Xu Wei; Li Yan
2014-09-01
The particles energy distribution is derived directly from the () line shape, which is measured by two sets of OMA. The dissociative excitation of molecular is dominating when the local electron temperature is > 10 eV. The line shape is also simulated by the Monte–Carlo method, the molecular dissociation contributes to 57% neutral atoms and 53% emission intensity in front of the limiter, and 85% neutral atoms and 82% emission intensity in front of the wall. The processes of atoms and molecules influence on the energy balance is discussed in SOL, the power loss from molecular dissociation is 6 × 104 kW at SOL.
ESR powder line shape calculations
Vitko, J. Jr.; Huddleston, R.E.
1976-05-01
A program has been developed for computing the ESR spectrum of a collection of randomly oriented spins subject only to an electronic Zeeman interaction and having a Lorentzian single crystal line shape. Other single crystal line shapes, including numerical solutions of the Bloch equations, can be accommodated with minor modifications. The program differs in several features from those existing elsewhere, thus enabling one to study saturation effects, over-modulation effects, both absorptive and dispersive signals, and second and higher order derivative signals.
On ηc line shape in charmonium transitions
PING Rong-Gang
2009-01-01
The line shapes to observe ηc in charmonium transitions, I.e.,ψ(2S), J/ψ→γηc, are investigated. The ηc line shapes in exclusive decays or by observing the inclusive photon spectrum are given. The sensitivities to measure the ηc resonance parameters are also evaluated. With more than two thousand ηc events observed, the precision of the ηc decay width measurement will be improved by better than 3%. However, the uncertainties associated with the ηc modified line shapes will dominate the systematic errors and this will prohibit precision mass and width measurements.
Asymmetry parameter of peaked Fano line shapes
Meierott, S.; Hotz, T.; Néel, N.; Kröger, J.
2016-10-01
The spectroscopic line shape of electronic and vibrational excitations is ubiquitously described by a Fano profile. In the case of nearly symmetric and peaked Fano line shapes, the fit of the conventional Fano function to experimental data leads to difficulties in unambiguously extracting the asymmetry parameter, which may vary over orders of magnitude without degrading the quality of the fit. Moreover, the extracted asymmetry parameter depends on initially guessed values. Using the spectroscopic signature of the single-Co Kondo effect on Au(110) the ambiguity of the extracted asymmetry parameter is traced to the highly symmetric resonance profile combined with the inevitable scattering of experimental data. An improved parameterization of the conventional Fano function is suggested that enables the nonlinear optimization in a reduced parameter space. In addition, the presence of a global minimum in the sum of squared residuals and thus the independence of start parameters may conveniently be identified in a two-dimensional plot. An angular representation of the asymmetry parameter is suggested in order to reliably determine uncertainty margins via linear error propagation.
Learning Weight Uncertainty with Stochastic Gradient MCMC for Shape Classification
Li, Chunyuan; Stevens, Andrew J.; Chen, Changyou; Pu, Yunchen; Gan, Zhe; Carin, Lawrence
2016-08-10
Learning the representation of shape cues in 2D & 3D objects for recognition is a fundamental task in computer vision. Deep neural networks (DNNs) have shown promising performance on this task. Due to the large variability of shapes, accurate recognition relies on good estimates of model uncertainty, ignored in traditional training of DNNs, typically learned via stochastic optimization. This paper leverages recent advances in stochastic gradient Markov Chain Monte Carlo (SG-MCMC) to learn weight uncertainty in DNNs. It yields principled Bayesian interpretations for the commonly used Dropout/DropConnect techniques and incorporates them into the SG-MCMC framework. Extensive experiments on 2D & 3D shape datasets and various DNN models demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach over stochastic optimization. Our approach yields higher recognition accuracy when used in conjunction with Dropout and Batch-Normalization.
The absorptive line shape of hadronic atoms
Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar
1977-01-01
The exact line shape for all energies is derived analytically in the limit of negligible nuclear dimensions. The shape deviates from the Breit-Wigner form. The high-energy tail of the line has a universal shape, independent of the absorptive strength. The tails are different for different initial states, however. The integrated line strength diverges logarithmically. Renormalization of the hadron wavefunction by strong interactions leads to the usual shape near resonance and restores convergence for very large energies. The results resolve a logical inconsistency in the normal analysis of hadronic atoms and are of practical importance. It is shown that bound hadronic states (e.g. Y/sub 0/*) give natural contributions in the high energy region. Numerical illustrations are given. (6 refs).
Bruin, de S.
2008-01-01
The assessment of positional uncertainty in line and area features is often based on uncertainty in the coordinates of their elementary vertices which are assumed to be connected by straight lines. Such an approach disregards uncertainty caused by sampling and approximation of a curvilinear feature
Uncertainty maps for asteroid shape and pole solutions
Bartczak, Przemyslaw; Dudzinski, Grzegorz
2016-10-01
SAGE (Shaping Asteroids with Genetic Evolution) inversion method is based on genetic algorithm to obtain pole solutions, rotation periods and non-convex shapes of asteroids (Bartczak et.al, 2014). During the process computer graphics methods are used to compare model's synthetic lightcurves to photometric observations. The method is suitable for modelling both single and binary objects. A modelling run starts with a sphere, with no assumptions about the shape, and subsequently it converges to a stable spin and shape solution. Center of mas and moment of inertia are calculated for each model.Modelling of an asteroid consists of multiple runs of the process, each of them following different path towards a stable solution. As a result we obtain a family of solutions. If enough data is provided, solutions are consistent with each other and can be used for error estimation.We choose only the best models from a family of solutions, meaning every model that fits 5% threshold above best χ2 found. By comparing them we are able to construct a map of uncertainties for the shape, showing areas in good and poor agreement with chosen models. Such map can then be represented with a 3D visualisation. Moreover, we create a map of errors for pole solutions and periods.
Anisotropic Hanle line shape via magnetothermoelectric phenomena
Das, K. S.; Dejene, F. K.; van Wees, B. J.; Vera-Marun, I. J.
2016-11-01
We observe anisotropic Hanle line shape with unequal in-plane and out-of-plane nonlocal signals for spin precession measurements carried out on lateral metallic spin valves with transparent interfaces. The conventional interpretation for this anisotropy corresponds to unequal spin relaxation times for in-plane and out-of-plane spin orientations as for the case of two-dimensional materials like graphene, but it is unexpected in a polycrystalline metallic channel. Systematic measurements as a function of temperature and channel length, combined with both analytical and numerical thermoelectric transport models, demonstrate that the anisotropy in the Hanle line shape is magnetothermal in origin, caused by the anisotropic modulation of the Peltier and Seebeck coefficients of the ferromagnetic electrodes. Our results call for the consideration of such magnetothermoelectric effects in the study of anisotropic spin relaxation.
EVo: Net Shape RTM Production Line
Sven Torstrick
2016-04-01
Full Text Available EVo research platform is operated by the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade. Its objective is technology demonstration of a fully automated RTM (Resin Transfer Molding production line for composite parts in large quantities. Process steps include cutting and ply handling, draping, stacking, hot-forming, preform-trimming to net shape, resin injection, curing and demolding.
Line shape diagnostics of Galactic 26Al
Kretschmer, K; Hartmann, D H
2003-01-01
The shape of the gamma-ray line from radioactive 26Al, at 1808.7 keV energy in the frame of the decaying isotope, is determined by its kinematics when it decays, typically 10^6 y after its ejection into the interstellar medium from its nucleosynthesis source. Three measurements of the line width exist: HEAO-C's 1982 value of (0+3) keV FWHM, the GRIS 1996 value of (5.4 +/- 1.3) keV FWHM, and the recent RHESSI value of (2.0 +/- 0.8) keV FWHM, suggesting either "cold", "hot", or "warm" 26Al in the ISM. We model the line width as expected from Galactic rotation, expanding supernova ejecta, and/or Wolf-Rayet winds, and predict a value below 1 keV (FWHM) with plausible assumptions about 26Al initial velocities and expansion history. Even though the recent RHESSI measurement reduces the need to explain a broad line corresponding to 540 km/s mean 26Al velocity through extreme assumptions about grain transport of 26Al or huge interstellar cavities, our results suggest that standard 26Al ejection models produce a line ...
Spectral line shapes of P-branch transitions of oxygen B-band
Wójtewicz, Szymon; Cygan, Agata; Masłowski, Piotr; Domysławska, Jolanta; Wcisło, Piotr; Zaborowski, Mikołaj; Lisak, Daniel; Trawiński, Ryszard S.; Ciuryło, Roman
2014-06-01
The precise line-shape measurements of self- and foreign-broadened P-branch transitions of the oxygen B band near 689 nm are presented. Data were obtained using the Pound-Drever-Hall-locked frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer assisted by the optical frequency comb.1,2 This technique enables us to achieve high spectral resolution (about 1 MHz) and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra (above 10000:1) of weak transitions.3,4 It is showed that the inclusion of the line-narrowing effects (Dicke narrowing or the speed dependence of collisional broadening) is necessary to properly model measured line shapes. The multispectrum fitting technique is used to minimize correlation between line-shape parameters. Relations between the line narrowing obtained from different line-shape models in the low pressure limit (below 5 kPa) were verified experimentally. Line positions with uncertainties of about 170 kHz, intensities and the collisional broadening coefficients with uncertainties of about 0.5% are reported and compared to data available in the literature.5 The research is part of the program of the National Laboratory FAMO in Toruń, Poland, and is supported by the Polish National Science Centre Projects no. DEC-2011/01/B/ST2/00491 and UMO-2012/05/N/ST2/02717. The research is also supported by the Foundation for Polish Science TEAM and HOMING PLUS Projects co-financed by the EU European Regional Development Fund. A. Cygan is partially supported by the Foundation for Polish Science START Project.
Systematic uncertainties of artificial neural-network pulse-shape discrimination for $0\
Abt, I; Cossavella, F; Majorovits, B; Palioselitis, D; Volynets, O
2014-01-01
A pulse-shape discrimination method based on artificial neural networks was applied to pulses simulated for different background, signal and signal-like interactions inside a germanium detector. The simulated pulses were used to investigate the systematic uncertainties of the method. It is verified that neural networks are well-suited to identify background pulses in true-coaxial high-purity germanium detectors. The systematic uncertainty on the signal recognition efficiency derived using signal-like samples from calibration measurements is estimated to be 5\\%. This uncertainty is due to differences between signal and calibration samples.
Oliveira, Sergio A.; Savi, Marcelo A.; Santos, Ilmar F.
2014-01-01
The use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) in engineering applications has increased the interest of the accuracy analysis of their thermomechanical description. This work presents an uncertainty analysis related to experimental tensile tests conducted with shape memory alloy wires. Experimental data...... are compared with numerical simulations obtained from a constitutive model with internal constraints employed to describe the thermomechanical behavior of SMAs. The idea is to evaluate if the numerical simulations are within the uncertainty range of the experimental data. Parametric analysis is also developed...
Ideal Coulomb Plasma Approximation in Line Shape Models: Problematic Issues
Joel Rosato
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In weakly coupled plasmas, it is common to describe the microfield using a Debye model. We examine here an “artificial” ideal one-component plasma with an infinite Debye length, which has been used for the test of line shape codes. We show that the infinite Debye length assumption can lead to a misinterpretation of numerical simulations results, in particular regarding the convergence of calculations. Our discussion is done within an analytical collision operator model developed for hydrogen line shapes in near-impact regimes. When properly employed, this model can serve as a reference for testing the convergence of simulations.
Study of the cavity-magnon-polariton transmission line shape
Harder, Michael; Bai, LiHui; Match, Christophe; Sirker, Jesko; Hu, CanMing
2016-11-01
We experimentally and theoretically investigate the microwave transmission line shape of the cavity-magnon-polariton (CMP) created by inserting a low damping magnetic insulator into a high quality 3D microwave cavity. While fixed field measurements are found to have the expected Lorentzian characteristic, at fixed frequencies the field swept line shape is in general asymmetric. Such fixed frequency measurements demonstrate that microwave transmission can be used to access magnetic characteristics of the CMP, such as the field line width Δ H. By developing an effective oscillator model of the microwave transmission we show that these line shape features are general characteristics of harmonic coupling. At the same time, at the classical level the underlying physical mechanism of the CMP is electrodynamic phase correlation and a second model based on this principle also accurately reproduces the experimental line shape features. In order to understand the microscopic origin of the effective coupled oscillator model and to allow for future studies of CMP phenomena to extend into the quantum regime, we develop a third, microscopic description, based on a Green's function formalism. Using this method we calculate the transmission spectra and find good agreement with the experimental results.
Egelstaff time and the Birnbaum-Cohen line shape
Lewis, John Courtenay; Stamp, Clifford
1999-04-01
Two approaches to constructing line shape functions for fitting collision-induced spectra are examined. Starting with the symmetric time correlation function of Birnbaum and Cohen, we compare the lineshape obtained by including detailed balancing using a Boltzmann factor with that obtained using Egelstaff's complex time (the Birnbaum-Cohen lineshape). The lineshape obtained using Boltzmann-factor asymmetrization is found to be slightly superior in quality of fit to the Birnbaum-Cohen lineshape, and is faster to compute.
Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar; Savi, M. A.
2016-01-01
The thermo-mechanical behaviour of pseudoelastic shape memory alloy helical springs is of concern discussing stabilised and cyclic responses. Constitutive description of the shape memory alloy is based on the framework developed by Lagoudas and co-workers incorporating two modifications related...... resulting in 1.3% residual standard deviation relative to the full range force. Compared to the validation data set, the errors are below 10% relative to the full range of the complex modulus. Uncertainty analysis of the model parameters using a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique shows low to high parameter...
K. S. C. Freeman
Full Text Available The discussion in the preceding paper is restricted to the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing in the magnetosphere resulting from published standard errors in the spherical harmonic coefficients that define the axisymmetric part of the internal geomagnetic field (i.e. gn0 ± δgn0. Numerical estimates of these uncertainties based on an analytic equation for axisymmetric field lines are in excellent agreement with independent computational estimates based on stepwise numerical integration along magnetic field lines. This comparison confirms the accuracy of the computer program used in the present paper to estimate the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing that arise from published standard errors in the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients, which define the complete (non-axisymmetric internal geomagnetic field (i.e. gnm ± δgnm and hnm ± δhnm. An algorithm is formulated that greatly reduces the computing time required to estimate these uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing. The validity of this algorithm is checked numerically for both the axisymmetric part of the internal geomagnetic field in the general case (1 ≤ n ≤ 10 and the complete internal geomagnetic field in a restrictive case (0 ≤ m ≤ n, 1 ≤ n ≤ 3. On this basis it is assumed that the algorithm can be used with confidence in those cases for which the computing time would otherwise be prohibitively long. For the complete internal geomagnetic field, the maximum characteristic uncertainty in the geocentric distance of a field line that crosses the geomagnetic equator at a nominal dipolar distance of 2 RE is typically 100 km. The corresponding characteristic uncertainty for a field line that crosses the geomagnetic equator at a nominal dipolar distance of 6 RE is typically 500 km. Histograms and scatter plots showing the characteristic uncertainties associated with magnetic-field-line tracing in the magnetosphere are presented for a range of
Scanning freeform objects by combining shape from silhouette and shape from line structured light
Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming
2014-12-01
Freeform shape is usually designed by reverse engineering method thorough a 3D scanner, which is often expensive to most persons. The paper proposes a new scanning system combining shape from structured light and shape from silhouette, which can be implemented easily with low cost. The two methods are very complementary. For shape from silhouette, it can capture correct topological information of the object and obtain a closed envelop, and for shape from hand-held laser line, precise point clouds with some holes can be obtained. To gain their complementary advantages, a new data fusion strategy based a mesh energy functional is proposed to integrate the information from the two scanning methods, in which the points resulted from laser light will attract closed envelop from silhouette. After fusion, the precision of shape from silhouette is increased, and the topological error of shape from structured light is corrected. The design details are introduced, and a toy model is used to test the new method, which is difficult to scan using other systems. The test results proof the validity of the new method.
Mixed Weyl symbol calculus and spectral line shape theory
Osborn, T.A.; Kondrat' eva, M.F.; Tabisz, G.C. [Department of Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, (Canada); McQuarrie, B.R. [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)
1999-06-04
A new and computationally viable full quantum version of line shape theory is obtained in terms of a mixed Weyl symbol calculus. The basic ingredient in the collision-broadened line shape theory is the time-dependent dipole autocorrelation function of the radiator-perturber system. The observed spectral intensity is the Fourier transform of this correlation function. A modified form of the Wigner-Weyl isomorphism between quantum operators and phase space functions (Weyl symbols) is introduced in order to describe the quantum structure of this system. This modification uses a partial Wigner transform in which the radiator-perturber relative motion degrees of freedom are transformed into a phase space dependence, while operators associated with the internal molecular degrees of freedom are kept in their original Hilbert space form. The result of this partial Wigner transform is called a mixed Weyl symbol. The star product, Moyal bracket and asymptotic expansions native to the mixed Weyl symbol calculus are determined. The correlation function is represented as the phase space integral of the product of two mixed symbols: one corresponding to the initial configuration of the system, the other being its time evolving dynamical value. There are, in this approach, two semiclassical expansions - one associated with the perturber scattering process, the other with the mixed symbol star product. These approximations are used in combination to obtain representations of the autocorrelation that are sufficiently simple to allow numerical calculation. The leading O((h/2{pi}){sup 0}) approximation recovers the standard classical path approximation for line shapes. The higher-order O((h/2{pi}){sup 1}) corrections arise from the noncommutative nature of the star product. (author)
Shabnam Hamdi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This study examines the moderating role of technology uncertainty on the relationship between team contextual factors of top management support and T-shaped skills with innovation speed. For the purpose of this study, the data were collected from 227 new products from 147 biotechnology firms in Malaysia. The overall results confirmed the moderating effect of technology uncertainty on the relationship between T-shaped skills, as well as top management support with innovation speed. The results further confirmed that under the high technology uncertainty, this effect is higher in comparison to the low and medium uncertainty. This indicates that the effect of top management support and T-shaped skills on innovation speed improves when technology uncertainty increases. On the practical side, the report equips biotech firms with valuable insights to develop effective strategies.
Cometary water expansion velocity from OH line shapes
Tseng, W L; Crovisier, J; Colom, P; Ip, W H
2007-01-01
We retrieve the H_2O expansion velocity in a number of comets, using the 18-cm line shapes of the OH radical observed with the Nan\\c{c}ay radio telescope. The H_2O velocity is derived from the large base of a trapezium fitted to the observed spectra. This method, which was previously applied to 9 comets, is now extended to 30 further comets. This allows us to study the evolution of their water molecule outflow velocity over a large range of heliocentric distances and gas production rates. Our analysis confirms and extends previous analyses. The retrieved expansion velocities increases with increasing gas production rates and decreasing heliocentric distances. Heuristic laws are proposed, which could be used for the interpretation of observations of cometary molecules and as a touchstone for hydrodynamical models. The expansion velocities retrieved from 18 cm line shapes are larger than those obtained from millimetric observations of parent molecules with smaller fields of view, which demonstrates the accelera...
PREFACE: XXII International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes 2014
Parigger, C. G.
2014-11-01
The 22nd International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes (ICSLS) was convened at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) at Tullahoma, Tennessee, USA, during June 1 to 6, 2014. A variety of topics of interest to the line shape community were addressed during invited and contributed oral and poster presentations. General categories of the ICSLS 2014 scientific contents included Astrophysics, Biomedical Physics, High and Low Temperature Plasma Physics, Magnetic Fusion Physics, Neutrals Atomic-Molecular-Optical (AMO) Physics, and Applied Physics. Research interests at UTSI and at the Center for Laser Applications (CLA) focus on Applied Physics and Plasma Physics areas such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, spectroscopy with ultra-short light pulses, combustion diagnostics, to name a few. Consequently, the presentations during the conference addressed a variety of these topics. Attendance at the conference included researchers from North America, Africa, Asia and Europe, with an international representation showing 250 authors and co-authors with over 25 different citizenships, and 100 participants at the Conference. Figure 1 shows a photo of Conference attendees. The schedule included 82 contributions, 41 oral and 41 poster presentations. The 29 invited, 12 contributed oral and 41 contributed poster presentations were selected following communication with the international organizing committee members. A smart phone ''app'' was also utilized, thanks to Elsevier, to communicate electronic versions of the posters during the conference. Special thanks go to the members of the international and local committees for their work in organizing the 22nd ICSLS. In addition, thank you notes also go to the peer reviewers for the proceedings. Following the success of the IOP: Journal of Physics Conference Series selected for the 21st ICSLS publication, the proceedings papers report ongoing research activities. Papers submitted amount to 68 in number, or 83% of
Kuusela, Mikael
2015-01-01
The high energy physics unfolding problem is an important statistical inverse problem arising in data analysis at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The problem arises in making nonparametric inferences about a particle spectrum from measurements smeared by the finite resolution of the particle detectors. Existing unfolding methodology has major practical limitations stemming from ad hoc discretization and regularization of the problem. As a result, confidence intervals derived using the current methods can have significantly lower coverage than expected. In this work, we regularize the problem by imposing physically justified shape constraints. We quantify the uncertainty by constructing a nonparametric confidence set for the true spectrum consisting of all spectra that satisfy the shape constraints and that predict observations within an appropriately calibrated level of fit to the data. Projecting that set produces simultaneous confidence intervals for all functionals of the spectrum, including averages wi...
Price, G J; Moore, C J
2007-04-07
In this paper we describe a technique that may be used to model the geometric uncertainties that accrue during the radiotherapy process. Using data from in-treatment cone beam CT scans, we simultaneously analyse non-uniform observer delineation variability and organ motion together with patient set-up errors via the creation of a point distribution model (PDM). We introduce a novel method of generating a coverage probability matrix, that may be used to determine treatment margins and calculate uncertainties in dose, from this statistical shape model. The technique does not assume rigid body motion and can extrapolate shape variability in a statistically meaningful manner. In order to construct the PDM, we generate corresponding surface points over a set of delineations. Correspondences are established at a set of points in parameter space on spherically parameterized and canonical aligned outlines. The method is demonstrated using rectal delineations from serially acquired in-treatment cone beam CT image volumes of a prostate patient (44 image volumes total), each delineated by a minimum of two observers (maximum six). Two PDMs are constructed, one with set-up errors included and one without. We test the normality assumptions of the PDMs and find the distributions to be Gaussian in nature. The rectal PDM variability is in general agreement with data in the literature. The two resultant coverage probability matrices show differences as expected.
Line Shape Variability in a Sample of AGN with Broad Lines
D. Ilić; L. Č. Popović; A. I. Shapovalova; A. N. Burenkov; V. H. Chavushyan; A. Kovačević
2015-12-01
The spectral variability of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is one of the key features that enables us to study in more detail, the structure of AGN emitting regions. Especially, the broad line profiles that vary both in flux and shape, give us invaluable information about the kinematics and geometry of the broad line region (BLR) where these lines are originating from. We give here a comparative review of the line shape variability in a sample of five type 1 AGNs, those with broad emission lines in their spectra, of the data obtained from the international long-term optical monitoring campaign coordinated by the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science. The main aim of this campaign is to study the physics and kinematics of the BLR on a uniform data set, focusing on the problems of the photoionization heating of the BLR and its geometry, where, in this paper, we give for a first time, a comparative analysis of the variabilty of five type 1 AGNs, discussing their complex BLR physics and geometry in the framework of the estimates of the supermassive black hole mass in AGN.
Line shape variability in a sample of AGN with broad lines
Ilic, D; Shapovalova, A I; Burenkov, A N; Chavushyan, V H; Kovacevica, A
2015-01-01
The spectral variability of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is one of their key features that enables us to study in more details the structure of AGN emitting regions. Especially, the broad line profiles, that vary both in flux and shape, give us invaluable information about the kinematics and geometry of the broad line region (BLR) where these lines are originating from. We give here a comparative review of the line shape variability in a sample of five type 1 AGN, those with broad emission lines in their spectra, of the data obtained from the international long-term optical monitoring campaign coordinated by the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science. The main aim of this campaign is to study the physics and kinematics of the BLR on a uniform data set, focusing on the problems of the photoionization heating of the BLR and its geometry, where in this paper we give for a first time a comparative analysis of the variabilty of five type 1 AGN, discussing their complex BLR physics and ...
Hanuš, Josef; Ďurech, Josef; Alí-Lagoa, Victor
2015-01-01
In the analysis of thermal infrared data of asteroids by means of thermophysical models (TPMs) it is a common practice to neglect the uncertainty of the shape model and the rotational state, which are taken as an input for the model. Here, we present a novel method of investigating the importance of the shape model and the pole orientation uncertainties in the thermophysical modeling - the varied shape TPM (VS-TPM). Our method uses optical photometric data to generate various shape models that map the uncertainty in the shape and the rotational state. The TPM procedure is then run for all these shape models. We apply the implementation of the classical TPM as well as our VS-TPM to the convex shape models of several asteroids together with their thermal infrared data acquired by the NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and compare the results. These show that the uncertainties of the shape model and the pole orientation can be very important (e.g., for the determination of the thermal inertia) and...
INTERIOR MODELS OF SATURN: INCLUDING THE UNCERTAINTIES IN SHAPE AND ROTATION
Helled, Ravit [Department of Geophysics, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Guillot, Tristan [Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, CNRS UMR 7293, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice (France)
2013-04-20
The accurate determination of Saturn's gravitational coefficients by Cassini could provide tighter constraints on Saturn's internal structure. Also, occultation measurements provide important information on the planetary shape which is often not considered in structure models. In this paper we explore how wind velocities and internal rotation affect the planetary shape and the constraints on Saturn's interior. We show that within the geodetic approach the derived physical shape is insensitive to the assumed deep rotation. Saturn's re-derived equatorial and polar radii at 100 mbar are found to be 54,445 {+-} 10 km and 60,365 {+-} 10 km, respectively. To determine Saturn's interior, we use one-dimensional three-layer hydrostatic structure models and present two approaches to include the constraints on the shape. These approaches, however, result in only small differences in Saturn's derived composition. The uncertainty in Saturn's rotation period is more significant: with Voyager's 10{sup h}39{sup m} period, the derived mass of heavy elements in the envelope is 0-7 M{sub Circled-Plus }. With a rotation period of 10{sup h}32{sup m}, this value becomes <4 M{sub Circled-Plus }, below the minimum mass inferred from spectroscopic measurements. Saturn's core mass is found to depend strongly on the pressure at which helium phase separation occurs, and is estimated to be 5-20 M{sub Circled-Plus }. Lower core masses are possible if the separation occurs deeper than 4 Mbar. We suggest that the analysis of Cassini's radio occultation measurements is crucial to test shape models and could lead to constraints on Saturn's rotation profile and departures from hydrostatic equilibrium.
Kubo's Line Shape Function for a Linear-Quadratic Chromophore-Solvent Coupling.
Matyushov, Dmitry V
2015-07-23
An exact, closed-form solution is obtained for the line shape function of an optical transition with the transition frequency depending linearly plus quadratically on a Gaussian coordinate of the thermal bath. The dynamical modulation of the line shape involves two parameters corresponding to the linear and quadratic components of the transition frequency. The increase of the second component results in a non-Gaussian line shape that splits into two Lorenzian lines in the limit of fast modulation.
Bianco, F. B.; Modjaz, M.; Oh, S. M.; Fierroz, D.; Liu, Y. Q.; Kewley, L.; Graur, O.
2016-07-01
We present the open-source Python code pyMCZ that determines oxygen abundance and its distribution from strong emission lines in the standard metallicity calibrators, based on the original IDL code of Kewley and Dopita (2002) with updates from Kewley and Ellison (2008), and expanded to include more recently developed calibrators. The standard strong-line diagnostics have been used to estimate the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium through various emission line ratios (referred to as indicators) in many areas of astrophysics, including galaxy evolution and supernova host galaxy studies. We introduce a Python implementation of these methods that, through Monte Carlo sampling, better characterizes the statistical oxygen abundance confidence region including the effect due to the propagation of observational uncertainties. These uncertainties are likely to dominate the error budget in the case of distant galaxies, hosts of cosmic explosions. Given line flux measurements and their uncertainties, our code produces synthetic distributions for the oxygen abundance in up to 15 metallicity calibrators simultaneously, as well as for E(B- V) , and estimates their median values and their 68% confidence regions. We provide the option of outputting the full Monte Carlo distributions, and their Kernel Density estimates. We test our code on emission line measurements from a sample of nearby supernova host galaxies (z github.com/nyusngroup/pyMCZ.
Annular shape silver lined proportional counter for on-line pulsed neutron yield measurement
Dighe, P. M.; Das, D.
2015-04-01
An annular shape silver lined proportional counter is developed to measure pulsed neutron radiation. The detector has 314 mm overall length and 235 mm overall diameter. The central cavity of 150 mm diameter and 200 mm length is used for placing the neutron source. Because of annular shape the detector covers >3π solid angle of the source. The detector has all welded construction. The detector is developed in two halves for easy mounting and demounting. Each half is an independent detector. Both the halves together give single neutron pulse calibration constant of 4.5×104 neutrons/shot count. The detector operates in proportional mode which gives enhanced working conditions in terms of dead time and operating range compared to Geiger Muller based neutron detectors.
PREFACE: XXI International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes (ICSLS 2012)
Devdariani, Alexander Z.
2012-12-01
The 21st International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes, ICSLS, was held in the historic main building of St Petersburg State University (St. Petersburg, Russia) on 3-9 June 2012. The event continued the tradition started in 1978 in Meudon Observatory in Paris. Representatives of line shape physics have since met every two years in different locations in Europe and North America. The most recent events were held in St John's, Newfoundland, Canada (2010), Valladolid, Spain (2008), and Auburn, AL (USA). Traditionally, the conferences consider experimental and theoretical issues of studying spectral line shapes, diagnostic utilization of spectral line profiles observed in absorption, emission or scattering of electromagnetic radiation by atoms, molecules, and clusters in different environments, including neutral environments, laboratory low and fusion plasmas, astrophysical conditions, and planetary atmospheres. The Conference was attended by over 100 professionals from Europe, Asia, America, Africa and New Zealand. The conference program was put together in such a way so as to exclude any parallel sessions. Five afternoon sessions featured 19 invited talks and 20 oral contributions, and two evening sessions offered 61 poster presentations, including post-deadline posters. This setup allowed for a relaxed and unhurried discussion of results and facilitated productive networking. The invited talks were selected by recommendation of members of the International Scientific Committee. The Organizers would like to thank all the members of the International Scientific Committee for their proposals on the agenda and their valuable advice. When considering candidates for oral contributions, the organizers took into account the suggestions and preferences of potential conference participants. When selecting the theses of poster presentations, the organizers focused on the topics in line with the theme of the conference and studies with well-formulated results. It must be
The Number of Neutrinos and the Z Line Shape
Blondel, Alain
2016-01-01
The Standard Theory can fit any number of fermion families, as long as the number of leptons and quark families are the same. At the time of the conception of LEP, the number of such families was unknown, and it was feared that the Z resonance would be washed out by decaying into so many families of neutrinos! It took only a few weeks in the fall of 1989 to determine that the number is three. The next six years (from 1990 to 1995) were largely devoted to the accurate determination of the Z line shape, with a precision that outperformed the most optimistic expectations by a factor of 10. The tale of these measurements is a bona fide mystery novel, the precession of electrons being strangely perturbed by natural phenomena, such as tides, rain, hydroelectric power, fast trains, not to mention vertical electrostatic separators. The number hidden in the loops of this treasure hunt was 179, the first estimate of the mass of the top quark; then, once that was found, where predicted, the next number was close to zero...
The Number of Neutrinos and the Z Line Shape
Blondel, Alain
2016-10-01
The Standard Theory can fit any number of fermion families, as long as the number of leptons and quark families are the same. At the time of the conception of LEP, the number of such families was unknown, and it was feared that the Z resonance would be washed out by decaying into so many families of neutrinos! It took only a few weeks in the fall of 1989 to determine that the number is three. The next six years (from 1990 to 1995) were largely devoted to the accurate determination of the Z line shape, with a precision that outperformed the most optimistic expectations by a factor of 10. The tale of these measurements is a bona fide mystery novel, the precession of electrons being strangely perturbed by natural phenomena, such as tides, rain, hydroelectric power, fast trains, not to mention vertical electrostatic separators. The number hidden in the loops of this treasure hunt was 179, the first estimate of the mass of the top quark; then, once that was found, where predicted, the next number was close to zero: the logarithm of Higgs mass divided by that of the Z. Twenty years later, the quality of these measurements remains, but what they tell us is different: it is no longer about unknown parameters of the Standard Theory, it is about what lies beyond it. This is so acutely relevant, that CERN has launched the design study of a powerful Z, W, H and top factory.
CdTe reflection anisotropy line shape fitting
Molina-Contreras, J.R., E-mail: rmolina@correo.ita.mx [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Lopez Mateos 1801 Ote. Fracc. Bona Gens, Aguascalientes, Ags, 20256 (Mexico)
2010-10-25
In this paper, an empirical novel plane-wave time dependent ensemble is introduced to fit the RA, the reflectance (R) and the imaginary part of the dielectric function oscillation measured around the E{sub 1} and E{sub 1} + {Delta}{sub 1} transition region in II-VI semiconductors. By applying the new plane-wave time dependent ensemble to the measured spectrum for a (0 0 1) oriented CdTe undoped commercial wafer, crystallized in a zinc-blende structure, a very good agreement was found between the measured spectrum and the fitting. In addition to this, the reliability of the plane-wave time dependent ensemble was probed, by comparing the results with the calculated fitting in terms of a Fourier series and in terms of a six-order polynomial fit. Our analysis suggests, that the experimental oscillation in the line shape of the RA cannot be fitted with a Fourier series using harmonics multiples of the number which dominates the measured RA spectra in the argument of the plane-wave ensemble.
Modal Analysis in Lined Wedge-Shaped Ducts
Mechel, F. P.
1998-10-01
It has been suggested to describe the sound field in a wedge-shaped duct in a cylindrical co-ordinate system in which the boundaries of the wedge lie in a co-ordinate surface. This suggestion was developed in a companion paper [1]. The wave equation can be separated only if the boundaries are ideally reflecting (rigid or soft). Two solutions were proposed in reference [1] for absorbing boundaries. In the first solution the sound field is composed of “ideal modes” (modes in a wedge with ideally reflecting boundaries); the boundary condition at the absorbing boundary then leads to a system of equations for the mode amplitudes. The problem with this method lies in the fact that there is no radial orthogonality of the ideal modes so that the precision of the field synthesis by ideal modes is doubtful. In the second method in reference [1] one defines “fictitious modes” which satisfy the boundary conditions at the flanks exactly and which are based on hypergeometric functions as radial functions, but which produce a “rest” in the wave equation. It was described how this rest can be minimized; this procedure leads to slow numerical integrations. In the present paper, the wedge is subdivided into duct sections with parallel walls (the boundary is stepped); the fields in the sections are composed of duct modes (modes in a straight lined duct); the mode amplitudes are determined from the boundary conditions at the section limits. The advantages of the present method are (analytically) the duct modes are orthogonal across the sections, so the mode amplitudes can be determined with the usual precision of a modal analysis, and (numerically) no numerical integrations are needed.
Bianco, Federica B; Oh, Seung Man; Fierroz, David; Liu, Yuqian; Kewley, Lisa; Graur, Or
2015-01-01
We present the open-source Python code pyMCZ that determines oxygen abundance and its distribution from strong emission lines in the standard metallicity scales, based on the original IDL code of Kewley & Dopita (2002) with updates from Kewley & Ellison (2008), and expanded to include more recently developed scales. The standard strong-line diagnostics have been used to estimate the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium through various emission line ratios in many areas of astrophysics, including galaxy evolution and supernova host galaxy studies. We introduce a Python implementation of these methods that, through Monte Carlo (MC) sampling, better characterizes the statistical reddening-corrected oxygen abundance confidence region. Given line flux measurements and their uncertainties, our code produces synthetic distributions for the oxygen abundance in up to 13 metallicity scales simultaneously, as well as for E(B-V), and estimates their median values and their 66% confidence regions. In additi...
Litvinenko, Alexander
2015-01-05
Simulators capable of computing scattered fields from objects of uncertain shapes are highly useful in electromagnetics and photonics, where device designs are typically subject to fabrication tolerances. Knowledge of statistical variations in scattered fields is useful in ensuring error-free functioning of devices. Oftentimes such simulators use a Monte Carlo (MC) scheme to sample the random domain, where the variables parameterize the uncertainties in the geometry. At each sample, which corresponds to a realization of the geometry, a deterministic electromagnetic solver is executed to compute the scattered fields. However, to obtain accurate statistics of the scattered fields, the number of MC samples has to be large. This significantly increases the total execution time. In this work, to address this challenge, the Multilevel MC (MLMC) scheme is used together with a (deterministic) surface integral equation solver. The MLMC achieves a higher efficiency by “balancing” the statistical errors due to sampling of the random domain and the numerical errors due to discretization of the geometry at each of these samples. Error balancing results in a smaller number of samples requiring coarser discretizations. Consequently, total execution time is significantly shortened.
Effect of tip shape on line edge roughness measurement based on atomic force microscopy
Li Ning [Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China); Wang Fei; Zhao Xuezeng [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)
2010-12-15
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an important tool in line edge roughness (LER) measurements, where accuracy for line edge identification is influenced by the shape of the tip. In this article, the effect of tip shape on LER measurement based on AFM is studied theoretically. The formulas for calculating the distance between the measured and actual line edge of the sample are presented. The effects of the three kinds of tips with different shapes are experimentally compared for validation. Suggestions on how to reduce measuring error caused by tip shape are also given.
Study on the automatic process of line heating for pillow shape plate
无
2006-01-01
This paper focuses on the process for pillow shape plate by line heating technique, which is widely applied in the production of ship hull. Based on the analysis of primary parameters and experimental data in line heating process, the amount of local contraction generated by line heating has been illustrated. Then, combining with the computational result of local deformation determined by shell plate development, an optimization method for line heating parameters has been studied. This prediction system may provide rational arrangements of heating lines and technical parameters of process. By integrating the prediction system into the line heating robot for pillow shape plate, the automatic process of line heating for pillow shape plate can be achieved.
Ztoupis, I N; Gonos, I F; Stathopulos, I A
2013-11-01
Measurements of power frequency electric and magnetic fields from alternating current power lines are carried out in order to evaluate the exposure levels of the human body on the general public. For any electromagnetic field measurement, it is necessary to define the sources of measurement uncertainty and determine the total measurement uncertainty. This paper is concerned with the problems of measurement uncertainty estimation, as the measurement uncertainty budget calculation techniques recommended in standardising documents and research studies are barely described. In this work the total uncertainty of power frequency field measurements near power lines in various measurement sites is assessed by considering not only all available equipment data, but also contributions that depend on the measurement procedures, environmental conditions and characteristics of the field source, which are considered to increase the error of measurement. A detailed application example for power frequency field measurements is presented here by accredited laboratory.
Faires, L.M.; Palmer, B.A.; Brault, J.W.
1984-01-01
High resolution Fourier transform spectrometry has been used to perform line width and line shape analysis of eighty-one iron I emision lines in the spectral range 290 to 390nm originating in the normal analytical zone of an inductively coupled plasma. Computer programs using non-linear least squares fitting techniques for line shape analysis were applied to the fully resolved spectra to determine Gaussian and Lorentzian components of the total observed line width. The effect of noise in the spectrum on the precision of the line fitting technique was assessed, and the importance of signal to noise ratio for line shape analysis is discussed. Translational (Doppler) temperatures were calculated from the Gaussian components of the line width and were found to be on the order of 6300/sup 0/K. The excitation temperature of iron I was also determined from the same spectral data by the spectroscopic slope method based on the Einstein-Boltzmann expression for spectral intensity and was found to be on the order of 4700/sup 0/K. 31 references.
Shapes of 20Ne de-excitation line in solar flare
Chen, Wei; Gan, Wei Qun
2017-09-01
Since almost all de-excitation lines from nuclear states excited by flare-accelerated protons and α -particles are emitted promptly after nuclear collisions, the emission photon's energy depends on the velocity of the recoiling nucleus. The energies and widths of γ -ray lines provide a wealth of information on the directionality and spectra of ions in solar flares. In this paper, we use TALYS code to improve the cross sections of γ -ray lines production, and calculate the shapes of the 1.634 MeV line from de-excitation of 20Ne as a function of ion's energy spectra and the heliocentric angle. Taking this line shape as an example, we try to develop a new method of line shape analysis to study the properties of accelerated ions in solar flares.
P-mode Line-Shapes in Theory and Practice
Rosenthal, C S
1998-01-01
The asymmetries of solar p-mode lines provide important diagnostic clues as to the nature and location of the source of mode excitation. At the same time, they can also be responsible for systematic errors in the determination of mode frequencies. I present a matched wave asymptotic analysis which leads to an expression for the spectrum valid for arbitrary stratifications and arbitrary source types. From this it is possible to deduce the correct asymmetric line profile to use in fitting the spectra, along with the physical interpretation of the fitted parameters. I apply this procedure to low-degree MDI doppler data from which I am able to deduce corrections to the mode frequencies. A preliminary comparison of the asymmetry parameter with numerical calculations yields an estimate of the source depth.
Nanoscale Liquid Jets Shape New Line of Business
2003-01-01
Just as a pistol shrimp stuns its prey by quickly closing its oversized claw to shoot out a shock-inducing, high-velocity jet of water, NanoMatrix, Inc., is sending shockwaves throughout the nanotechnology world with a revolutionary, small-scale fabrication process that uses powerful liquid jets to cut and shape objects. Emanuel Barros, a former project engineer at NASA s Ames Research Center, set out to form the Santa Cruz, California-based NanoMatrix firm and materialize the micro/nano cutting process partially inspired by the water-spewing crustacean. Early on in his 6-year NASA career, Barros led the development of re-flown flight hardware for an award-winning Spacelab project called NeuroLab. This project, the sixteenth and final Spacelab mission, focused on a series of experiments to determine the effects of microgravity on the development of the mammalian nervous system.
On the Shape of Force-Free Field Lines in the Solar Corona
Prior, C.
2012-02-02
This paper studies the shape parameters of looped field lines in a linear force-free magnetic field. Loop structures with a sufficient amount of kinking are generally seen to form S or inverse S (Z) shapes in the corona (as viewed in projection). For a single field line, we can ask how much the field line is kinked (as measured by the writhe), and how much neighbouring flux twists about the line (as measured by the twist number). The magnetic helicity of a flux element surrounding the field line can be decomposed into these two quantities. We find that the twist helicity contribution dominates the writhe helicity contribution, for field lines of significant aspect ratio, even when their structure is highly kinked. These calculations shed light on some popular assumptions of the field. First, we show that the writhe of field lines of significant aspect ratio (the apex height divided by the footpoint width) can sometimes be of opposite sign to the helicity. Secondly, we demonstrate the possibility of field line structures which could be interpreted as Z-shaped, but which have a helicity value sign expected of an S-shaped structure. These results suggest that caution should be exercised in using two-dimensional images to draw conclusions on the helicity value of field lines and flux tubes. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Robotic U-shaped assembly line balancing using particle swarm optimization
Mukund Nilakantan, J.; Ponnambalam, S. G.
2016-02-01
Automation in an assembly line can be achieved using robots. In robotic U-shaped assembly line balancing (RUALB), robots are assigned to workstations to perform the assembly tasks on a U-shaped assembly line. The robots are expected to perform multiple tasks, because of their capabilities. U-shaped assembly line problems are derived from traditional assembly line problems and are relatively new. Tasks are assigned to the workstations when either all of their predecessors or all of their successors have already been assigned to workstations. The objective function considered in this article is to maximize the cycle time of the assembly line, which in turn helps to maximize the production rate of the assembly line. RUALB aims at the optimal assignment of tasks to the workstations and selection of the best fit robot to the workstations in a manner such that the cycle time is minimized. To solve this problem, a particle swarm optimization algorithm embedded with a heuristic allocation (consecutive) procedure is proposed. The consecutive heuristic is used to allocate the tasks to the workstation and to assign a best fit robot to that workstation. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using a wide variety of data sets. The results indicate that robotic U-shaped assembly lines perform better than robotic straight assembly lines in terms of cycle time.
无
2010-01-01
For structural system with random basic variables as well as fuzzy basic variables,uncertain propagation from two kinds of basic variables to the response of the structure is investigated.A novel algorithm for obtaining membership function of fuzzy reliability is presented with saddlepoint approximation(SA)based line sampling method.In the presented method,the value domain of the fuzzy basic variables under the given membership level is firstly obtained according to their membership functions.In the value domain of the fuzzy basic variables corresponding to the given membership level,bounds of reliability of the structure response satisfying safety requirement are obtained by employing the SA based line sampling method in the reduced space of the random variables.In this way the uncertainty of the basic variables is propagated to the safety measurement of the structure,and the fuzzy membership function of the reliability is obtained.Compared to the direct Monte Carlo method for propagating the uncertainties of the fuzzy and random basic variables,the presented method can considerably improve computational efficiency with acceptable precision.The presented method has wider applicability compared to the transformation method,because it doesn’t limit the distribution of the variable and the explicit expression of performance function, and no approximation is made for the performance function during the computing process.Additionally,the presented method can easily treat the performance function with cross items of the fuzzy variable and the random variable,which isn’t suitably approximated by the existing transformation methods.Several examples are provided to illustrate the advantages of the presented method.
Breit-Wigner-Fano line shapes in Raman spectra of graphene
Hasdeo, Eddwi H.; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Saito, Riichiro
2014-12-01
Excitation of electron-hole pairs in the vicinity of the Dirac cone by the Coulomb interaction gives rise to an asymmetric Breit-Wigner-Fano line shape in the phonon Raman spectra in graphene. This asymmetric line shape appears due to the interference effect between the phonon spectra and the electron-hole pair excitation spectra. The calculated Breit-Wigner-Fano asymmetric factor 1 /qBWF as a function of the Fermi energy shows a V-shaped curve with a minimum value at the charge neutrality point and gives good agreement with the experimental results.
Nibbering, Erik T.J.; Duppen, Koos; Wiersma, Douwe A.
1992-01-01
The results of line shape analysis, resonance light scattering and femtosecond four-wave mixing measurements are reported on several organic molecules in solution. It is shown that a Brownian oscillator model for line broadening provides a full description for the optical dynamics in aprotic solutio
Tunable bistability and asymmetric line shape in ring cavity-coupled Michelson interferometer
Li, Li; Zhang, Xinlu; Chen, Lixue
2008-01-01
A novel configuration of ring cavity-coupled Michelson interferometer is proposed to create sharp asymmetric multiple-resonance line shape, in which a ring cavity is side-coupled to one arm and a phase shifter is introduced into the other arm for static phase compensation. Such asymmetric line shape allows the tuning of the system between zero and complete transmission, with a phase offset much narrower than the full width of the cavity resonance itself. As tuning between resonance peak and notch of such asymmetric profile, optical transmission becomes much more sensitive to the round-trip phase shift of ring cavity than that in the case of symmetric Lorentzian line shape. By cooperating Kerr nonlinearity and cavity feedback, novel hysteresis loops and intrinsic bistability are achievable by adjusting incident power. The shapes of hysteresis curves associated with asymmetric resonance line shape are different from those arising from symmetric line shape. By adjusting the static phase compensation of phase shifter, tunable hysteresis loop and asymmetric multiple-resonance transmission can be easy performed. The simply constructed device is a good reference for sensitive optical switch, filter and sensor.
Time-dependent calculations of hydrogen spectral line shapes in dense plasmas
Olchawa, Wiesław
2001-04-01
A new formalism has been elaborated for calculations of hydrogen line profiles emitted by dense plasmas. Calculated line shapes are broadened, shifted and asymmetrical. The formalism is very general and yields full line shapes, shifts and widths at relatively small number of assumptions. For this purpose a new basis of the appropriate subspace of the Hilbert space has been built. This basis gives an accurate description of the quadratic Stark effect and the interaction of the emitter with field gradients. A computer simulation has been used to determine the emitter perturbations by electrons and ions. Final results have been compared with experimental and theoretical findings of other authors.
M. Smailagić; E. Bon
2015-12-01
Variability of active galactic nuclei is not well understood. One possible explanation is existence of supermassive binary black holes (SMBBH) in their centres. It is expected that major mergers are common in the Universe. It is expected that each supermassive black hole of every galaxy eventually finish as a SMBBH system in the core of newly formed galaxy. Here we model the emission line profiles of active galactic nuclei (AGN) assuming that the flux and emission line shape variations are induced by supermassive binary black hole systems (SMBBH). We assume that the accreting gas inside the circumbinary (CB) disk is photo ionized by mini accretion disk emission around each SMBBH. We calculate variations of emission line flux, shifts and shapes for different parameters of SMBBH orbits. We consider cases with different masses and inclinations for circular orbits and measure the effect to the shape of emission line profiles and flux variability.
Smailagić, Marijana
2016-01-01
Variability of active galactic nuclei is not well understood. One possible explanation is existence of supermassive binary black holes (SMBBH) in their centres. It is expected that major mergers are common in the Universe. It is expected that each supermassive black hole of every galaxy eventually finish as a SMBBH system in the core of newly formed galaxy. Here we model the emission line profiles of active galactic nuclei (AGN) assuming that the flux and emission line shapes variation are induced by supermassive binary black hole systems (SMBBH). We assume that accreting gas inside of circumbinary (CB) disk is photo ionized by mini accretion disk emission around each SMBBH. We calculate variations of emission line flux, shifts and shapes for different parameters of SMBBH orbits. We consider cases with different masses and inclinations for circular orbits and measure the effect to the shape of emission line profiles and flux variability.
J. Comer
Full Text Available The technique of tracing along magnetic field lines is widely used in magnetospheric physics to provide a "magnetic frame of reference'' that facilitates both the planning of experiments and the interpretation of observations. The precision of any such magnetic frame of reference depends critically on the accurate representation of the various sources of magnetic field in the magnetosphere. In order to consider this important problem systematically, a study is initiated to estimate first the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing in the magnetosphere that arise solely from the published (standard errors in the specification of the geomagnetic field of internal origin. Because of the complexity in computing these uncertainties for the complete geomagnetic field of internal origin, attention is focused in this preliminary paper on the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing that result from the standard errors in just the axisymmetric part of the internal geomagnetic field. An exact analytic equation exists for the magnetic field lines of an arbitrary linear combination of axisymmetric multipoles. This equation is used to derive numerical estimates of the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing that are due to the published standard errors in the axisymmetric spherical harmonic coefficients (i.e. gn0 ± δgn0. Numerical results determined from the analytic equation are compared with computational results based on stepwise numerical integration along magnetic field lines. Excellent agreement is obtained between the analytical and computational methods in the axisymmetric case, which provides great confidence in the accuracy of the computer program used for stepwise numerical integration along magnetic field lines. This computer program is then used in the following paper to estimate the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing in the magnetosphere that arise from the published standard errors in the full set of spherical
Kawase-Koga, Y; Mori, Y; Fujii, Y; Kanno, Y; Chikazu, D; Susami, T; Takato, T
2016-02-01
Intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) is used widely to correct mandibular prognathism. However, several disadvantages of this procedure have been reported, such as condylar luxation and bony interference at the osteotomy site. The aim of this study was to survey the incidence of complications (condylar luxation and bony interference) based on the shape of the osteotomy line. One hundred and eighty-five rami in 118 patients with jaw deformities, which were treated with IVRO, were examined retrospectively. The shape of the osteotomy line and the postoperative complications were examined on panoramic radiographs. Osteotomy lines were classified into three types: vertical, C-shaped, and oblique. Of the 185 osteotomy sites, 98 were vertical, 37 C-shaped, and 50 oblique. Condylar luxation was found in six rami (3.2%); four had undergone vertical osteotomy and two had undergone C-shaped osteotomy. Bony interference occurred in seven rami (3.8%), all with vertical type osteotomy lines. Most complications occurred in the vertical type cases and no complications were found in oblique type cases. Condylar luxation was found mainly in unilateral IVRO cases and bony interference was found in bilateral IVRO cases. These results suggest that the oblique type of osteotomy line has the advantage of avoiding complications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lorentz meets Fano spectral line shapes: A universal phase and its laser control
Ott, Christian; Raith, Philipp; Meyer, Kristina; Laux, Martin; Evers, Jörg; Keitel, Christoph H; Greene, Chris H; Pfeifer, Thomas
2013-01-01
Symmetric Lorentzian and asymmetric Fano line shapes are fundamental spectroscopic signatures that quantify the structural and dynamical properties of nuclei, atoms, molecules, and solids. This study introduces a universal temporal-phase formalism, mapping the Fano asymmetry parameter q to a phase {\\phi} of the time-dependent dipole-response function. The formalism is confirmed experimentally by laser-transforming Fano absorption lines of autoionizing helium into Lorentzian lines after attosecond-pulsed excitation. We also prove the inverse, the transformation of a naturally Lorentzian line into a Fano profile. A further application of this formalism amplifies resonantly interacting extreme-ultraviolet light by quantum-phase control. The quantum phase of excited states and its response to interactions can thus be extracted from line-shape analysis, with scientific applications in many branches of spectroscopy.
Sauvan, P.; Leboucher-Dalimier, E.; Angelo, P.; Derfoul, H.; Ceccotti, T.; Poquerusse, A.; Calisti, A.; Talin, B.
2000-05-01
This paper reports on the spectral line shape of hydrogen and helium-like lines relevant to the quasi-static dicenter model. This treatment is justified for hot dense, moderate Z plasmas. The code IDEFIX developed for the quasi-static dicenter model involves a self-consistent description of the interactions and of the radiative properties. Strong dependence of the transition energies and of the dipole moments on the interionic separation are pointed out and novel density-dependent spectroscopic features such as asymmetries, satellite-like features, molecular transitions are exhibited. The theoretical spectra presented are discussed in connection with experimental results where these exist.
Line Shape Modeling for the Diagnostic of the Electron Density in a Corona Discharge
Joël Rosato
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We present an analysis of spectra observed in a corona discharge designed for the study of dielectrics in electrical engineering. The medium is a gas of helium and the discharge was performed at the vicinity of a tip electrode under high voltage. The shape of helium lines is dominated by the Stark broadening due to the plasma microfield. Using a computer simulation method, we examine the sensitivity of the He 492 nm line shape to the electron density. Our results indicate the possibility of a density diagnostic based on passive spectroscopy. The influence of collisional broadening due to interactions between the emitters and neutrals is discussed.
Some recent aspects of relaxation line shapes in Moessbauer spectroscopy. [White noise approximation
Shenoy, G.K.; Dunlap, B.D.
1977-01-01
Theoretical development in the line shape calculation of Mossbauer resonance spectra involving spin relaxation effects is introduced. The ''eigenvalue'' procedure of calculating line shapes saves computational times by two orders of magnitude compared to traditional methods. This was illustrated by calculating the relaxation spectra of hemoglobin cyanide and a GAMMA/sub 8/ quartet electronic state. The ''white noise approximation'' involved in all the relaxation theory is discussed, and its limitations are pointed out. The theory without such an approximation is used to analyze the data for Cs/sub 2/NaYbCl/sub 6/.
Effect of weld line shape on material flow during friction stir welding of aluminum and steel
Yasui, Toshiaki; Ando, Naoyuki; Morinaka, Shinpei; Mizushima, Hiroki; Fukumoto, Masahiro
2014-08-01
The effect of weld line shape on material flow during the friction stir welding of aluminum and steel was investigated. The material flow velocity was evaluated with simulated experiments using plasticine as the simulant material. The validity of the simulated experiments was verified by the marker material experiments on aluminum. The circumferential velocity of material around the probe increased with the depth from the weld surface. The effect is significant in cases where the advancing side is located on the outside of curve and those with higher curvature. Thus, there is an influence of weld line shape on material flow.
Relativistic positioning: errors due to uncertainties in the satellite world lines
Puchades, Neus
2014-01-01
Global navigation satellite systems use appropriate satellite constellations to get the coordinates of an user -close to Earth- in an almost inertial reference system. We have simulated both GPS and GALILEO constellations. Uncertainties in the satellite world lines lead to dominant positioning errors. In this paper, a detailed analysis of these errors is developed inside a great region surrounding Earth. This analysis is performed in the framework of the so-called relativistic positioning systems. Our study is based on the Jacobian, J, of the transformation giving the emission coordinates in terms of the inertial ones. Around points of vanishing J, positioning errors are too large. We show that, for any 4-tuple of satellites, the points with J=0 are located at distances, D, from the Earth centre greater than about 2R/3, where R is the radius of the satellite orbits which are assumed to be circumferences. Our results strongly suggest that, for D-distances greater than 2R/3 and smaller than 100000 km, a rather ...
Line shapes investigations in Yugoslavia and Serbia V (1997-2000). (Bibliography and citation index)
Dimitrijević, Milan S.
2001-05-01
The first part of the publication contains a review and anylysis of the results of spectral line shapes investigations in Yugoslavia and Serbia for 1997-2000. In the second part, the bibliography of the contributions of Yugoslav and Serbian scientists for 1997-2000 is given, together with the Citation Index for 1997-2000 for articles published 1962-2000.
Dimitrijević, M. S.
1994-08-01
The first part of the publication contains review and analysis of the results of spectral line shapes investigations in Yugoslavia and Serbia in the period 1989 - 1993. In the second part, the bibliography of the contributions of Yugoslav and Serbian scientists is given, together with the citation index.
Dimitrijević, M. S.
1997-09-01
The first part of this publication contains review and analysis of the results of spectral line shapes investigations in Yugoslavia and Serbia for 1993 - 1997. In the second part, the bibliography of the contributions of Yugoslav and Serbian scientists for 1993 - 1997 is given, together with the citation index for 1993 - 1997 for articles published 1962 - 1997.
Resonance-Light-Scattering Study and Line-Shape Simulation of the J Band
Fidder, Henk; Wiersma, Douwe A.
1991-01-01
Line-shape simulations and resonance-light-scattering experiments of the J band in aggregates of pseudoisocyanine are reported. It is concluded that the J band can be described as a disordered Frenkel-exciton band with states that are pseudolocalized on segments of the aggregate chain. The resonance
Saxén, Salla
2016-01-01
This qualitative social scientific interview study delves into the ways in which professional vision is constructed in clinical ethics consultation (CEC). The data consist of 11 semi-structured interviews that were conducted with clinical ethics consultants currently working in hospitals in one major urban area in the U.S. The interviews were analyzed with the qualitative research method of critical discourse analysis, with a focus on identifying the cultural structures of knowledge that shape CEC as a professional practice. The discourses were first identified as belonging to two higher discourse categories, order and agency. Order was divided into three lower categories, emotional, managerial, and rational order, and discourses of agency into the lower categories of exploration, technique, deliberation, and distancing. An additional discourse of neutral interaction was identified as a bridging discourse, activated to level tensions emerging out of conflicting goals and agencies embedded in CEC practice. This analysis brings out as its main observation that clinical ethics consultants draw on and shift between potentially ideologically conflicting social positions that can create built-in tensions within the professional domain. The study calls attention to these tensions and suggests for the professional group to discuss the possibility of defining priorities between different kinds of order, identified in this study, that shape the CEC domain.
Hughes, Justin Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)
2016-07-28
These are the slides for a graduate presentation at Mississippi State University. It covers the following: the BRL Shaped-Charge Geometry in PAGOSA, mesh refinement study, surrogate modeling using a radial basis function network (RBFN), ruling out parameters using sensitivity analysis (equation of state study), uncertainty quantification (UQ) methodology, and sensitivity analysis (SA) methodology. In summary, a mesh convergence study was used to ensure that solutions were numerically stable by comparing PDV data between simulations. A Design of Experiments (DOE) method was used to reduce the simulation space to study the effects of the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) Parameters for the Composition B main charge. Uncertainty was quantified by computing the 95% data range about the median of simulation output using a brute force Monte Carlo (MC) random sampling method. Parameter sensitivities were quantified using the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) spectral analysis method where it was determined that detonation velocity, initial density, C1, and B1 controlled jet tip velocity.
Stadler, Robert; Markussen, Troels
2011-01-01
been only empirically found for just a few rather complex organic molecules where the origins of the line shapes relation to molecular structure were not resolved. In the present, work we introduce a method to analyze the structure dependence of the asymmetry of interference dips from simple two site...... tight-binding models, where one site corresponds to a molecular π orbital of the wire and the other to an atomic pz orbital of a side group, which allows us to characterize analytically the peak shape in terms of just two parameters. We assess our scheme with first-principles electron transport...
Martina Gerken
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Multiferroic composite magnetoelectric (ME sensors are based on the elastic coupling of a magnetostrictive phase and a piezoelectric phase. A deformation of the magnetostrictive phase causes strain in the piezoelectric phase and thus an induced voltage. Such sensors may be applied both for static as well as for dynamic magnetic field measurements. Particularly high sensitivities are achieved for operation at a mechanical resonance. Here, the resonance line shape of layered (2-2 composite cantilever ME sensors at the first bending-mode resonance is investigated theoretically. Finite element method (FEM simulations using a linear material model reveal an asymmetric resonance profile and a zero-response frequency for the ME coefficient. Frequency-dependent strain and electric potential distributions inside the magnetoelectric composite are studied for the case of a magnetostrictive-piezoelectric bilayer. It is demonstrated that a positive or a negative voltage may be induced across the piezoelectric layer depending on the position of the neutral plane. The frequency-dependent induced electric potential is investigated for structured cantilevers that exhibit magnetostriction only at specific positions. For static operation an induced voltage is obtained locally at positions with magnetostriction. In addition to this direct effect a resonance-assisted effect is observed for dynamic operation. Magnetostriction in a limited area of the cantilever causes a global vibration of the cantilever. Thus, deformation of the piezoelectric layer and an induced electric potential also occur in areas of the cantilever without magnetostriction. The direct and the resonance-assisted pathway may induce voltages of equal or of opposite sign. The net induced voltage results from the superposition of the two effects. As the resonance-assisted induced voltage changes sign upon passing the resonance frequency, while the direct component is constant, an asymmetric line
Gerken, Martina
2013-06-01
Multiferroic composite magnetoelectric (ME) sensors are based on the elastic coupling of a magnetostrictive phase and a piezoelectric phase. A deformation of the magnetostrictive phase causes strain in the piezoelectric phase and thus an induced voltage. Such sensors may be applied both for static as well as for dynamic magnetic field measurements. Particularly high sensitivities are achieved for operation at a mechanical resonance. Here, the resonance line shape of layered (2-2 composite) cantilever ME sensors at the first bending-mode resonance is investigated theoretically. Finite element method (FEM) simulations using a linear material model reveal an asymmetric resonance profile and a zero-response frequency for the ME coefficient. Frequency-dependent strain and electric potential distributions inside the magnetoelectric composite are studied for the case of a magnetostrictive-piezoelectric bilayer. It is demonstrated that a positive or a negative voltage may be induced across the piezoelectric layer depending on the position of the neutral plane. The frequency-dependent induced electric potential is investigated for structured cantilevers that exhibit magnetostriction only at specific positions. For static operation an induced voltage is obtained locally at positions with magnetostriction. In addition to this direct effect a resonance-assisted effect is observed for dynamic operation. Magnetostriction in a limited area of the cantilever causes a global vibration of the cantilever. Thus, deformation of the piezoelectric layer and an induced electric potential also occur in areas of the cantilever without magnetostriction. The direct and the resonance-assisted pathway may induce voltages of equal or of opposite sign. The net induced voltage results from the superposition of the two effects. As the resonance-assisted induced voltage changes sign upon passing the resonance frequency, while the direct component is constant, an asymmetric line shape and a zero
Abshire, James; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham; Weaver, Clark; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William
2010-01-01
US Department of Energy's (DOE) SGP ARM site at altitudes from 3-8 km. These flights were coordinated with DOE investigators who flew an in-situ CO2 sensor on a Cessna aircraft under the path. The increasing CO2 line absorptions with altitudes were evident and comparison with in-situ measurements showed agreements to 6 ppm. In spring 2009 we improved the aircraft's nadir window and during July and August we made 9 additional 2 hour long flights and measured the atmospheric CO2 absorption and line shapes using the 1572.33 nm CO2 line. Measurements were made at stepped altitudes from 3-13 km over a variety of surface types in Nebraska, Illinois, the SGP ARM site, and near and over the Chesapeake Bay in North Carolina and eastern Virginia. Strong laser signals and clear CO2 line shapes were observed at all altitudes, and some measurements were made through thin clouds. The flights over the ARM site were underflown with in-situ measurements made from the DOE Cessna. Analysis shows that the average signal levels follow predicted values, the altimetry measurements had an uncertainty of about 4 m, and that the average optical line depths follow the number density calculated from in-situ sensor readings. The Oklahoma and east coast flights were coordinated with a LaRC/ITT CO2 lidar on the LaRC UC-12 aircraft, a LaRC in-situ CO2 sensor, and the Oklahoma flights also included a JPL CO2 lidar on a Twin Otter aircraft. More details of the flights, measurements, analysis and scaling to space will be described in the presentation.
Gain and Raman line-broadening with graphene coated diamond-shape nano-antennas.
Paraskevaidis, Charilaos; Kuykendall, Tevye; Melli, Mauro; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Schuck, P James; Schwartzberg, Adam; Dhuey, Scott; Cabrini, Stefano; Grebel, Haim
2015-10-07
Using Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), we report on intensity-dependent broadening in graphene-deposited broad-band antennas. The antenna gain curve includes both the incident frequency and some of the scattered mode frequencies. By comparing antennas with various gaps and types (bow-tie vs. diamond-shape antennas) we make the case that the line broadening did not originate from strain, thermal or surface potential. Strain, if present, further shifts and broadens those Raman lines that are included within the antenna gain curve.
The line shape of the Ortho-II superstructure reflection in YBa2Cu3O6.5
Schleger, P.; Hadfield, R.; Casalta, H.;
1994-01-01
Neutron and synchrotron x-ray measurements of the Ortho-II superstructure reflections on a high quality single crystal of YBa2Cu3O6.5 revealed that the intrinsic line shape is a Lorentzian to the power 5/2. It is argued that such a line shape implies late-stage domain coarsening of a quenched...
Fano line shape and phase reversal in a split-ring resonator based metamaterial
Wallauer, J.; Walther, M.
2013-11-01
We introduce a universal scheme for invoking a full line shape and phase reversal of Fano resonances in plasmonic metamaterials. The effect is based on opening a new excitation channel through minor structural displacements which enable continuous tunability. At the example of a metamaterial designed for terahertz frequencies, consisting of two coupled split-ring resonators, it is demonstrated by simulation and experiment that displacements by only a fraction of the wavelength are sufficient to invoke a full line shape reversal, in combination with the change from inducing a phase delay to a phase advance for a transmitted wave. Our approach provides unprecedented control of Fano asymmetry and phase, potentially enabling the implementation of dynamically tuneable Fano metamaterials and Fano-plasmonic devices such as dynamic filters or phase shifters.
An analysis of temperature dependent photoluminescence line shapes in InGaN
Teo, K. L.; Colton, J. S.; Yu, P. Y.; Weber, E. R.; Li, M. F.; Liu, W.; Uchida, K.; Tokunaga, H.; Akutsu, N.; Matsumoto, K.
1998-09-01
Photoluminescence (PL) line shapes in InGaN multiple quantum well structures have been studied experimentally and theoretically between 10 and 300 K. The higher temperature PL spectra can be fitted quantitatively with a thermalized carrier distribution and a broadened joint-density-of-states. The low temperature PL line shapes suggest that carriers are not thermalized, as a result of localization by band-gap fluctuations. We deduce a localization energy of ˜7 meV as compared with an activation energy of ˜63 meV from thermal quenching of the PL intensity. We thus conclude that this activation energy and the band-gap fluctuation most likely have different origins.
An analysis of temperature dependent photoluminescence line shapes in InGaN
Teo, K.L.; Colton, J.S.; Yu, P.Y. [Department of Physics, University of , California (United States)]|[Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Weber, E.R. [Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering, University of , California (United States)]|[Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Li, M.F.; Liu, W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Center for Optoelectronics, National University of Singapore, (Singapore) 11920; Uchida, K. [Department of Communications and Systems, The University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Choufugaoka, Choufu, Tokyo 182 (Japan); Tokunaga, H.; Akutsu, N.; Matsumoto, K. [Nippon Sanso Co., Tsukuba Laboratories, 10 Ohkubo Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 300-26 (Japan)
1998-09-01
Photoluminescence (PL) line shapes in InGaN multiple quantum well structures have been studied experimentally and theoretically between 10 and 300 K. The higher temperature PL spectra can be fitted {ital quantitatively} with a thermalized carrier distribution and a broadened joint-density-of-states. The low temperature PL line shapes suggest that carriers are not thermalized, as a result of localization by band-gap fluctuations. We deduce a localization energy of {approximately}7 meV as compared with an activation energy of {approximately}63 meV from thermal quenching of the PL intensity. We thus conclude that this activation energy and the band-gap fluctuation most likely have different origins. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
Fizeau interferometer system for fast high resolution studies of spectral line shapes
Novak, O. [School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 22, 30614 Plzen (Czech Republic); Falconer, I. S.; Sangines, R.; Tarrant, R. N.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M. [School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lattemann, M. [School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2011-02-15
A monochromator/Fizeau interferometer/intensified CCD camera system is described that was developed for the measurement of the shape of spectral lines that are rapidly time varying. The most important operating parameter that determines the performance of the instrument is the size of the entrance aperture as this determines both the light throughput and the effective interferometer wavelength resolution. This paper discusses, both theoretically and experimentally, the effect of the finite source area on the instrumental resolution to assist in optimizing the choice of this parameter. A second effect that often produces a practical limit to the quality of the spectra is drift of the interferometer plates. Measurements of the shapes of spectral lines of ions and atoms ejected from the cathode spot of continuous and pulsed cathodic arcs are presented to demonstrate the utility of this instrument.
Study of one-dimensional electron hopping and its effects on ESR line shape
Tang, Jau [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dikshit, S.N. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Norris, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
1997-08-01
Random hopping processes between discrete sites along a finite open chain or around a closed finite loop are examined. Closed form formulae are prescribed for the dependence of the ESR (electron spin resonance) line shape on the chain length and hopping rate. Significant differences between the closed loop and open chain are demonstrated. Deviation at short time from the results of diffusion in a continuum is presented.
Differential surface models for tactile perception of shape and on-line tracking of features
Hemami, H.
1987-01-01
Tactile perception of shape involves an on-line controller and a shape perceptor. The purpose of the on-line controller is to maintain gliding or rolling contact with the surface, and collect information, or track specific features of the surface such as edges of a certain sharpness. The shape perceptor uses the information to perceive, estimate the parameters of, or recognize the shape. The differential surface model depends on the information collected and on the a priori information known about the robot and its physical parameters. These differential models are certain functionals that are projections of the dynamics of the robot onto the surface gradient or onto the tangent plane. A number of differential properties may be directly measured from present day tactile sensors. Others may have to be indirectly computed from measurements. Others may constitute design objectives for distributed tactile sensors of the future. A parameterization of the surface leads to linear and nonlinear sequential parameter estimation techniques for identification of the surface. Many interesting compromises between measurement and computation are possible.
Khanam, Taslima; Darakis, Emmanouil; Rajendran, Arvind; Kariwala, Vinay; Asundi, Anand K.; Naughton, Thomas J.
2008-09-01
Crystallization is a widely used chemical process that finds applications in pharmaceutical industries. In an industrial crystallization process, it is not only important to produce pure crystals but also to control the shape and size of the crystals, as they affect the efficiency of downstream processes and the dissolution property of the drug. The effectiveness of control algorithms depend on the availability of on-line, real-time information about these critical properties. In this paper, we investigate the use of lens-less in-line digital holographic microscopy for size and shape measurements for crystallization processes. For this purpose, we use non-crystalline spherical microparticles and carbon fibers with known sizes present in a liquid suspension as test systems. We propose an algorithm to extract size and shape information for a population of microparticles from the experimentally recorded digital holograms. The measurements obtained from the proposed method show good agreement with the corresponding known size and shape of the particles.
You Xinpeng; Zhang Zhaoxia; Yao Qingtao
2012-01-01
The line-shape of catwalk of long-span suspension bridge is obtained by using the segmental catenary method to carry out the iterative calculation, where all the bearing cables are considered as one cable, and transversal passages and gantry are treated as nodes which divide the catwalk into several segments. The difference of line-shape and force between catwalk bearing cable and gantry bearing cable is not usually considered, but the line-shape of two kinds of cables is actually inconsistent because of the constraints from gantries. Based on the segmental catenary method, considering the different states of bearing cables （ DSB calculation method）, fine calculation is carried out. This method is applied to the design of a suspension bridge＇ s catwalk, and is compared with the traditional calculation method. It is obtained that the result is more reasonable and accurate by the coordination calculation method considering different states for two kinds of load-bearing cables, which is worth considering in the nrocess of design and optimization for catwalk.
D. V. Spracklen
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We use the new GLOMAP model of global aerosol microphysics to investigate the sensitivity of modelled sulfate and sea salt aerosol properties to uncertainties in the driving microphysical processes and compare these uncertainties with those associated with aerosol and precursor gas emissions. Overall, we conclude that uncertainties in microphysical processes have a larger effect on global sulfate and sea salt derived condensation nuclei (CN and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations than uncertainties in present-day sulfur emissions. Our simulations suggest that uncertainties in predicted sulfate and sea salt CCN abundances due to poorly constrained microphysical processes are likely to be of a similar magnitude to long-term changes in sulfate and sea salt CCN due to changes in anthropogenic emissions. A microphysical treatment of the global sulfate aerosol allows the uncertainty in climate-relevant aerosol properties to be attributed to specific processes in a way that has not been possible with simpler aerosol schemes. In particular we conclude that: (1 changes in the binary H2SO4-H2O nucleation rate and condensation rate of gaseous H2SO4 cause a shift in the vertical location of the upper tropospheric CN layer by as much as 3 km, while the shape of the CN profile is essentially pre-served (2 uncertainties in the binary H2SO4-H2O nucleation rate have a relatively insignificant effect on marine boundary layer (MBL aerosol properties; (3 emitting a fraction of anthropogenic SO2 as particulates (to represent production of sulfate particles in power plant plumes below the scale of the model grid (which is of the order of 300 km has the potential to change the global mean MBL sulfate-derived CN concentrations by up to 72%, and changes of up to a factor 20 can occur in polluted continental regions; (4 predicted global mean MBL sulfate and sea salt CCN concentrations change by 10 to 60% when several microphysical processes are changed within
Isasi, Rosario; Rahimzadeh, Vasiliki; Charlebois, Kathleen
2016-12-01
The purpose of this qualitative study is to elucidate stakeholder perceptions of, and institutional practices related to cell-based therapies and products (CTP) regulation and commercialization in Canada. The development of reproducible, safe and effective CTPs is predicated on regulatory and commercialization environments that enable innovation. Manufacturing processes constitute a critical step for CTP development in this regard. The road from CTP manufacturing to translation in the clinic, however, has yet to be paved. This study aims to fill an empirical gap in the literature by exploring how CTP manufacturing facilities navigate Canadian regulatory and commercialization environments, which together drive the translation of novel CTPs from bench to bedside. Using the multi-level model of practice-driven institutional change proposed by Smets et al., we demonstrate how CTP manufacturing practices are governed by established standards, yet meaningfully shape higher-order regulatory and commercial norms in CTP research and development. We identify four key themes that undergird such processes of innovation: 1) managing regulatory uncertainty, which stems from an inability to classify CTPs within existing regulatory categories for approval and commercialization purposes; 2) building a 'business case' whereby a CTP's market potential is determined in large part by proving its safety and effectiveness; 3) standardizing manufacturing procedures that mobilize CTPs from a research and development phase to a commercialization one; and 4) networking between researchers and regulators to develop responsible commercialization processes that reflect the uniqueness of CTPs as distinct from other biologics and medical devices.
Hydrogen Spectral Line Shape Formation in the SOL of Fusion Reactor Plasmas
Valery S. Lisitsa
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The problems related to the spectral line-shape formation in the scrape of layer (SOL in fusion reactor plasma for typical observation chords are considered. The SOL plasma is characterized by the relatively low electron density (1012–1013 cm−3 and high temperature (from 10 eV up to 1 keV. The main effects responsible for the line-shape formation in the SOL are Doppler and Zeeman effects. The main problem is a correct modeling of the neutral atom velocity distribution function (VDF. The VDF is determined by a number of atomic processes, namely: molecular dissociation, ionization and charge exchange of neutral atoms on plasma ions, electron excitation accompanied by the charge exchange from atomic excited states, and atom reflection from the wall. All the processes take place step by step during atom motion from the wall to the plasma core. In practice, the largest contribution to the neutral atom radiation emission comes from a thin layer near the wall with typical size 10–20 cm, which is small as compared with the minor radius of modern devices including international test experimental reactor ITER (radius 2 m. The important problem is a strongly non-uniform distribution of plasma parameters (electron and ion densities and temperatures. The distributions vary for different observation chords and ITER operation regimes. In the present report, most attention is paid to the problem of the VDF calculations. The most correct method for solving the problem is an application of the Monte Carlo method for atom motion near the wall. However, the method is sometimes too complicated to be combined with other numerical codes for plasma modeling for various regimes of fusion reactor operation. Thus, it is important to develop simpler methods for neutral atom VDF in space coordinates and velocities. The efficiency of such methods has to be tested via a comparison with the Monte Carlo codes for particular plasma conditions. Here a new simplified method
The Impact of Walking Time on U-Shaped Assembly Line Worker Allocation Problems
Parames Chutima
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The one-piece flow manufacturing line of single and customized products is usually organized as a U-shaped assembly layout. In this study, the characteristics of a single U-line are described and modeled. The worker allocation problem is hierarchically concerned with the task assignment into a U-line and allocate task to workers in sequence. Several products are assembled in 7-task to 297-task problems, and each problem is performed with a given cycle time. The primary purpose is to identify the impact of walking time on both symmetrical and rectangular U-shaped assembly layouts. The minor purpose is to compare the number of workers between two fixed layouts. Coincidence algorithm demonstrates clarifying solutions. To respond to two previous aims, the primary objective function of a number of workers is used. Finally, with the Pareto-optimal frontier between the deviation of operation times of workers and the walking time, its computational study is exemplified to identify good task assignment and walking path.
Bubble shape and breakage events in a vertical pipe at the boiler flow line
Fsadni Andrew
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental aspects concerning the typical bubble shape at the flow line of a standard domestic central heating system are investigated. This is done in support of the on-going research on two-phase flows in domestic central heating systems. Bubble nucleation and detachment at the primary heat exchanger wall of a domestic central heating boiler results in a bubbly two-phase flow in the system pipe work. Bubbly flow results in undesired cold spots at higher points in the system, consequently diminishing system performance. An experimental analysis was done on the bubble shape at the exit of the boiler through the application of photographic techniques. The results are presented in terms of the measured bubble aspect ratios at some principal system operating conditions. The dimensionless Eotvos and bubble Reynolds number were calculated and tabulated with the measured mean diameters. The data was subsequently correlated to the bubble shape regime diagram. Results suggest that most bubbles are quasi-spherical in shape with a noticeable elongation at lower bulk fluid Reynolds numbers.
Bubble shape and breakage events in a vertical pipe at the boiler flow line
Fsadni, Andrew; Ge, Yunting
2014-03-01
The theoretical and experimental aspects concerning the typical bubble shape at the flow line of a standard domestic central heating system are investigated. This is done in support of the on-going research on two-phase flows in domestic central heating systems. Bubble nucleation and detachment at the primary heat exchanger wall of a domestic central heating boiler results in a bubbly two-phase flow in the system pipe work. Bubbly flow results in undesired cold spots at higher points in the system, consequently diminishing system performance. An experimental analysis was done on the bubble shape at the exit of the boiler through the application of photographic techniques. The results are presented in terms of the measured bubble aspect ratios at some principal system operating conditions. The dimensionless Eotvos and bubble Reynolds number were calculated and tabulated with the measured mean diameters. The data was subsequently correlated to the bubble shape regime diagram. Results suggest that most bubbles are quasi-spherical in shape with a noticeable elongation at lower bulk fluid Reynolds numbers.
Spectral Shaping in Rapid Scanning Optical Delay Line of Optical Coherence Tomography
吴继刚; 薛平; 孙汕; 郭继华
2003-01-01
A small spatial optical filter is put into the rapid-scanning optical delay line (RSOD) to shape the spectrum of the reference beam in optical coherence tomography (OCT). The experimental results show that the 1ongitudinal resolution can be improved by a factor of 81% with this method, while at the same time, the signal-to-noise ratio of the OCT system is not much affected. This method can be used in OCT systems that use RSOD as the reference arm with a light source of superluminescent diodes, femtosecond lasers and crystal fibre as well.
Jaramillo, R.; Feng, Y.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Harvard Univ.; Univ. of Chicago
2010-05-01
We explore the behavior of the nested bandstructure of chromium as a function of temperature and pressure to the point where magnetism disappears. X-ray diffraction measurements of the charge order parameter suggest that the nesting condition is maintained at high pressure, where the spin density wave ground state is destabilized by a continuous quantum phase transition. By comparing diffraction line-shapes measured throughout the temperature-pressure phase diagram we are able to identify and describe three regimes: thermal near-critical, weak coupling ground state, and quantum critical.
Temperature Dependent Rubidium Helium Line Shapes and Fine Structure Mixing Rates
2015-09-01
optical transitions between the two excited states. This collisional partner is a gas mixture that is pumped into the cell. The gases used range from...and the bleached cell limit. The initial linear slope defines the efficiency of the laser and ideally would be as close to the quantum limit (98.1% for...the spectral line shape absorption relative to the diode bar bandwidth. A simple view of this curvature vs the ideal case can be seen in Figure 2.3
Optimum design of camber line shape in a transonic axial fan cascade with splitter
SUN Xi-miao; WANG Song-tao; JIANG Bin; QIANG Xiao-qing; WANG Zhong-qi
2008-01-01
Genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks method were adopted to .optimize the camber line shape of splitter cascade in a transonic axial fan. For a certain type of transonic axial fan, the isentropic effi-ciency was improved by 0.6% with the modification of splitter cascade rotor. Numerical simulation studies show that the curvature of the optimum splitter cascade with larger suction side is increased, the static pressure gradi-ent is reduced, the process of flow expansion on suction surface is controlled and the separation near hub is e-liminated by changing the shock wave structure. The efficiency near hub is improved by 1.3%.
Effect of nonlinear wave collapse on line shapes in a plasma
Hannachi, I.; Stamm, R.; Rosato, J.; Marandet, Y.
2016-04-01
The nonlinear interaction of waves can change the structural and radiative properties of plasmas. We describe the main features of a fully ionized unmagnetized plasma affected by strong Langmuir turbulence characterized by nonlinear wave collapse, and propose a simple model for evaluating the changes expected on a hydrogen line shape affected by such conditions. Our model is based on a stochastic renewal model using an exponential waiting time distribution and a half-normal probability density function for the electric-field magnitude of the turbulent wave packet. The first results obtained with a simulation calculation of the hydrogen \\text{L}α line show that strong Langmuir turbulence can provide an additional broadening to a Stark profile.
Johansson, Alexandra C; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
2016-01-01
We present a thorough analysis of the signal line shapes of Fourier transform-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy (NICE-OFCS). We discuss the signal dependence on the ratio of the modulation frequency, f${_m}$, to the molecular line width, {\\Gamma}. We compare a full model of the signals and a simplified absorption-like analytical model that has high accuracy for low f${_m}$/{\\Gamma} ratios and is much faster to compute. We verify the theory experimentally by measuring and fitting NICE-OFCS spectra of CO${_2}$ at 1575 nm using a system based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser and a cavity with a finesse of ~11000.
Diane Rieger
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The amount of uploaded extremist propaganda on the internet is increasing. In particular, right-wing extremist as well as Islamic extremist groups take advantage of the opportunities presented by the internet to spread their ideas to worldwide masses. Both tackle in-group specific topics and address their audiences in their respective political, national or religious identities. Several factors, such as higher levels of authoritarian value orientations and threatening life situations (such as existential threats or psychological uncertainty have been found to shape people’s reactions towards radical groups as well as to propaganda. The current study investigated whether the response to extremist propaganda videos (namely, aversion felt for the video and the perceived persuasiveness of the video is shaped by an individual’s authoritarian attitudes and psychological uncertainty and whether this is a global process or in-group specific. Further, it considered the effects of exposure to extremist propaganda on the identification with one’s in-group. In a laboratory experiment, German students were confronted with a right-wing extremist and an Islamic extremist video after manipulating their level of uncertainty (high vs. low levels of psychological uncertainty. The results confirmed that the interaction between authoritarianism and psychological uncertainty affected the evaluation of right-wing extremist videos addressing participants’ national in-group. Under conditions of uncertainty, authoritarianism predicted less aversion and a higher persuasiveness of these videos. Further, psychological uncertainty increased the identification with participants’ German nationality, irrespective of authoritarian attitudes. Notably, the effect was in-group bound: The same effect was not found for Islamic extremist propaganda referring to a religious out-group. The results are discussed regarding the potential of propaganda to foster behavioral
Self-absorption characteristics of measured laser-induced plasma line shapes
Parigger, C. G.; Surmick, D. M.; Gautam, G.
2017-02-01
The determination of electron density and temperature is reported from line-of-sight measurements of laser-induced plasma. Experiments are conducted in standard ambient temperature and pressure air and in a cell containing ultra-high-pure hydrogen slightly above atmospheric pressure. Spectra of the hydrogen Balmer series lines can be measured in laboratory air due to residual moisture following optical breakdown generated with 13 to 14 nanosecond, pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation. Comparisons with spectra obtained in hydrogen gas yields Abel-inverted line shape appearances that indicate occurrence of self-absorption. The electron density and temperature distributions along the line of sight show near-spherical rings, expanding at or near the speed of sound in the hydrogen gas experiments. The temperatures in the hydrogen studies are obtained using Balmer series alpha, beta, gamma profiles. Over and above the application of empirical formulae to derive the electron density from hydrogen alpha width and shift, and from hydrogen beta width and peak-separation, so-called escape factors and the use of a doubling mirror are discussed.
A reduced density-matrix theory of absorption line shape of molecular aggregate.
Yang, Mino
2005-09-22
A theory for the absorption line shape of molecular aggregates in condensed phase is formulated based on a reduced density-matrix approach. Intermolecular couplings in the aggregates are assumed to be weak (Förster type of energy transfer mechanism). The spin-Boson model is employed to include the effect of electron-phonon coupling. Using the projection operator technique, we derive kinetic equations for the reduced electronic density matrix associated with the absorption spectrum. General expressions of time-dependent rate constants in the kinetic equations are derived by using the cumulant expansion technique. The resulting time-dependent kinetic equations are solved numerically. We illustrate the applicability of the present theory by calculating the line shape of a dimer (a pair of donor and acceptor of energy transfer). For a J-aggregate type of molecular pair (with excitonic redshift), a tail appears on the blue side of the absorption spectrum due to the existence of inhomogeneity in electronic state mixing which is originated from the electron-phonon coupling.
Spectral Line Shapes in the 2ν_3 Q Branch of 12CH_4
Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda R.; Crawford, Timothy J.; Yu, Shanshan; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Ismail, Syed; Mantz, Arlan; Boudon, Vincent
2016-06-01
We will present the first experimental measurements of spectral line shapes (self- and air-broadened half width, pressure shift, and line mixing (via off-diagonal relaxation matrix element) coefficients and their temperature dependences, where appropriate, for transitions in the 2ν_3 Q branch manifolds of 12CH_4 in the 1.6 μ m region. Employing a multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique, we simultaneously fitted 23 high-resolution spectra of 12CH_4 and mixtures of 12CH_4 in air, recorded at different pressure-temperature combinations between 130 and 296 K. These data were recorded using the Bruker IFS 125 HR Fourier transform spectrometer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory together with two coolable sample cells. By applying a set of constraints to the parameters of severely blended transitions, a self-consistent set of broadening, shift and line mixing parameters for CH_4-CH_4 and CH_4-air collisions were retrieved. A quadratic speed dependence parameter common for all transitions in each Q(J) manifold was determined. In addition to line shape parameters, line positions and line intensities were also measured for over 100 transitions in the whole Q branch region (5996.5 - 6007.7 cm-1). Comparisons of present results with values in HITRAN2012 will be provided. D.C. Benner, C.P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M.A. H. Smith, and D. Atkins. JQSRT 53 (1995) 705-721 K. Sung, A.W. Mantz, M.A.H. Smith, L.R. Brown, T.J. Crawford, V.M. Devi, D.C. Benner. J.Mol. Spectrosc. 162 (2010)124-134 A.W. Mantz, K. Sung, T.J. Crawford, L.R. Brown, M.A.H. Smith, V.M. Devi, D.C. Benner, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 304 (2014) 12-24. Research described in this paper are performed at the College of William and Mary, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Connecticut College, and NASA Langley Research Center under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Theory of Fano-Kondo effect in quantum dot systems: Temperature dependence of the Fano line shapes
Maruyama, I. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: maru@th.physik.uni-bonn.de; Shibata, N. [Department of Basic Science, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Ueda, K. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)
2006-05-01
The Fano-Kondo effect in zero-bias conductance is studied based on a theoretical model for the T-shaped quantum dot by the finite temperature density matrix renormalization group method. The modification of the two Fano line shapes at much higher temperatures than the Kondo temperature is also investigated by the effective Fano parameter estimated as a fitting parameter.
Spectral Line-Shape Model to Replace the Voigt Profile in Spectroscopic Databases
Lisak, Daniel; Ngo, Ngoc Hoa; Tran, Ha; Hartmann, Jean-Michel
2014-06-01
The standard description of molecular line shapes in spectral databases and radiative transfer codes is based on the Voigt profile. It is well known that its simplified assumptions of absorber free motion and independence of collisional parameters from absorber velocity lead to systematic errors in analysis of experimental spectra, and retrieval of gas concentration. We demonstrate1,2 that the partially correlated quadratic speed-dependent hardcollision profile3. (pCqSDHCP) is a good candidate to replace the Voigt profile in the next generations of spectroscopic databases. This profile takes into account the following physical effects: the Doppler broadening, the pressure broadening and shifting of the line, the velocity-changing collisions, the speed-dependence of pressure broadening and shifting, and correlations between velocity- and phase/state-changing collisions. The speed-dependence of pressure broadening and shifting is incorporated into the pCqSDNGP in the so-called quadratic approximation. The velocity-changing collisions lead to the Dicke narrowing effect; however in many cases correlations between velocityand phase/state-changing collisions may lead to effective reduction of observed Dicke narrowing. The hard-collision model of velocity-changing collisions is also known as the Nelkin-Ghatak model or Rautian model. Applicability of the pCqSDHCP for different molecular systems was tested on calculated and experimental spectra of such molecules as H2, O2, CO2, H2O in a wide span of pressures. For all considered systems, pCqSDHCP is able to describe molecular spectra at least an order of magnitude better than the Voigt profile with all fitted parameters being linear with pressure. In the most cases pCqSDHCP can reproduce the reference spectra down to 0.2% or better, which fulfills the requirements of the most demanding remote-sensing applications. An important advantage of pCqSDHCP is that a fast algorithm for its computation was developedab4,5 and allows
Lesiak, Beata; Zemek, Josef; Houdkova, Jana; Kromka, Alexander; Józwik, Adam
2010-01-01
The X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) methods were applied in investigating samples of nanocrystalline diamond and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite of various C sp(2)/sp(3) ratios, crystallinity conditions and grain sizes. The composition at the surface was estimated from the XPS. The C sp(2)/sp(3) ratio was evaluated from the width of the XAES first derivative C KLL spectra and from fitting of XPS C 1s spectra into components. The pattern recognition (PR) method applied for analyzing the spectra line shapes exhibited high accuracy in distinguishing different carbon materials. The PR method was found to be a potentially useful approach for identification, especially important for technological applications in fields of materials engineering and for controlling the chemical reaction products during synthesis.
A far wing line shape theory and its application to the water vibrational bands (II)
Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.
1992-01-01
Attention is given to a far wing line shape theory based on binary collision and quasi-static approximations. The theory is applicable for both the LF and HF wings of vibrational-rotational bands. It is used to calculate the frequency and temperature dependence of the continuous absorption coefficient for frequencies up to 10,000/cm for pure water vapor. The results are compared with existing laboratory data in the 2400-2700/cm window and in the 3000-4300/cm band center region, with field measurements in the 2000-2225/cm region and with a recent experimental measurement near 9466/cm. It is concluded that both the magnitude and temperature dependence of the water vapor continuum can be accounted for by the present theory without the introduction of any adjustable parameters. Refinements of the theory and extension to foreign-broadened absorption are also discussed.
Dispersion and line shape of plasmon satellites in one, two, and three dimensions
Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Louie, Steven G.; Lischner, Johannes
2016-06-01
Using state-of-the-art many-body Green's function calculations based on the GW plus cumulant approach, we analyze the properties of plasmon satellites in the electron spectral function resulting from electron-plasmon interactions in one-, two-, and three-dimensional systems. Specifically, we show how their dispersion relation, line shape, and linewidth are related to the properties of the constituent electrons and plasmons. To gain insight into the many-body processes giving rise to the formation of plasmon satellites, we connect the GW plus cumulant approach to a many-body wave-function picture of electron-plasmon interactions and introduce the coupling-strength-weighted electron-plasmon joint density states as a powerful concept for understanding plasmon satellites.
Liu, Guo-Chang; Li, Chao; Fang, Guang-You
2015-01-01
We present the design and the experimental demonstration of an invisible cloak with irregular shape by using tensor transmission line (TL) metamaterials. The fabricated cloak consists of tensor TL unit cells exhibiting anisotropic effective material parameters, while the background medium consists of isotropic TL unit cells. The simulated and the measured field patterns around the cloak show a fairly good agreement, both demonstrate that the fabricated cloak can shield the cloaked interior area from electromagnetic fields without perturbing the external fields. The scattering of the cloaked perfect electric conductor (PEC) is minimized. Furthermore, the nonresonant property of the TL structure results in a relatively broad bandwidth of the realized cloak, which is clearly observed in our experiment. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos.11174280, 60990323, and 60990320) and the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No.YYYJ-1123).
Vision-based in-line fabric defect detection using yarn-specific shape features
Schneider, Dorian; Aach, Til
2012-01-01
We develop a methodology for automatic in-line flaw detection in industrial woven fabrics. Where state of the art detection algorithms apply texture analysis methods to operate on low-resolved ({200 ppi) image data, we describe here a process flow to segment single yarns in high-resolved ({1000 ppi) textile images. Four yarn shape features are extracted, allowing a precise detection and measurement of defects. The degree of precision reached allows a classification of detected defects according to their nature, providing an innovation in the field of automatic fabric flaw detection. The design has been carried out to meet real time requirements and face adverse conditions caused by loom vibrations and dirt. The entire process flow is discussed followed by an evaluation using a database with real-life industrial fabric images. This work pertains to the construction of an on-loom defect detection system to be used in manufacturing practice.
Design and application of a fish-shaped lateral line probe for flow measurement
Tuhtan, J. A.; Fuentes-Pérez, J. F.; Strokina, N.; Toming, G.; Musall, M.; Noack, M.; Kämäräinen, J. K.; Kruusmaa, M.
2016-04-01
We introduce the lateral line probe (LLP) as a measurement device for natural flows. Hydraulic surveys in rivers and hydraulic structures are currently based on time-averaged velocity measurements using propellers or acoustic Doppler devices. The long-term goal is thus to develop a sensor system, which includes spatial gradients of the flow field along a fish-shaped sensor body. Interpreting the biological relevance of a collection of point velocity measurements is complicated by the fact that fish and other aquatic vertebrates experience the flow field through highly dynamic fluid-body interactions. To collect body-centric flow data, a bioinspired fish-shaped probe is equipped with a lateral line pressure sensing array, which can be applied both in the laboratory and in the field. Our objective is to introduce a new type of measurement device for body-centric data and compare its output to estimates of conventional point-based technologies. We first provide the calibration workflow for laboratory investigations. We then provide a review of two velocity estimation workflows, independent of calibration. Such workflows are required as existing field investigations consist of measurements in environments where calibration is not feasible. The mean difference for uncalibrated LLP velocity estimates from 0 to 50 cm/s under in a closed flow tunnel and open channel flume was within 4 cm/s when compared to conventional measurement techniques. Finally, spatial flow maps in a scale vertical slot fishway are compared for the LLP, direct measurements, and 3D numerical models where it was found that the LLP provided a slight overestimation of the current velocity in the jet and underestimated the velocity in the recirculation zone.
Mohammed Koubiti
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Various codes of line-shape modeling are compared to each other through the profile of the C ii 723-nm line for typical plasma conditions encountered in the ablation clouds of carbon pellets, injected in magnetic fusion devices. Calculations were performed for a single electron density of 1017 cm−3 and two plasma temperatures (T = 2 and 4 eV. Ion and electron temperatures were assumed to be equal (Te = Ti = T. The magnetic field, B, was set equal to either to zero or 4 T. Comparisons between the line-shape modeling codes and two experimental spectra of the C ii 723-nm line, measured perpendicularly to the B-field in the Large Helical Device (LHD using linear polarizers, are also discussed.
Characterization of the OCO-2 instrument line shape functions using on-orbit solar measurements
Sun, Kang; Liu, Xiong; Nowlan, Caroline R.; Cai, Zhaonan; Chance, Kelly; Frankenberg, Christian; Lee, Richard A. M.; Pollock, Randy; Rosenberg, Robert; Crisp, David
2017-03-01
Accurately characterizing the instrument line shape (ILS) of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) is challenging and highly important due to its high spectral resolution and requirement for retrieval accuracy (0. 25 %) compared to previous spaceborne grating spectrometers. On-orbit ILS functions for all three bands of the OCO-2 instrument have been derived using its frequent solar measurements and high-resolution solar reference spectra. The solar reference spectrum generated from the 2016 version of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) solar line list shows significant improvements in the fitting residual compared to the solar reference spectrum currently used in the version 7 Level 2 algorithm in the O2 A band. The analytical functions used to represent the ILS of previous grating spectrometers are found to be inadequate for the OCO-2 ILS. Particularly, the hybrid Gaussian and super-Gaussian functions may introduce spurious variations, up to 5 % of the ILS width, depending on the spectral sampling position, when there is a spectral undersampling. Fitting a homogeneous stretch of the preflight ILS together with the relative widening of the wings of the ILS is insensitive to the sampling grid position and accurately captures the variation of ILS in the O2 A band between decontamination events. These temporal changes of ILS may explain the spurious signals observed in the solar-induced fluorescence retrieval in barren areas.
Shaping the spectra of the line-to-line voltage using signal injection in the common mode voltage
Mathe, Laszlo; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Pedersen, John Kim
2009-01-01
A drawback of Pulse Width Modulation in electrical drives is the high harmonic content of the line to line voltages, which gives rise to Electro-Magnetic Interference and acoustic noise. By injection of a signal into the common mode voltage, the fundamental is not affected, but new frequency...... components are introduced in the line to line voltage spectrum. This paper introduces a new analytical method for estimation of the line to line voltage spectrum, where sinusoidal signal is injected into the common mode voltage. Based on the analytical calculations, also a new fixed carrier frequency quasi...
Temperature Dependence of Near-Infrared CO_2 Line Shapes Measured by Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy
Ghysels, Mélanie; Fleisher, Adam J.; Liu, Qingnan; Hodges, Joseph T.
2017-06-01
We present high signal-to-noise ratio, mode-by-mode cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) line shape measurements of air-broadened transitions in the 30013 → 0001 band of ^{12}C^{16}O_2 located near λ = 1.6 μm. Absorption spectra were acquired from (230-290) K with a variable-temperature spectrometer developed in the framework of the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission to improve our understanding of carbon dioxide and oxygen line shape parameters. This system comprises a monolithic, thermally stabilized two-mirror, optical resonator exhibiting a mode stability of 200 kHz and a minimum detectable absorption coefficient of 10^{-11} cm^{-1}. Observed spectra were modeled the using the recently recommended Hartmann-Tran line profile (HTP) (and several of its limiting cases) which includes the effects of Dicke narrowing, speed dependent broadening, correlation between velocity- and phase-changing collisions and first-order line mixing effects. At fixed temperature, line shape parameters were determined by constrained multispectrum fitting of spectra acquired over the pressure range (30 - 300) Torr. For each transition considered, analysis of the temperature dependence of the fitted line shape parameters yielded the pressure-broadening temperature exponent and speed dependence parameter, where the latter quantity was found to be in good agreement with theoretical values consistent with the HTP model. Tennyson, et al., Pure Appl. Chem. 86, (2014) 1931
Ha, Gwanghui [Argonne, HEP; Cho, Moo-Hyun [POSTECH; Conde, Manoel [Argonne, HEP; Doran, Darrell [Argonne, HEP; Gai, Wei [Argonne, HEP; Jing, Chunguang [Euclid Techlabs, Solon; Kim, Kwang-Je [Argonne, HEP; Liu, Wanming [Argonne, HEP; Namkung, Won [POSTECH; Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.; Power, John [Argonne, HEP; Sun, Yin-E [Argonne, HEP; Whiteford, Charles [Argonne, HEP; Wisniewski, Eric [Argonne, HEP; Zholents, Alexander [Argonne, HEP
2016-06-01
Emittance exchange (EEX) based longitudinal current profile shaping is the one of the promising current profile shaping technique. This method can generate high quality arbitrary current profiles under the ideal conditions. The double dog-leg EEX beam line was recently installed at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) to explore the shaping capability and confirm the quality of this method. To demonstrate the arbitrary current profile generation, several different transverse masks are applied to generate different final current profiles. The phase space slopes and the charge of incoming beam are varied to observe and suppress the aberrations on the ideal profile. We present current profile shaping results, aberrations on the shaped profile, and its suppression.
Effect of four factors in the calculation of induced voltages on a tree-shaped distribution line
Torres, Horacio; Perez, Ernesto; Herrera, Javier; Younes, Camilo; Salgado, Milton; Quintana, Carlos; Rondon, Daniel; Gallego, Luis; Montana, Johny; Vargas, Mauricio [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Research Program on Acquisition and Analysis of Signals - PAAS]. E-mail: paas@paas.unal.edu.co
2001-07-01
The main objective of this paper is to show a sensibility analysis of four different factors: current waveform, return stroke velocity, lightning current amplitude and network configuration in the calculation of induced voltages on a tree-shaped distribution line. In order to calculate distribution line. In order to calculate the induced voltages it was used the EMTP/ATP program with the inclusion of Rusck's Coupling Model into the MODELS routine. (author)
[Analysis of lorentzian line shape function broadened by non-sinusoidal wavelength modulation].
Sun, You-Qun; Wang, Yun-Tao; Ruan, Chi; Xu, Song-Song
2014-03-01
In the present work, the Fourier analysis of Lorentzian line shape broadened by non-sinusoidal wavelength modulation was investigated, in which the third order and above harmonic items were ignored. The analytical expression of n-order Fourier coefficient was brought out, where a variable K named harmonic distortion to characterize the ratio of the second harmonic to the first harmonic was introduced. Numerical simulations based on the cases of K > 0.01 and K 0.01, the effect of different depths of modulation on the odd and even order harmonic amplitude curve is significant. And the numerical simulation shows there exists an optimum value of modulation depth which could minimize the impact of the harmonic distortion, and both large K value and small K value would cause a great error. The conclusion of this work could be applied in error analysis of wavelength modulation spectroscopy system And the results are helpful to deepening understanding of WMS and would be the important reference for some kind of frequency stabilization technology in laser instrument.
Capozzi, F.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.
2015-11-01
Nuclear reactors provide intense sources of electron antineutrinos, characterized by few-MeV energy E and unoscillated spectral shape Φ (E ). High-statistics observations of reactor neutrino oscillations over medium-baseline distances L ˜O (50 ) km would provide unprecedented opportunities to probe both the long-wavelength mass-mixing parameters (δ m2 and θ12) and the short-wavelength ones (Δ mee 2 and θ13), together with the subtle interference effects associated with the neutrino mass hierarchy (either normal or inverted). In a given experimental setting—here taken as in the JUNO project for definiteness—the achievable hierarchy sensitivity and parameter accuracy depend not only on the accumulated statistics but also on systematic uncertainties, which include (but are not limited to) the mass-mixing priors and the normalizations of signals and backgrounds. We examine, in addition, the effect of introducing smooth deformations of the detector energy scale, E →E'(E ), and of the reactor flux shape, Φ (E )→Φ'(E ), within reasonable error bands inspired by state-of-the-art estimates. It turns out that energy-scale and flux-shape systematics can noticeably affect the performance of a JUNO-like experiment, both on the hierarchy discrimination and on precision oscillation physics. It is shown that a significant reduction of the assumed energy-scale and flux-shape uncertainties (by, say, a factor of 2) would be highly beneficial to the physics program of medium-baseline reactor projects. Our results also shed some light on the role of the inverse-beta decay threshold, of geoneutrino backgrounds, and of matter effects in the analysis of future reactor oscillation data.
Pavel Virdzek
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In the present paper we describe a computation of the position of a tectonic dislocation in the shape of a line, which is radiating gamma rays. We derive the equation for dose rate as a function of the distance of the point of measurement from the irradiation line. The theoretical calculation of the position of this line is shown for the case of zero radiation of the background as well as for the case when the radiation of the background is considered.
Noda, Yuki; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Minemawari, Hiromi; Yamada, Toshikazu; Hasegawa, Tatsuo
2013-07-01
Equilibrium microdroplet shapes on hydrophilic/hydrophobic patterned surfaces were investigated both by experimental observation using an inkjet printing technique and by computer simulation. We demonstrated that the hybrid energy minimization simulation can accurately reproduce the equilibrium shapes of observed microdroplets, including the droplet contact line in the vicinity of a sharp corner in the hydrophilic region. We found that the relative ratio of nonwetting areas by the droplets around a rectangular corner can be used as a useful index to check the reliability of the simulation as well as to estimate the surface-energy distribution within the hydrophilic region. Based on the estimation of the additional local force acting on the contact lines, we discuss the design rules for printed electronics circuits, such as the shapes of the integrated electrode to realize the ideal spreading.
Villarrubia, J.S., E-mail: john.villarrubia@nist.gov [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Vladár, A.E.; Ming, B. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Kline, R.J.; Sunday, D.F. [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Chawla, J.S.; List, S. [Intel Corporation, RA3-252, 5200 NE Elam Young Pkwy, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States)
2015-07-15
The width and shape of 10 nm to 12 nm wide lithographically patterned SiO{sub 2} lines were measured in the scanning electron microscope by fitting the measured intensity vs. position to a physics-based model in which the lines' widths and shapes are parameters. The approximately 32 nm pitch sample was patterned at Intel using a state-of-the-art pitch quartering process. Their narrow widths and asymmetrical shapes are representative of near-future generation transistor gates. These pose a challenge: the narrowness because electrons landing near one edge may scatter out of the other, so that the intensity profile at each edge becomes width-dependent, and the asymmetry because the shape requires more parameters to describe and measure. Modeling was performed by JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo Simulation of Secondary Electrons), which produces a predicted yield vs. position for a given sample shape and composition. The simulator produces a library of predicted profiles for varying sample geometry. Shape parameter values are adjusted until interpolation of the library with those values best matches the measured image. Profiles thereby determined agreed with those determined by transmission electron microscopy and critical dimension small-angle x-ray scattering to better than 1 nm.
Boissoles, J.; Boulet, C.; Robert, D.; Green, S.
1987-01-01
Line coupling coefficients resulting from rotational excitation of CO perturbed by He are computed within the infinite order sudden approximation (IOSA) and within the energy corrected sudden approximation (ECSA). The influence of this line coupling on the 1-0 CO-He vibration-rotation band shape is then computed for the case of weakly overlapping lines in the 292-78 K temperature range. The IOS and ECS results differ only at 78 K by a weak amount at high frequencies. Comparison with an additive superposition of Lorentzian lines shows strong modifications in the troughs between the lines. These calculated modifications are in excellent quantitative agreement with recent experimental data for all the temperatures considered. The applicability of previous approaches to CO-He system, based on either the strong collision model or exponential energy gap law, is also discussed.
Sensor for In-Motion Continuous 3D Shape Measurement Based on Dual Line-Scan Cameras.
Sun, Bo; Zhu, Jigui; Yang, Linghui; Yang, Shourui; Guo, Yin
2016-11-18
The acquisition of three-dimensional surface data plays an increasingly important role in the industrial sector. Numerous 3D shape measurement techniques have been developed. However, there are still limitations and challenges in fast measurement of large-scale objects or high-speed moving objects. The innovative line scan technology opens up new potentialities owing to the ultra-high resolution and line rate. To this end, a sensor for in-motion continuous 3D shape measurement based on dual line-scan cameras is presented. In this paper, the principle and structure of the sensor are investigated. The image matching strategy is addressed and the matching error is analyzed. The sensor has been verified by experiments and high-quality results are obtained.
Sensor for In-Motion Continuous 3D Shape Measurement Based on Dual Line-Scan Cameras
Bo Sun
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The acquisition of three-dimensional surface data plays an increasingly important role in the industrial sector. Numerous 3D shape measurement techniques have been developed. However, there are still limitations and challenges in fast measurement of large-scale objects or high-speed moving objects. The innovative line scan technology opens up new potentialities owing to the ultra-high resolution and line rate. To this end, a sensor for in-motion continuous 3D shape measurement based on dual line-scan cameras is presented. In this paper, the principle and structure of the sensor are investigated. The image matching strategy is addressed and the matching error is analyzed. The sensor has been verified by experiments and high-quality results are obtained.
Welcome to the 21st International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes
2012-12-01
organizing committee of the conference has not forgotten about the cultural and tourism significance of the host city, with Hermitage and the Russian Museum, memorial museums of Pushkin and Dostoevsky, Mariinsky and Mikhailovsky Theaters being only a few of the many places to visit. Early June is the time of white nights, the best time to visit the environs of St. Petersburg with its many imperial palaces and parks, and attend multiple music and theater festivals. This is just the right time to take a break from physics overall and spectral line shapes in particular. On behalf of the Rector's Office let me wish the Conference every success, and do not forget to take some time out to enjoy your visit. Welcome! Professor N G Skvortsov Vice-Rector for Research St. Petersburg University
Size and temperature dependence of the line shape of ESR spectra of the XXZ antiferromagnetic chain
Ikeuchi, Hiroki; De Raedt, Hans; Bertaina, Sylvain; Miyashita, Seiji
2017-01-01
The electron spin resonance spectrum of the XXZ spin chain with finite length shows a double-peak structure at high temperatures around the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) frequency. This fact has been pointed out by direct numerical methods [S. El Shawish, O. Cépas, and S. Miyashita, Phys. Rev. B 81, 224421 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.224421; H. Ikeuchi, H. De Raedt, S. Bertaina, and S. Miyashita, Phys. Rev. B 92, 214431 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.214431]. The question of whether the double-peak structure survives in the thermodynamics is of particular interest. We study the size dependence of the line shape, including the even-odd effect. It is found that the peaks forming the double-peak structure are assigned to individual resonances, each of which is specified by the magnetizations of the resonating states (M ,M -1 ) . To understand dependences, we decompose the spectrum into contributions from transitions specified by the magnetization, and we characterize the structure of the spectrum by individual contributions. We analyze the size dependence of each contribution individually by extending the moment method introduced by M. Brockman et al. to each component, and we find that the mean of each peak approaches the paramagnetic resonance point with 1 /N (where N is the length of the chain), which indicates that the separation of the peaks of the double-peak structure also vanishes inversely with the system size. We also study the temperature dependence of the structure. At low temperatures, the spectrum has a single peak with a finite width at a position with a finite shift from the frequency of EPR, as pointed out by the analysis of field-theoretical works [M. Oshikawa and I. Affleck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5136 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.5136]. The study of the temperature dependence of the spectrum shows how the high-temperature spectrum changes to the low-temperature one with a drastic broadening of the spectrum.
Cerezo, Javier; Santoro, Fabrizio
2016-10-11
Vertical models for the simulation of spectroscopic line shapes expand the potential energy surface (PES) of the final state around the equilibrium geometry of the initial state. These models provide, in principle, a better approximation of the region of the band maximum. At variance, adiabatic models expand each PES around its own minimum. In the harmonic approximation, when the minimum energy structures of the two electronic states are connected by large structural displacements, adiabatic models can breakdown and are outperformed by vertical models. However, the practical application of vertical models faces the issues related to the necessity to perform a frequency analysis at a nonstationary point. In this contribution we revisit vertical models in harmonic approximation adopting both Cartesian (x) and valence internal curvilinear coordinates (s). We show that when x coordinates are used, the vibrational analysis at nonstationary points leads to a deficient description of low-frequency modes, for which spurious imaginary frequencies may even appear. This issue is solved when s coordinates are adopted. It is however necessary to account for the second derivative of s with respect to x, which here we compute analytically. We compare the performance of the vertical model in the s-frame with respect to adiabatic models and previously proposed vertical models in x- or Q1-frame, where Q1 are the normal coordinates of the initial state computed as combination of Cartesian coordinates. We show that for rigid molecules the vertical approach in the s-frame provides a description of the final state very close to the adiabatic picture. For sizable displacements it is a solid alternative to adiabatic models, and it is not affected by the issues of vertical models in x- and Q1-frames, which mainly arise when temperature effects are included. In principle the G matrix depends on s, and this creates nonorthogonality problems of the Duschinsky matrix connecting the normal
Yoshida, Ken; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Uosaki, Yasuhiro; Nakahara, Masaru
2013-04-07
The rotational couplings, which determine the infrared spectral line shape in the low-density supercritical water, were analyzed as functions of the density and the temperature by applying molecular dynamics simulation to a flexible water model, SPC∕Fw and by varying the moment of inertia of the water through substitution for the H atom in H2O by heavy hydrogen isotopes. The differences in the frequency and the relative intensity between the sharp center peak and the rotational broad side-bands were analyzed for the O-H, O-D, and O-T stretch spectra. The frequency differences between the sharp center peak and the rotational broad side-bands are linearly correlated with the inverse of the moment of inertia of the isotope-substituted water species. The intensity of the sharp peak is associated with the long-time component of the reorientational time correlation function for the stretching bond vector. At 400 °C, where a substantial amount of hydrogen bonds are dynamically persisting, an intensity decrease in the rotational broad side-bands was observed with increasing density from 0.01 to 0.40 g cm(-3), respectively, corresponding to 0.56 and 22.2 M (=mol dm(-3)), orders of magnitude higher than the ideal gas densities. This arises from the decrease in the correlation time of the angular velocity and the rotational couplings due to an increase in the hydrogen-bonding perturbation. The intensity decrease of the rotational side-bands with increasing density is more significant for the water isotopes with heavier hydrogens. At a high temperature of 1200 °C, the rotational side-bands at 0.01 to 0.05 g cm(-3) were more distinct than those at 400 °C, and even at a medium density of 0.40 g cm(-3) a significant signal broadening due to the rotational couplings was clearly observed because of the accelerated rotational momentum. The vibrational spectrum cannot be decomposed into definite chemical clusters for the thermodynamic and kinetic analysis because of the dynamic
Recovering the Shape of Planar Object Depicted by a Line Drawing under Axonometric Projection
CHUJun; GAOMan-tun
2005-01-01
A new approach is proposed for automatically creating B-rep models of a three-dimensional planar object from a line drawing depicting the object under orthographically axonometric projection. A new line parameterization that satisfies the uniqueness, boundedness and uniformness for representing lines in 2D and 3D space is given. According to the location relation between lines and planes of object depicted by the line drawing, some constraints about object's 3D information are produced and a linear system based on those constraints is established.3D information of a planar body can be obtained by solving the linear system. It is proved that,during the processing, there existed at least four degrees of freedom. It is more convenient to use information about lines and planes instead of points and planes for computer vision and intelligent CAD systems to interpret line drawings of planar objects.
Line Shapes and Intensities of Carbon Monoxide Transitions in the (3→0) and (4→1) Bands
Reed, Zachary; Polyansky, Oleg; Hodges, Joseph T.
2017-06-01
We have measured several carbon monoxide transitions in the (3→0) and (4→1) band using frequency stabilized cavity ringdown spectroscopy (FS-CRDS). The measured transitions are compared to the line strength values in HITRAN 2012 [1], those determined by Wojtewitz et al [2], and to theoretical calculations. The cavity length is actively locked to an iodine stabilized HeNe laser, providing long term frequency stability of 10 kHz and is linked to a self-referenced, octave-spanning frequency comb. The temperature of the optical cavity is actively regulated at the mK level, and the pressure measurements are SI-traceable. The sample is a NIST calibrated reference mixture of 11.98575(95)% CO in N_{2}. The absorption spectra are modeled using the Hartmann-Tran profile (HTP). The SNR in these spectra may exceed 10,000:1, which necessitates including the effects of speed dependence, collisional narrowing, and correlation between velocity-changing and dephasing collisions. The relative uncertainties of the line strengths calculated in this study are better than 0.1%. There are systematic differences on the 1% level for ^{12}CO against both HITRAN [1] and the previous work by Wojtewitz et al [2]. The measurement uncertainties are nearly an order of magnitude lower than previous results. Additionally, the relative uncertainties in the integrated areas of selected ^{12}CO and ^{13}CO transitions are less than 0.006% and 0.02%, respectively, providing an excellent test case for determination of isotope ratios by direct use of theoretical line intensity calculations. [1] Wojtewicz, S., et al., J Quant Spect and Rad Trans,2013. 130: p.191-200. [2]Rothman, L.S., et al., Journal of Quant Spect and Rad Trans, 2013. 130: p. 4-50.
Pérez-Castaño, E; Gázquez Evangelista, D; Sánchez-Viñas, M; Bagur-González, M G
2013-03-30
This paper discusses the estimation of the uncertainty of the chromatographic determination of 4-desmethyl sterols in vegetable oils, combining the off line HPLC fractionation of the analytes, from the unsaponifiable fraction of the samples, with their determination as TMS derivatives by GC(FID), using the data obtained from a single internal calibration (one surrogate) at one level and "bottom up" approach. The methodology used, makes possible to identify the main uncertainty contributions, find their origins, and reduce them. The final results show that the main contributions to the relative overall uncertainty are those closely related with the chemical aspects of the method, i.e. those related to derivatization reaction and quantification of the analytes, although others aspects, such as the addition of a mass of surrogate, are not negligible.
Näykki, Teemu; Virtanen, Atte; Kaukonen, Lari; Magnusson, Bertil; Väisänen, Tero; Leito, Ivo
2015-10-01
Field sensor measurements are becoming more common for environmental monitoring. Solutions for enhancing reliability, i.e. knowledge of the measurement uncertainty of field measurements, are urgently needed. Real-time estimations of measurement uncertainty for field measurement have not previously been published, and in this paper, a novel approach to the automated turbidity measuring system with an application for "real-time" uncertainty estimation is outlined based on the Nordtest handbook's measurement uncertainty estimation principles. The term real-time is written in quotation marks, since the calculation of the uncertainty is carried out using a set of past measurement results. There are two main requirements for the estimation of real-time measurement uncertainty of online field measurement described in this paper: (1) setting up an automated measuring system that can be (preferably remotely) controlled which measures the samples (water to be investigated as well as synthetic control samples) the way the user has programmed it and stores the results in a database, (2) setting up automated data processing (software) where the measurement uncertainty is calculated from the data produced by the automated measuring system. When control samples with a known value or concentration are measured regularly, any instrumental drift can be detected. An additional benefit is that small drift can be taken into account (in real-time) as a bias value in the measurement uncertainty calculation, and if the drift is high, the measurement results of the control samples can be used for real-time recalibration of the measuring device. The procedure described in this paper is not restricted to turbidity measurements, but it will enable measurement uncertainty estimation for any kind of automated measuring system that performs sequential measurements of routine samples and control samples/reference materials in a similar way as described in this paper.
The Stagger-grid: A grid of 3D stellar atmosphere models - V. Fe line shapes, shifts and asymmetries
Magic, Zazralt; Asplund, Martin
2014-01-01
We present a theoretical study of the effects and signatures of realistic velocity field and atmospheric inhomogeneities associated with convective motions at the surface of cool late-type stars on the emergent profiles of iron spectral lines for a large range in stellar parameters. We compute 3D spectral line flux profiles under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) by employing state-of-the-art, time-dependent, 3D, radiative-hydrodynamical atmosphere models from the Stagger-grid. A set of 35 real unblended, optical FeI and FeII lines of varying excitation potential are considered. Additionally, fictitious Fe i and Fe ii lines (5000A and 0, 2, 4 eV) are used to construct general curves of growth and enable comparison of line profiles with the same line strength to illustrate systematical trends stemming from the intrinsic structural differences among 3D model atmospheres with different stellar parameters. Theoretical line shifts and bisectors are derived to analyze the shapes, shifts, and a...
Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda R.; Miller, Charles E.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Drouin, Brian J.; Yu, Shanshan; Crawford, Timothy J.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Gamache, Robert R.
2016-08-01
This study reports the results from analyzing a number of high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra in the 2.06-μm spectral region for pure CO2 and mixtures of CO2 in dry air. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares curve fitting technique has been used to retrieve the various spectral line parameters. The dataset includes 27 spectra: ten pure CO2, two 99% 13C-enriched CO2 and fifteen spectra of mixtures of 12C-enriched CO2 in dry air. The spectra were recorded at various gas sample temperatures between 170 and 297 K. The absorption path lengths range from 0.347 to 49 m. The sample pressures for the pure CO2 spectra varied from 1.1 to 594 Torr; for the two 13CO2 spectra the pressures were ∼10 and 146 Torr. For the air-broadened spectra, the pressures of the gas mixtures varied between 200 and 711 Torr with CO2 volume mixing ratios ranging from 0.014% to 0.203%. The multispectrum fitting technique was applied to fit simultaneously all these spectra to retrieve consistent set of line positions, intensities, and line shape parameters including their temperature dependences; for this, the Voigt line shape was modified to include line mixing (via the relaxation matrix formalism) and quadratic speed dependence. The new results are compared to select published values, including recent ab initio calculations. These results are required to retrieve the column averaged dry air mole fraction (XCO2) from space-based observations, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite mission that NASA launched in July 2014.
First line shape analysis and spectroscopic parameters for the ν11 band of 12C2H4
Es-sebbar, Et-touhami
2016-08-11
An accurate knowledge of line intensities, collisional broadening coefficients and narrowing parameters is necessary for the interpretation of high-resolution infrared spectra of the Earth and other planetary atmospheres. One of the most promising spectral domains for (C2H4)-C-12 monitoring in such environments is located near the 336 gm window, through its v(11) C-H stretching mode. In this paper, we report an extensive study in which we precisely determine spectroscopic parameters of (C2H4)-C-12 v(11) band at 297 +/- 1 K, using a narrow Difference-Frequency-Generation (DFG) laser with 10(-4) cm(-1) resolution. Absorption measurements were performed in the 2975-2980 cm(-1) spectral window to investigate 32 lines corresponding to where, J\\'ka\\',kc\\'<- Jka,kc, 5 <= J <= 7; 0.5 <= K-a <= 6 and 1 <= K-c <= 14. Spectroscopic parameters are retrieved using either Voigt or appropriate Galatry profile to simulate the measured (C2H4)-C-12 line shape. Line intensities along with self-broadening coefficients are reported for all lines. Narrowing coefficients for each isolated line are also derived. To our knowledge, the current study reports the first extensive spectroscopic parameter measurements of the (C2H4)-C-12 v(11) band in the 2975-2980 cm(-1) range. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moretti, L; Castrillo, A; Fasci, E; De Vizia, M D; Casa, G; Galzerano, G; Merlone, A; Laporta, P; Gianfrani, L
2013-08-09
We report on a new implementation of Doppler broadening thermometry based on precision absorption spectroscopy by means of a pair of offset-frequency locked extended-cavity diode lasers at 1.39 μm. The method consists in the highly accurate observation of the shape of the 4(4,1)→4(4,0) line of the H2(18)O ν1+ν3 band, in a water vapor sample at thermodynamic equilibrium. A sophisticated and extremely refined spectral analysis procedure is adopted for the retrieval of the Doppler width as a function of the gas pressure, taking into account the Dicke narrowing effect, the speed dependence of relaxation rates, and the physical correlation between velocity-changing and dephasing collisions. A spectroscopic determination of the Boltzmann constant with a combined (type A and type B) uncertainty of 24 parts over 10(6) is reported. This is the best result obtained so far by means of an optical method. Our determination is in agreement with the recommended CODATA value.
Shamov, A G
2016-01-01
The available data on the $D\\overline{D}$ and inclusive hadronic cross section in the $\\psi(3770)$ region from the BaBar, Belle, BES-II, CLEO and KEDR experiments have been analyzed assuming that systematic uncertainties on cross sections measured by different detectors are not correlated. Four theoretical models predicting the $\\psi(3770)$ line shape were considered for the $D\\overline{D}$ channel. All of them gave satisfactory description of the data. The combined analysis of the $D\\overline{D}$ and inclusive hadronic channel was performed using the model based on the vector dominance approach and accounting for the contribution of the $\\psi(2S)$ tail to the $D\\overline{D}$ cross section. The following values of the mass, total width, electron width and decay probability to the non-$D\\overline{D}$ states were obtained: $M=3779.8 \\pm 0.6 ~\\text{MeV}, \\Gamma=25.8 \\pm 1.3 ~\\text{MeV} , \\Gamma_{ee}=196 \\pm 18 ~\\text{eV}, \\mathcal{B}_{nD\\overline{D}}=0.164 \\pm 0.049$, where the errors quoted include both statist...
Hashemi, Robab; Rozario, Hoimonti; Povey, Chad; Garber, Jolene; Derksen, Mark; Predoi-Cross, Adriana
2014-06-01
The line positions for transitions in the ν1 +ν3 band are often used as a frequency standard by the telecom industry and also needed for planetary atmospheric studies. Four relevant studies have been recently carried out in our group and will be discussed briefly below. (1) N2-broadened line widths and N2-pressure induced line shifts have been measured for transitions in the ν1 +ν3 band of acetylene at seven temperatures in the range 213333K to obtain the temperature dependences of broadening and shift coefficients. The Voigt and hard-collision line profile models were used to retrieve the line parameters. This study has been published in Molecular Physics, 110 Issue 21/22 (2012) 2645-2663. (2) Six nitrogen perturbed transitions of acetylene within the ν1 +ν3 absorption band have been recorded using a 3-channel diode laser spectrometer. We have examined C2H2 spectra using a hard collision (Rautian) profile over a range of five temperatures (213 K-333 K). From these fits we have obtained the N2-broadening and narrowing coefficients of C2H2 and examined their temperature dependence. The experimentally measured narrowing coefficients have been used to estimate the nitrogen diffusion coefficients. The broadening coefficients and corresponding temperature dependence exponents have also been compared to that of calculations completed using a classical impact approach on an ab initio potential energy surface. We have observed a good agreement between our theoretical and experimental results. This study was published in Canadian Journal of Physics 91(11) 896-905 (2013). (3) An extension of the previous study was to analyze the room temperature for the same six transitions using the Voigt, Rautian, Galatry, RautianGalatry and Correlated Rautian profiles. For the entire pressure range, we have tested the applicability of these line-shape models. Except for Voigt profile, Dicke narrowing effect has been considered in all mentioned line-shape models. The experimental
D IR Line Shapes for Determining the Structure of a Peptide in a Bilayer
Woys, Ann Marie; Lin, Y. S.; Skinner, J. S.; Zanni, M. T.; Reddy, A. S.; de Pablo, J. J.
2010-06-01
Structure of the antimicrobial peptide, ovispirin, on a lipid bilayer was determined using 2D IR spectroscopy and spectra calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. Ovispirin is an 18 residue amphipathic peptide that binds parallel to the membrane in a mostly alpha helical conformation. 15 of the 18 residues were ^1^3C^1^8O isotopically labeled on the backbone to isolate the amide I vibration at each position. 2D IR spectra were collected for each labeled peptide in 3:1 POPC/POPG vesicles, and peak width along the diagonal was measured. The diagonal line width is sensitive to the vibrator's electrostatic environment, which varies through the bilayer. We observe an oscillatory line width spanning 10 to 24 cm-1 and with a period of nearly 3.6 residues. To further investigate the position of ovispirin in a bilayer, molecular dynamics simulations determined the peptide depth to be just below the lipid headgroups. The trajectory of ovispirin at this depth was used to calculate 2D IR spectra, from which the diagonal line width is measured. Both experimental and simulated line widths are similar in periodicity and suggest a kink in the peptide backbone and the tilt in the bilayer. A. Woys, Y. S. Lin, A. S. Reddy, W. Xiong, J. J. de Pablo, J. S. Skinner, and M. T. Zanni, JACS 132, 2832-2838 (2010).
Impact of Line Tension on the Equilibrium Shape of Liquid Droplets on Patterned Substrates
Buehrle, Juergen; Herminghaus, Stephan; Mugele, Frieder
2002-01-01
We studied the morphology of liquid droplets on substrates with a lateral wettability pattern using numerical calculations. We analyzed the influence of the wettability contrast, the sharpness of the transitions between adjacent hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes, and the line tension of the three-
Impact of Line Tension on the Equilibrium Shape of Liquid Droplets on Patterned Substrates
Buehrle, Juergen; Herminghaus, Stephan; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther
2002-01-01
We studied the morphology of liquid droplets on substrates with a lateral wettability pattern using numerical calculations. We analyzed the influence of the wettability contrast, the sharpness of the transitions between adjacent hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes, and the line tension of the
Cross section line shape of $e^+e^-\\to\\chi_{c0}\\omega$ around the $Y(4260)$ mass region
Cleven, Martin
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that the recent measurement of the cross section line shapes of $e^+e^-\\to \\chi_{c0}\\omega$ can be naturally explained by the molecular picture for $Y(4260)$ where the $Y(4260)$ is treated as a hadronic molecule dominated by $\\bar{D}D_1(2420)+c.c.$ This result is consistent with properties extracted for $Y(4260)$ as the $\\bar{D}D_1(2420)+c.c.$ molecular state in other reactions such as $e^+e^-\\to J/\\psi\\pi\\pi$, $h_c\\pi\\pi$, $\\bar D D^*\\pi +c.c.$, and $\\gamma X(3872)$.
Hwang, J. S.; Al-Rashid, W. A.
Spin probe investigation of jojoba oil was carried out by electron paramagnetic rresonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The spin probe used was 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone- N-oxide. The EPR line shape studies were carried out in the lower temperature range of 192 to 275 K to test the applicability of the stochastic Liouville theory in the simulation of EPR line shapes where earlier relaxation theories do not apply. In an earlier study, this system was analysed by employing rotational diffusion at the fast-motional region. The results show that PD-Tempone exhibits asymmetric rotational diffusion with N = 3.3 at an axis z'= Y in the plane of the molecule and perpendicular to the NO bond direction. In this investigation we have extended the temperature range to lower temperatures and observed slow tumbling EPR spectra. It is shown that the stochastic Liouville method can be used to simulate all but two of the experimentally observed EPR spectra in the slow-motional region and details of the slow-motional line shape are sensitive to the anisotropy of rotation and showed good agreement for a moderate jump model. From the computer simulation of EPR line shapes it is found that the information obtained on τ R, and N in the motional-narrowing region can be extrapolated into the slow-tumbling region. It is also found that ln (τ R) is linear in 1/ T in the temperature range studied and the resulting activation energy for rotation is 51 kJ/mol. The two EPR spectra at 240 and 231 K were found to exhibit the effects of anisotropic viscosity observed by B IRELL for nitroxides oriented in tubular cavities in inclusion crystals in which the molecule is free to rotate about the long axis but with its rotation hindered about the other two axes because of the cavity geometry. These results proved that the slow-tumbling spectra were very sensitive to the effects of anisotropy in the viscosity.
Lotfy Y. A.
2006-07-01
Full Text Available Polyally diglycol carbonate "CR-39" is widely used as etched track type particle detector. Doppler broadening positron annihilation (DBPAT provides direct information about core and valance electrons in (CR-39 due to radiation effects. It provides a non-destructive and non-interfering probe having a detecting efficiency. This paper reports the effect of irradiation alpha-particle intensity emitted from 241-Am (5.486 MeV source on the line shape S- and W-parameters for CR-39 samples. Modification of the CR-39 samples due to irradiation were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques.
Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda R.; Crawford, Timothy J.; Miller, Charles E.; Drouin, Brian J.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Yu, Shanshan; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Mantz, Arlan W.; Gamache, Robert R.
2016-07-01
Pressure-broadened line shapes in the 30013←00001 (ν1+4 ν20 +ν3) band of 12C16O2 at 6228 cm-1 are reanalyzed using new spectra recorded with sample temperatures down to 170 K. High resolution, high signal-to-noise (S/N) laboratory measurements of line shapes (Lorentz air- and self-broadened half-width coefficients, pressure-shift coefficients and off-diagonal relaxation matrix element coefficients) as a function of gas sample temperatures for various pressures and volume mixing ratios are presented. The spectra were recorded using two different Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS): (1) the McMath-Pierce FTS located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona (and reported in Devi et al., J Mol Spectrosc 2007;245:52-80) and, (2) the Bruker IFS-125HR FTS at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The 19 spectra taken at Kitt Peak were all recorded near room temperature while the 27 Bruker spectra were acquired both at room temperature and colder temperatures (170-296 K). Various spectral resolutions (0.004-0.011 cm-1), absorption path lengths (2.46-121 m) and CO2 samples (natural and 12C-enriched) were included in the dataset. To maximize the accuracies of the various retrieved line parameters, a multispectrum nonlinear least squares spectrum fitting software program was used to adjust the ro-vibrational constants (G,B,D etc.) and intensity parameters (including Herman-Wallis terms) instead of directly measuring the individual line positions and intensities. To minimize systematic residuals, line mixing (via off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements) and quadratic speed dependence parameters were included in the analysis. Contributions from other weakly absorbing bands: the 30013←00001 and 30012←00001 bands of 13C16O2, the 30013←00001 band of 12C16O18O, hot bands 31113←01101 and 32212←02201 of 12C16O2, as well as the 40013←10001 and the 40014←10002 bands of 12C16O2, present within the fitted interval were also measured
Satellite and Opacity Effects on Resonance Line Shapes Produced from Short-Pulse Laser Heated Foils
Shepherd, R; Audebert, P; Chen, H-K; Fournier, K B; Peyreusse, O; Moon, S; Lee, R W; Price, D; Klein, L; Gauthier, J C; Springer, P
2002-12-03
We measure the He-like, time-resolved emission from thin foils consisting of 250 {angstrom} of carbon-250 {angstrom} of aluminum and 500 {angstrom} aluminum illuminated with a 150 fs laser pulse at an intensity of 1 x 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Dielectronic satellite contributions to the 1s{sup 2}-1s2p({sup 1}P), 1s{sup 2}-1s3p({sup 1}P), and 1s{sup 2}1s4p({sup 1}P) line intensities are modeled using the configuration averaged code AVERROES and is found to be significant for all three resonance lines. The contribution of opacity broadening is inferred from the data and found to be significant only in the 1s{sup 2}-1s2p({sup 1}P).
Line Shape Parameters of Water Vapor Transitions in the 3645-3975 cm^{-1} Region
Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Gamache, Robert R.; Vispoel, Bastien; Renaud, Candice L.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.
2017-06-01
A Bruker IFS 120HR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington was used to record a series of spectra in the regions of the ν_1 and ν_3 bands of H_2O. The samples included low pressures of pure H_2O as well as H_2O broadened by air at different pressures, temperatures and volume mixing ratios. We fit simultaneously 16 high-resolution (0.008 cm^{-1}), high S/N ratio absorption spectra recorded at 268, 296 and 353 K (L=19.95 cm), employing a multispectrum fitting technique to retrieve accurate line positions, relative intensities, Lorentz air-broadened half-width and pressure-shift coefficients and their temperature dependences for more than 220 H_2O transitions. Self-broadened half-width and self-shift coefficients were measured for over 100 transitions. For select sets of transition pairs for the H_2O-air system we determined collisional line mixing coefficients via the off-diagonal relaxation matrix element formalism, and we also measured speed dependence parameters for 85 transitions. Modified Complex Robert Bonamy (MCRB) calculations of the half-widths, line shifts, and temperature dependences were made for self-, N_2-, O_2-, and air-broadening. The measurements and calculations are compared with each other and with similar parameters reported in the literature. D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M. A. H. Smith, D. Atkins, JQSRT 53 (1995) 705-721. A. Levy, N. Lacome, C. Chackerian, Collisional line mixing, in Spectroscopy of the Earth's Atmosphere and Interstellar Medium, Academic Press, Inc., Boston (1992) 261-337.
Jupiter's Deep Cloud Structure Revealed Using Keck Observations of Spectrally Resolved Line Shapes
Bjoraker, G L; de Pater, I; Ádámkovics, M
2015-01-01
Technique: We present a method to determine the pressure at which significant cloud opacity is present between 2 and 6 bars on Jupiter. We use: a) the strength of a Fraunhofer absorption line in a zone to determine the ratio of reflected sunlight to thermal emission, and b) pressure-broadened line profiles of deuterated methane (CH3D) at 4.66 microns to determine the location of clouds. We use radiative transfer models to constrain the altitude region of both the solar and thermal components of Jupiter's 5-micron spectrum. Results: For nearly all latitudes on Jupiter the thermal component is large enough to constrain the deep cloud structure even when upper clouds are present. We find that Hot Spots, belts, and high latitudes have broader line profiles than do zones. Radiative transfer models show that Hot Spots in the North and South Equatorial Belts (NEB, SEB) typically do not have opaque clouds at pressures greater than 2 bars. The South Tropical Zone (STZ) at 32 degrees S has an opaque cloud top between 4...
Capozzi, F; Marrone, A
2015-01-01
Nuclear reactors provide intense sources of electron antineutrinos, characterized by few-MeV energy E and unoscillated spectral shape Phi(E). High-statistics observations of reactor neutrino oscillations over medium-baseline distances L ~ O(50) km would provide unprecedented opportunities to probe both the long-wavelength mass-mixing parameters (delta m^2 and theta_12) and the short-wavelength ones (Delta m^2 and theta_13), together with the subtle interference effects associated to the neutrino mass hierarchy (either normal or inverted). In a given experimental setting - here taken as in the JUNO project for definiteness - the achievable hierarchy sensitivity and parameter accuracy depend not only on the accumulated statistics but also on systematic uncertainties, which include (but are not limited to) the mass-mixing priors and the normalizations of signals and backgrounds. We examine, in addition, the effect of introducing smooth deformations of the detector energy scale, E -> E'(E), and of the reactor flu...
Nelson, A.J.; Mason, A.R.; Swartzlander, A.B.; Kazmerski, L.L. (Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO (USA)); Saxena, N.; Fortmann, C.M.; Russell, T.W.F. (Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware, Newark, DE (USA))
1990-05-01
Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) line shape analysis of the Si-{ital L}{sub 23}{ital VV} and C-{ital KLL} peaks has been performed in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) on Hg-sensitized photodeposited amorphous and microcyrstalline SiC films. Mixtures of SiH{sub 4}/CH{sub 3}SiH{sub 3} and SiH{sub 4}/(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}SiH{sub 2} with helium or hydrogen dilution were used for the depositions. AES line shape and EELS analyses were also performed on {beta}-SiC for comparison. Quantitative bulk compositional analysis to determine the Si and C concentrations in these films was performed with an electron microprobe (EMPA) using x-ray wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). AES and EELS results reveal the predominant Si--C bonding and relative crystallinity in the films as a function of deposition parameters, which includes the gas mixture, pressure, and H{sub 2}/He dilution. These parameters determine the H radical flux during growth, which leads to changes in the film structure.
Steinkemper, H.; Fischer, S.; Hermle, M.; Goldschmidt, J. C.
2013-05-01
Rare earth ions embedded in host crystals are of great interest for many applications. Due to the crystal field of the host material, the energy levels of the rare earth ions split into several Stark levels. The resulting broadening of the spectral line shapes of transitions between those levels determines the upconversion phenomena, especially under broad-spectrum illumination, which are relevant for photovoltaics for instance. In this paper, we present a method to determine the spectral line shape of energy level transitions of rare earth ions from the absorption spectrum of the investigated material. A parameter model is used to describe the structure of the individual energy levels based on a representation of the Stark splitting. The parameters of the model are then determined with an evolutionary optimization algorithm. The described method is applied to the model system of β-NaEr0.2Y0.8F4. The results indicate that for illumination with a wavelength around 1523 nm, simple upconversion processes such as two-step absorption or direct energy transfer are less efficient than commonly assumed. Hence a sequence of efficient processes is suggested as an explanation for the high upconversion quantum yield of β-NaEr0.2Y0.8F4, which has not yet been reported in the literature.
Resonant infiltration of an opal: Reflection line shape and contribution from in-depth regions.
Maurin, Isabelle; Bloch, Daniel
2015-06-21
We analyze the resonant variation of the optical reflection on an infiltrated artificial opal made of transparent nanospheres. The resonant infiltration is considered as a perturbation in the frame of a previously described one-dimensional model based upon a stratified effective index. We show that for a thin slice of resonant medium, the resonant response oscillates with the position of this slice. We derive that for adequate conditions of incidence angle, this spatially oscillating behavior matches the geometrical periodicity of the opal and hence the related density of resonant infiltration. Close to these matching conditions, the resonant response of the global infiltration varies sharply in amplitude and shape with the incidence angle and polarization. The corresponding resonant reflection originates from a rather deep infiltration, up to several wavelengths or layers of spheres. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the present predictions and our previous observations on an opal infiltrated with a resonant vapor.
Jupiter's Deep Cloud Structure Revealed Using Keck Observations of Spectrally Resolved Line Shapes
Bjoraker, G. L.; Wong, M.H.; de Pater, I.; Adamkovics, M.
2015-01-01
Technique: We present a method to determine the pressure at which significant cloud opacity is present between 2 and 6 bars on Jupiter. We use: a) the strength of a Fraunhofer absorption line in a zone to determine the ratio of reflected sunlight to thermal emission, and b) pressure- broadened line profiles of deuterated methane (CH3D) at 4.66 meters to determine the location of clouds. We use radiative transfer models to constrain the altitude region of both the solar and thermal components of Jupiter's 5-meter spectrum. Results: For nearly all latitudes on Jupiter the thermal component is large enough to constrain the deep cloud structure even when upper clouds are present. We find that Hot Spots, belts, and high latitudes have broader line profiles than do zones. Radiative transfer models show that Hot Spots in the North and South Equatorial Belts (NEB, SEB) typically do not have opaque clouds at pressures greater than 2 bars. The South Tropical Zone (STZ) at 32 degrees South has an opaque cloud top between 4 and 5 bars. From thermochemical models this must be a water cloud. We measured the variation of the equivalent width of CH3D with latitude for comparison with Jupiter's belt-zone structure. We also constrained the vertical profile of H2O in an SEB Hot Spot and in the STZ. The Hot Spot is very dry for a probability less than 4.5 bars and then follows the H2O profile observed by the Galileo Probe. The STZ has a saturated H2O profile above its cloud top between 4 and 5 bars.
Laser frequency stabilization using a dispersive line shape induced by Doppler Effect.
Wang, Qing; Qi, Xianghui; Liu, Shuyong; Yu, Jiachen; Chen, Xuzong
2015-02-01
We report a simple and robust Doppler-free spectroscopic technique to stabilize a laser frequency to the atomic transition. By employing Doppler Effect on the atomic beam, we obtained a very stable dispersive signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio and no Doppler-background, which served as an error signal to electronically stabilize a laser frequency without modulation. For validating the performance of this technique, we locked a DFB laser to the (133)Cs D2 line and observed an efficient suppression of the frequency noise and a long-term reduction of the frequency drifts in a laboratory environment.
Dupuis, Jan; Kuhlmann, Heiner
2014-06-01
Triangulation-based range sensors, e.g. laser line scanners, are used for high-precision geometrical acquisition of free-form surfaces, for reverse engineering tasks or quality management. In contrast to classical tactile measuring devices, these scanners generate a great amount of 3D-points in a short period of time and enable the inspection of soft materials. However, for accurate measurements, a number of aspects have to be considered to minimize measurement uncertainties. This study outlines possible sources of uncertainties during the measurement process regarding the scanner warm-up, the impact of laser power and exposure time as well as scanner’s reaction to areas of discontinuity, e.g. edges. All experiments were performed using a fixed scanner position to avoid effects resulting from imaging geometry. The results show a significant dependence of measurement accuracy on the correct adaption of exposure time as a function of surface reflectivity and laser power. Additionally, it is illustrated that surface structure as well as edges can cause significant systematic uncertainties.
Okumura, Tomohiro; Saitoh, Mitsuo; Yashiro, Yoichiro; Kimura, Tadashi
2003-06-01
An atmospheric line-shaped microplasma source was developed for fine pattern etching. Observation of plasma emission of the developed plasma source has revealed that the finest plasma line is formed when helium (He) gas is supplied to the inner gas feed and reaction gas to the outer gas feeds. When reaction gas is supplied to the outer gas feeds, fluorine radical (F*) emission intensity increases with the gas flow rate, eventually exceeding the maximum emission intensity obtained when a mixture of reaction gas and He gas is supplied to the inner gas feed. Fine pattern etching of molybdenum thin film and silicon substrate was experimentally carried out using microplasma sources in two different configurations: one with the copper electrode covered to protect it from plasma exposure (type 1), and the other with the aluminum electrode end knife-edged and exposed to a plasma (type 2). The experiment revealed that the type 2 source provides a higher etching rate than of the type 1 source. The type 2 source can produce a fine etched pattern with lines of several ten to several hundred μm width. The maximum etching rate of silicon substrate is 79.0 μm/min.
Zhang, Juanjuan; Kang, Yan; Yu, Yang; Gao, Yuanwen
2017-01-01
In this study, a new kind of magnetoelectric (ME) structure is designed with Terfenol-D, PZT-5A and nonmagnetic and nonelectric trestle. The configuration of this ME structure presents "A-line" type, PZT-5A and Terfenol-D are respectively bonded with the trestles, which adopt the knuckle joint assembly. Differently from the conventional ME layered structure, in the new structure, the deformation of the PZT-5A of larger size is driven by a Terfenol-D layer of smaller size at an external magnetic field. Since the driven force is applied at the ends of piezoelectric layer through the trestles, the whole piezoelectric layer can be completely stretched or compressed, and the larger voltage should be induced. For the new ME structure with mica trestle, the maximum value of αE is twice higher than that for the conventional laminated ME structure. Furthermore, a wider range of response frequency is also observed in this structure. For the new ME structure with ABS trestle, the experimental results indicate that the maximum ME voltage coefficient is measured as high as 31.85 V/cm Oe at 405 Oe.
Spectral Line Shapes in the ν_3 Q Branch of ^{12}CH_4 Near 3.3 μm
Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Gamache, Robert R.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Sams, Robert L.
2017-06-01
Detailed knowledge of spectroscopic parameters for prominent Q branches of methane is necessary for interpretation and modeling of high resolution infrared spectra of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. We have measured air-broadened line shape parameters in the Q branch of ^{12}CH_4 in the ν_3 fundamental band for a large number of transitions in the 3000 to 3023 cm^{-1} region by analyzing 13 room-temperature laboratory absorption spectra. Twelve of these spectra were recorded with 0.01 cm^{-1} resolution using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak, and one higher-resolution (˜0.0011 cm^{-1}) low pressure (˜1 Torr) spectrum of methane was obtained using the Bruker IFS 120HR FTS at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, WA. The air-broadened spectra were recorded using various absorption cells with path lengths of 5, 20, 25, and 150 cm, total sample pressures between 50 and 500 Torr, and CH_4 volume mixing ratios of 0.01 or less. All 13 spectra were fit simultaneously covering the 3000-3023 cm^{-1} spectral region using a multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique to retrieve accurate line positions, absolute intensities, Lorentz air-broadened widths and pressure-shift coefficients. Line mixing using the off-diagonal relaxation matrix element formalism was measured for a number of pairs of transitions for the CH_4-air collisional system. The results will be compared to values reported in the literature. D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M. A. H. Smith, D. Atkins, JQSRT 53 (1995) 705-721. A. Levy, N. Lacome, C. Chackerian, Collisional line mixing, in Spectroscopy of the Earth's Atmosphere and Interstellar Medium, Academic Press, Inc., Boston (1992) 261-337.
Balancing a U-Shaped Assembly Line by Applying Nested Partitions Method
Bhagwat, Nikhil V. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2005-01-01
In this study, we applied the Nested Partitions method to a U-line balancing problem and conducted experiments to evaluate the application. From the results, it is quite evident that the Nested Partitions method provided near optimal solutions (optimal in some cases). Besides, the execution time is quite short as compared to the Branch and Bound algorithm. However, for larger data sets, the algorithm took significantly longer times for execution. One of the reasons could be the way in which the random samples are generated. In the present study, a random sample is a solution in itself which requires assignment of tasks to various stations. The time taken to assign tasks to stations is directly proportional to the number of tasks. Thus, if the number of tasks increases, the time taken to generate random samples for the different regions also increases. The performance index for the Nested Partitions method in the present study was the number of stations in the random solutions (samples) generated. The total idle time for the samples can be used as another performance index. ULINO method is known to have used a combination of bounds to come up with good solutions. This approach of combining different performance indices can be used to evaluate the random samples and obtain even better solutions. Here, we used deterministic time values for the tasks. In industries where majority of tasks are performed manually, the stochastic version of the problem could be of vital importance. Experimenting with different objective functions (No. of stations was used in this study) could be of some significance to some industries where in the cost associated with creation of a new station is not the same. For such industries, the results obtained by using the present approach will not be of much value. Labor costs, task incompletion costs or a combination of those can be effectively used as alternate objective functions.
Dunlap, B.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Shenoy, G.K.; Asch, L.
1976-01-01
Hirst's theory for the line shape of Moessbauer spectra in the presence of paramagnetic relaxation phenomena is applied to the case of /sup 1///sub 2/ ..-->.. /sup 3///sub 2/ transitions. A detailed procedure for obtaining the lineshape is given for the case of axial symmetry, including off-diagonal terms in the hyperfine Hamiltonian. This is applicable for example, to the 14.4-keV transition in /sup 57/Fe or the 66.7-keV transition in /sup 171/Yb. The theory is used to analyze the data for /sup 171/Yb in the cubic compound Cs/sub 2/NaYbCl/sub 6/. The hyperfine parameter A = -38.7 +- 2.0 mm/s and relaxation rate W = 185 +- 24 MHz are in good agreement with previous measurements utilizing the resonance of /sup 170/Yb in this material.
Lesiak, B., E-mail: blo@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Zemek, J.; Houdkova, J.; Jiricek, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 53 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Jozwik, A. [Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Ksiecia Trojdena, 02-109 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)
2011-07-15
Highlights: {yields} Studies of different density, branching and crystallographic order polyethylenes. {yields} Degradation due to electron beam. {yields} Line shape analysis of EPES REELS spectra by the pattern recognition method. {yields} Evaluation of surface hydrogen content. {yields} Highest stability of polyethylene of largest molecular weight, crystallographic order and least branching. - Abstract: Polyethylenes of different density, branching structure, crystallographic order, and their degradation due to electron beam were studied using elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) aided with line shape analysis by the pattern recognition (PR) method. This approach offers an algorithm of classification derived from a reference set, i.e. set of spectra recorded from standards exposed to low electron dose (about few C m{sup -2}), i.e. polyethylene (100% of C sp{sup 3} bonds) and polystyrene (75% of C sp{sup 2} bonds). Then, the obtained classifier is applied for identification of spectra recorded from polyethylenes exposed to electron beam (doses from 40 to 60 C m{sup -2}). The EPES REELS spectra are analyzed in the vicinity of electron quasi-elastic and inelastic losses. Due to electrons undergoing a quasi-elastic scattering from atoms of different atomic numbers, i.e. carbon and hydrogen, for undamaged polymers the surface hydrogen content can be evaluated. Changes due to electron irradiation in polyethylenes are indicated by decreasing content of hydrogen, increasing C sp{sup 2} content and changes in the {pi} loss peak in the REELS spectra. Results of PR method are consistent with results obtained from the C 1s XPS spectra fitting and the width of C KLL XAES spectra (parameter D). Highest stability under electron irradiation was shown by polyethylene of largest molecular weight and most linear branching structure. Application of the PR method to EPES REELS spectra allows to distinguish different
Betti, R; Cerri, A; Vergani, R; Agape, E; Menni, S
2015-07-01
Geometric shapes have been suggested to be found in malignant melanomas. We have observed a number of melanomas presenting with linear and incomplete angulated figures. To verify the assumption that geometric shapes, a linear border and/or incomplete angulated figures may indicate a potential melanoma. Patients with surgically removed melanocytic lesions were admitted to the study. We evaluated the presence of a sharp linear demarcation, the presence of contiguous lines resulting in the formation of angle/s and the presence of complete geometric figure. We distinguished the obtained results into melanoma and benign melanocytic naevi. A total of 471 melanomas and 1979 melanocytic naevi were collected. Linear borders, angles and geometric figures were observed in 42 melanomas and in 75 benign melanocytic naevi. Angles with incomplete geometric configuration were observed in 21 melanomas and in 37 benign naevi (21/471 vs. 37/1979, 4.24% vs. 1.87%; P geometrical figures in 12 melanomas and 17 naevi (12/471 vs. 17/1979, 2.54% vs. 0.85%; P geometrical configurations might indicate a suspect melanoma. Only sharp linear demarcation of the lesion do not seem to be significantly associated with melanoma suspicion. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Zhang, Suzhen; Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Wang, Wei; Wu, Ying
2017-01-01
We study a three-mode (i.e., a clockwise mode, a counterclockwise mode, and a mechanical mode) coherent coupling regime of the optical whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonator optomechanical system by considering a pair of counterpropagating modes in a general case. The WGM microresonator is coherently driven by a strong control laser field and a relatively weak probe laser field via a tapered fiber. The system parameters utilized to explore this process correspond to experimentally demonstrated values in the WGM microresonator optomechanical systems. By properly adjusting the coupling rate of these two counterpropagating modes in the WGM microresonator, the steady-state displacement behaviors of the mechanical oscillation and the normalized power transmission and reflection spectra of the output fields are analyzed in detail. It is found that the mode coupling plays a crucial role in rich line-shape structures. Some interesting phenomena of the system, including optical multistability and sharp asymmetric Fano-shape optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT), can be generated with a large degree of control and tunability. Our obtained results in this study can be used for designing efficient all-optical switching and high-sensitivity sensor.
Cerdeño, D. G.; Peiró, M.; Robles, S.
2016-04-01
We study spectral features in the gamma-ray emission from dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), with either neutralino or right-handed (RH) sneutrino DM . We perform a series of scans over the NMSSM parameter space, compute the DM annihilation cross section into two photons and the contribution of box-shaped features, and compare them with the limits derived from the Fermi-LAT search for gamma-ray lines using the latest Pass 8 data. We implement the LHC bounds on the Higgs sector and on the masses of supersymmetric particles as well as the constraints on low-energy observables. We also consider the recent upper limits from the Fermi-LAT satellite on the continuum gamma-ray emission from dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). We show that in the case of the RH sneutrino the constraint on gamma-ray spectral features can be more stringent than the dSph bounds. This is due to the Breit-Wigner enhancement near the ubiquitous resonances with a CP even Higgs and the contribution of scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs final states to box-shaped features. By contrast, for neutralino DM, the di-photon final state is only enhanced in the resonance with a Z boson and box-shaped features are even more suppressed. Therefore, the observation of spectral features could constitute a discriminating factor between both models. In addition, we compare our results with direct DM searches, including the SuperCDMS and LUX limits on the elastic DM-nucleus scattering cross section and show that some of these scenarios would be accessible to next generation experiments. Thus, our findings strengthen the idea of complementarity among distinct DM search strategies.
Jovović, Jovica; Stojadinović, Stevan; Tadić, Nenad; Vasilić, Rastko; Šišović, Nikola M.
2016-03-01
The micro-arc discharges during cathodic plasma electrolysis of refractory metals (Zr, Ti, Ta) are studied by means of optical emission spectroscopy. The fitting procedure based on three mutually shifted profiles is developed to analyze the complex line shape of Na I 568.64 nm and 615.86 nm doublets. Each profile includes effects of instrumental, Doppler, Stark, van der Waals and resonance broadening. The results show the existence of three discharge zones with electron number density values Ne1=7× 1014 \\text{cm}-3 , Ne2=(0.5\\text{--}1)× 1016 \\text{cm}-3 and Ne3= (1.5\\text{--}2.8)× 1016 \\text{cm}-3 while those of sodium ground-state atoms are Ng1=1.4×1017 \\text{cm}-3 , Ng2=3.6×1017 \\text{cm}-3 and Ng3=(1.7\\text{--}3.7)×1018 \\text{cm}-3 .
Tran, H., E-mail: ha.tran@lisa.u-pec.fr [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot, Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Domenech, J.-L. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2014-08-14
Spectral shapes of isolated lines of HCl perturbed by Ar are investigated for the first time using classical molecular dynamics simulations (CMDS). Using reliable intermolecular potentials taken from the literature, these CMDS provide the time evolution of the auto-correlation function of the dipole moment, whose Fourier-Laplace transform leads to the absorption spectrum. In order to test these calculations, room temperature spectra of various lines in the fundamental band of HCl diluted in Ar are measured, in a large pressure range, with a difference-frequency laser spectrometer. Comparisons between measured and calculated spectra show that the CMDS are able to predict the large Dicke narrowing effect on the shape of HCl lines and to satisfactorily reproduce the shapes of HCl spectra at different pressures and for various rotational quantum numbers.
Maddox, Natasha; Blyth, S -L; Jarvis, M J
2013-01-01
Accurate optical redshifts will be critical for spectral co-adding techniques used to extract detections from below the noise level in ongoing and upcoming surveys for HI, which will extend our current understanding of gas reservoirs in galaxies to lower column densities and higher redshifts. We have used existing, high quality optical and radio data from the SDSS and ALFALFA surveys to investigate the relationship between redshifts derived from optical spectroscopy and neutral hydrogen (HI) spectral line observations. We find that the two redshift measurements agree well, with a negligible systematic offset and a small distribution width. Employing simple simulations, we determine how the width of an ideal stacked HI profile depends on these redshift offsets, as well as larger redshift errors more appropriate for high redshift galaxy surveys. The width of the stacked profile is dominated by the width distribution of the input individual profiles when the redshift errors are less than the median width of the ...
Kainulainen, Jouni; Stanke, Thomas; Abreu-Vicente, Jorge; Beuther, Henrik; Henning, Thomas; Johnston, Katharine G; Megeath, Tom
2016-01-01
We study the fragmentation of the most nearby high line-mass filament, the integral shaped filament (ISF) in the Orion A molecular cloud. We have observed a 1.6 pc long section of the ISF with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 3 mm continuum emission, at a resolution of $\\sim$3" (1$\\,$200 AU). We identify from the region 40 dense cores with masses on the order of a solar mass. The nearest neighbour separation distribution of the cores does not show a preferred fragmentation scale; the frequency of short separations increases down to our resolution limit. We apply a two-point correlation analysis on the dense core separations and show that the cores are significantly grouped at separations below $\\sim$17$\\,$000 AU and strongly grouped below $\\sim$6$\\,$000 AU. In addition, the two-point correlation function indicates periodic grouping of the cores into groups of $\\sim$30$\\,$000 AU in size, separated by $\\sim$55$\\,$000 AU. The groups coincide with dust column density peaks detected by He...
Cerdeno, D G; Robles, S
2015-01-01
We study spectral features in the gamma-ray emission from dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), with either neutralino or right-handed (RH) sneutrino DM. We perform a series of scans over the NMSSM parameter space, compute the DM annihilation cross section into two photons and the contribution of box-shaped features, and compare them with the limits derived from the Fermi-LAT search for gamma-ray lines using the latest Pass 8 data. We implement the LHC bounds on the Higgs sector and on the masses of supersymmetric particles as well as the constraints on low-energy observables. We also consider the recent upper limits from the Fermi-LAT satellite on the continuum gamma-ray emission from dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). We show that in the case of the RH sneutrino the constraint on gamma-ray spectral features can be more stringent than the dSphs bounds. This is due to the Breit-Wigner enhancement near the ubiquitous resonances with a CP even Higgs and the ...
Mallamace, D.; Vasi, S.; Missori, M.; Corsaro, C.
2016-05-01
The action of water within biological systems is strictly linked either with their physical chemical properties and with their functions. Cellulose is one of the most studied biopolymers due to its biological importance and its wide use in manufactured products. Among them, paper is mainly constituted by an almost equimolar ratio of cellulose and water. Therefore the study of the behavior of water within pristine and aged paper samples can help to shed light on the degradation mechanisms that irremediably act over time and spoil paper. In this work we present Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments on modern paper samples made of pure cellulose not aged and artificially aged as well as on ancient paper samples made in 1413 in Perpignan (France). The line shape parameters of the proton NMR spectra were studied as a function of the hydration content. Results indicate that water in aged samples is progressively involved in the hydration of the byproducts of cellulose degradation. This enhances the degradation process itself through the progressive consumption of the cellulose amorphous regions.
Lindh, E. L.; Stilbs, P.; Furó, I.
2016-07-01
We investigate a way one can achieve good spectral resolution in 2H MAS NMR experiments. The goal is to be able to distinguish between and study sites in various deuterated materials with small chemical shift dispersion. We show that the 2H MAS NMR spectra recorded during a spin-relaxation experiment are amenable to spectral decomposition because of the different evolution of spectral components during the relaxation delay. We verify that the results are robust by global least-square fitting of the spectral series both under the assumption of specific line shapes and without such assumptions (COmponent-REsolved spectroscopy, CORE). In addition, we investigate the reliability of the developed protocol by analyzing spectra simulated with different combinations of spectral parameters. The performance is demonstrated in a model material of deuterated poly(methacrylic acid) that contains two 2H spin populations with similar chemical shifts but different quadrupole splittings. In 2H-exchanged cellulose containing two 2H spin populations with very similar chemical shifts and quadrupole splittings, the method provides new site-selective information about the molecular dynamics.
Davis, James H; Schmidt, Miranda L
2014-05-06
Static (2)H NMR spectroscopy is used to study the critical behavior of mixtures of 1,2-dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine/1,2-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/cholesterol in molar proportion 37.5:37.5:25 using either chain perdeuterated DPPC-d62 or chain methyl deuterated DPPC-d6. The temperature dependence of the first moment of the (2)H spectrum of the sample made with DPPC-d62 and of the quadrupolar splittings of the chain-methyl-labeled DPPC-d6 sample are directly related to the temperature dependence of the critical order parameter η, which scales as [Formula: see text] near the critical temperature. Analysis of the data reveals that for the chain perdeuterated sample, the value of Tc is 301.51 ± 0.1 K, and that of the critical exponent, βc = 0.391 ± 0.02. The line shape analysis of the methyl labeled (d6) sample gives Tc = 303.74 ± 0.07 K and βc = 0.338 ± 0.009. These values obtained for βc are in good agreement with the predictions of a three-dimensional Ising model. The difference in critical temperature between the two samples having nominally the same molar composition arises because of the lowering of the phase transition temperature that occurs due to the perdeuteration of the DPPC.
2002-01-01
% PS207 \\\\ \\\\ For the study of the antiproton-proton and antiproton-nuclear spin-spin and spin-orbital interaction at threshold a high resolution measurement is proposed of the line shapes and energy shifts of antiprotonic K$\\alpha$ and L$\\alpha$ transitions of hydrogen and helium isotopes. The intense LEAR beam, stopped in the cyclotron trap at low gas pressure, provides a unique~X-ray~source with sufficient brightness. Charge coupled devices with their excellent background rejection and energy resolution allow a precise determination of the strong shifts and widths of the 1s hyperfine states of protonium, in addition the detection of the $\\bar{p}$D K$\\alpha$ transition should be possible. A focussing crystal spectrometer with a resolution $\\Delta$E/E of about l0$ ^- ^{4} $, which is superior in the accuracy of the energy determination by two orders of magnitude as compared to the present detection methods, will be used to measure the energies of the L$\\alpha$ transitions. This permits a first direct measure...
Constraints on dark matter and the shape of the Milky Way dark halo from the 511 keV line
Ascasibar, Y; Knödlseder, J; Jean, P
2006-01-01
About one year ago, it was speculated that decaying or annihilating Light Dark Matter (LDM) particles could explain the flux and extension of the 511 keV line emission in the galactic centre. Here we present a thorough comparison between theoretical expectations of the galactic positron distribution within the LDM scenario and observational data from INTEGRAL/SPI. Unlike previous analyses, there is now enough statistical evidence to put tight constraints on the shape of the dark matter halo of our galaxy, if the galactic positrons originate from dark matter. For annihilating candidates, the best fit to the observed 511 keV emission is provided by a radial density profile with inner logarithmic slope gamma=1.03+-0.04. In contrast, decaying dark matter requires a much steeper density profile, gamma>1.5, rather disfavoured by both observations and numerical simulations. Within the annihilating LDM scenario, a velocity-independent cross-section would be consistent with the observational data while a cross-section...
李群; 李鑫武; 张贤
2014-01-01
主要介绍压力传感器最小二乘直线不确定度的评定方法，并结合试验数据，对测量结果不确定度和最小二乘直线不确定度进行了比较及说明。%This paper mainly describes method of uncertainty evaluation of the least squares line in pressure transducer metrology. Based on experimental data, it compares uncertainty of measure results and that of the least squares line.
Suh, Hyo Seon; Chen, Xuanxuan; Rincon-Delgadillo, Paulina A.; Jiang, Zhang; Strzalka, Joseph; Wang, Jin; Chen, Wei; Gronheid, Roel; de Pablo, Juan J.; Ferrier, Nicola; Doxastakis, Manolis; Nealey, Paul F.
2016-04-22
Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) is increasingly used for the metrology of substrate-supported nanoscale features and nanostructured films. In the case of line gratings, where long objects are arranged with a nanoscale periodicity perpendicular to the beam, a series of characteristic spots of high-intensity (grating truncation rods, GTRs) are recorded on a two-dimensional detector. The intensity of the GTRs is modulated by the three-dimensional shape and arrangement of the lines. Previous studies aimed to extract an average cross-sectional profile of the gratings, attributing intensity loss at GTRs to sample imperfections. Such imperfections are just as important as the average shape when employing soft polymer gratings which display significant line-edge roughness. Herein are reported a series of GISAXS measurements of polymer line gratings over a range of incident angles. Both an average shape and fluctuations contributing to the intensity in between the GTRs are extracted. The results are critically compared with atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, and it is found that the two methods are in good agreement if appropriate corrections for scattering from the substrate (GISAXS) and contributions from the probe shape (AFM) are accounted for.
Set-shaped Steel Formwork of Tunnel Lining Trolley%隧道二衬台车端头定型钢模板
陈洋
2014-01-01
In order to improve the waterproof function of the lining of tunnel, in line with the principle of operation easy, high-speed construction, cost saving and waterproof, this paper decides to adopt the technology of set-shaped steel formwork of tunnel lining trol ey.%为了提高隧道衬砌的防水功能，本着操作简单、快速施工、节约成本、防水质量有保证的原则，决定采用隧道二衬台车端头定型钢模板技术进行施工。
Fast, Kelly E.; Kostiuk, T.; Annen, J.; Hewagama, T.; Delgado, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Lefevre, F.
2008-01-01
We present the application of infrared heterodyne line shapes of ozone on Mars to those produced by radiative transfer modeling of ozone profiles predicted by general circulation models (GCM), and to contemporaneous column abundances measured by Mars Express SPICAM. Ozone is an important tracer of photochemistry Mars' atmosphere, serving as an observable with which to test predictions of photochemistry-coupled GCMs. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy at 9.5 microns with spectral resolving power >1,000,000 is the only technique that can directly measure fully-resolved line shapes of Martian ozone features from the surface of the Earth. Measurements were made with Goddard Space Flight Center's Heterodyne instrument for Planetary Wind And Composition (HIPWAC) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii on February 21-24 2008 UT at Ls=35deg on or near the MEX orbital path. The HIPWAC observations were used to test GCM predictions. For example, a GCM-generated ozone profile for 60degN 112degW was scaled so that a radiative transfer calculation of its absorption line shape matched an observed HIPWAC absorption feature at the same areographic position, local time, and season. The RMS deviation of the model from the data was slightly smaller for the GCM-generated profile than for a line shape produced by a constant-with-height profile, even though the total column abundances were the same, showing potential for testing and constraining GCM ozone-profiles. The resulting ozone column abundance from matching the model to the HIPWAC line shape was 60% higher than that observed by SPICAM at the same areographic position one day earlier and 2.5 hours earlier in local time. This could be due to day-to-day, diurnal, or north polar region variability, or to measurement sensitivity to the ozone column and its distribution, and these possibilities will be explored. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program.
Fast, Kelly E.; Kostiuk, T.; Annen, J.; Hewagama, T.; Delgado, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Lefevre, F.
2008-01-01
We present the application of infrared heterodyne line shapes of ozone on Mars to those produced by radiative transfer modeling of ozone profiles predicted by general circulation models (GCM), and to contemporaneous column abundances measured by Mars Express SPICAM. Ozone is an important tracer of photochemistry Mars' atmosphere, serving as an observable with which to test predictions of photochemistry-coupled GCMs. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy at 9.5 microns with spectral resolving power >1,000,000 is the only technique that can directly measure fully-resolved line shapes of Martian ozone features from the surface of the Earth. Measurements were made with Goddard Space Flight Center's Heterodyne instrument for Planetary Wind And Composition (HIPWAC) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii on February 21-24 2008 UT at Ls=35deg on or near the MEX orbital path. The HIPWAC observations were used to test GCM predictions. For example, a GCM-generated ozone profile for 60degN 112degW was scaled so that a radiative transfer calculation of its absorption line shape matched an observed HIPWAC absorption feature at the same areographic position, local time, and season. The RMS deviation of the model from the data was slightly smaller for the GCM-generated profile than for a line shape produced by a constant-with-height profile, even though the total column abundances were the same, showing potential for testing and constraining GCM ozone-profiles. The resulting ozone column abundance from matching the model to the HIPWAC line shape was 60% higher than that observed by SPICAM at the same areographic position one day earlier and 2.5 hours earlier in local time. This could be due to day-to-day, diurnal, or north polar region variability, or to measurement sensitivity to the ozone column and its distribution, and these possibilities will be explored. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program.
Economic uncertainty and econophysics
Schinckus, Christophe
2009-10-01
The objective of this paper is to provide a methodological link between econophysics and economics. I will study a key notion of both fields: uncertainty and the ways of thinking about it developed by the two disciplines. After having presented the main economic theories of uncertainty (provided by Knight, Keynes and Hayek), I show how this notion is paradoxically excluded from the economic field. In economics, uncertainty is totally reduced by an a priori Gaussian framework-in contrast to econophysics, which does not use a priori models because it works directly on data. Uncertainty is then not shaped by a specific model, and is partially and temporally reduced as models improve. This way of thinking about uncertainty has echoes in the economic literature. By presenting econophysics as a Knightian method, and a complementary approach to a Hayekian framework, this paper shows that econophysics can be methodologically justified from an economic point of view.
Minas Bakalchev
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.
Bartley, David; Lidén, Göran
2008-08-01
The reporting of measurement uncertainty has recently undergone a major harmonization whereby characteristics of a measurement method obtained during establishment and application are combined componentwise. For example, the sometimes-pesky systematic error is included. A bias component of uncertainty can be often easily established as the uncertainty in the bias. However, beyond simply arriving at a value for uncertainty, meaning to this uncertainty if needed can sometimes be developed in terms of prediction confidence in uncertainty-based intervals covering what is to be measured. To this end, a link between concepts of accuracy and uncertainty is established through a simple yet accurate approximation to a random variable known as the non-central Student's t-distribution. Without a measureless and perpetual uncertainty, the drama of human life would be destroyed. Winston Churchill.
Kai Niu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.
Niu, Kai [School of Science, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin, 300222 (China); Lee, Soo-Y., E-mail: sooying@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics & Applied Physics, and Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)
2015-12-15
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.
B BOUHAFS
2003-12-01
Full Text Available The attractive potential energy between the atoms of rubidium vapor and a dielectric wall has been investigated by monitoring the reflection light at the interface. The atom- wall interaction potential of the form V(z = - C /z3 (z: atom-wall allows to predict experimental results only for weak regime, i.e., where C<< 0.2 kHzmm3. In the strong interaction case, the dispersive line shape is turned into an absorption-type line shape. The influence of atomic density on the shift of the selective reflection resonance relatively to the frequency of unperturbed atomic transition is found to be red with a negative slope. This technique opens the way to characterize the windows made of different materials thin films.
Jiménez, R.; Sánchez-Raya, M.; Gómez-Galán, J. A.; Flores, J. L.; Dueñas, J. A.; Martel, I.
2012-05-01
Pulse shape analysis techniques for the identification of heavy ions produced in nuclear reactions have been recently proposed as an alternative to energy loss and time of flight methods. However this technique requires a large amount of memory for storing the shapes of charge and current signals. We have implemented a hardware solution for fast on-line processing of the signals producing the relevant information needed for particle identification. Since the pulse shape analysis can be formulated in terms of a pattern recognition problem, a neural network has been implemented in a FPGA device. The design concept has been tested using 12,13C ions produced in heavy ion reactions. The actual latency of the system is about 20 μs when using a clock frequency of 50 MHz.
Jimenez, R., E-mail: naharro@uhu.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Eletronica, Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sanchez-Raya, M.; Gomez-Galan, J.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Eletronica, Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Flores, J.L. [Departamento Ingenieria Electrica y Termica, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Duenas, J.A.; Martel, I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)
2012-05-11
Pulse shape analysis techniques for the identification of heavy ions produced in nuclear reactions have been recently proposed as an alternative to energy loss and time of flight methods. However this technique requires a large amount of memory for storing the shapes of charge and current signals. We have implemented a hardware solution for fast on-line processing of the signals producing the relevant information needed for particle identification. Since the pulse shape analysis can be formulated in terms of a pattern recognition problem, a neural network has been implemented in a FPGA device. The design concept has been tested using {sup 12,13}C ions produced in heavy ion reactions. The actual latency of the system is about 20 {mu}s when using a clock frequency of 50 MHz.
Yakshina, E. A.
2016-10-21
The observation of the Stark-tuned Förster resonances between Rydberg atoms excited by narrowband cw laser radiation requires usage of a Stark-switching technique in order to excite the atoms first in a fixed electric field and then to induce the interactions in a varied electric field, which is scanned across the Förster resonance. In our experiments with a few cold Rb Rydberg atoms, we have found that the transients at the edges of the electric pulses strongly affect the line shapes of the Förster resonances, since the population transfer at the resonances occurs on a time scale of ∼100 ns, which is comparable with the duration of the transients. For example, a short-term ringing at a certain frequency causes additional radio-frequency-assisted Förster resonances, while nonsharp edges lead to asymmetry. The intentional application of the radio-frequency field induces transitions between collective states, whose line shape depends on the interaction strengths and time. Spatial averaging over the atom positions in a single interaction volume yields a cusped line shape of the Förster resonance. We present a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of the line shape and time dynamics of the Stark-tuned Förster resonances Rb(nP3/2)+Rb(nP3/2)→Rb(nS1/2)+Rb([n+1]S1/2) for two Rb Rydberg atoms interacting in a time-varying electric field.
Lindley, Dennis V
2013-01-01
Praise for the First Edition ""...a reference for everyone who is interested in knowing and handling uncertainty.""-Journal of Applied Statistics The critically acclaimed First Edition of Understanding Uncertainty provided a study of uncertainty addressed to scholars in all fields, showing that uncertainty could be measured by probability, and that probability obeyed three basic rules that enabled uncertainty to be handled sensibly in everyday life. These ideas were extended to embrace the scientific method and to show how decisions, containing an uncertain element, could be rationally made.
Huang, Kuo-Chen; Chiu, Tsai-Lan
2007-04-01
This study investigated the effects of color combinations for the figure/icon background, icon shape, and line width of the icon border on visual search performance on a liquid crystal display screen. In a circular stimulus array, subjects had to search for a target item which had a diameter of 20 cm and included one target and 19 distractors. Analysis showed that the icon shape significantly affected search performance. The correct response time was significantly shorter for circular icons than for triangular icons, for icon borders with a line width of 3 pixels than for 1 or 2 pixels, and for 2 pixels than for 1 pixel. The color combination also significantly affected the visual search performance: white/yellow, white/blue, black-red, and black/ yellow color combinations for the figure/icon background had shorter correct response times compared to yellow/blue, red/green, yellow/green, and blue/red. However, no effects were found for the line width of the icon border or the icon shape on the error rate. Results have implications for graphics-based design of interfaces, such as for mobile phones, Web sites, and PDAs, as well as complex industrial processes.
Uncertainty in hydrological signatures
McMillan, Hilary; Westerberg, Ida
2015-04-01
Information that summarises the hydrological behaviour or flow regime of a catchment is essential for comparing responses of different catchments to understand catchment organisation and similarity, and for many other modelling and water-management applications. Such information types derived as an index value from observed data are known as hydrological signatures, and can include descriptors of high flows (e.g. mean annual flood), low flows (e.g. mean annual low flow, recession shape), the flow variability, flow duration curve, and runoff ratio. Because the hydrological signatures are calculated from observed data such as rainfall and flow records, they are affected by uncertainty in those data. Subjective choices in the method used to calculate the signatures create a further source of uncertainty. Uncertainties in the signatures may affect our ability to compare different locations, to detect changes, or to compare future water resource management scenarios. The aim of this study was to contribute to the hydrological community's awareness and knowledge of data uncertainty in hydrological signatures, including typical sources, magnitude and methods for its assessment. We proposed a generally applicable method to calculate these uncertainties based on Monte Carlo sampling and demonstrated it for a variety of commonly used signatures. The study was made for two data rich catchments, the 50 km2 Mahurangi catchment in New Zealand and the 135 km2 Brue catchment in the UK. For rainfall data the uncertainty sources included point measurement uncertainty, the number of gauges used in calculation of the catchment spatial average, and uncertainties relating to lack of quality control. For flow data the uncertainty sources included uncertainties in stage/discharge measurement and in the approximation of the true stage-discharge relation by a rating curve. The resulting uncertainties were compared across the different signatures and catchments, to quantify uncertainty
Zanon-Willette, Thomas; Clercq, Emeric de; Arimondo, Ennio [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7092, LPMAA, 4 place Jussieu, case 76, F-75005 Paris, France, and CNRS, UMR 7092, LPMAA, 4 place Jussieu, case 76, F-75005 Paris (France); LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Fermi,' ' Universita di Pisa, Lgo. B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56122 Pisa (Italy)
2011-12-15
Exact and asymptotic line shape expressions are derived from the semiclassical density matrix representation describing a set of closed three-level {Lambda} atomic or molecular states including decoherences, relaxation rates, and light shifts. An accurate analysis of the exact steady-state dark-resonance profile describing the Autler-Townes doublet, the electromagnetically induced transparency or coherent population trapping resonance, and the Fano-Feshbach line shape leads to the linewidth expression of the two-photon Raman transition and frequency shifts associated to the clock transition. From an adiabatic analysis of the dynamical optical Bloch equations in the weak field limit, a pumping time required to efficiently trap a large number of atoms into a coherent superposition of long-lived states is established. For a highly asymmetrical configuration with different decay channels, a strong two-photon resonance based on a lower states population inversion is established when the driving continuous-wave laser fields are greatly unbalanced. When time separated resonant two-photon pulses are applied in the adiabatic pulsed regime for atomic or molecular clock engineering, where the first pulse is long enough to reach a coherent steady-state preparation and the second pulse is very short to avoid repumping into a new dark state, dark-resonance fringes mixing continuous-wave line shape properties and coherent Ramsey oscillations are created. Those fringes allow interrogation schemes bypassing the power broadening effect. Frequency shifts affecting the central clock fringe computed from asymptotic profiles and related to the Raman decoherence process exhibit nonlinear shapes with the three-level observable used for quantum measurement. We point out that different observables experience different shifts on the lower-state clock transition.
Predoi-Cross, A.; Malathy Devi, V.; Sutradhar, P.; Sinyakova, T.; Buldyreva, J.; Sung, K.; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.
2016-07-01
This paper presents the results of a spectroscopic line shape study of self- and nitrogen-broadened 12CH3D transitions in the ν3 and ν5 bands in the Triad region. We combined five pure gas spectra with eighteen spectra of lean mixtures of 12CH3D and nitrogen, all recorded with a Bruker IFS-125 HR Fourier transform spectrometer. The spectra have been analyzed simultaneously using a multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique. N2-broadened line parameters for 184 transitions in the ν3 band and 205 transitions in the ν5 band were measured. In addition, line positions and line intensities were measured for 168 transitions in the ν3 band and 214 transitions in the ν5 band. We have observed 10 instances of weak line mixing corresponding to K″=3 A1 or A2 transitions. Comparisons were made for the N2-broadening coefficients and associated temperature exponents with corresponding values calculated using a semi-classical Robert Bonamy type formalism that involved an inter-molecular potential with terms corresponding to short- and long-range interactions, and exact classical molecular trajectories. The theoretical N2-broadened coefficients are overestimated for high J values, but are in good agreement with the experimental values for small and middle range J values.
Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Bech, Michael Møller
2015-01-01
The architecture of multi pressure line discrete fluid power force systems imposes rapid pressure shifts in the actuator volumes. These fast shifts between pressure levels often introduce pressure oscillations in the actuator chamber and connecting pipes. The topic of this paper is to perform...... pressure shifts by changing the connection between various fixed pressure lines without introducing significant pressure oscillation. As a case study a discrete force system is utilised is a Power Take Off(PTO) system of a wave energy converter. Four pressure shifting algorithms are proposed...
Tran, H.; Hartmann, J. M.
2011-06-01
Collision induced velocity changes for pure H{_2} have been computed from classical dynamic simulations. The results have been compared with the Keilson-Storer model from four different points of view. The first involves various autocorrelation functions associated with the velocity. The second and third give more detailed information, and are time evolutions of some conditional probabilities for changes of the velocity modulus and orientation and the collision kernels themselves. The fourth considers the evolutions, with density, of the half widths of the Q(1) lines of the isotropic Raman (1-0) fundamental band and of the (2-0) overtone quadrupole band. These spectroscopic data enable an indirect test of the models since velocity changes translate into line-shape modifications through the speed dependence of collisional parameters and the Dicke narrowing of the Doppler contribution to the profile. The results indicate that, while the KS approach gives a poor description of detailed velocity-to-velocty changes, it leads to accurate results for the correlation functions and spectral shapes, quantities related to large averages over the velocity. It is also shown that the use of collision kernels directly derived from MDS lead to an almost perfect prediction of all considered quantities (correlation functions, conditional probabilities, and spectral shapes). Finally, the results stress the need for very accurate calculations of line-broadening and -shifting coefficients from the intermolecular potential to obviate the need for experimental data and permit fully meaningful tests of the models. H. Tran, J.M. Hartmann J. Chem. Phys. 130, 094301, 2009.
Vibrational line shapes in the amalgamated limit: (para-D2)x(ortho-D2)1-x mixed crystals
de Kinder, J.; Bouwen, A.; Schoemaker, D.; Boukahil, A.; Huber, D. L.
1994-05-01
The D2 vibrons have been studied by high-resolution Raman scattering in mixed crystals of (p-D2)x(o-D2)1-x. The o-D2 and p-D2 vibrational transitions are found to overlap. Line shapes calculated by the coherent potential approximation are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental data. The linewidth of the o-D2 transition is much larger than the linewidth of the p-H2 transition in (o-H2)x(p-H2)1-x mixed crystals with comparable J=1 concentrations. Possible explanations for this difference are discussed.
Marc Brunel
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We present the development of a numerical simulator for digital in-line holography applications. In-line holograms of arbitrarily shaped and arbitrarily located objects are calculated using generalized Huygens-Fresnel integrals. The objects are 2D opaque or phase objects. The optical set-up is described by its optical transfer matrix. A wide variety of optical systems, involving windows, spherical or cylindrical lenses, can thus be taken into account. It makes the simulator applicable for design and description of in situ experiments. We discuss future applications of this simulator for detection of nanoparticles in droplets, or calibration of airborne instruments that detect and measure ice crystals in the atmosphere.
Liu, Yanli; Cerezo, Javier; Santoro, Fabrizio; Rizzo, Antonio; Lin, Na; Zhao, Xian
2016-08-17
The one-photon absorption spectrum of a carbazole derivative has been studied by employing density functional response theory combined with a mixed quantum/classical (QC) approach to simulate the spectral shape. In a first step of our analysis we employed the vertical gradient (VG) vibronic model to investigate the role of Franck-Condon (FC) profiles of the first ten electronic excited states of the system, underlying most of the range of the experimental spectrum. We then focussed on the first six excited states covering the low-energy region of the spectrum, and investigated the effect of inter-state electronic couplings on the spectral shapes within Herzberg-Teller (HT) theory. Furthermore, in order to introduce the broadening effects due to the two inter-ring torsions, we employed a QC approach, adopting VG vibronic models for high-frequency modes and computing the contribution of the torsions to the spectrum from the distribution of the excitation energies along a two-dimensional relaxed potential energy. Finally, we estimated the solvent inhomogeneous broadening by computing the solvent reorganization energy using a polarizable continuum model. Our calculations allow us to obtain a non-phenomenological description of the low-energy part of the spectrum in semi-quantitative agreement with experiment and to dissect the relative importance of solvent, torsional flexibility, FC vibronic progressions, and inter-state couplings in determining its broad spectral shapes and the modulation of its intensity. Our analysis also clearly highlights that the investigated carbazole represents a big challenge for available methodologies due to the existence of many close-lying excited electronic states coupled by internal low-frequency and high-frequency motions and by solvent fluctuations. The study of their impact on the spectra at the HT level is only approximate and more refined treatments would require a fully quantum-dynamical calculation on the manifold of the coupled
The evolution of the 3D shape of the broad-lined Type Ic SN 2014ad
Stevance, H. F.; Maund, J. R.; Baade, D.; Höflich, P.; Howerton, S.; Patat, F.; Rose, M.; Spyromilio, J.; Wheeler, J. C.; Wang, L.
2017-08-01
We present optical spectropolarimetry and spectroscopy of the broad-lined Type Ic (Ic-bl) SN 2014ad. Our spectropolarimetric observations cover seven epochs, from -2 to 66 d after V-band maximum, and the spectroscopic data were acquired from -2 to +107 d. The photospheric velocity estimates showed ejecta speeds similar to those of SN 1998bw and other SNe associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The spectropolarimetric data revealed aspherical outer ejecta and a nearly spherical interior. The polarization associated with O I λ7774 and the Ca II infrared triplet suggests a clumpy and highly asymmetrical distribution of these two species within the ejecta. Furthermore, it was shown that the two line forming regions must have been spatially distinct and oxygen was found to have higher velocities than calcium. Another oxygen line-forming region was also identified much closer to the core of the explosion and distributed in a spherical shell. It is difficult to reconcile the geometry of the deeper ejecta with a jet driven explosion, but the high ejecta velocities of SN 2014ad are typical of those observed in SNe Ic-bl with GRBs and the behaviour of the oxygen and calcium line-forming regions is consistent with fully jet-driven models. The metallicity of the host galaxy of SN 2014ad was also calculated and compared to that of the hosts of other SNe Ic-bl with and without GRBs, but due to the overlap in the two populations no conclusion could be drawn.
Liu, Baoding
2015-01-01
When no samples are available to estimate a probability distribution, we have to invite some domain experts to evaluate the belief degree that each event will happen. Perhaps some people think that the belief degree should be modeled by subjective probability or fuzzy set theory. However, it is usually inappropriate because both of them may lead to counterintuitive results in this case. In order to rationally deal with belief degrees, uncertainty theory was founded in 2007 and subsequently studied by many researchers. Nowadays, uncertainty theory has become a branch of axiomatic mathematics for modeling belief degrees. This is an introductory textbook on uncertainty theory, uncertain programming, uncertain statistics, uncertain risk analysis, uncertain reliability analysis, uncertain set, uncertain logic, uncertain inference, uncertain process, uncertain calculus, and uncertain differential equation. This textbook also shows applications of uncertainty theory to scheduling, logistics, networks, data mining, c...
Yakshina, E A; Beterov, I I; Entin, V M; Andreeva, C; Cinins, A; Markovski, A; Iftikhar, Z; Ekers, A; Ryabtsev, I I
2016-01-01
The observation of the Stark-tuned F\\"orster resonances between Rydberg atoms excited by narrowband cw laser radiation requires usage of a Stark-switching technique in order to excite the atoms first in a fixed electric field and then to induce the interactions in a varied electric field, which is scanned across the F\\"orster resonance. In our experiments with a few cold Rb Rydberg atoms we have found that the transients at the edges of the electric pulses strongly affect the line shapes of the F\\"orster resonances, since the resonances occur mainly on a time scale of ~100 ns, which is comparable with the duration of the transients. For example, a short-term ringing at a certain frequency causes additional radio-frequency-assisted F\\"orster resonances, while non-sharp edges lead to asymmetry. The intentional application of the radio-frequency field induces transitions between collective states, whose line shape depends on the interaction strengths and time. Spatial averaging over the atom positions in a singl...
The effect of age on the haptic horizontal-vertical curvature illusion with raised-line shapes.
Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Reales, José Manuel; Heller, Morton
2012-01-01
In the present study, we investigated the effect of age in the haptic horizontal-vertical curvature illusion from adolescence to old age. Blindfolded participants explored raised-line convex curves with one finger and two fingers (Experiment 1). They judged the size of the curves (horizontal/vertical), using two sliding rulers. The results suggest that young and older haptic explorers overestimated the vertical. Adolescents did not show the haptic illusion. In Experiment 2, adolescents performed the task visually showing a stronger horizontal-vertical illusion. The findings suggest that the illusion develops later in touch than in vision. The theoretical implications of the results are discussed.
Ngo, N. H.; Tran, H.; Gamache, R. R.; Bermejo, D.; Domenech, J.-L.
2012-08-01
The modeling of the shape of H2O lines perturbed by N2 (and air) using the Keilson-Storer (KS) kernel for collision-induced velocity changes is revisited with classical molecular dynamics simulations (CMDS). The latter have been performed for a large number of molecules starting from intermolecular-potential surfaces. Contrary to the assumption made in a previous study [H. Tran, D. Bermejo, J.-L. Domenech, P. Joubert, R. R. Gamache, and J.-M. Hartmann, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 108, 126 (2007)], 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.03.009, the results of these CMDS show that the velocity-orientation and -modulus changes statistically occur at the same time scale. This validates the use of a single memory parameter in the Keilson-Storer kernel to describe both the velocity-orientation and -modulus changes. The CMDS results also show that velocity- and rotational state-changing collisions are statistically partially correlated. A partially correlated speed-dependent Keilson-Storer model has thus been used to describe the line-shape. For this, the velocity changes KS kernel parameters have been directly determined from CMDS, while the speed-dependent broadening and shifting coefficients have been calculated with a semi-classical approach. Comparisons between calculated spectra and measurements of several lines of H2O broadened by N2 (and air) in the ν3 and 2ν1 + ν2 + ν3 bands for a wide range of pressure show very satisfactory agreement. The evolution of non-Voigt effects from Doppler to collisional regimes is also presented and discussed.
He, Jialing; Yang, Shu
2016-12-01
A compact plasmonic coupled-resonator structure is investigated using a finite element method, which consists of a ring resonator and a stub coupled with a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide. Simulation results show that due to the resonant enhancement effect in this system, the plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) occurs and a sharp asymmetric Fano line arise in the transmission spectra by adjusting the parameters of the structure. Meanwhile, the position of the transmission peak can be controlled in any resonance mode by changing the depth of the stub, which is different from the previous researches. The physical features provide a high refractive index sensing with a sensitivity of 1100 nm/RIU and a figure of merit (FOM) of 42550. Moreover, dual resonance peaks are realized by adding an extra ring resonator placed on the stub. The proposed structures may have wide applications in photonic-integrated circuits and the on-chip nanosensors.
Ping Lu
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Surface texturing has been shown to be an effective modification approach for improving tribological performance. This study examined the friction reduction effect generated by square dimples of different sizes and geometries. Dimples were fabricated on the surface of ASP2023 steel plates using femtosecond laser-assisted surface texturing techniques, and reciprocating sliding line contact tests were carried out on a Plint TE77 tribometer using a smooth 52100 bearing steel roller and textured ASP2023 steel plates. The tribological characterization of the friction properties indicated that the textured samples had significantly lowered the friction coefficient in both boundary (15% improvement and mixed lubrication regimes (13% improvement. Moreover, the high data sampling rate results indicated that the dimples work as lubricant reservoirs in the boundary lubrication regime.
Niccolò Casnici
Full Text Available This paper looks at 800,000 messages on the Unicredit stock, exchanged by 7,500 investors in the Finanzaonline.com forum, between 2005 and 2012 and measured collective interpretations of stock market trends. We examined the correlation patterns between market uncertainty, bad news and investors' network structure by measuring the investors' communication patterns. Our results showed that the investors' network reacted to market trends in different ways: While less turbulent market phases implied less communication, higher market volatility generated more complex communication patterns. While the information content of messages was less technical in situations of uncertainty, bad news caused more informative messages only when market volatility was lower. This meant that bad news had a different impact on network behaviour, depending on market uncertainty. By measuring the investors' expertise, we found that their behaviour could help predict changes in daily stock returns. We also found that expert investors were more influential in communication processes during high volatility market phases, whereas they had less influence on the real-time forum's reaction after bad news. Our findings confirm the crucial role of e-communication platforms. However, they also show the need to reconsider the fragility of these collective intelligence systems when under external shocks.
Casnici, Niccolò; Dondio, Pierpaolo; Casarin, Roberto; Squazzoni, Flaminio
2015-01-01
This paper looks at 800,000 messages on the Unicredit stock, exchanged by 7,500 investors in the Finanzaonline.com forum, between 2005 and 2012 and measured collective interpretations of stock market trends. We examined the correlation patterns between market uncertainty, bad news and investors' network structure by measuring the investors' communication patterns. Our results showed that the investors' network reacted to market trends in different ways: While less turbulent market phases implied less communication, higher market volatility generated more complex communication patterns. While the information content of messages was less technical in situations of uncertainty, bad news caused more informative messages only when market volatility was lower. This meant that bad news had a different impact on network behaviour, depending on market uncertainty. By measuring the investors' expertise, we found that their behaviour could help predict changes in daily stock returns. We also found that expert investors were more influential in communication processes during high volatility market phases, whereas they had less influence on the real-time forum's reaction after bad news. Our findings confirm the crucial role of e-communication platforms. However, they also show the need to reconsider the fragility of these collective intelligence systems when under external shocks.
Casnici, Niccolò; Dondio, Pierpaolo; Casarin, Roberto; Squazzoni, Flaminio
2015-01-01
This paper looks at 800,000 messages on the Unicredit stock, exchanged by 7,500 investors in the Finanzaonline.com forum, between 2005 and 2012 and measured collective interpretations of stock market trends. We examined the correlation patterns between market uncertainty, bad news and investors' network structure by measuring the investors' communication patterns. Our results showed that the investors' network reacted to market trends in different ways: While less turbulent market phases implied less communication, higher market volatility generated more complex communication patterns. While the information content of messages was less technical in situations of uncertainty, bad news caused more informative messages only when market volatility was lower. This meant that bad news had a different impact on network behaviour, depending on market uncertainty. By measuring the investors' expertise, we found that their behaviour could help predict changes in daily stock returns. We also found that expert investors were more influential in communication processes during high volatility market phases, whereas they had less influence on the real-time forum's reaction after bad news. Our findings confirm the crucial role of e-communication platforms. However, they also show the need to reconsider the fragility of these collective intelligence systems when under external shocks. PMID:26244550
党兴菊; 孙骏; 吴文良
2013-01-01
Based on an analysis of the existing references,the uncertainty of the slope and the intercept of a fitting line and some cases are given on the Symmetrical Least Square Method(SLSM).%在已有文献的基础上，讨论一般情形下对称最小二乘法直线拟合的不确定度评定，给出对称最小二乘法拟合直线斜率和截距的不确定度，并给出了一些实例。
Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen
This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models...... in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit. This prediction reconciles...
Endocytosis Pathways of the Folate Tethered Star-Shaped PEG-PCL Micelles in Cancer Cell Lines
Yu-Lun Li
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This study reports on the cellular uptake of folate tethered micelles using a branched skeleton of poly(ethylene glycol and poly(ε-caprolactone. The chemical structures of the copolymers were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Doxorubicin (DOX was utilized as an anticancer drug. The highest drug loading efficiencies of DOX in the folate decorated micelle (DMCF and folate-free micelle (DMC were found to be 88.5% and 88.2%, respectively, depending on the segment length of the poly(ε-caprolactone in the copolymers. A comparison of fluorescent microscopic images of the endocytosis pathway in two cell lines, human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and human oral cavity carcinoma cells (KB, revealed that the micelles were engulfed by KB and MCF-7 cells following in vitro incubation for one hour. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that free folic acid can inhibit the uptake of DOX by 48%–57% and 26%–39% in KB cells and MCF-7 cells, respectively. These results prove that KB cells are relatively sensitive to folate-tethered micelles. Upon administering methyl-β-cyclodextrin, an inhibitor of the caveolae-mediated endocytosis pathway, the uptake of DOX by KB cells was reduced by 69% and that by MCF-7 cells was reduced by 56%. This finding suggests that DMCF enters cells via multiple pathways, thus implying that the folate receptor is not the only target of tumor therapeutics.
Hermann, Jörg, E-mail: hermann@lp3.univ-mrs.fr [LP3, CNRS — Aix Marseille University, 163 Av. de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Gerhard, Christoph [Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Straße 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Axente, Emanuel [Laser–Surface–Plasma Interactions Laboratory, Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Măgurele (Romania); Dutouquet, Christophe [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS/DRC/CARA/NOVA), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-En-Halatte (France)
2014-10-01
We investigate the characteristic features of plume expansion in air and argon resulting from ultraviolet laser ablation of solid matter in conditions typically applied in material analysis via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Barite crown glass is chosen as a target material for the characteristic emission spectrum suitable for plasma diagnostics. The space-integrated plasma emission spectrum recorded with an echelle spectrometer coupled to a gated detector is compared to the computed spectral radiance of a nonuniform plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, resonance lines of neutral sodium atoms and barium ions are observed to probe gradients of temperature and density within the plume. It is shown that laser ablation in argon leads to an almost uniform plasma whereas gradients of temperature and density are evidenced in ambient air. The discrepancy is attributed to the different physical properties of both gases leading to a stronger vapor–gas energy exchange in the case of air. However, strong gradients occur only in a thin peripheral zone, close to the vapor–gas contact front. The larger plasma core appears almost uniform. The peripheral zone of low temperature mostly contributes to the plasma emission spectrum by absorption and material analysis via calibration-free LIBS in air may ignore the nonuniform character of the plasma if only transitions of small optical thickness are considered. - Highlights: • Investigation of laser ablation plumes by analysis of spectral line shapes • Simulation of emission spectra from nonuniform laser-produced plasma • Plasma is more uniform for ablation in argon. • Plasma nonuniformity mostly affects optically thick lines. • Calibration-free LIBS may ignore gradients if optically thin lines are chosen.
Ogane, S.; Shikama, T., E-mail: shikama@me.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Hasuo, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Zushi, H. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)
2015-10-15
In magnetically confined torus plasmas, the local emission intensity, temperature, and flow velocity of atoms in the inboard and outboard scrape-off layers can be separately measured by a passive emission spectroscopy assisted by observation of the Zeeman splitting in their spectral line shape. To utilize this technique, a near-infrared interference spectrometer optimized for the observation of the helium 2{sup 3}S–2{sup 3}P transition spectral line (wavelength 1083 nm) has been developed. The applicability of the technique to actual torus devices is elucidated by calculating the spectral line shapes expected to be observed in LHD and QUEST (Q-shu University Experiment with Steady State Spherical Tokamak). In addition, the Zeeman effect on the spectral line shape is measured using a glow-discharge tube installed in a superconducting magnet.
Heydorn, Kaj; Anglov, Thomas
2002-01-01
Methods recommended by the International Standardization Organisation and Eurachem are not satisfactory for the correct estimation of calibration uncertainty. A novel approach is introduced and tested on actual calibration data for the determination of Pb by ICP-AES. The improved calibration unce...
Fischer, Robert; Vielhauer, Claus
2015-03-01
Understanding and evaluation of potential evidence, as well as evaluation of automated systems for forensic examinations currently play an important role within the domain of digital crime scene analysis. The application of 3D sensing and pattern recognition systems for automatic extraction and comparison of firearm related tool marks is an evolving field of research within this domain. In this context, the design and evaluation of rotation-invariant features for use on topography data play a particular important role. In this work, we propose and evaluate a 3D imaging system along with two novel features based on topography data and multiple profile-measurement-lines for automatic matching of firing pin shapes. Our test set contains 72 cartridges of three manufactures shot by six different 9mm guns. The entire pattern recognition workflow is addressed. This includes the application of confocal microscopy for data acquisition, preprocessing covers outlier handling, data normalization, as well as necessary segmentation and registration. Feature extraction involves the two introduced features for automatic comparison and matching of 3D firing pin shapes. The introduced features are called `Multiple-Circle-Path' (MCP) and `Multiple-Angle-Path' (MAP). Basically both features are compositions of freely configurable amounts of circular or straight path-lines combined with statistical evaluations. During the first part of evaluation (E1), we examine how well it is possible to differentiate between two 9mm weapons of the same mark and model. During second part (E2), we evaluate the discrimination accuracy regarding the set of six different 9mm guns. During the third part (E3), we evaluate the performance of the features in consideration of different rotation angles. In terms of E1, the best correct classification rate is 100% and in terms of E2 the best result is 86%. The preliminary results for E3 indicate robustness of both features regarding rotation. However, in future
Tan, Yan; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Cunfeng; Liu, An-Wen; Hu, Shui-Ming; Wcislo, Piotr; Kochanov, Roman V.; Gordon, Iouli E.; Rothman, Laurence S.
2016-06-01
The hydrogen molecule as the most abundant neutral molecule in the universe is an important object of studies in different areas of science, especially astrophysics. The precision spectroscopy of the hydrogen molecule is particularly useful to verify the quantum electrodynamics theory (QED) in a molecular system. The electric quadrupole transitions of the second overtone of H_2 have been recorded with a high precision cavity ring-down spectrometer. A total of eight lines including the extremely weak S3(5) line in the 784-852 nm range have been observed. The line positions have been determined to an accuracy of 3 × 10-4 cm-1 and the line intensities were determined with a relative accuracy of about 1%. The deviations between the experimental and theoretical frequencies are less than 5 × 10-4 cm-1, which is much smaller than the claimed theoretical uncertainty of 0.0025cm-1. The data from this experiment along with other high-quality H_2 spectra have also been analyzed by the Hartmann-Tran profile as a test case for incorporating parametrization of this profile in the HITRAN database. It was incorporated in the new relational structure of the HITRAN database (www.hitran.org) and into the HITRAN Application Programming Interface (HAPI) for the case of H_2 spectra. Tan Y, Wang J, Cheng C-F, Zhao X-Q, Liu A-W, Hu S-M, J Mol Spectrosc 2014;300:60-4; Tran H, Ngo NH, Hartmann J-M, J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2013;129:199-203; Wcislo P, Gordon IE, Tran H, Tan Y, Hu S-M, Campargue A, et al., Accepted J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf HighRus Special Issue, 2015 Rothman LS, Gordon IE, Babikov Y, Barbe A, Chris Benner D, Bernath PF, et al., J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2013;130:4-50; Kochanov RV, Gordon IE, Rothman LS, Wcislo P, Hill C, Wilzewski JS, Submitted to J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf HighRus Special Issue, 2015.
Ghysels, Mélanie; Liu, Qingnan; Fleisher, Adam J.; Hodges, Joseph T.
2017-04-01
We present a new cavity ring-down spectroscopy system which was developed for variable-temperature absorption measurements (220-290 K) of atmospheric gases. This laser spectrometer was developed in the framework of the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 project to improve our understanding of line shape parameters for carbon dioxide and oxygen. The apparatus consists of a monolithic, fixed-mirror ring-down cavity within a temperature-regulated enclosure, which is interrogated by a tunable, single-frequency diode laser. We experimentally characterize and model the dependence of the spectrum detuning axis at each setpoint temperature, and show that absolute frequencies are stable to within 200 kHz over several hours, corresponding to temperature stabilities better than 1 mK. We measure the R16e (30013-0001) 12C16O2 transition and carry out multi-spectrum analyses using two line profiles incorporating speed-dependent (quadratic approximation) and Dicke narrowing (hard collision assumption) effects. The resulting broadening coefficient and temperature exponent are in excellent agreement (0.05% level) with previous high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy measurements, and the speed dependent broadening parameter is within 3% of the theoretical value.
Orbital State Uncertainty Realism
Horwood, J.; Poore, A. B.
2012-09-01
Fundamental to the success of the space situational awareness (SSA) mission is the rigorous inclusion of uncertainty in the space surveillance network. The *proper characterization of uncertainty* in the orbital state of a space object is a common requirement to many SSA functions including tracking and data association, resolution of uncorrelated tracks (UCTs), conjunction analysis and probability of collision, sensor resource management, and anomaly detection. While tracking environments, such as air and missile defense, make extensive use of Gaussian and local linearity assumptions within algorithms for uncertainty management, space surveillance is inherently different due to long time gaps between updates, high misdetection rates, nonlinear and non-conservative dynamics, and non-Gaussian phenomena. The latter implies that "covariance realism" is not always sufficient. SSA also requires "uncertainty realism"; the proper characterization of both the state and covariance and all non-zero higher-order cumulants. In other words, a proper characterization of a space object's full state *probability density function (PDF)* is required. In order to provide a more statistically rigorous treatment of uncertainty in the space surveillance tracking environment and to better support the aforementioned SSA functions, a new class of multivariate PDFs are formulated which more accurately characterize the uncertainty of a space object's state or orbit. The new distribution contains a parameter set controlling the higher-order cumulants which gives the level sets a distinctive "banana" or "boomerang" shape and degenerates to a Gaussian in a suitable limit. Using the new class of PDFs within the general Bayesian nonlinear filter, the resulting filter prediction step (i.e., uncertainty propagation) is shown to have the *same computational cost as the traditional unscented Kalman filter* with the former able to maintain a proper characterization of the uncertainty for up to *ten
Hassan, J., E-mail: jamal.hassan@kustar.ac.ae [Applied Mathematics and Sciences, KUSTAR, UAE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)
2012-01-01
Water {sup 2}H NMR signal on the surface of nano-silica material MCM-41 consists of two overlapping resonances. The {sup 2}H water spectrum shows a superposition of a Lorentzian line shape and the familiar NMR powder pattern line shape, indicating the existence of two spin components. Exchange occurs between these two groups. Decomposition of the two signals is a crucial starting point to study the exchange process. In this article we have determined these spin component populations along with other important parameters for the {sup 2}H water NMR signal over a temperature range between 223 K and 343 K.
Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen
This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models...... the high rate of exit seen in the first years of exporting. Finally, when faced with multiple countries in which to export, some firms will choose to sequentially export in order to slowly learn more about its chances for success in untested markets....
Thomas, R.E.
1982-03-01
An evaluation is made of the suitability of analytical and statistical sampling methods for making uncertainty analyses. The adjoint method is found to be well-suited for obtaining sensitivity coefficients for computer programs involving large numbers of equations and input parameters. For this purpose the Latin Hypercube Sampling method is found to be inferior to conventional experimental designs. The Latin hypercube method can be used to estimate output probability density functions, but requires supplementary rank transformations followed by stepwise regression to obtain uncertainty information on individual input parameters. A simple Cork and Bottle problem is used to illustrate the efficiency of the adjoint method relative to certain statistical sampling methods. For linear models of the form Ax=b it is shown that a complete adjoint sensitivity analysis can be made without formulating and solving the adjoint problem. This can be done either by using a special type of statistical sampling or by reformulating the primal problem and using suitable linear programming software.
Sun, Youwen; Palm, Mathias; Weinzierl, Christine; Petri, Christof; Notholt, Justus; Wang, Yuting; Liu, Cheng
2017-03-01
The TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) and most NDACC (Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) sites assume an ideal ILS (instrumental line shape) for analysis of the spectra. In order to adapt the radiant energy received by the detector, an attenuator or different sizes of field stop can be inserted in the light path. These processes may alter the alignment of a high-resolution FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometer, and may result in bias due to ILS drift. In this paper, we first investigated the sensitivity of the ILS monitoring with respect to application of different kinds of attenuators for ground-based high-resolution FTIR spectrometers within the TCCON and NDACC networks. Both lamp and sun cell measurements were conducted after the insertion of five different attenuators in front of and behind the interferometer. The ILS characteristics derived from lamp and sun spectra are in good agreement. ILSs deduced from all lamp cell measurements were compared. As a result, the disturbances to the ILS of a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer with respect to the insertion of different attenuators at different positions were quantified. A potential strategy to adapt the incident intensity of a detector was finally deduced.
F. Hase
2012-03-01
Full Text Available We propose an improved monitoring scheme for the instrumental line shape (ILS of high-resolution, ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometers used for chemical monitoring of the atmosphere by the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. Good ILS knowledge is required for the analysis of the recorded mid-infrared spectra. The new method applies a sequence of measurements using different gas cells instead of a single calibration cell. Three cells are used: cell C1 is a refillable cell offering 200 mm path length and equipped with a pressure gauge (filled with 100 Pa N_{2}O, cells C2 and C3 are sealed cells offering 75 mm path length. C2 is filled with 5 Pa of pure N_{2}O. Cell C3 is filled with 16 Pa N_{2}O in 200 hPa technical air, so provides pressure-broadened N_{2}O lines. We demonstrate that an ILS retrieval using C1 improves significantly the sensitivity of the ILS retrieval over the current calibration cells used in the network, because this cell provides narrow fully saturated N_{2}O lines. The N_{2}O columns derived from C2 and C3 allow the performance of a highly valuable closure experiment: adopting the ILS retrieved from C1, the N_{2}O columns of C2 and C3 are derived. Because N_{2}O is an inert gas, both columns should be constant on long timescales. Apparent changes in the columns would immediately attract attention and indicate either inconsistent ILS results or instrumental problems of other origin. Two different cells are applied for the closure experiment, because the NDACC spectrometers observe both stratospheric and tropospheric gases: C2 mimics signatures of stratospheric gases, whereas C3 mimics signatures of tropospheric gases.
Fonteyne, Margot; Arruabarrena, Julen; de Beer, Jacques; Hellings, Mario; Van Den Kerkhof, Tom; Burggraeve, Anneleen; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; De Beer, Thomas
2014-11-01
This study focuses on the thorough validation of an in-line NIR based moisture quantification method in the six-segmented fluid bed dryer of a continuous from-powder-to-tablet manufacturing line (ConsiGma™ 25, GEA Pharma Systems nv, Wommelgem, Belgium). The moisture assessment ability of an FT-NIR spectrometer (Matrix™-F Duplex, Bruker Optics Ltd, UK) equipped with a fiber-optic Lighthouse Probe™ (LHP, GEA Pharma Systems nv, Wommelgem, Belgium) was investigated. Although NIR spectroscopy is a widely used technique for in-process moisture determination, a minority of NIR spectroscopy methods is thoroughly validated. A moisture quantification PLS model was developed. Twenty calibration experiments were conducted, during which spectra were collected at-line and then regressed versus the corresponding residual moisture values obtained via Karl Fischer measurements. The developed NIR moisture quantification model was then validated by calculating the accuracy profiles on the basis of the analysis results of independent in-line validation experiments. Furthermore, as the aim of the NIR method is to replace the destructive, time-consuming Karl Fischer titration, it was statistically demonstrated that the new NIR method performs at least as good as the Karl Fischer reference method.
Participation under Uncertainty
Boudourides, Moses A. [Univ. of Patras, Rio-Patras (Greece). Dept. of Mathematics
2003-10-01
This essay reviews a number of theoretical perspectives about uncertainty and participation in the present-day knowledge-based society. After discussing the on-going reconfigurations of science, technology and society, we examine how appropriate for policy studies are various theories of social complexity. Post-normal science is such an example of a complexity-motivated approach, which justifies civic participation as a policy response to an increasing uncertainty. But there are different categories and models of uncertainties implying a variety of configurations of policy processes. A particular role in all of them is played by expertise whose democratization is an often-claimed imperative nowadays. Moreover, we discuss how different participatory arrangements are shaped into instruments of policy-making and framing regulatory processes. As participation necessitates and triggers deliberation, we proceed to examine the role and the barriers of deliberativeness. Finally, we conclude by referring to some critical views about the ultimate assumptions of recent European policy frameworks and the conceptions of civic participation and politicization that they invoke.
Risk, Uncertainty and Entrepreneurship
Koudstaal, Martin; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam
Theory predicts that entrepreneurs have distinct attitudes towards risk and uncertainty, but empirical evidence is mixed. To better understand the unique behavioral characteristics of entrepreneurs and the causes of these mixed results, we perform a large ‘lab-in-the-field’ experiment comparing...... entrepreneurs to managers – a suitable comparison group – and employees (n = 2288). The results indicate that entrepreneurs perceive themselves as less risk averse than managers and employees, in line with common wisdom. However, when using experimental incentivized measures, the differences are subtler...
Shape-shifting Robot Skid-turning with Line Configuration%可变形机器人直线构型滑移转向方法
常健; 吴成东; 李斌
2012-01-01
可变形机器人AMOEBA-Ⅰ能够利用其直线构型通过狭小的废墟空间,但是在此构型下难以进行转向,转向半径极大,并且机器人进行转向时,连接杆受到较大的阻力矩,使其使用条件受到限制.为减小转向半径、转向时间及转向阻力矩,提高机器人对复杂环境的适应性,提出一种可变形机器人能够快速有效转向的方法.研究机器人滑移转向前的变形过程并建立滑移转向的数学模型,分析机器人三个模块在转向过程中运动和力学特性,得出地面转向阻力矩及机器人所需驱动力的大小,完成机器人的滑移转向理论基础.给出评价机器人转向优劣的指标.通过试验分析,机器人在进行滑移转向时,驱动电流没有超出电动机额定值,机器人转向过程较链式转向快速平稳,结果验证机器人滑移转向的有效性和可实施性.%Shape-shifting robot AMOEBA-I has the ability to pass the narrow and small ruins with the line configuration, but there are many restricts in use such as hard turning, large turning radius, and the connecting link between module 2 and module 3 is large resistance moment. In order to reduce the turning radius, the time of turning, the moment of resistance and enhance the compatibility of complex environment of the robot, a method is proposed that can make the robot to turn quickly and more effectively. Through the research of the process of the robot shape-shifting before it skid-turns and the establishment of mathematical model, the kinematics and mechanical properties of three modules are analyzed, and the resistance moment and the driving force is obtained. The theoretical basis of the shape-shifting robot skid-turning is computed and the evaluation criterion is proposed for the performance of robot turning. By the analysis of experiment, the drive current of the motor does not exceed the limit load of the motor and it is more quick and smooth comparing to the link
Agimelen, Okpeafoh S; McGinty, John; Tachtatzis, Christos; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Haley, Ian; Sefcik, Jan; Mulholland, Anthony J
2015-01-01
Efficient processing of particulate products across various manufacturing steps requires that particles possess desired attributes such as size and shape. Controlling the particle production process to obtain required attributes will be greatly facilitated using robust algorithms providing the size and shape information of the particles from in situ measurements. However, obtaining particle size and shape information in situ during manufacturing has been a big challenge. This is because the problem of estimating particle size and shape (aspect ratio) from signals provided by in-line measuring tools is often ill posed, and therefore it calls for appropriate constraints to be imposed on the problem. One way to constrain uncertainty in estimation of particle size and shape from in-line measurements is to combine data from different measurements such as chord length distribution (CLD) and imaging. This paper presents two different methods for combining imaging and CLD data obtained with in-line tools in order to ...
Systematic Uncertainties in High-Rate Germanium Data
Gilbert, Andrew J.; Fast, James E.; Fulsom, Bryan G.; Pitts, William K.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wood, Lynn S.
2016-10-06
For many nuclear material safeguards inspections, spectroscopic gamma detectors are required which can achieve high event rates (in excess of 10^6 s^-1) while maintaining very good energy resolution for discrimination of neighboring gamma signatures in complex backgrounds. Such spectra can be useful for non-destructive assay (NDA) of spent nuclear fuel with long cooling times, which contains many potentially useful low-rate gamma lines, e.g., Cs-134, in the presence of a few dominating gamma lines, such as Cs-137. Detectors in use typically sacrifice energy resolution for count rate, e.g., LaBr3, or visa versa, e.g., CdZnTe. In contrast, we anticipate that beginning with a detector with high energy resolution, e.g., high-purity germanium (HPGe), and adapting the data acquisition for high throughput will be able to achieve the goals of the ideal detector. In this work, we present quantification of Cs-134 and Cs-137 activities, useful for fuel burn-up quantification, in fuel that has been cooling for 22.3 years. A segmented, planar HPGe detector is used for this inspection, which has been adapted for a high-rate throughput in excess of 500k counts/s. Using a very-high-statistic spectrum of 2.4*10^11 counts, isotope activities can be determined with very low statistical uncertainty. However, it is determined that systematic uncertainties dominate in such a data set, e.g., the uncertainty in the pulse line shape. This spectrum offers a unique opportunity to quantify this uncertainty and subsequently determine required counting times for given precision on values of interest.
A. J. Gerrard
2011-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present both night and day thermospheric wind observations made with the Second-generation, Optimized, Fabry-Perot Doppler Imager (SOFDI, a novel triple-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI designed to make 24-h measurements of thermospheric winds from OI 630-nm emission. These results were obtained from the northeastern United States and from under the magnetic equator at Huancayo, Peru and demonstrate the current instrument capability for measurements of Doppler shifts for either night or day. We found the uncertainties in the measurements agree with expected values based upon forward modeling calculations; nighttime wind components having an uncertainty of ~20-m s^{−1} at 30-min resolution and daytime wind components having an uncertainty of ~70-m s^{−1} at 20-min resolution. The nighttime uncertainties are typically larger than those seen with traditional single-etalon FPIs, which occur at the cost of being able to achieve daytime measurements. The thermospheric wind measurements from Huancayo replicate recently reported CHAMP zonal winds and are in disagreement with current empirical wind climatologies. In addition, we discuss the incorporation of how multiple point heads in the SOFDI instrument will allow for unique studies of gravity wave activity in future measurements.
江梅; 伦中财; 范云慧; 李学勤; 王艳英; 潘萌
2011-01-01
对使用火焰原子吸收法最灵敏线和次灵敏线作为测定波长测定水样中钠的不确定度进行分析.结果表明对钠含量较高的水样使用次灵敏线作为测定波长,测定结果的不确定度较小,这是由于避免了稀释作用而引人的不确定度.%The uncertainty in the determination of natrium in water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using the first and secondary resonancce lines as detection wavelengths was investigated. The results showed that using the secondary resonance line as detection wavelength for the determination of samples with higher natrium concentration, the uncertainty of the experimental results was low. The reason was that the uncertainty introduced by dilution was avoided.
Chun-Neng eWang
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The quantification of floral shape variations is difficult because flower structures are both diverse and complex. Traditionally, floral shape variations are quantified using the qualitative and linear measurements of two-dimensional (2D images. The 2D images cannot adequately describe flower structures, and thus lead to unsatisfactory discrimination of the flower shape. This study aimed to acquire three-dimensional (3D images by using microcomputed tomography (μCT and to examine the floral shape variations by using geometric morphometrics (GM. To demonstrate the advantages of the 3D-µCT-GM approach, we applied the approach to a second-generation population of florist’s gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa crossed from parents of zygomorphic and actinomorphic flowers. The flowers in the population considerably vary in size and shape, thereby served as good materials to test the applicability of the proposed phenotyping approach. Procedures were developed to acquire 3D volumetric flower images using a μCT scanner, to segment the flower regions from the background, and to select homologous characteristic points (i.e., landmarks from the flower images for the subsequent GM analysis. The procedures identified 95 landmarks for each flower and thus improved the capability of describing and illustrating the flower shapes, compared with typically lower number of landmarks in 2D analyses. The GM analysis demonstrated that flower opening and dorsoventral symmetry were the principal shape variations of the flowers. The degrees of flower opening and corolla asymmetry were then subsequently quantified directly from the 3D flower images. The 3D-µCT-GM approach revealed shape variations that could not be identified using typical 2D approaches and accurately quantified the flower traits that presented a challenge in 2D images. The approach opens new avenues to investigate floral shape variations.
Ablikim, M; Bai, J Z; Ban, Y; Cai, X; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, H X; Chen, J C; Chen, Jin; Chen, Y B; Chu, Y P; Dai, Y S; Diao, L Y; Deng, Z Y; Dong, Q F; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fu, C D; Gao, C S; Gao, Y N; Gu, S D; Gu, Y T; Guo, Y N; He, K L; He, M; Heng, Y K; Hou, J; Hu, H M; Hu, J H; Hu, T; Huang, G S; Huang, X T; Ji, X B; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Lai, Y F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J; Li, R Y; Li, S M; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Liang, Y F; Liao, H B; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, F; Liu, Fang; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, Jian; Liu, Q; Liu, R G; Liu, Z A; Lou, Y C; Lu, F; Lu, G R; Lu, J G; Luo, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Mao, Z P; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Ping, R G; Qi, N D; Qin, H; Qiu, J F; Ren, Z Y; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Shan, L Y; Shang, L; Shen, D L; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Sun, H S; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Tang, X; Tong, G L; Wang, D Y; Wang, L; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, W F; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Wang, Zheng; Wei, C L; Wei, D H; Weng, Y; Wu, N; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xu, G F; Xu, X P; Xu, Y; Yan, M L; Yang, H X; Yang, Y X; Ye, M H; Ye, Y X; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Q; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Yiyun; Zhang, Z X; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhao, J W; Zhao, M G; Zhao, P P; Zhao, W R; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, H Q; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Z P; Zhou, L; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, B A; Zhuang, X A; Zou, B S
2008-09-05
We observe an obvious anomalous line shape of the e;{+}e;{-}--> hadrons total cross sections in the energy region between 3.700 and 3.872 GeV. It is inconsistent with the explanation for only one simple psi(3770) resonance with a statistical significance of 7sigma. The anomalous line shape may be explained by two possible enhancements of the inclusive hadron production near the center-of-mass energies of 3.764 and 3.779 GeV, indicating that either there is likely a new structure in addition to the psi(3770) resonance around 3.773 GeV, or there are some physics effects reflecting the DD[over ] production dynamics.
Shape effects in the vicinity of the Z=82 line: study of the $\\beta$-decay of $^{182,184,186}$Hg
This proposal is aimed at the study of the $\\beta$-decay of the neutron-deficient $^{182,184,186}$Hg nuclei using the total absorption technique. Recent theoretical results show that, from measurements of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution, the shapes of the ground states of the decaying Hg nuclei can be inferred. This study offers an independent way to study the phenomenon of shape coexistence in a region of particular interest.
Risk, Uncertainty, and Entrepreneurship
Koudstaal, Martin; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam
2016-01-01
Theory predicts that entrepreneurs have distinct attitudes toward risk and uncertainty, but empirical evidence is mixed. To better understand these mixed results, we perform a large “lab-in-the-field” experiment comparing entrepreneurs to managers (a suitable comparison group) and employees (n D...... 21288). The results indicate that entrepreneurs perceive themselves as less risk averse than managers and employees, in line with common wisdom. However, when using experimental incentivized measures, the differences are subtler. Entrepreneurs are only found to be unique in their lower degree of loss...... aversion, and not in their risk or ambiguity aversion. This combination of results might be explained by our finding that perceived risk attitude is not only correlated to risk aversion but also to loss aversion. Overall, we therefore suggest using a broader definition of risk that captures this unique...
Verification of uncertainty budgets
Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.
2005-01-01
The quality of analytical results is expressed by their uncertainty, as it is estimated on the basis of an uncertainty budget; little effort is, however, often spent on ascertaining the quality of the uncertainty budget. The uncertainty budget is based on circumstantial or historical data, and th...
Caballero ontanaya, L; Garcia borge, M J; Malbrunot, S
2002-01-01
This proposal is aimed at the study of the $\\beta$- decay of the neutron-deficient $^{188,190,192}$Pb nuclei. The main motivation of the proposed experiment is to determine the Gamow-Teller strength distribution in the daughter nuclei using the Total Absorption Spectrometer "Lucrecia". Recent theoretical results show that from this measurement the shapes of the ground states of the decaying Pb nuclei can be inferred. This study offers an independent way to study the phenomenon of shape co-existence in a region of particular interest.
Connectivity graphs of uncertainty regions
Chambers, Erin; Lenchner, Jonathan; Sember, Jeff; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Stege, Ulrike; Stolpner, Svetlana; Weibel, Christophe; Whitesides, Sue
2010-01-01
We study a generalization of the well known bottleneck spanning tree problem called "Best Case Connectivity with Uncertainty": Given a family of geometric regions, choose one point per region, such that the length of the longest edge in a spanning tree of a disc intersection graph is minimized. We show that this problem is NP-hard even for very simple scenarios such as line segments and squares. We also give exact and approximation algorithms for the case of line segments and unit discs respectively.
Uncertainty: the Curate's egg in financial economics.
Pixley, Jocelyn
2014-06-01
Economic theories of uncertainty are unpopular with financial experts. As sociologists, we rightly refuse predictions, but the uncertainties of money are constantly sifted and turned into semi-denial by a financial economics set on somehow beating the future. Picking out 'bits' of the future as 'risk' and 'parts' as 'information' is attractive but socially dangerous, I argue, because money's promises are always uncertain. New studies of uncertainty are reversing sociology's neglect of the unavoidable inability to know the forces that will shape the financial future.
WISE J233237.05-505643.5: A Double-Peaked Broad-Lined AGN with Spiral-Shaped Radio Morphology
Tsai, Chao Wei; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Stern, Daniel; Emonts, Bjorn; Barrows, R. Scott; Assef, Roberto J.; Norris, Ray P.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Lonsdale, Carol; Blain, Andrew W.; Benford, Dominic J.; Wu, Jingwen; Stalder, Brian; Stubbs, Christopher W.; High, F. William; Li, K. L.; Kong, Albert K. H.
2013-01-01
We present radio continuum mapping, optical imaging and spectroscopy of the newly discovered double-peaked broad-lined AGN WISE J233237.05-505643.5 at redshift z = 0.3447. This source exhibits an FR-I and FR-II hybrid-morphology, characterized by bright core, jet, and Doppler-boosted lobe structures in ATCA continuum maps at 1.5, 5.6, and 9 GHz. Unlike most FR-II objects, W2332-5056 is hosted by a disk-like galaxy. The core has a projected 5" linear radio feature that is perpendicular to the curved primary jet, hinting at unusual and complex activity within the inner 25 kpc. The multi-epoch optical-near-IR photometric measurements indicate significant variability over a 3-20 year baseline from the AGN component. Gemini-South optical data shows an unusual double-peaked emission-line features: the centroids of the broad-lined components of H-alpha and H-beta are blueshifted with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy by approximately 3800 km/s. We examine possible cases which involve single or double supermassive black holes in the system, and discuss required future investigations to disentangle the mystery nature of this system.
Tsai, Chao-Wei [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jarrett, T. H. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Wu, Jingwen [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emonts, Bjorn [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra de Torrejón a Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Barrows, R. Scott [Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Norris, Ray P. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Lonsdale, Carol [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Blain, Andrew W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Benford, Dominic J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stalder, Brian; Stubbs, Christopher W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); High, F. William [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Li, K. L.; Kong, Albert K. H., E-mail: Chao-Wei.Tsai@jpl.nasa.gov [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)
2013-12-10
We present radio continuum mapping, optical imaging, and spectroscopy of the newly discovered double-peaked, broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN) WISE J233237.05–505643.5 at redshift z = 0.3447. This source exhibits an FR-I and FR-II hybrid morphology, characterized by a bright core, jet, and Doppler-boosted lobe structures in Australian Telescope Compact Array continuum maps at 1.5, 5.6, and 9 GHz. Unlike most FR-II objects, W2332–5056 is hosted by a disk-like galaxy. The core has a projected 5'' linear radio feature that is perpendicular to the curved primary jet, hinting at unusual and complex activity within the inner 25 kpc. The multi-epoch, optical-near-IR photometric measurements indicate significant variability over a 3-20 yr baseline from the AGN component. Gemini South optical data show unusual double-peaked emission-line features: the centroids of the broad-lined components of Hα and Hβ are blueshifted with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy by ∼3800 km s{sup –1}. We examine possible cases that involve single or double supermassive black holes in the system and discuss the required future investigations to disentangle the mysterious nature of this system.
WISE J233237.05-505643.5: a Double-Peaked Broad-Lined AGN with Spiral-Shaped Radio Morphology
Tsai, Chao-Wei; Stern, Daniel; Bjorn, Emonts; Barrows, R Scott; Assef, Roberto J; Norris, Ray P; Eisenhardt, Peter R M; Lonsdale, Carol J; Blain, Andrew W; Benford, Dominic J; Wu, Jingwen; Stalder, Brian; Stubbs, Christopher W; High, F William; Li, K L; Kong, Albert K H
2013-01-01
We present radio continuum mapping, optical imaging and spectroscopy of the newly discovered double-peaked broad-lined AGN WISE J233237.05-505643.5 at redshift z = 0.3447. This source exhibits an FR-I and FR-II hybrid-morphology, characterized by bright core, jet, and Doppler-boosted lobe structures in ATCA continuum maps at 1.5, 5.6, and 9 GHz. Unlike most FR-II objects, W2332-5056 is hosted by a disk-like galaxy. The core has a projected 5" linear radio feature that is perpendicular to the curved primary jet, hinting at unusual and complex activity within the inner 25 kpc. The multi-epoch optical-near-IR photometric measurements indicate significant variability over a 3-20 year baseline from the AGN component. Gemini-South optical data shows an unusual double-peaked emission-line features: the centroids of the broad-lined components of H-alpha and H-beta are blueshifted with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy by ~ 3800 km/s. We examine possible cases which involve single or double supermassive blac...
Nanoparticles: Uncertainty Risk Analysis
Grieger, Khara Deanne; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders
2012-01-01
Scientific uncertainty plays a major role in assessing the potential environmental risks of nanoparticles. Moreover, there is uncertainty within fundamental data and information regarding the potential environmental and health risks of nanoparticles, hampering risk assessments based on standard a...
Predoi-Cross, A.; Unni, A. V.; Liu, W.; Schofield, I.; Holladay, C.; McKellar, A. R. W.; Hurtmans, D.
2016-04-01
The authors have been notified that there may be errors in the spectroscopic analysis presented in this published article. While the authors are re-analysing the spectra in a different approach, we would like to ask the readers to ignore the discussion of line parameters other than line positions. We would like to assure the readers that we are preparing follow-up manuscripts where we will compare our new results with those published earlier. These manuscripts will be submitted for publication in the same journal.
Unexpected uncertainty, volatility and decision-making
Amy Rachel Bland
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The study of uncertainty in decision making is receiving greater attention in the fields of cognitive and computational neuroscience. Several lines of evidence are beginning to elucidate different variants of uncertainty. Particularly, risk, ambiguity and expected and unexpected forms of uncertainty are well articulated in the literature. In this article we review both empirical and theoretical evidence arguing for the potential distinction between three forms of uncertainty; expected uncertainty, unexpected uncertainty and volatility. Particular attention will be devoted to exploring the distinction between unexpected uncertainty and volatility which has been less appreciated in the literature. This includes evidence from computational modelling, neuromodulation, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies. We further address the possible differentiation of cognitive control mechanisms used to deal with these forms of uncertainty. Particularly we explore a role for conflict monitoring and the temporal integration of information into working memory. Finally, we explore whether the Dual Modes of Control theory provides a theoretical framework for understanding the distinction between unexpected uncertainty and volatility.
Parton Distribution Function Uncertainties
Giele, Walter T.; Kosower, David A.; Giele, Walter T.; Keller, Stephane A.; Kosower, David A.
2001-01-01
We present parton distribution functions which include a quantitative estimate of its uncertainties. The parton distribution functions are optimized with respect to deep inelastic proton data, expressing the uncertainties as a density measure over the functional space of parton distribution functions. This leads to a convenient method of propagating the parton distribution function uncertainties to new observables, now expressing the uncertainty as a density in the prediction of the observable. New measurements can easily be included in the optimized sets as added weight functions to the density measure. Using the optimized method nowhere in the analysis compromises have to be made with regard to the treatment of the uncertainties.
How Much are Flexibility and Uncertainty Worth in Patent Licensing?
Leone, Maria Isabella; Oriani, Raffaele; Reichstein, Toke
2015-01-01
a significant initial investment by the licensee and represent a source of liquidity for the licensor. We investigate how contractual flexibility, market uncertainty and technical uncertainty shape upfront fees from the licensee’s perspective. Upfront fees are shown to be positively associated with contractual...... flexibility and market uncertainty, while technical uncertainty is positively associated with upfront fees only if the license warrants contractual flexibility to the licensee. Licensees therefore do not necessarily see uncertainty as a negative attribute of a patent license, but rather as a potential value......, above all if in presence of contractual flexibility....
王奕然
2013-01-01
By comparing the characteristics of traditional box beams with U-shaped beams,analysis was carried out for noise control problems of the traditional box beams,and basic principles and specific measures of noise control for U-shaped beams were put forward.Different methods were adopted to calculate,analyse and simulate the noise reduction effect of Ushaped beams,which was verified by noise tests in construction.In order to promote the urban rail transit elevated lines which have low construction and operation costs and safety risks,the research on the environment-friendly technology of elevated lines becomes very important.%通过对比传统箱型梁与U型梁的特点,分析传统箱型梁噪声治理存在的问题,提出U型梁降噪的基本原理及具体措施.同时,采用不同的方法对U型梁的降噪效果进行计算分析与模拟预测,并通过工程噪声测试进行验证.在城市轨道交通建设中,推广应用建设与运营成本低、安全风险小、环保的高架线路及高架技术成为一个重要的研究方向.
Andres, T.H
2002-05-01
This guide applies to the estimation of uncertainty in quantities calculated by scientific, analysis and design computer programs that fall within the scope of AECL's software quality assurance (SQA) manual. The guide weaves together rational approaches from the SQA manual and three other diverse sources: (a) the CSAU (Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty) evaluation methodology; (b) the ISO Guide,for the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement; and (c) the SVA (Systems Variability Analysis) method of risk analysis. This report describes the manner by which random and systematic uncertainties in calculated quantities can be estimated and expressed. Random uncertainty in model output can be attributed to uncertainties of inputs. The propagation of these uncertainties through a computer model can be represented in a variety of ways, including exact calculations, series approximations and Monte Carlo methods. Systematic uncertainties emerge from the development of the computer model itself, through simplifications and conservatisms, for example. These must be estimated and combined with random uncertainties to determine the combined uncertainty in a model output. This report also addresses the method by which uncertainties should be employed in code validation, in order to determine whether experiments and simulations agree, and whether or not a code satisfies the required tolerance for its application. (author)
Uncertainty and Cognitive Control
Faisal eMushtaq
2011-10-01
Full Text Available A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioural and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1 There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2 There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3 The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the need for control; (4 Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders.
Design of Automatic Production Line on Flat-shape Green Tea%扁形绿茶自动化生产线构建和控制研究
谭俊峰; 林智; 李云飞; 程玉明; 谢刚文; 苏和生; 彭群华; 郭丽; 吕海鹏
2012-01-01
根据扁形绿茶鲜叶原料、加工工艺等特点,以现有国产茶叶加工机械为主,结合新研制的连续理条、连续做形设备,按照模块化设计思路,构建了1条扁形绿茶自动化生产线.自动化生产线的控制软件基于Windows XP操作系统开发,采用Advantech Web Access软件,通过CC-Link (Control and Communication link)现场总线与各模块进行功能交互,实现了茶叶加工参数的准确控制,操作简单明了.%According to the characteristics of fresh tea leaves and processing technology of flat-shape tea, take the domestic machine as the main body, combined with the newly developed continuous tea-carding, continuous shaping equipment, a set of practical automatic production line was build according to the modular design idea. The control system for the manufacture of flat-shape green tea was developed by the Advantech Web Access software based on Windows XP system. Through the CC-link can-bus, an accurate control and simple operation of tea processing parameters was realized.
Samanta, Tuhin
2016-01-01
A lambda-type divergent rise of Raman linewidth of liquid nitrogen near its critical temperature has been a subject of many discussions in the past[1-5]. Here we explore the possibility of such an anomaly in infra-red and Raman spectroscopy of super-critical water (SCW) by varying the density across the Widom line just above its critical temperature. Vibrational phase relaxation is expected to be a sensitive probe of fluid dynamics. We carry out computer simulations of two different model potentials (SPC/E and TIP4P/2005) to obtain the necessary time correlation functions. An additional feature of this work is a quantum chemical calculation of the anharmonicity parameter that largely controls frequency fluctuations. We find a sharp rise in the vibrational relaxation rate (or the line widths) for both the models as we travel across the Widom line. The rise is noticeably less sharp in water than in nitrogen. We attribute this difference to the faster relaxation rate in water. We demonstrate that the anomalous r...
Buyukdagli, Sahin; 10.1016/j.cplett.2009.11.061
2010-01-01
In this Letter, we investigate the link between thermal denaturation and mechanical unzipping for two models of DNA, namely the Dauxois-Peyrard-Bishop model and a variant thereof we proposed recently. We show that the critical line that separates zipped from unzipped DNA sequences in mechanical unzipping experiments is a power-law in the temperature-force plane. We also prove that for the investigated models the corresponding critical exponent is proportional to the critical exponent alpha, which characterizes the behaviour of the specific heat in the neighbourhood of the critical temperature for thermal denaturation.
Okamoto, Tatsuki; Morikawa, Kazutoshi; Sono, Atsuhiro; Sato, Yukio; Nishimae, Junichi
2006-07-01
We have developed a new optical system that transforms the circle profile beam generated with near-Gaussian intensity distribution by a pulse green laser (YAG2omega laser; second harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser) into a line-profile beam. For homogenization in the longitudinal direction, we employed a waveguide plate-type homogenizer. We successfully reduced interference fringes. In the width direction, the laser beam was focused up to the limited M2 value. This transformed beam has a uniform distribution to within 5% in the longitudinal direction, and it is approximately 100 mm long and 40 microm wide.
Ito, Akihiko [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Yokohama (Japan)
2005-04-01
A terrestrial ecosystem model (Sim-CYCLE) was driven by multiple climate projections to investigate uncertainties in predicting the interactions between global environmental change and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Sim-CYCLE has a spatial resolution of 0.5 , and mechanistically evaluates photosynthetic and respiratory CO{sub 2} exchange. Six scenarios for atmospheric-CO{sub 2} concentrations in the twenty-first century, proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, were considered. For each scenario, climate projections by a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) were used to assess the uncertainty due to socio-economic predictions. Under a single CO{sub 2} scenario, climate projections with seven AOGCMs were used to investigate the uncertainty stemming from uncertainty in the climate simulations. Increases in global photosynthesis and carbon storage differed considerably among scenarios, ranging from 23 to 37% and from 24 to 81 Pg C, respectively. Among the AOGCM projections, increases ranged from 26 to 33% and from 48 to 289 Pg C, respectively. There were regional heterogeneities in both climatic change and carbon budget response, and different carbon-cycle components often responded differently to a given environmental change. Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} fixation was more sensitive to atmospheric CO{sub 2}, whereas soil carbon storage was more sensitive to temperature. Consequently, uncertainties in the CO{sub 2} scenarios and climatic projections may create additional uncertainties in projecting atmospheric-CO{sub 2} concentrations and climates through the interactive feedbacks between the atmosphere and the terrestrial ecosystem. (orig.)
Spectral Line Shape Parameters for the ν_1, ν_2, and ν_3 Bands of Hdo: Self and CO_2 Broadened
Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, Keeyoon; Crawford, Timothy J.; Gamache, Robert R.; Renaud, Candice L.; Mantz, Arlan; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.
2016-06-01
To provide precise information relevant to Martian atmospheric remote sensing, high resolution high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of HDO in mixture with CO_2 were recorded in the ν_1, ν_2, and ν_3 fundamental bands between 2.7 and 7 μm regions. The spectra were obtained with the Bruker IFS-125HR Fourier transform spectrometer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory along with two specially built coolable absorption cells with path lengths of 0.2038 m and 20.941 m at various sample gas temperatures (˜220 - 296 K), total sample pressures and volume mixing ratios. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique was applied to fit simultaneously all the spectra obtained. The measured line parameters include accurate line positions, intensities, self- and CO_2-broadened Lorentz halfwidth and pressure-shift coefficients, and temperature dependences of CO_2 broadened HDO halfwidth and pressure-shift coefficients. Line mixing coefficients using the relaxation matrix formalism and quadratic speed dependence parameters were also measured where appropriate. Example results for select transitions in each band will be presented and comparisons made to other measured/calculated values. K. Sung, A.W. Mantz, M.A.H. Smith, L.R. Brown, T.J. Crawford, V.M. Devi, D.C. Benner. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 162 (2010) 124-134. A.W. Mantz, K. Sung, T.J. Crawford, L.R. Brown, M.A.H. Smith, V.M. Devi, D.C. Benner, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 304 (2014) 12-24. D.C. Benner, C.P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M.A. H. Smith, and D. Atkins. JQSRT 53 (1995) 705-721. Research described in this paper are performed at the College of William and Mary, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Connecticut College, and NASA Langley Research Center under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. RRG and CLR were supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant # AGS-1156862.
Uncertainty visualization in HARDI based on ensembles of ODFs
Jiao, Fangxiang
2012-02-01
In this paper, we propose a new and accurate technique for uncertainty analysis and uncertainty visualization based on fiber orientation distribution function (ODF) glyphs, associated with high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI). Our visualization applies volume rendering techniques to an ensemble of 3D ODF glyphs, which we call SIP functions of diffusion shapes, to capture their variability due to underlying uncertainty. This rendering elucidates the complex heteroscedastic structural variation in these shapes. Furthermore, we quantify the extent of this variation by measuring the fraction of the volume of these shapes, which is consistent across all noise levels, the certain volume ratio. Our uncertainty analysis and visualization framework is then applied to synthetic data, as well as to HARDI human-brain data, to study the impact of various image acquisition parameters and background noise levels on the diffusion shapes. © 2012 IEEE.
苗亮亮; 陈先中; 白真龙; 黄月琴; 侯庆文; 尹怡欣
2014-01-01
不采用传统接触力模型自下而上的高炉料面形状计算方法，而是根据土坡力学颗粒物质堆积理论，提出了新的基于堆积法的高炉料线形状融合计算方法，直接对料面形状进行计算.围绕高炉多环布料的炉料堆积特点，结合炉顶六点阵列雷达，获得了料面形状计算的边界条件，弥补了传统料型计算靠十字测温加机械探尺的经验估算.新方法通过高炉布料规律及炉料颗粒的物理堆积插值方法，采用贝叶斯数据融合方法和分段三次Hermite插值，结合布料体积约束条件，完成了理论计算与测量修正的结合.实测结果表明：料面形状融合法比传统单独的料面估算法，测量精度提高4.8%，料面分辨率提高27.2%，使布料控制可以更加精准和有针对性.%A fusion measuring method proposed in this paper by using the soil mechanical granular accumulation theory is a new concept for computing the burden line shape in blast furnaces. This method offers a powerful solution to compute the burden line shape directly in comparison with the traditional way in which the contact force model is adopted to compute the burden line shape in blast fur-naces from the bottom up. With the multiloop distributing accumulation property of blast furnaces and the advantage of 6-point array ra-dar on the top, the boundary conditions of the burden line shape can be easily calculated. Under the boundary conditions, the esti-mated values gotten by cross temperature and mechanical sounding rods can be compensated. Taking into consideration the distributing discipline of blast furnaces and the particle accumulation method, this method adopts Bayes data fusion and sectional triple Hermite in-terpolation under the boundary conditions to finish the combination of theoretical calculation and measurement correction. Measurement results indicate that compared with the traditional method, the measurement accuracy rises by 4.8% and
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
Busch, Paul; Heinonen, Teiko; Lahti, Pekka
2007-01-01
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is usually taken to express a limitation of operational possibilities imposed by quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate that the full content of this principle also includes its positive role as a condition ensuring that mutually exclusive experimental options can be reconciled if an appropriate trade-off is accepted. The uncertainty principle is shown to appear in three manifestations, in the form of uncertainty relations: for the widths of the position and...
Uncertainty in artificial intelligence
Kanal, LN
1986-01-01
How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.
[Ethics, empiricism and uncertainty].
Porz, R; Zimmermann, H; Exadaktylos, A K
2011-01-01
Accidents can lead to difficult boundary situations. Such situations often take place in the emergency units. The medical team thus often and inevitably faces professional uncertainty in their decision-making. It is essential to communicate these uncertainties within the medical team, instead of downplaying or overriding existential hurdles in decision-making. Acknowledging uncertainties might lead to alert and prudent decisions. Thus uncertainty can have ethical value in treatment or withdrawal of treatment. It does not need to be covered in evidence-based arguments, especially as some singular situations of individual tragedies cannot be grasped in terms of evidence-based medicine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Freifelder, R.; Karp, J.S.; Wear, J.A.; Lockyer, N.S.; Newcomer, F.M.; Surti, S.; Berg, R. van [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
1998-06-01
NaI(Tl) position sensitive detectors have been used in medical imaging for many years. For PET applications without collimators, the high counting rates place severe demands on such large area detectors. The NaI(Tl) detectors in the PENN-PET scanners are read-out via photomultiplier tubes and preamplifiers. Those preamplifiers use a delay-line clipping technique to shorten the characteristic 240 ns fall time of the NaI(Tl) signal. As an alternative, the authors have investigated a pole-zero network to shorten the signal followed by a multi-pole shaper to produce a symmetric signal suitable for high counting rates. This has been compared to the current design by measuring the energy and spatial resolution of a single detector as a function of different preamplifier designs. Data were taken over a range of ADC integration times and countrates. The new design shows improved energy resolution with short integration times. Effects on spatial resolution and deadtime are reported for large position sensitive detectors at different countrates.
Heib, F.; Hempelmann, R.; Munief, W. M.; Ingebrandt, S.; Fug, F.; Possart, W.; Groß, K.; Schmitt, M.
2015-07-01
Contact angles and wetting of solid surfaces are strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. These influence quantities are difficult to distinguish from each other if contact angle measurements are performed by measuring only the advancing θa and the receding θr contact angle. In this regard, time-dependent water contact angles are measured on two hydrophobic modified silicon wafers with different physical surface topographies. The first surface is nearly atomically flat while the second surface is patterned (alternating flat and nanoscale rough patterns) which is synthesized by a photolithography and etching procedure. The different surface topographies are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The resulting set of contact angle data obtained by the high-precision drop shape analysis approach is further analyzed by a Gompertzian fitting procedure and a statistical counting procedure in dependence on the triple line velocity. The Gompertzian fit is used to analyze overall properties of the surface and dependencies between the motion on the front and the back edge of the droplets. The statistical counting procedure results in the calculation of expectation values E(p) and standard deviations σ(p) for the inclination angle φ, contact angle θ, triple line velocity vel and the covered distance of the triple line dis relative to the first boundary points XB,10. Therefore, sessile drops during the inclination of the sample surface are video recorded and different specific contact angle events in dependence on the acceleration/deceleration of the triple line motion are analyzed. This procedure results in characteristically density distributions in dependence on the surface properties. The used procedures lead to the possibility to investigate influences on contact
沈清俐; 杨晓霞; 王宏伟
2009-01-01
Objective To study the advantages of rhytidectomy of W-shaped incisions combined with multiple suspension in temporal hair line. Methods 40 patients were divided into two groups: 16 cases in group A were treated by rhytidectomy of W-shaped incisions combined with multiple suspcnsion in temporal hair line;24 cases in group B were treatcd by traditional rhytidectomy. Results The inci-sions in group A, with an excellent repair under scar formation, healed well and some hairs on the timpo-ral hair line grew. Fishtail lines were obviously reduced, with nasolabial fold lifting the masseter area skin on parotid. Compared with group B, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions This approach is simple but convenient, safe and efficient. Therefore, it is valuable and applicable clinical-ly.%目的 探讨颞部发际缘锯齿形切口多部位递进式悬吊除皱术与传统切口的除皱术在对中下面部提升及术后切口愈合和瘢痕隐蔽方面的优越性.方法 将40例患者分为A、B两组,A组16例采用发际缘锯齿形切口多部化递进式悬吊除皱术,并对眼轮匝肌、颧部、耳前行多部位递进式悬吊折叠缝合固定,切口方向为向前向内为40～45°;B组24例采用传统切口的除皱术.结果 A组患者切口愈合佳,且发际缘有毛发生长,瘢痕隐蔽性好,鱼尾纹明显减轻,下垂的外眦角、颧部、下颊部和腮腺咬肌区皮肤有较明显的提升,与B组相比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 颞部发际缘锯齿形切口多部位递进式悬吊除皱术是一种简便、安全有效且切口隐蔽的除皱方法,值得在临床上推广应用.
Chakraborty, Abhishek
Detection of particulate matter thinly dispersed in a fluid medium with the aid of the difference in electrical conductivity between the pure fluid and the particles has been practiced at least since the last 50 to 60 years. The first such instruments were employed to measure cell counts in samples of biological fluid. Following a detailed study of the physics and principles operating within the device, called the Electric Sensing Zone (ESZ) principle, a new device called the Liquid Metal Cleanliness Analyzer (LiMCA) was invented which could measure and count particles of inclusions in molten metal. It provided a fast and fairly accurate tool to make online measurement of the quality of steel during refining and casting operations. On similar lines of development as the LiMCA, a water analogue of the device called, the Aqueous Particle Sensor (APS) was developed for physical modeling experiments of metal refining operations involving water models. The APS can detect and measure simulated particles of inclusions added to the working fluid (water). The present study involves the designing, building and final application of a new and improved APS in water modeling experiments to study inclusion behavior in a tundish operation. The custom built instrument shows superior performance and applicability in experiments involving physical modeling of metal refining operations, compared to its commercial counterparts. In addition to higher accuracy and range of operating parameters, its capability to take real-time experimental data for extended periods of time helps to reduce the total number of experiments required to reach a result, and makes it suitable for analyzing temporal changes occurring in unsteady systems. With the modern impetus on the quality of the final product of metallurgical operations, the new APS can prove to be an indispensable research tool to study and put forward innovative design and parametric changes in industrially practised metallurgical
Peric, Mirna; Bales, Barney L; Peric, Miroslav
2012-01-01
The work in Part 6 of this series (J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 4930), addressing the task of separating the effects of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and dipole-dipole (DD) interactions on EPR spectra of nitroxide spin probes in solution, is extended experimentally and theoretically. Comprehensive measurements of perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDT) in squalane, a viscous alkane, paying special attention to lower temperatures and lower concentrations were carried out in an attempt to focus on DD, the lesser understood of the two interactions. Theoretically, the analysis has been extended to include the recent comprehensive treatment by Salikhov (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2010, 38, 237). In dilute solutions, both interactions (1) introduce a dispersion component, (2) broaden the lines, and (3) shift the lines. DD introduces a dispersion component proportional to the concentration and of opposite sign to that of HSE. Equations relating the EPR spectral parameters to the rate constants due HSE and DD have been derived. By employing non-linear least-squares fitting of theoretical spectra to a simple analytical function and the proposed equations, the contributions of the two interactions to items (1)–(3) may be quantified and compared with the same parameters obtained by fitting experimental spectra. This comparison supports the theory in its broad predictions, however, at low temperatures, the DD contribution to the experimental dispersion amplitude does not increase linearly with concentration. We are unable to deduce if this discrepancy is due to inadequate analysis of the experimental data or an incomplete theory. A key new aspect of the more comprehensive theory is that there is enough information in the experimental spectra to find items (1)–(3) due to both interactions; however, in principle, appeal must be made to a model of molecular diffusion to separate the two. The permanent diffusion model is used to illustrate the separation in this
Peric, Mirna; Bales, Barney L; Peric, Miroslav
2012-03-22
The work in part 6 of this series (J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 4930), addressing the task of separating the effects of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and dipole-dipole interactions (DD) on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of nitroxide spin probes in solution, is extended experimentally and theoretically. Comprehensive measurements of perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDT) in squalane, a viscous alkane, paying special attention to lower temperatures and lower concentrations, were carried out in an attempt to focus on DD, the lesser understood of the two interactions. Theoretically, the analysis has been extended to include the recent comprehensive treatment by Salikhov (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2010, 38, 237). In dilute solutions, both interactions (1) introduce a dispersion component, (2) broaden the lines, and (3) shift the lines. DD introduces a dispersion component proportional to the concentration and of opposite sign to that of HSE. Equations relating the EPR spectral parameters to the rate constants due to HSE and DD have been derived. By employing nonlinear least-squares fitting of theoretical spectra to a simple analytical function and the proposed equations, the contributions of the two interactions to items 1-3 may be quantified and compared with the same parameters obtained by fitting experimental spectra. This comparison supports the theory in its broad predictions; however, at low temperatures, the DD contribution to the experimental dispersion amplitude does not increase linearly with concentration. We are unable to deduce whether this discrepancy is due to inadequate analysis of the experimental data or an incomplete theory. A new key aspect of the more comprehensive theory is that there is enough information in the experimental spectra to find items 1-3 due to both interactions; however, in principle, appeal must be made to a model of molecular diffusion to separate the two. The permanent diffusion model is used to
Heib, F., E-mail: f.heib@mx.uni-saarland.de [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Hempelmann, R. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Munief, W.M.; Ingebrandt, S. [Department of Informatics and Microsystem Technology, University of Applied Sciences, Kaiserslautern, 66482 Zweibrücken (Germany); Fug, F.; Possart, W. [Department of Adhesion and Interphases in Polymers, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Groß, K.; Schmitt, M. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)
2015-07-01
Highlights: • Analysis of the triple line motion on surfaces with nanoscale surface topographies. • Analysis of the triple line motion is performed in sub-pixel resolution. • A special fitting and statistical approach for contact angle analysis is applied. • The analyses result set of contact angle data which is independent of “user-skills”. • Characteristically density distributions in dependence on the surface properties. - Abstract: Contact angles and wetting of solid surfaces are strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. These influence quantities are difficult to distinguish from each other if contact angle measurements are performed by measuring only the advancing θ{sub a} and the receding θ{sub r} contact angle. In this regard, time-dependent water contact angles are measured on two hydrophobic modified silicon wafers with different physical surface topographies. The first surface is nearly atomically flat while the second surface is patterned (alternating flat and nanoscale rough patterns) which is synthesized by a photolithography and etching procedure. The different surface topographies are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The resulting set of contact angle data obtained by the high-precision drop shape analysis approach is further analyzed by a Gompertzian fitting procedure and a statistical counting procedure in dependence on the triple line velocity. The Gompertzian fit is used to analyze overall properties of the surface and dependencies between the motion on the front and the back edge of the droplets. The statistical counting procedure results in the calculation of expectation values E(p) and standard deviations σ(p) for the inclination angle φ, contact angle θ, triple line velocity vel and the covered distance of the triple
Van Nooyen, R.R.P.; Hrachowitz, M.; Kolechkina, A.G.
2014-01-01
Even without uncertainty about the model structure or parameters, the output of a hydrological model run still contains several sources of uncertainty. These are: measurement errors affecting the input, the transition from continuous time and space to discrete time and space, which causes loss of in
Capel, H.W.; Cramer, J.S.; Estevez-Uscanga, O.
1995-01-01
'Uncertainty and chance' is a subject with a broad span, in that there is no academic discipline or walk of life that is not beset by uncertainty and chance. In this book a range of approaches is represented by authors from varied disciplines: natural sciences, mathematics, social sciences and medic
Guide for Uncertainty Communication
Wardekker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306644398; Kloprogge, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306644312; Petersen, A.C.; Janssen, P.H.M.; van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489
2013-01-01
Dealing with uncertainty, in terms of analysis and communication, is an important and distinct topic for PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. Without paying adequate attention to the role and implications of uncertainty, research and assessment results may be of limited value and could
Computing with Epistemic Uncertainty
2015-01-01
modified the input uncertainties in any way. And by avoiding the need for simulation, various assumptions and selection of specific sampling...strategies that may affect results are also avoided . According with the Principle of Maximum Uncertainty , epistemic intervals represent the highest input...
Liu Baoding [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Uncertainty Theory Lab.
2007-07-01
Uncertainty theory is a branch of mathematics based on normality, monotonicity, self-duality, and countable subadditivity axioms. The goal of uncertainty theory is to study the behavior of uncertain phenomena such as fuzziness and randomness. The main topics include probability theory, credibility theory, and chance theory. For this new edition the entire text has been totally rewritten. More importantly, the chapters on chance theory and uncertainty theory are completely new. This book provides a self-contained, comprehensive and up-to-date presentation of uncertainty theory. The purpose is to equip the readers with an axiomatic approach to deal with uncertainty. Mathematicians, researchers, engineers, designers, and students in the field of mathematics, information science, operations research, industrial engineering, computer science, artificial intelligence, and management science will find this work a stimulating and useful reference. (orig.)
Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)
Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-03-19
This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.
Measurement uncertainty and probability
Willink, Robin
2013-01-01
A measurement result is incomplete without a statement of its 'uncertainty' or 'margin of error'. But what does this statement actually tell us? By examining the practical meaning of probability, this book discusses what is meant by a '95 percent interval of measurement uncertainty', and how such an interval can be calculated. The book argues that the concept of an unknown 'target value' is essential if probability is to be used as a tool for evaluating measurement uncertainty. It uses statistical concepts, such as a conditional confidence interval, to present 'extended' classical methods for evaluating measurement uncertainty. The use of the Monte Carlo principle for the simulation of experiments is described. Useful for researchers and graduate students, the book also discusses other philosophies relating to the evaluation of measurement uncertainty. It employs clear notation and language to avoid the confusion that exists in this controversial field of science.
Sciacchitano, Andrea; Wieneke, Bernhard
2016-08-01
This paper discusses the propagation of the instantaneous uncertainty of PIV measurements to statistical and instantaneous quantities of interest derived from the velocity field. The expression of the uncertainty of vorticity, velocity divergence, mean value and Reynolds stresses is derived. It is shown that the uncertainty of vorticity and velocity divergence requires the knowledge of the spatial correlation between the error of the x and y particle image displacement, which depends upon the measurement spatial resolution. The uncertainty of statistical quantities is often dominated by the random uncertainty due to the finite sample size and decreases with the square root of the effective number of independent samples. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to assess the accuracy of the uncertainty propagation formulae. Furthermore, three experimental assessments are carried out. In the first experiment, a turntable is used to simulate a rigid rotation flow field. The estimated uncertainty of the vorticity is compared with the actual vorticity error root-mean-square, with differences between the two quantities within 5-10% for different interrogation window sizes and overlap factors. A turbulent jet flow is investigated in the second experimental assessment. The reference velocity, which is used to compute the reference value of the instantaneous flow properties of interest, is obtained with an auxiliary PIV system, which features a higher dynamic range than the measurement system. Finally, the uncertainty quantification of statistical quantities is assessed via PIV measurements in a cavity flow. The comparison between estimated uncertainty and actual error demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed uncertainty propagation methodology.
Understanding and reducing statistical uncertainties in nebular abundance determinations
Wesson, R.; Stock, D. J.; Scicluna, P.
2012-06-01
Whenever observations are compared to theories, an estimate of the uncertainties associated with the observations is vital if the comparison is to be meaningful. However, many or even most determinations of temperatures, densities and abundances in photoionized nebulae do not quote the associated uncertainty. Those that do typically propagate the uncertainties using analytical techniques which rely on assumptions that generally do not hold. Motivated by this issue, we have developed Nebular Empirical Analysis Tool (NEAT), a new code for calculating chemical abundances in photoionized nebulae. The code carries out a standard analysis of lists of emission lines using long-established techniques to estimate the amount of interstellar extinction, calculate representative temperatures and densities, compute ionic abundances from both collisionally excited lines and recombination lines, and finally to estimate total elemental abundances using an ionization correction scheme. NEATuses a Monte Carlo technique to robustly propagate uncertainties from line flux measurements through to the derived abundances. We show that, for typical observational data, this approach is superior to analytic estimates of uncertainties. NEAT also accounts for the effect of upward biasing on measurements of lines with low signal-to-noise ratio, allowing us to accurately quantify the effect of this bias on abundance determinations. We find not only that the effect can result in significant overestimates of heavy element abundances derived from weak lines, but also that taking it into account reduces the uncertainty of these abundance determinations. Finally, we investigate the effect of possible uncertainties in R, the ratio of selective-to-total extinction, on abundance determinations. We find that the uncertainty due to this parameter is negligible compared to the statistical uncertainties due to typical line flux measurement uncertainties.
O'Connell, Emily
2009-01-01
This article describes a lesson on Schapiro Shapes. Schapiro Shapes is based on the art of Miriam Schapiro, who created a number of works of figures in action. Using the basic concepts of this project, students learn to create their own figures and styles. (Contains 1 online resource.)
Completeness properties of the minimum uncertainty states
Trifonov, D. A.
1993-01-01
The completeness properties of the Schrodinger minimum uncertainty states (SMUS) and of some of their subsets are considered. The invariant measures and the resolution unity measures for the set of SMUS are constructed and the representation of squeezing and correlating operators and SMUS as superpositions of Glauber coherent states on the real line is elucidated.
Striatal dopamine release codes uncertainty in pathological gambling.
Linnet, Jakob; Mouridsen, Kim; Peterson, Ericka; Møller, Arne; Doudet, Doris Jeanne; Gjedde, Albert
2012-10-30
Two mechanisms of midbrain and striatal dopaminergic projections may be involved in pathological gambling: hypersensitivity to reward and sustained activation toward uncertainty. The midbrain-striatal dopamine system distinctly codes reward and uncertainty, where dopaminergic activation is a linear function of expected reward and an inverse U-shaped function of uncertainty. In this study, we investigated the dopaminergic coding of reward and uncertainty in 18 pathological gambling sufferers and 16 healthy controls. We used positron emission tomography (PET) with the tracer [(11)C]raclopride to measure dopamine release, and we used performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to determine overall reward and uncertainty. We hypothesized that we would find a linear function between dopamine release and IGT performance, if dopamine release coded reward in pathological gambling. If, on the other hand, dopamine release coded uncertainty, we would find an inversely U-shaped function. The data supported an inverse U-shaped relation between striatal dopamine release and IGT performance if the pathological gambling group, but not in the healthy control group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of dopaminergic sensitivity toward uncertainty, and suggest that dopaminergic sensitivity to uncertainty is pronounced in pathological gambling, but not among non-gambling healthy controls. The findings have implications for understanding dopamine dysfunctions in pathological gambling and addictive behaviors.
Optimal Universal Uncertainty Relations
Li, Tao; Xiao, Yunlong; Ma, Teng; Fei, Shao-Ming; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Wang, Zhi-Xi
2016-01-01
We study universal uncertainty relations and present a method called joint probability distribution diagram to improve the majorization bounds constructed independently in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 230401 (2013)] and [J. Phys. A. 46, 272002 (2013)]. The results give rise to state independent uncertainty relations satisfied by any nonnegative Schur-concave functions. On the other hand, a remarkable recent result of entropic uncertainty relation is the direct-sum majorization relation. In this paper, we illustrate our bounds by showing how they provide a complement to that in [Phys. Rev. A. 89, 052115 (2014)]. PMID:27775010
Model uncertainties of local-thermodynamic-equilibrium K-shell spectroscopy
Nagayama, T.; Bailey, J. E.; Mancini, R. C.; Iglesias, C. A.; Hansen, S. B.; Blancard, C.; Chung, H. K.; Colgan, J.; Cosse, Ph.; Faussurier, G.; Florido, R.; Fontes, C. J.; Gilleron, F.; Golovkin, I. E.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Loisel, G.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Pain, J.-C.; Rochau, G. A.; Sherrill, M. E.; Lee, R. W.
2016-09-01
Local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (LTE) K-shell spectroscopy is a common tool to diagnose electron density, ne, and electron temperature, Te, of high-energy-density (HED) plasmas. Knowing the accuracy of such diagnostics is important to provide quantitative conclusions of many HED-plasma research efforts. For example, Fe opacities were recently measured at multiple conditions at the Sandia National Laboratories Z machine (Bailey et al., 2015), showing significant disagreement with modeled opacities. Since the plasma conditions were measured using K-shell spectroscopy of tracer Mg (Nagayama et al., 2014), one concern is the accuracy of the inferred Fe conditions. In this article, we investigate the K-shell spectroscopy model uncertainties by analyzing the Mg spectra computed with 11 different models at the same conditions. We find that the inferred conditions differ by ±20-30% in ne and ±2-4% in Te depending on the choice of spectral model. Also, we find that half of the Te uncertainty comes from ne uncertainty. To refine the accuracy of the K-shell spectroscopy, it is important to scrutinize and experimentally validate line-shape theory. We investigate the impact of the inferred ne and Te model uncertainty on the Fe opacity measurements. Its impact is small and does not explain the reported discrepancies.
Uncertainty, rationality, and agency
Hoek, Wiebe van der
2006-01-01
Goes across 'classical' borderlines of disciplinesUnifies logic, game theory, and epistemics and studies them in an agent-settingCombines classical and novel approaches to uncertainty, rationality, and agency
Introduction to uncertainty quantification
Sullivan, T J
2015-01-01
Uncertainty quantification is a topic of increasing practical importance at the intersection of applied mathematics, statistics, computation, and numerous application areas in science and engineering. This text provides a framework in which the main objectives of the field of uncertainty quantification are defined, and an overview of the range of mathematical methods by which they can be achieved. Complete with exercises throughout, the book will equip readers with both theoretical understanding and practical experience of the key mathematical and algorithmic tools underlying the treatment of uncertainty in modern applied mathematics. Students and readers alike are encouraged to apply the mathematical methods discussed in this book to their own favourite problems to understand their strengths and weaknesses, also making the text suitable as a self-study. This text is designed as an introduction to uncertainty quantification for senior undergraduate and graduate students with a mathematical or statistical back...
Menger, Fredric M
2010-09-01
It might come as a disappointment to some chemists, but just as there are uncertainties in physics and mathematics, there are some chemistry questions we may never know the answer to either, suggests Fredric M. Menger.
Lemaire, Maurice
2014-01-01
Science is a quest for certainty, but lack of certainty is the driving force behind all of its endeavors. This book, specifically, examines the uncertainty of technological and industrial science. Uncertainty and Mechanics studies the concepts of mechanical design in an uncertain setting and explains engineering techniques for inventing cost-effective products. Though it references practical applications, this is a book about ideas and potential advances in mechanical science.
Nanosensing Backed by the Uncertainty Principle
I. Filikhin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Possibility for a novel type of sensors for detecting nanosized substances (e.g., macromolecules or molecule clusters through their effects on electron tunneling in a double nanoscale semiconductor heterostructure is discussed. We studied spectral distributions of localized/delocalized states of a single electron in a double quantum well (DQW with relation to slight asymmetry perturbations. The asymmetry was modeled by modification of the dot shape and the confinement potential. Electron energy uncertainty is restricted by the differences between energy levels within the spectra of separated QWs. Hence, we established a direct relationship between the uncertainty of electron localization and the energy uncertainty. We have shown in various instances that a small violation of symmetry drastically affects the electron localization. These phenomena can be utilized to devise new sensing functionalities. The charge transport in such sensors is highly sensitive to minuscule symmetry violation caused by the detected substance. The detection of the electron localization constitutes the sensor signal.
Generalized uncertainty principles
Machluf, Ronny
2008-01-01
The phenomenon in the essence of classical uncertainty principles is well known since the thirties of the last century. We introduce a new phenomenon which is in the essence of a new notion that we introduce: "Generalized Uncertainty Principles". We show the relation between classical uncertainty principles and generalized uncertainty principles. We generalized "Landau-Pollak-Slepian" uncertainty principle. Our generalization relates the following two quantities and two scaling parameters: 1) The weighted time spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |f(x)|^2w_1(x)dx$, ($w_1(x)$ is a non-negative function). 2) The weighted frequency spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |\\hat{f}(\\omega)|^2w_2(\\omega)d\\omega$. 3) The time weight scale $a$, ${w_1}_a(x)=w_1(xa^{-1})$ and 4) The frequency weight scale $b$, ${w_2}_b(\\omega)=w_2(\\omega b^{-1})$. "Generalized Uncertainty Principle" is an inequality that summarizes the constraints on the relations between the two spreading quantities and two scaling parameters. For any two reason...
Incorporating uncertainty in RADTRAN 6.0 input files.
Dennis, Matthew L.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Heames, Terence John (Alion Science and Technology)
2010-02-01
Uncertainty may be introduced into RADTRAN analyses by distributing input parameters. The MELCOR Uncertainty Engine (Gauntt and Erickson, 2004) has been adapted for use in RADTRAN to determine the parameter shape and minimum and maximum of the distribution, to sample on the distribution, and to create an appropriate RADTRAN batch file. Coupling input parameters is not possible in this initial application. It is recommended that the analyst be very familiar with RADTRAN and able to edit or create a RADTRAN input file using a text editor before implementing the RADTRAN Uncertainty Analysis Module. Installation of the MELCOR Uncertainty Engine is required for incorporation of uncertainty into RADTRAN. Gauntt and Erickson (2004) provides installation instructions as well as a description and user guide for the uncertainty engine.
Development of a Dynamic Lidar Uncertainty Framework
Newman, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clifton, Andrew [WindForS; Bonin, Timothy [CIRES/NOAA ESRL; Choukulkar, Aditya [CIRES/NOAA ESRL; Brewer, W. Alan [NOAA ESRL; Delgado, Ruben [University of Maryland Baltimore County
2017-08-07
As wind turbine sizes increase and wind energy expands to more complex and remote sites, remote-sensing devices such as lidars are expected to play a key role in wind resource assessment and power performance testing. The switch to remote-sensing devices represents a paradigm shift in the way the wind industry typically obtains and interprets measurement data for wind energy. For example, the measurement techniques and sources of uncertainty for a remote-sensing device are vastly different from those associated with a cup anemometer on a meteorological tower. Current IEC standards for quantifying remote sensing device uncertainty for power performance testing consider uncertainty due to mounting, calibration, and classification of the remote sensing device, among other parameters. Values of the uncertainty are typically given as a function of the mean wind speed measured by a reference device and are generally fixed, leading to climatic uncertainty values that apply to the entire measurement campaign. However, real-world experience and a consideration of the fundamentals of the measurement process have shown that lidar performance is highly dependent on atmospheric conditions, such as wind shear, turbulence, and aerosol content. At present, these conditions are not directly incorporated into the estimated uncertainty of a lidar device. In this presentation, we describe the development of a new dynamic lidar uncertainty framework that adapts to current flow conditions and more accurately represents the actual uncertainty inherent in lidar measurements under different conditions. In this new framework, sources of uncertainty are identified for estimation of the line-of-sight wind speed and reconstruction of the three-dimensional wind field. These sources are then related to physical processes caused by the atmosphere and lidar operating conditions. The framework is applied to lidar data from a field measurement site to assess the ability of the framework to predict
Bales, Barney L; Meyer, Michelle; Peric, Miroslav
2014-08-14
A method to separate the effects of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and dipole-dipole (DD) interactions on EPR spectra of nitroxide spin probes in solution by employing (15)N and (14)N nitroxide spin probes in parallel experiments is developed theoretically and tested experimentally. Comprehensive EPR measurements are reported of 4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-d16;1-(15)N-1-oxyl (perdeuterated (15)N Tempone; 15pDT), in 70 wt % aqueous glycerol as functions of concentration and temperature. The method, termed the relative broadening constant method (RBCM), is demonstrated by using the present results together with those in the literature that employed perdeuterated (14)N Tempone (14pDT) under identical conditions. In principle, the separation of DD and HSE is dependent on the model of diffusion and molecular-kinetic parameters; however, within present day experimental uncertainties, the RBCM method turns out to be insensitive to the model. The earlier methods to separate DD and HSE by measuring the dispersion component introduced by the two interactions shows general agreement with the RBCM; however, there are discrepancies larger than estimated uncertainties due to random errors. Thus, further support is found for Salikhov's recent theory of the effects of DD and HSE on EPR spectra (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2010, 38, 237); however, detailed confirmation is still lacking. The RBCM affords a possible approach to separate HSE and DD in spectra complicated by slow motion and/or overlap with other resonance lines, allowing the method to be used in situations more complicated than low-viscosity simple liquids.
2015-01-01
A method to separate the effects of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and dipole–dipole (DD) interactions on EPR spectra of nitroxide spin probes in solution by employing 15N and 14N nitroxide spin probes in parallel experiments is developed theoretically and tested experimentally. Comprehensive EPR measurements are reported of 4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-d16;1-15N-1-oxyl (perdeuterated 15N Tempone; 15pDT), in 70 wt % aqueous glycerol as functions of concentration and temperature. The method, termed the relative broadening constant method (RBCM), is demonstrated by using the present results together with those in the literature that employed perdeuterated 14N Tempone (14pDT) under identical conditions. In principle, the separation of DD and HSE is dependent on the model of diffusion and molecular-kinetic parameters; however, within present day experimental uncertainties, the RBCM method turns out to be insensitive to the model. The earlier methods to separate DD and HSE by measuring the dispersion component introduced by the two interactions shows general agreement with the RBCM; however, there are discrepancies larger than estimated uncertainties due to random errors. Thus, further support is found for Salikhov’s recent theory of the effects of DD and HSE on EPR spectra (Appl. Magn. Reson.2010, 38, 237); however, detailed confirmation is still lacking. The RBCM affords a possible approach to separate HSE and DD in spectra complicated by slow motion and/or overlap with other resonance lines, allowing the method to be used in situations more complicated than low-viscosity simple liquids. PMID:25035905
Network planning under uncertainties
Ho, Kwok Shing; Cheung, Kwok Wai
2008-11-01
One of the main focuses for network planning is on the optimization of network resources required to build a network under certain traffic demand projection. Traditionally, the inputs to this type of network planning problems are treated as deterministic. In reality, the varying traffic requirements and fluctuations in network resources can cause uncertainties in the decision models. The failure to include the uncertainties in the network design process can severely affect the feasibility and economics of the network. Therefore, it is essential to find a solution that can be insensitive to the uncertain conditions during the network planning process. As early as in the 1960's, a network planning problem with varying traffic requirements over time had been studied. Up to now, this kind of network planning problems is still being active researched, especially for the VPN network design. Another kind of network planning problems under uncertainties that has been studied actively in the past decade addresses the fluctuations in network resources. One such hotly pursued research topic is survivable network planning. It considers the design of a network under uncertainties brought by the fluctuations in topology to meet the requirement that the network remains intact up to a certain number of faults occurring anywhere in the network. Recently, the authors proposed a new planning methodology called Generalized Survivable Network that tackles the network design problem under both varying traffic requirements and fluctuations of topology. Although all the above network planning problems handle various kinds of uncertainties, it is hard to find a generic framework under more general uncertainty conditions that allows a more systematic way to solve the problems. With a unified framework, the seemingly diverse models and algorithms can be intimately related and possibly more insights and improvements can be brought out for solving the problem. This motivates us to seek a
Uncertainties in Atomic Data and Their Propagation Through Spectral Models. I.
Bautista, M. A.; Fivet, V.; Quinet, P.; Dunn, J.; Gull, T. R.; Kallman, T. R.; Mendoza, C.
2013-01-01
We present a method for computing uncertainties in spectral models, i.e., level populations, line emissivities, and emission line ratios, based upon the propagation of uncertainties originating from atomic data.We provide analytic expressions, in the form of linear sets of algebraic equations, for the coupled uncertainties among all levels. These equations can be solved efficiently for any set of physical conditions and uncertainties in the atomic data. We illustrate our method applied to spectral models of Oiii and Fe ii and discuss the impact of the uncertainties on atomic systems under different physical conditions. As to intrinsic uncertainties in theoretical atomic data, we propose that these uncertainties can be estimated from the dispersion in the results from various independent calculations. This technique provides excellent results for the uncertainties in A-values of forbidden transitions in [Fe ii]. Key words: atomic data - atomic processes - line: formation - methods: data analysis - molecular data - molecular processes - techniques: spectroscopic
Market uncertainty; Markedsusikkerhet
Doorman, Gerard; Holtan, Jon Anders; Mo, Birger; Groenli, Helle; Haaland, Magnar; Grinden, Bjoern
1997-04-10
In Norway, the project ``Market uncertainty`` has been in progress for over two years and resulted in increased skill in the use of the Grid System Operation Model. This report classifies some of the factors which lead to uncertainties in the electric power market. It has been examined whether these factors should be, or can be, modelled in the available simulation models. Some of the factors have been further considered and methods of modelling the associated uncertainties have been examined. It is concluded that (1) There is a need for automatic simulation of several scenarios in the model, and these scenarios should incorporate probability parameters, (2) At first it is most important that one can handle uncertainties in fuel prices and demand, (3) Market uncertainty which is due to irrational behaviour should be dealt with in a separate model. The difference between real and simulated prices should be analysed and modelled with a time series model, (4) Risk should be included in the Vansimtap model by way of feedback from simulations, (5) The marginal values of stored water as calculated by means of the various methods in use should be compared systematically. 9 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.
Interpreting uncertainty terms.
Holtgraves, Thomas
2014-08-01
Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on.
Ablikim, M; Ahmed, S; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Berger, N; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, R P; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Heinsius, F H; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Holtmann, T; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, Y P; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, X Z; Huang, Y; Huang, Z L; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kupsc, A; Kühn, W; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leithoff, H; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, H J; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y B; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Y Y; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, M M; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Mezzadri, G; Min, J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales, C Morales; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Musiol, P; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schnier, C; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, M; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X H; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, L J; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, J J; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H
2016-01-01
Using $1.09\\times10^{9}$ $J/\\psi$ events collected by the BESIII experiment in 2012, we study the $J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\gamma\\eta^{\\prime}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ process and observe a significant abrupt change in the slope of the $\\eta^{\\prime}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ invariant mass distribution at the proton-antiproton ($p\\bar{p}$) mass threshold. We use two models to characterize the $\\eta^{\\prime}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ line shape around $1.85~\\text{GeV}/c^{2}$: one which explicitly incorporates the opening of a decay threshold in the mass spectrum (Flatt\\'{e} formula), and another which is the coherent sum of two resonant amplitudes. Both fits show almost equally good agreement with data, and suggest the existence of either a broad state around $1.85~\\text{GeV}/c^{2}$ with strong couplings to $p\\bar{p}$ final states or a narrow state just below the $p\\bar{p}$ mass threshold. Although we cannot distinguish between the fits, either one supports the existence of a $p\\bar{p}$ molecule-like state or bound state with greater than $7\\sigma...
Non-linear Calibration Leads to Improved Correspondence between Uncertainties
Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov
2007-01-01
an investigation of an uncomplicated expression of the non-linear working curve that is well suited to an assessment of predicted uncertainties. At small concentrations, the working curve reduces to a straight line that corresponds to the conventional calibration line. If no interferences were disturbing...... limit theorem, an excellent correspondence was obtained between predicted uncertainties and measured uncertainties. In order to validate the method, experiments were applied of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for the analysis of Co and Pt, and experiments of electrothermal atomic absorption...
Measurement uncertainty relations
Busch, Paul, E-mail: paul.busch@york.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Lahti, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.lahti@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Werner, Reinhard F., E-mail: reinhard.werner@itp.uni-hannover.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universität, Hannover (Germany)
2014-04-15
Measurement uncertainty relations are quantitative bounds on the errors in an approximate joint measurement of two observables. They can be seen as a generalization of the error/disturbance tradeoff first discussed heuristically by Heisenberg. Here we prove such relations for the case of two canonically conjugate observables like position and momentum, and establish a close connection with the more familiar preparation uncertainty relations constraining the sharpness of the distributions of the two observables in the same state. Both sets of relations are generalized to means of order α rather than the usual quadratic means, and we show that the optimal constants are the same for preparation and for measurement uncertainty. The constants are determined numerically and compared with some bounds in the literature. In both cases, the near-saturation of the inequalities entails that the state (resp. observable) is uniformly close to a minimizing one.
Sustainability and uncertainty
Jensen, Karsten Klint
2007-01-01
and infers prescriptions from this requirement. These two approaches may conflict, and in this conflict the top-down approach has the upper hand, ethically speaking. However, the implicit goal in the top-down approach of justice between generations needs to be refined in several dimensions. But even given...... a clarified ethical goal, disagreements can arise. At present we do not know what substitutions will be possible in the future. This uncertainty clearly affects the prescriptions that follow from the measure of sustainability. Consequently, decisions about how to make future agriculture sustainable...... are decisions under uncertainty. There might be different judgments on likelihoods; but even given some set of probabilities, there might be disagreement on the right level of precaution in face of the uncertainty....
SAGD optimization under uncertainty
Gossuin, J.; Naccache, P. [Schlumberger SIS, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Bailley, W.; Couet, B. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Cambridge, MA, (United States)
2011-07-01
In the heavy oil industry, the steam assisted gravity drainage process is often used to enhance oil recovery but this is a costly method and ways to make it more efficient are needed. Multiple methods have been developed to optimize the SAGD process but none of them explicitly considered uncertainty. This paper presents an optimization method in the presence of reservoir uncertainty. This process was tested on an SAGD model where three equi-probable geological models are possible. Preparatory steps were first performed to identify key variables and the optimization model was then proposed. The method was shown to be successful in handling a significant number of uncertainties, optimizing the SAGD process and preventing premature steam channels that can choke production. The optimization method presented herein was successfully applied to an SAGD process and was shown to provide better strategies than sensitivity analysis while handling more complex problems.
Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis
Cacuci, Dan G; Navon, Ionel Michael
2005-01-01
As computer-assisted modeling and analysis of physical processes have continued to grow and diversify, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have become indispensable scientific tools. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis. Volume I: Theory focused on the mathematical underpinnings of two important methods for such analyses: the Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure and the Global Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure. This volume concentrates on the practical aspects of performing these analyses for large-scale systems. The applications addressed include two-phase flow problems, a radiative c
Uncertainty in artificial intelligence
Levitt, TS; Lemmer, JF; Shachter, RD
1990-01-01
Clearly illustrated in this volume is the current relationship between Uncertainty and AI.It has been said that research in AI revolves around five basic questions asked relative to some particular domain: What knowledge is required? How can this knowledge be acquired? How can it be represented in a system? How should this knowledge be manipulated in order to provide intelligent behavior? How can the behavior be explained? In this volume, all of these questions are addressed. From the perspective of the relationship of uncertainty to the basic questions of AI, the book divides naturally i
Commonplaces and social uncertainty
Lassen, Inger
2008-01-01
an example of risk discourse in which the use of commonplaces seems to be a central feature (Myers 2004: 81). My analyses support earlier findings that commonplaces serve important interactional purposes (Barton 1999) and that they are used for mitigating disagreement, for closing topics and for facilitating...... risk discourse (Myers 2005; 2007). In additional, however, I argue that commonplaces are used to mitigate feelings of insecurity caused by uncertainty and to negotiate new codes of moral conduct. Keywords: uncertainty, commonplaces, risk discourse, focus groups, appraisal...
亚玲
2007-01-01
<正>Teenagers have been of a new shape these days. They are about 20 pounds heavier than teenagers were 60 years ago. They are about four inches taller, too. These facts come from J. M. Tanner, a professor in England.
Uncertainty information in climate data records from Earth observation
Merchant, Christopher J.; Paul, Frank; Popp, Thomas; Ablain, Michael; Bontemps, Sophie; Defourny, Pierre; Hollmann, Rainer; Lavergne, Thomas; Laeng, Alexandra; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Mittaz, Jonathan; Poulsen, Caroline; Povey, Adam C.; Reuter, Max; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Sandven, Stein; Sofieva, Viktoria F.; Wagner, Wolfgang
2017-07-01
The question of how to derive and present uncertainty information in climate data records (CDRs) has received sustained attention within the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (CCI), a programme to generate CDRs addressing a range of essential climate variables (ECVs) from satellite data. Here, we review the nature, mathematics, practicalities, and communication of uncertainty information in CDRs from Earth observations. This review paper argues that CDRs derived from satellite-based Earth observation (EO) should include rigorous uncertainty information to support the application of the data in contexts such as policy, climate modelling, and numerical weather prediction reanalysis. Uncertainty, error, and quality are distinct concepts, and the case is made that CDR products should follow international metrological norms for presenting quantified uncertainty. As a baseline for good practice, total standard uncertainty should be quantified per datum in a CDR, meaning that uncertainty estimates should clearly discriminate more and less certain data. In this case, flags for data quality should not duplicate uncertainty information, but instead describe complementary information (such as the confidence in the uncertainty estimate provided or indicators of conditions violating the retrieval assumptions). The paper discusses the many sources of error in CDRs, noting that different errors may be correlated across a wide range of timescales and space scales. Error effects that contribute negligibly to the total uncertainty in a single-satellite measurement can be the dominant sources of uncertainty in a CDR on the large space scales and long timescales that are highly relevant for some climate applications. For this reason, identifying and characterizing the relevant sources of uncertainty for CDRs is particularly challenging. The characterization of uncertainty caused by a given error effect involves assessing the magnitude of the effect, the shape of the
Striatal dopamine release codes uncertainty in pathological gambling
Linnet, Jakob; Mouridsen, Kim; Peterson, Ericka
2012-01-01
Two mechanisms of midbrain and striatal dopaminergic projections may be involved in pathological gambling: hypersensitivity to reward and sustained activation toward uncertainty. The midbrain-striatal dopamine system distinctly codes reward and uncertainty, where dopaminergic activation is a linear......]raclopride to measure dopamine release, and we used performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to determine overall reward and uncertainty. We hypothesized that we would find a linear function between dopamine release and IGT performance, if dopamine release coded reward in pathological gambling. If, on the other hand......, dopamine release coded uncertainty, we would find an inversely U-shaped function. The data supported an inverse U-shaped relation between striatal dopamine release and IGT performance if the pathological gambling group, but not in the healthy control group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis...
Striatal dopamine release codes uncertainty in pathological gambling
Linnet, Jakob; Mouridsen, Kim; Peterson, Ericka
2012-01-01
Two mechanisms of midbrain and striatal dopaminergic projections may be involved in pathological gambling: hypersensitivity to reward and sustained activation toward uncertainty. The midbrain—striatal dopamine system distinctly codes reward and uncertainty, where dopaminergic activation is a linear...... dopamine release, and we used performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to determine overall reward and uncertainty. We hypothesized that we would find a linear function between dopamine release and IGT performance, if dopamine release coded reward in pathological gambling. If, on the other hand......, dopamine release coded uncertainty, we would find an inversely U-shaped function. The data supported an inverse U-shaped relation between striatal dopamine release and IGT performance if the pathological gambling group, but not in the healthy control group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis...
Multiphysics modeling and uncertainty quantification for an active composite reflector
Peterson, Lee D.; Bradford, S. C.; Schiermeier, John E.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Basinger, Scott A.
2013-09-01
A multiphysics, high resolution simulation of an actively controlled, composite reflector panel is developed to extrapolate from ground test results to flight performance. The subject test article has previously demonstrated sub-micron corrected shape in a controlled laboratory thermal load. This paper develops a model of the on-orbit performance of the panel under realistic thermal loads, with an active heater control system, and performs an uncertainty quantification of the predicted response. The primary contribution of this paper is the first reported application of the Sandia developed Sierra mechanics simulation tools to a spacecraft multiphysics simulation of a closed-loop system, including uncertainty quantification. The simulation was developed so as to have sufficient resolution to capture the residual panel shape error that remains after the thermal and mechanical control loops are closed. An uncertainty quantification analysis was performed to assess the predicted tolerance in the closed-loop wavefront error. Key tools used for the uncertainty quantification are also described.
Striatal dopamine release codes uncertainty in pathological gambling
Linnet, Jakob; Mouridsen, Kim; Peterson, Ericka
2012-01-01
Two mechanisms of midbrain and striatal dopaminergic projections may be involved in pathological gambling: hypersensitivity to reward and sustained activation toward uncertainty. The midbrain—striatal dopamine system distinctly codes reward and uncertainty, where dopaminergic activation is a linear...... dopamine release, and we used performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to determine overall reward and uncertainty. We hypothesized that we would find a linear function between dopamine release and IGT performance, if dopamine release coded reward in pathological gambling. If, on the other hand......, dopamine release coded uncertainty, we would find an inversely U-shaped function. The data supported an inverse U-shaped relation between striatal dopamine release and IGT performance if the pathological gambling group, but not in the healthy control group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis...
Coulson-Thomas, Colin
2015-01-01
Examines risk management and contemporary issues concerning risk governance from a board perspective, including risk tolerance, innovation, insurance, balancing risks and other factors, risk and strategies of diversification or focus, increasing flexibility to cope with uncertainty, periodic planning versus intelligent steering, and limiting downside risks and adverse consequences.
Uncertainties in repository modeling
Wilson, J.R.
1996-12-31
The distant future is ver difficult to predict. Unfortunately, our regulators are being enchouraged to extend ther regulatory period form the standard 10,000 years to 1 million years. Such overconfidence is not justified due to uncertainties in dating, calibration, and modeling.
Vehicle Routing under Uncertainty
Máhr, T.
2011-01-01
In this thesis, the main focus is on the study of a real-world transportation problem with uncertainties, and on the comparison of a centralized and a distributed solution approach in the context of this problem. We formalize the real-world problem, and provide a general framework to extend it with
Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob B.
2006-01-01
A severe collapse of fixed capital formation distinguished the onset of the Great Depression from other investment downturns between the world wars. Using a model estimated for the years 1890-2000, we show that the expected profitability of capital measured by Tobin's q, and the uncertainty surro...... of the depression: rather, its slump helped to propel the wider collapse...
Cettolin, E.; Riedl, A.M.
2013-01-01
An important element for the public support of policies is their perceived justice. At the same time most policy choices have uncertain outcomes. We report the results of a first experiment investigating just allocations of resources when some recipients are exposed to uncertainty. Although, under c
范梦璇
2015-01-01
<正>Employ change-related uncertainty is a condition that under current continually changing business environment,the organizations also have to change,the change include strategic direction,structure and staffing levels to help company to keep competitive(Armenakis&Bedeian,1999);However;these
在线方式下产品外形设计的客户感性认知模型与应用%Customer′s Kansei On-Line Cognition Model in Product Shape Design
韩煜东; 刘伟
2014-01-01
为了能在在线方式下有效认知产品外形设计中的客户感性偏好，提出了一种能以结构化的方式识别客户非结构化感性表达的模型。首先在在线方式下，以语义差异法和多维尺度法获得了客户感性空间向设计感性空间的映射；接着以正交设计缩减实验次数，再以移动法形成由多个正交设计组成的选择集；最后利用离散选择模型对选择结果进行分析，得到了感性意象和外形设计特征之间的函数关系，也就是获得了设计感性空间到设计参数空间的映射。整个识别模型符合在线方式下客户的表达特点，从非结构化的评价变为结构化的选择。以乘用车应用实例验证了所提出模型的可行性与有效性。%An on-line recognition model of Kansei preference in product shape design , which can obtain unstructured information of customer in structured form ,is put forward.Firstly, semantic differential and multidimensional scaling are used to complete mapping from customer′s Kansei space to space of Kansei designing .Secondly , an orthogonal design is used to reduce times of experiment .Thirdly , a shifting mode used to generate choice-set of orthogonal design .Finally, a discrete choice model is used to analyze data , which can obtain relationship between Kansei and designing elements .The example of car shape elements is taken to illustrate the model , of which exterior is comprehensible and reasonable , and interior is scientif-ic and religious .
A New Framework for Quantifying Lidar Uncertainty
Newman, Jennifer, F.; Clifton, Andrew; Bonin, Timothy A.; Churchfield, Matthew J.
2017-03-24
As wind turbine sizes increase and wind energy expands to more complex and remote sites, remote sensing devices such as lidars are expected to play a key role in wind resource assessment and power performance testing. The switch to remote sensing devices represents a paradigm shift in the way the wind industry typically obtains and interprets measurement data for wind energy. For example, the measurement techniques and sources of uncertainty for a remote sensing device are vastly different from those associated with a cup anemometer on a meteorological tower. Current IEC standards discuss uncertainty due to mounting, calibration, and classification of the remote sensing device, among other parameters. Values of the uncertainty are typically given as a function of the mean wind speed measured by a reference device. However, real-world experience has shown that lidar performance is highly dependent on atmospheric conditions, such as wind shear, turbulence, and aerosol content. At present, these conditions are not directly incorporated into the estimated uncertainty of a lidar device. In this presentation, we propose the development of a new lidar uncertainty framework that adapts to current flow conditions and more accurately represents the actual uncertainty inherent in lidar measurements under different conditions. In this new framework, sources of uncertainty are identified for estimation of the line-of-sight wind speed and reconstruction of the three-dimensional wind field. These sources are then related to physical processes caused by the atmosphere and lidar operating conditions. The framework is applied to lidar data from an operational wind farm to assess the ability of the framework to predict errors in lidar-measured wind speed.
Burda, Oleksiy
2007-07-15
The present work contains two parts. The first one is devoted to the investigation of mixed-symmetry structure in {sup 94}Mo and the second one to the astrophysical relevant line shape of the first excited 1/2{sup +} state in {sup 9}Be. In the first part of the thesis the nature of one- and two-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2{sup +} states in {sup 94}Mo is investigated with high-resolution inelastic electron and proton scattering experiments in a combined analysis. The (e,e') experiments were carried out at the 169 magnetic spectrometer at the S-DALINAC. Data were taken at a beam energy E e=70 MeV and scattering angles {theta}{sub e}=93 -165 . In dispersion-matching mode an energy resolution {delta}{sub E}=30-45 keV (full width at half maximum) was achieved. The (p,p') measurements were performed at iThemba LABS, South Africa, using a K600 magnetic spectrometer at a proton energy E p=200 MeV and scattering angles {theta}{sub p}=4.5 -26 . Typical energy resolutions were {delta}{sub E}{approx_equal}35 keV. The combined analysis reveals a dominant one-phonon structure of the transitions to the first and third 2{sup +} states, as well as an isovector character of the transition to the one-phonon mixed-symmetric state within the valence shell. Quantitatively consistent estimates of the one-phonon admixtures are obtained from both experimental probes when two-step contributions to the proton scattering cross sections are taken into account. In the second part of the thesis the line shape of the first excited 1/2{sup +} state in {sup 9}Be is studied. Spectra of the {sup 9}Be(e,e') reaction were measured at the S-DALINAC at an electron energy E e=73 MeV and scattering angles of 93 and 141 with high energy resolution up to excitation energies E{sub x}=8 MeV. The form factor of the first excited state has been extracted from the data. The astrophysical relevant {sup 9}Be({gamma},n) cross sections have been extracted from the (e,e') data. The
Shapes of randomly placed droplets
Panchagnula, Mahesh; Janardan, Nachiketa; Deevi, Sri Vallabha
2016-11-01
Surface characterization is essential for many industrial applications. Surface defects result in a range of contact angles, which lead to Contact Angle Hysteresis (CAH). We use shapes of randomly shaped drops on surfaces to study the family of shapes that may result from CAH. We image the triple line from these drops and extract additional information related to local contact angles as well as curvatures from these images. We perform a generalized extreme value analysis (GEV) on this microscopic contact angle data. From this analysis, we predict a range for extreme contact angles that are possible for a sessile drop. We have also measured the macroscopic advancing and receding contact angles using a Goniometer. From the extreme values of the contact line curvature, we estimate the pinning stress distribution responsible for the random shapes. It is seen that this range follows the same trend as the macroscopic CAH measured using a Goniometer, and can be used as a method of characterizing the surface.
Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc: Preprint
Campanelli, Mark; Duck, Benjamin; Emery, Keith
2015-09-28
Current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements of photovoltaic (PV) devices are used to determine performance parameters and to establish traceable calibration chains. Measurement standards specify localized curve fitting methods, e.g., straight-line interpolation/extrapolation of the I-V curve points near short-circuit current, Isc. By considering such fits as statistical linear regressions, uncertainties in the performance parameters are readily quantified. However, the legitimacy of such a computed uncertainty requires that the model be a valid (local) representation of the I-V curve and that the noise be sufficiently well characterized. Using more data points often has the advantage of lowering the uncertainty. However, more data points can make the uncertainty in the fit arbitrarily small, and this fit uncertainty misses the dominant residual uncertainty due to so-called model discrepancy. Using objective Bayesian linear regression for straight-line fits for Isc, we investigate an evidence-based method to automatically choose data windows of I-V points with reduced model discrepancy. We also investigate noise effects. Uncertainties, aligned with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), are quantified throughout.
Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty
Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo
2004-01-01
respects necessary scientific precision and problem-solving approach of the field of engineering studies. Competences should be presented in a way that is methodologically and didactically optimised for employees with a mostly work-based vocational qualification and should at the same time be appealing...... and motivating to this important group. The developed e-learning system consists on 12 different chapters dealing with the following topics: 1. Basics 2. Traceability and measurement uncertainty 3. Coordinate metrology 4. Form measurement 5. Surface testing 6. Optical measurement and testing 7. Measuring rooms 8....... Machine tool testing 9. The role of manufacturing metrology for QM 10. Inspection planning 11. Quality management of measurements incl. Documentation 12. Advanced manufacturing measurement technology The present report (which represents the section 2 - Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty – of the e...
Vámos, Tibor
The gist of the paper is the fundamental uncertain nature of all kinds of uncertainties and consequently a critical epistemic review of historical and recent approaches, computational methods, algorithms. The review follows the development of the notion from the beginnings of thinking, via the Aristotelian and Skeptic view, the medieval nominalism and the influential pioneering metaphors of ancient India and Persia to the birth of modern mathematical disciplinary reasoning. Discussing the models of uncertainty, e.g. the statistical, other physical and psychological background we reach a pragmatic model related estimation perspective, a balanced application orientation for different problem areas. Data mining, game theories and recent advances in approximation algorithms are discussed in this spirit of modest reasoning.
Definition and Verification of Shape Meter Method
无
2002-01-01
Two experimental methods were adopted to verify the correctness and practicability of the shape meter method: one is to roll aluminum plate, calculate the shape stiffness of mill and rolled piece, and then measure aluminum plate crown to verify shape stiffness equation; the other is to calculate the measured off-line data of hot continuous roll and verify the shape mathematical model for measuring and controlling by self-adaptation method.
Coalition Formation under Uncertainty
2010-03-01
Unfortunately, many current approaches to coalition formation lack provi- sions for uncertainty. This prevents application of coalition formation techniques ...should also include mechanisms and processing techniques that provide stabil- ity, scalability, and, at a minimum, optimality relative to agent beliefs...relocate a piano . For the sake of simplicity, assume payment is divided evenly among the participants in the move (i.e., each mover has the same utility or
Optimizing production under uncertainty
Rasmussen, Svend
This Working Paper derives criteria for optimal production under uncertainty based on the state-contingent approach (Chambers and Quiggin, 2000), and discusses po-tential problems involved in applying the state-contingent approach in a normative context. The analytical approach uses the concept o...... the relative benefits and of using the state-contingent approach in a norma-tive context, compared to the EV model....
Uncertainty in artificial intelligence
Shachter, RD; Henrion, M; Lemmer, JF
1990-01-01
This volume, like its predecessors, reflects the cutting edge of research on the automation of reasoning under uncertainty.A more pragmatic emphasis is evident, for although some papers address fundamental issues, the majority address practical issues. Topics include the relations between alternative formalisms (including possibilistic reasoning), Dempster-Shafer belief functions, non-monotonic reasoning, Bayesian and decision theoretic schemes, and new inference techniques for belief nets. New techniques are applied to important problems in medicine, vision, robotics, and natural language und
Aggregating and Communicating Uncertainty.
1980-04-01
means for identifying and communicating uncertainty. i 12- APPENDIX A BIBLIOGRAPHY j| 1. Ajzen , Icek ; "Intuitive Theories of Events and the Effects...disregarding valid but noncausal information." (Icak Ajzen , "Intuitive Theo- ries of Events and the Effects of Base-Rate Information on Prediction...9 4i,* ,4.. -. .- S % to the criterion while disregarding valid but noncausal information." (Icak Ajzen , "Intuitive Theories of Events and the Effects
1981-05-15
Variants of Uncertainty Daniel Kahneman University of British Columbia Amos Tversky Stanford University DTI-C &%E-IECTE ~JUNO 1i 19 8 1j May 15, 1981... Dennett , 1979) in which different parts have ac- cess to different data, assign then different weights and hold different views of the situation...2robable and t..h1 provable. Oxford- Claredor Press, 1977. Dennett , D.C. Brainstorms. Hassocks: Harvester, 1979. Donchin, E., Ritter, W. & McCallum, W.C
Uncertainties in Atomic Data and Their Propagation Through Spectral Models. I
Bautista, Manuel A; Quinet, Pascal; Dunn, Jay; Kallman, Theodore R Gull Timothy R; Mendoza, Claudio
2013-01-01
We present a method for computing uncertainties in spectral models, i.e. level populations, line emissivities, and emission line ratios, based upon the propagation of uncertainties originating from atomic data. We provide analytic expressions, in the form of linear sets of algebraic equations, for the coupled uncertainties among all levels. These equations can be solved efficiently for any set of physical conditions and uncertainties in the atomic data. We illustrate our method applied to spectral models of O III and Fe II and discuss the impact of the uncertainties on atomic systems under different physical conditions. As to intrinsic uncertainties in theoretical atomic data, we propose that these uncertainties can be estimated from the dispersion in the results from various independent calculations. This technique provides excellent results for the uncertainties in A-values of forbidden transitions in [Fe II].
Uncertainty Quantification in Aeroelasticity
Beran, Philip; Stanford, Bret; Schrock, Christopher
2017-01-01
Physical interactions between a fluid and structure, potentially manifested as self-sustained or divergent oscillations, can be sensitive to many parameters whose values are uncertain. Of interest here are aircraft aeroelastic interactions, which must be accounted for in aircraft certification and design. Deterministic prediction of these aeroelastic behaviors can be difficult owing to physical and computational complexity. New challenges are introduced when physical parameters and elements of the modeling process are uncertain. By viewing aeroelasticity through a nondeterministic prism, where key quantities are assumed stochastic, one may gain insights into how to reduce system uncertainty, increase system robustness, and maintain aeroelastic safety. This article reviews uncertainty quantification in aeroelasticity using traditional analytical techniques not reliant on computational fluid dynamics; compares and contrasts this work with emerging methods based on computational fluid dynamics, which target richer physics; and reviews the state of the art in aeroelastic optimization under uncertainty. Barriers to continued progress, for example, the so-called curse of dimensionality, are discussed.
Calibration Under Uncertainty.
Swiler, Laura Painton; Trucano, Timothy Guy
2005-03-01
This report is a white paper summarizing the literature and different approaches to the problem of calibrating computer model parameters in the face of model uncertainty. Model calibration is often formulated as finding the parameters that minimize the squared difference between the model-computed data (the predicted data) and the actual experimental data. This approach does not allow for explicit treatment of uncertainty or error in the model itself: the model is considered the %22true%22 deterministic representation of reality. While this approach does have utility, it is far from an accurate mathematical treatment of the true model calibration problem in which both the computed data and experimental data have error bars. This year, we examined methods to perform calibration accounting for the error in both the computer model and the data, as well as improving our understanding of its meaning for model predictability. We call this approach Calibration under Uncertainty (CUU). This talk presents our current thinking on CUU. We outline some current approaches in the literature, and discuss the Bayesian approach to CUU in detail.
Uncertainty quantified trait predictions
Fazayeli, Farideh; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Schrodt, Franziska; Reich, Peter
2015-04-01
Functional traits of organisms are key to understanding and predicting biodiversity and ecological change, which motivates continuous collection of traits and their integration into global databases. Such composite trait matrices are inherently sparse, severely limiting their usefulness for further analyses. On the other hand, traits are characterized by the phylogenetic trait signal, trait-trait correlations and environmental constraints, all of which provide information that could be used to statistically fill gaps. We propose the application of probabilistic models which, for the first time, utilize all three characteristics to fill gaps in trait databases and predict trait values at larger spatial scales. For this purpose we introduce BHPMF, a hierarchical Bayesian extension of Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF). PMF is a machine learning technique which exploits the correlation structure of sparse matrices to impute missing entries. BHPMF additionally utilizes the taxonomic hierarchy for trait prediction. Implemented in the context of a Gibbs Sampler MCMC approach BHPMF provides uncertainty estimates for each trait prediction. We present comprehensive experimental results on the problem of plant trait prediction using the largest database of plant traits, where BHPMF shows strong empirical performance in uncertainty quantified trait prediction, outperforming the state-of-the-art based on point estimates. Further, we show that BHPMF is more accurate when it is confident, whereas the error is high when the uncertainty is high.
James G. Worner
2017-05-01
Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship. ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.
Dynamic response of Antarctic ice shelves to bedrock uncertainty
S. Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Bedrock geometry is an essential boundary condition in ice sheet modelling. The shape of the bedrock on fine scales can influences ice sheet evolution, for example through the formation of pinning points that alter grounding line dynamics. Here we test the sensitivity of the BISICLES adaptive mesh ice sheet model to small amplitude height fluctuations on different spatial scales in the bed rock topography provided by bedmap2 in the catchments of Pine Island Glacier, the Amery Ice Shelf, and a region of East Antarctica including the Denman and Totten Glaciers. We generate an ensemble of bedrock topographies by adding random noise to the bedmap2 data with amplitude determined by the accompanying estimates of bedrock uncertainty. Lower frequency coherent noise, which generates broad spatial scale (over 10s of km errors in topography with relatively gently slopes, while higher frequency noise has steeper slopes over smaller spatial scales. We find that the small amplitude fluctuations result in only minor changes in the way these glaciers evolve. However, lower frequency noise is more important than higher frequency noise even when the features have the same height amplitudes and the total noise power is maintained. This provides optimism for credible sea level rise estimates with presently achievable densities of thickness measurements. Pine Island Glacier appears to be the most sensitive to errors in bed topography, while Lambert–Amery is stable under the present day observational data uncertainty. Totten–Denman region may undergo a retreat around Totten ice shelf, where the bedrock is lower than the sea level, especially if basal melt rates increase.
Uncertainty in magnetic activity indices
2008-01-01
Magnetic activity indices are widely used in theoretical studies of solar-terrestrial coupling and space weather prediction. However, the indices suffer from various uncertainties, which limit their application and even mislead to incorrect conclu-sion. In this paper we analyze three most popular indices, Kp, AE and Dst. Three categories of uncertainties in magnetic indices are discussed: "data uncertainty" originating from inadequate data processing, "station uncertainty" caused by in-complete station covering, and "physical uncertainty" stemming from unclear physical mechanism. A comparison between magnetic disturbances and related indices indicate that the residual Sq will cause an uncertainty of 1―2 in K meas-urement, the uncertainty in saturated AE is as much as 50%, and the uncertainty in Dst index caused by the partial ring currents is about a half of the partial ring cur-rent.
Uncertainty in magnetic activity indices
XU WenYao
2008-01-01
Magnetic activity indices are widely used in theoretical studies of solar-terrestrial coupling and space weather prediction. However, the indices suffer from various uncertainties, which limit their application and even mislead to incorrect conclu-sion. In this paper we analyze three most popular indices, Kp, AE and Dst. Three categories of uncertainties in magnetic indices are discussed: "data uncertainty" originating from inadequate data processing, "station uncertainty" caused by in-complete station covering, and "physical uncertainty" stemming from unclear physical mechanism. A comparison between magnetic disturbances and related indices indicate that the residual Sq will cause an uncertainty of 1-2 in K meas-urement, the uncertainty in saturated AE is as much as 50%, and the uncertainty in Dst index caused by the partial ring currents is about a half of the partial ring cur-rent.
S-parameter uncertainty computations
Vidkjær, Jens
1993-01-01
A method for computing uncertainties of measured s-parameters is presented. Unlike the specification software provided with network analyzers, the new method is capable of calculating the uncertainties of arbitrary s-parameter sets and instrument settings.......A method for computing uncertainties of measured s-parameters is presented. Unlike the specification software provided with network analyzers, the new method is capable of calculating the uncertainties of arbitrary s-parameter sets and instrument settings....
Pauli effects in uncertainty relations
Toranzo, I V; Esquivel, R O; Dehesa, J S
2014-01-01
In this letter we analyze the effect of the spin dimensionality of a physical system in two mathematical formulations of the uncertainty principle: a generalized Heisenberg uncertainty relation valid for all antisymmetric N-fermion wavefunctions, and the Fisher-information- based uncertainty relation valid for all antisymmetric N-fermion wavefunctions of central potentials. The accuracy of these spin-modified uncertainty relations is examined for all atoms from Hydrogen to Lawrencium in a self-consistent framework.
Beatty, Thomas G
2015-01-01
We investigate astrophysical contributions to the statistical uncertainty of precision radial velocity measurements of stellar spectra. We analytically determine the uncertainty in centroiding isolated spectral lines broadened by Gaussian, Lorentzian, Voigt, and rotational profiles, finding that for all cases and assuming weak lines, the uncertainty is the line centroid is $\\sigma_V\\approx C\\,\\Theta^{3/2}/(W I_0^{1/2})$, where $\\Theta$ is the full-width at half-maximum of the line, $W$ is the equivalent width, and $I_0$ is the continuum signal-to-noise ratio, with $C$ a constant of order unity that depends on the specific line profile. We use this result to motivate approximate analytic expressions to the total radial velocity uncertainty for a stellar spectrum with a given photon noise, resolution, wavelength, effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, macroturbulence, and stellar rotation. We use these relations to determine the dominant contributions to the statistical uncertainties in precision ...
Mathematical Analysis of Uncertainty
Angel GARRIDO
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Classical Logic showed early its insufficiencies for solving AI problems. The introduction of Fuzzy Logic aims at this problem. There have been research in the conventional Rough direction alone or in the Fuzzy direction alone, and more recently, attempts to combine both into Fuzzy Rough Sets or Rough Fuzzy Sets. We analyse some new and powerful tools in the study of Uncertainty, as the Probabilistic Graphical Models, Chain Graphs, Bayesian Networks, and Markov Networks, integrating our knowledge of graphs and probability.
Optimization under Uncertainty
Lopez, Rafael H.
2016-01-06
The goal of this poster is to present the main approaches to optimization of engineering systems in the presence of uncertainties. We begin by giving an insight about robust optimization. Next, we detail how to deal with probabilistic constraints in optimization, the so called the reliability based design. Subsequently, we present the risk optimization approach, which includes the expected costs of failure in the objective function. After that the basic description of each approach is given, the projects developed by CORE are presented. Finally, the main current topic of research of CORE is described.
Collective Uncertainty Entanglement Test
Rudnicki, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol
2011-01-01
For a given pure state of a composite quantum system we analyze the product of its projections onto a set of locally orthogonal separable pure states. We derive a bound for this product analogous to the entropic uncertainty relations. For bipartite systems the bound is saturated for maximally entangled states and it allows us to construct a family of entanglement measures, we shall call collectibility. As these quantities are experimentally accessible, the approach advocated contributes to the task of experimental quantification of quantum entanglement, while for a three-qubit system it is capable to identify the genuine three-party entanglement.
Validation and Implementation of Uncertainty Estimates of Calculated Transition Rates
Jörgen Ekman
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Uncertainties of calculated transition rates in LS-allowed electric dipole transitions in boron-like O IV and carbon-like Fe XXI are estimated using an approach in which differences in line strengths calculated in length and velocity gauges are utilized. Estimated uncertainties are compared and validated against several high-quality theoretical data sets in O IV, and implemented in large scale calculations in Fe XXI.
Variance-based uncertainty relations
Huang, Yichen
2010-01-01
It is hard to overestimate the fundamental importance of uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics. In this work, I propose state-independent variance-based uncertainty relations for arbitrary observables in both finite and infinite dimensional spaces. We recover the Heisenberg uncertainty principle as a special case. By studying examples, we find that the lower bounds provided by our new uncertainty relations are optimal or near-optimal. I illustrate the uses of our new uncertainty relations by showing that they eliminate one common obstacle in a sequence of well-known works in entanglement detection, and thus make these works much easier to access in applications.
Integrating Out Astrophysical Uncertainties
Fox, Patrick J; Weiner, Neal
2010-01-01
Underground searches for dark matter involve a complicated interplay of particle physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics and astrophysics. We attempt to remove the uncertainties associated with astrophysics by developing the means to map the observed signal in one experiment directly into a predicted rate at another. We argue that it is possible to make experimental comparisons that are completely free of astrophysical uncertainties by focusing on {\\em integral} quantities, such as $g(v_{min})=\\int_{v_{min}} dv\\, f(v)/v $ and $\\int_{v_{thresh}} dv\\, v g(v)$. Direct comparisons are possible when the $v_{min}$ space probed by different experiments overlap. As examples, we consider the possible dark matter signals at CoGeNT, DAMA and CRESST-Oxygen. We find that expected rate from CoGeNT in the XENON10 experiment is higher than observed, unless scintillation light output is low. Moreover, we determine that S2-only analyses are constraining, unless the charge yield $Q_y< 2.4 {\\, \\rm electrons/keV}$. For DAMA t...
The effect of rarity and uncertainty on innovation value
Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Lauto, Giancarlo
This paper addresses the core notions of the Resource Based View, that rarity provides superior performance. We examine the limits of rarity as a driver of performance in the process of innovation. We also claim that uncertainty affects this process, both directly and moderating the effect of rar...... on innovation value, as in conditions of low uncertainty incremental innovation tends to prevail, while high uncertainty leads to imitation of successful practices. Low, but not high, uncertainty moderates the relationship between rarity and innovation value.......This paper addresses the core notions of the Resource Based View, that rarity provides superior performance. We examine the limits of rarity as a driver of performance in the process of innovation. We also claim that uncertainty affects this process, both directly and moderating the effect...... of rarity. Using patent data relative to hydrocracking – a mature technology experiencing periods of stable and unpredictable development – we find that rarity has a U-shaped effect on innovation value, as both rare and non-rare inventions are valuable. Uncertainty has an inverted U-shaped effect...
Kowzan, G.; Stec, K.; Zaborowski, M.; Wójtewicz, S.; Cygan, A.; Lisak, D.; Masłowski, P.; Trawiński, R. S.
2017-04-01
Absolute positions and spectral line-shape parameters of carbon monoxide 0 → 3 band, P branch transitions are reported. The speed-dependent effects and the influence of velocity-changing collisions were taken into account in the fitted line-shape models. For the first time the values of pressure shift coefficients of CO in argon for this band were determined. The measurements were made with the Pound-Drever-Hall-locked frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer, with the frequency axis linked through an optical frequency comb to the UTC(AOS) frequency reference based on a hydrogen maser. Achieved uncertainties of line positions are between 70 kHz and 420 kHz.
Understanding and reducing statistical uncertainties in nebular abundance determinations
Wesson, R; Scicluna, P
2012-01-01
Whenever observations are compared to theories, an estimate of the uncertainties associated with the observations is vital if the comparison is to be meaningful. However, many determinations of temperatures, densities and abundances in photoionized nebulae do not quote the associated uncertainty. Those that do typically propagate the uncertainties using analytical techniques which rely on assumptions that generally do not hold. Motivated by this issue, we have developed NEAT (Nebular Empirical Analysis Tool), a new code for calculating chemical abundances in photoionized nebulae. The code carries out an analysis of lists of emission lines using long-established techniques to estimate the amount of interstellar extinction, calculate representative temperatures and densities, compute ionic abundances from both collisionally excited lines and recombination lines, and finally to estimate total elemental abundances using an ionization correction scheme. NEAT uses a Monte Carlo technique to robustly propagate uncer...
Earthquake Loss Estimation Uncertainties
Frolova, Nina; Bonnin, Jean; Larionov, Valery; Ugarov, Aleksander
2013-04-01
The paper addresses the reliability issues of strong earthquakes loss assessment following strong earthquakes with worldwide Systems' application in emergency mode. Timely and correct action just after an event can result in significant benefits in saving lives. In this case the information about possible damage and expected number of casualties is very critical for taking decision about search, rescue operations and offering humanitarian assistance. Such rough information may be provided by, first of all, global systems, in emergency mode. The experience of earthquakes disasters in different earthquake-prone countries shows that the officials who are in charge of emergency response at national and international levels are often lacking prompt and reliable information on the disaster scope. Uncertainties on the parameters used in the estimation process are numerous and large: knowledge about physical phenomena and uncertainties on the parameters used to describe them; global adequacy of modeling techniques to the actual physical phenomena; actual distribution of population at risk at the very time of the shaking (with respect to immediate threat: buildings or the like); knowledge about the source of shaking, etc. Needless to be a sharp specialist to understand, for example, that the way a given building responds to a given shaking obeys mechanical laws which are poorly known (if not out of the reach of engineers for a large portion of the building stock); if a carefully engineered modern building is approximately predictable, this is far not the case for older buildings which make up the bulk of inhabited buildings. The way population, inside the buildings at the time of shaking, is affected by the physical damage caused to the buildings is not precisely known, by far. The paper analyzes the influence of uncertainties in strong event parameters determination by Alert Seismological Surveys, of simulation models used at all stages from, estimating shaking intensity
Uncertainty relation in Schwarzschild spacetime
Feng, Jun; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Gould, Mark D.; Fan, Heng
2015-04-01
We explore the entropic uncertainty relation in the curved background outside a Schwarzschild black hole, and find that Hawking radiation introduces a nontrivial modification on the uncertainty bound for particular observer, therefore it could be witnessed by proper uncertainty game experimentally. We first investigate an uncertainty game between a free falling observer and his static partner holding a quantum memory initially entangled with the quantum system to be measured. Due to the information loss from Hawking decoherence, we find an inevitable increase of the uncertainty on the outcome of measurements in the view of static observer, which is dependent on the mass of the black hole, the distance of observer from event horizon, and the mode frequency of quantum memory. To illustrate the generality of this paradigm, we relate the entropic uncertainty bound with other uncertainty probe, e.g., time-energy uncertainty. In an alternative game between two static players, we show that quantum information of qubit can be transferred to quantum memory through a bath of fluctuating quantum fields outside the black hole. For a particular choice of initial state, we show that the Hawking decoherence cannot counteract entanglement generation after the dynamical evolution of system, which triggers an effectively reduced uncertainty bound that violates the intrinsic limit -log2 c. Numerically estimation for a proper choice of initial state shows that our result is comparable with possible real experiments. Finally, a discussion on the black hole firewall paradox in the context of entropic uncertainty relation is given.
An uncertainty inventory demonstration - a primary step in uncertainty quantification
Langenbrunner, James R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Issac F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ross, Timothy J [UNM
2009-01-01
Tools, methods, and theories for assessing and quantifying uncertainties vary by application. Uncertainty quantification tasks have unique desiderata and circumstances. To realistically assess uncertainty requires the engineer/scientist to specify mathematical models, the physical phenomena of interest, and the theory or framework for assessments. For example, Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) specifically identifies uncertainties using probability theory, and therefore, PRA's lack formal procedures for quantifying uncertainties that are not probabilistic. The Phenomena Identification and Ranking Technique (PIRT) proceeds by ranking phenomena using scoring criteria that results in linguistic descriptors, such as importance ranked with words, 'High/Medium/Low.' The use of words allows PIRT to be flexible, but the analysis may then be difficult to combine with other uncertainty theories. We propose that a necessary step for the development of a procedure or protocol for uncertainty quantification (UQ) is the application of an Uncertainty Inventory. An Uncertainty Inventory should be considered and performed in the earliest stages of UQ.
Generalized uncertainty relations
Herdegen, Andrzej; Ziobro, Piotr
2017-04-01
The standard uncertainty relations (UR) in quantum mechanics are typically used for unbounded operators (like the canonical pair). This implies the need for the control of the domain problems. On the other hand, the use of (possibly bounded) functions of basic observables usually leads to more complex and less readily interpretable relations. In addition, UR may turn trivial for certain states if the commutator of observables is not proportional to a positive operator. In this letter we consider a generalization of standard UR resulting from the use of two, instead of one, vector states. The possibility to link these states to each other in various ways adds additional flexibility to UR, which may compensate some of the above-mentioned drawbacks. We discuss applications of the general scheme, leading not only to technical improvements, but also to interesting new insight.
Petzinger, Tom
I am trying to make money in the biotech industry from complexity science. And I am doing it with inspiration that I picked up on the edge of Appalachia spending time with June Holley and ACEnet when I was a Wall Street Journal reporter. I took some of those ideas to Pittsburgh, in biotechnology, in a completely private setting with an economic development focus, but also with a mission t o return profit to private capital. And we are doing that. I submit as a hypothesis, something we are figuring out in the post- industrial era, that business evolves. It is not the definition of business, but business critically involves the design of systems in which uncertainty is treated as a certainty. That is what I have seen and what I have tried to put into practice.
2012-03-01
certify to : ISO 9001 (QMS), ISO 14001 (EMS), TS 16949 (US Automotive) etc. 2 3 DoD QSM 4.2 standard ISO /IEC 17025:2005 Each has uncertainty...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Laboratories – ISO /IEC 17025 Inspection Bodies – ISO /IEC 17020 RMPs – ISO Guide 34 (Reference...Materials) PT Providers – ISO 17043 Product Certifiers – ISO Guide 65 Government Programs: DoD ELAP, EPA Energy Star, CPSC Toy Safety, NRC, NIST
Are models, uncertainty, and dispute resolution compatible?
Anderson, J. D.; Wilson, J. L.
2013-12-01
Models and their uncertainty often move from an objective use in planning and decision making into the regulatory environment, then sometimes on to dispute resolution through litigation or other legal forums. Through this last transition whatever objectivity the models and uncertainty assessment may have once possessed becomes biased (or more biased) as each party chooses to exaggerate either the goodness of a model, or its worthlessness, depending on which view is in its best interest. If worthlessness is desired, then what was uncertain becomes unknown, or even unknowable. If goodness is desired, then precision and accuracy are often exaggerated and uncertainty, if it is explicitly recognized, encompasses only some parameters or conceptual issues, ignores others, and may minimize the uncertainty that it accounts for. In dispute resolution, how well is the adversarial process able to deal with these biases? The challenge is that they are often cloaked in computer graphics and animations that appear to lend realism to what could be mostly fancy, or even a manufactured outcome. While junk science can be challenged through appropriate motions in federal court, and in most state courts, it not unusual for biased or even incorrect modeling results, or conclusions based on incorrect results, to be permitted to be presented at trial. Courts allow opinions that are based on a "reasonable degree of scientific certainty," but when that 'certainty' is grossly exaggerated by an expert, one way or the other, how well do the courts determine that someone has stepped over the line? Trials are based on the adversary system of justice, so opposing and often irreconcilable views are commonly allowed, leaving it to the judge or jury to sort out the truth. Can advances in scientific theory and engineering practice, related to both modeling and uncertainty, help address this situation and better ensure that juries and judges see more objective modeling results, or at least see
Medical decisions under uncertainty.
Carmi, A
1993-01-01
The court applies the criteria of the reasonable doctor and common practice in order to consider the behaviour of a defendant physician. The meaning of our demand that the doctor expects that his or her acts or omissions will bring about certain implications is that, according to the present circumstances and subject to the limited knowledge of the common practice, the course of certain events or situations in the future may be assumed in spite of the fog of uncertainty which surrounds us. The miracles and wonders of creation are concealed from us, and we are not aware of the way and the nature of our bodily functioning. Therefore, there seems to be no way to avoid mistakes, because in several cases the correct diagnosis cannot be determined even with the most advanced application of all information available. Doctors find it difficult to admit that they grope in the dark. They wish to form clear and accurate diagnoses for their patients. The fact that their profession is faced with innumerable and unavoidable risks and mistakes is hard to swallow, and many of them claim that in their everyday work this does not happen. They should not content themselves by changing their style. A radical metamorphosis is needed. They should not be tempted to formulate their diagnoses in 'neutral' statements in order to be on the safe side. Uncertainty should be accepted and acknowledged by the profession and by the public at large as a human phenomenon, as an integral part of any human decision, and as a clear characteristic of any legal or medical diagnosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Sustainability and uncertainty
Jensen, Karsten Klint
2007-01-01
this requirement. Another line (top-down) takes an economical interpretation of the Brundtland Commission's suggestion that the present generation's needsatisfaction should not compromise the need-satisfaction of future generations as its starting point. It then measures sustainability at the level of society...
Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.
2017-07-11
Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.
Relational uncertainty in service dyads
Kreye, Melanie
2016-01-01
Purpose: Relational uncertainty determines how relationships develop because it enables the building of trust and commitment. However, relational uncertainty has not been explored in an inter-organisational setting. This paper investigates how organisations experience relational uncertainty...... via semi-structured interviews and secondary data. Findings: The findings suggest that relational uncertainty is caused by the partner’s unresolved organisational uncertainty, i.e. their lacking capabilities to deliver or receive (parts of) the service. Furthermore, we found that resolving...... and explain the actions of a partnering organisation due to a lack of knowledge about their abilities and intentions. Second, we present suitable organisational responses to relational uncertainty and their effect on service quality....
Impact of discharge data uncertainty on nutrient load uncertainty
Westerberg, Ida; Gustavsson, Hanna; Sonesten, Lars
2016-04-01
Uncertainty in the rating-curve model of the stage-discharge relationship leads to uncertainty in discharge time series. These uncertainties in turn affect many other analyses based on discharge data, such as nutrient load estimations. It is important to understand how large the impact of discharge data uncertainty is on such analyses, since they are often used as the basis to take important environmental management decisions. In the Baltic Sea basin, nutrient load estimates from river mouths are a central information basis for managing and reducing eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. In this study we investigated rating curve uncertainty and its propagation to discharge data uncertainty and thereafter to uncertainty in the load of phosphorous and nitrogen for twelve Swedish river mouths. We estimated rating curve uncertainty using the Voting Point method, which accounts for random and epistemic errors in the stage-discharge relation and allows drawing multiple rating-curve realisations consistent with the total uncertainty. We sampled 40,000 rating curves, and for each sampled curve we calculated a discharge time series from 15-minute water level data for the period 2005-2014. Each discharge time series was then aggregated to daily scale and used to calculate the load of phosphorous and nitrogen from linearly interpolated monthly water samples, following the currently used methodology for load estimation. Finally the yearly load estimates were calculated and we thus obtained distributions with 40,000 load realisations per year - one for each rating curve. We analysed how the rating curve uncertainty propagated to the discharge time series at different temporal resolutions, and its impact on the yearly load estimates. Two shorter periods of daily water quality sampling around the spring flood peak allowed a comparison of load uncertainty magnitudes resulting from discharge data with those resulting from the monthly water quality sampling.
Uncertainty analysis in acoustic investigations
2013-01-01
The problem of uncertainty assessment in acoustic investigations is presented in the hereby paper. The aspect of the uncertainty asymmetry in processing of data obtained in the measuring test of sound levels, determined in decibels, was sketched. On the basis of the analysis of data obtained in the continuous monitoring of road traffic noise in Krakow typical probability distributions for a day, evening and night were determined. The method of the uncertainty assessment based on the propagati...
Chemical model reduction under uncertainty
Najm, Habib
2016-01-05
We outline a strategy for chemical kinetic model reduction under uncertainty. We present highlights of our existing deterministic model reduction strategy, and describe the extension of the formulation to include parametric uncertainty in the detailed mechanism. We discuss the utility of this construction, as applied to hydrocarbon fuel-air kinetics, and the associated use of uncertainty-aware measures of error between predictions from detailed and simplified models.
Horizontal and Vertical Line Designs.
Johns, Pat
2003-01-01
Presents an art lesson in which students learn about the artist Piet Mondrian and create their own abstract artworks. Focuses on geometric shapes using horizontal and vertical lines. Includes background information about the artist. (CMK)
Evaluating uncertainty in simulation models
McKay, M.D.; Beckman, R.J.; Morrison, J.D.; Upton, S.C.
1998-12-01
The authors discussed some directions for research and development of methods for assessing simulation variability, input uncertainty, and structural model uncertainty. Variance-based measures of importance for input and simulation variables arise naturally when using the quadratic loss function of the difference between the full model prediction y and the restricted prediction {tilde y}. The concluded that generic methods for assessing structural model uncertainty do not now exist. However, methods to analyze structural uncertainty for particular classes of models, like discrete event simulation models, may be attainable.
On Uncertainties in Successive Measurements
Distler, Jacques
2012-01-01
When you measure an observable, A, in Quantum Mechanics, the state of the system changes. This, in turn, affects the quantum-mechanical uncertainty in some non-commuting observable, B. The standard Uncertainty Relation puts a lower bound on the uncertainty of B in the initial state. What is relevant for a subsequent measurement of B, however, is the uncertainty of B in the post-measurement state. We make some remarks on the latter problem, both in the case where A has a pure point spectrum and in the case where A has a continuous spectrum.
Uncertainty in Air Quality Modeling.
Fox, Douglas G.
1984-01-01
Under the direction of the AMS Steering Committee for the EPA Cooperative Agreement on Air Quality Modeling, a small group of scientists convened to consider the question of uncertainty in air quality modeling. Because the group was particularly concerned with the regulatory use of models, its discussion focused on modeling tall stack, point source emissions.The group agreed that air quality model results should be viewed as containing both reducible error and inherent uncertainty. Reducible error results from improper or inadequate meteorological and air quality data inputs, and from inadequacies in the models. Inherent uncertainty results from the basic stochastic nature of the turbulent atmospheric motions that are responsible for transport and diffusion of released materials. Modelers should acknowledge that all their predictions to date contain some associated uncertainty and strive also to quantify uncertainty.How can the uncertainty be quantified? There was no consensus from the group as to precisely how uncertainty should be calculated. One subgroup, which addressed statistical procedures, suggested that uncertainty information could be obtained from comparisons of observations and predictions. Following recommendations from a previous AMS workshop on performance evaluation (Fox. 1981), the subgroup suggested construction of probability distribution functions from the differences between observations and predictions. Further, they recommended that relatively new computer-intensive statistical procedures be considered to improve the quality of uncertainty estimates for the extreme value statistics of interest in regulatory applications.A second subgroup, which addressed the basic nature of uncertainty in a stochastic system, also recommended that uncertainty be quantified by consideration of the differences between observations and predictions. They suggested that the average of the difference squared was appropriate to isolate the inherent uncertainty that
a Rigorous Comparison of Theoretical and Measured Carbon Dioxide Line Intensities
Yi, Hongming; Fleisher, Adam J.; Gameson, Lyn; Zak, Emil J.; Polyansky, Oleg; Tennyson, Jonathan; Hodges, Joseph T.
2017-06-01
The ability to calculate molecular line intensities from first principles plays an increasingly important role in populating line-by-line spectroscopic databases because of its generality and extensibility to various isotopologues, spectral ranges and temperature conditions. Such calculations require a spectroscopically determined potential energy surface, and an accurate dipole moment surface that can be either fully ab initio or an effective quantity based on fits to measurements Following our recent work where we used high-precision measurements of intensities in the (30013 →00001) band of ^{12}C^{16}O_2 to bound the uncertainty of calculated line lists, here we carry out high-precision, frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements in the R-branch of the ^{12}C^{16}O_2 (20012 →00001) band from J = 16 to 52. Gas samples consisted of 50 μmol mol^{-1} or 100 μmol mol^{-1} of nitrogen-broadened carbon dioxide with gravimetrically determined SI-traceable molar composition. We demonstrate relative measurement precision (Type A) at the 0.15 % level and estimate systematic (Type B) uncertainty contributions in % of: isotopic abundance 0.01; sample density, 0.016; cavity free spectral rang,e 0.03; line shape, 0.05; line interferences, 0.05; and carbon dioxide molar fraction, 0.06. Combined in quadrature, these components yield a relative standard uncertainty in measured line intensity less than 0.2 % for most observed transitions. These intensities differ by more than 2 % from those measured by Fourier transform spectroscopy and archived in HITRAN 2012 but differ by less than 0.5 % with the calculations of Zak et al. E. Zak et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 177, (2016) 31. Huang et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, (2013) 134. Tashkun et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 152, (2015) 45.
Statistical Uncertainty in Quantitative Neutron Radiography
Piegsa, Florian M
2016-01-01
We demonstrate a novel procedure to calibrate neutron detection systems commonly used in standard neutron radiography. This calibration allows determining the uncertainties due to Poisson-like neutron counting statistics for each individual pixel of a radiographic image. The obtained statistical errors are necessary in order to perform correct quantitative analysis. This fast and convenient method is applied to real data measured at the cold neutron radiography facility ICON at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Moreover, from the results the effective neutron flux at the beam line is determined.
Climate model uncertainty vs. conceptual geological uncertainty in hydrological modeling
T. O. Sonnenborg
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Projections of climate change impact are associated with a cascade of uncertainties including CO2 emission scenario, climate model, downscaling and impact model. The relative importance of the individual uncertainty sources is expected to depend on several factors including the quantity that is projected. In the present study the impacts of climate model uncertainty and geological model uncertainty on hydraulic head, stream flow, travel time and capture zones are evaluated. Six versions of a physically based and distributed hydrological model, each containing a unique interpretation of the geological structure of the model area, are forced by 11 climate model projections. Each projection of future climate is a result of a GCM-RCM model combination (from the ENSEMBLES project forced by the same CO2 scenario (A1B. The changes from the reference period (1991–2010 to the future period (2081–2100 in projected hydrological variables are evaluated and the effects of geological model and climate model uncertainties are quantified. The results show that uncertainty propagation is context dependent. While the geological conceptualization is the dominating uncertainty source for projection of travel time and capture zones, the uncertainty on the climate models is more important for groundwater hydraulic heads and stream flow.
Uncertainties in Arctic Precipitation
Majhi, I.; Alexeev, V. A.; Cherry, J. E.; Cohen, J. L.; Groisman, P. Y.
2012-12-01
Arctic precipitation is riddled with measurement biases; to address the problem is imperative. Our study focuses on comparison of various datasets and analyzing their biases for the region of Siberia and caution that is needed when using them. Five sources of data were used ranging from NOAA's product (RAW, Bogdanova's correction), Yang's correction technique and two reanalysis products (ERA-Interim and NCEP). The reanalysis dataset performed better for some months in comparison to Yang's product, which tends to overestimate precipitation, and the raw dataset, which tends to underestimate. The sources of bias vary from topography, to wind, to missing data .The final three products chosen show higher biases during the winter and spring season. Emphasis on equations which incorporate blizzards, blowing snow and higher wind speed is necessary for regions which are influenced by any or all of these factors; Bogdanova's correction technique is the most robust of all the datasets analyzed and gives the most reasonable results. One of our future goals is to analyze the impact of precipitation uncertainties on water budget analysis for the Siberian Rivers.
Uncertainty vs. Information (Invited)
Nearing, Grey
2017-04-01
Information theory is the branch of logic that describes how rational epistemic states evolve in the presence of empirical data (Knuth, 2005), and any logic of science is incomplete without such a theory. Developing a formal philosophy of science that recognizes this fact results in essentially trivial solutions to several longstanding problems are generally considered intractable, including: • Alleviating the need for any likelihood function or error model. • Derivation of purely logical falsification criteria for hypothesis testing. • Specification of a general quantitative method for process-level model diagnostics. More generally, I make the following arguments: 1. Model evaluation should not proceed by quantifying and/or reducing error or uncertainty, and instead should be approached as a problem of ensuring that our models contain as much information as our experimental data. I propose that the latter is the only question a scientist actually has the ability to ask. 2. Instead of building geophysical models as solutions to differential equations that represent conservation laws, we should build models as maximum entropy distributions constrained by conservation symmetries. This will allow us to derive predictive probabilities directly from first principles. Knuth, K. H. (2005) 'Lattice duality: The origin of probability and entropy', Neurocomputing, 67, pp. 245-274.
Improved Matrix Uncertainty Selector
Rosenbaum, Mathieu
2011-01-01
We consider the regression model with observation error in the design: y=X\\theta* + e, Z=X+N. Here the random vector y in R^n and the random n*p matrix Z are observed, the n*p matrix X is unknown, N is an n*p random noise matrix, e in R^n is a random noise vector, and \\theta* is a vector of unknown parameters to be estimated. We consider the setting where the dimension p can be much larger than the sample size n and \\theta* is sparse. Because of the presence of the noise matrix N, the commonly used Lasso and Dantzig selector are unstable. An alternative procedure called the Matrix Uncertainty (MU) selector has been proposed in Rosenbaum and Tsybakov (2010) in order to account for the noise. The properties of the MU selector have been studied in Rosenbaum and Tsybakov (2010) for sparse \\theta* under the assumption that the noise matrix N is deterministic and its values are small. In this paper, we propose a modification of the MU selector when N is a random matrix with zero-mean entries having the variances th...
Uncertainty Management and Sensitivity Analysis
Georgiadis, Stylianos; Fantke, Peter
2017-01-01
Uncertainty is always there and LCA is no exception to that. The presence of uncertainties of different types and from numerous sources in LCA results is a fact, but managing them allows to quantify and improve the precision of a study and the robustness of its conclusions. LCA practice sometimes...
Mama Software Features: Uncertainty Testing
Ruggiero, Christy E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porter, Reid B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-05-30
This document reviews how the uncertainty in the calculations is being determined with test image data. The results of this testing give an ‘initial uncertainty’ number than can be used to estimate the ‘back end’ uncertainty in digital image quantification in images. Statisticians are refining these numbers as part of a UQ effort.
Uncertainty in Integrated Assessment Scenarios
Mort Webster
2005-10-17
The determination of climate policy is a decision under uncertainty. The uncertainty in future climate change impacts is large, as is the uncertainty in the costs of potential policies. Rational and economically efficient policy choices will therefore seek to balance the expected marginal costs with the expected marginal benefits. This approach requires that the risks of future climate change be assessed. The decision process need not be formal or quantitative for descriptions of the risks to be useful. Whatever the decision procedure, a useful starting point is to have as accurate a description of climate risks as possible. Given the goal of describing uncertainty in future climate change, we need to characterize the uncertainty in the main causes of uncertainty in climate impacts. One of the major drivers of uncertainty in future climate change is the uncertainty in future emissions, both of greenhouse gases and other radiatively important species such as sulfur dioxide. In turn, the drivers of uncertainty in emissions are uncertainties in the determinants of the rate of economic growth and in the technologies of production and how those technologies will change over time. This project uses historical experience and observations from a large number of countries to construct statistical descriptions of variability and correlation in labor productivity growth and in AEEI. The observed variability then provides a basis for constructing probability distributions for these drivers. The variance of uncertainty in growth rates can be further modified by expert judgment if it is believed that future variability will differ from the past. But often, expert judgment is more readily applied to projected median or expected paths through time. Analysis of past variance and covariance provides initial assumptions about future uncertainty for quantities that are less intuitive and difficult for experts to estimate, and these variances can be normalized and then applied to mean
Relational uncertainty in service dyads
Kreye, Melanie
2016-01-01
in service dyads and how they resolve it through suitable organisational responses to increase the level of service quality. Design/methodology/approach: We apply the overall logic of Organisational Information-Processing Theory (OIPT) and present empirical insights from two industrial case studies collected...... via semi-structured interviews and secondary data. Findings: The findings suggest that relational uncertainty is caused by the partner’s unresolved organisational uncertainty, i.e. their lacking capabilities to deliver or receive (parts of) the service. Furthermore, we found that resolving...... the relational uncertainty increased the functional quality while resolving the partner’s organisational uncertainty increased the technical quality of the delivered service. Originality: We make two contributions. First, we introduce relational uncertainty to the OM literature as the inability to predict...
Meteorological uncertainty and rainfall downscaling
J. von Hardenberg
2007-05-01
Full Text Available We explore the sources of forecast uncertainty in a mixed dynamical-stochastic ensemble prediction chain for small-scale precipitation, suitable for hydrological applications. To this end, we apply the stochastic downscaling method RainFARM to each member of ensemble limited-area forecasts provided by the COSMO-LEPS system. Aim of the work is to quantitatively compare the relative weights of the meteorological uncertainty associated with large-scale synoptic conditions (represented by the ensemble of dynamical forecasts and of the uncertainty due to small-scale processes (represented by the set of fields generated by stochastic downscaling. We show that, in current operational configurations, small- and large-scale uncertainties have roughly the same weight. These results can be used to pinpoint the specific components of the prediction chain where a better estimate of forecast uncertainty is needed.
Evaluation of measurement uncertainties in EUV scatterometry
Gross, H.; Scholze, F.; Rathsfeld, A.; Bär, M.
2009-06-01
Scatterometry, the analysis of light diffracted from a periodic structure, is a versatile metrology tool for characterizing periodic surface structures, regarding the critical dimension (CD) and other properties of the surface profile. For extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks, only EUV radiation provides direct information on the mask performance comparable to the operating regime in an EUV lithography tool. With respect to the small feature dimensions on EUV masks, the short wavelength of EUV is also advantageous since it provides a large number of diffraction orders from the periodic structures irradiated. We present measurements at a prototype EUV mask with large fields of periodic lines-space structures using an EUV reflectometer at the Berlin storage ring BESSY II and discuss the corresponding reconstruction results with respect to their measurement uncertainties. As a non-imaging indirect optical method scatterometry requires the solution of the inverse problem, i.e., the determination of the geometry parameters describing the surface profile from the measured light diffraction patterns. In the time-harmonic case the numerical simulation of the diffraction process for periodic 2D structures can be realized by the finite element solution of the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation. Restricting the solutions to a class of surface profiles and fixing the set of measurements, the inverse problem can be formulated as a nonlinear operator equation in Euclidean space. The operator maps the profile parameters to special efficiencies of diffracted plane wave modes. We employ a Gauss-Newton type iterative method to solve this operator equation, i.e., we minimize the deviation of the calculated efficiencies from the measured ones by variation of the geometry parameters. The uncertainties of the reconstructed geometry parameters depend on the uncertainties of the input data and can be estimated by statistical methods like Monte Carlo or the covariance method applied to the
Fredriksson, Albin, E-mail: albin.fredriksson@raysearchlabs.com; Hårdemark, Björn [RaySearch Laboratories, Sveavägen 44, Stockholm SE-111 34 (Sweden); Forsgren, Anders [Optimization and Systems Theory, Department of Mathematics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm SE-100 44 (Sweden)
2015-07-15
Purpose: This paper introduces a method that maximizes the probability of satisfying the clinical goals in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatments subject to setup uncertainty. Methods: The authors perform robust optimization in which the clinical goals are constrained to be satisfied whenever the setup error falls within an uncertainty set. The shape of the uncertainty set is included as a variable in the optimization. The goal of the optimization is to modify the shape of the uncertainty set in order to maximize the probability that the setup error will fall within the modified set. Because the constraints enforce the clinical goals to be satisfied under all setup errors within the uncertainty set, this is equivalent to maximizing the probability of satisfying the clinical goals. This type of robust optimization is studied with respect to photon and proton therapy applied to a prostate case and compared to robust optimization using an a priori defined uncertainty set. Results: Slight reductions of the uncertainty sets resulted in plans that satisfied a larger number of clinical goals than optimization with respect to a priori defined uncertainty sets, both within the reduced uncertainty sets and within the a priori, nonreduced, uncertainty sets. For the prostate case, the plans taking reduced uncertainty sets into account satisfied 1.4 (photons) and 1.5 (protons) times as many clinical goals over the scenarios as the method taking a priori uncertainty sets into account. Conclusions: Reducing the uncertainty sets enabled the optimization to find better solutions with respect to the errors within the reduced as well as the nonreduced uncertainty sets and thereby achieve higher probability of satisfying the clinical goals. This shows that asking for a little less in the optimization sometimes leads to better overall plan quality.
Uncertainty relation in Schwarzschild spacetime
Jun Feng
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We explore the entropic uncertainty relation in the curved background outside a Schwarzschild black hole, and find that Hawking radiation introduces a nontrivial modification on the uncertainty bound for particular observer, therefore it could be witnessed by proper uncertainty game experimentally. We first investigate an uncertainty game between a free falling observer and his static partner holding a quantum memory initially entangled with the quantum system to be measured. Due to the information loss from Hawking decoherence, we find an inevitable increase of the uncertainty on the outcome of measurements in the view of static observer, which is dependent on the mass of the black hole, the distance of observer from event horizon, and the mode frequency of quantum memory. To illustrate the generality of this paradigm, we relate the entropic uncertainty bound with other uncertainty probe, e.g., time–energy uncertainty. In an alternative game between two static players, we show that quantum information of qubit can be transferred to quantum memory through a bath of fluctuating quantum fields outside the black hole. For a particular choice of initial state, we show that the Hawking decoherence cannot counteract entanglement generation after the dynamical evolution of system, which triggers an effectively reduced uncertainty bound that violates the intrinsic limit −log2c. Numerically estimation for a proper choice of initial state shows that our result is comparable with possible real experiments. Finally, a discussion on the black hole firewall paradox in the context of entropic uncertainty relation is given.
Dark matter astrophysical uncertainties and the neutrino floor
O'Hare, Ciaran A. J.
2016-09-01
The search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) by direct detection faces an encroaching background due to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. For a given WIMP mass the cross section at which neutrinos constitute a dominant background is dependent on the uncertainty on the flux of each neutrino source, principally from the Sun, supernovae or atmospheric cosmic ray collisions. However there are also considerable uncertainties with regard to the astrophysical ingredients of the predicted WIMP signal. Uncertainties in the velocity of the Sun with respect to the Milky Way dark matter halo, the local density of WIMPs, and the shape of the local WIMP speed distribution all have an effect on the expected event rate in direct detection experiments and hence will change the region of the WIMP parameter space for which neutrinos are a significant background. In this work we extend the neutrino floor calculation to account for the uncertainty in the astrophysics dependence of the WIMP signal. We show the effect of uncertainties on projected discovery limits with an emphasis on low WIMP masses (less than 10 GeV) when solar neutrino backgrounds are most important. We find that accounting for astrophysical uncertainties changes the shape of the neutrino floor as a function of WIMP mass but also causes it to appear at cross sections up to an order of magnitude larger, extremely close to existing experimental limits, indicating that neutrino backgrounds will become an issue sooner than previously thought. We also explore how neutrinos hinder the estimation of WIMP parameters and how astrophysical uncertainties impact the discrimination of WIMPs and neutrinos with the use of their respective time dependencies.
Uncertainties and apparent trends in the evolution of quasars
Cavaliere, A.; Giallongo, E.; Vagnetti, F.
1989-02-01
The biases and uncertainties introduced in statistical samples of QSOs by photometric variances from the emission lines and from the fluctuations of the sky background are considered. Error effects considered include spurious trends, random residuals, and enhanced statistical variances. Correcting for the present effects, the evidence for strong evolution of the QSO population is preserved, but the average timescale is somewhat lengthened. 38 references.
Economic Behavior in the Face of Resource Variability and Uncertainty
Iain J. Gordon
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Policy design is largely informed by the traditional economic viewpoint that humans behave rationally in the pursuit of their own economic welfare, with little consideration of other regarding behavior or reciprocal altruism. New paradigms of economic behavior theory are emerging that build an empirical basis for understanding how humans respond to specific contexts. Our interest is in the role of human relationships in managing natural resources (forage and livestock in semiarid systems, where spatial and temporal variability and uncertainty in resource availability are fundamental system drivers. In this paper we present the results of an economic experiment designed to explore how reciprocity interacts with variability and uncertainty. This behavior underpins the Australian tradable grazing rights, or agistment, market, which facilitates livestock mobility as a human response to a situation where rainfall is so variable in time and space that it is difficult to maintain an economically viable livestock herd on a single management unit. Contrary to expectations, we found that variability and uncertainty significantly increased transfers and gains from trade within our experiment. When participants faced variability and uncertainty, trust and reciprocity took time to build. When variability and uncertainty were part of the experiment trust was evident from the onset. Given resource variability and uncertainty are key drivers in semiarid systems, new paradigms for understanding how variability shapes behavior have special importance.
Particle Dark Matter constraints: the effect of Galactic uncertainties
Benito, Maria; Bernal, Nicolás; Bozorgnia, Nassim; Calore, Francesca; Iocco, Fabio
2017-02-01
Collider, space, and Earth based experiments are now able to probe several extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics which provide viable dark matter candidates. Direct and indirect dark matter searches rely on inputs of astrophysical nature, such as the local dark matter density or the shape of the dark matter density profile in the target in object. The determination of these quantities is highly affected by astrophysical uncertainties. The latter, especially those for our own Galaxy, are ill-known, and often not fully accounted for when analyzing the phenomenology of particle physics models. In this paper we present a systematic, quantitative estimate of how astrophysical uncertainties on Galactic quantities (such as the local galactocentric distance, circular velocity, or the morphology of the stellar disk and bulge) propagate to the determination of the phenomenology of particle physics models, thus eventually affecting the determination of new physics parameters. We present results in the context of two specific extensions of the Standard Model (the Singlet Scalar and the Inert Doublet) that we adopt as case studies for their simplicity in illustrating the magnitude and impact of such uncertainties on the parameter space of the particle physics model itself. Our findings point toward very relevant effects of current Galactic uncertainties on the determination of particle physics parameters, and urge a systematic estimate of such uncertainties in more complex scenarios, in order to achieve constraints on the determination of new physics that realistically include all known uncertainties.
Uncertainties in Nuclear Proliferation Modeling
Kim, Chul Min; Yim, Man-Sung; Park, Hyeon Seok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
There have been various efforts in the research community to understand the determinants of nuclear proliferation and develop quantitative tools to predict nuclear proliferation events. Such systematic approaches have shown the possibility to provide warning for the international community to prevent nuclear proliferation activities. However, there are still large debates for the robustness of the actual effect of determinants and projection results. Some studies have shown that several factors can cause uncertainties in previous quantitative nuclear proliferation modeling works. This paper analyzes the uncertainties in the past approaches and suggests future works in the view of proliferation history, analysis methods, and variable selection. The research community still lacks the knowledge for the source of uncertainty in current models. Fundamental problems in modeling will remain even other advanced modeling method is developed. Before starting to develop fancy model based on the time dependent proliferation determinants' hypothesis, using graph theory, etc., it is important to analyze the uncertainty of current model to solve the fundamental problems of nuclear proliferation modeling. The uncertainty from different proliferation history coding is small. Serious problems are from limited analysis methods and correlation among the variables. Problems in regression analysis and survival analysis cause huge uncertainties when using the same dataset, which decreases the robustness of the result. Inaccurate variables for nuclear proliferation also increase the uncertainty. To overcome these problems, further quantitative research should focus on analyzing the knowledge suggested on the qualitative nuclear proliferation studies.
Uncertainty principle in larmor clock
QIAO Chuan; REN Zhong-Zhou
2011-01-01
It is well known that the spin operators of a quantum particle must obey uncertainty relations.We use the uncertainty principle to study the Larmor clock.To avoid breaking the uncertainty principle,Larmor time can be defined as the ratio of the phase difference between a spin-up particle and a spin-down particle to the corresponding Larmor frequency.The connection between the dwell time and the Larmor time has also been confirmed.Moreover,the results show that the behavior of the Larmor time depends on the height and width of the barrier.
Droplet-shaped waves: casual finite-support analogs of X-shaped waves
Utkin, Andrei B
2011-01-01
A model of steady-state X-shaped wave generation by a superluminal (supersonic) pointlike source infinitely moving along a straight line is extended to a more realistic causal scenario of a source pulse launched at time zero and propagating rectilinearly at constant superluminal speed. In the case of infinitely short (delta) pulse, the new model yields an analytical solution, corresponding to the propagation-invariant X-shaped wave clipped by a droplet-shaped support, which perpetually expands along the propagation and transversal directions, thus tending the droplet-shaped wave to the X-shaped one.
New challenges on uncertainty propagation assessment of flood risk analysis
Martins, Luciano; Aroca-Jiménez, Estefanía; Bodoque, José M.; Díez-Herrero, Andrés
2016-04-01
techniques of propagation of uncertainty. Physical nature variables present smallest errors associated; and the socio-demographic variables seem to be main component error, as they are difficult to obtain accurately, its very volatile and variable in time and space. This approach allows for model reusability and definition of more complex scenarios starting from simple component models. These methods are well suited to robust design and control uncertainties propagation when the objectives are strongly dependent on the shape or tails of the distributions of product quality or economic objectives such as flood risk studies.
Cronin, V.; Sverdrup, K. A.
2013-05-01
The process of delineating a seismo-lineament has evolved since the first description of the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) by Cronin et al. (2008, Env & Eng Geol 14(3) 199-219). SLAM is a reconnaissance tool to find the trace of the fault that produced an shallow-focus earthquake by projecting the corresponding nodal planes (NP) upward to their intersections with the ground surface, as represented by a DEM or topographic map. A seismo-lineament is formed by the intersection of the uncertainty volume associated with a given NP and the ground surface. The ground-surface trace of the fault that produced the earthquake is likely to be within one of the two seismo-lineaments associated with the two NPs derived from the earthquake's focal mechanism solution. When no uncertainty estimate has been reported for the NP orientation, the uncertainty volume associated with a given NP is bounded by parallel planes that are [1] tangent to the ellipsoidal uncertainty volume around the focus and [2] parallel to the NP. If the ground surface is planar, the resulting seismo-lineament is bounded by parallel lines. When an uncertainty is reported for the NP orientation, the seismo-lineament resembles a bow tie, with the epicenter located adjacent to or within the "knot." Some published lists of focal mechanisms include only one NP with associated uncertainties. The NP orientation uncertainties in strike azimuth (+/- gamma), dip angle (+/- epsilon) and rake that are output from an FPFIT analysis (Reasenberg and Oppenheimer, 1985, USGS OFR 85-739) are taken to be the same for both NPs (Oppenheimer, 2013, pers com). The boundaries of the NP uncertainty volume are each comprised by planes that are tangent to the focal uncertainty ellipsoid. One boundary, whose nearest horizontal distance from the epicenter is greater than or equal to that of the other boundary, is formed by the set of all planes with strike azimuths equal to the reported NP strike azimuth +/- gamma, and dip angle
The legal status of Uncertainty
Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.
2011-03-01
An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working
The legal status of Uncertainty
M. Altamura
2011-03-01
Full Text Available An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008. Civil Protection (CP systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism^{1}.
Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials^{2}, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009.
One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006. This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008 of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984.
The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour^{3} within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing
Non-scalar uncertainty: Uncertainty in dynamic systems
Martinez, Salvador Gutierrez
1992-01-01
The following point is stated throughout the paper: dynamic systems are usually subject to uncertainty, be it the unavoidable quantic uncertainty when working with sufficiently small scales or when working in large scales uncertainty can be allowed by the researcher in order to simplify the problem, or it can be introduced by nonlinear interactions. Even though non-quantic uncertainty can generally be dealt with by using the ordinary probability formalisms, it can also be studied with the proposed non-scalar formalism. Thus, non-scalar uncertainty is a more general theoretical framework giving insight into the nature of uncertainty and providing a practical tool in those cases in which scalar uncertainty is not enough, such as when studying highly nonlinear dynamic systems. This paper's specific contribution is the general concept of non-scalar uncertainty and a first proposal for a methodology. Applications should be based upon this methodology. The advantage of this approach is to provide simpler mathematical models for prediction of the system states. Present conventional tools for dealing with uncertainty prove insufficient for an effective description of some dynamic systems. The main limitations are overcome abandoning ordinary scalar algebra in the real interval (0, 1) in favor of a tensor field with a much richer structure and generality. This approach gives insight into the interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and will have its most profound consequences in the fields of elementary particle physics and nonlinear dynamic systems. Concepts like 'interfering alternatives' and 'discrete states' have an elegant explanation in this framework in terms of properties of dynamic systems such as strange attractors and chaos. The tensor formalism proves especially useful to describe the mechanics of representing dynamic systems with models that are closer to reality and have relatively much simpler solutions. It was found to be wise to get an approximate solution to an
The Uncertainties of Risk Management
Vinnari, Eija; Skærbæk, Peter
2014-01-01
of risk management tools in an internal audit context. It shows how, despite recurring attempts to refine risk management, further uncertainties are continuously produced, thus providing an empirical illustration of how reframing and overflowing intertwine in a continual process.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the implementation of risk management as a tool for internal audit activities, focusing on unexpected effects or uncertainties generated during its application. Design/methodology/approach – Public and confidential documents as well as semi......-structured interviews are analysed through the lens of actor-network theory to identify the effects of risk management devices in a Finnish municipality. Findings – The authors found that risk management, rather than reducing uncertainty, itself created unexpected uncertainties that would otherwise not have emerged...
The parameters uncertainty inflation fallacy
Pernot, Pascal
2016-01-01
Statistical estimation of the prediction uncertainty of physical models is typically hindered by the inadequacy of these models due to various approximations they are built upon. The prediction errors due to model inadequacy can be handled either by correcting the model's results, or by adapting the model's parameters uncertainty to generate prediction uncertainty representative, in a way to be defined, of model inadequacy errors. The main advantage of the latter approach is its transferability to the prediction of other quantities of interest based on the same parameters. A critical review of state-of-the-art implementations of this approach in computational chemistry shows that it is biased, in the sense that it does not produce prediction uncertainty bands conforming with model inadequacy errors.
GLOBALIZATION AND INDICATORS OF UNCERTAINTY
Matjaž Škabar
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to explore the influence of culture, which understood in a broader sense, as focused towards the uncertainties in modern societies. Using theory and empirical data, we will determine the logic and dynamics of changes and the attitude towards changes and uncertainties in modern societies. This article, based on a theoretical thesis, empirically tests the correlation between the index of globalization and different indicators of individualism, as well as the attitude towards uncertainty and reflectiveness. We managed to prove the correlation between the globalization index and indicators of individualism. However, when we look at the links between the indicators of uncertainty and reflexivity, the correlations prove to be complex and inconsistent.
Climate Projections and Uncertainty Communication.
Joslyn, Susan L; LeClerc, Jared E
2016-01-01
Lingering skepticism about climate change might be due in part to the way climate projections are perceived by members of the public. Variability between scientists' estimates might give the impression that scientists disagree about the fact of climate change rather than about details concerning the extent or timing. Providing uncertainty estimates might clarify that the variability is due in part to quantifiable uncertainty inherent in the prediction process, thereby increasing people's trust in climate projections. This hypothesis was tested in two experiments. Results suggest that including uncertainty estimates along with climate projections leads to an increase in participants' trust in the information. Analyses explored the roles of time, place, demographic differences (e.g., age, gender, education level, political party affiliation), and initial belief in climate change. Implications are discussed in terms of the potential benefit of adding uncertainty estimates to public climate projections.
Numerical modeling of economic uncertainty
Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
2007-01-01
Representation and modeling of economic uncertainty is addressed by different modeling methods, namely stochastic variables and probabilities, interval analysis, and fuzzy numbers, in particular triple estimates. Focusing on discounted cash flow analysis numerical results are presented, comparisons...
Uncertainty, innovation, and dynamic sustainable development
Lenore Newman
2005-10-01
Full Text Available Sustainable development is a rich concept that has helped shape the discussion of human society’s interaction with the biosphere. However, the term “sustainable development” is contentious, and some dismiss it outright as an oxymoron. The seemingly contradictory “sustainable” and “development” can be reconciled by accepting that due to two factors, the inherent complexity and uncertainty of human and natural systems, and the ability of human society to innovate, sustainable development must be dynamic. It must be an ongoing process, not a goal. A sustainable society must constantly evaluate its relationship with nature as it adopts new innovations and encounters unexpected events. The role of feedback and suitable application of the precautionary principle are key elements of a dynamic sustainable development process. The example of nuclear waste management in Canada demonstrates the beginning of such a process.
Redshift uncertainties and baryonic acoustic oscillations
Chaves-Montero, Jonás; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos
2016-01-01
In the upcoming era of high-precision galaxy surveys, it becomes necessary to understand the impact of uncertain redshift estimators on cosmological observables. In this paper we present a detailed exploration of the galaxy clustering and baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal under the presence of redshift errors. We provide analytic expressions for how the monopole and the quadrupole of the redshift-space power spectrum (together with their covariances) are affected. Additionally, we discuss the modifications in the shape, signal to noise, and cosmological constraining power of the BAO signature. We show how and why the BAO contrast is $\\mathit{enhanced}$ with small redshift uncertainties, and explore in detail how the cosmological information is modulated by the interplay of redshift-space distortions, redshift errors, and the number density of the sample. We validate our results by comparing them with measurements from a ensemble of $N$-body simulations with $8100h^{-3}\\text{Gpc}^3$ aggregated volume....
Thermodynamic and relativistic uncertainty relations
Artamonov, A. A.; Plotnikov, E. M.
2017-01-01
Thermodynamic uncertainty relation (UR) was verified experimentally. The experiments have shown the validity of the quantum analogue of the zeroth law of stochastic thermodynamics in the form of the saturated Schrödinger UR. We have also proposed a new type of UR for the relativistic mechanics. These relations allow us to consider macroscopic phenomena within the limits of the ratio of the uncertainty relations for different physical quantities.
Uncertainty Analysis Principles and Methods
2007-09-01
WARFARE CENTER WEAPONS DIVISION, CHINA LAKE NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER AIRCRAFT DIVISION, PATUXENT RIVER NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE CENTER DIVISION...total systematic uncertainties be combined in RSS. In many instances, the student’s t-statistic, t95, is set equal to 2 and URSS is replaced by U95...GUM, the total uncertainty UADD, URSS or U95, was offered as type of confi- dence limit. 9595 UxvaluetrueUx +≤≤− In some respects, these limits
Marc Behl
2007-04-01
Full Text Available Shape-memory polymers are an emerging class of active polymers that have dual-shape capability. They can change their shape in a predefined way from shape A to shape B when exposed to an appropriate stimulus. While shape B is given by the initial processing step, shape A is determined by applying a process called programming. We review fundamental aspects of the molecular design of suitable polymer architectures, tailored programming and recovery processes, and the quantification of the shape-memory effect. Shape-memory research was initially founded on the thermally induced dual-shape effect. This concept has been extended to other stimuli by either indirect thermal actuation or direct actuation by addressing stimuli-sensitive groups on the molecular level. Finally, polymers are introduced that can be multifunctional. Besides their dual-shape capability, these active materials are biofunctional or biodegradable. Potential applications for such materials as active medical devices are highlighted.
PIV anisotropic denoising using uncertainty quantification
Wieneke, B.
2017-08-01
Recently, progress has been made to reliably compute uncertainty estimates for each velocity vector in planar flow fields measured with 2D-or stereo-PIV. This information can be used for a post-processing denoising scheme to reduce errors by a spatial averaging scheme preserving true flow fluctuations. Starting with a 5 × 5 vector kernel, a second-order 2D-polynomial function is fitted to the flow field. Vectors just outside will be included in the filter kernel if they lie within the uncertainty band around the fitted function. Repeating this procedure, vectors are added in all directions until the true flow field can no longer be approximated by the second-order polynomial function. The center vector is then replaced by the value of the fitted function. The final shape and size of the filter kernel automatically adjusts to local flow gradients in an optimal way preserving true velocity fluctuations above the noise level. This anisotropic denoising scheme is validated first on synthetic vector fields varying spatial wavelengths of the flow field and noise levels relative to the fluctuation amplitude. For wavelengths larger than 5-7 times the spatial resolution, a noise reduction factor of 2-4 is achieved significantly increasing the velocity dynamic range. For large noise levels above 50% of the flow fluctuation, the denoising scheme can no longer distinguish between true flow fluctuations and noise. Finally, it is shown that the procedure performs well for typical experimental PIV vector fields. It provides an effective alternative to more complicated adaptive PIV algorithms optimizing interrogation window sizes and shapes based on seeding density, local flow gradients, and other criteria.
Wildfire Decision Making Under Uncertainty
Thompson, M.
2013-12-01
Decisions relating to wildfire management are subject to multiple sources of uncertainty, and are made by a broad range of individuals, across a multitude of environmental and socioeconomic contexts. In this presentation I will review progress towards identification and characterization of uncertainties and how this information can support wildfire decision-making. First, I will review a typology of uncertainties common to wildfire management, highlighting some of the more salient sources of uncertainty and how they present challenges to assessing wildfire risk. This discussion will cover the expanding role of burn probability modeling, approaches for characterizing fire effects, and the role of multi-criteria decision analysis, and will provide illustrative examples of integrated wildfire risk assessment across a variety of planning scales. Second, I will describe a related uncertainty typology that focuses on the human dimensions of wildfire management, specifically addressing how social, psychological, and institutional factors may impair cost-effective risk mitigation. This discussion will encompass decision processes before, during, and after fire events, with a specific focus on active management of complex wildfire incidents. An improved ability to characterize uncertainties faced in wildfire management could lead to improved delivery of decision support, targeted communication strategies, and ultimately to improved wildfire management outcomes.
Uncertainties in land use data
G. Castilla
2007-11-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the description and assessment of uncertainties in land use data derived from Remote Sensing observations, in the context of hydrological studies. Land use is a categorical regionalised variable reporting the main socio-economic role each location has, where the role is inferred from the pattern of occupation of land. The properties of this pattern that are relevant to hydrological processes have to be known with some accuracy in order to obtain reliable results; hence, uncertainty in land use data may lead to uncertainty in model predictions. There are two main uncertainties surrounding land use data, positional and categorical. The first one is briefly addressed and the second one is explored in more depth, including the factors that influence it. We (1 argue that the conventional method used to assess categorical uncertainty, the confusion matrix, is insufficient to propagate uncertainty through distributed hydrologic models; (2 report some alternative methods to tackle this and other insufficiencies; (3 stress the role of metadata as a more reliable means to assess the degree of distrust with which these data should be used; and (4 suggest some practical recommendations.
Incorporating Uncertainty into Spacecraft Mission and Trajectory Design
Juliana D., Feldhacker
The complex nature of many astrodynamic systems often leads to high computational costs or degraded accuracy in the analysis and design of spacecraft missions, and the incorporation of uncertainty into the trajectory optimization process often becomes intractable. This research applies mathematical modeling techniques to reduce computational cost and improve tractability for design, optimization, uncertainty quantication (UQ) and sensitivity analysis (SA) in astrodynamic systems and develops a method for trajectory optimization under uncertainty (OUU). This thesis demonstrates the use of surrogate regression models and polynomial chaos expansions for the purpose of design and UQ in the complex three-body system. Results are presented for the application of the models to the design of mid-eld rendezvous maneuvers for spacecraft in three-body orbits. The models are shown to provide high accuracy with no a priori knowledge on the sample size required for convergence. Additionally, a method is developed for the direct incorporation of system uncertainties into the design process for the purpose of OUU and robust design; these methods are also applied to the rendezvous problem. It is shown that the models can be used for constrained optimization with orders of magnitude fewer samples than is required for a Monte Carlo approach to the same problem. Finally, this research considers an application for which regression models are not well-suited, namely UQ for the kinetic de ection of potentially hazardous asteroids under the assumptions of real asteroid shape models and uncertainties in the impact trajectory and the surface material properties of the asteroid, which produce a non-smooth system response. An alternate set of models is presented that enables analytic computation of the uncertainties in the imparted momentum from impact. Use of these models for a survey of asteroids allows conclusions to be drawn on the eects of an asteroid's shape on the ability to
Looking into the inner black hole accretion disc with relativistic models of iron line
Svoboda, Jiri
2010-01-01
We discuss black hole spin measurements employing the relativistic iron line profiles in the X-ray domain. We investigate the iron line band for two representative sources -- MCG -6-30-15 (active galaxy) and GX 339-4 (X-ray binary). We compare two models of the broad iron line, LAOR and KYRLINE. We realise that the spin is currently determined entirely from the position of the marginally stable orbit while the effect of the spin on the overall line shape would be resolvable with higher resolution X-ray missions. We show that the precision of the spin measurements depends on an unknown angular distribution of the disc emission. We study how sensitive the spin determination is to the assumptions about the intrinsic angular distribution of the emitted photons. We find that the uncertainty of the directional emission distribution translates to 20% uncertainty in the determination of the radius of marginally stable orbit. We perform radiation transfer computations of an X-ray irradiated disc atmosphere (NOAR code)...
Model Uncertainty for Bilinear Hysteric Systems
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle
In structural reliability analysis at least three types of uncertainty must be considered, namely physical uncertainty, statistical uncertainty, and model uncertainty (see e.g. Thoft-Christensen & Baker [1]). The physical uncertainty is usually modelled by a number of basic variables by predictive...... density functions, Veneziano [2]. In general, model uncertainty is the uncertainty connected with mathematical modelling of the physical reality. When structural reliability analysis is related to the concept of a failure surface (or limit state surface) in the n-dimension basic variable space then model...... uncertainty is at least due to the neglected variables, the modelling of the failure surface and the computational technique used....
Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body
2011-01-01
The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...
Discriminative Shape Alignment
Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.
2009-01-01
The alignment of shape data to a common mean before its subsequent processing is an ubiquitous step within the area shape analysis. Current approaches to shape analysis or, as more specifically considered in this work, shape classification perform the alignment in a fully unsupervised way......, not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two......-dimensional shapes from a two-class recognition problem....
Jacquin, A. P.
2012-04-01
This study analyses the effect of precipitation spatial distribution uncertainty on the uncertainty bounds of a snowmelt runoff model's discharge estimates. Prediction uncertainty bounds are derived using the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) methodology. The model analysed is a conceptual watershed model operating at a monthly time step. The model divides the catchment into five elevation zones, where the fifth zone corresponds to the catchment glaciers. Precipitation amounts at each elevation zone i are estimated as the product between observed precipitation (at a single station within the catchment) and a precipitation factor FPi. Thus, these factors provide a simplified representation of the spatial variation of precipitation, specifically the shape of the functional relationship between precipitation and height. In the absence of information about appropriate values of the precipitation factors FPi, these are estimated through standard calibration procedures. The catchment case study is Aconcagua River at Chacabuquito, located in the Andean region of Central Chile. Monte Carlo samples of the model output are obtained by randomly varying the model parameters within their feasible ranges. In the first experiment, the precipitation factors FPi are considered unknown and thus included in the sampling process. The total number of unknown parameters in this case is 16. In the second experiment, precipitation factors FPi are estimated a priori, by means of a long term water balance between observed discharge at the catchment outlet, evapotranspiration estimates and observed precipitation. In this case, the number of unknown parameters reduces to 11. The feasible ranges assigned to the precipitation factors in the first experiment are slightly wider than the range of fixed precipitation factors used in the second experiment. The mean squared error of the Box-Cox transformed discharge during the calibration period is used for the evaluation of the
Binding in light nuclei: Statistical NN uncertainties vs Computational accuracy
Perez, R Navarro; Amaro, J E; Arriola, E Ruiz
2016-01-01
We analyse the impact of the statistical uncertainties of the the nucleon-nucleon interaction, based on the Granada-2013 np-pp database, on the binding energies of the triton and the alpha particle using a bootstrap method, by solving the Faddeev equations for $^3$H and the Yakubovsky equations for $^4$He respectively. We check that in practice about 30 samples prove enough for a reliable error estimate. An extrapolation of the well fulfilled Tjon-line correlation predicts the experimental binding of the alpha particle within uncertainties.
Development of Preferences for the Human Body Shape in Infancy.
Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle; Sim, Susan
2002-01-01
Two studies investigated development of infants' visual preferences for the human body shape. Results indicated that 18-month-olds had a reliable preference for scrambled body shapes over typical body shapes in line drawings, while 12- and 15-month-olds did not respond differentially. In condition using photographs, only 18-month-olds had reliable…
Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.
2017-08-29
New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.
Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.
2015-06-09
New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.
Uncertainties in Site Amplification Estimation
Cramer, C. H.; Bonilla, F.; Hartzell, S.
2004-12-01
Typically geophysical profiles (layer thickness, velocity, density, Q) and dynamic soil properties (modulus and damping versus strain curves) are used with appropriate input ground motions in a soil response computer code to estimate site amplification. Uncertainties in observations can be used to generate a distribution of possible site amplifications. The biggest sources of uncertainty in site amplifications estimates are the uncertainties in (1) input ground motions, (2) shear-wave velocities (Vs), (3) dynamic soil properties, (4) soil response code used, and (5) dynamic pore pressure effects. A study of site amplification was conducted for the 1 km thick Mississippi embayment sediments beneath Memphis, Tennessee (see USGS OFR 04-1294 on the web). In this study, the first three sources of uncertainty resulted in a combined coefficient of variation of 10 to 60 percent. The choice of soil response computer program can lead to uncertainties in median estimates of +/- 50 percent. Dynamic pore pressure effects due to the passing of seismic waves in saturated soft sediments are normally not considered in site-amplification studies and can contribute further large uncertainties in site amplification estimates. The effects may range from dilatancy and high-frequency amplification (such as observed at some sites during the 1993 Kushiro-Oki, Japan and 2001 Nisqually, Washington earthquakes) or general soil failure and deamplification of ground motions (such as observed at Treasure Island during the 1989 Loma Prieta, California earthquake). Examples of two case studies using geotechnical data for downhole arrays in Kushiro, Japan and the Wildlife Refuge, California using one dynamic code, NOAH, will be presented as examples of modeling uncertainties associated with these effects. Additionally, an example of inversion for estimates of in-situ dilatancy-related geotechnical modeling parameters will be presented for the Kushiro, Japan site.
Crissman, Sally
2011-01-01
One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…
RUMINATIONS ON NDA MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY COMPARED TO DA UNCERTAINTY
Salaymeh, S.; Ashley, W.; Jeffcoat, R.
2010-06-17
It is difficult to overestimate the importance that physical measurements performed with nondestructive assay instruments play throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. They underpin decision making in many areas and support: criticality safety, radiation protection, process control, safeguards, facility compliance, and waste measurements. No physical measurement is complete or indeed meaningful, without a defensible and appropriate accompanying statement of uncertainties and how they combine to define the confidence in the results. The uncertainty budget should also be broken down in sufficient detail suitable for subsequent uses to which the nondestructive assay (NDA) results will be applied. Creating an uncertainty budget and estimating the total measurement uncertainty can often be an involved process, especially for non routine situations. This is because data interpretation often involves complex algorithms and logic combined in a highly intertwined way. The methods often call on a multitude of input data subject to human oversight. These characteristics can be confusing and pose a barrier to developing and understanding between experts and data consumers. ASTM subcommittee C26-10 recognized this problem in the context of how to summarize and express precision and bias performance across the range of standards and guides it maintains. In order to create a unified approach consistent with modern practice and embracing the continuous improvement philosophy a consensus arose to prepare a procedure covering the estimation and reporting of uncertainties in non destructive assay of nuclear materials. This paper outlines the needs analysis, objectives and on-going development efforts. In addition to emphasizing some of the unique challenges and opportunities facing the NDA community we hope this article will encourage dialog and sharing of best practice and furthermore motivate developers to revisit the treatment of measurement uncertainty.
Effects of prior knowledge on decisions made under perceptual vs. categorical uncertainty
Kathleen eHansen
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Humans use prior knowledge to bias decisions made under uncertainty. In this fMRI study we predicted that different brain dynamics play a role when prior knowledge is added to decisions made under perceptual vs. categorical uncertainty. Subjects decided whether shapes belonged to Category S – smoother – or Category B – bumpier – under both uncertainty conditions, with or without prior knowledge cues. When present, the prior knowledge cue, 80/20 or 50/50, indicated that 80% and 20% (or 50% and 50% were the chances that responding "S" and "B" (or vice versa would be correct. During perceptual uncertainty, shapes were degraded with noise. During categorical uncertainty, shapes were ambiguous. Adding the 80/20 cue increased activation during perceptual uncertainty in bilateral lateral occipital cortex and left middle frontal gyrus (MidFG, and decreased activity in bilateral lateral occipital cortex during categorical uncertainty. Right MidFG and other frontoparietal regions were active in all conditions. The results demonstrate that left MidFG shows activation changes, suggestive of an influence on visual cortex, that depend on the factor that makes the decisions difficult. When sensory evidence is difficult to perceive, prior knowledge increases visual cortical activity. When the sensory evidence is easy to perceive but difficult to interpret, prior knowledge decreases visual cortical activity.
Sustainable energy development under uncertainty
Fuss, S.
2008-04-24
This thesis has contributed to investment decision-making under uncertainty and irreversibility with particular focus on the transition towards a more sustainable mix of electricity-generating technologies. The models introduced here do thus not only provide important insights for investors, but also for policy makers interested in curtailing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the sake of a deceleration of global warming, who therefore need to understand how investors respond to uncertainties, climate change policy and other factors. Part 1 is partly devoted to frameworks based on principles from real options theory. Chapter 3 presents a model, in which we deal with different types of uncertainty afiecting the investor. In liberalized electricity markets, investors nowadays do not only face uncertainty from volatile electricity prices, but also from the possibility of stricter climate change policy. We investigate this in a real options framework with two types of power plants (both coal-fired, but one with a carbon capture and storage module, which therefore emits less CO2), where the prices of electricity and CO2 emissions are stochastic. In particular, we analyze the response of long-term investment to (higher) uncertainty about CO2 prices, which can come from two sources: price fluctuations around an average, rising price that might as well be market-driven, and uncertainty about the actions of the government, which can lead to sudden price jumps or drops. We find that producers facing market uncertainty optimize under incomplete information and invest into the carbon-saving technology earlier than they would have done if they had known what the prices indeed are, while policy uncertainty leads to postponement of investment, as the option value of waiting for the revelation of the policy outcome more than outweighs the losses associated with ongoing, continuously rising CO2 costs. Chapter 4 is about a real options model, which considers both fuel price risk and
Critical loads - assessment of uncertainty
Barkman, A.
1998-10-01
The effects of data uncertainty in applications of the critical loads concept were investigated on different spatial resolutions in Sweden and northern Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity (CL) were calculated for Sweden using the biogeochemical model PROFILE. Three methods with different structural complexity were used to estimate the adverse effects of S0{sub 2} concentrations in northern Czech Republic. Data uncertainties in the calculated critical loads/levels and exceedances (EX) were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Uncertainties within cumulative distribution functions (CDF) were aggregated by accounting for the overlap between site specific confidence intervals. Aggregation of data uncertainties within CDFs resulted in lower CL and higher EX best estimates in comparison with percentiles represented by individual sites. Data uncertainties were consequently found to advocate larger deposition reductions to achieve non-exceedance based on low critical loads estimates on 150 x 150 km resolution. Input data were found to impair the level of differentiation between geographical units at all investigated resolutions. Aggregation of data uncertainty within CDFs involved more constrained confidence intervals for a given percentile. Differentiation as well as identification of grid cells on 150 x 150 km resolution subjected to EX was generally improved. Calculation of the probability of EX was shown to preserve the possibility to differentiate between geographical units. Re-aggregation of the 95%-ile EX on 50 x 50 km resolution generally increased the confidence interval for each percentile. Significant relationships were found between forest decline and the three methods addressing risks induced by S0{sub 2} concentrations. Modifying S0{sub 2} concentrations by accounting for the length of the vegetation period was found to constitute the most useful trade-off between structural complexity, data availability and effects of data uncertainty. Data
Uncertainty Quantification in Numerical Aerodynamics
Litvinenko, Alexander
2017-05-16
We consider uncertainty quantification problem in aerodynamic simulations. We identify input uncertainties, classify them, suggest an appropriate statistical model and, finally, estimate propagation of these uncertainties into the solution (pressure, velocity and density fields as well as the lift and drag coefficients). The deterministic problem under consideration is a compressible transonic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Strokes flow around an airfoil with random/uncertain data. Input uncertainties include: uncertain angle of attack, the Mach number, random perturbations in the airfoil geometry, mesh, shock location, turbulence model and parameters of this turbulence model. This problem requires efficient numerical/statistical methods since it is computationally expensive, especially for the uncertainties caused by random geometry variations which involve a large number of variables. In numerical section we compares five methods, including quasi-Monte Carlo quadrature, polynomial chaos with coefficients determined by sparse quadrature and gradient-enhanced version of Kriging, radial basis functions and point collocation polynomial chaos, in their efficiency in estimating statistics of aerodynamic performance upon random perturbation to the airfoil geometry [D.Liu et al \\'17]. For modeling we used the TAU code, developed in DLR, Germany.
Volcano shapes, entropies, and eruption probabilities
Gudmundsson, Agust; Mohajeri, Nahid
2014-05-01
We propose that the shapes of polygenetic volcanic edifices reflect the shapes of the associated probability distributions of eruptions. In this view, the peak of a given volcanic edifice coincides roughly with the peak of the probability (or frequency) distribution of its eruptions. The broadness and slopes of the edifices vary widely, however. The shapes of volcanic edifices can be approximated by various distributions, either discrete (binning or histogram approximation) or continuous. For a volcano shape (profile) approximated by a normal curve, for example, the broadness would be reflected in its standard deviation (spread). Entropy (S) of a discrete probability distribution is a measure of the absolute uncertainty as to the next outcome/message: in this case, the uncertainty as to time and place of the next eruption. A uniform discrete distribution (all bins of equal height), representing a flat volcanic field or zone, has the largest entropy or uncertainty. For continuous distributions, we use differential entropy, which is a measure of relative uncertainty, or uncertainty change, rather than absolute uncertainty. Volcano shapes can be approximated by various distributions, from which the entropies and thus the uncertainties as regards future eruptions can be calculated. We use the Gibbs-Shannon formula for the discrete entropies and the analogues general formula for the differential entropies and compare their usefulness for assessing the probabilities of eruptions in volcanoes. We relate the entropies to the work done by the volcano during an eruption using the Helmholtz free energy. Many factors other than the frequency of eruptions determine the shape of a volcano. These include erosion, landslides, and the properties of the erupted materials (including their angle of repose). The exact functional relation between the volcano shape and the eruption probability distribution must be explored for individual volcanoes but, once established, can be used to
Word learning under infinite uncertainty
Blythe, Richard A; Smith, Kenny
2014-01-01
Language learners learn the meanings of many thousands of words, despite encountering them in complex environments where infinitely many meanings might be inferred by the learner as their true meaning. This problem of infinite referential uncertainty is often attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. We provide a mathematical formalisation of an ideal cross-situational learner attempting to learn under infinite referential uncertainty, and identify conditions under which this can happen. As Quine's intuitions suggest, learning under infinite uncertainty is possible, provided that learners have some means of ranking candidate word meanings in terms of their plausibility; furthermore, our analysis shows that this ranking could in fact be exceedingly weak, implying that constraints allowing learners to infer the plausibility of candidate word meanings could also be weak.
Davis, C B
1987-08-01
The uncertainties of calculations of loss-of-feedwater transients at Davis-Besse Unit 1 were determined to address concerns of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission relative to the effectiveness of feed and bleed cooling. Davis-Besse Unit 1 is a pressurized water reactor of the raised-loop Babcock and Wilcox design. A detailed, quality-assured RELAP5/MOD2 model of Davis-Besse was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The model was used to perform an analysis of the loss-of-feedwater transient that occurred at Davis-Besse on June 9, 1985. A loss-of-feedwater transient followed by feed and bleed cooling was also calculated. The evaluation of uncertainty was based on the comparisons of calculations and data, comparisons of different calculations of the same transient, sensitivity calculations, and the propagation of the estimated uncertainty in initial and boundary conditions to the final calculated results.
Uncertainty in hydrological change modelling
Seaby, Lauren Paige
Hydrological change modelling methodologies generally use climate models outputs to force hydrological simulations under changed conditions. There are nested sources of uncertainty throughout this methodology, including choice of climate model and subsequent bias correction methods. This Ph.......D. study evaluates the uncertainty of the impact of climate change in hydrological simulations given multiple climate models and bias correction methods of varying complexity. Three distribution based scaling methods (DBS) were developed and benchmarked against a more simplistic and commonly used delta...... change (DC) approach. These climate model projections were then used to force hydrological simulations under climate change for the island Sjælland in Denmark to analyse the contribution of different climate models and bias correction methods to overall uncertainty in the hydrological change modelling...
Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan
Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.
1993-04-01
Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project.
Prabha Umapathy
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Total transfer capability (TTC is an important index in a power system with large volume of inter-area power exchanges. This paper proposes a novel technique to determine the TTC and its confidence intervals in the system by considering the uncertainties in the load and line parameters. The optimal power flow (OPF method is used to obtain the TTC. Variations in the load and line parameters are incorporated using the interval arithmetic (IA method. The IEEE 30 bus test system is used to illustrate the proposed methodology. Various uncertainties in the line, load and both line and load are incorporated in the evaluation of total transfer capability. From the results, it is observed that the solutions obtained through the proposed method provide much wider information in terms of closed interval form which is more useful in ensuring secured operation of the interconnected system in the presence of uncertainties in load and line parameters.
Linear Programming Problems for Generalized Uncertainty
Thipwiwatpotjana, Phantipa
2010-01-01
Uncertainty occurs when there is more than one realization that can represent an information. This dissertation concerns merely discrete realizations of an uncertainty. Different interpretations of an uncertainty and their relationships are addressed when the uncertainty is not a probability of each realization. A well known model that can handle…
Review on Generalized Uncertainty Principle
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser
2015-01-01
Based on string theory, black hole physics, doubly special relativity and some "thought" experiments, minimal distance and/or maximum momentum are proposed. As alternatives to the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the modified dispersion relation, the space noncommutativity, the Lorentz invariance violation, and the quantum-gravity-induced birefringence effects are summarized. The origin of minimal measurable quantities and the different GUP approaches are reviewed and the corresponding observations are analysed. Bounds on the GUP parameter are discussed and implemented in understanding recent PLANCK observations on the cosmic inflation. The higher-order GUP approaches predict minimal length uncertainty with and without maximum momenta.
Do Orthopaedic Surgeons Acknowledge Uncertainty?
Teunis, Teun; Janssen, Stein; Guitton, Thierry G; Ring, David; Parisien, Robert
2016-06-01
Much of the decision-making in orthopaedics rests on uncertain evidence. Uncertainty is therefore part of our normal daily practice, and yet physician uncertainty regarding treatment could diminish patients' health. It is not known if physician uncertainty is a function of the evidence alone or if other factors are involved. With added experience, uncertainty could be expected to diminish, but perhaps more influential are things like physician confidence, belief in the veracity of what is published, and even one's religious beliefs. In addition, it is plausible that the kind of practice a physician works in can affect the experience of uncertainty. Practicing physicians may not be immediately aware of these effects on how uncertainty is experienced in their clinical decision-making. We asked: (1) Does uncertainty and overconfidence bias decrease with years of practice? (2) What sociodemographic factors are independently associated with less recognition of uncertainty, in particular belief in God or other deity or deities, and how is atheism associated with recognition of uncertainty? (3) Do confidence bias (confidence that one's skill is greater than it actually is), degree of trust in the orthopaedic evidence, and degree of statistical sophistication correlate independently with recognition of uncertainty? We created a survey to establish an overall recognition of uncertainty score (four questions), trust in the orthopaedic evidence base (four questions), confidence bias (three questions), and statistical understanding (six questions). Seven hundred six members of the Science of Variation Group, a collaboration that aims to study variation in the definition and treatment of human illness, were approached to complete our survey. This group represents mainly orthopaedic surgeons specializing in trauma or hand and wrist surgery, practicing in Europe and North America, of whom the majority is involved in teaching. Approximately half of the group has more than 10 years
Regulating renewable resources under uncertainty
Hansen, Lars Gårn
Renewable natural resources (like water, fish and wildlife stocks, forests and grazing lands) are critical for the livelihood of millions of people and understanding how they can be managed efficiently is an important economic problem. I show how regulator uncertainty about different economic......) that a pro-quota result under uncertainty about prices and marginal costs is unlikely, requiring that the resource growth function is highly concave locally around the optimum and, 3) that quotas are always preferred if uncertainly about underlying structural economic parameters dominates. These results...
Statistics, Uncertainty, and Transmitted Variation
Wendelberger, Joanne Roth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-11-05
The field of Statistics provides methods for modeling and understanding data and making decisions in the presence of uncertainty. When examining response functions, variation present in the input variables will be transmitted via the response function to the output variables. This phenomenon can potentially have significant impacts on the uncertainty associated with results from subsequent analysis. This presentation will examine the concept of transmitted variation, its impact on designed experiments, and a method for identifying and estimating sources of transmitted variation in certain settings.
Regulating renewable resources under uncertainty
Hansen, Lars Gårn
Renewable natural resources (like water, fish and wildlife stocks, forests and grazing lands) are critical for the livelihood of millions of people and understanding how they can be managed efficiently is an important economic problem. I show how regulator uncertainty about different economic......) that a pro-quota result under uncertainty about prices and marginal costs is unlikely, requiring that the resource growth function is highly concave locally around the optimum and, 3) that quotas are always preferred if uncertainly about underlying structural economic parameters dominates. These results...
Uncertainties in offsite consequence analysis
Young, M.L.; Harper, F.T.; Lui, C.H.
1996-03-01
The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequences from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission began co-sponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables using a formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process. This paper focuses on the methods used in and results of this on-going joint effort.
Shape Similarity Measures of Linear Entities
无
2002-01-01
The essential of feature matching technology lies in how to measure the similarity of spatial entities.Among all the possible similarity measures,the shape similarity measure is one of the most important measures because it is easy to collect the necessary parameters and it is also well matched with the human intuition.In this paper a new shape similarity measure of linear entities based on the differences of direction change along each line is presented and its effectiveness is illustrated.
Traffic forecasts under uncertainty and capacity constraints
2009-01-01
Traffic forecasts provide essential input for the appraisal of transport investment projects. However, according to recent empirical evidence, long-term predictions are subject to high levels of uncertainty. This paper quantifies uncertainty in traffic forecasts for the tolled motorway network in Spain. Uncertainty is quantified in the form of a confidence interval for the traffic forecast that includes both model uncertainty and input uncertainty. We apply a stochastic simulation process bas...
3D interferometric shape measurement technique using coherent fiber bundles
Zhang, Hao; Kuschmierz, Robert; Czarske, Jürgen
2017-06-01
In-situ 3-D shape measurements with submicron shape uncertainty of fast rotating objects in a cutting lathe are expected, which can be achieved by simultaneous distance and velocity measurements. Conventional tactile methods, coordinate measurement machines, only support ex-situ measurements. Optical measurement techniques such as triangulation and conoscopic holography offer only the distance, so that the absolute diameter cannot be retrieved directly. In comparison, laser Doppler distance sensors (P-LDD sensor) enable simultaneous and in-situ distance and velocity measurements for monitoring the cutting process in a lathe. In order to achieve shape measurement uncertainties below 1 μm, a P-LDD sensor with a dual camera based scattered light detection has been investigated. Coherent fiber bundles (CFB) are employed to forward the scattered light towards cameras. This enables a compact and passive sensor head in the future. Compared with a photo detector based sensor, the dual camera based sensor allows to decrease the measurement uncertainty by the order of one magnitude. As a result, the total shape uncertainty of absolute 3-D shape measurements can be reduced to about 100 nm.
Pupil-linked arousal is driven by decision uncertainty and alters serial choice bias
Urai, Anne E.; Braun, Anke; Donner, Tobias H.
2017-03-01
While judging their sensory environments, decision-makers seem to use the uncertainty about their choices to guide adjustments of their subsequent behaviour. One possible source of these behavioural adjustments is arousal: decision uncertainty might drive the brain's arousal systems, which control global brain state and might thereby shape subsequent decision-making. Here, we measure pupil diameter, a proxy for central arousal state, in human observers performing a perceptual choice task of varying difficulty. Pupil dilation, after choice but before external feedback, reflects three hallmark signatures of decision uncertainty derived from a computational model. This increase in pupil-linked arousal boosts observers' tendency to alternate their choice on the subsequent trial. We conclude that decision uncertainty drives rapid changes in pupil-linked arousal state, which shape the serial correlation structure of ongoing choice behaviour.
Sizes and Shapes of Neptune's Inner Satellites
Karkoschka, E.
2002-09-01
I measured resolved images of the inner Neptunian satellites by Voyager 2. The best-fitting tri-axial radii are 48x30x26 km for Naiad, 54x50x26 km for Thalassa, 90x74x64 km for Despina, 102x92x72 km for Galatea, and 108x102x84 km for Larissa. These sizes are within uncertainty limits by Thomas and Veverka (1991) who provided a shape for Larissa (104x89 km), radii with assumed spherical shapes for Despina (74 km) and Galatea (79 km) and estimated radii based on assumed albedos for Naiad (29 km) and Thalassa (40 km). The uncertainties of the new radii are smaller. Estimates of volumes and masses of Naiad and Galatea need to be increased by some 50 percent, which is interesting since Galatea's gravity is considered to cause the unique arcs of Neptune's Adams ring. The moderately elongated shapes of the medium-sized satellites Despina and Galatea, and the strongly elongated shapes of the small satellites Naiad and Thalassa are typical for bodies of their size, although the shape of Thalassa is almost oblate (like a lens) while the shapes of other, strongly elongated satellites such as Naiad are closer to prolate (like a cigar). While previous uncertainties allowed the same reflectivity for the inner six Neptunian satellites, this is no longer true. There is a trend of albedos increasing with distance from Neptune, similar to the trend observed for the Uranian satellites. By estimating phase curves, I predict brighter albedos for inner six Neptunian satellites (0.07-0.10) than for the inner 10 Uranian satellites (0.05-0.07), opposite to previous estimates, which could be tested using recent images by the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observatories. The measured shapes of the inner Neptunian satellites cause orbital light curves, even if their surfaces lack spatial albedo variations. Indeed, photometry by Thomas and Veverka (1991) reveals amplitudes and phases of the light curves consistent with those inferred from the measured shapes, although most data are
Reading, Matthew W.
2017-07-04
Technologies for making self-erecting structures are described herein. An exemplary self-erecting structure comprises a plurality of shape-memory members that connect two or more hub components. When forces are applied to the self-erecting structure, the shape-memory members can deform, and when the forces are removed the shape-memory members can return to their original pre-deformation shape, allowing the self-erecting structure to return to its own original shape under its own power. A shape of the self-erecting structure depends on a spatial orientation of the hub components, and a relative orientation of the shape-memory members, which in turn depends on an orientation of joining of the shape-memory members with the hub components.
Shyam, Vikram (Inventor); Poinsatte, Philip (Inventor); Thurman, Douglas (Inventor)
2017-01-01
One or more embodiments of techniques or systems for shaped recess flow control are provided herein. A shaped recess or cavity can be formed on a surface associated with fluid flow. The shaped recess can be configured to create or induce fluid effects, temperature effects, or shedding effects that interact with a free stream or other structures. The shaped recess can be formed at an angle to a free stream flow and may be substantially "V" shaped. The shaped recess can be coupled with a cooling channel, for example. The shaped recess can be upstream or downstream from a cooling channel and aligned in a variety of manners. Due to the fluid effects, shedding effects, and temperature effects created by a shaped recess, lift-off or separation of cooling jets of cooling channels can be mitigated, thereby enhancing film cooling effectiveness.
Numerical modeling of economic uncertainty
Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
2007-01-01
Representation and modeling of economic uncertainty is addressed by different modeling methods, namely stochastic variables and probabilities, interval analysis, and fuzzy numbers, in particular triple estimates. Focusing on discounted cash flow analysis numerical results are presented, comparisons...... are made between alternative modeling methods, and characteristics of the methods are discussed....
Adressing Replication and Model Uncertainty
Ebersberger, Bernd; Galia, Fabrice; Laursen, Keld
Many fields of strategic management are subject to an important degree of model uncertainty. This is because the true model, and therefore the selection of appropriate explanatory variables, is essentially unknown. Drawing on the literature on the determinants of innovation, and by analyzing inno...
Adressing Replication and Model Uncertainty
Ebersberger, Bernd; Galia, Fabrice; Laursen, Keld
Many fields of strategic management are subject to an important degree of model uncertainty. This is because the true model, and therefore the selection of appropriate explanatory variables, is essentially unknown. Drawing on the literature on the determinants of innovation, and by analyzing inno...
Uncertainty quantification and error analysis
Higdon, Dave M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Mark C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Habib, Salman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klein, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berliner, Mark [OHIO STATE UNIV.; Covey, Curt [LLNL; Ghattas, Omar [UNIV OF TEXAS; Graziani, Carlo [UNIV OF CHICAGO; Seager, Mark [LLNL; Sefcik, Joseph [LLNL; Stark, Philip [UC/BERKELEY; Stewart, James [SNL
2010-01-01
UQ studies all sources of error and uncertainty, including: systematic and stochastic measurement error; ignorance; limitations of theoretical models; limitations of numerical representations of those models; limitations on the accuracy and reliability of computations, approximations, and algorithms; and human error. A more precise definition for UQ is suggested below.
Model uncertainty in growth empirics
Prüfer, P.
2008-01-01
This thesis applies so-called Bayesian model averaging (BMA) to three different economic questions substantially exposed to model uncertainty. Chapter 2 addresses a major issue of modern development economics: the analysis of the determinants of pro-poor growth (PPG), which seeks to combine high gro
Visualising Uncertainty for Decision Support
2016-12-01
uncertainty is generally associated with the rendering models and algorithms used to generate the visualisation. For example, rendered 3D scenes will...emotional expression (smiling, neutral and frowning) (see Figure 24). In this study, participants were asked to view all faces and assess the
Corwin, Rebecca L W
2011-09-01
The idea that foods rich in fat and sugar may be addictive has generated much interest, as well as controversy, among both scientific and lay communities. Recent research indicates that fatty and sugary food in-and-of itself is not addictive. Rather, the food and the context in which it is consumed interact to produce an addiction-like state. One of the contexts that appears to be important is the intermittent opportunity to consume foods rich in fat and sugar in environments where food is plentiful. Animal research indicates that, under these conditions, intake of the fatty sugary food escalates across time and binge-type behavior develops. However, the mechanisms that account for the powerful effect of intermittency on ingestive behavior have only begun to be elucidated. In this review, it is proposed that intermittency stimulates appetitive behavior that is associated with uncertainty regarding what, when, and how much of the highly palatable food to consume. Uncertainty may stimulate consumption of optional fatty and sugary treats due to differential firing of midbrain dopamine neurons, activation of the stress axis, and involvement of orexin signaling. In short, uncertainty may produce an aversive state that bingeing on palatable food can alleviate, however temporarily. "Food addiction" may not be "addiction" to food at all; it may be a response to uncertainty within environments of food abundance.
Quantitative analysis of uncertainty from pebble flow in HTR
Chen, Hao, E-mail: haochen.heu@163.com [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Fu, Li; Jiong, Guo; Ximing, Sun; Lidong, Wang [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)
2015-12-15
Highlights: • An uncertainty and sensitivity analysis model for pebble flow has been built. • Experiment and random walk theory are used to identify uncertainty of pebble flow. • Effects of pebble flow to the core parameters are identified by sensitivity analysis. • Uncertainty of core parameters due to pebble flow is quantified for the first time. - Abstract: In pebble bed HTR, along the deterministic average flow lines, randomness exists in the flow of pebbles, which is not possible to simulate with the current reactor design codes for HTR, such as VSOP, due to the limitation of current computer capability. In order to study how the randomness of pebble flow will affect the key parameters in HTR, a new pebble flow model was set up, which has been successfully transplanted into the VSOP code. In the new pebble flow model, mixing coefficients were introduced into the fixed flow line to simulate the randomness of pebble flow. Numerical simulation and pebble flow experiments were facilitated to determine the mixing coefficients. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to achieve the conclusion that the key parameters of pebble bed HTR are not sensitive to the randomness in pebble flow. The uncertainty of maximum power density and power distribution caused by the randomness in pebble flow is very small, especially for the “multi-pass” scheme of fuel circulation adopted in the pebble bed HTR.
Prats, Miquel; Lim, Sungwoo; Jowers, Iestyn
2009-01-01
This paper is concerned with how design shapes are generated and explored by means of sketching. It presents research into the way designers transform shapes from one state to another using sketch representations. An experimental investigation of the sketching processes of designers is presented....... phenomenon of ‘subshape' and suggests that a computational mechanism for detecting sub-shapes in design sketches might augment explorative sketching by providing important opportunities for manipulating and generating shape in design....
Droplet Motion on a Shape Gradient Surface.
Zheng, Yanfen; Cheng, Jiang; Zhou, Cailong; Xing, Haiting; Wen, Xiufang; Pi, Pihui; Xu, Shouping
2017-05-02
We demonstrate a facile method to induce water droplet motion on an wedge-shaped superhydrophobic copper surface combining with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oil layer on it. The unbalanced interfacial tension from the shape gradient offers the actuating force. The superhydrophobicity critically eliminates the droplet contact line pinning and the slippery PDMS oil layer lubricates the droplet motion, which makes the droplet move easily. The maximum velocity and furthest position of droplet motion were recorded and found to be influenced by the gradient angle. The mechanism of droplet motion on the shape gradient surface is systematically discussed, and the theoretical model analysis is well matched with the experimental results.
Probabilistic forecasts based on radar rainfall uncertainty
Liguori, S.; Rico-Ramirez, M. A.
2012-04-01
The potential advantages resulting from integrating weather radar rainfall estimates in hydro-meteorological forecasting systems is limited by the inherent uncertainty affecting radar rainfall measurements, which is due to various sources of error [1-3]. The improvement of quality control and correction techniques is recognized to play a role for the future improvement of radar-based flow predictions. However, the knowledge of the uncertainty affecting radar rainfall data can also be effectively used to build a hydro-meteorological forecasting system in a probabilistic framework. This work discusses the results of the implementation of a novel probabilistic forecasting system developed to improve ensemble predictions over a small urban area located in the North of England. An ensemble of radar rainfall fields can be determined as the sum of a deterministic component and a perturbation field, the latter being informed by the knowledge of the spatial-temporal characteristics of the radar error assessed with reference to rain-gauges measurements. This approach is similar to the REAL system [4] developed for use in the Southern-Alps. The radar uncertainty estimate can then be propagated with a nowcasting model, used to extrapolate an ensemble of radar rainfall forecasts, which can ultimately drive hydrological ensemble predictions. A radar ensemble generator has been calibrated using radar rainfall data made available from the UK Met Office after applying post-processing and corrections algorithms [5-6]. One hour rainfall accumulations from 235 rain gauges recorded for the year 2007 have provided the reference to determine the radar error. Statistics describing the spatial characteristics of the error (i.e. mean and covariance) have been computed off-line at gauges location, along with the parameters describing the error temporal correlation. A system has then been set up to impose the space-time error properties to stochastic perturbations, generated in real-time at
Visual Scanning Hartmann Optical Tester (VSHOT) Uncertainty Analysis (Milestone Report)
Gray, A.; Lewandowski, A.; Wendelin, T.
2010-10-01
In 1997, an uncertainty analysis was conducted of the Video Scanning Hartmann Optical Tester (VSHOT). In 2010, we have completed a new analysis, based primarily on the geometric optics of the system, and it shows sensitivities to various design and operational parameters. We discuss sources of error with measuring devices, instrument calibrations, and operator measurements for a parabolic trough mirror panel test. These help to guide the operator in proper setup, and help end-users to understand the data they are provided. We include both the systematic (bias) and random (precision) errors for VSHOT testing and their contributions to the uncertainty. The contributing factors we considered in this study are: target tilt; target face to laser output distance; instrument vertical offset; laser output angle; distance between the tool and the test piece; camera calibration; and laser scanner. These contributing factors were applied to the calculated slope error, focal length, and test article tilt that are generated by the VSHOT data processing. Results show the estimated 2-sigma uncertainty in slope error for a parabolic trough line scan test to be +/-0.2 milliradians; uncertainty in the focal length is +/- 0.1 mm, and the uncertainty in test article tilt is +/- 0.04 milliradians.
The benefits of cooperation under uncertainty: the case of climate change
Bréchet, Thierry; Thénié, Julien; Zeimes, Thibaut; Zuber, Stéphane
2010-01-01
This article presents an analysis of the behavior of countries defining their climate policies in an uncertain context. The analysis is made using the S-CWS model, a stochastic version of an integrated assessment growth model. The model includes a stochastic definition of the climate sensitivity parameter. We show that the impact of uncertainty on policy design critically depends on the shape of the damage function. We also examine the benefits of cooperation in the context of uncertainty: we...
Stereo-particle image velocimetry uncertainty quantification
Bhattacharya, Sayantan; Charonko, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.
2017-01-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are subject to multiple elemental error sources and thus estimating overall measurement uncertainty is challenging. Recent advances have led to a posteriori uncertainty estimation methods for planar two-component PIV. However, no complete methodology exists for uncertainty quantification in stereo PIV. In the current work, a comprehensive framework is presented to quantify the uncertainty stemming from stereo registration error and combine it with the underlying planar velocity uncertainties. The disparity in particle locations of the dewarped images is used to estimate the positional uncertainty of the world coordinate system, which is then propagated to the uncertainty in the calibration mapping function coefficients. Next, the calibration uncertainty is combined with the planar uncertainty fields of the individual cameras through an uncertainty propagation equation and uncertainty estimates are obtained for all three velocity components. The methodology was tested with synthetic stereo PIV data for different light sheet thicknesses, with and without registration error, and also validated with an experimental vortex ring case from 2014 PIV challenge. Thorough sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the relative impact of the various parameters to the overall uncertainty. The results suggest that in absence of any disparity, the stereo PIV uncertainty prediction method is more sensitive to the planar uncertainty estimates than to the angle uncertainty, although the latter is not negligible for non-zero disparity. Overall the presented uncertainty quantification framework showed excellent agreement between the error and uncertainty RMS values for both the synthetic and the experimental data and demonstrated reliable uncertainty prediction coverage. This stereo PIV uncertainty quantification framework provides the first comprehensive treatment on the subject and potentially lays foundations applicable to volumetric
Experimental uncertainty estimation and statistics for data having interval uncertainty.
Kreinovich, Vladik (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Oberkampf, William Louis (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Ginzburg, Lev (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Ferson, Scott (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York); Hajagos, Janos (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, New York)
2007-05-01
This report addresses the characterization of measurements that include epistemic uncertainties in the form of intervals. It reviews the application of basic descriptive statistics to data sets which contain intervals rather than exclusively point estimates. It describes algorithms to compute various means, the median and other percentiles, variance, interquartile range, moments, confidence limits, and other important statistics and summarizes the computability of these statistics as a function of sample size and characteristics of the intervals in the data (degree of overlap, size and regularity of widths, etc.). It also reviews the prospects for analyzing such data sets with the methods of inferential statistics such as outlier detection and regressions. The report explores the tradeoff between measurement precision and sample size in statistical results that are sensitive to both. It also argues that an approach based on interval statistics could be a reasonable alternative to current standard methods for evaluating, expressing and propagating measurement uncertainties.
Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter
2009-01-01
We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....
Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves;
2015-01-01
these shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may......Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address...
Jan Koenderink
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches—essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures—of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is categorical. Although local solid shape has naturally been explored in haptics, results in vision are not forthcoming. We describe a simple experiment in which observers judge shape quality and magnitude of cinematographic presentations. Without prior training, observers readily use continuous shape index and Casorati curvature scales with reasonable resolution.
Cani, Marie-Paule; Wyvill, Geoff
2008-01-01
Providing an intuitive modeling system, which would enable us to communicate about any free-form shape we have in mind at least as quickly as with real-world tools, is one of the main challenges of digital shape design. The user should ideally be able to create, deform, and progressively add details to a shape, without being aware of the underlying mathematical representation nor being tied by any constraint on the geometrical or topological nature of the model. This book presents the field of interactive shape design from this perspective. Since interactively creating a shape builds on the hu
Visualizing Flow of Uncertainty through Analytical Processes.
Wu, Yingcai; Yuan, Guo-Xun; Ma, Kwan-Liu
2012-12-01
Uncertainty can arise in any stage of a visual analytics process, especially in data-intensive applications with a sequence of data transformations. Additionally, throughout the process of multidimensional, multivariate data analysis, uncertainty due to data transformation and integration may split, merge, increase, or decrease. This dynamic characteristic along with other features of uncertainty pose a great challenge to effective uncertainty-aware visualization. This paper presents a new framework for modeling uncertainty and characterizing the evolution of the uncertainty information through analytical processes. Based on the framework, we have designed a visual metaphor called uncertainty flow to visually and intuitively summarize how uncertainty information propagates over the whole analysis pipeline. Our system allows analysts to interact with and analyze the uncertainty information at different levels of detail. Three experiments were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and intuitiveness of our design.
Applied research in uncertainty modeling and analysis
Ayyub, Bilal
2005-01-01
Uncertainty has been a concern to engineers, managers, and scientists for many years. For a long time uncertainty has been considered synonymous with random, stochastic, statistic, or probabilistic. Since the early sixties views on uncertainty have become more heterogeneous. In the past forty years numerous tools that model uncertainty, above and beyond statistics, have been proposed by several engineers and scientists. The tool/method to model uncertainty in a specific context should really be chosen by considering the features of the phenomenon under consideration, not independent of what is known about the system and what causes uncertainty. In this fascinating overview of the field, the authors provide broad coverage of uncertainty analysis/modeling and its application. Applied Research in Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis presents the perspectives of various researchers and practitioners on uncertainty analysis and modeling outside their own fields and domain expertise. Rather than focusing explicitly on...
J. Florian Wellmann
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The quantification and analysis of uncertainties is important in all cases where maps and models of uncertain properties are the basis for further decisions. Once these uncertainties are identified, the logical next step is to determine how they can be reduced. Information theory provides a framework for the analysis of spatial uncertainties when different subregions are considered as random variables. In the work presented here, joint entropy, conditional entropy, and mutual information are applied for a detailed analysis of spatial uncertainty correlations. The aim is to determine (i which areas in a spatial analysis share information, and (ii where, and by how much, additional information would reduce uncertainties. As an illustration, a typical geological example is evaluated: the case of a subsurface layer with uncertain depth, shape and thickness. Mutual information and multivariate conditional entropies are determined based on multiple simulated model realisations. Even for this simple case, the measures not only provide a clear picture of uncertainties and their correlations but also give detailed insights into the potential reduction of uncertainties at each position, given additional information at a different location. The methods are directly applicable to other types of spatial uncertainty evaluations, especially where multiple realisations of a model simulation are analysed. In summary, the application of information theoretic measures opens up the path to a better understanding of spatial uncertainties, and their relationship to information and prior knowledge, for cases where uncertain property distributions are spatially analysed and visualised in maps and models.
Optimal design and uncertainty quantification in blood flow simulations for congenital heart disease
Marsden, Alison
2009-11-01
Recent work has demonstrated substantial progress in capabilities for patient-specific cardiovascular flow simulations. Recent advances include increasingly complex geometries, physiological flow conditions, and fluid structure interaction. However inputs to these simulations, including medical image data, catheter-derived pressures and material properties, can have significant uncertainties associated with them. For simulations to predict clinically useful and reliable output information, it is necessary to quantify the effects of input uncertainties on outputs of interest. In addition, blood flow simulation tools can now be efficiently coupled to shape optimization algorithms for surgery design applications, and these tools should incorporate uncertainty information. We present a unified framework to systematically and efficient account for uncertainties in simulations using adaptive stochastic collocation. In addition, we present a framework for derivative-free optimization of cardiovascular geometries, and layer these tools to perform optimization under uncertainty. These methods are demonstrated using simulations and surgery optimization to improve hemodynamics in pediatric cardiology applications.
Adjoint-Based Uncertainty Quantification with MCNP
Seifried, Jeffrey E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2011-09-01
This work serves to quantify the instantaneous uncertainties in neutron transport simulations born from nuclear data and statistical counting uncertainties. Perturbation and adjoint theories are used to derive implicit sensitivity expressions. These expressions are transformed into forms that are convenient for construction with MCNP6, creating the ability to perform adjoint-based uncertainty quantification with MCNP6. These new tools are exercised on the depleted-uranium hybrid LIFE blanket, quantifying its sensitivities and uncertainties to important figures of merit. Overall, these uncertainty estimates are small (< 2%). Having quantified the sensitivities and uncertainties, physical understanding of the system is gained and some confidence in the simulation is acquired.
Aspects of complementarity and uncertainty
Vathsan, Radhika; Qureshi, Tabish
2016-08-01
The two-slit experiment with quantum particles provides many insights into the behavior of quantum mechanics, including Bohr’s complementarity principle. Here, we analyze Einstein’s recoiling slit version of the experiment and show how the inevitable entanglement between the particle and the recoiling slit as a which-way detector is responsible for complementarity. We derive the Englert-Greenberger-Yasin duality from this entanglement, which can also be thought of as a consequence of sum-uncertainty relations between certain complementary observables of the recoiling slit. Thus, entanglement is an integral part of the which-way detection process, and so is uncertainty, though in a completely different way from that envisaged by Bohr and Einstein.
Uncertainty relation for mutual information
Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.
2014-12-01
We postulate the existence of a universal uncertainty relation between the quantum and classical mutual informations between pairs of quantum systems. Specifically, we propose that the sum of the classical mutual information, determined by two mutually unbiased pairs of observables, never exceeds the quantum mutual information. We call this the complementary-quantum correlation (CQC) relation and prove its validity for pure states, for states with one maximally mixed subsystem, and for all states when one measurement is minimally disturbing. We provide results of a Monte Carlo simulation suggesting that the CQC relation is generally valid. Importantly, we also show that the CQC relation represents an improvement to an entropic uncertainty principle in the presence of a quantum memory, and that it can be used to verify an achievable secret key rate in the quantum one-time pad cryptographic protocol.
Uncertainty in flood risk mapping
Gonçalves, Luisa M. S.; Fonte, Cidália C.; Gomes, Ricardo
2014-05-01
A flood refers to a sharp increase of water level or volume in rivers and seas caused by sudden rainstorms or melting ice due to natural factors. In this paper, the flooding of riverside urban areas caused by sudden rainstorms will be studied. In this context, flooding occurs when the water runs above the level of the minor river bed and enters the major river bed. The level of the major bed determines the magnitude and risk of the flooding. The prediction of the flooding extent is usually deterministic, and corresponds to the expected limit of the flooded area. However, there are many sources of uncertainty in the process of obtaining these limits, which influence the obtained flood maps used for watershed management or as instruments for territorial and emergency planning. In addition, small variations in the delineation of the flooded area can be translated into erroneous risk prediction. Therefore, maps that reflect the uncertainty associated with the flood modeling process have started to be developed, associating a degree of likelihood with the boundaries of the flooded areas. In this paper an approach is presented that enables the influence of the parameters uncertainty to be evaluated, dependent on the type of Land Cover Map (LCM) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM), on the estimated values of the peak flow and the delineation of flooded areas (different peak flows correspond to different flood areas). The approach requires modeling the DEM uncertainty and its propagation to the catchment delineation. The results obtained in this step enable a catchment with fuzzy geographical extent to be generated, where a degree of possibility of belonging to the basin is assigned to each elementary spatial unit. Since the fuzzy basin may be considered as a fuzzy set, the fuzzy area of the basin may be computed, generating a fuzzy number. The catchment peak flow is then evaluated using fuzzy arithmetic. With this methodology a fuzzy number is obtained for the peak flow
Visualizing Summary Statistics and Uncertainty
Potter, K.
2010-08-12
The graphical depiction of uncertainty information is emerging as a problem of great importance. Scientific data sets are not considered complete without indications of error, accuracy, or levels of confidence. The visual portrayal of this information is a challenging task. This work takes inspiration from graphical data analysis to create visual representations that show not only the data value, but also important characteristics of the data including uncertainty. The canonical box plot is reexamined and a new hybrid summary plot is presented that incorporates a collection of descriptive statistics to highlight salient features of the data. Additionally, we present an extension of the summary plot to two dimensional distributions. Finally, a use-case of these new plots is presented, demonstrating their ability to present high-level overviews as well as detailed insight into the salient features of the underlying data distribution. © 2010 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Uncertainty Relation from Holography Principle
Chen, Jia-Zhong; Jia, Duoje
2004-01-01
We propose that the information and entropy of an isolated system are two sides of one coin in the sense that they can convert into each other by measurement and evolution of the system while the sum of them is identically conserved. The holographic principle is reformulated in the way that this conserved sum is bounded by a quarter of the area A of system boundary. Uncertainty relation is derived from the holographic principle.
2010-01-01
@@ The global economy is expected to grow by 2-3 percent in 2010,according to the Yellow Book of International Economy for 2010 released on December 24 by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences(CASS).Zhang Yuyan,Editor in Chief of the yellow book and Director of the Institute of World Economics and Politics at CASS,offered his insights into uncertainties in the world economy in 2010 at the launching ceremony for the yellow book.Edited excerpts follow:
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2010-01-01
The global economy is expected to grow by 2-3 percent in 2010,according to the Yellow Book of International Economy for 2010 released on December 24 by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS).Zhang Yuyan,Editor in Chief of the yellow book and Director of the Institute of World Economics and Politics at CASS,offered his insights into uncertainties in the world economy in 2010 at the launching ceremony for the yellow book.
Accommodating Uncertainty in Prior Distributions
Picard, Richard Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vander Wiel, Scott Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-01-19
A fundamental premise of Bayesian methodology is that a priori information is accurately summarized by a single, precisely de ned prior distribution. In many cases, especially involving informative priors, this premise is false, and the (mis)application of Bayes methods produces posterior quantities whose apparent precisions are highly misleading. We examine the implications of uncertainty in prior distributions, and present graphical methods for dealing with them.
CRISIS FOCUS Uncertainty and Flexibility
2008-01-01
As the world continued to watch the unfolding financial and economic crises this month, Robert Zoellick, President of the World Bank, arrived in China for discussions on how the country can help support the global economy and the efforts it has taken to strengthen its own recovery. Zoellick, who had seen many uncertainties in 2009, called for China to be flexible with its macroeconomic policy. He made the following comments at a press conference in Beijing on December 15. Edited excerpts follow:
Quantifying uncertainty from material inhomogeneity.
Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Emery, John M.; Brewer, Luke N.; Boyce, Brad Lee
2009-09-01
Most engineering materials are inherently inhomogeneous in their processing, internal structure, properties, and performance. Their properties are therefore statistical rather than deterministic. These inhomogeneities manifest across multiple length and time scales, leading to variabilities, i.e. statistical distributions, that are necessary to accurately describe each stage in the process-structure-properties hierarchy, and are ultimately the primary source of uncertainty in performance of the material and component. When localized events are responsible for component failure, or when component dimensions are on the order of microstructural features, this uncertainty is particularly important. For ultra-high reliability applications, the uncertainty is compounded by a lack of data describing the extremely rare events. Hands-on testing alone cannot supply sufficient data for this purpose. To date, there is no robust or coherent method to quantify this uncertainty so that it can be used in a predictive manner at the component length scale. The research presented in this report begins to address this lack of capability through a systematic study of the effects of microstructure on the strain concentration at a hole. To achieve the strain concentration, small circular holes (approximately 100 {micro}m in diameter) were machined into brass tensile specimens using a femto-second laser. The brass was annealed at 450 C, 600 C, and 800 C to produce three hole-to-grain size ratios of approximately 7, 1, and 1/7. Electron backscatter diffraction experiments were used to guide the construction of digital microstructures for finite element simulations of uniaxial tension. Digital image correlation experiments were used to qualitatively validate the numerical simulations. The simulations were performed iteratively to generate statistics describing the distribution of plastic strain at the hole in varying microstructural environments. In both the experiments and simulations, the
A Qualitative Approach to Uncertainty
Ghosh, Sujata; Velázquez-Quesada, Fernando R.
We focus on modelling dual epistemic attitudes (belief-disbelief, knowledge-ignorance, like-dislike) of an agent. This provides an interesting way to express different levels of uncertainties explicitly in the logical language. After introducing a dual modal framework, we discuss the different possibilities of an agent's attitude towards a proposition that can be expressed in this framework, and provide a preliminary look at the dynamics of the situation.
Strong majorization entropic uncertainty relations
Rudnicki, Lukasz [Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, Albert-Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Albertstrasse 19, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Puchala, Zbigniew [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Informatics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Baltycka 5, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Zyczkowski, Karol [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)
2014-07-01
We present new entropic uncertainty relations in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. Using the majorization technique we derive several explicit lower bounds for the sum of two Renyi entropies of the same order. Obtained bounds are expressed in terms of the largest singular values of given unitary matrices. Numerical simulations with random unitary matrices show that our bound is almost always stronger than the well known result of Maassen and Uffink.
Information, uncertainty and holographic action
Dikken, Robbert-Jan
2016-01-01
In this short note we show through simple derivation the explicit relation between information flow and the theories of the emergence of space-time and gravity, specifically for Newton's second law of motion. Next, in a rather straightforward derivation the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is uncovered from the universal bound on information flow. A relation between the universal bound on information flow and the change in bulk action is also shown to exist.
Importance of hydrological uncertainty assessment methods in climate change impact studies
Honti, M.; Scheidegger, A.; Stamm, C.
2014-01-01
Climate change impact assessments have become more and more popular in hydrology since the middle 1980's with a recent boost after the publication of the IPCC AR4 report. During hundreds of impact studies a quasi-standard methodology emerged, which is mainly shaped by the growing public demand for predicting how water resources management or flood protection should change in the following decades. The "standard" workflow relies on a model cascade from global circulation model (GCM) predictions for selected IPCC scenarios to future catchment hydrology. Uncertainty is present at each level and propagates through the model cascade. There is an emerging consensus between many studies on the relative importance of the different uncertainty sources. The prevailing perception is that GCM uncertainty dominates hydrological impact studies. Our hypothesis was that the relative importance of climatic and hydrologic uncertainty is (among other factors) heavily influenced by the uncertainty assessment method. To test this we carried out a climate change impact assessment and estimated the relative importance of the uncertainty sources. The study was performed on two small catchments in the Swiss Plateau with a lumped conceptual rainfall runoff model. In the climatic part we applied the standard ensemble approach to quantify uncertainty but in hydrology we used formal Bayesian uncertainty assessment with two different likelihood functions. One was a time-series error model that was able to deal with the complicated statistical properties of hydrological model residuals. The second was an approximate likelihood function for the flow quantiles. The results showed that the expected climatic impact on flow quantiles was small compared to prediction uncertainty. The source, structure and composition of uncertainty depended strongly on the uncertainty assessment method. This demonstrated that one could arrive to rather different conclusions about predictive uncertainty for the same
The importance of hydrological uncertainty assessment methods in climate change impact studies
Honti, M.; Scheidegger, A.; Stamm, C.
2014-08-01
Climate change impact assessments have become more and more popular in hydrology since the middle 1980s with a recent boost after the publication of the IPCC AR4 report. From hundreds of impact studies a quasi-standard methodology has emerged, to a large extent shaped by the growing public demand for predicting how water resources management or flood protection should change in the coming decades. The "standard" workflow relies on a model cascade from global circulation model (GCM) predictions for selected IPCC scenarios to future catchment hydrology. Uncertainty is present at each level and propagates through the model cascade. There is an emerging consensus between many studies on the relative importance of the different uncertainty sources. The prevailing perception is that GCM uncertainty dominates hydrological impact studies. Our hypothesis was that the relative importance of climatic and hydrologic uncertainty is (among other factors) heavily influenced by the uncertainty assessment method. To test this we carried out a climate change impact assessment and estimated the relative importance of the uncertainty sources. The study was performed on two small catchments in the Swiss Plateau with a lumped conceptual rainfall runoff model. In the climatic part we applied the standard ensemble approach to quantify uncertainty but in hydrology we used formal Bayesian uncertainty assessment with two different likelihood functions. One was a time series error model that was able to deal with the complicated statistical properties of hydrological model residuals. The second was an approximate likelihood function for the flow quantiles. The results showed that the expected climatic impact on flow quantiles was small compared to prediction uncertainty. The choice of uncertainty assessment method actually determined what sources of uncertainty could be identified at all. This demonstrated that one could arrive at rather different conclusions about the causes behind
Uncertainty Quantification for Airfoil Icing using Polynomial Chaos Expansions
DeGennaro, Anthony M; Martinelli, Luigi
2014-01-01
The formation and accretion of ice on the leading edge of a wing can be detrimental to airplane performance. Complicating this reality is the fact that even a small amount of uncertainty in the shape of the accreted ice may result in a large amount of uncertainty in aerodynamic performance metrics (e.g., stall angle of attack). The main focus of this work concerns using the techniques of Polynomial Chaos Expansions (PCE) to quantify icing uncertainty much more quickly than traditional methods (e.g., Monte Carlo). First, we present a brief survey of the literature concerning the physics of wing icing, with the intention of giving a certain amount of intuition for the physical process. Next, we give a brief overview of the background theory of PCE. Finally, we compare the results of Monte Carlo simulations to PCE-based uncertainty quantification for several different airfoil icing scenarios. The results are in good agreement and confirm that PCE methods are much more efficient for the canonical airfoil icing un...
Dark matter astrophysical uncertainties and the neutrino floor
O'Hare, Ciaran A J
2016-01-01
The search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) by direct detection faces an encroaching background due to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. For a given WIMP mass the cross section at which neutrinos constitute a dominant background is dependent on the uncertainty on the flux of each neutrino source from either the Sun, supernovae or atmospheric cosmic ray collisions. However there are also considerable uncertainties with regard to the astrophysical ingredients to the predicted WIMP signal. Uncertainties in the velocity of the Sun with respect to the Milky Way dark matter halo, the local density of WIMPs, and the shape of the local WIMP speed distribution all have an effect on the expected event rate in direct detection experiments and hence will change the region of the WIMP parameter space for which neutrinos are a significant background. In this work we extend the WIMP+neutrino analysis to account for the uncertainty in the astrophysics dependence of the WIMP signal. We show the effect of u...
Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves
2015-01-01
Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address these shortc...... shape-changing interfaces be used for, (b) which parts of the design space are not well understood, and (c) why studying user experience with shape-changing interfaces is important.......Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address...... these shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may...
Chemical model reduction under uncertainty
Malpica Galassi, Riccardo
2017-03-06
A general strategy for analysis and reduction of uncertain chemical kinetic models is presented, and its utility is illustrated in the context of ignition of hydrocarbon fuel–air mixtures. The strategy is based on a deterministic analysis and reduction method which employs computational singular perturbation analysis to generate simplified kinetic mechanisms, starting from a detailed reference mechanism. We model uncertain quantities in the reference mechanism, namely the Arrhenius rate parameters, as random variables with prescribed uncertainty factors. We propagate this uncertainty to obtain the probability of inclusion of each reaction in the simplified mechanism. We propose probabilistic error measures to compare predictions from the uncertain reference and simplified models, based on the comparison of the uncertain dynamics of the state variables, where the mixture entropy is chosen as progress variable. We employ the construction for the simplification of an uncertain mechanism in an n-butane–air mixture homogeneous ignition case, where a 176-species, 1111-reactions detailed kinetic model for the oxidation of n-butane is used with uncertainty factors assigned to each Arrhenius rate pre-exponential coefficient. This illustration is employed to highlight the utility of the construction, and the performance of a family of simplified models produced depending on chosen thresholds on importance and marginal probabilities of the reactions.
Uncertainty Relations for Analog Signals
Eldar, Yonina C
2008-01-01
In the past several years there has been a surge of research investigating various aspects of sparse representations and compressed sensing. Most of this work has focused on the finite-dimensional setting in which the goal is to decompose a finite-length vector into a given finite dictionary. Underlying many of these results is the conceptual notion of an uncertainty principle: a signal cannot be sparsely represented in two different bases. Here, we extend these ideas and results to the analog, infinite-dimensional setting by considering signals that lie in a finitely-generated shift-invariant (SI) space. This class of signals is rich enough to include many interesting special cases such as multiband signals and splines. By adapting the notion of coherence defined for finite dictionaries to infinite SI representations, we develop an uncertainty principle similar in spirit to its finite counterpart. We demonstrate tightness of our bound by considering a bandlimited low-pass comb that achieves the uncertainty p...
Blade tip timing (BTT) uncertainties
Russhard, Pete
2016-06-01
Blade Tip Timing (BTT) is an alternative technique for characterising blade vibration in which non-contact timing probes (e.g. capacitance or optical probes), typically mounted on the engine casing (figure 1), and are used to measure the time at which a blade passes each probe. This time is compared with the time at which the blade would have passed the probe if it had been undergoing no vibration. For a number of years the aerospace industry has been sponsoring research into Blade Tip Timing technologies that have been developed as tools to obtain rotor blade tip deflections. These have been successful in demonstrating the potential of the technology, but rarely produced quantitative data, along with a demonstration of a traceable value for measurement uncertainty. BTT technologies have been developed under a cloak of secrecy by the gas turbine OEM's due to the competitive advantages it offered if it could be shown to work. BTT measurements are sensitive to many variables and there is a need to quantify the measurement uncertainty of the complete technology and to define a set of guidelines as to how BTT should be applied to different vehicles. The data shown in figure 2 was developed from US government sponsored program that bought together four different tip timing system and a gas turbine engine test. Comparisons showed that they were just capable of obtaining measurement within a +/-25% uncertainty band when compared to strain gauges even when using the same input data sets.
Managing project risks and uncertainties
Mike Mentis
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This article considers threats to a project slipping on budget, schedule and fit-for-purpose. Threat is used here as the collective for risks (quantifiable bad things that can happen and uncertainties (poorly or not quantifiable bad possible events. Based on experience with projects in developing countries this review considers that (a project slippage is due to uncertainties rather than risks, (b while eventuation of some bad things is beyond control, managed execution and oversight are still the primary means to keeping within budget, on time and fit-for-purpose, (c improving project delivery is less about bigger and more complex and more about coordinated focus, effectiveness and developing thought-out heuristics, and (d projects take longer and cost more partly because threat identification is inaccurate, the scope of identified threats is too narrow, and the threat assessment product is not integrated into overall project decision-making and execution. Almost by definition, what is poorly known is likely to cause problems. Yet it is not just the unquantifiability and intangibility of uncertainties causing project slippage, but that they are insufficiently taken into account in project planning and execution that cause budget and time overruns. Improving project performance requires purpose-driven and managed deployment of scarce seasoned professionals. This can be aided with independent oversight by deeply experienced panelists who contribute technical insights and can potentially show that diligence is seen to be done.
Characterizing Epistemic Uncertainty for Launch Vehicle Designs
Novack, Steven D.; Rogers, Jim; Al Hassan, Mohammad; Hark, Frank
2016-01-01
NASA Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has the task of estimating the aleatory (randomness) and epistemic (lack of knowledge) uncertainty of launch vehicle loss of mission and crew risk, and communicating the results. Launch vehicles are complex engineered systems designed with sophisticated subsystems that are built to work together to accomplish mission success. Some of these systems or subsystems are in the form of heritage equipment, while some have never been previously launched. For these cases, characterizing the epistemic uncertainty is of foremost importance, and it is anticipated that the epistemic uncertainty of a modified launch vehicle design versus a design of well understood heritage equipment would be greater. For reasons that will be discussed, standard uncertainty propagation methods using Monte Carlo simulation produce counter intuitive results, and significantly underestimate epistemic uncertainty for launch vehicle models. Furthermore, standard PRA methods, such as Uncertainty-Importance analyses used to identify components that are significant contributors to uncertainty, are rendered obsolete, since sensitivity to uncertainty changes are not reflected in propagation of uncertainty using Monte Carlo methods. This paper provides a basis of the uncertainty underestimation for complex systems and especially, due to nuances of launch vehicle logic, for launch vehicles. It then suggests several alternative methods for estimating uncertainty and provides examples of estimation results. Lastly, the paper describes how to implement an Uncertainty-Importance analysis using one alternative approach, describes the results, and suggests ways to reduce epistemic uncertainty by focusing on additional data or testing of selected components.
M. C. Peel
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Two key sources of uncertainty in projections of future runoff for climate change impact assessments are uncertainty between Global Climate Models (GCMs and within a GCM. Within-GCM uncertainty is the variability in GCM output that occurs when running a scenario multiple times but each run has slightly different, but equally plausible, initial conditions. The limited number of runs available for each GCM and scenario combination within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3 and phase 5 (CMIP5 datasets, limits the assessment of within-GCM uncertainty. In this second of two companion papers, the primary aim is to approximate within-GCM uncertainty of monthly precipitation and temperature projections and assess its impact on modelled runoff for climate change impact assessments. A secondary aim is to assess the impact of between-GCM uncertainty on modelled runoff. Here we approximate within-GCM uncertainty by developing non-stationary stochastic replicates of GCM monthly precipitation and temperature data. These replicates are input to an off-line hydrologic model to assess the impact of within-GCM uncertainty on projected annual runoff and reservoir yield. To-date within-GCM uncertainty has received little attention in the hydrologic climate change impact literature and this analysis provides an approximation of the uncertainty in projected runoff, and reservoir yield, due to within- and between-GCM uncertainty of precipitation and temperature projections. In the companion paper, McMahon et al. (2014 sought to reduce between-GCM uncertainty by removing poorly performing GCMs, resulting in a selection of five better performing GCMs from CMIP3 for use in this paper. Here we present within- and between-GCM uncertainty results in mean annual precipitation (MAP, temperature (MAT and runoff (MAR, the standard deviation of annual precipitation (SDP and runoff (SDR and reservoir yield for five CMIP3 GCMs at 17 world-wide catchments
Kiib, Hans
2015-01-01
At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...... in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés...
Kiib, Hans
2015-01-01
in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés......At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many...... factories and warehouses on Gansevoort Street. Today the High Line is a beautiful park covered with new tiles, viewing platforms and smaller recreational areas. The park bridge has simple, uniform, urban fittings and features a variety of flowering plants, grasses, shrubs and trees from around the world...
Tongling:Copper Industry Giant Takes Shape
2011-01-01
<正>Centering on the strategic goal of building "World Copper Capital", Tongling constantly extends its product lines and improves the copper industry chain. Now, the copper industry with a production value of RMB 100 billion has taken shape.As the largest copper wire rod manufacturer in Asia, Tongling Quanwei Copper Technologies Co., Ltd., upon its moving into the local market,
Perspectives in shape analysis
Bruckstein, Alfred; Maragos, Petros; Wuhrer, Stefanie
2016-01-01
This book presents recent advances in the field of shape analysis. Written by experts in the fields of continuous-scale shape analysis, discrete shape analysis and sparsity, and numerical computing who hail from different communities, it provides a unique view of the topic from a broad range of perspectives. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly affordable to digitize shape information at high resolution. Yet analyzing and processing this data remains challenging because of the large amount of data involved, and because modern applications such as human-computer interaction require real-time processing. Meeting these challenges requires interdisciplinary approaches that combine concepts from a variety of research areas, including numerical computing, differential geometry, deformable shape modeling, sparse data representation, and machine learning. On the algorithmic side, many shape analysis tasks are modeled using partial differential equations, which can be solved using tools from the field of n...
Efficient uncertainty quantification in computational fluid dynamics
Loeven, G.J.A.
2010-01-01
When modeling physical systems, several sources of uncertainty are present. For example, variability in boundary conditions like free stream velocity or ambient pressure are always present. Furthermore, uncertainties in geometry arise from production tolerances, wear or unknown deformations under lo
Facility Measurement Uncertainty Analysis at NASA GRC
Stephens, Julia; Hubbard, Erin
2016-01-01
This presentation provides and overview of the measurement uncertainty analysis currently being implemented in various facilities at NASA GRC. This presentation includes examples pertinent to the turbine engine community (mass flow and fan efficiency calculation uncertainties.
Risk and Uncertainty in Production Economics
gold
2012-07-26
Jul 26, 2012 ... not be separated because where there is uncertainty, there is risk. The ... uncertainty. Thus, all business decisions are taken under the condition of risk ..... Economic theory and Operation Analysis, New Delhi: Prentice Hall of ...
Uncertainty quantification for environmental models
Hill, Mary C.; Lu, Dan; Kavetski, Dmitri; Clark, Martyn P.; Ye, Ming
2012-01-01
Environmental models are used to evaluate the fate of fertilizers in agricultural settings (including soil denitrification), the degradation of hydrocarbons at spill sites, and water supply for people and ecosystems in small to large basins and cities—to mention but a few applications of these models. They also play a role in understanding and diagnosing potential environmental impacts of global climate change. The models are typically mildly to extremely nonlinear. The persistent demand for enhanced dynamics and resolution to improve model realism [17] means that lengthy individual model execution times will remain common, notwithstanding continued enhancements in computer power. In addition, high-dimensional parameter spaces are often defined, which increases the number of model runs required to quantify uncertainty [2]. Some environmental modeling projects have access to extensive funding and computational resources; many do not. The many recent studies of uncertainty quantification in environmental model predictions have focused on uncertainties related to data error and sparsity of data, expert judgment expressed mathematically through prior information, poorly known parameter values, and model structure (see, for example, [1,7,9,10,13,18]). Approaches for quantifying uncertainty include frequentist (potentially with prior information [7,9]), Bayesian [13,18,19], and likelihood-based. A few of the numerous methods, including some sensitivity and inverse methods with consequences for understanding and quantifying uncertainty, are as follows: Bayesian hierarchical modeling and Bayesian model averaging; single-objective optimization with error-based weighting [7] and multi-objective optimization [3]; methods based on local derivatives [2,7,10]; screening methods like OAT (one at a time) and the method of Morris [14]; FAST (Fourier amplitude sensitivity testing) [14]; the Sobol' method [14]; randomized maximum likelihood [10]; Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) [10
Uncertainty Quantification in Climate Modeling
Sargsyan, K.; Safta, C.; Berry, R.; Debusschere, B.; Najm, H.
2011-12-01
We address challenges that sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification methods face when dealing with complex computational models. In particular, climate models are computationally expensive and typically depend on a large number of input parameters. We consider the Community Land Model (CLM), which consists of a nested computational grid hierarchy designed to represent the spatial heterogeneity of the land surface. Each computational cell can be composed of multiple land types, and each land type can incorporate one or more sub-models describing the spatial and depth variability. Even for simulations at a regional scale, the computational cost of a single run is quite high and the number of parameters that control the model behavior is very large. Therefore, the parameter sensitivity analysis and uncertainty propagation face significant difficulties for climate models. This work employs several algorithmic avenues to address some of the challenges encountered by classical uncertainty quantification methodologies when dealing with expensive computational models, specifically focusing on the CLM as a primary application. First of all, since the available climate model predictions are extremely sparse due to the high computational cost of model runs, we adopt a Bayesian framework that effectively incorporates this lack-of-knowledge as a source of uncertainty, and produces robust predictions with quantified uncertainty even if the model runs are extremely sparse. In particular, we infer Polynomial Chaos spectral expansions that effectively encode the uncertain input-output relationship and allow efficient propagation of all sources of input uncertainties to outputs of interest. Secondly, the predictability analysis of climate models strongly suffers from the curse of dimensionality, i.e. the large number of input parameters. While single-parameter perturbation studies can be efficiently performed in a parallel fashion, the multivariate uncertainty analysis
Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Tangent Lines
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines and bay closing lines in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline...
Uncertainties in mapping forest carbon in urban ecosystems.
Chen, Gang; Ozelkan, Emre; Singh, Kunwar K; Zhou, Jun; Brown, Marilyn R; Meentemeyer, Ross K
2017-02-01
Spatially explicit urban forest carbon estimation provides a baseline map for understanding the variation in forest vertical structure, informing sustainable forest management and urban planning. While high-resolution remote sensing has proven promising for carbon mapping in highly fragmented urban landscapes, data cost and availability are the major obstacle prohibiting accurate, consistent, and repeated measurement of forest carbon pools in cities. This study aims to evaluate the uncertainties of forest carbon estimation in response to the combined impacts of remote sensing data resolution and neighborhood spatial patterns in Charlotte, North Carolina. The remote sensing data for carbon mapping were resampled to a range of resolutions, i.e., LiDAR point cloud density - 5.8, 4.6, 2.3, and 1.2 pt s/m(2), aerial optical NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) imagery - 1, 5, 10, and 20 m. Urban spatial patterns were extracted to represent area, shape complexity, dispersion/interspersion, diversity, and connectivity of landscape patches across the residential neighborhoods with built-up densities from low, medium-low, medium-high, to high. Through statistical analyses, we found that changing remote sensing data resolution introduced noticeable uncertainties (variation) in forest carbon estimation at the neighborhood level. Higher uncertainties were caused by the change of LiDAR point density (causing 8.7-11.0% of variation) than changing NAIP image resolution (causing 6.2-8.6% of variation). For both LiDAR and NAIP, urban neighborhoods with a higher degree of anthropogenic disturbance unveiled a higher level of uncertainty in carbon mapping. However, LiDAR-based results were more likely to be affected by landscape patch connectivity, and the NAIP-based estimation was found to be significantly influenced by the complexity of patch shape.