nm have an accuracy of 0.5 per cent, and those with lambda < 320 nm have an accuracy of 1.0 per cent. Absolute values with an accuracy of 2.5 per cent for all lines are given. (author)

  5. Operational indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the operational indicators related to budget, travel costs and tickets, the evolution of the annual program for regulatory inspection, the scientific production, requested patents and the numbers related to the production of the services offered by the Institution

  6. First Detections of the [N II] 122 micron Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [N II] 122 micron line from a high-redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (>6(sigma)) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and H1413 + 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift (zeta) and Early Universe Spectrometer on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line to far-infrared (FIR) continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0 x 10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1 x 10(exo -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line to continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8%-17% of the molecUlar gas mass. The [O III]/[N II] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using Our previous detection of the [O III] 88 micron line, the [O III]/[N II]line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates that the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar H II regions ionized by O9.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter log(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30%-50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82-like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [N II]line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This war!< demonstrates the utility of the [N II] and [O III] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  7. First Detections of the [NII] 122 Micrometer Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [NIl] 122 {\\mu} m line from a high redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (> 6{\\sigma}) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and HI413+ 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS) on the CSO. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line-to-FIR continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0x10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1x10(exp -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line-to-continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8 to 17% of the molecular gas mass. The [OIII]/[NII] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an AGN. Using our previous detection of the [01II] 88 {\\mu}m line, the [OIII]/ [NIl] line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar HII regions ionized by 09.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter 10g(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30 to 50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [NIl] line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This work demonstrates the utility of the [NIl] and [OIII] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  8. Secondary Analysis of the NCI-60 Whole Exome Sequencing Data Indicates Significant Presence of Propionibacterium acnes Genomic Material in Leukemia (RPMI-8226 and Central Nervous System (SF-295, SF-539, and SNB-19 Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rojas

    Full Text Available The NCI-60 human tumor cell line panel has been used in a broad range of cancer research over the last two decades. A landmark 2013 whole exome sequencing study of this panel added an exceptional new resource for cancer biologists. The complementary analysis of the sequencing data produced by this study suggests the presence of Propionibacterium acnes genomic sequences in almost half of the datasets, with the highest abundance in the leukemia (RPMI-8226 and central nervous system (SF-295, SF-539, and SNB-19 cell lines. While the origin of these contaminating bacterial sequences remains to be determined, observed results suggest that computational control for the presence of microbial genomic material is a necessary step in the analysis of the high throughput sequencing (HTS data.

  9. Sequence analysis of the MYC oncogene involved in the t(8;14)(q24;q11) chromosome translocation in a human leukemia T-cell line indicates that putative regulatory regions are not altered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finver, S.N.; Nishikura, K.; Finger, L.R.; Haluska, F.G.; Finan, J.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors cloned the translocation-associated and homologous normal MYC alleles from SKW-3, a leukemia T-cell line with the t(8; 14)(q24; q11) translocation, and determined the sequence of the MYC oncogene first exon and flanking 5' putative regulatory regions. S1 nuclease protection experiments utilizing a MYC first exon probe demonstrated transcriptional deregulation of the MYC gene associated with the T-cell receptor α locus on the 8q + chromosome of SKW-3 cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the translocation-associated (8q +) MYC allele identified a single base substitution within the upstream flanking region; the homologous nontranslocated allele contained an additional substitution and a two-base deletion. None of the deletions or substitutions localized to putative 5' regulatory regions. The MYC first exon sequence was germ line in both alleles. These results demonstrate that alterations within the putative 5' MYC regulatory regions are not necessarily involved in MYC deregulation in T-cell leukemias, and they show that juxtaposition of the T-cell receptor α locus to a germ-line MYC oncogene results in MYC deregulation

  10. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  11. Predicting hand function in older adults: evaluations of grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Marie, Deana; Fredrick, Aaron; Bertram, Jessica; Utley, Kristen; Fess, Elaine Ewing

    2017-08-01

    Hand function is critical for independence in activities of daily living for older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine how grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterous coordination contributed to time-based versus self-report assessment of hand function in community-dwelling older adults. Adults aged ≥60 years without low vision or neurological disorders were recruited. Purdue Pegboard Test, Jamar hand dynamometer, 30-second arm curl test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument were administered to assess manual dexterous coordination, grip strength, arm curl strength, time-based hand function, and self-report of hand function, respectively. Eighty-four adults (mean age = 72 years) completed the study. Hierarchical multiple regressions show that older adults with better arm curl strength (β = -.25, p function test. In comparison, older adults with better grip strength (β = .40, p function. The relationship between grip strength and hand function may be test-specific. Grip strength becomes a significant factor when the test requires grip strength to successfully complete the test tasks. Arm curl strength independently contributed to hand function in both time-based and self-report assessments, indicating that strength of extrinsic muscles of the hand are essential for hand function.

  12. Are only Emotional Strengths Emotional? Character Strengths and Disposition to Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güsewell, Angelika; Ruch, Willibald

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the relations between character strengths and dispositional positive emotions (i.e. joy, contentment, pride, love, compassion, amusement, and awe). A sample of 574 German-speaking adults filled in the Dispositional Positive Emotion Scales (DPES; Shiota, Keltner, & John, 2006), and the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS; Peterson, Park, & Seligman, 2005). The factorial structure of the DPES was examined on item level. Joy and contentment could not be clearly separated; the items of the other five emotions loaded on separate factors. A confirmatory factor analysis assuming two latent factors (self-oriented and object/situation specific) was computed on scale level. Results confirmed the existence of these factors, but also indicated that the seven emotions did not split up into two clearly separable families. Correlations between dispositional positive emotions and character strengths were positive and generally low to moderate; a few theoretically meaningful strengths-emotions pairs yielded coefficients>.40. Finally, the link between five character strengths factors (i.e. emotional strengths, interpersonal strengths, strengths of restraint, intellectual strengths, and theological strengths) and the emotional dispositions was examined. Each of the factors displayed a distinctive "emotional pattern"; emotional strengths evidenced the most numerous and strongest links to emotional dispositions. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  13. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Starlight excitation of permitted lines in the Orion Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandi, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    From an idealized model of the Orion Nebula and from an analysis of line ratios it is shown that direct starlight excitation of the permitted O I line dominates over recombination and Lyman line fluorescence. The line strengths predicted by this mechanism agree reasonably well with those observed in the Orion Nebula. The application of direct starlight excitation to other ions is also discussed

  15. Percentage Level of Tannin fur Rabbit for Leather Concerning Stitch Tearing Strength, Tearing Strength and Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the appropriate of tannin level for rabbit fur leather concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength, and flexibility. The result were expected to contribute good information for the society, leather craftsman, and further researchers about fur leather tanning especially rabbit fur leather with tannin concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength and flexibility. The material that used were 12 pieces of four months of rabbit skin. The research method was Completely Randomized Design, consist of three treatments of tannin, they were: M1 (mimosa 15%, M2 (mimosa 20%, and M3 (mimosa 25%. Each of treatment hold on four repetition, the variables which measured were stitch tearing strength, tearing strength, and flexibility of fur leather. Data were  analysed by analysis variance followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result of this research indicate that the use level of tannin give significant influence (P<0.05 among stitch tearing strength, tearing strength. It gave a very significant influence (P<0.01 for flexibility of rabbit fur leather. Based on the result, can be concluded that 25 % of tannin (mimosa, produce the best  result on stitch tearing strength and tearing strength. The increase of tannin offer will decrease the flexibility of fur leather but the lowest tannin produced the best flexibility of fur leather (15 percent. The best quality of rabbit fur leather produced by 25 % of tannin.   Keywords : leather, tannin, quality

  16. Effect of Ionic Strength on Settling of Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    M Ahmadi Moghadam, M Soheili, MM Esfahani

    2005-01-01

    Structural properties of activated sludge flocs were found to be sensitive to small changes in ionic strength. This study investigates the effect of ionic strength on settling of activated sludge. Samples were taken from activated sludge process of Ghazvin Sasan soft drink wastewater treatment plant, then treated with different ionic strengths of KCl and CaCl2 solution, after that the turbidity of supernatant was measured. The results indicated that low ionic strength resulted in a steeper sl...

  17. NLTE masking and the Kiev Fe I oscillator strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutten, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    This contribution serves to advertise the empirical solar-spectrum determinations of the oscillator strengths of 860 Fe I lines by Gurtovenko and Kostik (1981), by showing that these Kiev data contain just the lines needed in cool-star abundance analyses, and by explaining why they are so good. (Auth.)

  18. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  19. Strength of Fibrous Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zheng-Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Strength of Fibrous Composites" addresses evaluation of the strength of a fibrous composite by using its constituent material properties and its fiber architecture parameters. Having gone through the book, a reader is able to predict the progressive failure behavior and ultimate strength of a fibrous laminate subjected to an arbitrary load condition in terms of the constituent fiber and matrix properties, as well as fiber geometric parameters. The book is useful to researchers and engineers working on design and analysis for composite materials. Dr. Zheng-Ming Huang is a professor at the School of Aerospace Engineering & Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, China. Mr. Ye-Xin Zhou is a PhD candidate at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Hong Kong, China.

  20. Soft radiative strength in warm nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Nelson, R O; Schiller, A; Voinov, A; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Belgya, T; Chankova, R; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Siem, S

    2004-01-01

    Unresolved transitions in the nuclear γ-ray cascade produced in the decay of excited nuclei are best described by statistical concepts: a continuous radiative strength function (RSF) and level density yield mean values of transition matrix elements. Data on the soft (E γ < 3-4 MeV) RSF for transitions between warm states (i.e. states several MeV above the yrast line) have, however, remained elusive

  1. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  2. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  3. Theoretical Atomic Physics code development IV: LINES, A code for computing atomic line spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, J. Jr.; Clark, R.E.H.

    1988-12-01

    A new computer program, LINES, has been developed for simulating atomic line emission and absorption spectra using the accurate fine structure energy levels and transition strengths calculated by the (CATS) Cowan Atomic Structure code. Population distributions for the ion stages are obtained in LINES by using the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) model. LINES is also useful for displaying the pertinent atomic data generated by CATS. This report describes the use of LINES. Both CATS and LINES are part of the Theoretical Atomic PhysicS (TAPS) code development effort at Los Alamos. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  4. A tangent subsolar merging line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooker, N.U.; Siscoe, G.L.; Toffoletto, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe a global magnetospheric model with a single subsolar merging line whose position is determined neither locally by the relative orientations and strengths of the merging fields nor globally by the orientation of a separator line--the governing parameters of most previous models--but by the condition of tangential contact between the external field and the magnetopause. As in previous models, the tilt of the merging line varies with IMF orientation, but here it also depends upon the ratio of Earth's magnetic flux that leaks out of the magnetopause to IMF flux that penetrates in. In the limiting case treated by Alekseyev and Belen'kaya, with no leakage of Earth's field and total IMF penetration, the merging line forms a great circle around a spherical magnetosphere where undeviated IMF lines lie tangent to its surface. This tangent merging line lies perpendicular to the IMF. They extend their work to the case of finite leakage and partial penetration, which distort the IMF into a draped pattern, thus changing the locus of tangency to the sphere. In the special case where the penetrating IMF flux is balanced by an equal amount of Earth flux leakage, the tangent merging line bisects the angle between the IMF and Earth's northward subsolar field. This result is identical to the local merging line model result for merging fields with equal magnitude. Here a global flux balance condition replaces the local equal magnitude condition

  5. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  6. Risk-based safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlak, J.

    2001-12-01

    The report is structured as follows: 1. Risk-based safety indicators: Typology of risk-based indicators (RBIs); Tools for defining RBIs; Requirements for the PSA model; Data sources for RBIs; Types of risks monitored; RBIs and operational safety indicators; Feedback from operating experience; PSO model modification for RBIs; RBI categorization; RBI assessment; RBI applications; Suitable RBI applications. 2. Proposal for risk-based indicators: Acquiring information from operational experience; Method of acquiring safety relevance coefficients for the systems from a PSA model; Indicator definitions; On-line indicators. 3. Annex: Application of RBIs worldwide. (P.A.)

  7. Photosynthesis and fluctuating asymmetry as indicators of plant response to soil disturbance in the Fall-Line Sandhills of Georgia: a case study using Rhus copallinum and Ipomoea pandurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D. Carl; Brown, Michelle L.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Graham, John H.; Emlen, John M.; Krzysik, Anthony J.; Balbach, Harold E.; Kovacic, David A.; Zak, John C.

    2004-01-01

    We examined net photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, and leaf fluctuating asymmetry on two species (Rhus copallinum and Ipomoea pandurata) as indicators of stress at nine sites across a gradient of soil disturbance at Fort Benning, Georgia. There were three sites for each of three disturbance levels. Physical habitat disturbance was caused by activities associated with infantry training, including mechanized elements (tanks and personnel carriers) and foot soldiers. In addition, we examined the influence of prescribed burns and microhabitat effects (within meter‐square quadrats centered about the plant) on these measures of plant stress. Net photosynthesis declined with increasing disturbance in the absence of burning for both species. However, when sites were burned the previous year, net photosynthesis increased with increasing disturbance. Developmental instability in Rhus, as measured by fluctuating asymmetry, also declined with increasing disturbance in the absence of burning but increased with disturbance if sites were burned the previous year. Developmental instability was much less sensitive to burning in Ipomoea and in general was lowest at intermediate disturbance sites. Microenvironmental and microhabitat effects were weakly correlated with measures of plant stress when all sites were combined. However, higher correlations were obtained within site categories, especially when the recent history of prescribed burning was used as a category. Finally, using all of the combined data in a discriminant function analysis allowed us to correctly predict the disturbance level of more than 80% of the plants. Plant stress is responsive to both large‐scale perturbations, such as burning, and microhabitat parameters. Because of this, it is important to include macro‐ and microhabitat parameters when assessing stress. Similarly, we found a combination of developmental and physiological indicators of stress was superior to using them

  8. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  9. Teriparatide - Indications beyond osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Lee Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a condition of impaired bone strength that results in an increased risk of fracture. The current and most popular pharmacological options for the treatment of osteoporosis include antiresorptive therapy, in particular, oral bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate. Anabolic agents like teriparatide have widened our therapeutic options. They act by directly stimulating bone formation and improving bone mass quantity and quality. Two forms of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH are available : full-length PTH (PTH 1-84; approved in the EU only and the 1-34 N-terminal active fragment of PTH (teriparatide, US FDA approved. This review aims to discuss the benefits of teriparatide beyond the currently licensed indications like fracture healing, dental stability, osteonecrosis of jaw, hypoparathyroidism, and hypocalcemia.

  10. Effect of High-Speed Strength Training on Physical Performance in Young Soccer Players of Different Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Franco-Márquez, Felipe; Mora-Custodio, Ricardo; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2017-09-01

    Rodríguez-Rosell, D, Franco-Márquez, F, Mora-Custodio, R, and González-Badillo, JJ. Effect of high-speed strength training on physical performance in young soccer players of different ages. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2498-2508, 2017-The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of low-load, low-volume weight training combined with plyometrics on strength, sprint, and jump performance in soccer players of different ages. Eighty-six soccer players from the same academy were categorized into 3 groups by age (under 13 years, U13, n = 30; under 15, U15, n = 28; and under 17, U17, n = 28) and then randomly assigned into 2 subgroups: a strength training group (STG) and a control group (CG). The strength training program was performed twice a week for 6 weeks and consisted of full squats (load: 45-60% 1 repetition maximum; volume: 3 set of 8-4 repetitions), jumps, and straight line sprint exercises. After training intervention, the STGs showed significant improvements in maximal strength (7.5-54.5%; p soccer players in most variables, whereas U15 showed higher improvements in jump and strength parameters than U17 (ES: 0.25-0.90) soccer players. Thus, although our results indicates that a combined weight training and plyometrics program may be effective in eliciting gains in strength, jump, and sprint in soccer players of different ages, the training program used appears to be generally less effective as the age of the soccer players increased. Therefore, it appears that training characteristics (mainly volume, intensity, and type of exercise) should be modified in relation to maturity status and initial strength level.

  11. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  12. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, S.

    Whenever we shop, the products we consider buying are labelled with the economical price we have to pay if we want to purchase them - an important parameter in our decisions as purchasers. The increrasing awareness for environmental limits and backlashes of human activities also in the building...... sector have fostered the wish to define 'the ecological price' of a building as a help for environmental conscious decision-making. In a social constructivist approach this Ph.D. thesis looks across and beyond the manifold existing approaches for environmental indicators for buildings. It acknowledges...... in the Netherlands. It identifies lines of conflict and areas of consent betweeen the relevant actors and elaborates scenarios for a possible closure of ongoing debate about environmental indicators for buildings....

  13. Strength capability while kneeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslegrave, C M; Tracy, M F; Corlett, E N

    1997-12-01

    Work sometimes has to be carried out kneeling, particularly where jobs are performed in confined spaces as is common for miners, aircraft baggage handlers and maintenance workers. In order to assess the risks in performing forceful tasks under such conditions, data is needed on strength capabilities of kneeling subjects. A study was undertaken to measure isometric strength in single-handed exertions for male subjects and to investigate the effects on this of task layout factors (direction of force exertion, reach distance, height of the workpiece and orientation relative to the subject's sagittal plane). The data has been tabulated to show the degree to which strength may be reduced in different situations and analysis of the task factors showed their influence to be complex with direction of exertion and reach distance having the greatest effect. The results also suggest that exertions are weaker when subjects are kneeling on two knees than when kneeling on one knee, although this needs to be confirmed by direct experimental comparison.

  14. Sample size effect on the determination of the irreversibility line of high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.; Suenaga, M.; Li, Q.; Freltoft, T.

    1994-01-01

    The irreversibility lines of a high-J c superconducting Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x /Ag tape were systematically measured upon a sequence of subdivisions of the sample. The irreversibility field H r (T) (parallel to the c axis) was found to change approximately as L 0.13 , where L is the effective dimension of the superconducting tape. Furthermore, it was found that the irreversibility line for a grain-aligned Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x specimen can be approximately reproduced by the extrapolation of this relation down to a grain size of a few tens of micrometers. The observed size effect could significantly obscure the real physical meaning of the irreversibility lines. In addition, this finding surprisingly indicated that the Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 2 O x /Ag tape and grain-aligned specimen may have similar flux line pinning strength

  15. A New Analysis of Stark and Zeeman Effects on Hydrogen Lines in Magnetized DA White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ny Kieu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available White dwarfs with magnetic field strengths larger than 10 T are understood to represent more than 10% of the total population of white dwarfs. The presence of such strong magnetic fields is clearly indicated by the Zeeman triplet structure visible on absorption lines. In this work, we discuss the line broadening mechanisms and focus on the sensitivity of hydrogen lines on the magnetic field. We perform new calculations in conditions relevant to magnetized DA stellar atmospheres using models inspired from magnetic fusion plasma spectroscopy. A white dwarf spectrum from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS database is analyzed. An effective temperature is provided by an adjustment of the background radiation with a Planck function, and the magnetic field is inferred from absorption lines presenting a Zeeman triplet structure. An order-of-magnitude estimate for the electron density is also performed from Stark broadening analysis.

  16. Transmission Line Series Compensation for Wind Energy Transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, C; Wong, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy has demonstrated to be a clean, copious and absolutely renewable source of energy, and the large penetration of it into the power grid indicates that wind energy is considered an effective means of power generation, Transmission of wind energy from remote locations to load centers necessitates long transmission lines. Series compensation is a proven and economical transmission solution to address system power transfer strength, grid stability, and voltage profile issues of long transmission lines. In this paper, a programmable approach to determine the capacitive reactance of series capacitor and optimum location for its placement to achieve maximum power transfer gas been presented. The respective program with sample solutions has been provided for real-time applications. (paper)

  17. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  18. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the sustainable transport” concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...

  19. Strength Testing in Motor Neuron Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefner, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Loss of muscle strength is a cardinal feature of all motor neuron diseases. Functional loss over time, including respiratory dysfunction, inability to ambulate, loss of ability to perform activities of daily living, and others are due, in large part, to decline in strength. Thus, the accurate measurement of limb muscle strength is essential in therapeutic trials to best understand the impact of therapy on vital function. While qualitative strength measurements show declines over time, the lack of reproducibility and linearity of measurement make qualitative techniques inadequate. A variety of quantitative measures have been developed; all have both positive attributes and limitations. However, with careful training and reliability testing, quantitative measures have proven to be reliable and sensitive indicators of both disease progression and the impact of experimental therapy. Quantitative strength measurements have demonstrated potentially important therapeutic effects in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinobulbar muscular atrophy, and have been shown feasible in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The spectrum of both qualitative and quantitative strength measurements are reviewed and their utility examined in this review.

  20. Determination of giant resonance strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serr, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Using theoretical strength functions to describe the different giant resonances expected at excitation energies of the order of (60-85)/Asup(1/3) MeV, we calculate the double differential cross sections d 2 sigma/dΩ dE associated with the reactions 208 Pb(α, α') and 90 Zr(α, α') (Esub(α) = 152 MeV). The angular distributions for the giant quadrupole and giant monopole resonances obtained from fits to these spectra, making simple, commonly used assumptions for the peak shapes and background, are compared to the original angular distributions. The differences between them are an indication of some of the uncertainties affecting the giant resonance strengths extracted from hadron inelastic scattering data. Fits to limited angular regions lead to errors of up to 50% in the value of the energy-weighted sum rule, depending on the angles examined. While it seems possible to extract the correct EWSR for the GMR by carrying out the analyses at 0 0 , no single privileged angle seems to exist in the case of the GQR. (orig.)

  1. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  2. FB Line Basis for Interim Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, B.

    1998-01-01

    The safety analysis of the FB-Line Facility indicates that the operation of FB-Line to support the current mission does not present undue risk to the facility and co-located workers, general public, or the environment

  3. Optimum concrete compression strength using bio-enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Bagio Tony Hartono; Basoeki Makno; Tistogondo Julistyana; Pradana Sofyan Ali

    2017-01-01

    To make concrete with high compressive strength and has a certain concrete specifications other than the main concrete materials are also needed concrete mix quality control and other added material is also in line with the current technology of concrete mix that produces concrete with specific characteristics. Addition of bio enzyme on five concrete mixture that will be compared with normal concrete in order to know the optimum level bio-enzyme in concrete to increase the strength of the con...

  4. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  5. Statistical Analysis Of Failure Strength Of Material Using Weibull Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entin Hartini; Mike Susmikanti; Antonius Sitompul

    2008-01-01

    In evaluation of ceramic and glass materials strength a statistical approach is necessary Strength of ceramic and glass depend on its measure and size distribution of flaws in these material. The distribution of strength for ductile material is narrow and close to a Gaussian distribution while strength of brittle materials as ceramic and glass following Weibull distribution. The Weibull distribution is an indicator of the failure of material strength resulting from a distribution of flaw size. In this paper, cumulative probability of material strength to failure probability, cumulative probability of failure versus fracture stress and cumulative probability of reliability of material were calculated. Statistical criteria calculation supporting strength analysis of Silicon Nitride material were done utilizing MATLAB. (author)

  6. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  7. A comparison of theoretical and solar-flare intensity ratios for the Fe XIX X-ray lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.K.; Mason, H.E.; Fawcett, B.C.; Phillips, K.J.H.

    1989-04-01

    Atomic data consisting of energy levels, g f-values and wavelengths are presented for the Fe XIX 2s 2 2p 4 -2s 2 2p 3 3s, 2s 2 2p 3 3d arrays that give rise to lines in solar flare and active-region X-ray spectra. Collision strengths and theoretical intensity ratios are given for the 2s 2 2p 4 -2s 2 2p 3 3d lines, which occur in the 13.2-14.3 A range. Solar spectra in this range include a large number of other intense lines, notably those due to He-like Ne (Ne IX). Although the Ne IX lines are potentially the most useful indicators of electron density in solar X-ray spectra, blending with the Fe XIX lines has been a major problem for previous analyses. Comparison of observed spectra with those calculated from the Fe XIX atomic data presented here and Ne IX lines from other work indicates that there is generally good agreement. We use the calculated Fe XIX and Ne IX line spectra and several observed spectra during a flare previously analysed to estimate electron density from Ne IX line ratios, thus for the first time properly taking into account blends with Fe XIX lines. (author)

  8. Roles of pinning strength and density in vortex melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaidat, I M; Khawaja, U Al; Benkraouda, M

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the role of pinning strength and density on the equilibrium vortex-lattice to vortex-liquid phase transition under several applied magnetic fields. This study was conducted using a series of molecular dynamic simulations on several samples with different strengths and densities of pinning sites which are arranged in periodic square arrays. We have found a single solid-liquid vortex transition when the vortex filling factor n>1. We have found that, for fixed pinning densities and strengths, the melting temperature, T m , decreases almost linearly with increasing magnetic field. Our results provide direct numerical evidence for the significant role of both the strength and density of pinning centers on the position of the melting line. We have found that the vortex-lattice to vortex-liquid melting line shifts up as the pinning strength or the pinning density was increased. The effect on the melting line was found to be more pronounced at small values of strength and density of pinning sites

  9. Short-term Periodization Models: Effects on Strength and Speed-strength Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Hagen; Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Mickel, Christoph; Sander, Andre; Szilvas, Elena

    2015-10-01

    avoided because it does not provide an adequate training stimulus for gains in muscle cross-sectional area and strength performance. High-volume circuit strength training performed over 2 years negatively affected the development of the power output and maximal strength of the upper extremities in professional rugby players. Indeed, meta-analyses and results with weightlifters, American Football players, and throwers confirm the necessity of the habitual use of ≥80% 1 RM: (1) to improve maximal strength during the off-season and in-season in American Football, (2) to reach peak performance in maximal strength and vertical jump power during tapering in track-and-field, and (3) to produce hypertrophy and strength improvements in advanced athletes. The integration and extent of hypertrophy strength training in in-season conditioning depend on the duration of the contest period, the frequency of the contests, and the proportion of the conditioning program. Based on the literature, 72 h between hypertrophy strength training and strength-power training should be provided to allow for adequate regeneration times and therefore maximal stimulus intensities in training. This conclusion is only valid if the muscle is not trained otherwise during this regeneration phase. Thus, rotating hypertrophy and strength-power sessions in a microcycle during the season is a viable option. Comparative studies in competitive athletes who integrated strength training during pre-season conditioning confirm a tendency for gains in explosive strength and statistically significant improvements in medicine ball throw through SPP but not through daily undulating periodization. These findings indicate that to maximize the speed-strength in the short term (peaking), elite athletes should perform strength-power training twice per week. It is possible to perform a single strength-power session with the method of maximum explosive strength actions moving high-weight loads (90% 1 repetition maximum [RM]) at

  10. The U-line line balancing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  11. Mechanical properties of high-strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzadeh, Alireza

    This report summarizes an experimental program conducted to investigate production techniques and mechanical properties of high strength concrete in general and to provide recommendations for using these concretes in manufacturing precast/prestressed bridge girders. Test variables included total amount and composition of cementitious material (portland cement, fly ash, and silica fume), type and brand of cement, type of silica fume (dry densified and slurry), type and brand of high-range water-reducing admixture, type of aggregate, aggregate gradation, maximum aggregate size, and curing. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of these variables on changes in compressive strength and modulus of elasticity over time, splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture, creep, shrinkage, and absorption potential (as an indirect indicator of permeability). Also investigated were the effects of test parameters such as mold size, mold material, and end condition. Over 6,300 specimens were cast from approximately 140 mixes over a period of 3 years.

  12. Gaussian discriminating strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  13. Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Shanghai 200136 (China); Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Tinggui; Xing, Feijun; Jiang, Peng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Kai, E-mail: zhangshaohua@pric.gov.cn, E-mail: whywang@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z = 1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature and is refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with a hot dust indicator (β{sub NIR}) and other quasar physical parameters—such as an Eddington ratio, luminosity, and a UV continuum slope—are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here β{sub NIR} is the near-infrared continuum slope, which is a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to the accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depend on the Eddington ratio, UV slope, and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with β{sub NIR} in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasars. The statistical analysis and composite spectra study both reveal that outflow strength and velocity are more strongly correlated with β{sub NIR} than the Eddington ratio, luminosity, and UV slope. In particular, the composites show that the entire C IV absorption profile shifts blueward and broadens as β{sub NIR} increases, while the Eddington ratio and UV slope only affect the high and low velocity part of outflows, respectively. We discuss several potential processes and suggest that the dusty outflow scenario, i.e., that dust is intrinsic to outflows and may contribute to the outflow acceleration, is most likely.

  14. effect of reinforcements combination on the mechanical strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    strength when compared with other metals such as aluminum, copper ... achieved by hand rotation of the wheels as described above. By ratio ... point of the specimen which is recorded by the push-plotter silver liquid indicator. This is the ultimate strength. The Brinnel hardness, Hb is calculated using the Brinnel equation: √.

  15. Criterion-Related Validity of a Simple Muscle Strength Test to Assess Whole Body Muscle Strength in Chinese Children Aged 10 to 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liqin; Tang, Changfa; Tao, Xia

    2018-01-01

    To study the criterion-related validity of simple muscle strength test (SMST) indicators and assess whole body muscle strength in Chinese children aged 10 to 12 years old. Two hundred and forty children were equally divided into four groups in different genders and residences. The SMST indicators (hand-grip, knee bent push-up, back muscle strength, sit-up, leg muscle strength, and standing long jump) were tested. We set up the total level of the whole-body muscle strength ( F total ) through testing isokinetic muscle strength of the six joints' flexion and extension movements. Pearson correlation analyses were used to analyze the correlation between the SMST indicators and the F total . (1) Leg muscle strength and back muscle strength demonstrated the highest validity scores. Sit-ups, hand grip, and standing long jump demonstrated the lowest validity scores. (2) Leg muscle strength had the highest validity for males, but back muscle strength had the highest validity for females. Back muscle strength and leg muscle strength can give the highest validity of assessing whole body muscle strength, and also has higher validity in both the urban and rural children. For urban children, but not rural, the knee bent push-up also has a high validity indicator.

  16. Criterion-Related Validity of a Simple Muscle Strength Test to Assess Whole Body Muscle Strength in Chinese Children Aged 10 to 12 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the criterion-related validity of simple muscle strength test (SMST indicators and assess whole body muscle strength in Chinese children aged 10 to 12 years old. Methods. Two hundred and forty children were equally divided into four groups in different genders and residences. The SMST indicators (hand-grip, knee bent push-up, back muscle strength, sit-up, leg muscle strength, and standing long jump were tested. We set up the total level of the whole-body muscle strength (Ftotal through testing isokinetic muscle strength of the six joints’ flexion and extension movements. Pearson correlation analyses were used to analyze the correlation between the SMST indicators and the Ftotal. Results. (1 Leg muscle strength and back muscle strength demonstrated the highest validity scores. Sit-ups, hand grip, and standing long jump demonstrated the lowest validity scores. (2 Leg muscle strength had the highest validity for males, but back muscle strength had the highest validity for females. Conclusions. Back muscle strength and leg muscle strength can give the highest validity of assessing whole body muscle strength, and also has higher validity in both the urban and rural children. For urban children, but not rural, the knee bent push-up also has a high validity indicator.

  17. Compressive and flexural strength of high strength phase change mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingyao; Fang, Changle

    2018-04-01

    High-strength cement produces a lot of hydration heat when hydrated, it will usually lead to thermal cracks. Phase change materials (PCM) are very potential thermal storage materials. Utilize PCM can help reduce the hydration heat. Research shows that apply suitable amount of PCM has a significant effect on improving the compressive strength of cement mortar, and can also improve the flexural strength to some extent.

  18. Importance of Tensile Strength on the Shear Behavior of Discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazvinian, A. H.; Azinfar, M. J.; Geranmayeh Vaneghi, R.

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the shear behavior of discontinuities possessing two different rock wall types with distinct separate compressive strengths was investigated. The designed profiles consisted of regular artificial joints molded by five types of plaster mortars, each representing a distinct uniaxial compressive strength. The compressive strengths of plaster specimens ranged from 5.9 to 19.5 MPa. These specimens were molded considering a regular triangular asperity profile and were designed so as to achieve joint walls with different strength material combinations. The results showed that the shear behavior of discontinuities possessing different joint wall compressive strengths (DDJCS) tested under constant normal load (CNL) conditions is the same as those possessing identical joint wall strengths, but the shear strength of DDJCS is governed by minor joint wall compressive strength. In addition, it was measured that the predicted values obtained by Barton's empirical criterion are greater than the experimental results. The finding indicates that there is a correlation between the joint roughness coefficient (JRC), normal stress, and mechanical strength. It was observed that the mode of failure of asperities is either pure tensile, pure shear, or a combination of both. Therefore, Barton's strength criterion, which considers the compressive strength of joint walls, was modified by substituting the compressive strength with the tensile strength. The validity of the modified criterion was examined by the comparison of the predicted shear values with the laboratory shear test results reported by Grasselli (Ph.D. thesis n.2404, Civil Engineering Department, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2001). These comparisons infer that the modified criterion can predict the shear strength of joints more precisely.

  19. Institutional Strength in Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Much work has been undertaken in order to identify, learn and implement the lessons from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. These have mainly targeted on engineering or operational lessons. Less attention has been paid to the institutional lessons, although there have been some measures to improve individual peer reviews, particularly by the World Association of Nuclear Operators, and the authoritative IAEA report published in 2015 brought forward several important lessons for regulators and advocated a system approach. The report noted that one of the contributing factors the accident was the tendency of stakeholders not to challenge. Additionally, it reported deficiencies in the regulatory authority and system. Earlier, the root cause of the accident was identified by a Japanese independent parliamentary report as being cultural and institutional. The sum total of the institutions, the safety system, was ineffective. While it is important to address the many technical and operational lessons these may not necessary address this more fundamental lesson, and may not serve to provide robust defences against human or institutional failings over a wide variety of possible events and combinations. The overall lesson is that we can have rigorous and comprehensive safety standards and other tools in place to deliver high levels of safety, but ultimately what is important is the ability of the nuclear safety system to ensure that the relevant institutions diligently and effectively apply those standards and tools — to be robust and resilient. This has led to the consideration of applying the principles of the strength in depth philosophy to a nuclear safety system as a way of providing a framework for developing, assessing, reviewing and improving the system. At an IAEA conference in October 2013, a model was presented for a robust national nuclear safety system based on strength in depth philosophy. The model highlighted three main layers: industry, the

  20. Photoionization-driven Absorption-line Variability in Balmer Absorption Line Quasar LBQS 1206+1052

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Luming; Zhou, Hongyan; Ji, Tuo; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Bo; Pan, Xiang; Shi, Xiheng; Zhang, Shaohua [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Shanghai (China); Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Jianguo [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan (China); Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei [Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui (China); Miller, Lauren P., E-mail: lmsun@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Lehigh University, 27 Memorial Drive West, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of absorption-line variability in mini-BAL quasar LBQS 1206+1052. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum demonstrates that the absorption troughs can be divided into two components of blueshift velocities of ∼700 and ∼1400 km s{sup −1} relative to the quasar rest frame. The former component shows rare Balmer absorption, which is an indicator of high-density absorbing gas; thus, the quasar is worth follow-up spectroscopic observations. Our follow-up optical and near-infrared spectra using MMT, YFOSC, TSpec, and DBSP reveal that the strengths of the absorption lines vary for both components, while the velocities do not change. We reproduce all of the spectral data by assuming that only the ionization state of the absorbing gas is variable and that all other physical properties are invariable. The variation of ionization is consistent with the variation of optical continuum from the V -band light curve. Additionally, we cannot interpret the data by assuming that the variability is due to a movement of the absorbing gas. Therefore, our analysis strongly indicates that the absorption-line variability in LBQS 1206+1052 is photoionization driven. As shown from photoionization simulations, the absorbing gas with blueshift velocity of ∼700 km s{sup −1} has a density in the range of 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and a distance of ∼1 pc, and the gas with blueshift velocity of ∼1400 km s{sup −1} has a density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup −3} and a distance of ∼1 kpc.

  1. Novel biliary self-expanding metal stents: indications and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blero, Daniel; Huberty, Vincent; Devière, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopic insertion of a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) through a malignant common bile duct stricture is the first line of palliation for malignant jaundice. Patency of these stents remains a major concern. SEMS dysfunction can result from tumor ingrowth, overgrowth and/or clogging. Initial SEMS modifications involved covering the central part of the stent in order to reduce ingrowth and ultimately increase patency. Fully covered stents became available shortly after reports of their use in human patients. The potential removability and radial strength of SEMS have led to evaluation of their use in new indications including benign biliary strictures, post sphincterotomy bleeding and perforation. Other aspects of development include the addition of features such as anti-reflux valves, drug elution and spontaneous biodegradability. These aspects and their clinical implications are reviewed and discussed.

  2. Compressive Strength of Compacted Clay-Sand Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseel Suleman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sand to improve the strength of natural clays provides a viable alternative for civil infrastructure construction involving earthwork. The main objective of this note was to investigate the compressive strength of compacted clay-sand mixes. A natural clay of high plasticity was mixed with 20% and 40% sand (SP and their compaction and strength properties were determined. Results indicated that the investigated materials exhibited a brittle behaviour on the dry side of optimum and a ductile behaviour on the wet side of optimum. For each material, the compressive strength increased with an increase in density following a power law function. Conversely, the compressive strength increased with decreasing water content of the material following a similar function. Finally, the compressive strength decreased with an increase in sand content because of increased material heterogeneity and loss of sand grains from the sides during shearing.

  3. rf reference line for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system

  4. rf reference line for PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system.

  5. Prestressed Concrete-Lined Pressure Tunnels : Towards Improved Safety and Economical Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simanjuntak, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pressure tunnels for hydropower plants are relatively expensive constructions, particularly when steel linings are used. Concrete linings can be economically attractive; however, their applicability is limited by the low tensile strength of concrete. Techniques to improve the bearing capacity of

  6. comparative evaluation of the flexural strength of concrete and colcrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concrete and polymer concrete, from continuous researches being carried out on. 13 ... COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF CONCRETE AND COLCRETE advantage of being able to use larger sizes of ... and low permeability, colcrete has found applications in tunnel linings, dams, bridges.

  7. Oxidation Phenomena in Advanced High Strength Steels : Modelling and Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, W.

    2018-01-01

    Galvanized advanced high strength steels (AHSS) will be the most competitive structural material for automotive applications in the next decade. Oxidation of AHSS during the recrystalization annealing process in a continuous galvanizing line to a large extent influences the quality of zinc coating

  8. Effect of cellulase treatment of long fiber fraction on strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fiber and unbeaten short-fiber fractions. The obtained test results have indicate that the application of enzyme on appropriate fiber fraction have positive effects on the strength properties of the corrugated medium. The short span compression ...

  9. Static and Dynamic Handgrip Strength Endurance: Test-Retest Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Psychou, Dimitra; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Zafeiridis, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the reliability of static and dynamic handgrip strength endurance using different protocols and indicators for the assessment of strength endurance. Forty young, healthy men and women (age, 18-22 years) performed 2 handgrip strength endurance protocols: a static protocol (sustained submaximal contraction at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction) and a dynamic one (8, 10, and 12 maximal repetitions). The participants executed each protocol twice to assess the test-retest reproducibility. Total work and total time were used as indicators of strength endurance in the static protocol; the strength recorded at each maximal repetition, the percentage change, and fatigue index were used as indicators of strength endurance in the dynamic protocol. The static protocol showed high reliability irrespective of sex and hand for total time and work. The 12-repetition dynamic protocol exhibited moderate-high reliability for repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change; the 8- and 10-repetition protocols demonstrated lower reliability irrespective of sex and hand. The fatigue index was not a reliable indicator for the assessment of dynamic handgrip endurance. Static handgrip endurance can be measured reliably using the total time and total work as indicators of strength endurance. For the evaluation of dynamic handgrip endurance, the 12-repetition protocol is recommended, using the repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change as indicators of strength endurance. Practitioners should consider the static (50% maximal voluntary contraction) and dynamic (12 repeated maximal repetitions) protocols as reliable for the assessment of handgrip strength endurance. The evaluation of static endurance in conjunction with dynamic endurance would provide more complete information about hand function. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving Strength-Ductility Balance of High Strength Dual-Phase Steels by Addition of Vanadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu; Hua, M.; Uusitalo, J.; DeArdo, A. J.

    For galvanized or galvannealed steels to be commercially successful, they must exhibit several attributes: (i) easy and inexpensive processing in the hot mill, cold mill and on the coating line, (ii) high strength with good formability and spot weldability, and (iii) good corrosion resistance, especially after cold forming. For good corrosion resistance, the coating must have sufficient coverage, be of uniform thickness, and most importantly, the coating must survive the cold stamping or forming operation. The purpose of this paper is to present research aiming at improving the steel substrate, such that high strength can be obtained while maintaining good global formability (tensile ductility), local formability (sheared-edge ductility), and good spot weldability. It is well-known that the strength of DP steels is controlled by several factors, including the amount of martensite found in the final microstructure. Recent research has revealed that the amount of austenite formed during intercritical annealing can be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature and the pre-annealing conditions of the hot band (coiling temperature) and cold band (% cold reduction). Current experiments have explored the combination of pre-annealing conditions and four annealing practices to help define the best practice to optimize the strength-formability balance in these higher strength DP steels. The steels used in these experiments contained (i) low carbon content for good spot weldability, (ii) the hardenability additions Mo and Cr for strength, and (iii) V for grain refinement, precipitation hardening and temper resistance. When processed correctly, these steels exhibited UTS levels up to 1000MPa, total elongation to 25%, reduction in area to 45%, and Hole Expansion Ratios to 50%. The results of this program will be presented and discussed.

  11. High-Tensile Strength Tape Versus High-Tensile Strength Suture: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnandt, Ryan J; Smith, Jennifer L; Nguyen-Ta, Kim; McDonald, Lucas; LeClere, Lance E

    2016-02-01

    To determine which suture design, high-tensile strength tape or high-tensile strength suture, performed better at securing human tissue across 4 selected suture techniques commonly used in tendinous repair, by comparing the total load at failure measured during a fixed-rate longitudinal single load to failure using a biomechanical testing machine. Matched sets of tendon specimens with bony attachments were dissected from 15 human cadaveric lower extremities in a manner allowing for direct comparison testing. With the use of selected techniques (simple Mason-Allen in the patellar tendon specimens, whip stitch in the quadriceps tendon specimens, and Krackow stitch in the Achilles tendon specimens), 1 sample of each set was sutured with a 2-mm braided, nonabsorbable, high-tensile strength tape and the other with a No. 2 braided, nonabsorbable, high-tensile strength suture. A total of 120 specimens were tested. Each model was loaded to failure at a fixed longitudinal traction rate of 100 mm/min. The maximum load and failure method were recorded. In the whip stitch and the Krackow-stitch models, the high-tensile strength tape had a significantly greater mean load at failure with a difference of 181 N (P = .001) and 94 N (P = .015) respectively. No significant difference was found in the Mason-Allen and simple stitch models. Pull-through remained the most common method of failure at an overall rate of 56.7% (suture = 55%; tape = 58.3%). In biomechanical testing during a single load to failure, high-tensile strength tape performs more favorably than high-tensile strength suture, with a greater mean load to failure, in both the whip- and Krackow-stitch models. Although suture pull-through remains the most common method of failure, high-tensile strength tape requires a significantly greater load to pull-through in a whip-stitch and Krakow-stitch model. The biomechanical data obtained in the current study indicates that high-tensile strength tape may provide better repair

  12. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  13. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  14. STRENGTH OF NANOMODIFIED HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOZEMTСEV Alexandr Sergeevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research aimed at development of nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete for construction. The developed concretes are of low average density and high ultimate compressive strength. It is shown that to produce this type of concrete one need to use hollow glass and aluminosilicate microspheres. To increase the durability of adhesion between cement stone and fine filler the authors offer to use complex nanodimensinal modifier based on iron hydroxide sol and silica sol as a surface nanomodifier for hollow microspheres. It is hypothesized that the proposed modifier has complex effect on the activity of the cement hydration and, at the same time increases bond strength between filler and cement-mineral matrix. The compositions for energy-efficient nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete which density is 1300…1500 kg/m³ and compressive strength is 40…65 MPa have been developed. The approaches to the design of high-strength lightweight concrete with density of less than 2000 kg/m³ are formulated. It is noted that the proposed concretes possess dense homogeneous structure and moderate mobility. Thus, they allow processing by vibration during production. The economic and practical implications for realization of high-strength lightweight concrete in industrial production have been justified.

  15. An Experimental Evaluation of the Weathering Effects on Mine Shaft Lining Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many shaft collapses are related to the deterioration and failure of the masonry shaft lining materials. In modern mine shaft, concrete is widely used to provide support. To analyse shafts stability, the properties of the lining need to be well defined. The behaviour of masonry and concrete can be considerably affected by long-term exposure to harsh mine water. This paper presents a study which focuses on the weathering effects of mine water on lining materials (brick, mortar, and concrete. To reproduce the weathering process, samples were placed into solutions of potable water, artificial mine water, and a more aggressive mine-water solution for just less than one year. Four phases of laboratory tests were conducted throughout the time period to assess the degradation of mechanical properties of the lining materials. Particular attention is given to the degradation of material strength and stiffness. Results indicate that the harsh acidic mine water has pronounced detrimental effects on the strength and stiffness of mortar. The weathering process is shown to have the most significant effect on the stiffness of concrete and mortar. It is also shown that the use of mass loss as an index for evaluation of mechanical properties may not be appropriate.

  16. The use of radioprotective indicators in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly Junior, Joao G.; Schmidt, Margot F.S.

    1996-01-01

    Radioprotection indicators are proposed as per the World Health Organization guide-lines, in order to establish policies as well as to show the development and identified new operational strategic in radiological protection

  17. Contribution of Field Strength Gradients to the Net Vertical Current of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemareddy, P.

    2017-12-01

    We examined the contribution of field strength gradients for the degree of net vertical current (NVC) neutralization in active regions (ARs). We used photospheric vector magnetic field observations of AR 11158 obtained by Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board SDO and Hinode. The vertical component of the electric current is decomposed into twist and shear terms. The NVC exhibits systematic evolution owing to the presence of the sheared polarity inversion line between rotating and shearing magnetic regions. We found that the sign of shear current distribution is opposite in dominant pixels (60%–65%) to that of twist current distribution, and its time profile bears no systematic trend. This result indicates that the gradient of magnetic field strength contributes to an opposite signed, though smaller in magnitude, current to that contributed by the magnetic field direction in the vertical component of the current. Consequently, the net value of the shear current is negative in both polarity regions, which when added to the net twist current reduces the direct current value in the north (B z > 0) polarity, resulting in a higher degree of NVC neutralization. We conjecture that the observed opposite signs of shear and twist currents are an indication, according to Parker, that the direct volume currents of flux tubes are canceled by their return currents, which are contributed by field strength gradients. Furthermore, with the increase of spatial resolution, we found higher values of twist, shear current distributions. However, the resolution effect is more useful in resolving the field strength gradients, and therefore suggests more contribution from shear current for the degree of NVC neutralization.

  18. Asymmetries of the solar Ca II lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasley, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical study of the influence of propagating acoustic pulses in the solar chromosphere upon the line profiles of the Ca II resonance and infrared triplet lines has been made. The major objective has been to explain the observed asymmetries seen in the cores of the H and K lines and to predict the temporal behavior of the infrared lines caused by passing acoustic or shock pulses. The velocities in the pulses, calculated from weak shock theory, have been included consistently in the non-LTE calculations. The results of the calculations show that these lines are very sensitive to perturbations in the background atmosphere caused by the pulses. Only minor changes in the line shapes result from including the velocities consistently in the line source function calculations. The qualitative changes in the line profiles vary markedly with the strength of the shock pulses. The observed differences in the K line profiles seen on the quiet Sun can be explained in terms of a spectrum of pulses with different wavelengths and initial amplitudes in the photosphere. (Auth.)

  19. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  20. Influence of rock spalling on concrete lining in shaft sinking at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Inagaki, Daisuke; Nago, Makito; Koike, Masashi; Matsubara, Makoto; Sugawara, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    A shaft is the shortest way to access the deep underground. In shaft sinking through large-scale faults or under low competence factor, spalling of shaft walls is likely to occur. Although earlier studies indicated that rock spalling is an undesirable phenomenon that threatens safety in excavation work and causes delay in construction schedule, there have been few studies which discussed damage to concrete lining induced by spalling. Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been constructing three shafts (one for ventilation and the others for access) to a depth of 500 m in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. During the construction of the Ventilation Shaft (4.5 m diameter) below a depth of 250 m, rock spalling occurred at several depths and an open crack developed in the concrete lining installed just above the location of the rock spalling. In this study, the geometry of the shaft wall was measured using a three-dimensional laser scanner. Numerical analysis was also conducted to estimate changes in stress distribution and deformation induced by rock spalling in both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. As a result, it was clarified that rock spalling induced a vertical tensile stress in the concrete lining. Especially, the tensile stress in a concrete lining was likely to exceed the tensile strength of the concrete lining when it developed more than 100 cm into the wall rock. (author)

  1. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  2. Tensile rock mass strength estimated using InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2012-11-01

    The large-scale strength of rock is known to be lower than the strength determined from small-scale samples in the laboratory. However, it is not well known how strength scales with sample size. I estimate kilometer-scale tensional rock mass strength by measuring offsets across new tensional fractures (joints), formed above a shallow magmatic dike intrusion in western Arabia in 2009. I use satellite radar observations to derive 3D ground displacements and by quantifying the extension accommodated by the joints and the maximum extension that did not result in a fracture, I put bounds on the joint initiation threshold of the surface rocks. The results indicate that the kilometer-scale tensile strength of the granitic rock mass is 1–3 MPa, almost an order of magnitude lower than typical laboratory values.

  3. Tensile rock mass strength estimated using InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2012-01-01

    The large-scale strength of rock is known to be lower than the strength determined from small-scale samples in the laboratory. However, it is not well known how strength scales with sample size. I estimate kilometer-scale tensional rock mass strength by measuring offsets across new tensional fractures (joints), formed above a shallow magmatic dike intrusion in western Arabia in 2009. I use satellite radar observations to derive 3D ground displacements and by quantifying the extension accommodated by the joints and the maximum extension that did not result in a fracture, I put bounds on the joint initiation threshold of the surface rocks. The results indicate that the kilometer-scale tensile strength of the granitic rock mass is 1–3 MPa, almost an order of magnitude lower than typical laboratory values.

  4. Cable line engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong

    1998-02-01

    This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.

  5. Primary care in Switzerland gains strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Sima; Meier, Tatjana; Hasler, Susann; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    Although there is widespread agreement on health- and cost-related benefits of strong primary care in health systems, little is known about the development of the primary care status over time in specific countries, especially in countries with a traditionally weak primary care sector such as Switzerland. The aim of our study was to assess the current strength of primary care in the Swiss health care system and to compare it with published results of earlier primary care assessments in Switzerland and other countries. A survey of experts and stakeholders with insights into the Swiss health care system was carried out between February and March 2014. The study was designed as mixed-modes survey with a self-administered questionnaire based on a set of 15 indicators for the assessment of primary care strength. Forty representatives of Swiss primary and secondary care, patient associations, funders, health care authority, policy makers and experts in health services research were addressed. Concordance between the indicators of a strong primary care system and the real situation in Swiss primary care was rated with 0-2 points (low-high concordance). A response rate of 62.5% was achieved. Participants rated concordance with five indicators as 0 (low), with seven indicators as 1 (medium) and with three indicators as 2 (high). In sum, Switzerland achieved 13 of 30 possible points. Low scores were assigned because of the following characteristics of Swiss primary care: inequitable local distribution of medical resources, relatively low earnings of primary care practitioners compared to specialists, low priority of primary care in medical education and training, lack of formal guidelines for information transfer between primary care practitioners and specialists and disregard of clinical routine data in the context of medical service planning. Compared to results of an earlier assessment in Switzerland, an improvement of seven indicators could be stated since 1995. As a

  6. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  7. Strength Training and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in organized sports or activities such as baseball, soccer, or gymnastics usually can safely to start strength ... as biking and running, adequate hydration, and healthy nutrition. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  8. On-line control of the nonlinear dynamics for synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, J.; Martin, I. P. S.; Rowland, J. H.; Bartolini, R.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a simple approach to the on-line control of the nonlinear dynamics in storage rings, based on compensation of the nonlinear resonance driving terms using beam losses as the main indicator of the strength of a resonance. The correction scheme is built on the analysis of the resonance driving terms in first perturbative order and on the possibility of using independent power supplies in the sextupole magnets, which is nowadays present in many synchrotron light sources. Such freedom allows the definition of "smart sextupole knobs" attacking each resonance separately. The compensation scheme has been tested at the Diamond light source and proved to be effective in opening up the betatron tune space, resonance free, available to the electron beam and to improve the beam lifetime.

  9. On-line control of the nonlinear dynamics for synchrotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bengtsson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple approach to the on-line control of the nonlinear dynamics in storage rings, based on compensation of the nonlinear resonance driving terms using beam losses as the main indicator of the strength of a resonance. The correction scheme is built on the analysis of the resonance driving terms in first perturbative order and on the possibility of using independent power supplies in the sextupole magnets, which is nowadays present in many synchrotron light sources. Such freedom allows the definition of “smart sextupole knobs” attacking each resonance separately. The compensation scheme has been tested at the Diamond light source and proved to be effective in opening up the betatron tune space, resonance free, available to the electron beam and to improve the beam lifetime.

  10. Translucent zirconia in the ceramic scenario for monolithic restorations: A flexural strength and translucency comparison test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrabba, Michele; Keeling, Andrew J; Aziz, Aziz; Vichi, Alessandro; Fabian Fonzar, Riccardo; Wood, David; Ferrari, Marco

    2017-05-01

    To compare three different compositions of Yttria-Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramic and a lithium disilicate ceramic in terms of flexural strength and translucency. Three zirconia materials of different composition and translucency, Aadva ST [ST], Aadva EI [EI] and Aadva NT [NT](GC Tech, Leuven, Belgium) were cut with a slow speed diamond saw into beams and tabs in order to obtain, after sintering, dimensions of 1.2×4.0×15.0mm and 15.0×15.0×1.0mm respectively. Blocks of IPS e.max CAD LT were cut and crystallized in the same shapes and dimensions and used as a reference group [LD]. Beams (n=15) were tested in a universal testing machine for three-point bending strength. Critical fracture load was recorded in N, flexural strength (σ in MPa), Weibull modulus (m) and Weibull characteristic strength (σ 0 in MPa) were then calculated. Tabs (n=10) were measured with a spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Contrast Ratios were calculated as CR=Yb/Yw. SEM of thermally etched samples coupled with lineal line analysis (n=6) was used to measure the tested zirconia grain size. Data were statistically analyzed. Differences in translucency, flexural strength and grain size were found to be statistically significant. CR increased and flexural strength decreased in the following order ST(σ 1215±190MPa, CR 0.74±0.01)>EI(σ 983±182MPa, CR 0.69±0.01)>NT(σ 539±66MPa, CR 0.65±0.01)>LD (σ 377±39Mpa, CR 0.56±0.02). The average grain size was different for the three zirconia samples with NT(558±38nm)>ST(445±34nm)>EI(284±11nm). The zirconia composition heavily influenced both the flexural strength and the translucency. Different percentages of Yittria and Alumina result in new materials with intermediate properties in between the conventional zirconia and lithium disilicate. Clinical indications for Zirconia Aadva NT should be limited up to three-unit span bridges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The innominate line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, M.A.; Myung, K.H.; Bergeron, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    The innominate line continues to be of value in evaluating the integrity of the sphenoid bone since plain skull radiographs remain a primary screening tool for metastatic disease, seizure disorder and headache. The detection of lesions involving the sphenoid bone can be difficult. The accuracy of the radionulcide scan is reduced because of confusion caused by uptake in the adjacent nasal and sinus mucosa. On computed tomography, the sections through the base of the skull and orbit can contain many artifictual densities caused by a combination of bone, soft tissue and sinus air interfaces. In addition, routine settings of window width and level on CT scan are designed to best demonstrate the soft tissues, and bony lesions can easily be missed. Thus, disruption of the ''integrity'' of this line on plain films, particularly the Caldwell projection, can be a sensitive first indicator of disease involving the sphenoid bone. Such a determination on plain film leads to more accurate CT scanning, in that attention will be given to the skull base and scans will be imaged with both soft tissue and bone windows. (orig./MG)

  12. Adhesion strength of a living cell to various substrates measured using a cup-attached atomic force microscopy chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyonchol; Ishibashi, Kenta; Matsuo, Kosuke; Kira, Atsushi; Onomura, Yui; Okada, Tomoko; Nakamura, Chikashi

    2018-03-01

    Cell adhesion strengths to various substrates were quantitatively measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A cup-shaped metal hemisphere was attached to the apex of the AFM cantilever, the “cup-chip” approached a cell (FP10SC2) to pick it up, the captured cell approached any one of six different substrates [gold (Au), nickel (Ni), bovine serum albumin (BSA), an amino group (NH2), poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), and structured PTFE (sPTFE)], and the cell adhesion strength at the initial contact period was evaluated by detaching the cell from the substrate. The results obtained showed that the force needed to detach the cell from the NH2 substrate was more than 3-fold larger than that of metal substrates (Au and Ni), more than 15-fold larger than that of biochemically treated substrates (BSA), and more than 20-fold larger than that of hydrophobic substrates (PTFE and sPTFE). Using differences in adhesion strengths, a cell on a sPTFE substrate was picked up using a BSA-coated cup-chip, placed on a NH2 substrate, repeating this cell manipulation five times, and line patterning of cells was achieved. These results indicate that measurements of cell adhesion strength are fundamental to fabricate desired cell networks and the cup-chip is a useful tool for achieving easy cell manipulation.

  13. Measured oscillator strengths in singly ionized molybdenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-García, R.; Aragón, C.; Aguilera, J. A.; Ortiz, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this article, 112 oscillator strengths from Mo II have been measured, 79 of which for the first time. The radiative parameters have been obtained by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The plasma is produced from a fused glass sample prepared from molybdenum oxide with a Mo atomic concentration of 0.1%. The plasma evolved in air at atmospheric pressure, and measurements were carried out with the following plasma parameters: an electron density of (2.5+/- 0.1)\\cdot {10}17 cm-3 and an electron temperature of 14,400+/- 200 K. In these conditions, a local thermodynamic equilibrium environment and an optically thin plasma were confirmed for the measurements. The relative intensities were placed on an absolute scale by combining branching fractions with the measured lifetimes and by comparing well-known lines using the plasma temperature. Comparisons were made to previously obtained experimental and theoretical values wherever possible.

  14. Enhanced radiative strength in the quasicontinuum of 117Sn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agvaanluvsan, U; Larsen, A C; Chankova, R; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Schiller, A; Siem, S; Voinov, A

    2009-04-24

    The radiative strength function of 117Sn has been measured up to the neutron separation energy using the (3He, 3He' gamma) reaction. An increase in the slope of the strength function around E gamma=4.5 MeV indicates the onset of a resonancelike structure, giving a significant enhancement of the radiative strength function compared to standard models in the energy region 4.5

  15. Anisotropy effect on strengths of metamorphic rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Özbek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the effect of anisotropy on strengths of several metamorphic rocks of southern (Çine submassif of Menderes metamorphic massif in southwest Turkey. Four different metamorphic rocks including foliated phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist were selected and examined. Discontinuity surveys were made along lines for each rock and evaluated with DIPS program. L-type Schmidt hammer was applied in the directions parallel and perpendicular to foliation during the field study. Several hand samples and rock blocks were collected during the field study for measurements of dry and saturated densities, dry and saturated unit weights and porosity, and for petrographic analysis and strength determination in laboratory. L- and N-type Schmidt hammers were applied in the directions perpendicular (anisotropy angle of 0° and parallel (anisotropy angle of 90° to the foliation on selected blocks of phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist. The phyllite and schist have higher porosity and lower density values than the other rocks. However, coarse crystalline gneiss and marble (calcschist have higher rebound values and strengths, and they are classified as strong–very strong rocks. Generally, the rebound values in the direction perpendicular to the foliation are slightly higher than that in the direction parallel to foliation. Rebound values of N-type Schmidt hammer are higher than the L-type values except for phyllite. Sometimes, the rebound values of laboratory and field applications gave different results. This may result from variable local conditions such as minerals differentiation, discontinuities, water content, weathering degree and thickness of foliated structure.

  16. Strength degradation of oxidized graphite support column in VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Ha; No, Hee Cheon

    2010-01-01

    Air-ingress events caused by large pipe breaks are important accidents considered in the design of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (VHTRs). A main safety concern for this type of event is the possibility of core collapse following the failure of the graphite support column, which can be oxidized by ingressed air. In this study, the main target is to predict the strength of the oxidized graphite support column. Through compression tests for fresh and oxidized graphite columns, the compressive strength of IG-110 was obtained. The buckling strength of the IG-110 column is expressed using the following empirical straight-line formula: σ cr,buckling =91.34-1.01(L/r). Graphite oxidation in Zone 1 is volume reaction and that in Zone 3 is surface reaction. We notice that the ultimate strength of the graphite column oxidized in Zones 1 and 3 only depends on the slenderness ratio and bulk density. Its strength degradation oxidized in Zone 1 is expressed in the following nondimensional form: σ/σ 0 =exp(-kd), k=0.114. We found that the strength degradation of a graphite column, oxidized in Zone 3, follows the above buckling empirical formula as the slenderness of the column changes. (author)

  17. Strength Calculation of Locally Loaded Orthotropic Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Vinogradov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies laminated orthotropic cylindrical, conic, spherical, and toroidal shells, which are often locally loaded in the aircraft designs over small areas of their surfaces.The aim of this work is to determine stress concentration in shells versus structure of orthotropic composite material, shell form and parameters, forms of loading areas, which borders do not coincide with lines of main curvatures of shells. For this purpose, an analytical computing algorithm to estimate strength of shells in terms of stress is developed. It enables us to have solution results of the boundary value problem with a controlled error. To solve differential equations an analytical method is used. An algorithm of the boundary value problem solution is multiplicative.The main results of researches are graphs of stress concentration in the orthotropic shells versus their parameters and areas of loading lineated by circles and ellipses.Among the other works aimed at determination of stress concentration in shells, the place of this one is defined by the analytical solution of applied problems for strength estimation in terms of shell stresses of classical forms.The developed effective analytical algorithm to solve the boundary value problem and received results are useful in research and development.

  18. Performance indicator of a bridge expansion joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, I.M.; Lentzen, S.S.K.; Courage, W.M.G.; Napoles, O.M.; Galanti, F.M.B.

    2011-01-01

    In general the condition of a structure can be assessed in terms of a performance indicator. For example, this can be the strength of a structure. An asset manager is concerned with ensuring that the performance of a structure does not fall below a given minimum level. This can be achieved by

  19. Indicators of environmental sustainability in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of about thirty researchers meeting regularly to discuss these questions along the period 2005-2010. The researchers were from natural as well as social sciences, and all engaged in the field of transport and environment. The report provides analysis of the functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators...

  20. Strength curves for shales and sandstones under hydrostatic confining pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.C.; Sikka, S.K.

    1978-01-01

    The experimental data for the effect of confining pressures on the fracture stress have been analysed for shales and sandstones. The normalized compressive strengths are found to lie in a narrow region so that Ohnaka's equation for crystalline rocks, can be fitted to the data. The fitted parameters are physically reasonable and indicate that the functional dependence of strength on porosity, strain rate and temperature is independent of the confining pressures. (author)

  1. Integrated-light spectroscopy of globular clusters at the infrared Ca II lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armandroff, Taft E.; Zinn, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Integrated-light spectroscopy has been obtained for 27 globular clusters at the Ca II IR triplet. Line strengths and radial velocities have been measured from the spectra. For the well-studied clusters in the sample, the strength of the Ca II lines is very well correlated with previous metallicity estimates. Thus, the triplet is useful as a metallicity indicator in globular cluster integrated-light spectra. The greatly reduced effect of interstellar extinction at these wavelengths (compared to the blue region of the spectrum) has permitted observations of some of the most heavily reddened clusters in the Galaxy. For several such clusters, the Ca II triplet metallicities are in poor agreement with metallicity estimates from IR photometry by Malkan (1981). The strength of an interstellar band at 8621A has been used to estimate the amount of extinction towards these clusters. Using the new metallicity and radial-velocity data, the metallicity distribution, kinematics, and spatial distribution of the disk globular cluster system have been analyzed. Results very similar to those of Zinn (1985) have been found. The relation of the disk globulars to the stellar thick disk is discussed.

  2. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  3. Effects of neck strength training on isometric neck strength in rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Kevin; Green, Brian S; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a neck strengthening program on the isometric neck strength profile of male rugby union players. Controlled laboratory study. Professional rugby union club. Fifteen professional and 10 semiprofessional rugby union players. The 15 professional players undertook a 5-week neck strengthening intervention, which was performed twice per week, whereas the 10 semiprofessional players acted as the control group. Isometric strength of the neck musculature was tested using a hand-held dynamometer, for flexion (F), extension (E), left-side flexion (LSF), and right-side flexion (RSF). Preintervention and postintervention evaluations were undertaken. No significant between-group differences in isometric neck strength were noted preintervention. A significant main effect for time was observed (P isometric neck strength in all planes after the 5-week intervention (F preintervention = 334.45 ± 39.31 N vs F postintervention 396.05 ± 75.55 N; E preintervention = 606.19 ± 97.34 vs E postintervention = 733.88 ± 127.16 N; LSF preintervention = 555.56 ± 88.34 N vs LSF postintervention = 657.14 ± 122.99 N; RSF preintervention = 570.00 ± 106.53 N vs RSF postintervention = 668.00 ± 142.18 N). No significant improvement in neck strength was observed for control group participants. The results of the present study indicate that a 5-week neck strengthening program improves isometric neck strength in rugby union players, which may have implications for injury prevention, screening, and rehabilitation. The strengthening program described in the present study may facilitate rehabilitation specialists in the development of neck injury prevention, screening, and rehabilitation protocols.

  4. Influência da gramatura na resistência da linha de cola aos esforços de cisalhamento em painéis compensados de Copaifera duckei Dawyer e Eperua oleifera Ducke Effects of amount of adhesive spread on the glue line shear strength in the plywood of Copaifera duckei Dawyer and Eperua oleifera Ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerci Nina Lima

    2011-03-01

    levels of between 5 and 15% according to the type of resin used. This study evaluated the effect of 04 weights (270, 330, 364 and 390 g/m² in the production of panels using offset the species: Copaifera ducker Dawyer and Eperua oleifera Ducke. The species were removed from the area of sustainable forest management Gethal Plywood Industry Ltd. located in Manicoré-Am. The slides were produced with thickness of 2.2 mm. The variables of the pressing cycle of were controlled by following the technical guidelines set by the manufacturer of resin. The property was assessed to resilience of the line of glue, with samples of the hood and the kernels in drought conditions and post-boil. Statistical analysis was applied an experimental design with in a factorial arrangement of treatments. Confronting the average values of voltage collapse and the percentage of failure in wood obtained in this research, test and post-boiling dry, with the literature, it appears that the panels assessed meet the established criteria, may be indicated for use inside and outside Because according to EN 314-2 (1993 the average voltage collapse along with the percentage of failure in the wood are at an acceptable standard of behavior.

  5. Sociometric Indicators of Leadership: An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Research Report 2015 Sociometric Indicators of Leadership : An Exploratory Analysis Elizabeth R. Uhl U.S. Army...2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sociometric Indicators of Leadership : An Exploratory Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W5J9CQ-11-D-0001 5b...objectives and a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the wearable sensor technology. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Leadership ; Social Network; Sociometric

  6. Isolated electrostatic structures observed throughout the Cluster orbit: relationship to magnetic field strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Pickett

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated electrostatic structures are observed throughout much of the 4RE by 19.6RE Cluster orbit. These structures are observed in the Wideband plasma wave instrument's waveform data as bipolar pulses (one positive and one negative peak in the electric field amplitude and tripolar pulses (two positive and one negative peak, or vice versa. These structures are observed at all of the boundary layers, in the solar wind and magnetosheath, and along auroral field lines at 4.5-6.5RE. Using the Wideband waveform data from the various Cluster spacecraft we have carried out a survey of the amplitudes and time durations of these structures and how these quantities vary with the local magnetic field strength. Such a survey has not been carried out before, and it reveals certain characteristics of solitary structures in a finite magnetic field, a topic still inadequately addressed by theories. We find that there is a broad range of electric field amplitudes at any specific magnetic field strength, and there is a general trend for the electric field amplitudes to increase as the strength of the magnetic field increases over a range of 5 to 500nT. We provide a possible explanation for this trend that relates to the structures being Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal mode solitary waves. There is no corresponding dependence of the duration of the structures on the magnetic field strength, although a plot of these two quantities reveals the unexpected result that with the exception of the magnetosheath, all of the time durations for all of the other regions are comparable, whereas the magnetosheath time durations clearly are in a different category of much smaller time duration. We speculate that this implies that the structures are much smaller in size. The distinctly different pulse durations for the magnetosheath pulses indicate the possibility that the pulses are generated by a mechanism which is different from the mechanism operating in other regions.

  7. Interactive effects of music tempi and intensities on grip strength and subjective affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, C I; Cheek, P; Simpson, S D; Bigliassi, M

    2018-03-01

    Pretask music is widely used by athletes albeit there is scant empirical evidence to support its use. The present study extended a line of work into pretask music by examining the interactive effects of music tempo and intensity (volume) on the performance of a simple motor skill and subjective affect. A 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial design was employed with an additional no-music control, the scores from which were used as a covariate. A sample of 52 male athletes (M age  = 26.1 ± 4.8 years) was exposed to five conditions: fast/loud (126 bpm/80 dBA), fast/quiet (126 bpm/70 dBA), slow/loud (87 bpm/80 dBA), slow/quiet (87 bpm/70 dBA) music, and a no-music control. Dependent variables were grip strength, measured with a handgrip dynamometer, and subjective affect, assessed by use of the Affect Grid. The tempo and intensity components of music had interactive effects for grip strength but only main effects for subjective affect. Fast-tempo music played at a high intensity yielded the highest grip strength, while fast-tempo music played at a low-intensity resulted in much lower grip strength (M diff.  = -1.11 Force kg). For affective valence, there were main effects of tempo and intensity, with fast and loud music yielding the highest scores. For affective arousal, there was no difference between tempi although there was between intensities, with the high-intensity condition yielding higher scores. The present findings indicate the utility of fast/loud pretask music in enhancing affective valence and arousal in preparation for a simple or gross motor task. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Collective properties of drip-line nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamamoto, I. [Univ. of Lund (Sweden); Sagawa, H. [Univ. of Aizu, Fukushima (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Performing the spherical Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations with Skyrme interactions and, then, using RPA solved in the coordinate space with the Green`s function method, the authors have studied the effect of the unique shell structure as well as the very low particle threshold on collective modes in drip line nuclei. In this method a proper strength function in the continuum is obtained, though the spreading width of collective modes is not included. They have examined also one-particle resonant states in the obtained HF potential. Unperturbed particle-hole (p-h) response functions are carefully studied, which contain all basic information on the exotic behaviour of the RPA strength function in drip line nuclei.

  9. Photospheric network from study of manganese lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elste, G; Teske, R G [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA). Dept. of Astronomy

    1978-10-01

    Area scans with the multi-channel magnetograph at the Kitt Peak McMath Telescope provided simultaneous measures of equivalent widths in two Mn lines, continuum intensity and longitudinal magnetic field component. Observations were carried out with apertures of 2.5 X 3.5 seconds arc and 1 X 1 seconds arc. For the network elements, which were identified using the magnetic field as tracer, the authors developed relationships between Isub(continuum), Wsub(lambda), Vsub(Doppler) and longitudinal field strength. With a minimum of assumptions it is possible to write from these observed relations an expression connecting true temperature perturbation in the line forming layers of the network to true longitudinal field strength. The results provide some constraints upon possible network models.

  10. The Effect of Aloe vera Extract on Adherence of Candida albicans and Other Properties of Heat Cure Denture Soft Lining Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseel Riyadh Abdulwahhab

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the serious drawbacks of denture soft lining materials is colonization by Candida albicans that might eventually leads to denture stomatitis. This can be treated either systemically or locally. With the recent increase interest in medicinal plants, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera powder incorporated with heat cure acrylic soft-liner powder on the adherence of Candida albicans, shear bond strength and tear strength. Methods: According to the results of pilot study, two percentages (3% and 10% of aloe vera powder was used. Candida adherence test, shear bond strength and tear strength tests were performed, also the long-term effect was evaluated after 2 and 4 weeks incubation in artificial saliva. All data was analyzed using SPSS software (version 24. Descriptive and inferential statistics, ANOVA test with post-hoc analysis was applied. Results: The results indicated that both concentrations of aloe vera showed a statistically highly significant decrease in Candida albicans cell count in comparison to control group, also a significant increase in shear bond strength and non-significant difference in tear strength of soft liner for the experimental groups. After 2 and 4 weeks incubation in artificial saliva, all experimental groups showed a statistically significant decrease in Candida albicans cell count and a statistically significant increase in shear bond strength and tear strength test. Conclusion: Incorporation of aloe vera powder with heat cure acrylic soft-liner powder helps to add an anti-candidal property to the soft liner, also this addition results in improvement in shear bond strength and tear strength.

  11. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    is based upon the hypothesis that cracks can be transformed into yield lines, which have lower sliding resistance than yield lines formed in uncracked concrete.Proposals have been made on how the derived standard solutions may be applied to more complicated cases, such as continuous beams, beams......The report deals with the shear strength of statically indeterminate reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement. Solutions for a number of beams with different load and support conditions have been derived by means of the crack sliding model developed by Jin- Ping Zhang.This model...

  12. Corrosion strength monitoring of NPP component residual lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.G.; Belous, V.N.; Arzhaev, A.I.; Shuvalov, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    Importance of corrosion and fatigue monitoring; types of corrosion determine the NPP equipment life; why automated on-line corrosion and fatigue monitoring is preferable; major stages of lifetime monitoring system development; major groups of sensors for corrosion and strength monitoring system; high temperature on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion; the RBMK-1000 NPP unit automatic water chemistry and corrosion monitoring scheme; examples of pitting, crevice and general corrosion forecast calculations on the basis of corrosion monitoring data; scheme of an experimental facility for water chemistry and corrosion monitoring sensor testing. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Stellar Laboratories: New GeV and Ge VI Oscillator Strengths and their Validation in the Hot White Dwarf RE0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Biemont, E.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art spectral analysis of hot stars by means of non-LTE model-atmosphere techniques has arrived at a high level of sophistication. The analysis of high-resolution and high-S/N spectra, however, is strongly restricted by the lack of reliable atomic data for highly ionized species from intermediate-mass metals to trans-iron elements. Especially data for the latter has only been sparsely calculated. Many of their lines are identified in spectra of extremely hot, hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars. A reliable determination of their abundances establishes crucial constraints for AGB nucleosynthesis simulations and, thus, for stellar evolutionary theory. Aims. In a previous analysis of the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289, spectral lines of highly ionized Ga, Ge, As, Se, Kr, Mo, Sn, Te, I, and Xe were identified. Individual abundance determinations are hampered by the lack of reliable oscillator strengths. Most of these identified lines stem from Ge V. In addition, we identified Ge VI lines for the first time. We calculated Ge V and Ge VI oscillator strengths in order to reproduce the observed spectrum. Methods. We newly calculated Ge V and Ge VI oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our non-LTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of the Ge IV-VI spectrum exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N FUV (FUSE) and UV (ORFEUS/BEFS, IUE) observations of RE 0503-289. Results. In the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289, we identify four Ge IV, 37 Ge V, and seven Ge VI lines. Most of these lines are identified for the first time in any star. We can reproduce almost all Ge IV, GeV, and Ge VI lines in the observed spectrum of RE 0503-289 (T(sub eff) = 70 kK, log g = 7.5) at log Ge = -3.8 +/- 0.3 (mass fraction, about 650 times solar). The Ge IV/V/VI ionization equilibrium, that is a very sensitive T(sub eff) indicator, is reproduced well. Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a

  14. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  15. Strength-ductility relationships in intermediate purity hot-pressed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, A.J.; Bielawski, C.A.; Paine, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The strength of vacuum hot-pressed, intermediate purity beryllium may be substantially increased without sacrifice of the strain capacity of the present grade (S-65) through decrease in the average grain size. Tensile strength of 517 MPa, 0.2% offset yield strength of 414 MPa with minimum 3% tensile elongation in all test directions could be commercially achieved. The tangent modulus of such material is quite attractive and suffers only about 10% degradation from room temperature to 260 0 C. The tangent modulus is dramatically enhanced by the presence of a yield point. The ductility of the materials studied did not appear to be affected by the BeO content across the range of 0.5 to 2.0% using nominal -44 to -15 μm powder particle sizes. All fine-grained pressings exhibited yield points in the as-pressed condition. Either full-density or sub-density hot-pressed billets given a hot isostatic pressing treatment without the use of cans showed only slight yield points after the HIP treatment with essentially the same strength and ductility factors as in the pressed condition. A plot of grain size vs yield strength in the as-pressed condition projects to an intercept with the fracture strength line at about 3 μm grain size. A similar plot after the HIP treatment shows a yield strength line parallel to the fracture strength line with no projected intercept predicting a completely brittle material. (author)

  16. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is published...

  17. Strength and life under creeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospishil, B.

    1982-01-01

    Certain examples of the application of the Lepin modified creep model, which are of interest from technical viewpoint, are presented. Mathematical solution of the dependence of strength limit at elevated temperatures on creep characteristics is obtained. Tensile test at elevated temperatures is a particular case of creep or relaxation and both strength limit and conventional yield strength at elevated temperatures are completely determined by parameters of state equations during creep. The equation of fracture summing during creep is confirmed not only by the experiment data when stresses change sporadically, but also by good reflection of durability curve using the system of equations. The system presented on the basis of parameters of the equations obtained on any part of durability curve, permits to forecast the following parameters of creep: strain, strain rate, life time, strain in the process of fracture. Tensile test at elevated temperature is advisable as an addition when determining creep curves (time-strain curves) [ru

  18. Infliximab treatment reduces tensile strength in intestinal anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Sanberg; Petersen, Nacie Bello; Biagini, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    :1) to receive either repeated IFX treatment or placebo. On day 15, three separate end-to-end anastomoses were performed on the jejunum. On postoperative day 5, tensile strength and bursting pressure for the anastomoses were tested and histologic changes examined. RESULTS: We found a significantly reduced...... as number of sutures in the tested anastomosis (coefficient = 0.51; P = 0.024). The general histologic score was significantly higher in the placebo group (5.00 +/- 1.26 versus 3.31 +/- 1.65, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated high-dose IFX treatment reduces tensile strength significantly in rabbits...... effect on the healing process in intestinal anastomosis. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of repeated IFX treatment on anastomotic strength and degree of inflammation in the anastomotic line in the small intestine of rabbits. METHODS: Thirty-two rabbits were randomized (2...

  19. Withdrawal Strength and Bending Yield Strength of Stainless Steel Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that stainless steel nails have superior corrosion performance compared to carbon steel or galvanized nails in treated wood; however, their mechanical fastening behavior is unknown. In this paper, the performance of stainless steel nails is examined with respect to two important properties used in wood connection design: withdrawal strength...

  20. Technical Note: Computation of Electric Field Strength Necessary for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obviously, electric field is established by this charge. The effects of this field on the objects lying within its vicinity depend on its intensity. In this paper, the electric field of 33kV overhead line is considered. The aim of the paper is to determine the maximum electric field strength or potential gradient, E of the 33kV overhead ...

  1. Strength Properties of Aalborg Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    glacial time are characterised by the absence of this mussel. These deposits are named Aalborg Clay and Aalborg Sand. In the city of Aalborg, a fill layer superposes Aalborg Clay. This layer is at some places found to be 6m thick. This fill layer does not provide sufficient bearing capacity, which has...... resulted in many damaged buildings in Aalborg. To provide sufficient bearing capacity it is therefore necessary either to remove the fill or to construct the building on piles. Both methods imply that the strength of Aalborg Clay is important for the construction. This paper evaluates the strength...

  2. Topological strength of magnetic skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J.G.G.S.; Rodrigues, E.I.B.

    2017-02-01

    This work deals with magnetic structures that attain integer and half-integer skyrmion numbers. We model and solve the problem analytically, and show how the solutions appear in materials that engender distinct, very specific physical properties, and use them to describe their topological features. In particular, we found a way to model skyrmion with a large transition region correlated with the presence of a two-peak skyrmion number density. Moreover, we run into the issue concerning the topological strength of a vortex-like structure and suggest an experimental realization, important to decide how to modify and measure the topological strength of the magnetic structure.

  3. Reotemp Pressure Indicator - Local Pressure Indication to Monitor the SCHe Supply Bottle Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    1999-01-01

    These 0-3000 psig range pressure indicators are located in the SCHe helium supply lines at the pressure bottles and upstream of the PRV. These accident monitoring local pressure indicators monitor the SCHe supply bottle pressure. There is one pressure indicator for each SCHe supply (4)

  4. Homotopic Polygonal Line Simplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski

    This thesis presents three contributions to the area of polygonal line simplification, or simply line simplification. A polygonal path, or simply a path is a list of points with line segments between the points. A path can be simplified by morphing it in order to minimize some objective function...

  5. Stress orientations in subduction zones and the strength of subduction megathrust faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L

    2015-09-11

    Subduction zone megathrust faults produce most of the world's largest earthquakes. Although the physical properties of these faults are difficult to observe directly, their frictional strength can be estimated indirectly by constraining the orientations of the stresses that act on them. A global investigation of stress orientations in subduction zones finds that the maximum compressive stress axis plunges systematically trenchward, consistently making an angle of 45° to 60° with respect to the subduction megathrust fault. These angles indicate that the megathrust fault is not substantially weaker than its surroundings. Together with several other lines of evidence, this implies that subduction zone megathrusts are weak faults in a low-stress environment. The deforming outer accretionary wedge may decouple the stress state along the megathrust from the constraints of the free surface. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. EFFECT OF SEA WATER ON THE STRENGTH OF POROUS CONCRETE CONTAINING PORTLAND COMPOSITE CEMENT AND MICROFILAMENT POLYPROPYLENE FIBER

    OpenAIRE

    TJARONGE, M.W

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the influence of sea water on the strength of porous concrete containing Portland Composite cement and micro monofilament polypropylene fibre. The specimens of porous concrete were immersed in the sea water up to 28 days. The compressive strength test and flexural strength test were carried out at 3, 7 and 28 days in order to investigate the strength development. The test result indicated that the strength of porous concrete can develop in t...

  7. Analyzing the Health Risks Resulting from Extending the 400kV High Voltage Transmission Lines on the Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hassan Dervish

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is difficult to imagine life without electricity, there are compiling confirmations show thatexposure to magnetic fields correlated electricity and radio frequencies pose magnificent hazards to human health. The most economist method to transfer electricity from power generation stations to users is by measures of high power transmission lines, buoyed by big transmission towers. The cables laced between the towers radiate magnetic and electric fields. In this research study, the magnetic field at ground level under 400 kV network lines extended in residential places have been conducted in two ways, mathematical calculation and practical measurement then the obtained results analyzed and compared with the international standards reference values. the reason of chose this type of transmission line is frequently using. The results indicate that they fall within the safe limiter commended by the WorldHealth Organization. the strength of radiation increasing with high of sea level and moisture ratiobecause of air ionization.

  8. Linear morphoea follows Blaschko's lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, L; Harper, J I

    2008-07-01

    The aetiology of morphoea (or localized scleroderma) remains unknown. It has previously been suggested that lesions of linear morphoea may follow Blaschko's lines and thus reflect an embryological development. However, the distribution of linear morphoea has never been accurately evaluated. We aimed to identify common patterns of clinical presentation in children with linear morphoea and to establish whether linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. A retrospective chart review of 65 children with linear morphoea was performed. According to clinical photographs the skin lesions of these patients were plotted on to standardized head and body charts. With the aid of Adobe Illustrator a final figure was produced including an overlay of all individual lesions which was used for comparison with the published lines of Blaschko. Thirty-four (53%) patients had the en coup de sabre subtype, 27 (41%) presented with linear morphoea on the trunk and/or limbs and four (6%) children had a combination of the two. In 55 (85%) children the skin lesions were confined to one side of the body, showing no preference for either left or right side. On comparing the overlays of all body and head lesions with the original lines of Blaschko there was an excellent correlation. Our data indicate that linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. We hypothesize that in patients with linear morphoea susceptible cells are present in a mosaic state and that exposure to some trigger factor may result in the development of this condition.

  9. Comparison of Synchronization Indices: Behavioral Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Dugué

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchronization of a neuronal response to a given periodic stimulus is usually measured by Goldberg and Brown's vector strength metric. This index does not take omitted spikes into account. This particular limitation has motivated the development of two new indices: the corrected vector strength index and the corrected phase variance index, both including a penalty factor linked to the firing rate. In this paper, a theoretical study on the normalization of the corrected phase variance index is conducted. Both indices are compared to four existing ones using a simulated dataset which considers three desynchronizing disturbances: irregularity in firing, added spikes, and omitted spikes. In the case of unimodal responses, the two new indices are satisfying and appear the more promising in the case of real signals. In the multimodal case, the entropy-based index is better than the others even if this index is not drawback-free.

  10. The German Version of the Strengths Use Scale: The Relation of Using Individual Strengths and Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Huber

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical perspectives in positive psychology have considered the possession and use of strengths equally but in applied research more studies focused on having them, probably due to the absence of psychometrically adequate scales. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the psychometric characteristics of the German language version of the Strengths Use Scale (SUS and to explore relationships between strengths use and several indicator measures of well-being: the presence of positive and the absence of negative affect, self-esteem as identity aspect, vitality as self-regulatory resource, and stress for capturing the evaluation of difficulties and obstacles impinging on well-being. The original English version of the SUS was translated following recommended independent forward-backward translation techniques. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, including a German-speaking convenience sample of university students (N = 374. Additionally, the relations of strengths use and well-being indicators were analyzed. Factorial validity revealed a single-factor structure of the German version of the SUS, explaining 58.4% variance (factor loadings: 0.58 to 0.86, approving the scale’s design and showing high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α 0.95. The hypothesized positive relationships of strengths use with positive affect, self-esteem, and vitality were confirmed as well as the negative relationships with negative affect and stress. The German version of the SUS is psychometrically sound and data indicate that individual strengths use and well-being related measures interact. The instrument can be recommended for future research questions such as if and how the promotion of applying individual strengths during education enhances levels of well-being, or how the implementation of strengths use in job-design guidelines or working conditions can result in higher levels of well-being or healthiness.

  11. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, J.W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sitas, N.; Baulcomb, C.; Lambini, C.K.; Rawlins, M.; Baral, H.; Zähringer, J.; Carter-Silk, E.; Balzan, M.V.; Kenter, J.O.; Häyhä, T.; Petz, K.; Koss, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an

  12. Polynomial expansions and transition strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is statistical spectroscopy applied to determining strengths and strength sums of excitation processes in nuclei. The focus will be on a ds-shell isoscalar E2 study with detailed shell-model results providing the standard for comparison; similar results are available for isovector E2 and M1 and E4 transitions as well as for single-particle transfer and ν +- decay. The present study is intended to serve as a tutorial for applications where shell-model calculations are not feasible. The problem is posed and a schematic theory for strengths and sums is presented. The theory is extended to include the effect of correlations between H, the system Hamiltonian, and theta, the excitation operator. Associated with correlation measures is a geometry that can be used to anticipate the goodness of a symmetry. This is illustrated for pseudo SU(3) in the fp-shell. Some conclusions about fluctuations and collectivity that one can deduce from the statistical results for strengths are presented

  13. On strength of porous material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1999-01-01

    The question of non-destructive testing of porous materials has always been of interest for the engineering profession. A number of empirically based MOE-MOR relations between stiffness (Modulus Of Elasticity) and strength (Modulus OF Rupture) of materials have been established in order to control...

  14. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an assess...

  15. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  16. Strength training for the warfighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Szivak, Tunde K

    2012-07-01

    Optimizing strength training for the warfighter is challenged by past training philosophies that no longer serve the modern warfighter facing the "anaerobic battlefield." Training approaches for integration of strength with other needed physical capabilities have been shown to require a periodization model that has the flexibility for changes and is able to adapt to ever-changing circumstances affecting the quality of workouts. Additionally, sequencing of workouts to limit over-reaching and development of overtraining syndromes that end in loss of duty time and injury are paramount to long-term success. Allowing adequate time for rest and recovery and recognizing the negative influences of extreme exercise programs and excessive endurance training will be vital in moving physical training programs into a more modern perspective as used by elite strength-power anaerobic athletes in sports today. Because the warfighter is an elite athlete, it is time that training approaches that are scientifically based are updated within the military to match the functional demands of modern warfare and are given greater credence and value at the command levels. A needs analysis, development of periodized training modules, and individualization of programs are needed to optimize the strength of the modern warfighter. We now have the knowledge, professional coaches and nonprofit organization certifications with continuing education units, and modern training technology to allow this to happen. Ultimately, it only takes command decisions and implementation to make this possible.

  17. Modeling of Sylgard Adhesive Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Ralph Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-03

    Sylgard is the name of a silicone elastomeric potting material manufactured by Dow Corning Corporation.1 Although the manufacturer cites its low adhesive strength as a feature of this product, thin layers of Sylgard do in fact have a non-negligible strength, which has been measured in recent tensile and shear debonding tests. The adhesive strength of thin layers of Sylgard potting material can be important in applications in which components having signi cantly di erent thermal expansion properties are potted together, and the potted assembly is subjected to temperature changes. The tensile and shear tractions developed on the potted surfaces of the components can cause signi cant internal stresses, particularly for components made of low-strength materials with a high area-to-volume ratio. This report is organized as follows: recent Sylgard debonding tests are rst brie y summarized, with particular attention to the adhesion between Sylgard and PBX 9501, and also between Sylgard and aluminum. Next, the type of numerical model that will be used to simulate the debonding behavior exhibited in these tests is described. Then the calibration of the debonding model will be illustrated. Finally, the method by which the model parameters are adjusted (scaled) to be applicable to other, non- tested bond thicknesses is summarized, and all parameters of the model (scaled and unscaled) are presented so that other investigators can reproduce all of the simulations described in this report as well as simulations of the application of interest.

  18. Narrow absorption lines complex I: one form of broad absorption line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Jian; Lin, Ying-Ru

    2018-03-01

    We discover that some of the broad absorption lines (BALs) are actually a complex of narrow absorption lines (NALs). As a pilot study of this type of BAL, we show this discovery through a typical example in this paper. Utilizing the two-epoch observations of J002710.06-094435.3 (hereafter J0027-0944) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that each of the C IV and Si IV BAL troughs contains at least four NAL doublets. By resolving the Si IV BAL into multiple NALs, we present the following main results and conclusions. First, all these NALs show coordinated variations between the two-epoch SDSS observations, suggesting that they all originate in the quasar outflow, and that their variations are due to global changes in the ionization condition of the absorbing gas. Secondly, a BAL consisting of a number of NAL components indicates that this type of BAL is basically the same as the intrinsic NAL, which tends to support the inclination model rather than the evolution model. Thirdly, although both the C IV and Si IV BALs originate from the same clumpy substructures of the outflow, they show different profile shapes: multiple absorption troughs for the Si IV BAL in a wider velocity range, while P-Cygni for the C IV BAL in a narrower velocity range. This can be interpreted by the substantial differences in fine structure and oscillator strength between the Si IVλλ1393, 1402 and C IVλλ1548, 1551 doublets. Based on the above conclusions, we consider that the decomposition of a BAL into NALs can serve as a way to resolve the clumpy structure for outflows, and it can be used to learn more about characteristics of the clumpy structure and to test the outflow model, when utilizing high-resolution spectra and photoionization model.

  19. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  20. Experimental and numerical investigations of beryllium strength models using the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry de Frahan, M. T., E-mail: marchdf@umich.edu; Johnsen, E. [Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Belof, J. L.; Cavallo, R. M.; Ancheta, D. S.; El-dasher, B. S.; Florando, J. N.; Gallegos, G. F.; LeBlanc, M. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Raevsky, V. A.; Ignatova, O. N.; Lebedev, A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-VNIIEF, Sarov 607188 (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-14

    We present a set of high explosive driven Rayleigh-Taylor strength experiments for beryllium to produce data to distinguish predictions by various strength models. Design simulations using existing strength model parameterizations from Steinberg-Lund and Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) suggested an optimal design that would delineate between not just different strength models, but different parameters sets of the PTW model. Application of the models to the post-shot results, however, suggests growth consistent with little material strength. We focus mostly on efforts to simulate the data using published strength models as well as the more recent RING relaxation model developed at VNIIEF. The results of the strength experiments indicate weak influence of strength in mitigating the growth with the RING model coming closest to predicting the material behavior. Finally, we present shock and ramp-loading recovery experiments.

  1. Investigation of Vacuum Insulator Surface Dielectric Strength with Nanosecond Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunnally, W.C.; Krogh, M.; Williams, C.; Trimble, D.; Sampayan, S.; Caporaso, G.

    2003-01-01

    The maximum vacuum insulator surface dielectric strength determines the acceleration electric field gradient possible in a short pulse accelerator. Previous work has indicated that higher electric field strengths along the insulator-vacuum interface might be obtained as the pulse duration is decreased. In this work, a 250 kV, single ns wide impulse source was applied to small diameter, segmented insulators samples in a vacuum to evaluate the multi-layer surface dielectric strength of the sample construction. Resonances in the low inductance test geometry were used to obtain unipolar, pulsed electric fields in excess of 100 MV/m on the insulator surface. The sample construction, experimental arrangement and experimental results are presented for the initial data in this work. Modeling of the multi-layer structure is discussed and methods of improving insulator surface dielectric strength in a vacuum are proposed

  2. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolea, Magdalena I.; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway. PMID:23966753

  3. Earthquake free design of pipe lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Chizuko; Sakurai, Akio

    1974-01-01

    Long structures such as cooling sea water pipe lines of nuclear power plants have a wide range of extent along the ground surface, and are incurred by not only the inertia forces but also forces due to ground deformations or the seismic wave propagation during earthquakes. Since previous reports indicated the earthquake free design of underground pipe lines, it is discussed in this report on behaviors of pipe lines on the ground during earthquakes and is proposed the aseismic design of pipe lines considering the effects of both inertia forces and ground deformations. (author)

  4. Signal integrity analysis on discontinuous microstrip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Qingyang; Dai, Yawen; Chen, Zipeng

    2013-01-01

    In high speed PCB design, microstirp lines were used to control the impedance, however, the discontinuous microstrip line can cause signal integrity problems. In this paper, we use the transmission line theory to study the characteristics of microstrip lines. Research results indicate that the discontinuity such as truncation, gap and size change result in the problems such as radiation, reflection, delay and ground bounce. We change the discontinuities to distributed parameter circuits, analysed the steady-state response and transient response and the phase delay. The transient response cause radiation and voltage jump.

  5. The [NeIV] Lines in High Excitation Gaseous Nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, L H

    1970-04-01

    The "forbidden" lines of three times ionized neon are among the most precious indicators of electron temperature and excitation. They are also predicted to be among the strongest lines observed in the far ultraviolet spectra of high excitation nebulae.

  6. Electronic ripple indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. K.; Houck, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    Electronic circuit for monitoring excessive ripple voltage on dc power lines senses voltage variations from few millivolts to maximum of 10 volts rms. Instrument is used wherever power supply fluctuations might endanger system operations or damage equipment. Device is inexpensive and easily packaged in small chassis.

  7. STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING PRACTICES OF IRAN Wrestling League STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Far Saeed Jamshidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study describes the results of a survey of the practices of Iranian Wrestling League strength and conditioning (IWL S&C coaches. Material: The response rate was 88.5% (100 of 113. The contents survey examines include: (a background information, (b physical testing, (c flexibility development, (d speed development, (e plyometrics, (f strength/power development, (g unique aspects, and (h comments from coaches providing additional information. Results: Results indicate, in part, that coaches assess an average of 7.3 parameters of fitness, with tests speed being the most common. All coaches used a variety of flexibility development strategies. Results reveal that all of IWL S&C coaches follow a periodization model. Speed as the first priority (100% and muscular endurance, power and strength as second priority (97% of importance in evaluating their athletes. Sixty-six percent coaches (66% indicated that their athletes used Olympic-style lifts. All coaches employed plyometric exercises with their athletes. Ninety-two percent (92% of the coaches reported that used plyometric trainings for increasing the speed of their wrestlers and 82% of the coaches used plyometric jump in place exercises as regular practice in their trainings. Conclusions: The squat and its variations, as well as the Olympic-style lifts and their variations, were the most frequently used exercises. The survey serves as a review and a source of applied information and new ideas.

  8. Chairside CAD/CAM materials. Part 2: Flexural strength testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Michael; Belli, Renan; Petschelt, Anselm; Mevec, Daniel; Harrer, Walter; Lube, Tanja; Danzer, Robert; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Strength is one of the preferred parameters used in dentistry for determining clinical indication of dental restoratives. However, small dimensions of CAD/CAM blocks limit reliable measurements with standardized uniaxial bending tests. The objective of this study was to introduce the ball-on-three-ball (B3B) biaxial strength test for dental for small CAD/CAM block in the context of the size effect on strength predicted by the Weibull theory. Eight representative chairside CAD/CAM materials ranging from polycrystalline zirconia (e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent), reinforced glasses (Vitablocs Mark II, VITA; Empress CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and glass-ceramics (e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent; Suprinity, VITA; Celtra Duo, Dentsply) to hybrid materials (Enamic, VITA; Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE) have been selected. Specimens were prepared with highly polished surfaces in rectangular plate (12×12×1.2mm 3 ) or round disc (Ø=12mm, thickness=1.2mm) geometries. Specimens were tested using the B3B assembly and the biaxial strength was determined using calculations derived from finite element analyses of the respective stress fields. Size effects on strength were determined based on results from 4-point-bending specimens. A good agreement was found between the biaxial strength results for the different geometries (plates vs. discs) using the B3B test. Strength values ranged from 110.9MPa (Vitablocs Mark II) to 1303.21MPa (e.max ZirCAD). The strength dependency on specimen size was demonstrated through the calculated effective volume/surface. The B3B test has shown to be a reliable and simple method for determining the biaxial strength restorative materials supplied as small CAD/CAM blocks. A flexible solution was made available for the B3B test in the rectangular plate geometry. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  10. Strength Development of High-Strength Ductile Concrete Incorporating Metakaolin and PVA Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fadhil Nuruddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of high-strength ductile concrete (HSDC have been investigated using Metakaolin (MK as the cement replacing material and PVA fibers. Total twenty-seven (27 mixes of concrete have been examined with varying content of MK and PVA fibers. It has been found that the coarser type PVA fibers provide strengths competitive to control or higher than control. Concrete with coarser type PVA fibers has also refined microstructure, but the microstructure has been undergone with the increase in aspect ratio of fibers. The microstructure of concrete with MK has also more refined and packing of material is much better with MK. PVA fibers not only give higher stiffness but also showed the deflection hardening response. Toughness Index of HSDC reflects the improvement in flexural toughness over the plain concrete and the maximum toughness indices have been observed with 10% MK and 2% volume fraction of PVA fibers.

  11. Strength development of high-strength ductile concrete incorporating Metakaolin and PVA fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, Muhammad Fadhil; Khan, Sadaqat Ullah; Shafiq, Nasir; Ayub, Tehmina

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical properties of high-strength ductile concrete (HSDC) have been investigated using Metakaolin (MK) as the cement replacing material and PVA fibers. Total twenty-seven (27) mixes of concrete have been examined with varying content of MK and PVA fibers. It has been found that the coarser type PVA fibers provide strengths competitive to control or higher than control. Concrete with coarser type PVA fibers has also refined microstructure, but the microstructure has been undergone with the increase in aspect ratio of fibers. The microstructure of concrete with MK has also more refined and packing of material is much better with MK. PVA fibers not only give higher stiffness but also showed the deflection hardening response. Toughness Index of HSDC reflects the improvement in flexural toughness over the plain concrete and the maximum toughness indices have been observed with 10% MK and 2% volume fraction of PVA fibers.

  12. Directed line liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamien, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. The authors discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro-fluids, flux lines in high temperature superconductors and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons all share similar descriptions. They study a continuous transition in all of these systems, and then study the critical mixing properties of binary mixtures of directed polymers through the renormalization group. They predict the exponents for a directed polymer blend consolute point and a novel two-phase superfluid liquid-gas critical point

  13. Properties of Narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Stalin, Chelliah Subramonian; Chand, Hum; Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2018-04-01

    Narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies constitute a class of active galactic nuclei characterized by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the Hα broad emission line 10 pixel-1. A strong correlation between the Hα and Hα emission lines is found both in the FWHM and flux. The nuclear continuum luminosity is found to be strongly correlated with the luminosity of Hα, Hα and [O III] emission lines. The black hole mass in NLSy1 galaxies is lower compared to their broad line counterparts. Compared to BLSy1 galaxies, NLSy1 galaxies have a stronger FeII emission and a higher Eddington ratio that place them in the extreme upper right corner of the R4570 - λEdd diagram. The distribution of the radio-loudness parameter (R) in NLSy1 galaxies drops rapidly at R>10 compared to the BLSy1 galaxies that have powerful radio jets. The soft X-ray photon index in NLSy1 galaxies is on average higher (2.9 ± 0.9) than BLSy1 galaxies (2.4 ± 0.8). It is anti-correlated with the Hα width but correlated with the FeII strength. NLSy1 galaxies on average have a lower amplitude of optical variability compared to their broad lines counterparts. These results suggest Eddington ratio as the main parameter that drives optical variability in these sources.

  14. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. DATA EXTRACTION: The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles...... isokinetic dynamometry. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. STUDY SELECTION: Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had...... were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: Twenty studies covering 316 PPSH were included. High intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) inter- and intrasession reliability was reported for isokinetic dynamometry, which was independent of the tested muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity...

  15. Electric quadrupole strength in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Isoscalar electric quadrupole strength distributions in nuclei are surveyed, and it is concluded that the strength is shared, in most cases, roughly equally between low-lying transitions and the giant quadrupole state. The same is not true of the isovector case. A simple extension of the schematic model gives a remarkably successul description of the data, and emphasizes the vital importance of the coupling between high-lying and low-lying quadrupole modes. The standadrd simple representation of the giant quadrupole resonance as produced by operating on the nuclear ground state with the quadrupole transition operator is not applicable to the isoscalar case. It is suggested that giant resonances fall into broad classes of similar states, with considerable qualitative differences between the distinct classes. (author)

  16. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  17. Line profile variations in selected Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollatschny, W; Zetzl, M; Ulbrich, K

    2010-01-01

    Continua as well as the broad emission lines in Seyfert 1 galaxies vary in different galaxies with different amplitudes on typical timescales of days to years. We present the results of two independent variability campaigns taken with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. We studied in detail the integrated line and continuum variations in the optical spectra of the narrow-line Seyfert galaxy Mrk 110 and the very broad-line Seyfert galaxy Mrk 926. The broad-line emitting region in Mrk 110 has radii of four to 33 light-days as a function of the ionization degree of the emission lines. The line-profile variations are matched by Keplerian disk models with some accretion disk wind. The broad-line region in Mrk 926 is very small showing an extension of two to three light-days only. We could detect a structure in the rms line-profiles as well as in the response of the line profile segments of Mrk 926 indicating the BLR is structured.

  18. Soil strength and forest operations

    OpenAIRE

    Beekman, F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of heavy machinery and transport vehicles is an integral part of modern forest operations. This use often causes damage to the standing trees and to the soil. In this study the effects of vehicle traffic on the soil are analysed and the possible consequences for forest management discussed. The study is largely restricted to sandy and loamy soils because of their importance for Dutch forestry.

    Soil strength, defined as the resistance of soil structure against the impa...

  19. Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.

    2013-01-01

    A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....

  20. Long range supergravity coupling strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    A limit of 2x10 -13 has recently been deduced for the fractional difference between the gravitational masses of the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons. This limit is applied here to put stringent limits on the strengths of the long range vector-scalar gravitational couplings envisaged in supergravity theories. A weaker limit is inferred from the general relativistic fit to the precession of the orbit of the pulsar PSR1913+16. (orig.)

  1. NRC performance indicator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    The performance indicator development work of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) interoffice task group involved several major activities that included selection of candidate indicators for a trial program, data collection and review, validation of the trial indicators, display method development, interactions with the industry, and selection of an optimum set of indicators for the program. After evaluating 27 potential indicators against certain ideal attributes, the task group selected 17 for the trial program. The pertinent data for these indicators were then collected from 50 plants at 30 sites. The validation of the indicators consisted of two primary processes: logical validity and statistical analysis. The six indicators currently in the program are scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, forced outage rate, and equipment forced outages per 100 critical hours. A report containing data on the six performance indicators and some supplemental information is issued on a quarterly basis. The NRC staff is also working on refinements of existing indicators and development of additional indicators as directed by the commission

  2. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  3. Gamma radiographic exposure time indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risbud, V.H.; Thiagarajan, A.; Gangadharan, P.

    1979-01-01

    In industrial radiography, with the proper selection of source and film, the radiographic quality depends very much on the exposure time, which in turn depends upon the source strength and the source to film distance. Conventional methods to arrive at correct exposure time involve time consuming calculations and in these methods the knowledge of the above mentioned parameters is imperative. An instrument to determine the required exposure time has been developed which indicates exposure times in about 30 secs. This covers two commonly used gamma radiography sources, viz., 192 Ir and 60 Co and six commonly used radiography films of different speeds. Knowledge of source strength and source to film distance is not required with the use of this instrument. With a knowledge of the total exposure required by the film to give the required sensitivity and by the measurement of radiation level at the film location, the correct exposure time is determined. The radiation level is measured by placing a GM counter behind the radiographic specimen at the film location. To match the responses of the film and the GM counter, the counter is incorporated in a suitably designed probe. In this instruments, an integrator to integrate the GM-pulses and a constant current integrator (timer) are started simultaneously. The voltage at the GM-pulse integrator is compared with a preselected voltage, (selected on the basis of film type, source, source strength and order of object thickness) by a comparator. The comparator is so adjusted that when the GM-pulse integrator voltage exceeds the preselected voltage, it switches its state and stops the integration of constant current. The constant current integrator output which is proportional to the time taken for the GM-pulse integrator to reach the preselected voltage, is read on a meter graduated in terms of exposure time. The instrument can measure exposure times from 5 minutes to 10 hours read in two ranges, the range-changing being automatic

  4. Variable synaptic strengths controls the firing rate distribution in feedforward neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Cheng; Marsat, Gary

    2018-02-01

    Heterogeneity of firing rate statistics is known to have severe consequences on neural coding. Recent experimental recordings in weakly electric fish indicate that the distribution-width of superficial pyramidal cell firing rates (trial- and time-averaged) in the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL) depends on the stimulus, and also that network inputs can mediate changes in the firing rate distribution across the population. We previously developed theoretical methods to understand how two attributes (synaptic and intrinsic heterogeneity) interact and alter the firing rate distribution in a population of integrate-and-fire neurons with random recurrent coupling. Inspired by our experimental data, we extend these theoretical results to a delayed feedforward spiking network that qualitatively capture the changes of firing rate heterogeneity observed in in-vivo recordings. We demonstrate how heterogeneous neural attributes alter firing rate heterogeneity, accounting for the effect with various sensory stimuli. The model predicts how the strength of the effective network connectivity is related to intrinsic heterogeneity in such delayed feedforward networks: the strength of the feedforward input is positively correlated with excitability (threshold value for spiking) when firing rate heterogeneity is low and is negatively correlated with excitability with high firing rate heterogeneity. We also show how our theory can be used to predict effective neural architecture. We demonstrate that neural attributes do not interact in a simple manner but rather in a complex stimulus-dependent fashion to control neural heterogeneity and discuss how it can ultimately shape population codes.

  5. High Strength and Ductility of Additively Manufactured 316L Stainless Steel Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsujjoha, Md.; Agnew, Sean R.; Fitz-Gerald, James M.; Moore, William R.; Newman, Tabitha A.

    2018-04-01

    Structure-property relationships of an additively manufactured 316L stainless steel were explored. A scanning electron microscope and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis revealed a fine cellular-dendritic (0.5 to 2 μm) substructure inside large irregularly shaped grains ( 100 μm). The cellular structure grows along the crystallographic directions. However, texture analysis revealed that the main texture component is inclined by 15 deg from the building direction. X-ray diffraction line profile analysis indicated a high dislocation density of 1 × 1015 m-2 in the as-built material, which correlates well with the observed EBSD microstructure and high-yield strength, via the traditional Taylor hardening equation. Significant variations in strain hardening behavior and ductility were observed for the horizontal (HB) and vertical (VB) built samples. Ductility of HB and VB samples measured 49 and 77 pct, respectively. The initial growth texture and subsequent texture evolution during tensile deformation are held responsible for the observed anisotropy. Notably, EBSD analysis of deformed samples showed deformation twins, which predominately form in the grains with aligned parallel to the loading direction. The VB samples showed higher twinning activity, higher strain hardening rates at high strain, and therefore, higher ductility. Analysis of annealed samples revealed that the observed microstructures and properties are thermally stable, with only a moderate decrease in strength and very similar levels of ductility and anisotropy, compared with the as-built condition.

  6. Ultraviolet observations of cool stars. III. Chromospheric and coronal lines in α Tauri, β Geminorum, and α Bootis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, W.; Linsky, J.L.; Henry, R.C.; Moos, H.W.; Gerola, H.

    1975-01-01

    The ultraviolet spectrometer of the Princeton Experiment Package aboard the Copernicus satellite has been used to obtain high-resolution measurements of Lα, the Mg ii lambda2800 doublet, and upper limits on the Si iii lambda1206 line in the K giants α Tau and β Gem. The intensities and line shapes are compared with earlier observations of α Boo. The Lα and Mg ii profiles for α Tau resemble those for α Boo, in that they are highly asymmetrical, while β Gem shows much more symmetrical profiles. The asymmetries for all lines except for those of α Boo and Mg ii lines of α Tau could be due to interstellar absorption. In the case of β Gem only, the O v intercombination line at 1218 A is observed, suggesting a well-developed corona substantially cooler than that of the Sun. The Lα profiles of α Tau and β Gem are consistent with the low interstellar hydrogen abundance in the solar neighborhood previously obtained from a similar observation of the α Boo Lα profile. The strength of the Mg ii lambda2796 line can be used to measure transition region and coronal pressures, and indicates a decrease in both with later spectral type and/or increasing luminosity

  7. Managing first-line failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David A

    2014-01-01

    WHO standard of care for failure of a first regimen, usually 2N(t)RTI's and an NNRTI, consists of a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor with a change in N(t)RTI's. Until recently, there was no evidence to support these recommendations which were based on expert opinion. Two large randomized clinical trials, SECOND LINE and EARNEST both showed excellent response rates (>80%) for the WHO standard of care and indicated that a novel regimen of a boosted protease inhibitor with an integrase inhibitor had equal efficacy with no difference in toxicity. In EARNEST, a third arm consisting of induction with the combined protease and integrase inhibitor followed by protease inhibitor monotherapy maintenance was inferior and led to substantial (20%) protease inhibitor resistance. These studies confirm the validity of the current recommendations of WHO and point to a novel public health approach of using two new classes for second line when standard first-line therapy has failed, which avoids resistance genotyping. Notwithstanding, adherence must be stressed in those failing first-line treatments. Protease inhibitor monotherapy is not suitable for a public health approach in low- and middle-income countries.

  8. Investigations on the tensile strength of high performance concrete incorporating silica fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanu Bhanja; Bratish Sengupta

    2005-01-01

    Though the literature is rich in reporting on silica fume concrete the technical data on tensile strength is quite limited. The present paper is directed towards developing a better understanding on the isolated contribution of silica fume on the tensile strengths of High Performance Concrete. Extensive experimentation was carried out over water-binder ratios ranging from 0.26 to 0.42 and silica fume binder ratios from 0.0 to 0.3. For all the mixes compressive, flexural and split tensile strengths were determined at 28 days. The results of the present investigation indicate that silica fume incorporation results in significant improvements in the tensile strengths of concrete. It is also observed that the optimum replacement percentage, which led to maximization of strength, is not a constant one but depends on the water- cementitious material ratio of the mix. Compared to split tensile strengths, flexural strengths have exhibited greater percentage gains in strength. Increase in split tensile strength beyond 15% silica fume replacement is almost insignificant whereas sizeable gains in flexural tensile strength have occurred even up to 25% replacements. For the present investigation transgranular failure of concrete was observed which indicate that silica fume incorporation results in significant improvements in the strength of both paste and transition zone. (authors)

  9. eHealth indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HYPPÖNEN, Hannele; AMMENWERTH, Elske; Nøhr, Christian

    2012-01-01

    eHealth indicators are needed to measure defined aspects of national eHealth implementations. However, until now, eHealth indicators are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore, an expert workshop "Towards an International Minimum Dataset for Monitoring National Health Information System Implementations......" was organized. The objective was to develop ideas for a minimum eHealth indicator set. The proposed ideas for indicators were classified based on EUnetHTA and De-Lone & McClean, and classification was compared with health IT evaluation criteria classification by Ammenwerth & Keizer. Analysis of the workshop...... results emphasized the need for a common methodological framework for defining and classifying eHealth indicators. It also showed the importance of setting the indicators into context. The results will benefit policy makers, developers and researchers in pursuit of provision and use of evidence...

  10. Vascular Function and Handgrip Strength in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Alomari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the relationship of handgrip strength with forearm blood flow (BF and vascular resistance (VR in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients. Methods. Forearm BF at rest (RBF and after upper arm occlusion (RHBF, and handgrip strength were examined in 78 individuals (RA=42 and controls (CT=36. Subsequently, VR at rest (RVR and after occlusion (RHVR were calculated. Results. The patients’ RBF (P=0.02 and RHBF (P=0.0001 were less, whereas RVR (P=0.002 and RHVR (P=0.0001 were greater as compared to the CTs. Similarly, handgrip strength was lower in the RAs (P=0.0001. Finally, handgrip strength was directly associated with RBF (r=0.43; P=0.0001, and RHBF (r=0.5; P=0.0001, and inversely related to RVR (r=-0.3; P=0.009 and RHVR (r=-0.3; P=0.007. Conclusion. The present study uniquely identifies an association between regional measures of forearm blood flow and handgrip strength in patients and healthy control. In addition, this study confirms the presence of vascular and muscle dysfunction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, as evidenced by lower forearm blood flow indices, at rest and following occlusion, and lower handgrip strength as compared to healthy individuals.

  11. Moderately acurate oscillator strengths from NBS intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    An earlier paper explored the calibration of NBS Monograph 145 intensity measurements for the purpose of obtaining useful oscillator strengths. In the present work we investigate the question of a single 'temperature' for the copper arc light sources. Statistical arguments support rejection of the null hypothesis of a single temperature. Evidence is found for a mild correction to the intensity scale, but there is no indication that the intensities drift with wave length. We reinforce earlier findings that very useful gf-values can be derived from Monograph 145 intensities for any spectrum in which there are enough accurate measurements for a calibration. For the present, it seems that such calibrations must be made individually for each spectrum, and the predictions should not be extrapolated beyond the calibration domains. A table lists interpolation coefficients for Fe I, Co I, Ni I, Ti I, Zr II, Y II, Nd II and U II. An improved formula is given to transform the Corliss-Tech Fe I oscillator strengths to the Oxford system. (author)

  12. Effects of strength training on mechanomyographic amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFreitas, Jason M; Beck, Travis W; Stock, Matt S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if the patterns of mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude across force would change with strength training. Twenty-two healthy men completed an 8-week strength training program. During three separate testing visits (pre-test, week 4, and week 8), the MMG signal was detected from the vastus lateralis as the subjects performed isometric step muscle actions of the leg extensors from 10–100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). During pre-testing, the MMG amplitude increased linearly with force to 66% MVC and then plateaued. Conversely, weeks 4 and 8 demonstrated an increase in MMG amplitude up to ∼85% of the subject's original MVC before plateauing. Furthermore, seven of the ten force levels (30–60% and 80–100%) showed a significant decrease in mean MMG amplitude values after training, which consequently led to a decrease in the slope of the MMG amplitude/force relationship. The decreases in MMG amplitude at lower force levels are indicative of hypertrophy, since fewer motor units would be required to produce the same absolute force if the motor units increased in size. However, despite the clear changes in the mean values, analyses of individual subjects revealed that only 55% of the subjects demonstrated a significant decrease in the slope of the MMG amplitude/force relationship. (paper)

  13. Hand-grip isometric strength in judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G Bonitch-Góngora

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The grip is an important technical and tactical aspect through which the judokas dominate the adversary, hindering the application of appropriate techniques and favoring their own attack. The judokas must have high levels of isometric force and endurance to this type of force on the gripping muscles of the forearms, as one of the key aspects for success. This article reviews the grip muscular strength and endurance profiles of judokas of different groups (gender, age and competitive level. In general, the peak isometric strength of elite judokas has not changed in the last 40 years and is similar to that reached by non-elite judokas or even registered in large populations. This indicate that the evaluation of the isometric hand grip endurance may be a more relevant parameter than the peak isometric force in judokas, as during the bouts the grip must be maintained for relatively long periods of time and the maximum force cannot be maintained for long. However there are few studies on the ability to resist successive isometric handgrip stress in judokas.

  14. Climate Change Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured climate changes across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and climate, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.

  15. VP Ellipsis without Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel; Asher, Nicholas; Hunter, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations. On the ......This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations...

  16. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  17. Database of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  18. Interpretation of the [ClIII] Lines in Gaseous Nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, L H; Czyzak, S J; Walker, M F; Krueger, T K

    1970-05-01

    The intensity ratio of the green lambdalambda5517 and 5537 lines of [ClIII] serves as an indicatrix of the electron density in many gaseous nebulae whose spectra can be observed with an image converter. Quantitative interpretation of the line ratio requires accurate values of the collisional strengths and transition probabilities. With improved values of these parameters we have revised electron densities for a number of nebulae; the results seem to be in good accord with those derived from other criteria.

  19. Focusing on psychiatric patients' strengths: A new vision on mental health care in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Maghsoudi, Jahangir; Oreyzi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and using the strengths of patients, in practice, is a new territory. Today, the need to educate nurses and psychiatric patients about positive psychology in practice and the importance of understanding and focusing on strengths is clear. However, little is known about the strengths the psychiatric patients use and experience. Thus, this study has been designed and conducted in order to understand how people with psychiatric disorders demonstrate their strengths. In the present study, 13 semi-structured, qualitative interviews with patients and 2 focus groups with nurses were carried out. In addition, a qualitative content analysis was used to identify significant strengths. Based on the results, the four main strengths consisted of: Finding a meaning in daily living, work as enduring strength, entertaining activities, and positive relationship. Patients also reported that health care providers rarely focused on patients' strengths, and experts confirmed these findings. Our findings indicate that patients' own strengths are a pivotal factor in getting through their illness from their perspective. Despite the enduring legacy of pessimism regarding psychiatric patients, these people have a repertoire of strengths. Nurses should, therefore, have a greater focus on eliciting and nourishing psychiatric patients' strengths in their care. It is suggested that the theoretical and practical aspects of patients' strengths be incorporated in nursing school curricula.

  20. Preservation of eccentric strength in older adults: Evidence, mechanisms and implications for training and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Marc; Macintyre, Donna L; Eng, Janice J; Narici, Marco V; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Reid, W Darlene

    2010-06-01

    Overall reductions in muscle strength typically accompany the aging process. However, older adults show a relatively preserved capacity of producing eccentric strength. The preservation of eccentric strength in older adults is a well-established phenomenon, occurring indiscriminately across different muscle groups, independent of age-related architectural changes in muscle structure and velocity of movement. The mechanisms for the preservation of eccentric strength appear to be mechanical and cellular in origin and include both passive and active elements regulating muscle stiffness. The age-related accumulation of non-contractile material in the muscle-tendon unit increases passive stiffness, which might offer mechanical advantage during eccentric contractions. In addition, the preserved muscle tension and increased instantaneous stiffness of old muscle fibers during stretch increase active stiffness, which might enhance eccentric strength. The fact that the preservation of eccentric strength is present in people with chronic conditions when compared to age-matched healthy controls indicates that the aging process per se does not exclusively mediate the preservation of eccentric strength. Physical inactivity, which is common in elderly and people with chronic conditions, is a potential factor regulating the preservation of eccentric strength. When compared to concentric strength, the magnitude of preservation of eccentric strength in older adults ranges from 2% to 48% with a mean value of 21.6% from all studies. This functional reserve of eccentric strength might be clinically relevant, especially to initiate resistance training and rehabilitation programs in individuals with low levels of strength. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Focusing on psychiatric patients′ strengths: A new vision on mental health care in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zargham-Boroujeni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying and using the strengths of patients, in practice, is a new territory. Today, the need to educate nurses and psychiatric patients about positive psychology in practice and the importance of understanding and focusing on strengths is clear. However, little is known about the strengths the psychiatric patients use and experience. Thus, this study has been designed and conducted in order to understand how people with psychiatric disorders demonstrate their strengths. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 13 semi-structured, qualitative interviews with patients and 2 focus groups with nurses were carried out. In addition, a qualitative content analysis was used to identify significant strengths. Results: Based on the results, the four main strengths consisted of: Finding a meaning in daily living, work as enduring strength, entertaining activities, and positive relationship. Patients also reported that health care providers rarely focused on patients′ strengths, and experts confirmed these findings. Our findings indicate that patients′ own strengths are a pivotal factor in getting through their illness from their perspective. Conclusions: Despite the enduring legacy of pessimism regarding psychiatric patients, these people have a repertoire of strengths. Nurses should, therefore, have a greater focus on eliciting and nourishing psychiatric patients′ strengths in their care. It is suggested that the theoretical and practical aspects of patients′ strengths be incorporated in nursing school curricula.

  2. 47 CFR 73.184 - Groundwave field strength graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... copies of these tabulations call or write the Consumer Affairs Office, Federal Communications Commission... relative values of groundwave field strength over a plane earth as a function of the numerical distance p... earth weakens the field more rapidly than these plane earth curves would indicate. Thus, no attempt...

  3. The relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Han, X. X.; Ge, J.; Wang, C. H.

    2018-01-01

    To determine the relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material, 20 groups of geopolymer grouting materials were prepared, the compressive strength and flexural strength were determined by mechanical properties test. On the basis of excluding the abnormal values through boxplot, the results show that, the compressive strength test results were normal, but there were two mild outliers in 7days flexural strength test. The compressive strength and flexural strength were linearly fitted by SPSS, six regression models were obtained by linear fitting of compressive strength and flexural strength. The linear relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength can be better expressed by the cubic curve model, and the correlation coefficient was 0.842.

  4. Infrared computations of defect Schur indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córdova, Clay [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr., Princeton, NJ (United States); Gaiotto, Davide [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St., Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Shao, Shu-Heng [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,17 Oxford St., Cambridge, MA (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-11-18

    We conjecture a formula for the Schur index of four-dimensional N=2 theories in the presence of boundary conditions and/or line defects, in terms of the low-energy effective Seiberg-Witten description of the system together with massive BPS excitations. We test our proposal in a variety of examples for SU(2) gauge theories, either conformal or asymptotically free. We use the conjecture to compute these defect-enriched Schur indices for theories which lack a Lagrangian description, such as Argyres-Douglas theories. We demonstrate in various examples that line defect indices can be expressed as sums of characters of the associated two-dimensional chiral algebra and that for Argyres-Douglas theories the line defect OPE reduces in the index to the Verlinde algebra.

  5. Quality indicators in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cionini, Luca; Gardani, Gianstefano; Gabriele, Pietro; Magri, Secondo; Morosini, Pier Luigi; Rosi, Antonella; Viti, Vincenza

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is a widespread and increasing tendency to develop hospital performance indicators in the field of accreditation/certification systems and quality benchmarking. A study has been undertaken to develop a set of performance indicators for a typical radiotherapy Centre and to evaluate their ability to provide a continuous quality improvement. Materials and methods: A working group consisting of radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation technologists under the coordination of experts in health technology assessment has elaborated a set of general indicators able to monitor performances and the quality level of a typical radiotherapy Centre. The work has been carried out through four steps: a preliminary set of indicators was selected; data on these indicators were collected in a number of Italian radiotherapy Centres and medical physics Services; problems in collection and analysis of data were discussed; a final set of indicators was developed. Results: A final set of 13 indicators is here presented. They concern general structural and/or operational features, health physics activities and accuracy and technical complexity of the treatment. Conclusions: The indicators tested in a few Italian Centres of radiotherapy and medical physics Services are now ready to be utilized by a larger community

  6. Indicators of sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The indicators, precisely describing the linkages between tourism and the environment, social and cultural base, are not easily available. How ever, some relevant organizations (WTO, EU, OECD, etc., institutions and experts, have been hardly working to create the indicators of sustainable tourism. Whereas the economic objectives are easily defined by the use of the traditional indicators used in national and business economics, it is very difficult to identify widely applicable environmental, social and cultural indicators. In order to stimulate and alleviate the process of sustainable tourism development, EU created the list of comparative indicators of sustainable tourism. In preparing this list, special attention is paid to identification of valid indicators of real tourism impacts on the social and cultural environment (the entire set of traditions, customs, history, hospitality and culture that characterize a given area, that is a very complex task. Assuming the fact that the related indicators have been analyzed in many European countries, this paper is focused on applying the related indicators in research of tourism development in villages of the Kosjerić community. .

  7. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  8. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them...

  9. Energy indicators for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, Ivan; Langlois, Lucille

    2007-01-01

    Energy is an essential factor in overall efforts to achieve sustainable development. Countries striving to this end are seeking to reassess their energy systems with a view toward planning energy programmes and strategies in line with sustainable development goals and objectives. This paper summarizes the outcome of an international partnership initiative on indicators for sustainable energy development that aims to provide an analytical tool for assessing current energy production and use patterns at a national level. The proposed set of energy indicators represents a first step of a consensus reached on this subject by five international agencies-two from the United Nations system (the Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the International Atomic Energy Agency), two from the European Union (Eurostat and the European Environment Agency) and one from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (the International Energy Agency). Energy and environmental experts including statisticians, analysts, policy makers and academics have started to implement general guidelines and methodologies in the development of national energy indicators for use in their efforts to monitor the effects of energy policies on the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development

  10. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  11. Normative data for hand grip strength and key pinch strength, stratified by age and gender for a multiethnic Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ngee Wei; Goh, Hui Ting; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Chin, Ai-Vyrn; Poi, Philip Jun Hua; Tan, Maw Pin

    2016-10-01

    Hand strength is a good indicator of physical fitness and frailty among the elderly. However, there are no published hand strength references for Malaysians aged > 65 years. This study aimed to establish normative data for hand grip strength (HGS) and key pinch strength (KPS) for Malaysians aged ≥ 60 years, and explore the relationship between hand strength and physical ability. Healthy participants aged ≥ 60 years with no neurological conditions were recruited from rural and urban locations in Malaysia. HGS and KPS were measured using hand grip and key pinch dynamometers. Basic demographic data, anthropometric measures, modified Barthel Index scores and results of the Functional Reach Test (FRT), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT) were recorded. 362 subjects aged 60-93 years were recruited. The men were significantly stronger than the women in both HGS and KPS (p Malaysia. Future studies are required to determine the modifiable factors for poor hand strength. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  12. Strength and compressibility of returned lunar soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, W. D., III; Bromwell, L. G.; Martin, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Two oedometer and three direct shear tests have been performed in vacuum on a 200 g sample of lunar soil from Apollo 12 (12001, 119). The compressibility data have been used to calculate bulk density and shear wave velocity versus depth on the lunar surface. The shear wave velocity was found to increase approximately with the one-fourth power of the depth, and the results suggest that the Apollo 14 Active Seismic Experiment may not have detected the Fra Mauro formation at a depth of 8.5 m, but only naturally consolidated lunar soil. The shear data indicate that the strength of the lunar soil sample is about 65% that of a ground basalt simulant at the same void ratio.

  13. Line outage contingency analysis including the system islanding scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D.; Bhuyan, S. [Assam Engineering College, Jalukbari, Guwahati 781013 (India); Chowdhury, S.P. [Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2006-05-15

    The paper describes an algorithm for determining the line outage contingency of a line taking into account of line over load effect in remaining lines and subsequent tripping of over loaded line(s) leading to possible system split or islanding of a power system. The optimally ordered sparse [B'], [B'] matrices for the integrated system are used for load flow analysis to determine modified values of voltage phase angles [{delta}] and bus voltages [V] to determine the over loading effect on the remaining lines due to outage of a selected line outage contingency. In case of over loading in remaining line(s), the over loaded lines are removed from the system and a topology processor is used to find the islands. A fast decoupled load flow (FDLF) analysis is carried out for finding out the system variables for the islanded (or single island) system by incorporating appropriate modification in the [B'] and [B'] matrices of the integrated system. Line outage indices based on line overload, loss of load, loss of generation and static voltage stability are computed to indicate severity of a line outage of a selected line. (author)

  14. Effects of cyclic shear loads on strength, stiffness and dilation of rock fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanakorn Kamonphet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Direct shear tests have been performed to determine the peak and residual shear strengths of fractures in sandstone, granite and limestone under cyclic shear loading. The fractures are artificially made in the laboratory by tension inducing and saw-cut methods. Results indicate that the cyclic shear load can significantly reduce the fracture shear strengths and stiffness. The peak shear strengths rapidly decrease after the first cycle and tend to remain unchanged close to the residual strengths through the tenth cycle. Degradation of the first order asperities largely occurs after the first cycle. The fracture dilation rates gradually decrease from the first through the tenth cycles suggesting that the second order asperities continuously degrade after the first load cycle. The residual shear strengths are lower than the peak shear strengths and higher than those of the smooth fractures. The strength of smooth fracture tends to be independent of cyclic shear loading.

  15. Starlight excitation of permitted lines in gaseous nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandi, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    The weak heavy element permitted lines observed in the spectra of gaseous nebula have, with only a few exceptions, been thought to be excited only by recombination. The accuracy of this assumption for individual lines in nebula spectra is investigated in detail via model nebula calculations. First, approximations and techniques of calculation are considered for the three possible excitation mechanisms: recombination, resonance fluorescence by the starlight continuum, and resonance fluorescence by other nebular emission lines. Next, the permitted lines of O I as observed in gaseous nebulae are discussed. Thirdly, it is shown that varying combinations of recombination, resonance fluorescence by starlight, and resonance fluorescence by other nebula lines can successfully account for the observed strengths in the Orion Nebula of lines of the following ions: C II, N I, N II, N III, O II, Ne II, Si II, Si III, and S III. A similar analysis is performed for the lines in the spectra of the planetary nebulae NGC7662 and NGC7027, and, with some exceptions, satisfactory agreement between the observed and predicted line strengths is found. Finally, observations of the far red spectra of the Orion Nebula, the planetary nebulae NGC3242, NGC6210, NGC2392, IC3568, IC4997, NGC7027, and MGC7662, and the reflection nebulae IC431 and NGC2068 are reported

  16. optimizing compressive strength characteristics of hollow building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: hollow building Blocks, granite dust, sand, partial replacement, compressive strength. 1. INTRODUCTION ... exposed to extreme climate. The physical ... Sridharan et al [13] conducted shear strength studies on soil-quarry dust.

  17. Elastic buckling strength of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structural safety assessment of corroded structures, residual strength should be ... Rahbar-Ranji (2001) has proposed a spectrum for random simulation of ... The main aim of the present work is to investigate the buckling strength of simply ...

  18. The SLUGGS survey: globular cluster stellar population trends from weak absorption lines in stacked spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Conroy, Charlie; Foster, Caroline; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Arnold, Jacob A.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey, we stack 1137 Keck DEIMOS (Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph) spectra of globular clusters from 10 galaxies to study their stellar populations in detail. The stacked spectra have median signal-to-noise ratios of ˜90 Å-1. Besides the calcium triplet, we study weaker sodium, magnesium, titanium and iron lines as well as the Hα and higher order Paschen hydrogen lines. In general, the stacked spectra are consistent with old ages and a Milky Way-like initial mass function. However, we see different metal line index strengths at fixed colour and magnitude, and differences in the calcium triplet-colour relation from galaxy to galaxy. We interpret this as strong evidence for variations in the globular cluster colour-metallicity relation between galaxies. Two possible explanations for the colour-metallicity relation variations are that the average ages of globular clusters vary from galaxy to galaxy or that the average abundances of light elements (i.e. He, C, N and O) differ between galaxies. Stacking spectra by magnitude, we see that the colours become redder and metal line indices stronger with brighter magnitudes. These trends are consistent with the previously reported `blue tilts' being mass-metallicity relations.

  19. Comparison of Two Mouse Ameloblast-like Cell Lines for Enamel-specific Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni eSarkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblasts are ectoderm-derived cells that produce an extracellular enamel matrix that mineralizes to form enamel. The development and use of immortalized cell lines, with a stable phenotype, is an important contribution to biological studies as it allows for the investigation of molecular activities without the continuous need for animals. In this study we compare the expression profiles of enamel-specific genes in two mouse derived ameloblast-like cell lines: LS8 and ALC cells. Quantitative PCR analysis indicates that, relative to each other, LS8 cells express greater mRNA levels for genes that define secretory-stage activities (Amelx, Ambn, Enam and Mmp20, while ALC express greater mRNA levels for genes that define maturation-stage activities (Odam and Klk4. Western blot analyses show that Amelx, Ambn and Odam proteins are detectable in ALC, but not LS8 cells. Unstimulated ALC cells form calcified nodules, while LS8 cells do not. These data provide greater insight as to the suitability of both cell lines to contribute to biological studies on enamel formation and biomineralization, and highlight some of the strengths and weaknesses when relying on enamel epithelial organ-derived cell lines to study molecular activities of amelogenesis.

  20. Core damage risk indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to show a method for the fast recalculation of the PSA. To avoid the information loose, it is necessary to simplify the PSA models, or at least reorganize them. The method, introduced in this document, require that preparation, so we try to show, how to do that. This document is an introduction. This is the starting point of the work related to the development of the risk indicators. In the future, with the application of this method, we are going to show an everyday use of the PSA results to produce the indicators of the core damage risk. There are two different indicators of the plant safety performance, related to the core damage risk. The first is the core damage frequency indicator (CDFI), and the second is the core damage probability indicator (CDPI). Of course, we cannot describe all of the possible ways to use these indicators, rather we will try to introduce the requirements to establish such an indicator system and the calculation process

  1. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the ionic strength module, when to list ionic strength as a candidate cause, ways to measure ionic strength, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ionic strength, ionic strength module references and literature reviews.

  2. Safety performance indicators program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, Patricia G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1997 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) initiated a program to define and implement a Safety Performance Indicators System for the two operating nuclear power plants, Atucha I and Embalse. The objective of the program was to incorporate a set of safety performance indicators to be used as a new regulatory tool providing an additional view of the operational performance of the nuclear power plants, improving the ability to detect degradation on safety related areas. A set of twenty-four safety performance indicators was developed and improved throughout pilot implementation initiated in July 1998. This paper summarises the program development, the main criteria applied in each stage and the results obtained. (author)

  3. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  4. Collision strengths for the excitation of lithium- and boron-like ions by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goett, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    The theory of collision strengths of highly charged ions is presented in terms of the R-matrix formalism by utilizing time-dependent perturbation theory. This theory is then applied to the general case of an ion with three valence electrons. The theory is general enough to admit the possiblity of three equivalent electrons. The effects of configuration interaction and intermediate coupling are incorporated through the mixing coefficients calculated by diagonalizing the perturbation matrix. This matrix is formed by taking into account the electron-electron electrostatic interaction as well as all first order relativistic corrections. The dipole radiative line strengths are also calculated using these mix coefficients. The line strengths are needed for the Coulomb-Bethe approximation which estimates the contributions to the collision strengths from large values of the impact electron's orbital angular momentum. All the above quantities are calculated in both the LS and jj coupling schemes. This dual calculation provides useful information about the mixing of the states present, as well as serving as a valuable check on the development of the theory and the coding of the computer programs. An application is made to the calculation of transition energies, line strengths and collision strengths of transitions from all lower states with a configuration of 1s 2 2I to all upper states with a configuraiton of 1s2I/sub a/'2I/sub b/'

  5. The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain', and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

  6. The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Giménez, María J; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'), and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite) compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

  7. Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2003-01-01

    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study…

  8. Relationship between the edgewise compression strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study were used to determine the linear regression constants in the Maltenfort model by correlating the measured board edgewise compression strength (ECT) with the predicted strength, using the paper components' compression strengths, measured with the short-span compression test (SCT) and the ...

  9. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjec...

  10. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to lon...

  11. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  12. NOHSS Child Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2016. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  13. NOHSS Adult Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2012-2014 (even years). Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for even years from 2012 through 2014. National estimates are represented by the median...

  14. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  15. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  16. Solar Indices Bulletin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solar Indices Bulletin is a prompt monthly information product that is distributed within two weeks after the observation month closes. For the month just ended,...

  17. Indicators and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... and if the information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation...

  18. Fishery Performance Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Performance indicators for landings, effort, revenue and distribution of revenue are collected for various fisheries nation-wide. The fisheries include catch and...

  19. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  20. Solar Indices - Plage Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  1. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  2. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  3. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  4. NOHSS Child Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2017. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  5. Infrared line intensities of chlorine monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, T.; Faris, J. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Deming, D.; Hillman, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute infrared line intensities of several ClO lines in the rotational-vibrational (1-0) band were measured using infrared heterodyne spectroscopy near 12 microns. A measurement technique using combined ultraviolet absorption and infrared line measurements near 9.5 microns and 12 microns permitted an accurate determination of the column densities of O3 and ClO in the absorption cell and thus improved ClO line intensities. Results indicate ClO line and band intensities approximately 2.4 times lower than previous experimental results. Effects of possible failure of local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in the absorption cell and the implication of the results for stratospheric ClO measurements in the infrared are discussed.

  6. Correction of UBV Photometry for Emission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skopal A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect on U,B,V magnitudes of the removal of emission lines from the spectra of some symbiotic stars and novae during their nebular phases. We approach this problem by the precise reconstruction of the composite UV/optical continuum and the line spectrum. The corrections ΔU, ΔB and ΔV are determined from the ratio of fluxes with and without emission lines. We demonstrate the effect for symbiotic nova V1016 Cyg during its nebular phase. We find that about 68%, 78% and 66% of the observed flux in the U, B and V filters is radiated in the emission lines. The effect should be taken into account before using the observed color indices of emission-line objects for diagnosis of their radiation in the continuum.

  7. The strength and failure of silica optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, C; Bai, R X; Yu, H; Canning, J; Law, S

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical strength and failure behavior of conventional and microstructured silica optical fibers was investigated using a tensile test and fracture mechanics and numerical analyses. The effect of polymer coating on failure behavior was also studied. The results indicate that all these fibers fail in a brittle manner and failure normally starts from fiber surfaces. The failure loads observed in coated fibers are higher than those in bare fibers. The introduction of air holes reduces fiber strength and their geometrical arrangements have a remarkable effect on stress distribution in the longitudinal direction. These results are potentially useful for the design, fabrication and evaluation of optical fibers for a wide range of applications.

  8. Rotating bending fatigue strength evaluation of ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govila, R.K.; Swank, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    Cyclic fatigue under rotary bending tests were conducted on partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) from NGK and Nilsen, and silicon nitride from NGK and Norton. Fractography was performed on the failed specimens to determine the fracture structure and morphology. The results showed that the cyclic fatigue fracture was the same as the fracture structure previously observed in bending tests. The cyclic fatigue data indicated that structural ceramic could function in fatigue stress levels at a higher percentage of their average fast fracture strength than the fifty percent of ultimate strength used for wrought steels

  9. Indicators of Ecological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    H. 1990. Strategy for monitoring the effects of land use change on atmospheric CO2 concentrations . In Proceedings of “Global Natural Resource...Working Group in Santiago , Chile , February 1995, ten nations agreed to a comprehensive set of criteria and indicators for forest conservation and...chemistry variables, the concentrations of total and inorganic suspended sediments during baseflow and storm periods were excellent indicators of

  10. Modern high strength QT, TM and duplex-stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquet, P.; Luxenburger, G.; Porter, D.; Ericsson, C.

    2003-01-01

    Pressure vessels are commonly manufactured with normalised steel grades with a yield strength up to 355 MPa or with austenitic stainless steels when corrosion as to be considered. From three decades, modern steels with higher mechanical properties - up to yield strength of 960 Mpa - are available and largely used for other applications where weight saving is of major importance as per off-shore, bridges, cranes, shipbuilding, line pipes.. The paper presents these modern steel's families - TMCP (Thermo Mechanically Controlled Process), QT (Quenched and Tempered) and Duplex (austeno-ferritic) stainless - in comparison with the normalised and austenitic steel grades. The following aspects are presented: the main mechanical properties (tensile and Charpy) as per the requirements of the standards for pressure equipment; some examples of use of these modern steels in the industry are given; the limitations of the forming conditions are considered; the weldability aspects and welds properties are developed; the interest of the PWHT (Post Weld Heat Treatment) is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Studies of solar magnetic fields. V. The true average field strengths near the poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, R [Hale Observatories, Pasadena, Calif. (USA)

    1977-05-01

    An estimate of the average magnetic field strength at the poles of the Sun from Mount Wilson measurements is made by comparing low latitude magnetic measurements in the same regions made near the center of the disk and near the limb. There is still some uncertainty because the orientation angle of the field lines in the meridional plane is unknown, but the most likely possibility is that the true average field strengths are about twice the measured values (0-2 G), with an absolute upper limit on the underestimation of the field strengths of about a factor 5. The measurements refer to latitudes below about 80/sup 0/.

  12. The Relative Hydrogen Bonding Strength of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms as a Proton Acceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Jong Cheol; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Nak Kyoon; Choi, Young Sang; Park, Jeung Hee; Yoon, Chang Ju

    1999-01-01

    The thermodynamic parameters for the formation of the hydrogen bonding were widely used to understand the protein- ligand interaction. We have been interested in the hydrogen bonding strength of various proton acceptors toward the amide in a nonpolar solvent, This work is in the line of our interest. In drug design, the functional group is often replaced in order to enhance or reduce the binding affinity, which is usually determined by hydrogen bonding strength. Therefore, to understand this biochemical process the knowledge of relative hydrogen bonding strength is of importance.

  13. Veterans Crisis Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...

  14. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  15. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  16. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  17. Air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clench-Aas, Jocelyn; Guerreiro, Cristina; Bartonova, Alena

    1999-06-01

    This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO 2 , however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km 2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid

  18. New β-delayed proton lines from 23Al

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsebom, Oliver Sølund; Fynbo, H.; Jokinen, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a new measurement of the β -delayed proton spectrum of 23 Al. Higher statistics compared to previous measurements allow us to identify new proton lines in the energy range 1--2 MeV. A statistical analysis of the observed β strength shows that the B (GT) values are fully consistent...

  19. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores with cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Jani P; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Niemi, Jaakko; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Häkkinen, Arja; Kocay, Sheila; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores additionally to previously widely studied measures of body composition and maximal aerobic capacity. 846 young men (25.5 ± 5.0 yrs) participated in the study. Maximal strength was measured using isometric bench press, leg extension and grip strength. Muscular endurance tests consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect graded cycle ergometer test was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2)max). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Moreover, waist circumference (WC) and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Maximal bench press was positively correlated with push-ups (r = 0.61, p strength (r = 0.34, p strength correlated positively (r = 0.36-0.44, p test scores were related to maximal aerobic capacity and body fat content, while fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus is a major determinant for maximal strength. A contributive role of maximal strength to muscular endurance tests could be identified for the upper, but not the lower extremities. These findings suggest that push-up test is not only indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity but also maximal strength of upper body, whereas repeated squat test is mainly indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity, but not maximal strength of lower extremities.

  20. SAF line powder operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper

  1. Capital Improvements Business Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    NAVFAC Southwest Dan Waid Program & Business Mgmt NAVFAC SW Capital Improvements Business Line NAVFAC SW 8 August 2012 1 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capital Improvements Business Line 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 2012 Navy Gold Coast Small Business

  2. Line formation in microturbulent magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domke, H.; Pavlov, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of Zeeman lines in Gaussian microturbulent magnetic fields is considered assuming LTE. General formulae are derived for the local mean values of the transfer matrix elements. The cases of one-dimensional (longitudinal), isotropic, and two-dimensional (transversal) magnetic microturbulence are studied in some detail. Asymptotic formulae are given for small mean as well as for small microturbulent magnetic fields. Characteristic effects of magnetic microturbulence on the transfer coefficients are: (i) the broadening of the frequency contours, although only for the case of longitudinal Zeeman effect and longitudinal magnetic microturbulence this effect can be described analogous to Doppler broadening, (ii) the appearance of a pseudo-Zeeman structure for nonlongitudinal magnetic microturbulence, (iii) the reduction of maximal values of circular polarization, and (iv) the appearance of characteristic linear polarization effects due to the anisotropy of the magnetic microturbulence. Line contours and polarization of Zeeman triplets are computed for Milne-Eddington atmospheres. It is shown that magnetic intensification due to microturbulent magnetic fields may be much more efficient than that due to regular fields. The gravity center of a Zeeman line observed in circularly polarized light remains a reasonable measure of the line of sight component of the mean magnetic field for a line strength eta 0 < approx. 2. For saturated lines, the gravity center distance depends significantly on the magnetic microturbulence and its anisotropy. The influence of magnetic microturbulence on the ratio of longitudinal field magnetographic signals shows that unique conclusions about the magnetic microstructure can be drawn from the line ratio measurements only in combination with further spectroscopic data or physical reasoning. (orig.)

  3. Porous silica from rice husk ash for tundish lining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y.M.Z; Ewais, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Type of materials as well as its compressive strength and degree of porosity are the determinal parameters for deciding the suitability of its usage as lining for tundish in continuous casting of steel. Silica is one of the materials suitable for such application. High porosity degree with high compressive strength of its compacts is special demands for increasing its efficiency. The suitability of producing porous silica compacts from the combustion of rice husk ash (RHA) appropriate for this application is the objective of the present work. Experimental design technique was used to evaluate the effect of different parameters (i.e. firing temperature, time and compaction pressure) controlling both porosity degree and compressive strength of rice husk ash compacts. The results revealed that while the porosity degree of the compacts decreased with increasing the entire studied parameters, its compressive strength exhibits another trend especially at lower soaking time. At lower soaking time, increasing firing temperature leads to a slight decrease in the compressive strength and then increased thereafter. Porous silica compacts having 30% porosity and > 25 kg/cm/sup 2/ compressive strength suitable for tundish lining could obtain from the combustion of rice husk ash compacts. (author)

  4. Nasca Lines, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Indicators for energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruyt, Bert; Van Vuuren, D.P.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Groenenberg, H.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of energy security is widely used, yet there is no consensus on its precise interpretation. In this research, we have provided an overview of available indicators for long-term security of supply (SOS). We distinguished four dimensions of energy security that relate to the availability, accessibility, affordability and acceptability of energy and classified indicators for energy security according to this taxonomy. There is no one ideal indicator, as the notion of energy security is highly context dependent. Rather, applying multiple indicators leads to a broader understanding. Incorporating these indicators in model-based scenario analysis showed accelerated depletion of currently known fossil resources due to increasing global demand. Coupled with increasing spatial discrepancy between consumption and production, international trade in energy carriers is projected to have increased by 142% in 2050 compared to 2008. Oil production is projected to become increasingly concentrated in a few countries up to 2030, after which production from other regions diversifies the market. Under stringent climate policies, this diversification may not occur due to reduced demand for oil. Possible benefits of climate policy include increased fuel diversity and slower depletion of fossil resources. (author)

  6. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim

    2010-01-01

    During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project was a fr......During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project...... was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...... estate sector each addressing three interlinked levels: building/ projects level, company or enterprise level and benchmarking system level. Additionally it has been based on dialogue with researchers and professional organisation, international research and standardisation work and national building...

  7. Off-line programming (OLP) system comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Off-line programming (OLP) systems are being used to conceptualize, design, simulate, and now control automated robotic workcells. Currently available systems by Deneb, SILMA, and Cimetrix are being used at the Lawrenece Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to simulate and control automated robotic systems for radioactive material processing and hazardous waste sorting. The differences in system architectures, workcell and robot calibration procedures, operator interface, and graphical output capability of each will be discussed. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these attributes will be discussed as they relate to varying applications in robotic workcell development and control

  8. Amalgam shear bond strength to dentin using different bonding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M A; Denehy, G E; Ratananakin, T

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength of amalgam to dentin using five different bonding agents: Amalgambond Plus, Optibond, Imperva Dual, All-Bond 2, and Clearfil Liner Bond. Flat dentin surfaces obtained by grinding the occlusal portion of 50 human third molars were used for this study. To contain the amalgam on the tooth surface, cylindrical plastic molds were placed on the dentin and secured with sticky wax. The bonding agents were then applied according to the manufacturers' instructions or light activated and Tytin amalgam was condensed into the plastic molds. The samples were thermocycled and shear bond strengths were determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Analysis by one-way ANOVA indicated significant difference between the five groups (P < 0.05). The bond strength of amalgam to dentin was significantly higher with Amalgambond Plus using the High-Performance Additive than with the other four bonding agents.

  9. Satisfaction strength and intention to purchase a new product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Dopico, Domingo C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of satisfaction strength on the correspondence between reported satisfaction and intention to purchase a new product. The market testing underlying this study analyzes the market opportunities for a novel prototype. The research was conducted at a central location wit...... satisfaction level alone. The study argues on the nomological validity of the satisfaction construct and reveals that assessment of satisfaction strength should support the management goal of identifying truly satisfied customers.......This study examines the role of satisfaction strength on the correspondence between reported satisfaction and intention to purchase a new product. The market testing underlying this study analyzes the market opportunities for a novel prototype. The research was conducted at a central location...... with 239 randomly selected consumers. Results indicate that (un)certainty, ambivalence, and importance cognitions and feelings significantly moderate the relationship between reported satisfaction and individuals’ intention to purchase. For example, the association between consumers’ reported satisfaction...

  10. Muscle strength in the oldest old and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Ferreira Cardoso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional household-based study was to investigate the factors associated with muscle strength in the oldest old (≥ 80 years living in a rural area, of southern Brazil. We interviewed a total of 56 men (85.0 ± 4.4 y and 78 women (84.5 ± 4.8 y. Prevalence of poor performance in the handgrip test (isometric strength was 39.2% and was associated with illiteracy, underweight, and cognitive deficit. Poor performance in the "chair stand" test (lower body strength/physical function was observed in 48.5% of the elderly and was more prevalent in men and among those who consumed more alcoholic drink/week. The results may be useful as indicators to public health surveillance, and to the development of prevention and intervention actions.

  11. Prediction of strength of wood composite materials using ultrasonic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.K.; Emam, A.

    2005-01-01

    Wood is a biological material integrating a very large variability of its mechanical properties (tensile and compressive), on the two directional longitudinal and transverse Ultrasonic method has been utilized to measure both wood physical and / or wood mechanical properties. The aim of this article is to show the development of ultrasonic technique for quality evaluation of trees, wood material and wood based composites. For quality assessment of these products we discuss the nondestructive evaluation of different factors such as: moisture content, temperature, biological degradation induced by bacterial attack and fungal attack. These techniques were adapted for trees, timber and wood based composites. The present study discusses the prediction of tensile and compressive strength of wood composite materials using ultrasonic testing. Empirical relationships between the tensile properties, compression strength and ultrasonic were proposed. The experimental results indicate the possibility of establishing a relationship between tensile strength and compression values. Moreover, the fractures in tensile and compressive are discussed by photographic

  12. (p,t) strengths in the Ga isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotbard, G.; Vergnes, M.; Berrier-Ronsin, G.; Vernotte, J.; Tamisier, R.

    1984-01-01

    The (p,t) reaction on the two stable Ga isotopes has been performed at 25 MeV, with 11 keV energy resolution. Levels up to 3.5 MeV in 67 Ga, 4.3 MeV in 69 Ga were measured. Differences observed in comparing the distribution of the L=2 (p,t) strength with the distribution of the B(E2) strength may be explained by a mixed character of the 7/2 2 - level wave function. The distribution of the L=0 strength indicates that the striking change in ground-state structure shown between N=40 and 42 already begins, although weakly, between N=38 and 40

  13. Heavyweight cement concrete with high stability of strength parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudyakov, Konstantin; Nevsky, Andrey; Danke, Ilia; Kudyakov, Aleksandr; Kudyakov, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    The present paper establishes regularities of basalt fibers distribution in movable cement concrete mixes under different conditions of their preparation and their selective introduction into mixer during the mixing process. The optimum content of basalt fibers was defined as 0.5% of the cement weight, which provides a uniform distribution of fibers in the concrete volume. It allows increasing compressive strength up to 51.2% and increasing tensile strength up to 28.8%. Micro-structural analysis identified new formations on the surface of basalt fibers, which indicates the good adhesion of hardened cement paste to the fibers. Stability of concrete strength parameters has significantly increased with introduction of basalt fibers into concrete mix.

  14. Creep strength and rupture ductility of creep strength enhanced ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushima, Hideaki; Sawada, Kota; Kimura, Kazuhiro [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Creep strength and rupture ductility of Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic (CSEF) steels were investigated from a viewpoint of stress dependence in comparison with conventional low alloy ferritic creep resistant steels. Inflection of stress vs. time to rupture curve was observed at 50% of 0.2% offset yield stress for both CSEF and conventional ferritic steels. Creep rupture ductility tends to decrease with increase in creep exposure time, however, those of conventional low alloy steels indicate increase in the long-term. Creep rupture ductility of the ASME Grades 92 and 122 steels indicates drastic decrease with decrease in stress at 50% of 0.2% offset yield stress. Stress dependence of creep rupture ductility of the ASME Grades 92 and 122 steels is well described by stress ratio to 0.2% offset yield stress, regardless of temperature. Drop of creep rupture ductility is caused by inhomogeneous recovery at the vicinity of prior austenite grain boundary, and remarkable drop of creep rupture ductility of CSEF steels should be derived from those stabilized microstructure. (orig.)

  15. Strength and conditioning practices of National Basketball Association strength and conditioning coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simenz, Christopher J; Dugan, Carrie A; Ebben, William P

    2005-08-01

    This study describes the results of a survey of the practices of National Basketball Association strength and conditioning (NBA S&C) coaches. The response rate was 68.9% (20 of 29). This survey examines (a) background information, (b) physical testing, (c) flexibility development, (d) speed development, (e) plyometrics, (f) strength/power development, (g) unique aspects, and (h) comments from coaches providing additional information. Results indicate, in part, that coaches assess an average of 7.3 parameters of fitness, with body composition testing being the most common. All coaches used a variety of flexibility development strategies. Results reveal that 17 of 20 (85.0%) of NBA S&C coaches follow a periodization model. Nineteen of 20 coaches (95.0%) indicated that their athletes used Olympic-style lifts. All coaches employed plyometric exercises with their athletes. The squat and its variations, as well as the Olympic-style lifts and their variations, were the most frequently used exercises. The survey serves as a review and a source of applied information and new ideas.

  16. A PERFORMANCE COMPARISON BETWEEN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL METHODS IN FORECASTING FINANCIAL STRENGTH RATING IN TURKISH BANKING SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    MELEK ACAR BOYACIOĞLU; YAKUP KARA

    2013-01-01

    Financial strength rating indicates the fundamental financial strength of a bank. The aim of financial strength rating is to measure a bank’s fundamental financial strength excluding the external factors. External factors can stem from the working environment or can be linked with the outside protective support mechanisms. With the evaluation, the rating of a bank free from outside supportive factors is being sought. Also the financial fundamental, franchise value, the variety of assets and w...

  17. Controller Design of Complex System Based on Nonlinear Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun Mu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new idea of controller design for complex systems. The nonlinearity index method was first developed for error propagation of nonlinear system. The nonlinearity indices access the boundary between the strong and the weak nonlinearities of the system model. The algorithm of nonlinearity index according to engineering application is first proposed in this paper. Applying this method on nonlinear systems is an effective way to measure the nonlinear strength of dynamics model over the full flight envelope. The nonlinearity indices access the boundary between the strong and the weak nonlinearities of system model. According to the different nonlinear strength of dynamical model, the control system is designed. The simulation time of dynamical complex system is selected by the maximum value of dynamic nonlinearity indices. Take a missile as example; dynamical system and control characteristic of missile are simulated. The simulation results show that the method is correct and appropriate.

  18. Cobalt: for strength and color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.; Kropschot, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt is a shiny, gray, brittle metal that is best known for creating an intense blue color in glass and paints. It is frequently used in the manufacture of rechargeable batteries and to create alloys that maintain their strength at high temperatures. It is also one of the essential trace elements (or "micronutrients") that humans and many other living creatures require for good health. Cobalt is an important component in many aerospace, defense, and medical applications and is a key element in many clean energy technologies. The name cobalt comes from the German word kobold, meaning goblin. It was given this name by medieval miners who believed that troublesome goblins replaced the valuable metals in their ore with a substance that emitted poisonous fumes when smelted. The Swedish chemist Georg Brandt isolated metallic cobalt-the first new metal to be discovered since ancient times-in about 1735 and identified some of its valuable properties.

  19. High-strength beryllium block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, N.P.; Keith, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium billets hot isopressed using fine powder of high purity have exceptionally attractive properties; average tensile ultimate, 0.2% offset yield strength and elongation are 590 MPa, 430 MPa and 4.0% respectively. Properties are attributed to the fine grain size (about 4.0 μm average diameter) and the relatively low levels of BeO present as fine, well-dispersed particles. Dynamic properties, e.g., fracture toughness, are similar to those of standard grade, high-purity beryllium. The modulus of beryllium is retained to very high stress levels, and the microyield stress or precision elastic limit is higher than for other grades, including instrument grades. Limited data for billets made from normal-purity fine powders show similar room temperature properties. (author)

  20. Swimbladder on Fish Target Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses of target strength (TS for the Selar boops (Oxeye scad and Megalaspis cordyla (Torpedo scad, the most commercially fish in Malaysia. TS can be determined from in situ measurements and acoustic calculation of fish model. TS value, depth, and position (x-y-z of targeted fish can be viewed from echogram using FQ-80 Analyzer by in situ measurement. X-ray imaged can be deployed to develop the acoustic fish model. The percentage of length and upper surface area for swimbladder to body fish of Selar boops more than Megalaspis cordyla can be measured after X-ray process. The percentage of width and volume of swimbladders to its each body are no significantly difference for both fish. These data of swimbladder physic support the result of in situ measurement which TS of Megalaspis cordyla stronger Selar boops.

  1. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    ; the Cumulated Publication Point Indicator (CPPI), which graphically illustrates the cumulated gain of obtained vs. ideal points, both seen as vectors; and the normalized Cumulated Publication Point Index (nCPPI) that represents the cumulated gain of publication success as index values, either graphically......The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdisciplinary Danish Institute of International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  2. Minimum risk trigger indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    A viable safeguards system includes among other things the development and use of indices which trigger various courses of action. The usual limit of error calculation provides such an index. The classical approach is one of constructing tests which, under certain assumptions, make the likelihood of a false alarm small. Of concern also is the test's failure to indicate a loss (diversion) when in fact one has occurred. Since false alarms are usually costly and losses both costly and of extreme strategic sinificance, there remains the task of balancing the probability of false alarm and its consequences against the probability of undetected loss and its consequences. The application of other than classical hypothesis testing procedures are considered in this paper. Using various consequence models, trigger indices are derived which have certain optimum properties. Application of the techniques would enhance the material control function

  3. Muscular strength and incident hypertension in normotensive and prehypertensive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Sui, Xuemei; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hussey, Jim; Blair, Steven N

    2010-02-01

    The protective effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on hypertension (HTN) are well known; however, the association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN has yet to be examined. This study evaluated the strength-HTN association with and without accounting for CRF. Participants were 4147 men (age = 20-82 yr) in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study for whom an age-specific composite muscular strength score was computed from measures of a one-repetition maximal leg and a one-repetition maximal bench press. CRF was quantified by maximal treadmill exercise test time in minutes. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals of incident HTN events according to exposure categories. During a mean follow-up of 19 yr, there were 503 incident HTN cases. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HR of HTN in normotensive men comparing middle- and high-strength thirds to the lowest third were not significant at 1.17 and 0.84, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HR of HTN in baseline prehypertensive men comparing middle- and high-strength thirds to the lowest third were significant at 0.73 and 0.72 (P = 0.01 each), respectively. The association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN in baseline prehypertensive men was no longer significant after control for CRF (P = 0.26). The study indicated that middle and high levels of muscular strength were associated with a reduced risk of HTN in prehypertensive men only. However, this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for CRF.

  4. Preparation, mechanical strengths, and thermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Furukawa, S.; Hagiwara, M.; Masumoto, T.

    1987-05-01

    Ni-based amorphous wires with good bending ductility have been prepared for Ni75Si8B17 and Ni78P12B10 alloys containing 1 to 2 at. pct Al or Zr by melt spinning in rotating water. The enhancement of the wire-formation tendency by the addition of Al has been clarified to be due to the increase in the stability of the melt jet through the formation of a thin A12O3 film on the outer surface. The maximum wire diameter is about 190 to 200 μm for the Ni-Si (or P)-B-Al alloys and increases to about 250 μm for the Ni-Si-B-Al-Cr alloys containing 4 to 6 at. pct Cr. The tensile fracture strength and fracture elongation are 2730 MPa and 2.9 pct for (Ni0.75Si0.08B0.17 99Al1) wire and 2170 MPa and 2.4 pct for (Ni0.78P0.12B0.1)99Al1 wire. These wires exhibit a fatigue limit under dynamic bending strain in air with a relative humidity of 65 pct; this limit is 0.50 pct for a Ni-Si-B-Al wire, which is higher by 0.15 pct than that of a Fe75Si10B15 amorphous wire. Furthermore, the Ni-base wires do not fracture during a 180-deg bending even for a sample annealed at temperatures just below the crystallization temperature, in sharp contrast to high embrittlement tendency for Fe-base amorphous alloys. Thus, the Ni-based amorphous wires have been shown to be an attractive material similar to Fe- and Co-based amorphous wires because of its high static and dynamic strength, high ductility, high stability to thermal embrittlement, and good corrosion resistance.

  5. Yield Strength Testing in Human Cadaver Nasal Septal Cartilage and L-Strut Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan F; Messinger, Kelton; Inman, Jared C

    2017-01-01

    To our knowledge, yield strength testing in human nasal septal cartilage has not been reported to date. An understanding of the basic mechanics of the nasal septum may help surgeons decide how much of an L-strut to preserve and how much grafting is needed. To determine the factors correlated with yield strength of the cartilaginous nasal septum and to explore the association between L-strut width and thickness in determining yield strength. In an anatomy laboratory, yield strength of rectangular pieces of fresh cadaver nasal septal cartilage was measured, and regression was performed to identify the factors correlated with yield strength. To measure yield strength in L-shaped models, 4 bonded paper L-struts models were constructed for every possible combination of the width and thickness, for a total of 240 models. Mathematical modeling using the resultant data with trend lines and surface fitting was performed to quantify the associations among L-strut width, thickness, and yield strength. The study dates were November 1, 2015, to April 1, 2016. The factors correlated with nasal cartilage yield strength and the associations among L-strut width, thickness, and yield strength in L-shaped models. Among 95 cartilage pieces from 12 human cadavers (mean [SD] age, 67.7 [12.6] years) and 240 constructed L-strut models, L-strut thickness was the only factor correlated with nasal septal cartilage yield strength (coefficient for thickness, 5.54; 95% CI, 4.08-7.00; P cadaver nasal septal cartilage, L-strut thickness was significantly associated with yield strength. In a bonded paper L-strut model, L-strut thickness had a more important role in determining yield strength than L-strut width. Surgeons should consider the thickness of potential L-struts when determining the amount of cartilaginous septum to harvest and graft. NA.

  6. Optical Variability of Narrow-line and Broad-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Stalin, C. S.

    2017-06-01

    We studied the optical variability (OV) of a large sample of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLSy1) galaxies with z anti-correlated with Fe II strength but correlated with the width of the Hβ line. The well-known anti-correlation of variability-luminosity and the variability-Eddington ratio is present in our data. Among the radio-loud sample, variability amplitude is found to be correlated with radio-loudness and radio-power, suggesting that jets also play an important role in the OV in radio-loud objects, in addition to the Eddington ratio, which is the main driving factor of OV in radio-quiet sources.

  7. Temperature indicating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, J.P.; Salt, D.

    1988-01-01

    A temperature indicating device comprises a plurality of planar elements some undergoing a reversible change in appearance at a given temperature the remainder undergoing an irreversible change in appearance at a given temperature. The device is useful in indicating the temperature which an object has achieved as well as its actual temperature. The reversible change is produced by liquid crystal devices. The irreversible change is produced by an absorbent surface carrying substances e.g. waxes which melt at predetermined temperatures and are absorbed by the surface; alternatively paints may be used. The device is used for monitoring processes of encapsulation of radio active waste. (author)

  8. Injector of solid indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshev, G.I.; Luk' yanov, E.P.; Pruslin, Y.A.; Zabrodin, P.I.

    1981-04-25

    The injector can be used with remote introduction of indicators into a borehole for study in an oil well of the parameters of movement of fluid currents, control of the state of the equipment, and study of the properties of the rocks. Proposed is a method of increasing the reliability of operation of the injector by stabilizing the rate of its dispersing. Introduced to the injector of a solid indicator are auxiliary brackets and a cathode made from nonmetallic electrical conducting material and reinforced at the end by an elastic bracket. The auxillary cathode is attached to the end surface of the anode and cathode.

  9. Economic Indicators Selected Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    DEFENCE I ECONOMIC INDICATORS SELECTED COUNTRIES DECEMBER QUARTER 1987 . ’-H ISSUED BY MANPOWER POLICY & STRATEGIES BRANCH " "’ :.S S ’,1l f ,am -m mW...100 Sour:e: Main Economic Indicators (OECD) Manufactured Basic Metal Year Goods Chemicals Metals Products 1980 100 100 100 100 1981 110 117 102 107...Earnings of all 1982 1986 7.4 Male Employees (a) Aug 1986 Aug 1987 4.8 Hourly Wace Rates 3 1979 1987 lt.2 Garden Island 1983 1987 6.7 Dockyards Dec

  10. Indications for coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenbach, M.; Vallbracht, C.

    1985-01-01

    Today selective coronary angiography, introduced by Sones in 1957, is used as clinical routine for diagnosing morphological changes in the coronary arteries. Hitherto, more recent techniques such as digital subtraction angiography cannot provide comparable information. Strict criteria for its indication depending on possible therapeutic consequences, have to be applied, although the risk is low with a letality of 0.01 to 0.05 percent. Radionuclear investigations can be used as additional tool in selected cases. The careful indication for coronary angiography usually implies the possible need for coronary bypass graft surgery of balloon angioplasty. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Weighted oscillator strengths and lifetimes for the S VII spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, F.O.; Cavalcanti, G.H.; Trigueiros, A.G.; Jupen, C.

    2004-01-01

    The weighted oscillator strengths (gf) and the lifetimes presented in this work were carried out in a multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock relativistic approach. In this calculation, the electrostatic parameters were optimized by a least-squares procedure, in order to improve the adjustment to experimental energy levels. This method produces gf-values that are in better agreement with intensity observations and lifetime values that are closer to the experimental ones. In this work, we presented all the experimentally known electric dipole S VII spectral lines

  12. Association Between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin H; Brown, Justin C; Gater, David R; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the relationship between 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength among breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Community-dwelling breast cancer survivors (N=295). Not applicable. 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer, with 3 maximal contractions of the left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Among 295 breast cancer survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1kg (range, 2.2-43.0kg), and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8kg (range, 9.0-43.0kg). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7kg (95% limits of agreement, -8.2 to 17.6kg). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=.31; Pstrength (R 2 =.23). Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer survivors. 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reference Values of Grip Strength, Prevalence of Low Grip Strength, and Factors Affecting Grip Strength Values in Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Ong, Sherlin; Cheung, Osbert; Leung, Jason; Woo, Jean

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to update the reference values of grip strength, to estimate the prevalence of low grip strength, and to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol on grip strength values in Chinese adults. A cross-sectional survey of Chinese men (n = 714) and women (n = 4014) aged 18-102 years was undertaken in different community settings in Hong Kong. Grip strength was measured with a digital dynamometer (TKK 5401 Grip-D; Takei, Niigata, Japan). Low grip strength was defined as grip strength 2 standard deviations or more below the mean for young adults. The effects of measurement protocol on grip strength values were examined in a subsample of 45 men and women with repeated measures of grip strength taken with a hydraulic dynamometer (Baseline; Fabrication Enterprises Inc, Irvington, NY), using pair t-tests, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland and Altman plots. Grip strength was greater among men than among women (P values than the Baseline hydraulic dynamometer (P values were also observed when the measurement was performed with the elbow extended in a standing position, compared with that with the elbow flexed at 90° in a sitting position, using the same dynamometer (P values of grip strength and estimated the prevalence of low grip strength among Chinese adults spanning a wide age range. These findings might be useful for risk estimation and evaluation of interventions. However, grip strength measurements should be interpreted with caution, as grip strength values can be affected by type of dynamometer used, assessment posture, and elbow position. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Nimphius, Sophia; Bellon, Christopher R; Stone, Michael H

    2018-04-01

    This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete's training status and the dose-response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete's training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should

  15. Transmission line capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  16. Supporting Product Line Evolution with Framed Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loughran, Neil; Rashid, Awais; Zhang, Weishan

    2004-01-01

    , but there will eventually come a time when a certain feature or scenario appears which could not have been foreseen in the early stages of development. We argue that frames and aspects when used in isolation cannot overcome these weaknesses effectively. However, they can be addressed by using the respective strengths......This paper discusses how evolution in software product lines can be supported using framed aspects: a combination of aspect-oriented programming and frame technology. Product line architectures and assets are subject to maintenance and evolution throughout their lifetime due to the emergence of new...... of both technologies in combination. The amalgamation of framing and aspect-oriented techniques can help in the integration of new features and thus reduce the risk of architectural erosion....

  17. Simple Magnetic Device Indicates Thickness Of Alloy 903

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pin Jeng; Rodriguez, Sergio; Bright, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    Handheld device called "ferrite indicator" orginally designed for use in determining ferrite content of specimen of steel. Placed in contact with specimen and functions by indicating whether magnet attracted more strongly to specimen or to calibrated reference sample. Relative strength of attraction shows whether alloy overlay thinner than allowable.

  18. Testing resonating vector strength: Auditory system, electric fish, and noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo van Hemmen, J.; Longtin, André; Vollmayr, Andreas N.

    2011-12-01

    Quite often a response to some input with a specific frequency ν○ can be described through a sequence of discrete events. Here, we study the synchrony vector, whose length stands for the vector strength, and in doing so focus on neuronal response in terms of spike times. The latter are supposed to be given by experiment. Instead of singling out the stimulus frequency ν○ we study the synchrony vector as a function of the real frequency variable ν. Its length turns out to be a resonating vector strength in that it shows clear maxima in the neighborhood of ν○ and multiples thereof, hence, allowing an easy way of determining response frequencies. We study this "resonating" vector strength for two concrete but rather different cases, viz., a specific midbrain neuron in the auditory system of cat and a primary detector neuron belonging to the electric sense of the wave-type electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. We show that the resonating vector strength always performs a clear resonance correlated with the phase locking that it quantifies. We analyze the influence of noise and demonstrate how well the resonance associated with maximal vector strength indicates the dominant stimulus frequency. Furthermore, we exhibit how one can obtain a specific phase associated with, for instance, a delay in auditory analysis.

  19. Relationship between the Compressive and Tensile Strength of Recycled Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Dalati, R.; Haddad, S.; Matar, P.; Chehade, F.H

    2011-01-01

    Concrete recycling consists of crushing the concrete provided by demolishing the old constructions, and of using the resulted small pieces as aggregates in the new concrete compositions. The resulted aggregates are called recycled aggregates and the new mix of concrete containing a percentage of recycled aggregates is called recycled concrete. Our previous researches have indicated the optimal percentages of recycled aggregates to be used for different cases of recycled concrete related to the original aggregates nature. All results have shown that the concrete compressive strength is significantly reduced when using recycled aggregates. In order to obtain realistic values of compressive strength, some tests have been carried out by adding water-reducer plasticizer and a specified additional quantity of cement. The results have shown that for a limited range of plasticizer percentage, and a fixed value of additional cement, the compressive strength has reached reasonable value. This paper treats of the effect of using recycled aggregates on the tensile strength of concrete, where concrete results from the special composition defined by our previous work. The aim is to determine the relationship between the compressive and tensile strength of recycled concrete. (author)

  20. The logarithmic hypervolume indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Tobias; Bringmann, Karl; Voß, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio. This is exp...

  1. Maslov indices and monodromy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dullin, H R; Robbins, J M; Waalkens, H; Creagh, S C; Tanner, G

    2005-01-01

    We prove that for a Hamiltonian system on a cotangent bundle that is Liouville-integrable and has monodromy the vector of Maslov indices is an eigenvector of the monodromy matrix with eigenvalue 1. As a corollary, the resulting restrictions on the monodromy matrix are derived. (letter to the editor)

  2. Lichen indicator [Section 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul L. Patterson; Susan Will-Wolf; Marie T. Trest

    2009-01-01

    Lichens are very responsive to environmental stressors in forests, including changes in forest structure, air quality, and climate. Each lichen species on a plot is an indicator of how lichen communities respond to ecological conditions. Individual lichen species occur erratically and even common species are often absent from plots with suitable habitat. The combined...

  3. High strength cast aluminum alloy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druschitz, Edward A.

    The goal of this research was to understand how chemistry and processing affect the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength cast aluminum alloys. Two alloy systems were investigated including the Al-Cu-Ag and the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu systems. Processing variables included solidification under pressure (SUP) and heat treatment. This research determined the range in properties that can be achieved in BAC 100(TM) (Al-Cu micro-alloyed with Ag, Mn, Zr, and V) and generated sufficient property data for design purposes. Tensile, stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue testing were performed. CuAl2 and Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallics were identified as the ductility limiting flaws. A solution treatment of 75 hours or longer was needed to dissolve most of the intermetallic CuAl 2. The Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallic was unaffected by heat treatment. These results indicate that faster cooling rates, a reduction in copper concentration and a reduction in iron concentration might increase the ductility of the alloy by decreasing the size and amount of the intermetallics that form during solidification. Six experimental Al-Zn-Mg-Cu series alloys were produced. Zinc concentrations of 8 and 12wt% and Zn/Mg ratios of 1.5 to 5.5 were tested. Copper was held constant at 0.9%. Heat treating of the alloys was optimized for maximum hardness. Al-Zn-Mg-Cu samples were solution treated at 441°C (826°F) for 4 hours before ramping to 460°C (860°F) for 75 hours and then aged at 120°C (248°F) for 75 hours. X-ray diffraction showed that the age hardening precipitates in most of these alloys was the T phase (Mg32Zn 31.9Al17.1). Tensile testing of the alloys showed that the best mechanical properties were obtained in the lowest alloy condition. Chilled Al-8.2Zn-1.4Mg-0.9Cu solidified under pressure resulted in an alloy with a yield strength of 468MPa (68ksi), tensile strength of 525MPa (76ksi) and an elongation of 9%.

  4. Production of small diameter high-temperature-strength refractory metal wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, D. W.; Signorelli, R. A.; King, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Special thermomechanical techniques (schedules) have been developed to produce small diameter wire from three refractory metal alloys: colombian base alloy, tantalum base alloy, and tungsten base alloy. High strengths of these wires indicate their potential for contributing increased strength to metallic composites.

  5. About cosmic gamma ray lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Gamma ray lines from cosmic sources convey the action of nuclear reactions in cosmic sites and their impacts on astrophysical objects. Gamma rays at characteristic energies result from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. The gamma-ray line from the annihilation of positrons at 511 keV falls into the same energy window, although of different origin. We present here the concepts of cosmic gamma ray spectrometry and the corresponding instruments and missions, followed by a discussion of recent results and the challenges and open issues for the future. Among the lessons learned are the diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in 26Al and 60Fe gamma rays, which is now being exploited towards the cycle of matter driven by massive stars and their supernovae; large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be of key importance here. Also, constraints on the complex processes making stars explode as either thermonuclear or core-collapse supernovae are being illuminated by gamma-ray lines, in this case from shortlived radioactivities from 56Ni and 44Ti decays. In particular, the three-dimensionality and asphericities that have recently been recognised as important are enlightened in different ways through such gamma-ray line spectroscopy. Finally, the distribution of positron annihilation gamma ray emission with its puzzling bulge-dominated intensity disctribution is measured through spatially-resolved spectra, which indicate that annihilation conditions may differ in different parts of our Galaxy. But it is now understood that a variety of sources may feed positrons into the interstellar medium, and their characteristics largely get lost during slowing down and propagation of positrons before annihilation; a recent microquasar flare was caught as an opportunity to see positrons annihilate at a source.

  6. Determination of absolute oscillator strengths for doubly-ionized vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goly, A.

    1978-01-01

    Oscillator strengths of thirty V III lines in the wavelength region from 2300A to 2600A were determined by the emission method using a modified wallstabilized cascade are operating at atmospheric pressure in helium with traces of VOCl 3 -vapour. The plasma radiation was analyzed by using a high dispersion grating spectrograph (0.7 A/mm) and Kodak IIaO-plates. Conventional techniques of intensity measurement were employed. Under the physical conditions created the helium plasma was found more or less distant from LTE, but for singly- and doubly-ionized vanadium according to Drawin's criteria, a Boltzmann distribution of level population can be assumed (and has been proved for VII). Measuring a set of intensities of V II lines (with different energies of upper levels) and using gf-values, obtained previously in an argon-vanadium plasma in LTE, excitation temperatures were determined from slopes of Boltzmann plots. (orig.) 891 WL [de

  7. Traditional versus functional strength training: Effects on muscle strength and power in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Hilde Lohne; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Anderssen, Sigmund A.

    2013-01-01

    Published versiom of an article in the journal:Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Also available from Human Kinetics: http://http://journals.humankinetics.com/japa-back-issues/japa-volume-21-issue-1-january/traditional-versus-functional-strength-training-effects-on-muscle-strength-and-power-in-the-elderly The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderl...

  8. Improvability of assembly systems II: Improvability indicators and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-Y. Chiang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the performance analysis technique developed in Part I, this paper presents improvability indicators for assembly lines with unreliable machines. In particular, it shows that assembly lines are unimprovable with respect to workforce re-distribution if each buffer is, on the average, close to being half full. These lines are unimprovable with respect to buffer capacity re-distribution if each machine is starved and blocked with almost equal frequency. In addition, the paper provides indicators for identification of bottleneck machines and bottleneck buffers. Finally, the paper reports on an application of these improvability indicators in a case study at an automotive components plant.

  9. Isometric shoulder strength in young swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaine, Sally J; Ginn, Karen A; Fell, James W; Bird, Marie-Louise

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of shoulder pain in young swimmers is high. Shoulder rotation strength and the ratio of internal to external rotation strength have been reported as potential modifiable risk factors associated with shoulder pain. However, relative strength measures in elevated positions, which include flexion and extension, have not been established for the young swimmer. The aim of this study was to establish clinically useful, normative shoulder strength measures and ratios for swimmers (14-20 years) without shoulder pain. Cross-sectional, observational study. Swimmers (N=85) without a recent history of shoulder pain underwent strength testing of shoulder flexion and extension (in 140° abduction); and internal and external rotation (in 90° abduction). Strength tests were performed in supine using a hand-held dynamometer and values normalised to body weight. Descriptive statistics were calculated for strength and strength ratios (flexion:extension and internal:external rotation). Differences between groups (based on gender, history of pain, test and arm dominance) were explored using independent and paired t tests. Normative shoulder strength values and ratios were established for young swimmers. There was a significant difference (pdifferences in strength ratios. Relative strength of the dominant and non-dominant shoulders (except for extension); and for swimmers with and without a history of shoulder pain was not significantly different. A normal shoulder strength profile for the young swimmer has been established which provides a valuable reference for the clinician assessing shoulder strength in this population. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Along the line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2011-01-01

    Embarking on a work of art constitutes a reduction of information – because we grasp the diversity and plurality of the manifestations we encounter by abstracting them and transforming them into manageable concepts; as we do when we draw contour lines on the landscape – they are imaginary...... and invisible but an abstraction essential for noting a difference or marking a place on a map. In the same way, a stroke in a sketch or a line in the sand is a manifestation of our ability to draw a boundary that both includes and excludes information. Where the line makes the birth of an idea visible......, it expresses through movement our tendency to mark a difference by drawing attention to and enclosing a whole series of relations that confront our preconceived notions. It is in the process of transformation in which we reduce the complexity of how we work, and rethink our ideas anew by refining the very same...

  11. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  12. Stokes line width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiskov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of Stokes line width is introduced for the asymptotic expansions of functions near an essential singularity. Explicit expressions are found for functions (switching functions) that switch on the exponentially small terms for the Dawson integral, Airy function, and the gamma function. A different, more natural representation of a function, not associated with expansion in an asymptotic series, in the form of dominant and recessive terms is obtained by a special division of the contour integral which represents the function into contributions of higher and lower saddle points. This division leads to a narrower, natural Stokes line width and a switching function of an argument that depends on the topology of the lines of steepest descent from the saddle point

  13. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  14. 15. Basic economic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carless, J.; Dow, B.; Farivari, R.; O'Connor, J.; Fox, T.; Tunstall, D.; Mentzingen, M.

    1992-01-01

    The clear value of economic data and analysis to decisionmakers has motivated them to mandate the creation of extensive global economic data sets. This chapter contains a set of these basic economic data, which provides the context for understanding the causes and the consequences of many of the decisions that affect the world's resources. Many traditional economic indicators fail to account for the depletion or deterioration of natural resources, the long-term consequences of such depletion, the equitable distribution of income within a country, or the sustainability of current economic practices. The type of measurement shown here, however, is still useful in showing the great differences between the wealthiest and the poorest countries. Tables are given on the following: Gross national product and official development assistance 1969-89; External debt indicators 1979-89; Central government expenditures; and World commodity indexes and prices 1975-89

  15. Trochleoplasty: Indications and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, John E; Schottel, Patrick C; Endres, Nathan K

    2018-05-09

    Trochlear dysplasia is a well-described risk factor for patellar instability. Trochleoplasty has emerged as a procedure within the surgical armamentarium for patellar instability, yet its role is unclear. A variety of trochleoplasty procedures have emerged. The purpose of this review is to clarify indications for trochleoplasty, outline the technical steps involved in performing common trochleoplasties and report the published outcomes and potential complications of these procedures. Patellar instability with severe trochlear dysplasia is the main indication for trochleoplasty. Three types of trochleoplasty have emerged: (1) lateral facet elevation; (2) sulcus deepening; and (3) recession wedge. Deepening and recession wedge trochleoplasties are the most commonly performed. Trochleoplasty is a surgical option for addressing patellar instability in patients with severe trochlear dysplasia. Deepening and recession wedge trochleoplasties that address Dejour B and D dysplastic trochleas are the most studied, with both short- and midterm outcomes reported. Long-term outcomes are lacking and comparative studies are needed.

  16. Lichens as bio indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication discusses the use of lichens as biological indicators. Perennial growth, long life, efficient take-up of mineral nutrients from air and rain and small loss of nutrition are properties that make lichens suitable as biological indicators. In surveys and monitoring, species diversity and coverage by organisms that live as epiphytes on tree trunks have been the most commonly used parameters. A decline in the occurrence of this type of lichen is often related to the content of sulphur compounds in the air and it has been demonstrated that many species are sensitive to sulphur dioxide. It is also known that the growth of many types of lichens increases with a moderate increase in available nitrogen. In South Norway, pollution sensitive species such as Bryoria spp. have advanced strongly, which is probably due to less sulphur in the rain and a higher content of nutrition in the form of nitrate and ammonium

  17. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdiscplinary Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...... for all document types. Statistical significant correlations were only found between WoS and GS and the two publication point systems in between, respectively. The study demonstrates how the nCPPI can be applied to institutions as evaluation tools supplementary to JCI in various combinations...

  18. Strength analysis and modeling of cellular lattice structures manufactured using selective laser melting for tooling applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Loft Højbjerre, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    in injection molding tools and lattice structures. This research examines the effect of cellular lattice structures on the strength of workpieces additively manufactured from ultra high-strength steel powder. Two commercial SLM machines are used to fabricate cellular samples based on four architectures— solid...... with experimental data and it is shown that they agree well. The results from this research show that using lattice structures significantly reduces the strength of material with respect to solid samples while indicating no serious increase of strength compared to hollow structures. In combination with an analysis...

  19. Optimization Of Fluoride Glass Fiber Drawing With Respect To Mechanical Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.; Schoberth, A.; Staudt, A.; Gerndt, Ch.

    1987-08-01

    Heavy metal fluoride fibers have attracted considerable attention recently as lightguides for infrared optical devices. Besides the optical loss mechanical performance of the fiber is of major interest. At present fiber strength suffers from surface crystallization prior to or during fiber drawing. We developed an etching method for the preparation of preforms with clean surface. Drawing these preforms under optimized conditions in a dry atmosphere results in fibers with improved strength. So far, mean value of 400 N/mm2 tensile strength have been achieved. Maximum values of 800 N/mm2 measured on etched fibers indicate an even higher strength potential for the material itself.

  20. Micromechanical analysis of polyacrylamide-modified concrete for improving strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Zengzhi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710064 (China)], E-mail: zz-sun@126.com; Xu Qinwu [Pavement research, Transtec Group Inc., Austin 78731 (United States)], E-mail: qinwu_xu@yahoo.com

    2008-08-25

    This paper studies how polyacrylamide (PAM) alters the physicochemical and mechanical properties of concrete. The microstructure of PAM-modified concrete and the physicochemical reaction between PAM and concrete were studied through scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and infrared spectrum analysis. Meanwhile, the workability and strengths of cement paste and concrete were tested. PAM's modification mechanism was also discussed. Results indicate that PAM reacts with the Ca{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+} cations produced by concrete hydration to form the ionic compounds and reduce the crystallization of Ca(OH){sub 2}, acting as a flexible filler and reinforcement in the porosity of concrete and, therefore, improving concrete's engineering properties. PAM also significantly alters the microstructure at the aggregate-cement interfacial transition zone. Mechanical testing results indicate that the fluidity of cement paste decreases initially, then increases, and decreases again with increasing PAM content. PAM can effectively improve the flexural strength, bonding strength, dynamic impact resistance, and fatigue life of concrete, though it reduces the compressive strength to some extent.

  1. Micromechanical analysis of polyacrylamide-modified concrete for improving strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zengzhi; Xu Qinwu

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies how polyacrylamide (PAM) alters the physicochemical and mechanical properties of concrete. The microstructure of PAM-modified concrete and the physicochemical reaction between PAM and concrete were studied through scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and infrared spectrum analysis. Meanwhile, the workability and strengths of cement paste and concrete were tested. PAM's modification mechanism was also discussed. Results indicate that PAM reacts with the Ca 2+ and Al 3+ cations produced by concrete hydration to form the ionic compounds and reduce the crystallization of Ca(OH) 2 , acting as a flexible filler and reinforcement in the porosity of concrete and, therefore, improving concrete's engineering properties. PAM also significantly alters the microstructure at the aggregate-cement interfacial transition zone. Mechanical testing results indicate that the fluidity of cement paste decreases initially, then increases, and decreases again with increasing PAM content. PAM can effectively improve the flexural strength, bonding strength, dynamic impact resistance, and fatigue life of concrete, though it reduces the compressive strength to some extent

  2. Dramatically enhanced electrical breakdown strength in cellulose nanopaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical breakdown behaviors of nanopaper prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC were investigated. Compared to conventional insulating paper made from micro softwood fibers, nanopaper has a dramatically enhanced breakdown strength. Breakdown field of nanopaper is 67.7 kV/mm, whereas that of conventional paper is only 20 kV/mm. Air voids in the surface of conventional paper are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Further analyses using mercury intrusion show that pore diameter of conventional paper is around 1.7 μm, while that of nanopaper is below 3 nm. Specific pore size of nanopaper is determined to be approximately 2.8 nm by the gas adsorption technique. In addition, theoretical breakdown strengths of nanopaper and conventional paper are also calculated to evaluate the effect of pore size. It turns out that theoretical values agree well with experimental data, indicating that the improved strength in nanopaper is mainly attributed to the decreased pore size. Due to its outstanding breakdown strength, this study indicates the suitability of nanopaper for electrical insulation in ultra-high voltage convert transformers and other electrical devices.

  3. VT Digital Line Graph Railroads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of major railroad lines for the state of Vermont. These railroad lines line up well along quadrangle boundaries, but...

  4. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  5. The End of the Lines for OX 169: No Binary Broad-Line Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, J. P.; Eracleous, M.

    2000-03-01

    We show that unusual Balmer emission-line profiles of the quasar OX 169, frequently described as either self-absorbed or double peaked, are actually neither. The effect is an illusion resulting from two coincidences. First, the forbidden lines are quite strong and broad. Consequently, the [N II] λ6583 line and the associated narrow-line component of Hα present the appearance of twin Hα peaks. Second, the redshift of 0.2110 brings Hβ into coincidence with Na I D at zero redshift, and ISM absorption in Na I D divides the Hβ emission line. In spectra obtained over the past decade, we see no substantial change in the character of the line profiles and no indication of intrinsic double-peaked structure. The Hγ, Mg II, and Lyα emission lines are single peaked, and all of the emission-line redshifts are consistent once they are correctly attributed to their permitted and forbidden-line identifications. A systematic shift of up to 700 km s-1 between broad and narrow lines is seen, but such differences are common and could be due to gravitational and transverse redshift in a low-inclination disk. Stockton & Farnham had called attention to an apparent tidal tail in the host galaxy of OX 169 and speculated that a recent merger had supplied the nucleus with a coalescing pair of black holes that was now revealing its existence in the form of two physically distinct broad-line regions. Although there is no longer any evidence for two broad emission-line regions in OX 169, binary black holes should form frequently in galaxy mergers, and it is still worthwhile to monitor the radial velocities of emission lines that could supply evidence of their existence in certain objects.

  6. The Association between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin H.; Brown, Justin C.; Gater, David R.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective One-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength is considered the gold standard to quantify upper-body muscular strength. Isometric handgrip strength is frequently used as a surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer (BrCa) survivors. The relationship between 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength, however, has not been characterized among BrCa survivors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Laboratory. Participants Community-dwelling BrCa survivors. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer with three maximal contractions of left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Results Among 295 BrCa survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1 kg (range: 2.2-43.0) and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8 kg (range: 9.0-43.0). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=0.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7 kg (95% limits of agreement: −8.2 to 17.6). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=0.31; Pstrength (R2=0.23). Conclusions Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among BrCa survivors. 1-RM bench press and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. PMID:27543047

  7. Isolated electrostatic structures observed throughout the Cluster orbit: relationship to magnetic field strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Pickett

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated electrostatic structures are observed throughout much of the 4RE by 19.6RE Cluster orbit. These structures are observed in the Wideband plasma wave instrument's waveform data as bipolar pulses (one positive and one negative peak in the electric field amplitude and tripolar pulses (two positive and one negative peak, or vice versa. These structures are observed at all of the boundary layers, in the solar wind and magnetosheath, and along auroral field lines at 4.5-6.5RE. Using the Wideband waveform data from the various Cluster spacecraft we have carried out a survey of the amplitudes and time durations of these structures and how these quantities vary with the local magnetic field strength. Such a survey has not been carried out before, and it reveals certain characteristics of solitary structures in a finite magnetic field, a topic still inadequately addressed by theories. We find that there is a broad range of electric field amplitudes at any specific magnetic field strength, and there is a general trend for the electric field amplitudes to increase as the strength of the magnetic field increases over a range of 5 to 500nT. We provide a possible explanation for this trend that relates to the structures being Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal mode solitary waves. There is no corresponding dependence of the duration of the structures on the magnetic field strength, although a plot of these two quantities reveals the unexpected result that with the exception of the magnetosheath, all of the time durations for all of the other regions are comparable, whereas the magnetosheath time durations clearly are in a different category of much smaller time duration. We speculate that this implies that the structures are much smaller in size. The distinctly different pulse durations for the magnetosheath pulses indicate the possibility that the pulses are generated by a mechanism which is different

  8. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load......-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...... the size and shape of the weld nugget, these properties include the new strength of the material in the weld and the heat affected zone based on the predicted hardness resulting from microstructural phase changes simulated during cooling of the weld before strength testing. Comparisons between overall...

  9. Elastic stability and the limit of strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris Jr., J.W.; Krenn, C.R.; Roundy, D.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2002-01-01

    The upper limit of strength (the ''theoretical strength'') has been an active subject of research and speculation for the better part of a century. The subject has recently become important, for two reasons. First, given recent advances in ab initio techniques and computing machines, the limits of strength can be calculated with considerable accuracy, making this one of the very few problems in mechanical behavior that can actually be solved. Second, given recent advances in materials engineering, the limits of strength are being approached in some systems, such as hardened or defect-free films, and their relevance is becoming recognized in others. The present paper discusses some interesting results from recent research on the limits of strength, with an intermixture of speculations based on those results. Topics include the inherent nature of {100} cleavage and ''pencil slip'' in bcc metals, the inherent ductility of fcc metals, the anomalous properties of Al, and the possibility of measuring ideal strength with nanoindentation

  10. Prediction of concrete strength in massive structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Makino, H.; Nakane, S.; Kawaguchi, T.; Ohike, T.

    1989-01-01

    Reinforced concrete structures of a nuclear power plant are mostly of mass concrete with cross-sectional dimensions larger than 1.0 m. The temperature of concrete inside after placement rises due to heat of hydration of cement. It is well known that concrete strengths of mass concrete structure subjected to such temperature hysteresis are generally not equal to strengths of cylinders subjected to standard curing. In order to construct a mass concrete structure of high reliability in which the specified concrete strength is satisfied by the specified age, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of the strength gain property of concrete in the structure and its relationships with the water-cement ratio of the mix, strength of standard-cured cylinders and the internal temperature hysteresis. This report describes the result of studies on methods of controlling concrete strength in actual construction projects

  11. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Mortensen, Sara Rosager; Aaboe, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Pain is the principal symptom in knee pathologies and reduced muscle strength is a common observation among knee patients. However, the relationship between knee joint pain and muscle strength remains to be clarified. This study aimed at investigating the changes in knee muscle strength following...... experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P knee extension and flexion at all angular velocities. The reduction in muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension...

  12. The effect of welding line heat-affected-zone on the formability of tube hydroforming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChiuHuang, Cheng-Kai; Hsu, Cheng-En; Lee, Ping-Kun

    2016-08-01

    Tube hydroforming has been used as a lightweight design approach to reduce CO2 emission for the automotive industry. For the high strength steel tube, the strength and quality of the welding line is very important for a successful tube hydroforming process. This paper aims to investigate the effect of the welding line's strength and the width of the heat-affected zone on the tube thinning during the hydroforming process. The simulation results show that both factors play an important role on the thickness distribution during the tube expansion.

  13. The effect of welding line heat-affected-zone on the formability of tube hydroforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ChiuHuang, Cheng-Kai; Hsu, Cheng-En; Lee, Ping-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Tube hydroforming has been used as a lightweight design approach to reduce CO_2 emission for the automotive industry. For the high strength steel tube, the strength and quality of the welding line is very important for a successful tube hydroforming process. This paper aims to investigate the effect of the welding line's strength and the width of the heat-affected zone on the tube thinning during the hydroforming process. The simulation results show that both factors play an important role on the thickness distribution during the tube expansion. (paper)

  14. Environmental effects on the tensile strength of chemically vapor deposited silicon carbide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Kraitchman, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The room temperature and elevated temperature tensile strengths of commercially available chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) silicon carbide fibers were measured after 15 min heat treatment to 1600 C in various environments. These environments included oxygen, air, argon and nitrogen at one atmosphere and vacuum at 10/9 atmosphere. Two types of fibers were examined which differed in the SiC content of their carbon-rich coatings. Threshold temperature for fiber strength degradation was observed to be dependent on the as-received fiber-flaw structure, on the environment and on the coating. Fractographic analyses and flexural strength measurements indicate that tensile strength losses were caused by surface degradation. Oxidation of the surface coating is suggested as one possible degradation mechanism. The SiC fibers containing the higher percentage of SiC near the surface of the carbon-rich coating show better strength retention and higher elevated temperature strength.

  15. Residual shear strength of a severely ASR-damaged flat slab bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio; Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2018-01-01

    moment carried by the beams. For the beams tested in asymmetric four-point bending, an increase in the shear span-to-effective depth ratio resulted in a decrease in the measured shear strength. The measured shear strengths were compared with calculated shear strengths using the Eurocode 2. Calculations...... based on the compressive strength of drilled cores were rather conservative at low shear span-to-effective depth ratios. However, the conservatism of the Eurocode 2 decreased with increasing shear span-to-effective depth ratios. With the inclusion of ASR-induced pre-stress effect, the calculated shear...... strengths correlated better with the measured shear strengths. The test results indicated that the ASR-induced pre-stress effect can, to some extent, compensate for the significant loss in material properties....

  16. Effect of Hybrid Fibers on the Mechanical Properties of High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid H. Hussein, Saeed K. Rejeb Hayder T. Abd

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high strength concrete of 75 MPa compressive strength was investigated. The experimental program was designed to study the effect of fibers and hybrid fibers (steel and polypropylene fibers on the fresh (workability and wet density and hardened properties (compressive strength, splitting strength, flexural strength and dry density of high strength concrete. Results show that decreases in slump flow of all concrete mixtures containing steel, polypropylene and hybrid fibers compared with control mix (0% fiber. Hybrid high strength concrete with steel and polypropylene fibers showed superior compressive, splitting, flexural strengths over the others concrete without or with single fibers content. The test results indicate that the maximum increase in compressive and flexural strengths are obtains with the hybridization ratio (70%steel + 30% polypropylene and were equal to 14.54% and 23.34% respectively, compared with the control mix. While, the maximum increase in splitting tensile strength with (100% steel fiber + 0 polypropylene is 21.19%. 

  17. Variation of over strength factor for mid-rise R.C. moment resisting frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnimi, A. A.; Mahmoodi Sahebi, M.

    2001-01-01

    The over strength of a multi-storey structure (as a multi-degree of freedom system) is one of the parameters playing the evaluation of the behaviour factor. This is an important property when the structure exhibits inelastic behaviour and is described by over strength factor. The over strength factor and strength reduction factor due to ductility are considered in most seismic design codes of practice to reduce the elastic strength demand of the structure. In spite the importance of the over strength, its influence has not yet been quantified. This paper is a part of an investigation from which the first part was published in Amirkabir Journal No.36/Winter 1998, entitled as E stimation of over strength of low-ri sed flexural R.C. frames using nonlinear analysis . This paper investigates the variation of over strength factor for reinforced concrete moment resisting frames, having several stories (5 to 15) with various spans (3 to 5) and located in high seismicity regions using non-linear inelastic analysis. The results indicate that the over strength factor of these systems efforts 25 to 40 percent reduction in the elastic strength demand of such frames

  18. Sustainable normal and high strength recycled aggregate concretes using crushed tested cylinders as coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal S. Hamad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on a research program that was designed at the American University of Beirut (AUB to investigate the fresh and hardened mechanical properties of a high performance concrete mix produced with partial or full substitution of crushed natural lime-stone aggregates with recycled aggregates from crushed tested cylinders in batching plants. Choosing crushed cylinders as source of recycling would result in reusing portion of the waste products of the concrete production industry. An extensive concrete batching and testing program was conducted to achieve two optimum normal and high strength concrete mixes. The variables were the nominal concrete strength (28 or 60 MPa and the percentage replacement of natural coarse aggregates with recycled aggregates from crushed tested cylinders (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100%. Normal strength tested cylinders were used as source of the recycled aggregates for the normal strength concrete (NSC mix and high strength tested cylinders were used for the high strength concrete (HSC mix. Tests on the trial batches included plastic state slump and hardened state mechanical properties including cylinder compressive strength, cylinder splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and standard beams flexural strength. The results indicated no significant effect on the slump and around 10% average reduction in the hardened mechanical properties for both investigated levels of concrete compressive strength.

  19. Determining and optimizing effective factors in laser irradiation on skin tensional strength using a hybrid DOE and DEA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiri, M.; Dehghan, E.; Mottaghian, F.; Amjadi, A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the characteristic of a suitable irradiation on skin's tensional strength using design of experiments. The experiments in this research are designed in two phases and data envelopment analysis is used for performance measurement of each phase. Material and Methods: Samples were provided from pleura as surface tissue made of collagen and elastin fibers. In each experiment, the sample was stretched before and after irradiation. Variation of the sample length was measured. Then force-length data were plotted and the slope of the fitted line was calculated. Variation in these slopes was used as a criterion to determine tissue strength variation after laser irradiation. Furthermore, the output oriented data envelopment analysis model by variable return to scale was used to examine performance of the designed experiments for each phase. Results: Results of the first phase experiments showed that the main effect of time duration was significant; but this was not the case for beam radius. Regarding polarization, only its interaction effect with time duration was significant. Results of the second phase indicated that laser irradiation with parallel polarization for 10 seconds caused a greater increase in tensional strength. Resultant efficiencies of applying data envelopment analysis showed that the first phase experiments were more efficient. Discussion and Conclusions: This research has combined data envelopment analysis and design of experiments to investigate the effects of laser on skin elasticity. Comparing the results of the two phases indicates that it is more efficient to use the experimental design of phase 1 in our experiment. So for similar future studies, we suggest using more levels for experiments of phase 1 instead of doing the experimental design in two phases.

  20. Determining and Optimizing Effective Factors in Laser Irradiation on Skin Tensional Strength using a Hybrid DOE and DEA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bashiri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We investigated the characteristic of a suitable irradiation on skin's tensional strength using design of experiments (DOE. The experiments in this research are designed in two phases and data envelopment analysis (DEA is used for performance measurement of each phase. Material and Methods: Samples were provided from pleura as surface tissue made of collagen and elastin fibers. In each experiment, the sample was stretched before and after irradiation. Variation of the sample length was measured. Then force-length data were plotted and the slope of the fitted line was calculated. Variation in these slopes was used as a criterion to determine tissue strength variation after laser irradiation. Furthermore, the output oriented DEA model by variable return to scale was used to examine performance of the designed experiments for each phase. Results: Results of the first phase experiments showed that the main effect of time duration was significant; but this was not the case for beam radius. Regarding polarization, only its interaction effect with time duration was significant. Results of the second phase indicated that laser irradiation with parallel polarization for 10 seconds caused a greater increase in tensional strength. Resultant efficiencies of applying DEA showed that the first phase experiments were more efficient. Discussion and Conclusions: This research has combined DEA and DOE to investigate the effects of laser on skin elasticity. Comparing the results of the two phases indicates that it is more efficient to use the experimental design of phase 1 in our experiment. So for similar future studies, we suggest using more levels for experiments of phase 1 instead of doing the experimental design in two phases.

  1. Radioisotopic indicators in microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isamov, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    The book comprises data obtained by the laboratory of radiobiology (Uzbek Research Veterinary Institute) for 15 years and sums up data of domestic and foreign scientists; it discusses problems of the utilization of radioactive isotopes of sulphur, cadmium, phosphorus and other chemical elements by microorganisms; indicates the specificity of the utilization of radioisotopes in microbiology. The influence is considered of external factors on the inclusion of radioisotopes into microorganisms, methods are discussed of obtaining labelled microorganisms and their antigens, radioactivity of bacteria is considered as affected by the consistency and composition of the nutritive medium and other problems

  2. Health indicators 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, N

    1991-01-01

    This is the second edition of a database developed by the Canadian Centre for Health Information (CCHI). It features 49 health indicators, under one cover containing the most recent data available from a variety of national surveys. This information may be used to establish health goals for the population and to offer objective measures of their success. The database can be accessed through CANSIM, Statistics Canada's socio-economic electronic database and retrieval system, or through a personal computer package which enables the user to retrieve and analyze the 1.2 million data points in the system.

  3. Main economics indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This monthly publication, based on the most up-to-date techniques of tabular and graphical presentation, is designed to provide at a glance a picture of the most recent changes in the economies of the OECD countries, and a collection of international statistics on the economic developments which have affected the OECD area in the past few years. The indicators selected cover national accounts, industrial production, business surveys, deliveries, stocks and orders, construction, internal trade, labour, wages, prices, domestic and foreign finance, interest rates, trade and payments. (author)

  4. The reliabilty of isokinetic strength measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlec, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Title: Reliability of isometric and isokinetic strength testing in the knee flexion and extension Objectives: To compare the reliability of isometric and isokinetic testing of the knee strength in flexion and extension Methods: I used intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: I have discovered that the reliability measured on isokinetic and isometric dynamometer is high. Furthermore the reliability of the maximum strength measurement was higher with-us...

  5. Strength and failure modes of ceramic multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack; Linderoth, Søren

    2012-01-01

    A model was developed for the prediction of the tensile strength of thin, symmetric 3-layer sandwich specimens. The model predictions rationalize the effect of heat-treatment temperature on the strength of sandwich specimens consisting of an YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia) substrate coated with ...... and propagating into the substrate. These predictions are consistent with microstructural observations of the fracture surfaces. A good agreement was found between the measured strength values and model predictions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Glue-paste linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuster-López, Laura; Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bouillon, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Glue-paste linings of (Western) canvas paintings have been performed with a variety of materials throughout history and are present in a very significant amount of artworks in collections in Europe and elsewhere. Cereal flours and animal glues were usually the main ingredients because they were r...

  7. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  8. SAF line pellet gaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedlovec, D.R.; Bowen, W.W.; Brown, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    Automated and remotely controlled pellet inspection operations will be utilized in the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line. A prototypic pellet gage was designed and tested to verify conformance to the functions and requirements for measurement of diameter, surface flaws and weight-per-unit length

  9. Bike Map Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Chapel Hill Bike Map Lines from KMZ file.This data came from the wiki comment board for the public, not an “official map” showing the Town of Chapel Hill's plans or...

  10. Drawing the Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    2016-01-01

    of judgement that distinguishes between the inside and outside of a political community, between citizens and zombies. Second, the chapter focuses on the rhetorics applied to draw the line between rights-bearers and the rightless. ‘Prophetic’ speech, echoing the language of the Old Testament prophets, is vital...

  11. Developing Green Line Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  12. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-03-01

    The magnetic field line Hamiltonian and the associated canonical form for the magnetic field are important concepts both for understanding toroidal plasma physics and for practical calculations. A number of important properties of the canonical or Hamiltonian representation are derived and their importance is explained

  13. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  14. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    at 50% RH but increased the stress level severely in dry conditions and offered no support to the painting at 70-80 % RH. This means that the traditional glue-paste lining techniques and the wax-resin technique in high RH seem to limit the advisable RH fluctuation in a cultural institution. Conversely...

  15. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  16. Labelling subway lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line

  17. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  18. Building with a Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Architecture is a versatile, multifaceted area to study in the artroom with multiple age levels. It can easily stimulate a study of basic line, shape, and various other art elements and principles. It can then be extended into a more extensive study of architectural elements, styles, specific architects, architecture of different cultures, and…

  19. Biosynthesis: Reprogramming assembly lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Binuraj R. K.; Jenner, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Rational engineering of biosynthetic assembly lines for production of new compounds is an attractive prospect, yet it presents many challenges. Learning from biology, some of the rules for expanding the chemical diversity of non-ribosomal peptides have been uncovered in two recent studies.

  20. Magnetic field line Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1985-02-01

    The basic properties of the Hamiltonian representation of magnetic fields in canonical form are reviewed. The theory of canonical magnetic perturbation theory is then developed and applied to the time evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a toroidal plasma. Finally, the extension of the energy principle to tearing modes, utilizing the magnetic field line Hamiltonian, is outlined