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Sample records for line sensor array

  1. Integrated sensor array for on-line monitoring micro bioreactors

    Krommenhoek, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    The “Fed��?batch on a chip��?��?project, which was carried out in close cooperation with the Technical University of Delft, aims to miniaturize and parallelize micro bioreactors suitable for on-line screening of micro-organisms. This thesis describes an electrochemical sensor array which has been

  2. Integrated electrochemical sensor array for on-line monitoring of yeast fermentations

    Krommenhoek, E.E.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Bomer, Johan G.; Li, X.; Ottens, M.; van Dedem, G.W.K.; van Leeuwen, M.; van Gulik, W.M.; van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Heijnen, J.J.; van den Berg, Albert

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the design, modeling, and experimental characterization of an electrochemical sensor array for on-line monitoring of fermentor conditions in both miniaturized cell assays and in industrial scale fertnentations. The viable biomass concentration is determined from impedance

  3. Sensor array signal processing

    Naidu, Prabhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Chapter One: An Overview of Wavefields 1.1 Types of Wavefields and the Governing Equations 1.2 Wavefield in open space 1.3 Wavefield in bounded space 1.4 Stochastic wavefield 1.5 Multipath propagation 1.6 Propagation through random medium 1.7 ExercisesChapter Two: Sensor Array Systems 2.1 Uniform linear array (ULA) 2.2 Planar array 2.3 Distributed sensor array 2.4 Broadband sensor array 2.5 Source and sensor arrays 2.6 Multi-component sensor array2.7 ExercisesChapter Three: Frequency Wavenumber Processing 3.1 Digital filters in the w-k domain 3.2 Mapping of 1D into 2D filters 3.3 Multichannel Wiener filters 3.4 Wiener filters for ULA and UCA 3.5 Predictive noise cancellation 3.6 Exercises Chapter Four: Source Localization: Frequency Wavenumber Spectrum4.1 Frequency wavenumber spectrum 4.2 Beamformation 4.3 Capon's w-k spectrum 4.4 Maximum entropy w-k spectrum 4.5 Doppler-Azimuth Processing4.6 ExercisesChapter Five: Source Localization: Subspace Methods 5.1 Subspace methods (Narrowband) 5.2 Subspace methods (B...

  4. Networked Sensor Arrays

    Tighe, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    A set of independent radiation sensors, coupled with real-time data telemetry, offers the opportunity to run correlation algorithms for the sensor array as well as to incorporate non-radiological data into the system. This may enhance the overall sensitivity of the sensors and provide an opportunity to project the location of a source within the array. In collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), we have conducted field experiments to test a prototype system. Combining the outputs of a set of distributed sensors permits the correlation that the independent sensor outputs. Combined with additional information such as traffic patterns and velocities, this can reduce random/false detections and enhance detection capability. The principle components of such a system include: (1) A set of radiation sensors. These may be of varying type and complexity, including gamma and/or neutron detectors, gross count and spectral-capable sensors, and low to high energy-resolution sensors. (2) A set of non-radiation sensors. These may include sensors such as vehicle presence and imaging sensors. (3) A communications architecture for near real-time telemetry. Depending upon existing infrastructure and bandwidth requirements, this may be a radio or hard-wire based system. (4) A central command console to pole the sensors, correlate their output, and display the data in a meaningful form to the system operator. Both sensitivity and selectivity are important considerations when evaluating the performance of a detection system. Depending on the application, the optimization of sensitivity as well as the rejection of ''nuisance'' radioactive sources may or may not be critical

  5. SQIF Arrays as RF Sensors (Briefing Charts)

    Yukon, Stanford P

    2007-01-01

    ... (Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter) arrays may be employed as sensitive RF sensors. RF SQIF arrays fabricated with high Tc Josephson junctions can be cooled with small Sterling microcoolers...

  6. Thermal microphotonic sensor and sensor array

    Watts, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM; Shaw, Michael J [Tijeras, NM; Nielson, Gregory N [Albuquerque, NM; Lentine, Anthony L [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-02-23

    A thermal microphotonic sensor is disclosed for detecting infrared radiation using heat generated by the infrared radiation to shift the resonant frequency of an optical resonator (e.g. a ring resonator) to which the heat is coupled. The shift in the resonant frequency can be determined from light in an optical waveguide which is evanescently coupled to the optical resonator. An infrared absorber can be provided on the optical waveguide either as a coating or as a plate to aid in absorption of the infrared radiation. In some cases, a vertical resonant cavity can be formed about the infrared absorber to further increase the absorption of the infrared radiation. The sensor can be formed as a single device, or as an array for imaging the infrared radiation.

  7. Multi-Channel Capacitive Sensor Arrays

    Bingnan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, multi-channel capacitive sensor arrays based on microstrip band-stop filters are studied. The sensor arrays can be used to detect the proximity of objects at different positions and directions. Each capacitive sensing structure in the array is connected to an inductive element to form resonance at different frequencies. The resonances are designed to be isolated in the frequency spectrum, such that the change in one channel does not affect resonances at other channels. The inductive element associated with each capacitive sensor can be surface-mounted inductors, integrated microstrip inductors or metamaterial-inspired structures. We show that by using metamaterial split-ring structures coupled to a microstrip line, the quality factor of each resonance can be greatly improved compared to conventional surface-mounted or microstrip meander inductors. With such a microstrip-coupled split-ring design, more sensing elements can be integrated in the same frequency spectrum, and the sensitivity can be greatly improved.

  8. Microfabricated Multianalyte Sensor Arrays for Metabolic Monitoring

    Pishko, Michael V

    2006-01-01

    ...(ethylene glycol) diacrylate or PEG-DA on the array electrodes. The fabricated microarray sensors were individually addressable and with no cross-talk between adjacent array elements as assessed using cyclic voltammetry...

  9. Microfabricated Multianalyte Sensor Arrays for Metabolic Monitoring

    Pishko, Michael V

    2007-01-01

    ...(ethylene glycol) diacrylate or PEG-DA on the array electrodes. The fabricated microarray sensors were individually addressable and with no cross-talk between adjacent array elements as assessed using cyclic voltammetry...

  10. Nanowire sensor, sensor array, and method for making the same

    Yun, Minhee (Inventor); Myung, Nosang (Inventor); Vasquez, Richard (Inventor); Homer, Margie (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar (Inventor); Choi, Daniel (Inventor); Goddard, William (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a nanowire sensor and method for forming the same. More specifically, the nanowire sensor comprises at least one nanowire formed on a substrate, with a sensor receptor disposed on a surface of the nanowire, thereby forming a receptor-coated nanowire. The nanowire sensor can be arranged as a sensor sub-unit comprising a plurality of homogeneously receptor-coated nanowires. A plurality of sensor subunits can be formed to collectively comprise a nanowire sensor array. Each sensor subunit in the nanowire sensor array can be formed to sense a different stimulus, allowing a user to sense a plurality of stimuli. Additionally, each sensor subunit can be formed to sense the same stimuli through different aspects of the stimulus. The sensor array is fabricated through a variety of techniques, such as by creating nanopores on a substrate and electrodepositing nanowires within the nanopores.

  11. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIP Sensors proposes to develop a Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array System for measuring air flow pressure at multiple points on the skin of aircrafts for Flight...

  12. Analyzing Responses of Chemical Sensor Arrays

    Zhou, Hanying

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing a third-generation electronic nose (ENose) capable of continuous monitoring of the International Space Station s cabin atmosphere for specific, harmful airborne contaminants. Previous generations of the ENose have been described in prior NASA Tech Briefs issues. Sensor selection is critical in both (prefabrication) sensor material selection and (post-fabrication) data analysis of the ENose, which detects several analytes that are difficult to detect, or that are at very low concentration ranges. Existing sensor selection approaches usually include limited statistical measures, where selectivity is more important but reliability and sensitivity are not of concern. When reliability and sensitivity can be major limiting factors in detecting target compounds reliably, the existing approach is not able to provide meaningful selection that will actually improve data analysis results. The approach and software reported here consider more statistical measures (factors) than existing approaches for a similar purpose. The result is a more balanced and robust sensor selection from a less than ideal sensor array. The software offers quick, flexible, optimal sensor selection and weighting for a variety of purposes without a time-consuming, iterative search by performing sensor calibrations to a known linear or nonlinear model, evaluating the individual sensor s statistics, scoring the individual sensor s overall performance, finding the best sensor array size to maximize class separation, finding optimal weights for the remaining sensor array, estimating limits of detection for the target compounds, evaluating fingerprint distance between group pairs, and finding the best event-detecting sensors.

  13. A Hybrid Pressure and Vector Sensor Towed Array

    Huang, Dehua

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is of a combined acoustic pressure and acoustic vector sensor array, where multiple acoustic pressure sensors are integrated with an acoustic vector sensor in a towed array...

  14. Sensor Arrays and Electronic Tongue Systems

    Manel del Valle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent work performed with electronic tongue systems utilizing electrochemical sensors. The electronic tongues concept is a new trend in sensors that uses arrays of sensors together with chemometric tools to unravel the complex information generated. Initial contributions and also the most used variant employ conventional ion selective electrodes, in which it is named potentiometric electronic tongue. The second important variant is the one that employs voltammetry for its operation. As chemometric processing tool, the use of artificial neural networks as the preferred data processing variant will be described. The use of the sensor arrays inserted in flow injection or sequential injection systems will exemplify attempts made to automate the operation of electronic tongues. Significant use of biosensors, mainly enzyme-based, to form what is already named bioelectronic tongue will be also presented. Application examples will be illustrated with selected study cases from the Sensors and Biosensors Group at the Autonomous University of Barcelona.

  15. Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors; 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity; 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. This presentation discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  16. Development of flexible array tactile sensors

    Drimus, Alin; Marian, Nicolae; Bilberg, Arne

    2010-01-01

    time data acquisition system scans all the cells and converts electrical resistance to tactile pressure maps. We validate that this information can be used to improve grasping and perform object recognition. Key words: piezoresistivity, tactile, sensor, pressure, robotics......In this paper we describe the development of an array tactile sensor for use in robotic grippers based on a flexible piezoresistive material. We start by comparing different cell structures in terms of output characteristics and we construct an array of cells in a row and columns layout. A real...

  17. Tests Of Array Of Flush Pressure Sensors

    Larson, Larry J.; Moes, Timothy R.; Siemers, Paul M., III

    1992-01-01

    Report describes tests of array of pressure sensors connected to small orifices flush with surface of 1/7-scale model of F-14 airplane in wind tunnel. Part of effort to determine whether pressure parameters consisting of various sums, differences, and ratios of measured pressures used to compute accurately free-stream values of stagnation pressure, static pressure, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and mach number. Such arrays of sensors and associated processing circuitry integrated into advanced aircraft as parts of flight-monitoring and -controlling systems.

  18. A Prototype Tactile Sensor Array.

    1982-09-15

    Active Touch Sensing. Technical Report, MIT Artificial Inteligence Laboratory, 1981. (9] Larcombe, M. Carbon Fibre Tactile Sensors. Technical Report...thesis, Carnegie-Mellon University, 1981. [13] Purbrick, John A. A Force Transducer Employing Conductive Silicone Rubber. Technical Report, MIT Artificial

  19. Advanced Sensor Arrays and Packaging

    Ryter, John Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramaiyan, Kannan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Novel sensor packaging elements were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to facilitate the transition of electrochemical mixed-potential sensors toward commercialization. Of the two designs completed, the first is currently undergoing field trials, taking direct measurements within vehicle exhaust streams, while the second is undergoing preliminary laboratory testing. The sensors’ optimal operating conditions, sensitivity to hydrogen, and long-­term baseline stability were also investigated. The sensing capabilities of lanthanum chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3) and indium-­doped tin oxide (ITO) working electrodes were compared, and the ITO devices were selected for pre-­commercial field trials testing at a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fueling station in California. Previous data from that fueling station were also analyzed, and the causes of anomalous baseline drift were identified.

  20. Construction of a Piezoresistive Neural Sensor Array

    Carlson, W. B.; Schulze, W. A.; Pilgrim, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    The construction of a piezoresistive - piezoelectric sensor (or actuator) array is proposed using 'neural' connectivity for signal recognition and possible actuation functions. A closer integration of the sensor and decision functions is necessary in order to achieve intrinsic identification within the sensor. A neural sensor is the next logical step in development of truly 'intelligent' arrays. This proposal will integrate 1-3 polymer piezoresistors and MLC electroceramic devices for applications involving acoustic identification. The 'intelligent' piezoresistor -piezoelectric system incorporates printed resistors, composite resistors, and a feedback for the resetting of resistances. A model of a design is proposed in order to simulate electromechanical resistor interactions. The goal of optimizing a sensor geometry for improving device reliability, training, & signal identification capabilities is the goal of this work. At present, studies predict performance of a 'smart' device with a significant control of 'effective' compliance over a narrow pressure range due to a piezoresistor percolation threshold. An interesting possibility may be to use an array of control elements to shift the threshold function in order to change the level of resistance in a neural sensor array for identification, or, actuation applications. The proposed design employs elements of: (1) conductor loaded polymers for a 'fast' RC time constant response; and (2) multilayer ceramics for actuation or sensing and shifting of resistance in the polymer. Other material possibilities also exist using magnetoresistive layered systems for shifting the resistance. It is proposed to use a neural net configuration to test and to help study the possible changes required in the materials design of these devices. Numerical design models utilize electromechanical elements, in conjunction with structural elements in order to simulate piezoresistively controlled actuators and changes in resistance of sensors

  1. Miniaturized optical sensors based on lens arrays

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, M.L.; Larsen, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of optical sensors based on the use of lenticular arrays for probing mechanical deflections will be displayed. The optical systems are well suited for miniaturization, and utilize speckles as the information-carriers. This implementation allows for acquiring directional information...

  2. Transition edge sensor series array bolometer

    Beyer, J, E-mail: joern.beyer@ptb.d [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestrasse 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    A transition edge sensor series array (TES-SA) is an array of identical TESs that are connected in series by low-inductance superconducting wiring. The array elements are equally and well thermally coupled to the absorber and respond to changes in the absorber temperature in synchronization. The TES-SA total resistance increases compared to a single TES while the shape of the superconducting transition is preserved. We are developing a TES-SA with a large number, hundreds to thousands, of array elements with the goal of enabling the readout of a TES-based bolometer operated at 4.2 K with a semiconductor-based amplifier located at room temperature. The noise and dynamic performance of a TES-SA bolometer based on a niobium/aluminum bilayer is analyzed. It is shown that stable readout of the bolometer with a low-noise transimpedance amplifier is feasible.

  3. Transition edge sensor series array bolometer

    Beyer, J

    2010-01-01

    A transition edge sensor series array (TES-SA) is an array of identical TESs that are connected in series by low-inductance superconducting wiring. The array elements are equally and well thermally coupled to the absorber and respond to changes in the absorber temperature in synchronization. The TES-SA total resistance increases compared to a single TES while the shape of the superconducting transition is preserved. We are developing a TES-SA with a large number, hundreds to thousands, of array elements with the goal of enabling the readout of a TES-based bolometer operated at 4.2 K with a semiconductor-based amplifier located at room temperature. The noise and dynamic performance of a TES-SA bolometer based on a niobium/aluminum bilayer is analyzed. It is shown that stable readout of the bolometer with a low-noise transimpedance amplifier is feasible.

  4. Thermal physics of transition edge sensor arrays

    Hoevers, H.F.C.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal transport in transition edge sensor (TES)-based microcalorimeter arrays is reviewed. The fundamentals of thermal conductance in Si 3 N 4 membranes are discussed and the magnitude of the electron-phonon coupling and Kapitza coupling in practical devices is summarized. Next, the thermal transport in high-stopping power and low-heat capacity absorbers, required for arrays of TES microcalorimeters, is discussed in combination with a performance analysis of detectors with mushroom-absorbers. Finally, the phenomenology of unexplained excess noise, observed in both Mo- and Ti-based TESs, is briefly summarized and related with the coupling of the TES to the heat bath

  5. Coaxial tube array space transmission line characterization

    Switzer, C.A.; Bents, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The coaxial tube array tether/transmission line used to connect an SP-100 nuclear power system to the space station was characterized over the range of reactor-to-platform separation distances of 1 to 10 km. Characterization was done with respect to array performance, physical dimensions and masses. Using a fixed design procedure, a family of designs was generated for the same power level (300 kWe), power loss (1.5 percent), and meteoroid survival probability (99.5 percent over 10 yr). To differentiate between vacuum insulated and gas insulated lines, two different maximum values of the E field were considered: 20 kV/cm (appropriate to vacuum insulation) and 50 kV/cm (compressed SF6). Core conductor, tube, bumper, standoff, spacer and bumper support dimensions, and masses were also calculated. The results of the characterization show mainly how transmission line size and mass scale with reactor-to-platform separation distance

  6. Piezoresistive pressure sensor array for robotic skin

    Mirza, Fahad; Sahasrabuddhe, Ritvij R.; Baptist, Joshua R.; Wijesundara, Muthu B. J.; Lee, Woo H.; Popa, Dan O.

    2016-05-01

    Robots are starting to transition from the confines of the manufacturing floor to homes, schools, hospitals, and highly dynamic environments. As, a result, it is impossible to foresee all the probable operational situations of robots, and preprogram the robot behavior in those situations. Among human-robot interaction technologies, haptic communication is an intuitive physical interaction method that can help define operational behaviors for robots cooperating with humans. Multimodal robotic skin with distributed sensors can help robots increase perception capabilities of their surrounding environments. Electro-Hydro-Dynamic (EHD) printing is a flexible multi-modal sensor fabrication method because of its direct printing capability of a wide range of materials onto substrates with non-uniform topographies. In past work we designed interdigitated comb electrodes as a sensing element and printed piezoresistive strain sensors using customized EHD printable PEDOT:PSS based inks. We formulated a PEDOT:PSS derivative ink, by mixing PEDOT:PSS and DMSO. Bending induced characterization tests of prototyped sensors showed high sensitivity and sufficient stability. In this paper, we describe SkinCells, robot skin sensor arrays integrated with electronic modules. 4x4 EHD-printed arrays of strain sensors was packaged onto Kapton sheets and silicone encapsulant and interconnected to a custom electronic module that consists of a microcontroller, Wheatstone bridge with adjustable digital potentiometer, multiplexer, and serial communication unit. Thus, SkinCell's electronics can be used for signal acquisition, conditioning, and networking between sensor modules. Several SkinCells were loaded with controlled pressure, temperature and humidity testing apparatuses, and testing results are reported in this paper.

  7. Optical networks for wideband sensor array

    Sheng, Lin Horng

    2011-12-01

    This thesis presents the realization of novel systems for optical sensing networks with an array of long-period grating (LPG) sensors. As a launching point of the thesis, the motivation to implement optical sensing network in precisely catering LPG sensors is presented. It highlights the flexibility of the sensing network to act as the foundation in order to boost the application of the various LPG sensor design in biological and chemical sensing. After the thorough study on the various optical sensing networks, sub-carrier multiplexing (SCM) and optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) schemes are adopted in conjunction with tunable laser source (TLS) to facilitate simultaneous interrogation of the LPG sensors array. In fact, these systems are distinct to have the capability to accommodate wideband optical sensors. Specifically, the LPG sensors which is in 20nm bandwidth are identified to operate in these systems. The working principles of the systems are comprehensively elucidated in this thesis. It highlights the mathematical approach to quantify the experimental setup of the optical sensing network. Additionally, the system components of the designs are identified and methodically characterized so that the components well operate in the designed environment. A mockup has been setup to demonstrate the application in sensing of various liquid indices and analyse the response of the LPG sensors in order to evaluate the performance of the systems. Eventually, the resemblance of the demultiplexed spectral response to the pristine spectral response are quantified to have excellent agreement. Finally, the promising result consistency of the systems is verified through repeatability test.

  8. Paper-Based Active Tactile Sensor Array.

    Zhong, Qize; Zhong, Junwen; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Yao, Xu; Wang, Bo; Li, Wenbo; Wu, Nan; Liu, Kang; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-11-25

    A paper-based active tactile sensor -array (PATSA) with a dynamic sensitivity of 0.35 V N(-1) is demonstrated. The pixel position of the PATSA can be routed by analyzing the real-time recording voltages in the pressing process. The PATSA performance, which remains functional when removing partial areas, reveals that the device has a potential application to customized electronic skins. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Development of a Tactile Sensor Array

    Marian, Nicolae; Drimus, Alin; Bilberg, Arne

    2010-01-01

    Flexible grasping robots are needed for enabling automated, profitable and competitive production of small batch sizes including complex handling processes of often fragile objects. This development will create new conditions for value-adding activities in the production of the future world....... The paper describes the related research work we have developed for sensor design, exploration and control for a robot gripping system, in order to analyze normal forces applied on the tactile pixels for gripping force control and generate tactile images for gripping positioning and object recognition....... Section 1 gives an introduction of principles and technologies in tactile sensing for robot grippers. Section 2 presents the sensor cell (taxel) and array design and characterization. Section 3 introduces object recognition and shape analysis ideas showing a few preliminary examples, where geometrical...

  10. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    Soo Chung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2 for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  11. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  12. Polar exponential sensor arrays unify iconic and Hough space representation

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1990-01-01

    The log-polar coordinate system, inherent in both polar exponential sensor arrays and log-polar remapped video imagery, is identical to the coordinate system of its corresponding Hough transform parameter space. The resulting unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computation for line recognition and eliminates the slope quantization problems inherent in the classical Cartesian Hough transform. The geometric organization of the algorithm is more amenable to massively parallel architectures than that of the Cartesian version. The neural architecture of the human visual cortex meets the geometric requirements to execute 'in-place' log-Hough algorithms of the kind described here.

  13. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays.

    Luo, Xiao-Gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-Nan; Hou, Chang-Jun; Huo, Dan-Qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-Bao; Lei, Jin-Can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  14. Bearing estimation with acoustic vector-sensor arrays

    Hawkes, M.; Nehorai, A.

    1996-01-01

    We consider direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation using arrays of acoustic vector sensors in free space, and derive expressions for the Cramacute er-Rao bound on the DOA parameters when there is a single source. The vector-sensor array is seen to have improved performance over the traditional scalar-sensor (pressure-sensor) array for two distinct reasons: its elements have an inherent directional sensitivity and the array makes a greater number of measurements. The improvement is greatest for small array apertures and low signal-to-noise ratios. Examination of the conventional beamforming and Capon DOA estimators shows that vector-sensor arrays can completely resolve the bearing, even with a linear array, and can remove the ambiguities associated with spatial undersampling. We also propose and analyze a diversely-oriented array of velocity sensors that possesses some of the advantages of the vector-sensor array without the increase in hardware and computation. In addition, in certain scenarios it can avoid problems with spatially correlated noise that the vector-sensor array may suffer. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles

    Dusek, J; Triantafyllou, M S; Kottapalli, A G P; Asadnia, M; Miao, J; Woo, M E; Lang, J H

    2013-01-01

    The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics. (paper)

  16. Photon counting arrays for AO wavefront sensors

    Vallerga, J; McPhate, J; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan G; Siegmund, O; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Future wavefront sensors for AO on large telescopes will require a large number of pixels and must operate at high frame rates. Unfortunately for CCDs, there is a readout noise penalty for operating faster, and this noise can add up rather quickly when considering the number of pixels required for the extended shape of a sodium laser guide star observed with a large telescope. Imaging photon counting detectors have zero readout noise and many pixels, but have suffered in the past with low QE at the longer wavelengths (>500 nm). Recent developments in GaAs photocathode technology, CMOS ASIC readouts and FPGA processing electronics have resulted in noiseless WFS detector designs that are competitive with silicon array detectors, though at ~40% the QE of CCDs. We review noiseless array detectors and compare their centroiding performance with CCDs using the best available characteristics of each. We show that for sub-aperture binning of 6x6 and greater that noiseless detectors have a smaller centroid error at flu...

  17. Human location estimation using thermopile array sensor

    Parnin, S.; Rahman, M. M.

    2017-11-01

    Utilization of Thermopile sensor at an early stage of human detection is challenging as there are many things that produce thermal heat other than human such as electrical appliances and animals. Therefrom, an algorithm for early presence detection has been developed through the study of human body temperature behaviour with respect to the room temperature. The change in non-contact detected temperature of human varied according to body parts. In an indoor room, upper parts of human body change up to 3°C whereas lower part ranging from 0.58°C to 1.71°C. The average changes in temperature of human is used as a conditional set-point value in the program algorithm to detect human presence. The current position of human and its respective angle is gained when human is presence at certain pixels of Thermopile’s sensor array. Human position is estimated successfully as the developed sensory system is tested to the actuator of a stand fan.

  18. Intelligent pressure measurement in multiple sensor arrays

    Matthews, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Pressure data acquisition has typically consisted of a group of sensors scanned by an electronic or mechanical multiplexer. The data accuracy was dependent upon the temperature stability of the sensors. This paper describes a new method of pressure measurement that combines individual temperature compensated pressure sensors, a microprocessor, and an A/D converter in one module. Each sensor has its own temperature characteristics stored in a look-up table to minimize sensor thermal errors. The result is an intelligent pressure module that can output temperature compensated engineering units over an Ethernet interface. Calibration intervals can be dramatically extended depending upon system accuracy requirements and calibration techniques used

  19. Improved chemical identification from sensor arrays using intelligent algorithms

    Roppel, Thaddeus A.; Wilson, Denise M.

    2001-02-01

    Intelligent signal processing algorithms are shown to improve identification rates significantly in chemical sensor arrays. This paper focuses on the use of independently derived sensor status information to modify the processing of sensor array data by using a fast, easily-implemented "best-match" approach to filling in missing sensor data. Most fault conditions of interest (e.g., stuck high, stuck low, sudden jumps, excess noise, etc.) can be detected relatively simply by adjunct data processing, or by on-board circuitry. The objective then is to devise, implement, and test methods for using this information to improve the identification rates in the presence of faulted sensors. In one typical example studied, utilizing separately derived, a-priori knowledge about the health of the sensors in the array improved the chemical identification rate by an artificial neural network from below 10 percent correct to over 99 percent correct. While this study focuses experimentally on chemical sensor arrays, the results are readily extensible to other types of sensor platforms.

  20. Biomimetic Hair Sensor Arrays: From Inspiration To Implementation

    Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Bruinink, C.M.; Kolster, M.L.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report on the successful implementation of highly sensitive artificial hair-based flow-sensor arrays for sensing low-frequency air flows. Artificial hair sensors are bio-inspired from crickets’ cercal filiform hairs, one of nature’s best in sensing small air flows. The presented

  1. Learning from Crickets: Artificial Hair-Sensor Array Developments

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2010-01-01

    We have successfully developed biomimetic flowsensitive hair-sensor arrays taking inspiration from mechanosensory hairs of crickets. Our current generation of sensors achieves sub mm/s threshold air-flow sensitivity for single hairs operating in a bandwidth of a few hundred Hz and is the result of a

  2. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  3. Optimization of modal filters based on arrays of piezoelectric sensors

    Pagani, Carlos C Jr; Trindade, Marcelo A

    2009-01-01

    Modal filters may be obtained by a properly designed weighted sum of the output signals of an array of sensors distributed on the host structure. Although several research groups have been interested in techniques for designing and implementing modal filters based on a given array of sensors, the effect of the array topology on the effectiveness of the modal filter has received much less attention. In particular, it is known that some parameters, such as size, shape and location of a sensor, are very important in determining the observability of a vibration mode. Hence, this paper presents a methodology for the topological optimization of an array of sensors in order to maximize the effectiveness of a set of selected modal filters. This is done using a genetic algorithm optimization technique for the selection of 12 piezoceramic sensors from an array of 36 piezoceramic sensors regularly distributed on an aluminum plate, which maximize the filtering performance, over a given frequency range, of a set of modal filters, each one aiming to isolate one of the first vibration modes. The vectors of the weighting coefficients for each modal filter are evaluated using QR decomposition of the complex frequency response function matrix. Results show that the array topology is not very important for lower frequencies but it greatly affects the filter effectiveness for higher frequencies. Therefore, it is possible to improve the effectiveness and frequency range of a set of modal filters by optimizing the topology of an array of sensors. Indeed, using 12 properly located piezoceramic sensors bonded on an aluminum plate it is shown that the frequency range of a set of modal filters may be enlarged by 25–50%

  4. Microfabricated Multianalyte Sensor Arrays for Metabolite Monitoring

    Pishko, Michael V; Mugweru, Amos

    2005-01-01

    .... In this work we have taken advantage of silicon micro-fabrication technologies to develop implantable redundant microsensor arrays with glucose oxidase molecules immobilized in photopolymerized...

  5. Wireless Sensor Array Network DoA Estimation from Compressed Array Data via Joint Sparse Representation.

    Yu, Kai; Yin, Ming; Luo, Ji-An; Wang, Yingguan; Bao, Ming; Hu, Yu-Hen; Wang, Zhi

    2016-05-23

    A compressive sensing joint sparse representation direction of arrival estimation (CSJSR-DoA) approach is proposed for wireless sensor array networks (WSAN). By exploiting the joint spatial and spectral correlations of acoustic sensor array data, the CSJSR-DoA approach provides reliable DoA estimation using randomly-sampled acoustic sensor data. Since random sampling is performed at remote sensor arrays, less data need to be transmitted over lossy wireless channels to the fusion center (FC), and the expensive source coding operation at sensor nodes can be avoided. To investigate the spatial sparsity, an upper bound of the coherence of incoming sensor signals is derived assuming a linear sensor array configuration. This bound provides a theoretical constraint on the angular separation of acoustic sources to ensure the spatial sparsity of the received acoustic sensor array signals. The Cram e ´ r-Rao bound of the CSJSR-DoA estimator that quantifies the theoretical DoA estimation performance is also derived. The potential performance of the CSJSR-DoA approach is validated using both simulations and field experiments on a prototype WSAN platform. Compared to existing compressive sensing-based DoA estimation methods, the CSJSR-DoA approach shows significant performance improvement.

  6. Biomimetic micromechanical adaptive flow-sensor arrays

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Floris, J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2007-01-01

    We report current developments in biomimetic flow-sensors based on flow sensitive mechano-sensors of crickets. Crickets have one form of acoustic sensing evolved in the form of mechanoreceptive sensory hairs. These filiform hairs are highly perceptive to low-frequency sound with energy sensitivities

  7. Cricket inspired flow-sensor arrays

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Casas, J.

    2007-01-01

    We report current developments in biomimetic flow-sensors based on mechanoreceptive sensory hairs of crickets. These filiform hairs are highly perceptive to lowfrequency sound with energy sensitivities close to thermal threshold. In this work we describe hair-sensors fabricated by a combination of

  8. Vision communications based on LED array and imaging sensor

    Yoo, Jong-Ho; Jung, Sung-Yoon

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a brand new communication concept, called as "vision communication" based on LED array and image sensor. This system consists of LED array as a transmitter and digital device which include image sensor such as CCD and CMOS as receiver. In order to transmit data, the proposed communication scheme simultaneously uses the digital image processing and optical wireless communication scheme. Therefore, the cognitive communication scheme is possible with the help of recognition techniques used in vision system. By increasing data rate, our scheme can use LED array consisting of several multi-spectral LEDs. Because arranged each LED can emit multi-spectral optical signal such as visible, infrared and ultraviolet light, the increase of data rate is possible similar to WDM and MIMO skills used in traditional optical and wireless communications. In addition, this multi-spectral capability also makes it possible to avoid the optical noises in communication environment. In our vision communication scheme, the data packet is composed of Sync. data and information data. Sync. data is used to detect the transmitter area and calibrate the distorted image snapshots obtained by image sensor. By making the optical rate of LED array be same with the frame rate (frames per second) of image sensor, we can decode the information data included in each image snapshot based on image processing and optical wireless communication techniques. Through experiment based on practical test bed system, we confirm the feasibility of the proposed vision communications based on LED array and image sensor.

  9. Virtual colorimetric sensor array: single ionic liquid for solvent discrimination.

    Galpothdeniya, Waduge Indika S; Regmi, Bishnu P; McCarter, Kevin S; de Rooy, Sergio L; Siraj, Noureen; Warner, Isiah M

    2015-04-21

    There is a continuing need to develop high-performance sensors for monitoring organic solvents, primarily due to the environmental impact of such compounds. In this regard, colorimetric sensors have been a subject of intense research for such applications. Herein, we report a unique virtual colorimetric sensor array based on a single ionic liquid (IL) for accurate detection and identification of similar organic solvents and mixtures of such solvents. In this study, we employ eight alcohols and seven binary mixtures of ethanol and methanol as analytes to provide a stringent test for assessing the capabilities of this array. The UV-visible spectra of alcoholic solutions of the IL used in this study show two absorption bands. Interestingly, the ratio of absorbance for these two bands is found to be extremely sensitive to alcohol polarity. A virtual sensor array is created by using four different concentrations of IL sensor, which allowed identification of these analytes with 96.4-100% accuracy. Overall, this virtual sensor array is found to be very promising for discrimination of closely related organic solvents.

  10. Reconfigurable Wave Velocity Transmission Lines for Phased Arrays

    Host, Nick; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Phased array antennas showcase many advantages over mechanically steered systems. However, they are also more complex, heavy and most importantly costly. This presentation paper presents a concept which overcomes these detrimental attributes by eliminating all of the phase array backend (including phase shifters). Instead, a wave velocity reconfigurable transmission line is used in a series fed array arrangement to allow phase shifting with one small (100mil) mechanical motion. Different configurations of the reconfigurable wave velocity transmission line are discussed and simulated and experimental results are presented.

  11. Biomimetic micromechanical adaptive flow-sensor arrays

    Krijnen, Gijs; Floris, Arjan; Dijkstra, Marcel; Lammerink, Theo; Wiegerink, Remco

    2007-05-01

    We report current developments in biomimetic flow-sensors based on flow sensitive mechano-sensors of crickets. Crickets have one form of acoustic sensing evolved in the form of mechanoreceptive sensory hairs. These filiform hairs are highly perceptive to low-frequency sound with energy sensitivities close to thermal threshold. In this work we describe hair-sensors fabricated by a combination of sacrificial poly-silicon technology, to form silicon-nitride suspended membranes, and SU8 polymer processing for fabrication of hairs with diameters of about 50 μm and up to 1 mm length. The membranes have thin chromium electrodes on top forming variable capacitors with the substrate that allow for capacitive read-out. Previously these sensors have been shown to exhibit acoustic sensitivity. Like for the crickets, the MEMS hair-sensors are positioned on elongated structures, resembling the cercus of crickets. In this work we present optical measurements on acoustically and electrostatically excited hair-sensors. We present adaptive control of flow-sensitivity and resonance frequency by electrostatic spring stiffness softening. Experimental data and simple analytical models derived from transduction theory are shown to exhibit good correspondence, both confirming theory and the applicability of the presented approach towards adaptation.

  12. An armored-cable-based fiber Bragg grating sensor array for perimeter fence intrusion detection

    Hao, Jianzhong; Dong, Bo; Varghese, Paulose; Phua, Jiliang; Foo, Siang Fook

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an armored-cable-based optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor array, for perimeter fence intrusion detection, is demonstrated and some of the field trial results are reported. The field trial was conducted at a critical local installation in Singapore in December 2010. The sensor array was put through a series of both simulated and live intrusion scenarios to test the stability and suitability of operation in the local environmental conditions and to determine its capabilities in detecting and reporting these intrusions accurately to the control station. Such a sensor array can provide perimeter intrusion detection with fine granularity and preset pin-pointing accuracy. The various types of intrusions included aided or unaided climbs, tampering and cutting of the fence, etc. The unique sensor packaging structure provides high sensitivity, crush resistance and protection against rodents. It is also capable of resolving nuisance events such as rain, birds sitting on the fence or seismic vibrations. These sensors are extremely sensitive with a response time of a few seconds. They can be customized for a desired spatial resolution and pre-determined sensitivity. Furthermore, it is easy to cascade a series of such sensors to monitor and detect intrusion events over a long stretch of fence line. Such sensors can be applied to real-time intrusion detection for perimeter security, pipeline security and communications link security.

  13. Development of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, W. H.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, fire detection, and environmental monitoring. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. However, due to issues of selectivity and cross-sensitivity, individual sensors are limited in the amount of information that they can provide in environments that contain multiple chemical species. Thus, sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in such multi-species environments. This paper discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, hydrazine, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  14. Imaging dipole flow sources using an artificial lateral-line system made of biomimetic hair flow sensors

    Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In Nature, fish have the ability to localize prey, school, navigate, etc., using the lateral-line organ. Artificial hair flow sensors arranged in a linear array shape (inspired by the lateral-line system (LSS) in fish) have been applied to measure airflow patterns at the sensor positions. Here, we

  15. Haussdorff and hellinger for colorimetric sensor array classification

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Development of sensors and systems for detection of chemical compounds is an important challenge with applications in areas such as anti-terrorism, demining, and environmental monitoring. A newly developed colorimetric sensor array is able to detect explosives and volatile organic compounds......; however, each sensor reading consists of hundreds of pixel values, and methods for combining these readings from multiple sensors must be developed to make a classification system. In this work we examine two distance based classification methods, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Gaussian process (GP......) classification, which both rely on a suitable distance metric. We evaluate a range of different distance measures and propose a method for sensor fusion in the GP classifier. Our results indicate that the best choice of distance measure depends on the sensor and the chemical of interest....

  16. Corroles-Porphyrins: A Teamwork for Gas Sensor Arrays

    Rosamaria Capuano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrins provide an excellent material for chemical sensors, and they have been used for sensing species both in air and solution. In the gas phase, the broad selectivity of porphyrins is largely dependant on molecular features, such as the metal ion complexed at the core of the aromatic ring and the peripheral substituents. Although these features have been largely exploited to design gas sensor arrays, so far, little attention has been devoted to modify the sensing properties of these macrocycles by variation of the molecular aromatic ring. In this paper, the gas sensing properties of a porphyrin analog, the corrole, are studied in comparison with those of the parent porphyrin. Results show that changes in the aromatic ring have important consequences on the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors and that porphyrins and corroles can positively cooperate to enhance the performance of sensor arrays.

  17. Identification of catecholamine neurotransmitters using fluorescence sensor array

    Ghasemi, Forough [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza, E-mail: hormozi@sharif.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudi, Morteza, E-mail: mahmoudi@stanford.edu [Department of Nanotechnology and Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 13169-43551 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5101 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    A nano-based sensor array has been developed for identification and discrimination of catecholamine neurotransmitters based on optical properties of their oxidation products under alkaline conditions. To produce distinct fluorescence response patterns for individual catecholamine, quenching of thioglycolic acid functionalized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots, by oxidation products, were employed along with the variation of fluorescence spectra of oxidation products. The spectral changes were analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify catecholamine patterns. The proposed sensor could efficiently discriminate the individual catecholamine (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and L-DOPA) and their mixtures in the concentration range of 0.25–30 μmol L{sup −1}. Finally, we found that the sensor had capability to identify the various catecholamines in urine sample. - Highlights: • We have proposed a fluorescence sensor array to detect catecholamine neurotransmitters. • Visual differentiation of catecholamines is provided by fluorescence array fingerprints. • Discrimination of catecholamines from each other, and from their mixture is obtained on a PCA plot. • Proposed sensor array can be used for detection of catecholamines in urine samples.

  18. Scalable fabric tactile sensor arrays for soft bodies

    Day, Nathan; Penaloza, Jimmy; Santos, Veronica J.; Killpack, Marc D.

    2018-06-01

    Soft robots have the potential to transform the way robots interact with their environment. This is due to their low inertia and inherent ability to more safely interact with the world without damaging themselves or the people around them. However, existing sensing for soft robots has at least partially limited their ability to control interactions with their environment. Tactile sensors could enable soft robots to sense interaction, but most tactile sensors are made from rigid substrates and are not well suited to applications for soft robots which can deform. In addition, the benefit of being able to cheaply manufacture soft robots may be lost if the tactile sensors that cover them are expensive and their resolution does not scale well for manufacturability. This paper discusses the development of a method to make affordable, high-resolution, tactile sensor arrays (manufactured in rows and columns) that can be used for sensorizing soft robots and other soft bodies. However, the construction results in a sensor array that exhibits significant amounts of cross-talk when two taxels in the same row are compressed. Using the same fabric-based tactile sensor array construction design, two different methods for cross-talk compensation are presented. The first uses a mathematical model to calculate a change in resistance of each taxel directly. The second method introduces additional simple circuit components that enable us to isolate each taxel electrically and relate voltage to force directly. Fabric sensor arrays are demonstrated for two different soft-bodied applications: an inflatable single link robot and a human wrist.

  19. A flexible liquid crystal polymer MEMS pressure sensor array for fish-like underwater sensing

    Kottapalli, A G P; Asadnia, M; Miao, J M; Barbastathis, G; Triantafyllou, M S

    2012-01-01

    In order to perform underwater surveillance, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) require flexible, light-weight, reliable and robust sensing systems that are capable of flow sensing and detecting underwater objects. Underwater animals like fish perform a similar task using an efficient and ubiquitous sensory system called a lateral-line constituting of an array of pressure-gradient sensors. We demonstrate here the development of arrays of polymer microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensors which are flexible and can be readily mounted on curved surfaces of AUV bodies. An array of ten sensors with a footprint of 60 (L) mm × 25 (W) mm × 0.4 (H) mm is fabricated using liquid crystal polymer (LCP) as the sensing membrane material. The flow sensing and object detection capabilities of the array are illustrated with proof-of-concept experiments conducted in a water tunnel. The sensors demonstrate a pressure sensitivity of 14.3 μV Pa −1 . A high resolution of 25 mm s −1 is achieved in water flow sensing. The sensors can passively sense underwater objects by transducing the pressure variations generated underwater by the movement of objects. The experimental results demonstrate the array’s ability to detect the velocity of underwater objects towed past by with high accuracy, and an average error of only 2.5%. (paper)

  20. Conductive polymer sensor arrays for smart orthopaedic implants

    Micolini, Carolina; Holness, F. B.; Johnson, James A.; Price, Aaron D.

    2017-04-01

    This study proposes and demonstrates the design, implementation, and characterization of a 3D-printed smartpolymer sensor array using conductive polyaniline (PANI) structures embedded in a polymeric substrate. The piezoresistive characteristics of PANI were studied to evaluate the efficacy of the manufacturing of an embedded pressure sensor. PANI's stability throughout loading and unloading cycles together with the response to incremental loading cycles was investigated. It is demonstrated that this specially developed multi-material additive manufacturing process for polyaniline is a good candidate for the manufacture of implant components with smart-polymer sensors embedded for the analysis of joint loads in orthopaedic implants.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of nano-gas sensor arrays

    Hassan, H. S.; Kashyout, A. B.; Morsi, I.; Nasser, A. A. A.; Raafat, A.

    2015-01-01

    A novel structures of Nanomaterials gas sensors array constructed using ZnO, and ZnO doped with Al via sol-gel technique. Two structure arrays are developed; the first one is a double sensor array based on doping with percentages of 1% and 5%. The second is a quadrature sensor array based on several doping ratios concentrations (0%, 1%, 5% and 10%). The morphological structures of prepared ZnO were revealed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal a highly crystallized wurtzite structure and used for identifying phase structure and chemical state of both ZnO and ZnO doped with Al under different preparation conditions and different doping ratios. Chemical composition of Al-doped ZnO nanopowders was performed using energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) analysis. The electrical characteristics of the sensor are determined by measuring the two terminal sensor’s output resistance for O 2 , H 2 and CO 2 gases as a function of temperature

  2. Fabrication and characterization of nano-gas sensor arrays

    Hassan, H. S., E-mail: hassan.shokry@gmail.com; Kashyout, A. B., E-mail: hady8@yahoo.com [Electronic Materials Researches Department, Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute, City of Scientific Researches and technological applications, New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria (Egypt); Morsi, I., E-mail: drimanmorsi@yahoo.com; Nasser, A. A. A., E-mail: menem-1954@yahoo.com; Raafat, A., E-mail: abrs-218@yahoo.com [Arab Academy for Science and Technology, and Maritime Transport, Alexandria, 21936 (Egypt)

    2015-03-30

    A novel structures of Nanomaterials gas sensors array constructed using ZnO, and ZnO doped with Al via sol-gel technique. Two structure arrays are developed; the first one is a double sensor array based on doping with percentages of 1% and 5%. The second is a quadrature sensor array based on several doping ratios concentrations (0%, 1%, 5% and 10%). The morphological structures of prepared ZnO were revealed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal a highly crystallized wurtzite structure and used for identifying phase structure and chemical state of both ZnO and ZnO doped with Al under different preparation conditions and different doping ratios. Chemical composition of Al-doped ZnO nanopowders was performed using energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) analysis. The electrical characteristics of the sensor are determined by measuring the two terminal sensor’s output resistance for O{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} gases as a function of temperature.

  3. Position sensor for linear synchronous motors employing halbach arrays

    Post, Richard Freeman

    2014-12-23

    A position sensor suitable for use in linear synchronous motor (LSM) drive systems employing Halbach arrays to create their magnetic fields is described. The system has several advantages over previously employed ones, especially in its simplicity and its freedom from being affected by weather conditions, accumulated dirt, or electrical interference from the LSM system itself.

  4. Developing the ultimate biomimetic flow-sensor array

    Bruinink, C.M.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; de Boer, Meint J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Kolster, M.L.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This contribution reports on the major developments and achievements in our group on fabricating highly sensitive biomimetic flow-sensor arrays. The mechanoreceptive sensory hairs of crickets are taken as a model system for their ability to perceive flow signals at thermal noise levels and,

  5. Contact CMOS imaging of gaseous oxygen sensor array.

    Daivasagaya, Daisy S; Yao, Lei; Yi Yung, Ka; Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Cheung, Maurice C; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2011-10-01

    We describe a compact luminescent gaseous oxygen (O 2 ) sensor microsystem based on the direct integration of sensor elements with a polymeric optical filter and placed on a low power complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC). The sensor operates on the measurement of excited-state emission intensity of O 2 -sensitive luminophore molecules tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ([Ru(dpp) 3 ] 2+ ) encapsulated within sol-gel derived xerogel thin films. The polymeric optical filter is made with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that is mixed with a dye (Sudan-II). The PDMS membrane surface is molded to incorporate arrays of trapezoidal microstructures that serve to focus the optical sensor signals on to the imager pixels. The molded PDMS membrane is then attached with the PDMS color filter. The xerogel sensor arrays are contact printed on top of the PDMS trapezoidal lens-like microstructures. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. Correlated double sampling circuit, pixel address, digital control and signal integration circuits are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data is read out as a serial coded signal. The CMOS imager consumes a static power of 320 µW and an average dynamic power of 625 µW when operating at 100 Hz sampling frequency and 1.8 V DC. This CMOS sensor system provides a useful platform for the development of miniaturized optical chemical gas sensors.

  6. On-line monitoring system of PV array based on internet of things technology

    Li, Y. F.; Lin, P. J.; Zhou, H. F.; Chen, Z. C.; Wu, L. J.; Cheng, S. Y.; Su, F. P.

    2017-11-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) Technology is used to inspect photovoltaic (PV) array which can greatly improve the monitoring, performance and maintenance of the PV array. In order to efficiently realize the remote monitoring of PV operating environment, an on-line monitoring system of PV array based on IoT is designed in this paper. The system includes data acquisition, data gateway and PV monitoring centre (PVMC) website. Firstly, the DSP-TMS320F28335 is applied to collect indicators of PV array using sensors, then the data are transmitted to data gateway through ZigBee network. Secondly, the data gateway receives the data from data acquisition part, obtains geographic information via GPS module, and captures the scenes around PV array via USB camera, then uploads them to PVMC website. Finally, the PVMC website based on Laravel framework receives all data from data gateway and displays them with abundant charts. Moreover, a fault diagnosis approach for PV array based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is applied in PVMC. Once fault occurs, a user alert can be sent via E-mail. The designed system enables users to browse the operating conditions of PV array on PVMC website, including electrical, environmental parameters and video. Experimental results show that the presented monitoring system can efficiently real-time monitor the PV array, and the fault diagnosis approach reaches a high accuracy of 97.5%.

  7. PATTERN RECOGNITION STUDIES OF HALOGENATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING CONDUCTING POLYMER SENSOR ARRAYS. (R825323)

    Direct measurement of volatile and semivolatile halogenated organic compounds of environmental interest was carried out using arrays of conducting polymer sensors. Mathematical expressions of the sensor arrays using microscopic polymer network model is described. A classical, non...

  8. Broadband Electric-Field Sensor Array Technology

    2012-08-05

    output voltage modulation on the output RF transmission line (impedance Z0 = 50 Ω) via a transimpedance amplifier connected to the photodiode. The...voltage amplitude is where G is the conversion gain of the photodiode and amplifier . The RF power detected by an RF receiver with a matched impedance...wave (CW) tunable near-infrared laser amplified by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is guided by single-mode optical fiber and coupled into

  9. Proposed biomimetic molecular sensor array for astrobiology applications

    Cullen, D. C.; Grant, W. D.; Piletsky, S.; Sims, M. R.

    2001-08-01

    A key objective of future astrobiology lander missions, e.g. to Mars and Europa, is the detection of biomarkers - molecules whose presence indicates the existence of either current or extinct life. To address limitations of current analytical methods for biomarker detection, we describe the methodology of a new project for demonstration of a robust molecular-recognition sensor array for astrobiology biomarkers. The sensor array will be realised by assembling components that have been demonstrated individually in previous or current research projects. The major components are (1) robust artificial molecular receptors comprised of molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) recognition systems and (2) a sensor array comprised of both optical and electrochemical sensor elements. These components will be integrated together using ink-jet printing technology coupled with in situ photo-polymerisation of MIPs. For demonstration, four model biomarkers are chosen as targets and represent various classes of potential biomarkers. Objectives of the proposed work include (1) demonstration of practical proof-of-concept, (2) identify areas for further development and (3) provide performance and design data for follow-up projects leading to astrobiology missions.

  10. Numerical simulations of odorant detection by biologically inspired sensor arrays

    Schuech, R; Stacey, M T; Barad, M F; Koehl, M A R

    2012-01-01

    The antennules of many marine crustaceans enable them to rapidly locate sources of odorant in turbulent environmental flows and may provide biological inspiration for engineered plume sampling systems. A substantial gap in knowledge concerns how the physical interaction between a sensing device and the chemical filaments forming a turbulent plume affects odorant detection and filters the information content of the plume. We modeled biological arrays of chemosensory hairs as infinite arrays of odorant flux-detecting cylinders and simulated the fluid flow around and odorant flux into the hair-like sensors as they intercepted a single odorant filament. As array geometry and sampling kinematics were varied, we quantified distortion of the flux time series relative to the spatial shape of the original odorant filament as well as flux metrics that may be important to both organisms and engineered systems attempting to measure plume structure and/or identify chemical composition. The most important predictor of signal distortion is the ratio of sensor diameter to odorant filament width. Achieving high peak properties (e.g. sharpness) of the flux time series and maximizing the total number of odorant molecules detected appear to be mutually exclusive design goals. Sensor arrays inspired specifically by the spiny lobster Panulirus argus and mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus falcatus introduce little signal distortion but these species' neural systems may not be able to resolve plume structure at the level of individual filaments via temporal properties of the odorant flux. Current chemical sensors are similarly constrained. Our results suggest either that the spatial distribution of flux across the aesthetasc array is utilized by P. argus and G. falcatus, or that such high spatiotemporal resolution is unnecessary for effective plume tracking.

  11. A thermal plasmonic sensor platform: resistive heating of nanohole arrays.

    Virk, Mudassar; Xiong, Kunli; Svedendahl, Mikael; Käll, Mikael; Dahlin, Andreas B

    2014-06-11

    We have created a simple and efficient thermal plasmonic sensor platform by letting a DC current heat plasmonic nanohole arrays. The sensor can be used to determine thermodynamic parameters in addition to monitoring molecular reactions in real-time. As an application example, we use the thermal sensor to determine the kinetics and activation energy for desorption of thiol monolayers on gold. Further, the temperature of the metal can be measured optically by the spectral shift of the bonding surface plasmon mode (0.015 nm/K). We show that this resonance shift is caused by thermal lattice expansion, which reduces the plasma frequency of the metal. The sensor is also used to determine the thin film thermal expansion coefficient through a theoretical model for the expected resonance shift.

  12. On-line methanol sensor system development for recombinant ...

    On-line methanol sensor system development for recombinant human serum ... of the methanol sensor system was done in a medium environment with yeast cells ... induction at a low temperature and a pH where protease does not function.

  13. A Method to Estimate Local Towed Array Angles Using Flush Mounted Hot Film Wall Shear Sensors

    Keith, William L; Cipolla, Kimberly M

    2008-01-01

    A towed array is provided with hot-film sensors and anemometer circuitry to calculate the angle of inclination of the towed array in real time during deployment of the towed array in a sea water environment...

  14. Maximum Constrained Directivity of Oversteered End-Fire Sensor Arrays

    Andrea Trucco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For linear arrays with fixed steering and an inter-element spacing smaller than one half of the wavelength, end-fire steering of a data-independent beamformer offers better directivity than broadside steering. The introduction of a lower bound on the white noise gain ensures the necessary robustness against random array errors and sensor mismatches. However, the optimum broadside performance can be obtained using a simple processing architecture, whereas the optimum end-fire performance requires a more complicated system (because complex weight coefficients are needed. In this paper, we reconsider the oversteering technique as a possible way to simplify the processing architecture of equally spaced end-fire arrays. We propose a method for computing the amount of oversteering and the related real-valued weight vector that allows the constrained directivity to be maximized for a given inter-element spacing. Moreover, we verify that the maximized oversteering performance is very close to the optimum end-fire performance. We conclude that optimized oversteering is a viable method for designing end-fire arrays that have better constrained directivity than broadside arrays but with a similar implementation complexity. A numerical simulation is used to perform a statistical analysis, which confirms that the maximized oversteering performance is robust against sensor mismatches.

  15. Electro-chemical sensors, sensor arrays and circuits

    Katz, Howard E.; Kong, Hoyoul

    2014-07-08

    An electro-chemical sensor includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and a semiconductor channel in electrical contact with the first and second electrodes. The semiconductor channel includes a trapping material. The trapping material reduces an ability of the semiconductor channel to conduct a current of charge carriers by trapping at least some of the charge carriers to localized regions within the semiconductor channel. The semiconductor channel includes at least a portion configured to be exposed to an analyte to be detected, and the trapping material, when exposed to the analyte, interacts with the analyte so as to at least partially restore the ability of the semiconductor channel to conduct the current of charge carriers.

  16. An Artificial Nose Based on Microcantilever Array Sensors

    Lang, H P; Ramseyer, J P; Grange, W; Braun, T; Schmid, D; Hunziker, P; Jung, C; Hegner, M; Gerber, C

    2007-01-01

    We used microfabricated cantilever array sensors for an artificial nose setup. Each cantilever is coated on its top surface with a polymer layer. Volatile gaseous analytes are detected by tracking the diffusion process of the molecules into the polymer layers, resulting in swelling of the polymer layers and therewith bending of the cantilevers. From the bending pattern of all cantilevers in the array, a characteristic 'fingerprint' of the analyte is obtained, which is evaluated using principal component analysis. In a flow of dry nitrogen gas, the bending of the cantilevers is reverted to its initial state before exposure to the analyte, which allows reversible and reproducible operation of the sensor. We show examples of detection of solvents, perfume essences and beverage flavors. In a medical application, the setup provides indication of presence of diseases in patient's breath samples

  17. Gait Dynamics Sensing Using IMU Sensor Array System

    Slavomir Kardos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a progressive approach in gait sensing. It is incorporated by IMU (Inertia Measurement Unit complex sensors whose field of acting is mainly the motion sensing in medicine, automotive and other industry, self-balancing systems, etc. They allow acquiring the position and orientation of an object in 3D space. Using several IMU units the sensing array for gait dynamics was made. Based on human gait analysis the 7-sensor array was designed to build a gait motion dynamics sensing system with the possibility of graphical interpretation of data from the sensing modules in real-time graphical application interface under the LabVIEW platform. The results of analyses can serve as the information for medical diagnostic purposes. The main control part of the system is microcontroller, whose function is to control the data collection and flow, provide the communication and power management.

  18. An Artificial Nose Based on Microcantilever Array Sensors

    Lang, H P [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Ramseyer, J P [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Grange, W [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Braun, T [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Schmid, D [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Hunziker, P [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Jung, C [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Hegner, M [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Gerber, C [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    We used microfabricated cantilever array sensors for an artificial nose setup. Each cantilever is coated on its top surface with a polymer layer. Volatile gaseous analytes are detected by tracking the diffusion process of the molecules into the polymer layers, resulting in swelling of the polymer layers and therewith bending of the cantilevers. From the bending pattern of all cantilevers in the array, a characteristic 'fingerprint' of the analyte is obtained, which is evaluated using principal component analysis. In a flow of dry nitrogen gas, the bending of the cantilevers is reverted to its initial state before exposure to the analyte, which allows reversible and reproducible operation of the sensor. We show examples of detection of solvents, perfume essences and beverage flavors. In a medical application, the setup provides indication of presence of diseases in patient's breath samples.

  19. Application of a sensor array based on capillary-attached conductive gas sensors for odor identification

    Bahraminejad, Behzad; Basri, Shahnor; Isa, Maryam; Hambali, Zarida

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose based on an array of capillary-attached conductive gas sensors was fabricated. The identification ability of the developed structure was investigated by employing different categories of simple and complex odor databases. Feature data sets were generated from the dynamic and steady state responses of the sensor array to the applied odor databases. Combinations of different feature extraction and classification methods were used to detect target gases. Validation of each technique was evaluated. Achievements of the study proved high classification rates of the fabricated e-nose in odor identification. It was indicated that gas identification is possible by applying the early selected portion of transient responses of the developed sensor array. The ability of the mentioned structure in analyzing gas mixtures was also investigated. The results presented high accuracy in the classification of gas mixtures

  20. Cantilever arrayed blood pressure sensor for arterial applanation tonometry.

    Lee, Byeungleul; Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Bonghwan; Chun, Kukjin

    2014-03-01

    The authors developed a cantilever-arrayed blood pressure sensor array fabricated by (111) silicon bulk-micromachining for the non-invasive and continuous measurement of blood pressure. The blood pressure sensor measures the blood pressure based on the change in the resistance of the piezoresistor on a 5-microm-thick-arrayed perforated membrane and 20-microm-thick metal pads. The length and the width of the unit membrane are 210 and 310 microm, respectively. The width of the insensible zone between the adjacent units is only 10 microm. The resistance change over contact force was measured to verify the performance. The good linearity of the result confirmed that the polydimethylsiloxane package transfers the forces appropriately. The measured sensitivity was about 4.5%/N. The maximum measurement range and the resolution of the fabricated blood pressure sensor were greater than 900 mmHg (= 120 kPa) and less than 1 mmHg (= 133.3 Pa), respectively.

  1. High-resolution dynamic pressure sensor array based on piezo-phototronic effect tuned photoluminescence imaging.

    Peng, Mingzeng; Li, Zhou; Liu, Caihong; Zheng, Qiang; Shi, Xieqing; Song, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Du, Shiyu; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    A high-resolution dynamic tactile/pressure display is indispensable to the comprehensive perception of force/mechanical stimulations such as electronic skin, biomechanical imaging/analysis, or personalized signatures. Here, we present a dynamic pressure sensor array based on pressure/strain tuned photoluminescence imaging without the need for electricity. Each sensor is a nanopillar that consists of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells. Its photoluminescence intensity can be modulated dramatically and linearly by small strain (0-0.15%) owing to the piezo-phototronic effect. The sensor array has a high pixel density of 6350 dpi and exceptional small standard deviation of photoluminescence. High-quality tactile/pressure sensing distribution can be real-time recorded by parallel photoluminescence imaging without any cross-talk. The sensor array can be inexpensively fabricated over large areas by semiconductor product lines. The proposed dynamic all-optical pressure imaging with excellent resolution, high sensitivity, good uniformity, and ultrafast response time offers a suitable way for smart sensing, micro/nano-opto-electromechanical systems.

  2. Identification of catecholamine neurotransmitters using fluorescence sensor array.

    Ghasemi, Forough; Hormozi-Nezhad, M Reza; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-04-21

    A nano-based sensor array has been developed for identification and discrimination of catecholamine neurotransmitters based on optical properties of their oxidation products under alkaline conditions. To produce distinct fluorescence response patterns for individual catecholamine, quenching of thioglycolic acid functionalized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots, by oxidation products, were employed along with the variation of fluorescence spectra of oxidation products. The spectral changes were analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify catecholamine patterns. The proposed sensor could efficiently discriminate the individual catecholamine (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and l-DOPA) and their mixtures in the concentration range of 0.25-30 μmol L(-1). Finally, we found that the sensor had capability to identify the various catecholamines in urine sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    Koetse, Marc M.; Rensing, Peter A.; Sharpe, Ruben B. A.; van Heck, Gert T.; Allard, Bart A. M.; Meulendijks, Nicole N. M. M.; Kruijt, Peter G. M.; Tijdink, Marcel W. W. J.; De Zwart, René M.; Houben, René J.; Enting, Erik; van Veen, Sjaak J. J. F.; Schoo, Herman F. M.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in clothing, be worn on the skin, or may even be placed inside the body. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. Devices based on polymer semiconductors allow for these demands since they can be fabricated with thin film technology. The use of thin film device technology allows for the fabrication of very thin sensors (e.g. integrated in food product packaging), flexible or bendable sensors in wearables, large area/distributed sensors, and intrinsically low-cost applications in disposable products. With thin film device technology a high level of integration can be achieved with parts that analyze signals, process and store data, and interact over a network. Integration of all these functions will inherently lead to better cost/performance ratios, especially if printing and other standard polymer technology such as high precision moulding is applied for the fabrication. In this paper we present an optical transmission sensor array based on polymer semiconductor devices made by thin film technology. The organic devices, light emitting diodes, photodiodes and selective medium chip, are integrated with classic electronic components. Together they form a versatile sensor platform that allows for the quantitative measurement of 100 channels and communicates wireless with a computer. The emphasis is given to the sensor principle, the design, fabrication technology and integration of the thin film devices.

  4. Performance of UWB Array-Based Radar Sensor in a Multi-Sensor Vehicle-Based Suit for Landmine Detection

    Yarovoy, A.; Savelyev, T.; Zhuge, X.; Aubry, P.; Ligthart, L.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Tettelaar, P.; Breejen, E. de

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, integration of an UWB array-based timedomain radar sensor in a vehicle-mounted multi-sensor system for landmine detection is described. Dedicated real-time signal processing algorithms are developed to compute the radar sensor confidence map which is used for sensor fusion.

  5. Low SWaP multispectral sensors using dichroic filter arrays

    Dougherty, John; Varghese, Ron

    2015-06-01

    The benefits of multispectral imaging are well established in a variety of applications including remote sensing, authentication, satellite and aerial surveillance, machine vision, biomedical, and other scientific and industrial uses. However, many of the potential solutions require more compact, robust, and cost-effective cameras to realize these benefits. The next generation of multispectral sensors and cameras needs to deliver improvements in size, weight, power, portability, and spectral band customization to support widespread deployment for a variety of purpose-built aerial, unmanned, and scientific applications. A novel implementation uses micro-patterning of dichroic filters1 into Bayer and custom mosaics, enabling true real-time multispectral imaging with simultaneous multi-band image acquisition. Consistent with color image processing, individual spectral channels are de-mosaiced with each channel providing an image of the field of view. This approach can be implemented across a variety of wavelength ranges and on a variety of detector types including linear, area, silicon, and InGaAs. This dichroic filter array approach can also reduce payloads and increase range for unmanned systems, with the capability to support both handheld and autonomous systems. Recent examples and results of 4 band RGB + NIR dichroic filter arrays in multispectral cameras are discussed. Benefits and tradeoffs of multispectral sensors using dichroic filter arrays are compared with alternative approaches - including their passivity, spectral range, customization options, and scalable production.

  6. Locating sources within a dense sensor array using graph clustering

    Gerstoft, P.; Riahi, N.

    2017-12-01

    We develop a model-free technique to identify weak sources within dense sensor arrays using graph clustering. No knowledge about the propagation medium is needed except that signal strengths decay to insignificant levels within a scale that is shorter than the aperture. We then reinterpret the spatial coherence matrix of a wave field as a matrix whose support is a connectivity matrix of a graph with sensors as vertices. In a dense network, well-separated sources induce clusters in this graph. The geographic spread of these clusters can serve to localize the sources. The support of the covariance matrix is estimated from limited-time data using a hypothesis test with a robust phase-only coherence test statistic combined with a physical distance criterion. The latter criterion ensures graph sparsity and thus prevents clusters from forming by chance. We verify the approach and quantify its reliability on a simulated dataset. The method is then applied to data from a dense 5200 element geophone array that blanketed of the city of Long Beach (CA). The analysis exposes a helicopter traversing the array and oil production facilities.

  7. Microwave Readout Techniques for Very Large Arrays of Nuclear Sensors

    Ullom, Joel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-05-17

    During this project, we transformed the use of microwave readout techniques for nuclear sensors from a speculative idea to reality. The core of the project consisted of the development of a set of microwave electronics able to generate and process large numbers of microwave tones. The tones can be used to probe a circuit containing a series of electrical resonances whose frequency locations and widths depend on the state of a network of sensors, with one sensor per resonance. The amplitude and phase of the tones emerging from the circuit are processed by the same electronics and are reduced to the sensor signals after two demodulation steps. This approach allows a large number of sensors to be interrogated using a single pair of coaxial cables. We successfully developed hardware, firmware, and software to complete a scalable implementation of these microwave control electronics and demonstrated their use in two areas. First, we showed that the electronics can be used at room temperature to read out a network of diverse sensor types relevant to safeguards or process monitoring. Second, we showed that the electronics can be used to measure large numbers of ultrasensitive cryogenic sensors such as gamma-ray microcalorimeters. In particular, we demonstrated the undegraded readout of up to 128 channels and established a path to even higher multiplexing factors. These results have transformed the prospects for gamma-ray spectrometers based on cryogenic microcalorimeter arrays by enabling spectrometers whose collecting areas and count rates can be competitive with high purity germanium but with 10x better spectral resolution.

  8. Feasibility study of patient motion monitoring using tactile array sensor

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Cho, Min Seok; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Suh, Tae Suk; Kim, Si Yong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate patient pretreatment set-up error and intra-fraction motion using the tactile array sensors (Pressure Profile Systems Inc, Los Angeles, CA) which could measure distributed pressure profiles along the contacting surface and to check a feasibility of the sensor (tactile array sensor) in the patient motion monitoring. Laser alignment and optical camera based monitoring system are very useful for reduce patient set-up error but these systems could not monitor the blind area like patient's back position. Actually after patient alignment using laser or optical monitoring system, it was assumed that there is no error in the patient's back position (pressure profile distribution). But if an error occurs in the patient's back position, it will affect the radiation therapy accuracy. In spite of optical motion monitoring or using the immobilization tool, distributed pressure profiles of patient's back position was changed during inter and intra-fraction. For more accurate patient set-up, blind area (patient's back) monitoring was necessary. We expect that the proposed method will be very useful for make up for the weakness of optical monitoring method

  9. Feasibility study of patient motion monitoring using tactile array sensor

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Cho, Min Seok; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate patient pretreatment set-up error and intra-fraction motion using the tactile array sensors (Pressure Profile Systems Inc, Los Angeles, CA) which could measure distributed pressure profiles along the contacting surface and to check a feasibility of the sensor (tactile array sensor) in the patient motion monitoring. Laser alignment and optical camera based monitoring system are very useful for reduce patient set-up error but these systems could not monitor the blind area like patient's back position. Actually after patient alignment using laser or optical monitoring system, it was assumed that there is no error in the patient's back position (pressure profile distribution). But if an error occurs in the patient's back position, it will affect the radiation therapy accuracy. In spite of optical motion monitoring or using the immobilization tool, distributed pressure profiles of patient's back position was changed during inter and intra-fraction. For more accurate patient set-up, blind area (patient's back) monitoring was necessary. We expect that the proposed method will be very useful for make up for the weakness of optical monitoring method.

  10. Low power gas sensor array on flexible acetate substrate

    Benedict, Samatha; Basu, Palash Kumar; Bhat, Navakanta

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach of fabricating a low-cost and low power gas sensor array on flexible acetate sheets for sensing CO, SO2, H2 and NO2 gases. The array has four sensor elements with an integrated microheater which can be individually controlled enabling the monitoring of four gases. The thermal properties of the microheater characterized by IR imaging are presented. The microheater with an active area of 15 µm  ×  5 µm reaches a temperature of 300 °C, consuming 2 mW power, the lowest reported on flexible substrates. A sensing electrode is patterned on top of the microheater, and a nanogap (100 nm) is created by an electromigration process. This nanogap is bridged by four sensing materials doped with platinum, deposited using a solution dispensing technique. The sensing material characterization is completed using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The sensing characteristics of ZnO for CO, V2O5 for SO2, SnO2 for H2 and WO3 for NO2 gases are studied at different microheater voltages. The sensing characteristics of ZnO at different bending angles is also studied, which shows that the microheater and the sensing material are intact without any breaking upto a bending angle of 20°. The ZnO CO sensor shows sensitivity of 146.2% at 1 ppm with good selectivity.

  11. Fiber Bragg Grating Array as a Quasi Distributed Temperature Sensor for Furnace Boiler Applications

    Reddy, P. Saidi; Prasad, R. L. N. Sai; Sengupta, D.; Shankar, M. Sai; Srimannarayana, K.; Kishore, P.; Rao, P. Vengal

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the experimental work on distributed temperature sensing making use of Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array sensor for possible applications in the monitoring of temperature profile in high temperature boilers. A special sensor has been designed for this purpose which consists of four FBGs (of wavelengths λB1 = 1547.28 nm, λB2 = 1555.72 nm, λB3 = 1550.84 nm, λB4 = 1545.92 nm) written in hydrogen loaded fiber in line with a spacing of 15 cm between them. All the FBGs are encapsulated inside a stainless steel tube for avoiding micro cracks using rigid probe technique. The spatial distribution of temperature profile inside a prototype boiler has been measured experimentally both in horizontal and vertical directions employing the above sensor and the results are presented.

  12. Microfluidic electrochemical sensor for on-line monitoring of aerosol oxidative activity.

    Sameenoi, Yupaporn; Koehler, Kirsten; Shapiro, Jeff; Boonsong, Kanokporn; Sun, Yele; Collett, Jeffrey; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles S

    2012-06-27

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has a significant impact on human morbidity and mortality; however, the mechanisms of PM-induced toxicity are poorly defined. A leading hypothesis states that airborne PM induces harm by generating reactive oxygen species in and around human tissues, leading to oxidative stress. We report here a system employing a microfluidic electrochemical sensor coupled directly to a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) system to measure aerosol oxidative activity in an on-line format. The oxidative activity measurement is based on the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, where, after being oxidized by PM, the remaining reduced DTT is analyzed by the microfluidic sensor. The sensor consists of an array of working, reference, and auxiliary electrodes fabricated in a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidic device. Cobalt(II) phthalocyanine-modified carbon paste was used as the working electrode material, allowing selective detection of reduced DTT. The electrochemical sensor was validated off-line against the traditional DTT assay using filter samples taken from urban environments and biomass burning events. After off-line characterization, the sensor was coupled to a PILS to enable on-line sampling/analysis of aerosol oxidative activity. Urban dust and industrial incinerator ash samples were aerosolized in an aerosol chamber and analyzed for their oxidative activity. The on-line sensor reported DTT consumption rates (oxidative activity) in good correlation with aerosol concentration (R(2) from 0.86 to 0.97) with a time resolution of approximately 3 min.

  13. A sensor array system for monitoring moisture dynamics inunsaturated soil

    Salve, R.; Cook, P.J.

    2007-05-15

    To facilitate investigations of moisture dynamics inunsaturated soil, we have developed a technique to qualitatively monitorpatterns of saturation changes. Field results suggest that this device,the sensor array system (SAS), is suitable for determining changes inrelative wetness along vertical soil profiles. The performance of theseprobes was compared with that of the time domain reflectometry (TDR)technique under controlled and field conditions. Measurements from bothtechniques suggest that by obtaining data at high spatial and temporalresolution, the SAS technique was effective in determining patterns ofsaturation changes along a soil profile. In addition, hardware used inthe SAS technique was significantly cheaper than the TDR system, and thesensor arrays were much easier to install along a soilprofile.

  14. Antenna-coupled bolometer arrays using transition-edge sensors

    Myers, Michael J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: mmyers@cosmology.berkeley.edu; Ade, Peter [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Arnold, Kam [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Engargiola, Greg [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Holzapfel, Bill [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lee, Adrian T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); O' Brient, Roger [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Richards, Paul L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Smith, Andy [Northrop Grumman, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States); Spieler, Helmuth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tran, Huan T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We are developing antenna-coupled Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays for use in measurements of the CMB polarization. TES bolometers have many well-known advantages over conventional bolometers, such as increased speed, linearity, and the existence of readout multiplexers. Antenna-coupled bolometers use an on-chip planar antenna to couple light into the bolometer. The antenna directivity and polarization sensitivity, along with the potential for on-chip band defining filters and channelizing circuits, allow a significant increase in focal plane integration. This eliminates the bulky horns, quasioptical filters, dichroics, and polarizers which might otherwise be needed in a conventional bolometric system. This simplification will ease the construction of receivers with larger numbers of pixels. We report on the fabrication and optical testing of single antenna-coupled bolometer pixels with integrated band defining filters. We will also discuss current progress on fabrication of a bolometer array based on this design.

  15. Backside illuminated CMOS-TDI line scan sensor for space applications

    Cohen, Omer; Ofer, Oren; Abramovich, Gil; Ben-Ari, Nimrod; Gershon, Gal; Brumer, Maya; Shay, Adi; Shamay, Yaron

    2018-05-01

    A multi-spectral backside illuminated Time Delayed Integration Radiation Hardened line scan sensor utilizing CMOS technology was designed for continuous scanning Low Earth Orbit small satellite applications. The sensor comprises a single silicon chip with 4 independent arrays of pixels where each array is arranged in 2600 columns with 64 TDI levels. A multispectral optical filter whose spectral responses per array are adjustable per system requirement is assembled at the package level. A custom 4T Pixel design provides the required readout speed, low-noise, very low dark current, and high conversion gains. A 2-phase internally controlled exposure mechanism improves the sensor's dynamic MTF. The sensor high level of integration includes on-chip 12 bit per pixel analog to digital converters, on-chip controller, and CMOS compatible voltage levels. Thus, the power consumption and the weight of the supporting electronics are reduced, and a simple electrical interface is provided. An adjustable gain provides a Full Well Capacity ranging from 150,000 electrons up to 500,000 electrons per column and an overall readout noise per column of less than 120 electrons. The imager supports line rates ranging from 50 to 10,000 lines/sec, with power consumption of less than 0.5W per array. Thus, the sensor is characterized by a high pixel rate, a high dynamic range and a very low power. To meet a Latch-up free requirement RadHard architecture and design rules were utilized. In this paper recent electrical and electro-optical measurements of the sensor's Flight Models will be presented for the first time.

  16. Nanowire sensors and arrays for chemical/biomolecule detection

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Ramanathan, K.; Bangar, M. A.; Chen, W.; Mulchandan, A.; Myung, N. V.

    2005-01-01

    We report electrochemical growth of single nanowire based sensors using e-beam patterned electrolyte channels, potentially enabling the controlled fabrication of individually addressable high density arrays. The electrodeposition technique results in nanowires with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. Using this technique, we have fabricated single palladium nanowires with diameters ranging between 75 nm and 300 nm and conducting polymer nanowires (polypyrrole and polyaniline) with diameters between 100 nm and 200 nm. Using these single nanowires, we have successfully demonstrated gas sensing with Pd nanowires and pH sensing with polypirrole nanowires.

  17. Broadband image sensor array based on graphene-CMOS integration

    Goossens, Stijn; Navickaite, Gabriele; Monasterio, Carles; Gupta, Shuchi; Piqueras, Juan José; Pérez, Raúl; Burwell, Gregory; Nikitskiy, Ivan; Lasanta, Tania; Galán, Teresa; Puma, Eric; Centeno, Alba; Pesquera, Amaia; Zurutuza, Amaia; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Koppens, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Integrated circuits based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) are at the heart of the technological revolution of the past 40 years, enabling compact and low-cost microelectronic circuits and imaging systems. However, the diversification of this platform into applications other than microcircuits and visible-light cameras has been impeded by the difficulty to combine semiconductors other than silicon with CMOS. Here, we report the monolithic integration of a CMOS integrated circuit with graphene, operating as a high-mobility phototransistor. We demonstrate a high-resolution, broadband image sensor and operate it as a digital camera that is sensitive to ultraviolet, visible and infrared light (300-2,000 nm). The demonstrated graphene-CMOS integration is pivotal for incorporating 2D materials into the next-generation microelectronics, sensor arrays, low-power integrated photonics and CMOS imaging systems covering visible, infrared and terahertz frequencies.

  18. Sensor Fusion Techniques for Phased-Array Eddy Current and Phased-Array Ultrasound Data

    Arrowood, Lloyd F. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2018-03-15

    Sensor (or Data) fusion is the process of integrating multiple data sources to produce more consistent, accurate and comprehensive information than is provided by a single data source. Sensor fusion may also be used to combine multiple signals from a single modality to improve the performance of a particular inspection technique. Industrial nondestructive testing may utilize multiple sensors to acquire inspection data depending upon the object under inspection and the anticipated types of defects that can be identified. Sensor fusion can be performed at various levels of signal abstraction with each having its strengths and weaknesses. A multimodal data fusion strategy first proposed by Heideklang and Shokouhi that combines spatially scattered detection locations to improve detection performance of surface-breaking and near-surface cracks in ferromagnetic metals is shown using a surface inspection example and is then extended for volumetric inspections. Utilizing data acquired from an Olympus Omniscan MX2 from both phased array eddy current and ultrasound probes on test phantoms, single and multilevel fusion techniques are employed to integrate signals from the two modalities. Preliminary results demonstrate how confidence in defect identification and interpretation benefit from sensor fusion techniques. Lastly, techniques for integrating data into radiographic and volumetric imagery from computed tomography are described and results are presented.

  19. Investigation and Characterization of Acoustic Emissions of Tornadoes Using Arrays of Infrasound Sensors

    Frazier, W. G.; Talmadge, C. L.; Waxler, R.; Knupp, K. R.; Goudeau, B.; Hetzer, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    Working in co-ordination with the NOAA Vortex Southeast (Vortex SE) research program, 9 infrasound sensor arrays were deployed at fixed sites across North Alabama, South-central Tennessee, and Northwest Georgia during March and April of 2017, to investigate the emission and characterization of infrasonic acoustic energy from tornadoes and related phenomena. Each array consisted of seven broadband acoustic sensors with calibrated frequency response from 0.02 Hz to 200 Hz. The arrays were configured in a pattern such that accurate bearings to acoustic sources could be obtained over a broad range of frequencies (nominally from 1 Hz to 100 Hz). Data were collected synchronously at a rate of 1000 samples per second. On 22 April 2017 a line of strong storms passed directly through the area being monitored producing at least three verified tornadoes. Two of these were rated at EF0 and the other an EF1. Subsequent processing of the data from several of the arrays revealed acoustic emissions from the tornadic storms ranging in frequencies below 1 Hz to frequencies greater than 10 Hz. Accurate bearings to the storms have been calculated from distances greater than 60 km. Preliminary analysis has revealed that continuous emissions occurred prior to the estimated touchdown times, while the storms were on the ground, and for short periods after the tornadoes lifted; however, the strongest emissions appeared to occur while the storms were on the ground. One of the storms passed near two arrays simultaneously, and therefore accurate an accurate track of the storm as it moved has been obtained only using the infrasound measurements. Initial results from the analysis of the infrasound data will be presented. Under Vortex SE meteorological data was collected on a large suite of sensors. Correlations between the infrasound data and the meteorological data will be investigated and discussed.

  20. Wireless overhead line temperature sensor based on RF cavity resonance

    Ghafourian, Maryam; Nezhad, Abolghasem Zeidaabadi; Bridges, Greg E; Thomson, Douglas J

    2013-01-01

    The importance of maximizing power transfer through overhead transmission lines necessitates the use of dynamic power control to keep transmission line temperatures within acceptable limits. Excessive conductor operating temperatures lead to an increased sag of the transmission line conductor and may reduce their expected life. In this paper, a passive wireless sensor based on a resonant radio frequency (RF) cavity is presented which can be used to measure overhead transmission line temperature. The temperature sensor does not require a power supply and can be easily clamped to the power line with an antenna attached. Changing temperature causes a change of cavity dimensions and a shift in resonant frequency. The resonant frequency of the cavity can be interrogated wirelessly. This temperature sensor has a resolution of 0.07 °C and can be interrogated from distances greater than 4.5 m. The sensor has a deviation from linearity of less than 2 °C. (paper)

  1. Development of a 1 x N Fiber Optic Sensor Array for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring

    Repasky, Kevin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2014-02-01

    A fiber sensor array for sub-surface CO2 concentrations measurements was developed for monitoring geologic carbon sequestration sites. The fiber sensor array uses a single temperature tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser operating with a nominal wavelength of 2.004 μm. Light from this DFB laser is direct to one of the 4 probes via an in-line 1 x 4 fiber optic switch. Each of the 4 probes are buried and allow the sub-surface CO2 to enter the probe through Millipore filters that allow the soil gas to enter the probe but keeps out the soil and water. Light from the DFB laser interacts with the CO2 before it is directed back through the in-line fiber optic switch. The DFB laser is tuned across two CO2 absorption features where a transmission measurement is made allowing the CO2 concentration to be retrieved. The fiber optic switch then directs the light to the next probe where this process is repeated allowing sub-surface CO2 concentration measurements at each of the probes to be made as a function of time. The fiber sensor array was deployed for fifty-eight days beginning June 19, 2012 at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site where sub-surface CO2 concentrations were monitored. Background measurements indicate the fiber sensor array can monitor background levels as low as 1,000 parts per million (ppm). A thirty four day sub-surface release of 0.15 tones CO2/day began on July 10, 2012. The elevated subsurface CO2 concentration was easily detected by each of the four probes with values ranging to over 60,000 ppm, a factor of greater than 6 higher than background measurements. The fiber sensor array was also deploy at the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) site in north-central Montana between July 9th and August 7th, 2013 where background measurements were made in a remote sequestration site with minimal infrastructure. The project

  2. An approach to fabricating chemical sensors based on ZnO nanorod arrays

    Park, Jae Young; Song, Dong Eon; Kim, Sang Sub

    2008-01-01

    Vertically and laterally aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized on Pt-coated Si substrates by catalyst-free metal organic chemical vapor deposition. An approach to fabricating chemical sensors based on the nanorod arrays using a coating-and-etching process with a photo-resist is reported. Tests of the devices as oxygen gas sensors have been performed. Our results demonstrate that the approach holds promise for the realization of sensitive and reliable nanorod array chemical sensors

  3. Feature Selection for Chemical Sensor Arrays Using Mutual Information

    Wang, X. Rosalind; Lizier, Joseph T.; Nowotny, Thomas; Berna, Amalia Z.; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Trowell, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of feature selection for classifying a diverse set of chemicals using an array of metal oxide sensors. Our aim is to evaluate a filter approach to feature selection with reference to previous work, which used a wrapper approach on the same data set, and established best features and upper bounds on classification performance. We selected feature sets that exhibit the maximal mutual information with the identity of the chemicals. The selected features closely match those found to perform well in the previous study using a wrapper approach to conduct an exhaustive search of all permitted feature combinations. By comparing the classification performance of support vector machines (using features selected by mutual information) with the performance observed in the previous study, we found that while our approach does not always give the maximum possible classification performance, it always selects features that achieve classification performance approaching the optimum obtained by exhaustive search. We performed further classification using the selected feature set with some common classifiers and found that, for the selected features, Bayesian Networks gave the best performance. Finally, we compared the observed classification performances with the performance of classifiers using randomly selected features. We found that the selected features consistently outperformed randomly selected features for all tested classifiers. The mutual information filter approach is therefore a computationally efficient method for selecting near optimal features for chemical sensor arrays. PMID:24595058

  4. SQUID readout multiplexers for transition-edge sensor arrays

    Lee, Adrian T. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States) and Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: atl@physics.berkeley.edu

    2006-04-15

    Two classes of SQUID multiplexer are being developed for large arrays of cryogenic sensors, distinguished by their operation in either the time domain or frequency domain. Several systems optimized for use with Transition-Edge Sensors (TES) are reaching a high level of maturity, and will be deployed on funded astrophysics experiments in the next several years. A useful technical figure of merit is the product of the number of detectors multplexed multipled by the bandwidth of the detectors, which can be termed the 'total signal bandwidth' of a multiplexer system. This figure of merit is comparable within a factor of two for the mature systems. Several new concepts for increasing the total bandwidth are being developed in the broad class of frequency domain multiplexers. Another notable area of progress is in the level of integration of muliplexer and detector array. The time domain system for SCUBA-II is a sophisticated bump-bonded sandwich structure, and the Jena/MPI group is integrating detectors and a time domain multiplexer on one substrate. Finally, the Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID)/HEMT (non-SQUID) detector/multiplexer system, will be discussed briefly.

  5. Chip cleaning and regeneration for electrochemical sensor arrays

    Bhalla, Vijayender [Biochemistry Department ' G.Moruzzi' , University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Carrara, Sandro, E-mail: sandro.carrara@epfl.c [Biochemistry Department ' G.Moruzzi' , University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Stagni, Claudio [Department DEIS, University of Bologna, viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Samori, Bruno [Biochemistry Department ' G.Moruzzi' , University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-04-02

    Sensing systems based on electrochemical detection have generated great interest because electronic readout may replace conventional optical readout in microarray. Moreover, they offer the possibility to avoid labelling for target molecules. A typical electrochemical array consists of many sensing sites. An ideal micro-fabricated sensor-chip should have the same measured values for all the equivalent sensing sites (or spots). To achieve high reliability in electrochemical measurements, high quality in functionalization of the electrodes surface is essential. Molecular probes are often immobilized by using alkanethiols onto gold electrodes. Applying effective cleaning methods on the chip is a fundamental requirement for the formation of densely-packed and stable self-assembly monolayers. However, the available well-known techniques for chip cleaning may not be so reliable. Furthermore, it could be necessary to recycle the chip for reuse. Also in this case, an effective recycling technique is required to re-obtain well cleaned sensing surfaces on the chip. This paper presents experimental results on the efficacy and efficiency of the available techniques for initial cleaning and further recycling of micro-fabricated chips. Piranha, plasma, reductive and oxidative cleaning methods were applied and the obtained results were critically compared. Some interesting results were attained by using commonly considered cleaning methodologies. This study outlines oxidative electrochemical cleaning and recycling as the more efficient cleaning procedure for electrochemical based sensor arrays.

  6. The lateral line receptor array of cyprinids from different habitats.

    Schmitz, Anke; Bleckmann, Horst; Mogdans, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    The lateral line system of teleost fishes consists of an array of superficial and canal neuromasts (CN). Number and distribution of neuromasts and the morphology of the lateral line canals vary across species. We investigated the morphology of the lateral line system in four diurnal European cyprinids, the limnophilic bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus), the indifferent gudgeon (Gobio gobio), and ide (Leuciscus idus), and the rheophilic minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). All fish had lateral line canals on head and trunk. The total number of both, CN and superficial neuromasts (SN), was comparable in minnow and ide but was greater than in gudgeon and bitterling. The ratio of SNs to CNs for the head was comparable in minnow and bitterling but was greater in gudgeon and ide. The SN-to-CN ratio for the trunk was greatest in bitterling. Polarization of hair cells in CNs was in the direction of the canal. Polarization of hair cells in SNs depended on body area. In cephalic SNs, hair cell polarization was dorso-ventral or rostro-caudal. In trunk SNs, it was rostro-caudal on lateral line scales and dorso-ventral on other trunk scales. On the caudal fin, hair cell polarization was rostro-caudal. The data show that, in the four species studied here, number, distribution, and orientation of CNs and SNs cannot be unequivocally related to habitat. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of Crack and Corrosion Detection Sensitivity Using Piezoelectric Sensor Arrays (Preprint)

    Blackshire, James L; Martin, Steve; Cooney, Adam

    2006-01-01

    .... In this research effort, a systematic evaluation of the detection sensitivity levels of surface-bonded piezoelectric sensor arrays has been undertaken using experimental studies and analytic modeling...

  8. Comparison of an Inductance In-Line Oil Debris Sensor and Magnetic Plug Oil Debris Sensor

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Tuck, Roger; Showalter, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the performance of an inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor when detecting transmission component health in the same system under the same operating conditions. Both sensors were installed in series in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig during tests performed on 5 gear sets (pinion/gear) when different levels of damage occurred on the gear teeth. Results of this analysis found both the inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor have benefits and limitations when detecting gearbox component damage.

  9. Catchment Integration of Sensor Array Observations to Understand Hydrologic Connectivity

    Redfern, S.; Livneh, B.; Molotch, N. P.; Suding, K.; Neff, J. C.; Hinckley, E. L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic connectivity and the land surface water balance are likely to be impacted by climate change in the coming years. Although recent work has started to demonstrate that climate modulates connectivity, we still lack knowledge of how local ecology will respond to environmental and atmospheric changes and subsequently interact with connectivity. The overarching goal of this research is to address and forecast how climate change will affect hydrologic connectivity in an alpine environment, through the use of near-surface observations (temperature, humidity, soil moisture, snow depth) from a new 16-sensor array (plus 5 precipitation gauges), together with a distributed hydrologic model, over a small catchment on Colorado's Niwot Ridge (above 3000m). Model simulations will be constrained to distributed sensor measurements taken in the study area and calibrated with streamflow. Periods of wetting and dry-down will be analyzed to identify signatures of connectivity across the landscape, its seasonal signals and its sensitivity to land cover. Further work will aim to develop future hydrologic projections, compare model output with related observations, conduct multi-physics experiments, and continue to expand the existing sensor network.

  10. A NOVEL BCG SENSOR-ARRAY FOR UNOBTRUSIVE CARDIAC MONITORING

    Anna Böhm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Unobtrusive heart rate monitoring is a popular research topic in biomedical engineering. The reason is that convential methods, e.g. the clinical gold standard electrocardiography, require conductive contact to the human body. Other methods such as ballistocardiography try to record these vital signs without electrodes that are attached to the body. So far, these systems cannot replace routine procedures. Most systems have some drawbacks that cannot be compensated, such as aging of the sensor materials or movement artifacts. In addition, the signal form differs greatly from an ECG, which is an electrical signal. The ballistocardiogram has a mechanical source, which makes it harder to evaluate. We have developed a new sensor array made of near-IR-LEDs to record BCGs. IR-sensors do not age in relevant time scales. Analog filtering was neccesary, because the signal amplitude was very small. The digitized data was then processed by various algorithms to extract beat-to-beat or breath-to-breath intervals. The redundancy of multiple BCG channels was used to provide a robust estimation of beat-to-beat intervals and heart rate. We installed the system beneath a mattress topper of a hospital bed, but any other bed would have been sufficient. The validation of this measurement system shows that it is well suited for BCG recordings. The use of multiple channels has proven to be superior to relying on a single BCG channel.

  11. Biogeochemical sensor performance in the SOCCOM profiling float array

    Johnson, Kenneth S.; Plant, Joshua N.; Coletti, Luke J.; Jannasch, Hans W.; Sakamoto, Carole M.; Riser, Stephen C.; Swift, Dana D.; Williams, Nancy L.; Boss, Emmanuel; Haëntjens, Nils; Talley, Lynne D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-08-01

    The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) program has begun deploying a large array of biogeochemical sensors on profiling floats in the Southern Ocean. As of February 2016, 86 floats have been deployed. Here the focus is on 56 floats with quality-controlled and adjusted data that have been in the water at least 6 months. The floats carry oxygen, nitrate, pH, chlorophyll fluorescence, and optical backscatter sensors. The raw data generated by these sensors can suffer from inaccurate initial calibrations and from sensor drift over time. Procedures to correct the data are defined. The initial accuracy of the adjusted concentrations is assessed by comparing the corrected data to laboratory measurements made on samples collected by a hydrographic cast with a rosette sampler at the float deployment station. The long-term accuracy of the corrected data is compared to the GLODAPv2 data set whenever a float made a profile within 20 km of a GLODAPv2 station. Based on these assessments, the fleet average oxygen data are accurate to 1 ± 1%, nitrate to within 0.5 ± 0.5 µmol kg-1, and pH to 0.005 ± 0.007, where the error limit is 1 standard deviation of the fleet data. The bio-optical measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and optical backscatter are used to estimate chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon concentration. The particulate organic carbon concentrations inferred from optical backscatter appear accurate to with 35 mg C m-3 or 20%, whichever is larger. Factors affecting the accuracy of the estimated chlorophyll a concentrations are evaluated.Plain Language SummaryThe ocean science community must move toward greater use of autonomous platforms and sensors if we are to extend our knowledge of the effects of climate driven change within the ocean. Essential to this shift in observing strategies is an understanding of the performance that can be obtained from biogeochemical sensors on platforms deployed for years and the

  12. Modeling of a new 2D Acceleration Sensor Array using SystemC-AMS

    Markert, Erik; Dienel, Marco; Herrmann, Goeran; Mueller, Dietmar; Heinkel, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for modeling and simulation of a new 2D acceleration sensor array using SystemC-AMS. The sensor array consists of six single acceleration sensors with different detection axes. These single sensors comprise of four capacitive segments and one mass segment, aligned in a semicircle. The redundant sensor information is used for offset correction. Modeling of the single sensors is achieved using sensor structure simplification into 11 points and analytic equations for capacity changes, currents and torques. This model was expanded by a PWM feedback circuit to keep the sensor displacement in a linear region. In this paper the single sensor model is duplicated considering different positions of the seismic mass resulting in different detection axes for the single sensors. The measured accelerations of the sensors are merged with different weights depending on the orientation. This also reduces calculation effort

  13. Ground-based transmission line conductor motion sensor

    Jacobs, M.L.; Milano, U.

    1988-01-01

    A ground-based-conductor motion-sensing apparatus is provided for remotely sensing movement of electric-power transmission lines, particularly as would occur during the wind-induced condition known as galloping. The apparatus is comprised of a motion sensor and signal-generating means which are placed underneath a transmission line and will sense changes in the electric field around the line due to excessive line motion. The detector then signals a remote station when a conditioning of galloping is sensed. The apparatus of the present invention is advantageous over the line-mounted sensors of the prior art in that it is easier and less hazardous to install. The system can also be modified so that a signal will only be given when particular conditions, such as specific temperature range, large-amplitude line motion, or excessive duration of the line motion, are occurring

  14. Cosmic non-TEM radiation and synthetic feed array sensor system in ASIC mixed signal technology

    Centureli, F.; Scotti, G.; Tommasino, P.; Trifiletti, A.; Romano, F.; Cimmino, R.; Saitto, A.

    2014-08-01

    The paper deals with the opportunity to introduce "Not strictly TEM waves" Synthetic detection Method (NTSM), consisting in a Three Axis Digital Beam Processing (3ADBP), to enhance the performances of radio telescope and sensor systems. Current Radio Telescopes generally use the classic 3D "TEM waves" approximation Detection Method, which consists in a linear tomography process (Single or Dual axis beam forming processing) neglecting the small z component. The Synthetic FEED ARRAY three axis Sensor SYSTEM is an innovative technique using a synthetic detection of the generic "NOT strictly TEM Waves radiation coming from the Cosmo, which processes longitudinal component of Angular Momentum too. Than the simultaneous extraction from radiation of both the linear and quadratic information component, may reduce the complexity to reconstruct the Early Universe in the different requested scales. This next order approximation detection of the observed cosmologic processes, may improve the efficacy of the statistical numerical model used to elaborate the same information acquired. The present work focuses on detection of such waves at carrier frequencies in the bands ranging from LF to MMW. The work shows in further detail the new generation of on line programmable and reconfigurable Mixed Signal ASIC technology that made possible the innovative Synthetic Sensor. Furthermore the paper shows the ability of such technique to increase the Radio Telescope Array Antenna performances.

  15. Enhanced Sensitivity of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Rate Sensors Incorporating Metallic Dot Arrays

    Wen Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A new surface acoustic wave (SAW-based rate sensor pattern incorporating metallic dot arrays was developed in this paper. Two parallel SAW delay lines with a reverse direction and an operation frequency of 80 MHz on a same X-112°Y LiTaO3 wafer are fabricated as the feedback of two SAW oscillators, and mixed oscillation frequency was used to characterize the external rotation. To enhance the Coriolis force effect acting on the SAW propagation, a copper (Cu dot array was deposited along the SAW propagation path of the SAW devices. The approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media was referred to analyze the response mechanisms of the SAW based rate sensor, resulting in determination of the optimal design parameters. To improve the frequency stability of the oscillator, the single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs and combed transducer were used to form the SAW device to minimize the insertion loss and accomplish the single mode selection, respectively. Excellent long-term (measured in hours frequency stability of 0.1 ppm/h was obtained. Using the rate table with high precision, the performance of the developed SAW rate sensor was evaluated experimentally; satisfactory detection sensitivity (16.7 Hz∙deg∙s−1 and good linearity were observed.

  16. Multichannel DC SQUID sensor array for biomagnetic applications

    Hoenig, H.E.; Daalmans, G.M.; Bar, L.; Bommel, F.; Paulus, A.; Uhl, D.; Weisse, H.J.; Schneider, S.; Seifert, H.; Reichenberger, H.; Abraham-Fuchs, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a biomagnetic multichannel system for medical diagnosis of brain and heart KRENIKON has been developed. 37 axial 2st order gradiometers - manufactured as flexible superconducting printed circuits - are arranged in a circular flat array of 19 cm diameter. Additionally, 3 orthogonal magnetometers are provided. The DC SQUIDs are fabricated in all-Nb technology, ten on a chip. The sensor system is operated in a shielded room with two layers of soft magnetic material and one layer of Al. The every day noise level is 10 fT/Hz 1/2 at frequencies above 10 Hz. Within 2 years of operation in a normal urban surrounding, useful clinical applications have been demonstrated (e.g. for epilepsy and heart arrhythmias)

  17. Reconfigurable optical interconnection network for multimode optical fiber sensor arrays

    Chen, R. T.; Robinson, D.; Lu, H.; Wang, M. R.; Jannson, T.; Baumbick, R.

    1992-01-01

    A single-source, single-detector architecture has been developed to implement a reconfigurable optical interconnection network multimode optical fiber sensor arrays. The network was realized by integrating LiNbO3 electrooptic (EO) gratings working at the Raman Na regime and a massive fan-out waveguide hologram (WH) working at the Bragg regime onto a multimode glass waveguide. The glass waveguide utilized the whole substrate as a guiding medium. A 1-to-59 massive waveguide fan-out was demonstrated using a WH operating at 514 nm. Measured diffraction efficiency of 59 percent was experimentally confirmed. Reconfigurability of the interconnection was carried out by generating an EO grating through an externally applied electric field. Unlike conventional single-mode integrated optical devices, the guided mode demonstrated has an azimuthal symmetry in mode profile which is the same as that of a fiber mode.

  18. Bundle Block Adjustment of Airborne Three-Line Array Imagery Based on Rotation Angles

    Yongjun Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of the rapid developments in electronic instruments and remote sensing technologies, airborne three-line array sensors and their applications are being widely promoted and plentiful research related to data processing and high precision geo-referencing technologies is under way. The exterior orientation parameters (EOPs, which are measured by the integrated positioning and orientation system (POS of airborne three-line sensors, however, have inevitable systematic errors, so the level of precision of direct geo-referencing is not sufficiently accurate for surveying and mapping applications. Consequently, a few ground control points are necessary to refine the exterior orientation parameters, and this paper will discuss bundle block adjustment models based on the systematic error compensation and the orientation image, considering the principle of an image sensor and the characteristics of the integrated POS. Unlike the models available in the literature, which mainly use a quaternion to represent the rotation matrix of exterior orientation, three rotation angles are directly used in order to effectively model and eliminate the systematic errors of the POS observations. Very good experimental results have been achieved with several real datasets that verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed adjustment models.

  19. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    2012-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of decision... to employ up to four Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar...

  20. Hybrid CMOS-Graphene Sensor Array for Subsecond Dopamine Detection.

    Nasri, Bayan; Wu, Ting; Alharbi, Abdullah; You, Kae-Dyi; Gupta, Mayank; Sebastian, Sunit P; Kiani, Roozbeh; Shahrjerdi, Davood

    2017-12-01

    We introduce a hybrid CMOS-graphene sensor array for subsecond measurement of dopamine via fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). The prototype chip has four independent CMOS readout channels, fabricated in a 65-nm process. Using planar multilayer graphene as biologically compatible sensing material enables integration of miniaturized sensing electrodes directly above the readout channels. Taking advantage of the chemical specificity of FSCV, we introduce a region of interest technique, which subtracts a large portion of the background current using a programmable low-noise constant current at about the redox potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this feature for enhancing the sensitivity by measuring the sensor response to a known dopamine concentration in vitro at three different scan rates. This strategy further allows us to significantly reduce the dynamic range requirements of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) without compromising the measurement accuracy. We show that an integrating dual-slope ADC is adequate for digitizing the background-subtracted current. The ADC operates at a sampling frequency of 5-10 kHz and has an effective resolution of about 60 pA, which corresponds to a theoretical dopamine detection limit of about 6 nM. Our hybrid sensing platform offers an effective solution for implementing next-generation FSCV devices that can enable precise recording of dopamine signaling in vivo on a large scale.

  1. Feature extraction using distribution representation for colorimetric sensor arrays used as explosives detectors

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Raich, Raviv; Kostesha, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    is required. We present a new approach of extracting features from a colorimetric sensor array based on a color distribution representation. For each sensor in the array, we construct a K-nearest neighbor classifier based on the Hellinger distances between color distribution of a test compound and the color......We present a colorimetric sensor array which is able to detect explosives such as DNT, TNT, HMX, RDX and TATP and identifying volatile organic compounds in the presence of water vapor in air. To analyze colorimetric sensors with statistical methods, a suitable representation of sensory readings...

  2. Transition-edge sensor imaging arrays for astrophysics applications

    Burney, Jennifer Anne

    Many interesting objects in our universe currently elude observation in the optical band: they are too faint or they vary rapidly and thus any structure in their radiation is lost over the period of an exposure. Conventional photon detectors cannot simultaneously provide energy resolution and time-stamping of individual photons at fast rates. Superconducting detectors have recently made the possibility of simultaneous photon counting, imaging, and energy resolution a reality. Our research group has pioneered the use of one such detector, the Transition-Edge Sensor (TES). TES physics is simple and elegant. A thin superconducting film, biased at its critical temperature, can act as a particle detector: an incident particle deposits energy and drives the film into its superconducting-normal transition. By inductively coupling the detector to a SQUID amplifier circuit, this resistance change can be read out as a current pulse, and its energy deduced by integrating over the pulse. TESs can be used to accurately time-stamp (to 0.1 [mu]s) and energy-resolve (0.15 eV at 1.6 eV) near-IR/visible/near-UV photons at rates of 30~kHz. The first astronomical observations using fiber-coupled detectors were made at the Stanford Student Observatory 0.6~m telescope in 1999. Further observations of the Crab Pulsar from the 107" telescope at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory showed rapid phase variations over the near-IR/visible/near-UV band. These preliminary observations provided a glimpse into a new realm of observations of pulsars, binary systems, and accreting black holes promised by TES arrays. This thesis describes the development, characterization, and preliminary use of the first camera system based on Transition-Edge Sensors. While single-device operation is relatively well-understood, the operation of a full imaging array poses significant challenges. This thesis addresses all aspects related to the creation and characterization of this cryogenic imaging

  3. Chemical Vapor Identification by Plasma Treated Thick Film Tin Oxide Gas Sensor Array and Pattern Recognition

    J. K. Srivastava

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Present study deals the class recognition potential of a four element plasma treated thick film tin oxide gas sensor array exposed with volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Methanol, Ethanol and Acetone are selected as target VOCs and exposed on sensor array at different concentration in range from 100-1000 ppm. Sensor array consist of four tin oxide sensors doped with 1-4 % PbO concentrations were fabricated by thick film technology and then treated with oxygen plasma for 5-10 minute durations. Sensor signal is analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA for visual classification of VOCs. Further output of PCA is used as input for classification of VOCs by four pattern classification techniques as: linear discriminant analysis (LDA, k-nearest neighbor (KNN, back propagation neural network (BPNN and support vector machine (SVM. All the four classifier results 100 % correct classification rate of VOCs by response analysis of sensor array treated with plasma for 5 minute.

  4. Sensor Placement For Structural Monitoring of Transmission Line Towers

    Benny eRaphael

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transmission line towers are usually analyzed using linear elastic idealized truss models. Due to the assumptions used in the analysis, there are discrepancies between the actual results obtained from full scale prototype testing and the analytical results. Therefore, design engineers are interested in assessing the actual stress levels in transmission line towers. Since it is costly to place sensors on every member of a tower structure, the best locations for sensors need to be carefully selected. This study evaluates a methodology for sensor placement in transmission line towers. The objective is to find optimal locations for sensors such that the real behavior of the structure can be explained from measurements. The methodology is based on the concepts of entropy and model falsification. Sensor locations are selected based on maximum entropy such that there is maximum separation between model instances that represent different possible combinations of parameter values which have uncertainties. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared to that of an intuitive method in which sensor locations are selected where the forces are maximum. A typical 220 kV transmission tower is taken as case study in this paper. It is shown that the intuitive method results in much higher number of non-separable models compared to the optimal sensor placement algorithm. Thus the intuitive method results in poor identification of the system.

  5. Real time interrogation technique for fiber Bragg grating enhanced fiber loop ringdown sensors array.

    Zhang, Yunlong; Li, Ruoming; Shi, Yuechun; Zhang, Jintao; Chen, Xiangfei; Liu, Shengchun

    2015-06-01

    A novel fiber Bragg grating aided fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) sensor array and the wavelength-time multiplexing based interrogation technique for the FLRD sensors array are proposed. The interrogation frequency of the system is formulated and the interrelationships among the parameters of the system are analyzed. To validate the performance of the proposed system, a five elements array is experimentally demonstrated, and the system shows the capability of real time monitoring every FLRD element with interrogation frequency of 125.5 Hz.

  6. Development of a Tonometric Sensor with a Decoupled Circular Array for Precisely Measuring Radial Artery Pulse

    Jun, Min-Ho; Kim, Young-Min; Bae, Jang-Han; Jung, Chang Jin; Cho, Jung-Hee; Jeon, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    The radial artery pulse is one of the major diagnostic indices used clinically in both Eastern and Western medicine. One of the prominent methods for measuring the radial artery pulse is the piezoresistive sensor array. Independence among channels and an appropriate sensor arrangement are important for effectively assessing the spatial-temporal information of the pulse. This study developed a circular-type seven-channel piezoresistive sensor array using face-down bonding (FDB) as one of the s...

  7. On-line chemical sensors for applications in fast reactors

    Jayaraman, V.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sensors are essential components of fast reactor sodium circuits. These sensors are needed in fast reactors for the immediate detection of any steam leak into sodium during reactor operation which can lead to failure of steam generator. Depending on the operating power of the reactor, sodium-water reaction results in either an increase in dissolved hydrogen level in sodium or an increase in hydrogen content of argon cover gas used above sodium coolant. Hence, on-line monitoring of hydrogen continuously in sodium and cover circuits helps in detection of any steam leak. In the event of accidental leak of high temperature sodium, it reacts with oxygen and moisture in air leading to sodium fires. These fires produce sodium aerosol containing oxides of sodium (Na 2 O and Na 2 O 2 ) and NaOH. For early detection of sodium fires, sensor systems based on sodium ionization detector, pH measurement and modulation of conductivity of graphite films are known in the literature. This presentation deals with the development of on-line sensors for these two applications. A diffusion based sensor using a thin walled nickel coil at 773 K and a sensitive thermal conductivity detector (TCD) has been developed for monitoring hydrogen levels in argon cover gas. This sensor has a lower detection limit of 30 ppm of hydrogen in argon. To extend the detection limit of the sensor, a surface conductivity based sensor has been developed which makes use of a thin film of semi-conducting tin oxide. Integration of this sensor with the TCD, can extend the lower detection limit to 2 ppm of hydrogen in cover gas. Electrochemical sensor based on sodium-beta-alumina has been designed, fabricated and its performance in laboratory and industrial environment was evaluated. This paper presents the logical development of these sensors highlighting their merits and limitations

  8. Design of a Large-scale Three-dimensional Flexible Arrayed Tactile Sensor

    Junxiang Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new type of large-scale three-dimensional flexible arrayed tactile sensor based on conductive rubber. It can be used to detect three-dimensional force information on the continuous surface of the sensor, which realizes a true skin type tactile sensor. The widely used method of liquid rubber injection molding (LIMS method is used for "the overall injection molding" sample preparation. The structure details of staggered nodes and a new decoupling algorithm of force analysis are given. Simulation results show that the sensor based on this structure can achieve flexible measurement of large-scale 3-D tactile sensor arrays.

  9. Indoor air quality inspection and analysis system based on gas sensor array

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Mingjiang; Fan, Binwen

    2017-08-01

    A detection and analysis system capable of measuring the concentration of four major gases in indoor air is designed. It uses four gas sensors constitute a gas sensor array, to achieve four indoor gas concentration detection, while the detection of data for further processing to reduce the cross-sensitivity between the gas sensor to improve the accuracy of detection.

  10. Touch at a distance sensing: lateral-line inspired MEMS flow sensors

    Prakash Kottapalli, Ajay Giri; Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Evolution bestowed the blind cavefish with a resourcefully designed lateral-line of sensors that play an essential role in many important tasks including object detection and avoidance, energy-efficient maneuvering, rheotaxis etc. Biologists identified the two types of vital sensors on the fish bodies called the superficial neuromasts and the canal neuromasts that are responsible for flow sensing and pressure-gradient sensing, respectively. In this work, we present the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of biomimetic polymer artificial superficial neuromast micro-sensor arrays. These biomimetic micro-sensors demonstrated a high sensitivity of 0.9 mV/(m s −1 ) and 0.022 V/(m s −1 ) and threshold velocity detection limits of 0.1 m s −1 and 0.015 m s −1 in determining air and water flows respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the biological canal inspired polymer encapsulation on the array of artificial superficial neuromast sensors is capable of filtering steady-state flows that could otherwise significantly mask the relevant oscillatory flow signals of high importance. (paper)

  11. Active pixel sensor array as a detector for electron microscopy.

    Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Leblanc, Philippe; Duttweiler, Fred; Jin, Liang; Bouwer, James C; Peltier, Steve; Ellisman, Mark; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S; Wieman, Howard; Denes, Peter; Kleinfelder, Stuart; Xuong, Nguyen-Huu

    2005-09-01

    A new high-resolution recording device for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is urgently needed. Neither film nor CCD cameras are systems that allow for efficient 3-D high-resolution particle reconstruction. We tested an active pixel sensor (APS) array as a replacement device at 200, 300, and 400 keV using a JEOL JEM-2000 FX II and a JEM-4000 EX electron microscope. For this experiment, we used an APS prototype with an area of 64 x 64 pixels of 20 microm x 20 microm pixel pitch. Single-electron events were measured by using very low beam intensity. The histogram of the incident electron energy deposited in the sensor shows a Landau distribution at low energies, as well as unexpected events at higher absorbed energies. After careful study, we concluded that backscattering in the silicon substrate and re-entering the sensitive epitaxial layer a second time with much lower speed caused the unexpected events. Exhaustive simulation experiments confirmed the existence of these back-scattered electrons. For the APS to be usable, the back-scattered electron events must be eliminated, perhaps by thinning the substrate to less than 30 microm. By using experimental data taken with an APS chip with a standard silicon substrate (300 microm) and adjusting the results to take into account the effect of a thinned silicon substrate (30 microm), we found an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio for a back-thinned detector in the energy range of 200-400 keV was about 10:1 and an estimate for the spatial resolution was about 10 microm.

  12. Sensitivity and Resolution Improvement in RGBW Color Filter Array Sensor

    Seunghoon Jee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several red-green-blue-white (RGBW color filter arrays (CFAs, which include highly sensitive W pixels, have been proposed. However, RGBW CFA patterns suffer from spatial resolution degradation owing to the sensor composition having more color components than the Bayer CFA pattern. RGBW CFA demosaicing methods reconstruct resolution using the correlation between white (W pixels and pixels of other colors, which does not improve the red-green-blue (RGB channel sensitivity to the W channel level. In this paper, we thus propose a demosaiced image post-processing method to improve the RGBW CFA sensitivity and resolution. The proposed method decomposes texture components containing image noise and resolution information. The RGB channel sensitivity and resolution are improved through updating the W channel texture component with those of RGB channels. For this process, a cross multilateral filter (CMF is proposed. It decomposes the smoothness component from the texture component using color difference information and distinguishes color components through that information. Moreover, it decomposes texture components, luminance noise, color noise, and color aliasing artifacts from the demosaiced images. Finally, by updating the texture of the RGB channels with the W channel texture components, the proposed algorithm improves the sensitivity and resolution. Results show that the proposed method is effective, while maintaining W pixel resolution characteristics and improving sensitivity from the signal-to-noise ratio value by approximately 4.5 dB.

  13. Exploiting Cross-sensitivity by Bayesian Decoding of Mixed Potential Sensor Arrays

    Kreller, Cortney [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-02

    LANL mixed-potential electrochemical sensor (MPES) device arrays were coupled with advanced Bayesian inference treatment of the physical model of relevant sensor-analyte interactions. We demonstrated that our approach could be used to uniquely discriminate the composition of ternary gas sensors with three discreet MPES sensors with an average error of less than 2%. We also observed that the MPES exhibited excellent stability over a year of operation at elevated temperatures in the presence of test gases.

  14. A distributed monitoring system for photovoltaic arrays based on a two-level wireless sensor network

    Su, F. P.; Chen, Z. C.; Zhou, H. F.; Wu, L. J.; Lin, P. J.; Cheng, S. Y.; Li, Y. F.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a distributed on-line monitoring system based on a two-level wireless sensor network (WSN) is proposed for real time status monitoring of photovoltaic (PV) arrays to support the fine management and maintenance of PV power plants. The system includes the sensing nodes installed on PV modules (PVM), sensing and routing nodes installed on combiner boxes of PV sub-arrays (PVA), a sink node and a data management centre (DMC) running on a host computer. The first level WSN is implemented by the low-cost wireless transceiver nRF24L01, and it is used to achieve single hop communication between the PVM nodes and their corresponding PVA nodes. The second level WSN is realized by the CC2530 based ZigBee network for multi-hop communication among PVA nodes and the sink node. The PVM nodes are used to monitor the PVM working voltage and backplane temperature, and they send the acquired data to their PVA node via the nRF24L01 based first level WSN. The PVA nodes are used to monitor the array voltage, PV string current and environment irradiance, and they send the acquired and received data to the DMC via the ZigBee based second level WSN. The DMC is designed using the MATLAB GUIDE and MySQL database. Laboratory experiment results show that the system can effectively acquire, display, store and manage the operating and environment parameters of PVA in real time.

  15. A Radiosonde Using a Humidity Sensor Array with a Platinum Resistance Heater and Multi-Sensor Data Fusion

    Shi, Yunbo; Luo, Yi; Zhao, Wenjie; Shang, Chunxue; Wang, Yadong; Chen, Yinsheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a radiosonde which can measure the meteorological temperature, humidity, pressure, and other atmospheric data. The system is composed of a CPU, microwave module, temperature sensor, pressure sensor and humidity sensor array. In order to effectively solve the humidity sensor condensation problem due to the low temperatures in the high altitude environment, a capacitive humidity sensor including four humidity sensors to collect meteorological humidity and a platinum resistance heater was developed using micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) technology. A platinum resistance wire with 99.999% purity and 0.023 mm in diameter was used to obtain the meteorological temperature. A multi-sensor data fusion technique was applied to process the atmospheric data. Static and dynamic experimental results show that the designed humidity sensor with platinum resistance heater can effectively tackle the sensor condensation problem, shorten response times and enhance sensitivity. The humidity sensor array can improve measurement accuracy and obtain a reliable initial meteorological humidity data, while the multi-sensor data fusion technique eliminates the uncertainty in the measurement. The radiosonde can accurately reflect the meteorological changes. PMID:23857263

  16. Improving slowness estimate stability and visualization using limited sensor pair correlation on seismic arrays

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Näsholm, S. P.; Ruigrok, E.; Kværna, T.

    2018-04-01

    Seismic arrays enhance signal detection and parameter estimation by exploiting the time-delays between arriving signals on sensors at nearby locations. Parameter estimates can suffer due to both signal incoherence, with diminished waveform similarity between sensors, and aberration, with time-delays between coherent waveforms poorly represented by the wave-front model. Sensor-to-sensor correlation approaches to parameter estimation have an advantage over direct beamforming approaches in that individual sensor-pairs can be omitted without necessarily omitting entirely the data from each of the sensors involved. Specifically, we can omit correlations between sensors for which signal coherence in an optimal frequency band is anticipated to be poor or for which anomalous time-delays are anticipated. In practice, this usually means omitting correlations between more distant sensors. We present examples from International Monitoring System seismic arrays with poor parameter estimates resulting when classical f-k analysis is performed over the full array aperture. We demonstrate improved estimates and slowness grid displays using correlation beamforming restricted to correlations between sufficiently closely spaced sensors. This limited sensor-pair correlation (LSPC) approach has lower slowness resolution than would ideally be obtained by considering all sensor-pairs. However, this ideal estimate may be unattainable due to incoherence and/or aberration and the LSPC estimate can often exploit all channels, with the associated noise-suppression, while mitigating the complications arising from correlations between very distant sensors. The greatest need for the method is for short-period signals on large aperture arrays although we also demonstrate significant improvement for secondary regional phases on a small aperture array. LSPC can also provide a robust and flexible approach to parameter estimation on three-component seismic arrays.

  17. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Quasi-distributed fiber bragg grating array sensor for furnace applications

    Reddy, P. Saidi; Sai Prasad, R. L. N.; Sen Gupta, D.; Sai Shankar, M.; Srimannarayana, K.; Ravinder Reddy, P.

    2012-05-01

    An experimental work on distributed temperature sensing making use of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array sensor for possible applications in the monitoring of the temperature profile in high temperature boilers is presented. A special sensor has been designed for this purpose which consists of four FBGs (of wavelengths λ B1 =1545.8 nm, λ B2 =1547 nm, λ B3 =1550.8 nm, λ B4 =1555.5 nm at 30 °C) written in the hydrogen-loaded fiber in line. All the FBGs are encapsulated inside a stainless steel tube using the rigid probe technique for avoiding micro cracks. The spatial distribution of the temperature profile inside a prototype boiler was measured experimentally both in horizontal and vertical directions employing the above sensor, and the results are presented. Further, the finite element simulation has been carried out by using ANSYS R11 software to predict temperature contours in the boiler, and the experimental and predicted results were found to be closely matching.

  18. Remote Automatic Material On-Line Sensor

    Magnuson, Erik

    2005-12-20

    Low cost NMR sensor for measuring moisture content of forest products. The Department of Energy (DOE) Industries of the Future (IOF) program seeks development and implementation of technologies that make industry more efficient--in particular, more energy-efficient. Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM), a wholly-owned subsidiary of GE Security, received an award under the program to investigate roles for low-cost Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technology in furtherance of these goals. Most NMR systems are designed for high-resolution spectroscopy applications. These systems use intense magnetic fields produced by superconducting magnets that drive price and operating cost to levels beyond industry tolerance. At low magnetic fields, achievable at low cost, one loses the ability to obtain spectroscopic information. However, measuring the time constants associated with the NMR signal, called NMR relaxometry, gives indications of chemical and physical states of interest to process control and optimization. It was the purpose of this effort to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using such low-field, low-cost NMR to monitor parameters enabling greater process efficiencies. The primary target industry identified in the Cooperative Development Agreement was the wood industry, where the moisture content of wood is a key process parameter from the time the cut tree enters a mill until the time it is delivered as pieces of lumber. Extracting the moisture is energy consuming, and improvements in drying efficiency stand to reduce costs and emissions substantially. QM designed and developed a new, low-cost NMR instrument suitable for inspecting lumber up to 3 inches by 12 inches in cross section, and other materials of similar size. Low cost is achieved via an inexpensive, permanent magnet and low-cost NMR spectrometer electronics. Laboratory testing demonstrated that the NMR system is capable of accurate ({+-} 0.5%) measurements of the moisture content of wood for

  19. Optimization of Transition Edge Sensor Arrays for Cosmic Microwave Background Observations With the South Pole Telescope

    Ding, Junjia; Ade, P. A. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Avva, J.; Ahmed, Z.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J. E.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Byrum, K.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carter, F. W.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Cliche, J. F.; Cukierman, A.; Czaplewski, D.; Divan, R.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dutcher, D.; Everett, W.; Gilbert, A.; Gannon, R.; Guyser, R.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N. L.; Hattori, K.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hubmayr, J.; Huang, N.; Irwin, K. D.; Jeong, O.; Khaire, T.; Kubik, D.; Kuo, C. L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Meyer, S. S.; Miller, C. S.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nguyen, H.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pan, Z.; Pearson, J.; Posada, C. M.; Rahlin, A.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Shariff, J. A.; Shirley, I.; Shirokoff, E.; Smecher, G.; Sobrin, J.; Stan, L.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; Suzuki, A.; Tang, Q. Y.; Thakur, R. B.; Thompson, K. L.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yefremenko, V.; Yoon, K. W.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the optimization of transition-edge-sensor (TES) detector arrays for the third-generation camera for the South PoleTelescope. The camera, which contains similar to 16 000 detectors, will make high-angular-resolution maps of the temperature and polarization of the cosmic microwave background. Our key results are scatter in the transition temperature of Ti/Au TESs is reduced by fabricating the TESs on a thin Ti(5 nm)/Au(5 nm) buffer layer and the thermal conductivity of the legs that support our detector islands is dominated by the SiOx dielectric in the microstrip transmission lines that run along the legs.

  20. Planar location of the simulative acoustic source based on fiber optic sensor array

    Liang, Yi-Jun; Liu, Jun-feng; Zhang, Qiao-ping; Mu, Lin-lin

    2010-06-01

    A fiber optic sensor array which is structured by four Sagnac fiber optic sensors is proposed to detect and locate a simulative source of acoustic emission (AE). The sensing loops of Sagnac interferometer (SI) are regarded as point sensors as their small size. Based on the derived output light intensity expression of SI, the optimum work condition of the Sagnac fiber optic sensor is discussed through the simulation of MATLAB. Four sensors are respectively placed on a steel plate to structure the sensor array and the location algorithms are expatiated. When an impact is generated by an artificial AE source at any position of the plate, the AE signal will be detected by four sensors at different times. With the help of a single chip microcomputer (SCM) which can calculate the position of the AE source and display it on LED, we have implemented an intelligent detection and location.

  1. Harsh Environment Gas Sensor Array for Venus Atmospheric Measurements, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering and the Ohio State University propose to develop a harsh environment tolerant gas sensor array for atmospheric analysis in future Venus missions....

  2. Probabilistic Neural Networks for Chemical Sensor Array Pattern Recognition: Comparison Studies, Improvements and Automated Outlier Rejection

    Shaffer, Ronald E

    1998-01-01

    For application to chemical sensor arrays, the ideal pattern recognition is accurate, fast, simple to train, robust to outliers, has low memory requirements, and has the ability to produce a measure...

  3. A Novel Wearable Electronic Nose for Healthcare Based on Flexible Printed Chemical Sensor Array

    Panida Lorwongtragool

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel wearable electronic nose for armpit odor analysis is proposed by using a low-cost chemical sensor array integrated in a ZigBee wireless communication system. We report the development of a carbon nanotubes (CNTs/polymer sensor array based on inkjet printing technology. With this technique both composite-like layer and actual composite film of CNTs/polymer were prepared as sensing layers for the chemical sensor array. The sensor array can response to a variety of complex odors and is installed in a prototype of wearable e-nose for monitoring the axillary odor released from human body. The wearable e-nose allows the classification of different armpit odors and the amount of the volatiles released as a function of level of skin hygiene upon different activities.

  4. Time Reversal Acoustic Structural Health Monitoring Using Array of Embedded Sensors, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Time Reversal Acoustic (TRA) structural health monitoring with an embedded sensor array represents a new approach to in-situ nondestructive evaluation of air-space...

  5. Innovative Self-Powered and Self-Contained Sensor Array for Separation Detection, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a self-contained, self-powered, robust flight test sensor array for the determination of separation. The proposed system uses off the...

  6. Robust, Self-Contained and Bio-Inspired Shear Sensor Array, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a robust, bio-inspired, and self-contained sensor array for the measurement of shear stress. The proposed system uses commercially...

  7. Development of a Tonometric Sensor with a Decoupled Circular Array for Precisely Measuring Radial Artery Pulse

    Min-Ho Jun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The radial artery pulse is one of the major diagnostic indices used clinically in both Eastern and Western medicine. One of the prominent methods for measuring the radial artery pulse is the piezoresistive sensor array. Independence among channels and an appropriate sensor arrangement are important for effectively assessing the spatial-temporal information of the pulse. This study developed a circular-type seven-channel piezoresistive sensor array using face-down bonding (FDB as one of the sensor combination methods. The three-layered housing structure that included independent pressure sensor units using the FDB method not only enabled elimination of the crosstalk among channels, but also allowed various array patterns to be created for effective pulse measurement. The sensors were arranged in a circular-type arrangement such that they could estimate the direction of the radial artery and precisely measure the pulse wave. The performance of the fabricated sensor array was validated by evaluating the sensor sensitivity per channel, and the possibility of estimating the blood vessel direction was demonstrated through a radial artery pulse simulator. We expect the proposed sensor to allow accurate extraction of the pulse indices for pulse diagnosis.

  8. Stretchable Active Matrix Temperature Sensor Array of Polyaniline Nanofibers for Electronic Skin.

    Hong, Soo Yeong; Lee, Yong Hui; Park, Heun; Jin, Sang Woo; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; You, Ilhwan; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-02-03

    A stretchable polyaniline nanofiber temperature sensor array with an active matrix consisting of single-walled carbon nanotube thin-film transistors is demonstrated. The integrated temperature sensor array gives mechanical stability under biaxial stretching of 30%, and the resultant spatial temperature mapping does not show any mechanical or electrical degradation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Stretchable, Transparent, and Stretch-Unresponsive Capacitive Touch Sensor Array with Selectively Patterned Silver Nanowires/Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrodes.

    Choi, Tae Young; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Trung, Tran Quang; Nam, Yun Hyoung; Kim, Do-Nyun; Eom, Kilho; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2017-05-31

    Stretchable and transparent touch sensors are essential input devices for future stretchable transparent electronics. Capacitive touch sensors with a simple structure of only two electrodes and one dielectric are an established technology in current rigid electronics. However, the development of stretchable and transparent capacitive touch sensors has been limited due to changes in capacitance resulting from dimensional changes in elastomeric dielectrics and difficulty in obtaining stretchable transparent electrodes that are stable under large strains. Herein, a stretch-unresponsive stretchable and transparent capacitive touch sensor array was demonstrated by employing stretchable and transparent electrodes with a simple selective-patterning process and by carefully selecting dielectric and substrate materials with low strain responsivity. A selective-patterning process was used to embed a stretchable and transparent silver nanowires/reduced graphene oxide (AgNWs/rGO) electrode line into a polyurethane (PU) dielectric layer on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate using oxygen plasma treatment. This method provides the ability to directly fabricate thin film electrode lines on elastomeric substrates and can be used in conventional processes employed in stretchable electronics. We used a dielectric (PU) with a Poisson's ratio smaller than that of the substrate (PDMS), which prevented changes in the capacitance resulting from stretching of the sensor. The stretch-unresponsive touch sensing capability of our transparent and stretchable capacitive touch sensor has great potential in wearable electronics and human-machine interfaces.

  10. MEMS Sensor Arrays for Cryogenic Propellant Applications, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — KWJ offers this proposal for a low-power, practical and versatile MEMS sensor platform for NASA applications. The proposed nano-sensor platform is ultra-low power...

  11. A colorimetric sensor array for identification of toxic gases below permissible exposure limits†

    Feng, Liang; Musto, Christopher J.; Kemling, Jonathan W.; Lim, Sung H.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    A colorimetric sensor array has been developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of 20 toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) at their PELs (permissible exposure limits). The color changes in an array of chemically responsive nanoporous pigments provide facile identification of the TICs with an error rate below 0.7%.

  12. Near-field/far-field array manifold of an acoustic vector-sensor near a reflecting boundary.

    Wu, Yue Ivan; Lau, Siu-Kit; Wong, Kainam Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The acoustic vector-sensor (a.k.a. the vector hydrophone) is a practical and versatile sound-measurement device, with applications in-room, open-air, or underwater. It consists of three identical uni-axial velocity-sensors in orthogonal orientations, plus a pressure-sensor-all in spatial collocation. Its far-field array manifold [Nehorai and Paldi (1994). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 42, 2481-2491; Hawkes and Nehorai (2000). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 48, 2981-2993] has been introduced into the technical field of signal processing about 2 decades ago, and many direction-finding algorithms have since been developed for this acoustic vector-sensor. The above array manifold is subsequently generalized for outside the far field in Wu, Wong, and Lau [(2010). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, 3946-3951], but only if no reflection-boundary is to lie near the acoustic vector-sensor. As for the near-boundary array manifold for the general case of an emitter in the geometric near field, the far field, or anywhere in between-this paper derives and presents that array manifold in terms of signal-processing mathematics. Also derived here is the corresponding Cramér-Rao bound for azimuth-elevation-distance localization of an incident emitter, with the reflected wave shown to play a critical role on account of its constructive or destructive summation with the line-of-sight wave. The implications on source localization are explored, especially with respect to measurement model mismatch in maximum-likelihood direction finding and with regard to the spatial resolution between coexisting emitters.

  13. Estimating Angle of Arrival (AOA for Wideband Signal by Sensor Delay Line (SDL and Tapped Delay Line (TDL Processors

    Bassim Sayed Mohammed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Angle of arrival (AOA estimation for wideband signal becomes more necessary for modern communication systems like Global System for Mobile (GSM, satellite, military applications and spread spectrum (frequency hopping and direct sequence. Most of the researchers are focusing on how to cancel the effects of signal bandwidth on AOA estimation performance by using a transversal filter (tap delay line (TDL. Most of the researchers were using two elements array antenna to study these effects. In this research, a general case of proposed (M array elements is used. A transversal filter (TDL in phase adaptive array antenna system is used to calculate the optimum number of taps required to compensate these effect. The proposed system uses a phase adaptive array antenna in conjunction with LMS algorithm to work an angle of arrival (AOA estimator for wideband signals rather than interference canceller. An alternative solution to compensate for the effect of signal bandwidth is proposed by using sensor delay line (SDL instead of fixed delay unit since it has variable time sampling in the time domain and not fixed time delay, depending on the angle of arrival of received signals. The proposed system has the ability to estimate two parameters for received signals simultaneously (the output Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR and AOA, unlike others systems which estimate AOA only. The comparison of the simulation results with Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC technique showed that the proposed system gives good results for estimating AOA and the output SNR for wideband signals. (SDL processor shows better performance result than (TDL processor. MUSIC technique with both (SDL and (TDL processors shows unacceptable results for estimating (AOA for the wideband signal.

  14. Eddy current probe development based on a magnetic sensor array

    Vacher, F.

    2007-06-01

    This research deals with in the study of the use of innovating magnetic sensors in eddy current non destructive inspection. The author reports an analysis survey of magnetic sensor performances. This survey enables the selection of magnetic sensor technologies used in non destructive inspection. He presents the state-of-the-art of eddy current probes exploiting the qualities of innovating magnetic sensors, and describes the methods enabling the use of these magnetic sensors in non destructive testing. Two main applications of innovating magnetic sensors are identified: the detection of very small defects by means of magneto-resistive sensors, and the detection of deep defects by means of giant magneto-impedances. Based on the use of modelling, optimization, signal processing tools, probes are manufactured for these both applications

  15. Study on dynamic behavior analysis of towed line array sensor

    Hyun Kyoung Shin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of equations of motion is derived for vibratory motions of an underwater cable connected to a moving vehicle at one end and with drogues at the other end. From the static analysis, cable configurations are obtained for different vehicle speeds and towing pretensions are determined by fluid resistance of drogues. Also the dynamic analysis is required to predict its vibratory motion. Nonlinear fluid drag forces greatly influence the dynamic tension. In this study, a numerical analysis program was developed to find out the characteristic of cable behaviour. The motion is described in terms of space and time coordinates based on Chebyshev polynomial expansions. For the spatial integration the collocation method is employed and the Newmark method is applied for the time integration. Dynamic tensions, displacements, velocities, accelerations were predicted in the time domain while natural frequencies and transfer functions were obtained in the frequency domain.

  16. Oxidative stress detection by MEMS cantilever sensor array based electronic nose

    Gupta, Anurag; Singh, T. Sonamani; Singh, Priyanka; Yadava, R. D. S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is concerned with analyzing the role of polymer swelling induced surface stress in MEMS chemical sensors. The objective is to determine the impact of surface stress on the chemical discrimination ability of MEMS resonator sensors. We considered a case study of hypoxia detection by MEMS sensor array and performed several types of simulation experiments for detection of oxidative stress volatile organic markers in human breath. Both types of sensor response models that account for the surface stress effect and that did not were considered for the analyses in comparison. It is found that the surface stress (hence the polymer swelling) provides better chemical discrimination ability to polymer coated MEMS sensors.

  17. The Use of Calixarene Thin Films in the Sensor Array for VOCs Detection and Olfactory Navigation

    Alan F. Holloway

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the development of a sensor array for detection of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs in pre-explosive concentrations as well as for olfactory robotic navigation in the frame of two EU projects. A QCM (quartz crystal microbalance sensor array was built utilising quartz crystals spun-coated with thin films of different amphiphilic calixarene molecules to provide a base for pattern recognition of different volatile organic chemicals (VOCs. Commercial Metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS sensors were also used in the same array for the benefit of comparison. The sensor array was tested with a range of organic vapours, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, aromatics, etc, in concentrations below LEL and up to UEL (standing for lower and upper explosion limit, respectively; the sensor array proved to be capable of identification and concentration evaluation of a range of VOCs. Comparison of QCM and MOS sensors responses to VOCs in the LEL-UEL range showed the advantage of the former. In addition, the sensor array was tested on the vapours of camphor from cinnamon oil in order to prove the concept of using the "scent marks" for robotic navigation. The results showed that the response signature of QCM coated with calixarenes to camphor is very much different from those of any other VOCs used. Adsorption and de-sorption rates of camphor are also much slower comparing to VOCs due to a high viscosity of the compound. Our experiments demonstrated the suitability of calixarene sensor array for the task and justified the use of camphor as a "scent mark" for olfactory navigation.

  18. Integrated Cantilever-Based Flow Sensors with Tunable Sensitivity for In-Line Monitoring of Flow Fluctuations in Microfluidic Systems

    Nadine Noeth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different materials (SU-8 and SiN and with different thicknesses. The integration of arrays of holes with different hole size and number of holes allows the modification of device sensitivity, theoretical detection limit and measurement range. For an average flow in the microliter range, the cantilever deflection is directly proportional to the flow rate fluctuations in the microfluidic channel. The SiN cantilevers show a detection limit below 1 nL/min and the thinnest SU-8 cantilevers a detection limit below 5 nL/min. Finally, the sensor is applied for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations generated by external pumps connected to the microfluidic system.

  19. Wireless Sensor Network for Electric Transmission Line Monitoring

    Alphenaar, Bruce

    2009-06-30

    Generally, federal agencies tasked to oversee power grid reliability are dependent on data from grid infrastructure owners and operators in order to obtain a basic level of situational awareness. Since there are many owners and operators involved in the day-to-day functioning of the power grid, the task of accessing, aggregating and analyzing grid information from these sources is not a trivial one. Seemingly basic tasks such as synchronizing data timestamps between many different data providers and sources can be difficult as evidenced during the post-event analysis of the August 2003 blackout. In this project we investigate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of deploying a network of wireless power line monitoring devices as a method of independently monitoring key parts of the power grid as a complement to the data which is currently available to federal agencies from grid system operators. Such a network is modeled on proprietary power line monitoring technologies and networks invented, developed and deployed by Genscape, a Louisville, Kentucky based real-time energy information provider. Genscape measures transmission line power flow using measurements of electromagnetic fields under overhead high voltage transmission power lines in the United States and Europe. Opportunities for optimization of the commercial power line monitoring technology were investigated in this project to enable lower power consumption, lower cost and improvements to measurement methodologies. These optimizations were performed in order to better enable the use of wireless transmission line monitors in large network deployments (perhaps covering several thousand power lines) for federal situational awareness needs. Power consumption and cost reduction were addressed by developing a power line monitor using a low power, low cost wireless telemetry platform known as the ''Mote''. Motes were first developed as smart sensor nodes in wireless mesh networking applications

  20. Colorimetric sensor array for determination and identification of toxic industrial chemicals.

    Feng, Liang; Musto, Christopher J; Kemling, Jonathan W; Lim, Sung H; Zhong, Wenxuan; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2010-11-15

    A low-cost yet highly sensitive colorimetric sensor array for the detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) has been developed. The sensor consists of a disposable array of cross-responsive nanoporous pigments whose colors are changed by diverse chemical interactions with analytes. Clear differentiation among 20 different TICs has been easily achieved at both their IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health) concentration within 2 min of exposure and PEL (permissible exposure limit) concentration within 5 min of exposure with no errors or misclassifications. Detection limits are generally well below the PEL (in most cases below 5% of PEL) and are typically in the low ppb range. The colorimetric sensor array is not responsive to changes in humidity or temperature over a substantial range. The printed arrays show excellent batch to batch reproducibility and long shelf life (greater than 3 months).

  1. Multidirectional flexible force sensors based on confined, self-adjusting carbon nanotube arrays

    Lee, J.-I.; Pyo, Soonjae; Kim, Min-Ook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a highly sensitive force sensor based on self-adjusting carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. Aligned CNT arrays are directly synthesized on silicon microstructures by a space-confined growth technique which enables a facile self-adjusting contact. To afford flexibility and softness, the patterned microstructures with the integrated CNTs are embedded in polydimethylsiloxane structures. The sensing mechanism is based on variations in the contact resistance between the facing CNT arrays under the applied force. By finite element analysis, proper dimensions and positions for each component are determined. Further, high sensitivities up to 15.05%/mN of the proposed sensors were confirmed experimentally. Multidirectional sensing capability could also be achieved by designing multiple sets of sensing elements in a single sensor. The sensors show long-term operational stability, owing to the unique properties of the constituent CNTs, such as outstanding mechanical durability and elasticity.

  2. Localizing on-scalp MEG sensors using an array of magnetic dipole coils.

    Pfeiffer, Christoph; Andersen, Lau M; Lundqvist, Daniel; Hämäläinen, Matti; Schneiderman, Justin F; Oostenveld, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the neural activity underlying magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals requires co-registration i.e., determination of the position and orientation of the sensors with respect to the head. In modern MEG systems, an array of hundreds of low-Tc SQUID sensors is used to localize a set of small, magnetic dipole-like (head-position indicator, HPI) coils that are attached to the subject's head. With accurate prior knowledge of the positions and orientations of the sensors with respect to one another, the HPI coils can be localized with high precision, and thereby the positions of the sensors in relation to the head. With advances in magnetic field sensing technologies, e.g., high-Tc SQUIDs and optically pumped magnetometers (OPM), that require less extreme operating temperatures than low-Tc SQUID sensors, on-scalp MEG is on the horizon. To utilize the full potential of on-scalp MEG, flexible sensor arrays are preferable. Conventional co-registration is impractical for such systems as the relative positions and orientations of the sensors to each other are subject-specific and hence not known a priori. Herein, we present a method for co-registration of on-scalp MEG sensors. We propose to invert the conventional co-registration approach and localize the sensors relative to an array of HPI coils on the subject's head. We show that given accurate prior knowledge of the positions of the HPI coils with respect to one another, the sensors can be localized with high precision. We simulated our method with realistic parameters and layouts for sensor and coil arrays. Results indicate co-registration is possible with sub-millimeter accuracy, but the performance strongly depends upon a number of factors. Accurate calibration of the coils and precise determination of the positions and orientations of the coils with respect to one another are crucial. Finally, we propose methods to tackle practical challenges to further improve the method.

  3. Metrological characterization methods for confocal chromatic line sensors and optical topography sensors

    Seppä, Jeremias; Niemelä, Karri; Lassila, Antti

    2018-05-01

    The increasing use of chromatic confocal technology for, e.g. fast, in-line optical topography, and measuring thickness, roughness and profiles implies a need for the characterization of various aspects of the sensors. Single-point, line and matrix versions of chromatic confocal technology, encoding depth information into wavelength, have been developed. Of these, line sensors are particularly suitable for in-line process measurement. Metrological characterization and development of practical methods for calibration and checking is needed for new optical methods and devices. Compared to, e.g. tactile methods, optical topography measurement techniques have limitations related to light wavelength and coherence, optical properties of the sample including reflectivity, specularity, roughness and colour, and definition of optical versus mechanical surfaces. In this work, metrological characterization methods for optical line sensors were developed for scale magnification and linearity, sensitivity to sample properties, and dynamic characteristics. An accurate depth scale calibration method using a single prototype groove depth sample was developed for a line sensor and validated with laser-interferometric sample tracking, attaining (sub)micrometre level or better than 0.1% scale accuracy. Furthermore, the effect of different surfaces and materials on the measurement and depth scale was studied, in particular slope angle, specularity and colour. In addition, dynamic performance, noise, lateral scale and resolution were measured using the developed methods. In the case of the LCI1200 sensor used in this study, which has a 11.3 mm  ×  2.8 mm measurement range, the instrument depth scale was found to depend only minimally on sample colour, whereas measuring steeply sloped specular surfaces in the peripheral measurement area, in the worst case, caused a somewhat larger relative sample-dependent change (1%) in scale.

  4. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    Koetse, M.M.; Rensing, P.A.; Sharpe, R.B.A.; Heck, G.T. van; Allard, B.A.M.; Meulendijks, N.N.M.M.; Kruijt, P.G.M.; Tijdink, M.W.W.J.; Zwart, R.M. de; Houben, R.J.; Enting, E.; Veen, S.J.J.F. van; Schoo, H.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be

  5. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class II...

  6. High performance flexible pH sensor based on polyaniline nanopillar array electrode.

    Yoon, Jo Hee; Hong, Seok Bok; Yun, Seok-Oh; Lee, Seok Jae; Lee, Tae Jae; Lee, Kyoung G; Choi, Bong Gill

    2017-03-15

    Flexible pH sensor technologies have attracted a great deal of attention in many applications, such as, wearable health care devices and monitors for chemical and biological processes. Here, we fabricated flexible and thin pH sensors using a two electrode configuration comprised of a polyaniline nanopillar (PAN) array working electrode and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. In order to provide nanostructure, soft lithography using a polymeric blend was employed to create a flexible nanopillar backbone film. Polyaniline-sensing materials were deposited on a patterned-nanopillar array by electrochemical deposition. The pH sensors produced exhibited a near-Nernstian response (∼60.3mV/pH), which was maintained in a bent state. In addition, pH sensors showed other excellent sensor performances in terms of response time, reversibility, repeatability, selectivity, and stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fault tolerant attitude control for small unmanned aircraft systems equipped with an airflow sensor array.

    Shen, H; Xu, Y; Dickinson, B T

    2014-11-18

    Inspired by sensing strategies observed in birds and bats, a new attitude control concept of directly using real-time pressure and shear stresses has recently been studied. It was shown that with an array of onboard airflow sensors, small unmanned aircraft systems can promptly respond to airflow changes and improve flight performances. In this paper, a mapping function is proposed to compute aerodynamic moments from the real-time pressure and shear data in a practical and computationally tractable formulation. Since many microscale airflow sensors are embedded on the small unmanned aircraft system surface, it is highly possible that certain sensors may fail. Here, an adaptive control system is developed that is robust to sensor failure as well as other numerical mismatches in calculating real-time aerodynamic moments. The advantages of the proposed method are shown in the following simulation cases: (i) feedback pressure and wall shear data from a distributed array of 45 airflow sensors; (ii) 50% failure of the symmetrically distributed airflow sensor array; and (iii) failure of all the airflow sensors on one wing. It is shown that even if 50% of the airflow sensors have failures, the aircraft is still stable and able to track the attitude commands.

  8. Spherical porphyrin sensor array based on encoded colloidal crystal beads for VOC vapor detection.

    Xu, Hua; Cao, Kai-Di; Ding, Hai-Bo; Zhong, Qi-Feng; Gu, Hong-Cheng; Xie, Zhuo-Ying; Zhao, Yuan-Jin; Gu, Zhong-Ze

    2012-12-01

    A spherical porphyrin sensor array using colloidal crystal beads (CCBs) as the encoding microcarriers has been developed for VOC vapor detection. Six different porphyrins were coated onto the CCBs with distinctive encoded reflection peaks via physical adsorption and the sensor array was fabricated by placing the prepared porphyrin-modified CCBs together. The change in fluorescence color of the porphyrin-modified CCBs array serves as the detection signal for discriminating between different VOC vapors and the reflection peak of the CCBs serves as the encoding signal to distinguish between different sensors. It was demonstrated that the VOC vapors detection using the prepared sensor array showed excellent discrimination: not only could the compounds from the different chemical classes be easily differentiated (e.g., alcohol vs acids vs ketones) but similar compounds from the same chemical family (e.g., methanol vs ethanol) and the same compound with different concentration ((e.g., Sat. ethanol vs 60 ppm ethanol vs 10 ppm ethanol) could also be distinguished. The detection reproducibility and the humidity effect were also investigated. The present spherical sensor array, with its simple preparation, rapid response, high sensitivity, reproducibility, and humidity insensitivity, and especially with stable and high-throughput encoding, is promising for real applications in artificial olfactory systems.

  9. A modified analytical model to study the sensing performance of a flexible capacitive tactile sensor array

    Liang, Guanhao; Wang, Yancheng; Mei, Deqing; Xi, Kailun; Chen, Zichen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a modified analytical model to study the sensing performance of a flexible capacitive tactile sensor array, which utilizes solid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film as the dielectric layer. To predict the deformation of the sensing unit and capacitance changes, each sensing unit is simplified into a three-layer plate structure and divided into central, edge and corner regions. The plate structure and the three regions are studied by the general and modified models, respectively. For experimental validation, the capacitive tactile sensor array with 8  ×  8 (= 64) sensing units is fabricated. Experiments are conducted by measuring the capacitance changes versus applied external forces and compared with the general and modified models’ predictions. For the developed tactile sensor array, the sensitivity predicted by the modified analytical model is 1.25%/N, only 0.8% discrepancy from the experimental measurement. Results demonstrate that the modified analytical model can accurately predict the sensing performance of the sensor array and could be utilized for model-based optimal capacitive tactile sensor array design. (paper)

  10. Kalman filter-based tracking of moving objects using linear ultrasonic sensor array for road vehicles

    Li, Shengbo Eben; Li, Guofa; Yu, Jiaying; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Bo; Wang, Jianqiang; Li, Keqiang

    2018-01-01

    Detection and tracking of objects in the side-near-field has attracted much attention for the development of advanced driver assistance systems. This paper presents a cost-effective approach to track moving objects around vehicles using linearly arrayed ultrasonic sensors. To understand the detection characteristics of a single sensor, an empirical detection model was developed considering the shapes and surface materials of various detected objects. Eight sensors were arrayed linearly to expand the detection range for further application in traffic environment recognition. Two types of tracking algorithms, including an Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and an Unscented Kalman filter (UKF), for the sensor array were designed for dynamic object tracking. The ultrasonic sensor array was designed to have two types of fire sequences: mutual firing or serial firing. The effectiveness of the designed algorithms were verified in two typical driving scenarios: passing intersections with traffic sign poles or street lights, and overtaking another vehicle. Experimental results showed that both EKF and UKF had more precise tracking position and smaller RMSE (root mean square error) than a traditional triangular positioning method. The effectiveness also encourages the application of cost-effective ultrasonic sensors in the near-field environment perception in autonomous driving systems.

  11. Highly Sensitive Multi-Channel IDC Sensor Array for Low Concentration Taste Detection

    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we designed and developed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC-based taste sensor array to detect different taste substances. The designed taste sensing array has four IDC sensing elements. The four IDC taste sensing elements of the array are fabricated by incorporating four different types of lipids into the polymer, dioctyl phenylphosphonate (DOPP and tetrahydrofuran (THF to make the respective dielectric materials that are individually placed onto an interdigitated electrode (IDE via spin coating. When the dielectric material of an IDC sensing element comes into contact with a taste substance, its dielectric properties change with the capacitance of the IDC sensing element; this, in turn, changes the voltage across the IDC, as well as the output voltage of each channel of the system. In order to assess the effectiveness of the sensing system, four taste substances, namely sourness (HCl, saltiness (NaCl, sweetness (glucose and bitterness (quinine-HCl, were tested. The IDC taste sensor array had rapid response and recovery times of about 12.9 s and 13.39 s, respectively, with highly stable response properties. The response property of the proposed IDC taste sensor array was linear, and its correlation coefficient R2 was about 0.9958 over the dynamic range of the taste sensor array as the taste substance concentration was varied from 1 μM to 1 M. The proposed IDC taste sensor array has several other advantages, such as real-time monitoring capabilities, high sensitivity 45.78 mV/decade, good reproducibility with a standard deviation of about 0.029 and compactness, and the circuitry is based on readily available and inexpensive electronic components. The proposed IDC taste sensor array was compared with the potentiometric taste sensor with respect to sensitivity, dynamic range width, linearity and response time. We found that the proposed IDC sensor array has better performance. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA was applied

  12. Massive Sensor Array Fault Tolerance: Tolerance Mechanism and Fault Injection for Validation

    Dugan Um

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As today's machines become increasingly complex in order to handle intricate tasks, the number of sensors must increase for intelligent operations. Given the large number of sensors, detecting, isolating, and then tolerating faulty sensors is especially important. In this paper, we propose fault tolerance architecture suitable for a massive sensor array often found in highly advanced systems such as autonomous robots. One example is the sensitive skin, a type of massive sensor array. The objective of the sensitive skin is autonomous guidance of machines in unknown environments, requiring elongated operations in a remote site. The entirety of such a system needs to be able to work remotely without human attendance for an extended period of time. To that end, we propose a fault-tolerant architecture whereby component and analytical redundancies are integrated cohesively for effective failure tolerance of a massive array type sensor or sensor system. In addition, we discuss the evaluation results of the proposed tolerance scheme by means of fault injection and validation analysis as a measure of system reliability and performance.

  13. Peptide modified ZnO nanoparticles as gas sensors array for volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Mascini, Marcello; Gaggiotti, Sara; Della Pelle, Flavio; Di Natale, Corrado; Qakala, Sinazo; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Pittia, Paola; Compagnone, Dario

    2018-04-01

    In this work a peptide based gas sensor array based of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) has been realized. Four different pentapeptides molecularly modelled for alcohols and esters having cysteine as a common spacer have been immobilized onto ZnONPs. ZnONPs have been morphologically and spectroscopically characterized. Modified nanoparticles have been then deposited onto quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) and used as gas sensors with nitrogen as carrier gas. Analysis of the pure compounds modelled demonstrated a nice fitting of modelling with real data. The peptide based ZnONPs had very low sensitivity to water, compared to previously studied AuNPs peptide based gas sensors allowing the use of the array on samples with high water content. Real samples of fruit juices have been assayed; stability of the signal, good repeatability and discrimination ability of the array was achieved.

  14. Peptide Modified ZnO Nanoparticles as Gas Sensors Array for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs

    Marcello Mascini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work a peptide based gas sensor array based of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs has been realized. Four different pentapeptides molecularly modeled for alcohols and esters having cysteine as a common spacer have been immobilized onto ZnONPs. ZnONPs have been morphologically and spectroscopically characterized. Modified nanoparticles have been then deposited onto quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs and used as gas sensors with nitrogen as carrier gas. Analysis of the pure compounds modeled demonstrated a nice fitting of modeling with real data. The peptide based ZnONPs had very low sensitivity to water, compared to previously studied AuNPs peptide based gas sensors allowing the use of the array on samples with high water content. Real samples of fruit juices have been assayed; stability of the signal, good repeatability, and discrimination ability of the array was achieved.

  15. Multi-colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives in gas and liquid phase

    Kostesha, Natalie; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Johnsen, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the research project "Xsense" at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT, TATP, HMX, RDX and identification of reagents needed for making homemade explosives. The tec......In the framework of the research project "Xsense" at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT, TATP, HMX, RDX and identification of reagents needed for making homemade explosives...... to the analytes creates a color difference map which gives a unique fingerprint for each explosive and VOCs. Such sensing technology can be used for screening relevant explosives in a complex background as well as to distinguish mixtures of volatile organic compounds distributed in gas and liquid phases....... This sensor array is inexpensive, and can potentially be produced as single use disposable....

  16. Passive Detection of Narrowband Sources Using a Sensor Array

    Chambers, D H; Candy, J V; Guidry, B L

    2007-10-24

    In this report we derive a model for a highly scattering medium, implemented as a set of MATLAB functions. This model is used to analyze an approach for using time-reversal to enhance the detection of a single frequency source in a highly scattering medium. The basic approach is to apply the singular value decomposition to the multistatic response matrix for a time-reversal array system. We then use the array in a purely passive mode, measuring the response to the presence of a source. The measured response is projected onto the singular vectors, creating a time-reversal pseudo-spectrum. We can then apply standard detection techniques to the pseudo-spectrum to determine the presence of a source. If the source is close to a particular scatterer in the medium, then we would expect an enhancement of the inner product between the array response to the source with the singular vector associated with that scatterer. In this note we begin by deriving the Foldy-Lax model of a highly scattering medium, calculate both the field emitted by the source and the multistatic response matrix of a time-reversal array system in the medium, then describe the initial analysis approach.

  17. Development and validation of a colorimetric sensor array for fish spoilage monitoring

    Morsy, Mohamed K.; Zor, Kinga; Kostesha, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    their color changes in response to compounds present in fresh products (hexanal, 1-octane-3-ol) used as negative controls. The colorimetric sensor array was used to follow fish spoilage over time at room temperature for up to 24 h as well as at 4 °C for 9 days. Additionally, fish decay was monitored using......Given the need for non-destructive methods and sensors for food spoilage monitoring, we have evaluated sixteen chemo-sensitive compounds incorporated in an array for colorimetric detection of typical spoilage compounds (trimethylamine, dimethylamine, cadaverine, putrescine) and characterized...

  18. Embedded Acoustic Sensor Array for Engine Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Feasibility of Noise Telemetry via Wireless Smart Sensors

    Zaman, Afroz; Bauch, Matthew; Raible, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft engines have evolved into a highly complex system to meet ever-increasing demands. The evolution of engine technologies has primarily been driven by fuel efficiency, reliability, as well as engine noise concerns. One of the sources of engine noise is pressure fluctuations that are induced on the stator vanes. These local pressure fluctuations, once produced, propagate and coalesce with the pressure waves originating elsewhere on the stator to form a spinning pressure pattern. Depending on the duct geometry, air flow, and frequency of fluctuations, these spinning pressure patterns are self-sustaining and result in noise which eventually radiate to the far-field from engine. To investigate the nature of vane pressure fluctuations and the resulting engine noise, unsteady pressure signatures from an array of embedded acoustic sensors are recorded as a part of vane noise source diagnostics. Output time signatures from these sensors are routed to a control and data processing station adding complexity to the system and cable loss to the measured signal. "Smart" wireless sensors have data processing capability at the sensor locations which further increases the potential of wireless sensors. Smart sensors can process measured data locally and transmit only the important information through wireless communication. The aim of this wireless noise telemetry task was to demonstrate a single acoustic sensor wireless link for unsteady pressure measurement, and thus, establish the feasibility of distributed smart sensors scheme for aircraft engine vane surface unsteady pressure data transmission and characterization.

  19. Precise on-machine extraction of the surface normal vector using an eddy current sensor array

    Wang, Yongqing; Lian, Meng; Liu, Haibo; Ying, Yangwei; Sheng, Xianjun

    2016-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of on-machine measurement of the surface normal during complex surface manufacturing, a highly robust normal vector extraction method using an Eddy current (EC) displacement sensor array is developed, the output of which is almost unaffected by surface brightness, machining coolant and environmental noise. A precise normal vector extraction model based on a triangular-distributed EC sensor array is first established. Calibration of the effects of object surface inclination and coupling interference on measurement results, and the relative position of EC sensors, is involved. A novel apparatus employing three EC sensors and a force transducer was designed, which can be easily integrated into the computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool spindle and/or robot terminal execution. Finally, to test the validity and practicability of the proposed method, typical experiments were conducted with specified testing pieces using the developed approach and system, such as an inclined plane and cylindrical and spherical surfaces. (paper)

  20. Precise on-machine extraction of the surface normal vector using an eddy current sensor array

    Wang, Yongqing; Lian, Meng; Liu, Haibo; Ying, Yangwei; Sheng, Xianjun

    2016-11-01

    To satisfy the requirements of on-machine measurement of the surface normal during complex surface manufacturing, a highly robust normal vector extraction method using an Eddy current (EC) displacement sensor array is developed, the output of which is almost unaffected by surface brightness, machining coolant and environmental noise. A precise normal vector extraction model based on a triangular-distributed EC sensor array is first established. Calibration of the effects of object surface inclination and coupling interference on measurement results, and the relative position of EC sensors, is involved. A novel apparatus employing three EC sensors and a force transducer was designed, which can be easily integrated into the computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool spindle and/or robot terminal execution. Finally, to test the validity and practicability of the proposed method, typical experiments were conducted with specified testing pieces using the developed approach and system, such as an inclined plane and cylindrical and spherical surfaces.

  1. Fatigue Crack Length Sizing Using a Novel Flexible Eddy Current Sensor Array

    Ruifang Xie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The eddy current probe, which is flexible, array typed, highly sensitive and capable of quantitative inspection is one practical requirement in nondestructive testing and also a research hotspot. A novel flexible planar eddy current sensor array for the inspection of microcrack presentation in critical parts of airplanes is developed in this paper. Both exciting and sensing coils are etched on polyimide films using a flexible printed circuit board technique, thus conforming the sensor to complex geometric structures. In order to serve the needs of condition-based maintenance (CBM, the proposed sensor array is comprised of 64 elements. Its spatial resolution is only 0.8 mm, and it is not only sensitive to shallow microcracks, but also capable of sizing the length of fatigue cracks. The details and advantages of our sensor design are introduced. The working principal and the crack responses are analyzed by finite element simulation, with which a crack length sizing algorithm is proposed. Experiments based on standard specimens are implemented to verify the validity of our simulation and the efficiency of the crack length sizing algorithm. Experimental results show that the sensor array is sensitive to microcracks, and is capable of crack length sizing with an accuracy within ±0.2 mm.

  2. An electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave array for wireless sensor network applications.

    Tang, Kea-Tiong; Li, Cheng-Han; Chiu, Shih-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a large K(2) 128° YX LiNbO3 sensing substrate. On the surface of this substrate, an interdigital transducer (IDT) was produced with a Cr/Au film as its metallic structure. A mixed-mode frequency readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18 μm process. The ASIC output was connected to a wireless module to transmit sensor data to a base station for data storage and analysis. This sensor node is applicable for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications.

  3. An Electronic-Nose Sensor Node Based on a Polymer-Coated Surface Acoustic Wave Array for Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    Tang, Kea-Tiong; Li, Cheng-Han; Chiu, Shih-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a large K2 128° YX LiNbO3 sensing substrate. On the surface of this substrate, an interdigital transducer (IDT) was produced with a Cr/Au film as its metallic structure. A mixed-mode frequency readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18 μm process. The ASIC output was connected to a wireless module to transmit sensor data to a base station for data storage and analysis. This sensor node is applicable for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. PMID:22163865

  4. An Electronic-Nose Sensor Node Based on a Polymer-Coated Surface Acoustic Wave Array for Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    Kea-Tiong Tang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a large K2 128° YX LiNbO3 sensing substrate. On the surface of this substrate, an interdigital transducer (IDT was produced with a Cr/Au film as its metallic structure. A mixed-mode frequency readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18 μm process. The ASIC output was connected to a wireless module to transmit sensor data to a base station for data storage and analysis. This sensor node is applicable for wireless sensor network (WSN applications.

  5. A Statistical Model and Computer program for Preliminary Calculations Related to the Scaling of Sensor Arrays; TOPICAL

    Max Morris

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology and engineering have made it possible to assemble many related sensors in a common array, often of small physical size. Sensor arrays may report an entire vector of measured values in each data collection cycle, typically one value per sensor per sampling time. The larger quantities of data provided by larger arrays certainly contain more information, however in some cases experience suggests that dramatic increases in array size do not always lead to corresponding improvements in the practical value of the data. The work leading to this report was motivated by the need to develop computational planning tools to approximate the relative effectiveness of arrays of different size (or scale) in a wide variety of contexts. The basis of the work is a statistical model of a generic sensor array. It includes features representing measurement error, both common to all sensors and independent from sensor to sensor, and the stochastic relationships between the quantities to be measured by the sensors. The model can be used to assess the effectiveness of hypothetical arrays in classifying objects or events from two classes. A computer program is presented for evaluating the misclassification rates which can be expected when arrays are calibrated using a given number of training samples, or the number of training samples required to attain a given level of classification accuracy. The program is also available via email from the first author for a limited time

  6. Portable reconfigurable line sensor (PRLS) and technology transfer

    MacKenzie, D.P.; Buckle, T.H.; Blattman, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Portable Reconfigurable Line Sensor (PRLS) is a bistatic, pulsed-Doppler, microwave intrusion detection system developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Air Force. The PRLS is rapidly and easily deployed, and can detect intruders ranging from a slow creeping intruder to a high speed vehicle. The system has a sharply defined detection zone and will not falsely alarm on nearby traffic. Unlike most microwave sensors, the PRLS requires no alignment or calibration. Its portability, battery operation, ease of setup, and RF alarm reporting capability make it an excellent choice for perimeter, portal, and gap-filler applications in the important new field of rapidly-deployable sensor systems. In October 1992, the US Air Force and Racon, Inc., entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to commercialize the PRLS, jointly sharing government and industry resources. The Air Force brings the user's perspective and requirements to the cooperative effort. Sandia, serving as the technical arm of the Air Force, adds the actual PRLS technology to the joint effort, and provides security systems and radar development expertise. Racon puts the Air Force requirements and Sandia technology together into a commercial product, making the system meet important commercial manufacturing constraints. The result is a true ''win-win'' situation, with reduced government investment during the commercial development of the PRLS, and industry access to technology not otherwise available

  7. Detection and classification of gaseous sulfur compounds by solid electrolyte cyclic voltammetry of cermet sensor array.

    Kramer, Kirsten E; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L; Hammond, Mark H; Tillett, Duane; Streckert, Holger H

    2007-02-12

    Electrochemical sensors composed of a ceramic-metallic (cermet) solid electrolyte are used for the detection of gaseous sulfur compounds SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2) in a study involving 11 toxic industrial chemical (TIC) compounds. The study examines a sensor array containing four cermet sensors varying in electrode-electrolyte composition, designed to offer selectivity for multiple compounds. The sensors are driven by cyclic voltammetry to produce a current-voltage profile for each analyte. Raw voltammograms are processed by background subtraction of clean air, and the four sensor signals are concatenated to form one vector of points. The high-resolution signal is compressed by wavelet transformation and a probabilistic neural network is used for classification. In this study, training data from one sensor array was used to formulate models which were validated with data from a second sensor array. Of the 11 gases studied, 3 that contained sulfur produced the strongest responses and were successfully analyzed when the remaining compounds were treated as interferents. Analytes were measured from 10 to 200% of their threshold-limited value (TLV) according to the 8-h time weighted average (TWA) exposure limits defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). True positive classification rates of 93.3, 96.7, and 76.7% for SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2), respectively, were achieved for prediction of one sensor unit when a second sensor was used for modeling. True positive rates of 83.3, 90.0, and 90.0% for SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2), respectively, were achieved for the second sensor unit when the first sensor unit was used for modeling. Most of the misclassifications were for low concentration levels (such 10-25% TLV) in which case the compound was classified as clean air. Between the two sensors, the false positive rates were 2.2% or lower for the three sulfur compounds, 0.9% or lower for the interferents (eight remaining analytes), and 5.8% or lower for

  8. Detection and classification of gaseous sulfur compounds by solid electrolyte cyclic voltammetry of cermet sensor array

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Hammond, Mark H.; Tillett, Duane; Streckert, Holger H.

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors composed of a ceramic-metallic (cermet) solid electrolyte are used for the detection of gaseous sulfur compounds SO 2 , H 2 S, and CS 2 in a study involving 11 toxic industrial chemical (TIC) compounds. The study examines a sensor array containing four cermet sensors varying in electrode-electrolyte composition, designed to offer selectivity for multiple compounds. The sensors are driven by cyclic voltammetry to produce a current-voltage profile for each analyte. Raw voltammograms are processed by background subtraction of clean air, and the four sensor signals are concatenated to form one vector of points. The high-resolution signal is compressed by wavelet transformation and a probabilistic neural network is used for classification. In this study, training data from one sensor array was used to formulate models which were validated with data from a second sensor array. Of the 11 gases studied, 3 that contained sulfur produced the strongest responses and were successfully analyzed when the remaining compounds were treated as interferents. Analytes were measured from 10 to 200% of their threshold-limited value (TLV) according to the 8-h time weighted average (TWA) exposure limits defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). True positive classification rates of 93.3, 96.7, and 76.7% for SO 2 , H 2 S, and CS 2 , respectively, were achieved for prediction of one sensor unit when a second sensor was used for modeling. True positive rates of 83.3, 90.0, and 90.0% for SO 2 , H 2 S, and CS 2 , respectively, were achieved for the second sensor unit when the first sensor unit was used for modeling. Most of the misclassifications were for low concentration levels (such 10-25% TLV) in which case the compound was classified as clean air. Between the two sensors, the false positive rates were 2.2% or lower for the three sulfur compounds, 0.9% or lower for the interferents (eight remaining analytes), and 5.8% or lower for

  9. Development of multianalyte sensor arrays for continuous monitoring of pollutants

    Healey, B.G.; Chadha, S.; Walt, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Industrial development has led to the release of numerous hazardous materials into the environment, posing a potential threat to surrounding waters. Environmental analysis of sites contaminated by several chemicals calls for continuous monitoring of multiple analytes. Monitoring can be achieved by using imaging bundles (300--400microm in diameter), containing several thousand individual optical fibers for the fabrication of sensors. Multiple sensor sites are created at the distal end of the fiber by immobilizing different analyte specific fluorescent dyes. By coupling these imaging fibers to a charge coupled device (CCD), one has the ability to spatially and spectrally discriminate the multiple sensing sites simultaneously and hence monitor analyte concentrations. Prior to immobilization of the dye the distal end of the fiber is functionalized to permit covalent attachment of the polymer matrix. Discrete regions of the fiber bundle are successively illuminated through the proximal end so as to photo-polymerize the polymer matrix containing the fluorescent dyes. Current studies focus on the development of a multi-analyte sensor for monitoring Al +3 , pH, hydrocarbons and uranyl ion. For the monitoring of Al +3 , a variety of indicators are being evaluated for their applicability to sensor design. Lumogallion immobilized in poly HEMA shows considerable sensitivity and dynamic range. The fluorescent indicator eosin has been identified as the indicator for monitoring pH in the range 2.0--4.5. The indicator can be immobilized in an analogous fashion to fluoresce in 3 (pH 4.5--8.0). Hydrocarbon sensors have been fabricated from different photo-polymers that show response to several hydrocarbons using Nile Red as the indicator

  10. Circular Array of Magnetic Sensors for Current Measurement: Analysis for Error Caused by Position of Conductor.

    Yu, Hao; Qian, Zheng; Liu, Huayi; Qu, Jiaqi

    2018-02-14

    This paper analyzes the measurement error, caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor, of a circular array of magnetic sensors for current measurement. The circular array of magnetic sensors is an effective approach for AC or DC non-contact measurement, as it is low-cost, light-weight, has a large linear range, wide bandwidth, and low noise. Especially, it has been claimed that such structure has excellent reduction ability for errors caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor, crosstalk current interference, shape of the conduction cross-section, and the Earth's magnetic field. However, the positions of the current-carrying conductor-including un-centeredness and un-perpendicularity-have not been analyzed in detail until now. In this paper, for the purpose of having minimum measurement error, a theoretical analysis has been proposed based on vector inner and exterior product. In the presented mathematical model of relative error, the un-center offset distance, the un-perpendicular angle, the radius of the circle, and the number of magnetic sensors are expressed in one equation. The comparison of the relative error caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor between four and eight sensors is conducted. Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors are used in the experimental prototype to verify the mathematical model. The analysis results can be the reference to design the details of the circular array of magnetic sensors for current measurement in practical situations.

  11. Bend, stretch, and touch: Locating a finger on an actively deformed transparent sensor array.

    Sarwar, Mirza Saquib; Dobashi, Yuta; Preston, Claire; Wyss, Justin K M; Mirabbasi, Shahriar; Madden, John David Wyndham

    2017-03-01

    The development of bendable, stretchable, and transparent touch sensors is an emerging technological goal in a variety of fields, including electronic skin, wearables, and flexible handheld devices. Although transparent tactile sensors based on metal mesh, carbon nanotubes, and silver nanowires demonstrate operation in bent configurations, we present a technology that extends the operation modes to the sensing of finger proximity including light touch during active bending and even stretching. This is accomplished using stretchable and ionically conductive hydrogel electrodes, which project electric field above the sensor to couple with and sense a finger. The polyacrylamide electrodes are embedded in silicone. These two widely available, low-cost, transparent materials are combined in a three-step manufacturing technique that is amenable to large-area fabrication. The approach is demonstrated using a proof-of-concept 4 × 4 cross-grid sensor array with a 5-mm pitch. The approach of a finger hovering a few centimeters above the array is readily detectable. Light touch produces a localized decrease in capacitance of 15%. The movement of a finger can be followed across the array, and the location of multiple fingers can be detected. Touch is detectable during bending and stretch, an important feature of any wearable device. The capacitive sensor design can be made more or less sensitive to bending by shifting it relative to the neutral axis. Ultimately, the approach is adaptable to the detection of proximity, touch, pressure, and even the conformation of the sensor surface.

  12. A Multi-Modality CMOS Sensor Array for Cell-Based Assay and Drug Screening.

    Chi, Taiyun; Park, Jong Seok; Butts, Jessica C; Hookway, Tracy A; Su, Amy; Zhu, Chengjie; Styczynski, Mark P; McDevitt, Todd C; Wang, Hua

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a fully integrated multi-modality CMOS cellular sensor array with four sensing modalities to characterize different cell physiological responses, including extracellular voltage recording, cellular impedance mapping, optical detection with shadow imaging and bioluminescence sensing, and thermal monitoring. The sensor array consists of nine parallel pixel groups and nine corresponding signal conditioning blocks. Each pixel group comprises one temperature sensor and 16 tri-modality sensor pixels, while each tri-modality sensor pixel can be independently configured for extracellular voltage recording, cellular impedance measurement (voltage excitation/current sensing), and optical detection. This sensor array supports multi-modality cellular sensing at the pixel level, which enables holistic cell characterization and joint-modality physiological monitoring on the same cellular sample with a pixel resolution of 80 μm × 100 μm. Comprehensive biological experiments with different living cell samples demonstrate the functionality and benefit of the proposed multi-modality sensing in cell-based assay and drug screening.

  13. Mountainous Ecosystem Sensor Array (MESA): a mesh sensor network for climate change research in remote mountainous environments

    Robinson, P. W.; Neal, D.; Frome, D.; Kavanagh, K.; Davis, A.; Gessler, P. E.; Hess, H.; Holden, Z. A.; Link, T. E.; Newingham, B. A.; Smith, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Developing sensor networks robust enough to perform unattended in the world's remote regions is critical since these regions serve as important benchmarks that lack anthropogenic influence. Paradoxically, the factors that make these remote, natural sites challenging for sensor networking are often what make them indispensable for climate change research. The MESA (Mountainous Ecosystem Sensor Array) project has faced these challenges and developed a wireless mesh sensor network across a 660 m topoclimatic gradient in a wilderness area in central Idaho. This sensor array uses advances in sensing, networking, and power supply technologies to provide near real-time synchronized data covering a suite of biophysical parameters used in ecosystem process models. The 76 sensors in the network monitor atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, humidity, air and soil temperature, soil water content, precipitation, incoming and outgoing shortwave and longwave radiation, snow depth, wind speed and direction, and leaf wetness at synchronized time intervals ranging from two minutes to two hours and spatial scales from a few meters to two kilometers. We present our novel methods of placing sensors and network nodes above, below, and throughout the forest canopy without using meteorological towers. In addition, we explain our decision to use different forms of power (wind and solar) and the equipment we use to control and integrate power harvesting. Further, we describe our use of the network to sense and quantify its own power use. Using examples of environmental data from the project, we discuss how these data may be used to increase our understanding of the effects of climate change on ecosystem processes in mountainous environments. MESA sensor locations across a 700 m topoclimatic gradient at the University of Idaho Taylor Wilderness Research Station.

  14. Piezoresistive silicon thin film sensor array for biomedical applications

    Alpuim, P.; Correia, V.; Marins, E.S.; Rocha, J.G.; Trindade, I.G.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.

    2011-01-01

    N-type hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon thin film piezoresistors, with gauge factor - 28, were deposited on rugged and flexible polyimide foils by Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition using a tantalum filament heated to 1750 o C. The piezoresistive response under cyclic quasi-static and dynamical (up to 100 Hz) load conditions is reported. Test structures, consisting of microresistors having lateral dimensions in the range from 50 to 100 μm and thickness of 120 nm were defined in an array by reactive ion etching. Metallic pads, forming ohmic contacts to the sensing elements, were defined by a lift-off process. A readout circuit for the array consisting in a mutiplexer on each row and column of the matrix is proposed. The digital data will be processed, interpreted and stored internally by an ultra low-power micro controller, also responsible for the communication of two-way wireless data, e.g. from inside to outside the human body.

  15. Rapid recognition of volatile organic compounds with colorimetric sensor arrays for lung cancer screening.

    Zhong, Xianhua; Li, Dan; Du, Wei; Yan, Mengqiu; Wang, You; Huo, Danqun; Hou, Changjun

    2018-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath can be used as biomarkers to identify early stages of lung cancer. Herein, we report a disposable colorimetric array that has been constructed from diverse chemo-responsive colorants. Distinguishable difference maps were plotted within 4 min for specifically targeted VOCs. Through the consideration of various chemical interactions with VOCs, the arrays successfully discriminate between 20 different volatile organic compounds in breath that are related to lung cancer. VOCs were identified either with the visualized difference maps or through pattern recognition with an accuracy of at least 90%. No uncertainties or errors were observed in the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Finally, good reproducibility and stability of the array was achieved against changes in humidity. Generally, this work provides fundamental support for construction of simple and rapid VOC sensors. More importantly, this approach provides a hypothesis-free array method for breath testing via VOC profiling. Therefore, this small, rapid, non-invasive, inexpensive, and visualized sensor array is a powerful and promising tool for early screening of lung cancer. Graphical abstract A disposable colorimetric array has been developed with broadly chemo-responsive dyes to incorporate various chemical interactions, through which the arrays successfully discriminate 20 VOCs that are related to lung cancer via difference maps alone or chemometrics within 4 min. The hydrophobic porous matrix provides good stability against changes in humidity.

  16. Colorimetric sensor arrays based on pattern recognition for the detection of nitroaromatic molecules

    Lu, Wei; Dong, Xiao [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Qiu, Lili, E-mail: qiulili@bit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yan, Zequn [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Meng, Zihui, E-mail: m_zihui@yahoo.com [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Xue, Min [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); He, Xuan; Liu, Xueyong [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan, 621900 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Graphical abstract: A colorimetric sensor array based on four kinds molecularly imprinted photonic crystal (MIPC) was explored for the selective visual detection of TNT, 2,6-DNT, 2,4-DNT and 4-MNT. The color of individual sensor changed with the increasing concentration of the analytes, and a cross-responsive platform was evaluated by a “radar” pattern. With the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA), a separate response region contained 95.25% of significant characteristics for the detection of nitroaromatics was generated, which also promised high potential for the customized visual detection system of other harmful chemicals. - Highlights: • Nitroaromatics were visually detected by molecularly imprinted photonic crystal. • The adsorption capacity was calculated. • The cross responsive platform of sensor array was established and discussed. • The discrimination capability was promoted by principal component analysis. • This system had high potential to be used in other customed visual detection. - Abstract: This research demonstrated that, in a colorimetric sensor array, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and 4-nitrotoluene (4-MNT) were identifiable through a unique pattern in a qualitative and semi-quantitative manner. The adsorption capacity of the molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for their corresponding templates was 0.27 mmol TNT/g, 0.22 mmol 2,6-DNT/g, 0.31 mmol 2,4-DNT/g and 0.16 mmol 4-MNT/g, respectively. Every optical sensor utilized in the arrays contained three-dimensional molecularly imprinted photonic crystal (MIPC) sensor with different imprinted templates. The intelligent materials can display different colors from green to red to 20 mM corresponding nitroaromatics with varying diffraction red shifts of 84 nm (TNT), 46 nm (2,6-DNT), 54 nm (2,4-DNT) and 35 nm (4-MNT), respectively. With the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA) and rational design

  17. Colorimetric sensor arrays based on pattern recognition for the detection of nitroaromatic molecules

    Lu, Wei; Dong, Xiao; Qiu, Lili; Yan, Zequn; Meng, Zihui; Xue, Min; He, Xuan; Liu, Xueyong

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A colorimetric sensor array based on four kinds molecularly imprinted photonic crystal (MIPC) was explored for the selective visual detection of TNT, 2,6-DNT, 2,4-DNT and 4-MNT. The color of individual sensor changed with the increasing concentration of the analytes, and a cross-responsive platform was evaluated by a “radar” pattern. With the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA), a separate response region contained 95.25% of significant characteristics for the detection of nitroaromatics was generated, which also promised high potential for the customized visual detection system of other harmful chemicals. - Highlights: • Nitroaromatics were visually detected by molecularly imprinted photonic crystal. • The adsorption capacity was calculated. • The cross responsive platform of sensor array was established and discussed. • The discrimination capability was promoted by principal component analysis. • This system had high potential to be used in other customed visual detection. - Abstract: This research demonstrated that, in a colorimetric sensor array, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and 4-nitrotoluene (4-MNT) were identifiable through a unique pattern in a qualitative and semi-quantitative manner. The adsorption capacity of the molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for their corresponding templates was 0.27 mmol TNT/g, 0.22 mmol 2,6-DNT/g, 0.31 mmol 2,4-DNT/g and 0.16 mmol 4-MNT/g, respectively. Every optical sensor utilized in the arrays contained three-dimensional molecularly imprinted photonic crystal (MIPC) sensor with different imprinted templates. The intelligent materials can display different colors from green to red to 20 mM corresponding nitroaromatics with varying diffraction red shifts of 84 nm (TNT), 46 nm (2,6-DNT), 54 nm (2,4-DNT) and 35 nm (4-MNT), respectively. With the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA) and rational design

  18. Molecular identification of common Salmonella serovars using multiplex DNA sensor-based suspension array.

    Aydin, Muhsin; Carter-Conger, Jacqueline; Gao, Ning; Gilmore, David F; Ricke, Steven C; Ahn, Soohyoun

    2018-04-01

    Salmonella is one of major foodborne pathogens and the leading cause of foodborne illness-related hospitalizations and deaths. It is critical to develop a sensitive and rapid detection assay that can identify Salmonella to ensure food safety. In this study, a DNA sensor-based suspension array system of high multiplexing ability was developed to identify eight Salmonella serovars commonly associated with foodborne outbreaks to the serotype level. Each DNA sensor was prepared by activating pre-encoded microspheres with oligonucleotide probes that are targeting virulence genes and serovar-specific regions. The mixture of 12 different types of DNA sensors were loaded into a 96-well microplate and used as a 12-plex DNA sensor array platform. DNA isolated from Salmonella was amplified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), and the presence of Salmonella was determined by reading fluorescent signals from hybridization between probes on DNA sensors and fluorescently labeled target DNA using the Bio-Plex® system. The developed multiplex array was able to detect synthetic DNA at the concentration as low as 100 fM and various Salmonella serovars as low as 100 CFU/mL within 1 h post-PCR. Sensitivity of this assay was further improved to 1 CFU/mL with 6-h enrichment. The array system also correctly and specifically identified serotype of tested Salmonella strains without any cross-reactivity with other common foodborne pathogens. Our results indicate the developed DNA sensor suspension array can be a rapid and reliable high-throughput method for simultaneous detection and molecular identification of common Salmonella serotypes.

  19. Calibration of a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue for Identification and Quantification of Odorants from Livestock Buildings

    Jens Jørgen Lønsmann Iversen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution serves a dual purpose. The first purpose was to investigate the possibility of using a sensor array (an electronic tongue for on-line identification and quantification of key odorants representing a variety of chemical groups at two different acidities, pH 6 and 8. The second purpose was to simplify the electronic tongue by decreasing the number of electrodes from 14, which was the number of electrodes in the prototype. Different electrodes were used for identification and quantification of different key odorants. A total of eight electrodes were sufficient for identification and quantification in micromolar concentrations of the key odorants n-butyrate, ammonium and phenolate in test mixtures also containing iso-valerate, skatole and p-cresolate. The limited number of electrodes decreased the standard deviation and the relative standard deviation of triplicate measurements in comparison with the array comprising 14 electrodes. The electronic tongue was calibrated using 4 different test mixtures, each comprising 50 different combinations of key odorants in triplicates, a total of 600 measurements. Back propagation artificial neural network, partial least square and principal component analysis were used in the data analysis. The results indicate that the electronic tongue has a promising potential as an on- line sensor for odorants absorbed in the bioscrubber used in livestock buildings.

  20. Design, Fabrication, and Implementation of an Array-Type MEMS Piezoresistive Intelligent Pressure Sensor System

    Jiahong Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To meet the radiosonde requirement of high sensitivity and linearity, this study designs and implements a monolithically integrated array-type piezoresistive intelligent pressure sensor system which is made up of two groups of four pressure sensors with the pressure range of 0–50 kPa and 0–100 kPa respectively. First, theoretical models and ANSYS (version 14.5, Canonsburg, PA, USA finite element method (FEM are adopted to optimize the parameters of array sensor structure. Combing with FEM stress distribution results, the size and material characteristics of the array-type sensor are determined according to the analysis of the sensitivity and the ratio of signal to noise (SNR. Based on the optimized parameters, the manufacture and packaging of array-type sensor chips are then realized by using the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS and microelectromechanical system (MEMS process. Furthermore, an intelligent acquisition and processing system for pressure and temperature signals is achieved. The S3C2440A microprocessor (Samsung, Seoul, Korea is regarded as the core part which can be applied to collect and process data. In particular, digital signal storage, display and transmission are realized by the application of a graphical user interface (GUI written in QT/E. Besides, for the sake of compensating the temperature drift and nonlinear error, the data fusion technique is proposed based on a wavelet neural network improved by genetic algorithm (GA-WNN for average measuring signal. The GA-WNN model is implemented in hardware by using a S3C2440A microprocessor. Finally, the results of calibration and test experiments achieved with the temperature ranges from −20 to 20 °C show that: (1 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity of the array-type pressure sensor are 8330 × 10−4 and 0.052 mV/V/kPa in the range of 0–50 kPa, respectively; (2 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity are 8129 × 10−4 and 0.020 mV/V/kPa in the

  1. Equivalent thermal history reconstruction from a partially crystallized glass-ceramic sensor array

    Heeg, Bauke

    2015-11-01

    The basic concept of a thermal history sensor is that it records the accumulated exposure to some unknown, typically varying temperature profile for a certain amount of time. Such a sensor is considered to be capable of measuring the duration of several (N) temperature intervals. For this purpose, the sensor deploys multiple (M) sensing elements, each with different temperature sensitivity. At the end of some thermal exposure for a known period of time, the sensor array is read-out and an estimate is made of the set of N durations of the different temperature ranges. A potential implementation of such a sensor was pioneered by Fair et al. [Sens. Actuators, A 141, 245 (2008)], based on glass-ceramic materials with different temperature-dependent crystallization dynamics. In their work, it was demonstrated that an array of sensor elements can be made sensitive to slight differences in temperature history. Further, a forward crystallization model was used to simulate the variations in sensor array response to differences in the temperature history. The current paper focusses on the inverse aspect of temperature history reconstruction from a hypothetical sensor array output. The goal of such a reconstruction is to find an equivalent thermal history that is the closest representation of the true thermal history, i.e., the durations of a set of temperature intervals that result in a set of fractional crystallization values which is closest to the one resulting from the true thermal history. One particular useful simplification in both the sensor model as well as in its practical implementation is the omission of nucleation effects. In that case, least squares models can be used to approximate the sensor response and make reconstruction estimates. Even with this simplification, sensor noise can have a destabilizing effect on possible reconstruction solutions, which is evaluated using simulations. Both regularization and non-negativity constrained least squares

  2. Health monitoring of unmanned aerial vehicle based on optical fiber sensor array

    Luo, Yuxiang; Shen, Jingshi; Shao, Fei; Guo, Chunhui; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Jiande

    2017-10-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in flight needs to face the complicated environment, especially to withstand harsh weather conditions, such as the temperature and pressure. Compared with conventional sensors, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor has the advantages of small size, light weight, high reliability, high precision, anti-electromagnetic interference, long lift-span, moistureproof and good resistance to causticity. It's easy to be embedded in composite structural components of UAVs. In the paper, over 1000 FBG sensors distribute regularly on a wide range of UAVs body, combining wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), time division multiplexing (TDM) and multichannel parallel architecture. WDM has the advantage of high spatial resolution. TDM has the advantage of large capacity and wide range. It is worthful to constitute a sensor network by different technologies. For the signal demodulation of FBG sensor array, WDM works by means of wavelength scanning light sources and F-P etalon. TDM adopts the technology of optical time-domain reflectometry. In order to demodulate efficiently, the most proper sensor multiplex number with some reflectivity is given by the curves fitting. Due to the regular array arrangement of FBG sensors on the UAVs, we can acquire the health state of UAVs in the form of 3D visualization. It is helpful to master the information of health status rapidly and give a real-time health evaluation.

  3. On-line sensor technology for food manufacturing industry. Shokuhin bun prime ya ni okeru on-line sensor gijutsu

    Komiya, K. (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-05

    This paper introduced the sensor technology for food manufacturing industry. If sugar concentration in main raw material is too high in the amino acid fermentation, control of the concentration is required because fungi growth is inhibited. A controlling method for sugar concentration was developed by using the correlation between consumption of NH {sub 3} for pH adjustment and sugar consumption in place of conventional analyzing method and was introduced in the gulutamic acid fermantation. BOD sensor was developed to enable the selective measurement of organic substances which can be processed by organisms, and measuring time was shortened from previous five days to 30 minutes. Since many organics absorb infrared ray, near infrared analysis is suitable for food analysis and on-line analysis has high possibility. When this method is applied to measure moisture in fishes and meats, continuous measurement can be made nondestructively and without contacting, and further the precision is {plus minus} 0.1%. Simultaneous multi-composition analyses are carried out by continuous spectrum and near infrared method using higher rate scanning. Sensor development for taste and smell has started. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 refs.

  4. Metal-modified and vertically aligned carbon nanotube sensors array for landfill gas monitoring applications.

    Penza, M; Rossi, R; Alvisi, M; Serra, E

    2010-03-12

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) layers were synthesized on Fe-coated low-cost alumina substrates using radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (RF-PECVD) technology. A miniaturized CNT-based gas sensor array was developed for monitoring landfill gas (LFG) at a temperature of 150 degrees C. The sensor array was composed of 4 sensing elements with unmodified CNT, and CNT loaded with 5 nm nominally thick sputtered nanoclusters of platinum (Pt), ruthenium (Ru) and silver (Ag). Chemical analysis of multicomponent gas mixtures constituted of CO(2), CH(4), H(2), NH(3), CO and NO(2) has been performed by the array sensor responses and pattern recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA results demonstrate that the metal-decorated and vertically aligned CNT sensor array is able to discriminate the NO(2) presence in the multicomponent mixture LFG. The NO(2) gas detection in the mixture LFG was proved to be very sensitive, e.g.: the CNT:Ru sensor shows a relative change in the resistance of 1.50% and 0.55% for NO(2) concentrations of 3.3 ppm and 330 ppb dispersed in the LFG, respectively, with a wide NO(2) gas concentration range measured from 0.33 to 3.3 ppm, at the sensor temperature of 150 degrees C. The morphology and structure of the CNT networks have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. A forest-like nanostructure of vertically aligned CNT bundles in the multi-walled form appeared with a height of about 10 microm and a single-tube diameter varying in the range of 5-35 nm. The intensity ratio of the Raman spectroscopy D-peak and G-peak indicates the presence of disorder and defects in the CNT networks. The size of the metal (Pt, Ru, Ag) nanoclusters decorating the CNT top surface varies in the range of 5-50 nm. Functional characterization based on electrical charge transfer sensing mechanisms in the metal-modified CNT-chemoresistor array

  5. Compact Printed Arrays with Embedded Coupling Mitigation for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networking

    Constantine G. Kakoyiannis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors emerged as narrowband, resource-constrained devices to provide monitoring services over a wide life span. Future applications of sensor networks are multimedia-driven and include sensor mobility. Thus, sensors must combine small size, large bandwidth, and diversity capabilities. Compact arrays, offering transmit/receive diversity, suffer from strong mutual coupling (MC, which causes lower antenna efficiency, loss of bandwidth, and signal correlation. An efficient technique to reduce coupling in compact arrays is described herein: a defect was inserted in the ground plane (GNDP area between each pair of elements. The defect disturbed the GNDP currents and offered multidecibel coupling suppression, bandwidth recovery, and reduction of in-band correlation. Minimal pattern distortion was estimated. Computational results were supported by measurements. The bandwidth of unloaded arrays degraded gracefully from 38% to 28% with decreasing interelement distance (0.25 to 0.10. Defect-loaded arrays exhibited active impedance bandwidths 37–45%, respectively. Measured coupling was reduced by 15–20 dB.

  6. A Multichannel Calorimetric Simultaneous Assay Platform Using a Microampere Constant-Current Looped Enthalpy Sensor Array

    Hsien-Chin Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calorimetric biochemical measurements offer various advantages such as low waste, low cost, low sample consumption, short operating time, and labor-savings. Multichannel calorimeters can enhance the possibility of performing higher-throughput biochemical measurements. An enthalpy sensor (ES array is a key device in multichannel calorimeters. Most ES arrays use Wheatstone bridge amplifiers to condition the sensor signals, but such an approach is only suitable for null detection and low resistance sensors. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a multichannel calorimetric simultaneous assay (MCSA platform. An adjustable microampere constant-current (AMCC source was designed for exciting the ES array using a microampere current loop measurement circuit topology. The MCSA platform comprises a measurement unit, which contains a multichannel calorimeter and an automatic simultaneous injector, and a signal processing unit, which contains multiple ES signal conditioners and a data processor. This study focused on the construction of the MCSA platform; in particular, construction of the measurement circuit and calorimeter array in a single block. The performance of the platform, including current stability, temperature sensitivity and heat sensitivity, was evaluated. The sensor response time and calorimeter constants were given. The capability of the platform to detect relative enzyme activity was also demonstrated. The experimental results show that the proposed MCSA is a flexible and powerful biochemical measurement device with higher throughput than existing alternatives.

  7. Sensor and method for measuring the areal density of magnetic nanoparticles on a micro-array

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a device for magnetic detection of binding of biological molecules on a biochip. A magnetoresistive sensor device for measuring an areal density of magnetic nanoparticles on a micro-array, the magnetic nanoparticles (15) being directly or indirectly

  8. Active Sensor for Microwave Tissue Imaging with Bias-Switched Arrays.

    Foroutan, Farzad; Nikolova, Natalia K

    2018-05-06

    A prototype of a bias-switched active sensor was developed and measured to establish the achievable dynamic range in a new generation of active arrays for microwave tissue imaging. The sensor integrates a printed slot antenna, a low-noise amplifier (LNA) and an active mixer in a single unit, which is sufficiently small to enable inter-sensor separation distance as small as 12 mm. The sensor’s input covers the bandwidth from 3 GHz to 7.5 GHz. Its output intermediate frequency (IF) is 30 MHz. The sensor is controlled by a simple bias-switching circuit, which switches ON and OFF the bias of the LNA and the mixer simultaneously. It was demonstrated experimentally that the dynamic range of the sensor, as determined by its ON and OFF states, is 109 dB and 118 dB at resolution bandwidths of 1 kHz and 100 Hz, respectively.

  9. In-line digital holographic sensor for monitoring and characterizing marine particulates

    Owen, Robert B.; Zozulya, Alex A.

    2000-01-01

    We report an in-line digital holographic sensor (DHS) for monitoring and characterizing marine particulates. This system images individual particles over a deep depth of field (>25 cm) with a resolution of 5 μm. The DHS projects a collimated beam through the water column and onto a lensless CCD array. Some light is diffracted by particulates and forms an object beam; the undeflected remainder constitutes the reference beam. The two beams combine at the CCD array and create an in-line hologram, which is then numerically reconstructed. The DHS eliminates many problems traditionally associated with holography. The CCD recording material considerably lowers the exposure time and eliminates most vibration problems. The laser power needs are low; the DHS uses a small 10-mW diode laser. Rapid numerical reconstruction eliminates photographic processing and optical reconstruction. We successfully operated the DHS underwater on a remotely operated vehicle; our test results include tracing a single particle from one hologram to the next, thus deriving a velocity vector for marine mass transport. We outline our digital holographic reconstruction procedure, and present our graphical user interface and user software tools. The DHS is particularly useful for providing in situ ground-truth measurements for environmental remote sensing. (c) 2000 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  10. Highly selective gas sensor arrays based on thermally reduced graphene oxide.

    Lipatov, Alexey; Varezhnikov, Alexey; Wilson, Peter; Sysoev, Victor; Kolmakov, Andrei; Sinitskii, Alexander

    2013-06-21

    The electrical properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been previously shown to be very sensitive to surface adsorbates, thus making rGO a very promising platform for highly sensitive gas sensors. However, poor selectivity of rGO-based gas sensors remains a major problem for their practical use. In this paper, we address the selectivity problem by employing an array of rGO-based integrated sensors instead of focusing on the performance of a single sensing element. Each rGO-based device in such an array has a unique sensor response due to the irregular structure of rGO films at different levels of organization, ranging from nanoscale to macroscale. The resulting rGO-based gas sensing system could reliably recognize analytes of nearly the same chemical nature. In our experiments rGO-based sensor arrays demonstrated a high selectivity that was sufficient to discriminate between different alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol and isopropanol, at a 100% success rate. We also discuss a possible sensing mechanism that provides the basis for analyte differentiation.

  11. Enzyme sensor array for the determination of biogenic amines in food samples

    Lange, Jana [University of Greifswald, Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry (Germany); Wittmann, Christine [Fachhochschule Neubrandenburg, Department of Technology (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    An enzyme sensor array for the simultaneous determination of the three biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine and putrescine) by pattern recognition using an artificial neural network and its application to different food samples is described. A combination of a monoamine oxidase, a tyramine oxidase and a diamine oxidase (with specific activities sufficient for rapid detection) are immobilised each on a separate screen-printed thick-film electrode via transglutaminase and glutaraldehyde to compare these cross-linking reagents with regard to their suitability. To calculate the amount of a specific biogenic amine, the raw data from multichannel software were transferred to a neural network. The sensor array takes 20 min to complete (excluding statistical data analysis) with only one extraction and subsequent neutralisation step required prior to sensor measurement. The lower detection limits with the enzyme sensor were 10 mg/kg for histamine and tyramine, and 5 mg/kg for putrescine with a linear range up to 200 mg/kg for histamine and tyramine and 100 mg/kg for putrescine. The application area of the enzyme sensor array was tested from fish to meat products, sauerkraut, beer, dairy products, wine and further fermented foods and compared with the data of conventional LC analyses (mean correlation coefficient: 0.854). (orig.)

  12. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-01-01

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  13. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor.

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-02-18

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  14. Perception SoC Based on an Ultrasonic Array of Sensors: Efficient DSP Core Implementation and Subsequent Experimental Results

    A. Haidar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with the design, implementation, and validation of a perception SoC based on an ultrasonic array of sensors. The proposed SoC is dedicated to ultrasonic echography applications. A rapid prototyping platform is used to implement and validate the new architecture of the digital signal processing (DSP core. The proposed DSP core efficiently integrates all of the necessary ultrasonic B-mode processing modules. It includes digital beamforming, quadrature demodulation of RF signals, digital filtering, and envelope detection of the received signals. This system handles 128 scan lines and 6400 samples per scan line with a 90° angle of view span. The design uses a minimum size lookup memory to store the initial scan information. Rapid prototyping using an ARM/FPGA combination is used to validate the operation of the described system. This system offers significant advantages of portability and a rapid time to market.

  15. Perception SoC Based on an Ultrasonic Array of Sensors: Efficient DSP Core Implementation and Subsequent Experimental Results

    Kassem, A.; Sawan, M.; Boukadoum, M.; Haidar, A.

    2005-12-01

    We are concerned with the design, implementation, and validation of a perception SoC based on an ultrasonic array of sensors. The proposed SoC is dedicated to ultrasonic echography applications. A rapid prototyping platform is used to implement and validate the new architecture of the digital signal processing (DSP) core. The proposed DSP core efficiently integrates all of the necessary ultrasonic B-mode processing modules. It includes digital beamforming, quadrature demodulation of RF signals, digital filtering, and envelope detection of the received signals. This system handles 128 scan lines and 6400 samples per scan line with a[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] angle of view span. The design uses a minimum size lookup memory to store the initial scan information. Rapid prototyping using an ARM/FPGA combination is used to validate the operation of the described system. This system offers significant advantages of portability and a rapid time to market.

  16. Multi-colorimetric sensor array for detection of illegal materials

    Kostesha, Natalie; Boisen, Anja; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2012-01-01

    The detection of low pressure illegal compounds is an important analytical problem which requires reliable, selective and sensitive detection methods which provide the highest level of confidence in the result. Therefore, to contribute in the successful development of the recognition technology...... and signal processing enhancements to sensing methods, recognition ability, data acquisition time and data processing algorithms are necessary. In this research we work towards the development of a rapid, easy in use, highly sensitive, specific (minimal false positives) sensor based on a colorimetric sensing...

  17. Wideband Dual-Polarization Patch Antenna Array With Parallel Strip Line Balun Feeding

    Zhang, Jin; Lin, Xianqi; Nie, Liying

    2016-01-01

    A wideband dual-polarization patch antenna array is proposed in this letter. The array is fed by a parallel strip line balun, which is adopted to generate 180° phase shift in a wide frequency range. In addition, this balun has simple structure, very small phase shift error, and good ports isolati...... is higher than 30 dB. The simulation and measurement turns out to be similar. This antenna array can be used in TD-LTE base stations, and the design methods are also useful to other wideband microstrip antennas....

  18. Towards sensor array materials: can failure be delayed?

    Mekid, Samir; Saheb, Nouari; Khan, Shafique M. A.; Qureshi, Khurram K.

    2015-06-01

    Further to prior development in enhancing structural health using smart materials, an innovative class of materials characterized by the ability to feel senses like humans, i.e. ‘nervous materials’, is discussed. Designed at all scales, these materials will enhance personnel and public safety, and secure greater reliability of products. Materials may fail suddenly, but any system wishes that failure is known in good time and delayed until safe conditions are reached. Nervous materials are expected to be the solution to this statement. This new class of materials is based on the novel concept of materials capable of feeling multiple structural and external stimuli, e.g. stress, force, pressure and temperature, while feeding information back to a controller for appropriate real-time action. The strain-stress state is developed in real time with the identified and characterized source of stimulus, with optimized time response to retrieve initial specified conditions, e.g. shape and strength. Sensors are volumetrically embedded and distributed, emulating the human nervous system. Immediate applications are in aircraft, cars, nuclear energy and robotics. Such materials will reduce maintenance costs, detect initial failures and delay them with self-healing. This article reviews the common aspects and challenges surrounding this new class of materials with types of sensors to be embedded seamlessly or inherently, including appropriate embedding manufacturing techniques with modeling and simulation methods.

  19. Integrated chemical sensor array platform based on a light emitting diode, xerogel-derived sensor elements, and high-speed pin printing

    Cho, Eun Jeong; Bright, Frank V.

    2002-01-01

    We report a new, solid-state, integrated optical array sensor platform. By using pin printing technology in concert with sol-gel-processing methods, we form discrete xerogel-based microsensor elements that are on the order of 100 μm in diameter and 1 μm thick directly on the face of a light emitting diode (LED). The LED serves as the light source to excite chemically responsive luminophores sequestered within the doped xerogel microsensors and the analyte-dependent emission from within the doped xerogel is detected with a charge coupled device (CCD). We overcome the problem of background illumination from the LED reaching the CCD and the associated biasing that results by coating the LED first with a thin layer of blue paint. The thin paint layer serves as an optical filter, knocking out the LEDs red-edge spectral tail. The problem of the spatially-dependent fluence across the LED face is solved entirely by performing ratiometric measurements. We illustrate the performance of the new sensor scheme by forming an array of 100 discrete O 2 -responsive sensing elements on the face of a single LED. The combination of pin printing with an integrated sensor and light source platform results in a rapid method of forming (∼1 s per sensor element) reusable sensor arrays. The entire sensor array can be calibrated using just one sensor element. Array-to-array reproducibly is <8%. Arrays can be formed using single or multiple pins with indistinguishable analytical performance

  20. Electronic tongue - an array of non-specific chemical sensors - for analysis of radioactive solutions

    Legin, A.; Rudnitskaya, A.; Babain, V.

    2006-01-01

    Multisensor systems, combining chemical sensor arrays with multivariate data processing engines (electronic tongue) rapidly and successfully developing in the last years are capable of simultaneous quantitative analysis of several species, e.g. metals, in complex real solutions. The expansion of the metals (metal ions) and species to be detected in radioactive waste requires permanent enhancement of sensing materials and sensors, with seriously different properties from those known earlier. A prospective direction of R and D of novel sensing materials is exploitation of radiochemical extraction systems and application of extraction substances as active components of new sensors. The sensors based on bidentate phosphorous organic compounds and their combinations with chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide displayed high sensitivity and selectivity to rare-earth metal ions La 3+ , Pr 3+ , Nd 3+ , Eu 3+ . The results indicated good promise for the development of novel analytical tools for detection of multivalent metal cations in different media, particularly in corrosive solutions such as radioactive wastes and solutions derived from spent nuclear fuel. The sensors and sensor arrays made on their basis can play an important role in the development of 'electronic tongue' systems for rapid analytical determinations of different components in complex radioactive solutions

  1. Hazardous industrial gases identified using a novel polymer/MWNT composite resistance sensor array

    Yuana, C.L.; Chang, C.P.; Song, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this work, a silicon wafer microelectrode substrate for a resistance sensor was fabricated using the semiconductor manufacturing process. → This work developed polymer-functionalized MWNT sensor plat forms for the detection of vapors from chemical agents at different temperatures. → Applied PCA to determine the performance of as-fabricated films for exposure to three chemical agents. - Abstract: Hazardous industrial chemical gases pose a significant threat to the environment and human life. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a reliable sensor for identifying these hazardous gases. In this work, a silicon wafer microelectrode substrate for a resistance sensor was fabricated using the semiconductor manufacturing process. Conductive carbon nanotubes were then mixed with six different polymers with different chemical adsorption properties to produce a composite thin film for the fabrication of a chemical sensor array. This array was then utilized to identify three hazardous gases at different temperatures. Experimental results for six polymers for chemical gases, such as tetrahydrofuran (THF), chloroform (CHCl 3 ) and methanol (MeOH) at different temperatures, indicate that the variation in sensitivity resistance increased when the sensing temperature increased. The poly(ethylene adipate)/MWNT sensing film had high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, and good reproducibility in detecting all chemical agent vapors. Additionally, this study utilized a bar chart and statistical methods in principal component analysis to identify gases with the polymer/MWNT sensor.

  2. Artificial Roughness Encoding with a Bio-inspired MEMS-based Tactile Sensor Array

    Calogero Maria Oddo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A compliant 2x2 tactile sensor array was developed and investigated for roughness encoding. State of the art cross shape 3D MEMS sensors were integrated with polymeric packaging providing in total 16 sensitive elements to external mechanical stimuli in an area of about 20 mm2, similarly to the SA1 innervation density in humans. Experimental analysis of the bio-inspired tactile sensor array was performed by using ridged surfaces, with spatial periods from 2.6 mm to 4.1 mm, which were indented with regulated 1N normal force and stroked at constant sliding velocity from 15 mm/s to 48 mm/s. A repeatable and expected frequency shift of the sensor outputs depending on the applied stimulus and on its scanning velocity was observed between 3.66 Hz and 18.46 Hz with an overall maximum error of 1.7%. The tactile sensor could also perform contact imaging during static stimulus indentation. The experiments demonstrated the suitability of this approach for the design of a roughness encoding tactile sensor for an artificial fingerpad.

  3. Continuous minimally-invasive alcohol monitoring using microneedle sensor arrays.

    Mohan, A M Vinu; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Mishra, Rupesh K; Wang, Joseph

    2017-05-15

    The present work describes an attractive skin-worn microneedle sensing device for the minimally invasive electrochemical monitoring of subcutaneous alcohol. The device consists of an assembly of pyramidal microneedle structures integrated with Pt and Ag wires, each with a microcavity opening. The microneedle aperture was modified by electropolymerizing o-phenylene diamine onto the Pt wire microtransducer, followed by the immobilization of alcohol oxidase (AOx) in an intermediate chitosan layer, along with an outer Nafion layer. The resulting microneedle-based enzyme electrode displays an interference-free ethanol detection in artificial interstitial fluid without compromising its sensitivity, stability and response time. The skin penetration ability and the efficaciousness of the biosensor performance towards subcutaneous alcohol monitoring was substantiated by the ex vivo mice skin model analysis. Our results reveal that the new microneedle sensor holds considerable promise for continuous non-invasive alcohol monitoring in real-life situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Meteorological Sensor Array (MSA)-Phase I. Volume 3 (Pre-Field Campaign Sensor Calibration)

    2015-07-01

    Phase I thermodynamic sensors (barometers, thermometers, hygrometers, and pyranometers ). This report documents the results of a detailed calibration...barometer, thermometer, hydrometer, pyranometer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER...60 (02 Mar); the logger associated with each non-standard RH sensor is demonstrated in the legend ...............21 Fig. 16 Pyranometers percent

  5. Microwave Synthesized ZnO Nanorod Arrays for UV Sensors: A Seed Layer Annealing Temperature Study.

    Pimentel, Ana; Ferreira, Sofia Henriques; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomas; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-04-20

    The present work reports the influence of zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays, synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave radiation, to be used as UV sensors. The ZnO seed layer was produced using the spin-coating method and several annealing temperatures, ranging from 100 to 500 °C, have been tested. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometry measurements have been used to investigate the structure, morphology, and optical properties variations of the produced ZnO nanorod arrays regarding the seed layer annealing temperatures employed. After the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays, the whole structure was tested as UV sensors, showing an increase in the sensitivity with the increase of seed layer annealing temperature. The UV sensor response of ZnO nanorod arrays produced with the seed layer annealed temperature of 500 °C was 50 times superior to the ones produced with a seed layer annealed at 100 °C.

  6. An Improved Zero Potential Circuit for Readout of a Two-Dimensional Resistive Sensor Array.

    Wu, Jian-Feng; Wang, Feng; Wang, Qi; Li, Jian-Qing; Song, Ai-Guo

    2016-12-06

    With one operational amplifier (op-amp) in negative feedback, the traditional zero potential circuit could access one element in the two-dimensional (2-D) resistive sensor array with the shared row-column fashion but it suffered from the crosstalk problem for the non-scanned elements' bypass currents, which were injected into array's non-scanned electrodes from zero potential. Firstly, for suppressing the crosstalk problem, we designed a novel improved zero potential circuit with one more op-amp in negative feedback to sample the total bypass current and calculate the precision resistance of the element being tested (EBT) with it. The improved setting non-scanned-electrode zero potential circuit (S-NSE-ZPC) was given as an example for analyzing and verifying the performance of the improved zero potential circuit. Secondly, in the S-NSE-ZPC and the improved S-NSE-ZPC, the effects of different parameters of the resistive sensor arrays and their readout circuits on the EBT's measurement accuracy were simulated with the NI Multisim 12. Thirdly, part features of the improved circuit were verified with the experiments of a prototype circuit. Followed, the results were discussed and the conclusions were given. The experiment results show that the improved circuit, though it requires one more op-amp, one more resistor and one more sampling channel, can access the EBT in the 2-D resistive sensor array more accurately.

  7. Fabrication and optimization of a conducting polymer sensor array using stored grain model volatiles.

    Hossain, Md Eftekhar; Rahman, G M Aminur; Freund, Michael S; Jayas, Digvir S; White, Noel D G; Shafai, Cyrus; Thomson, Douglas J

    2012-03-21

    During storage, grain can experience significant degradation in quality due to a variety of physical, chemical, and biological interactions. Most commonly, these losses are associated with insects or fungi. Continuous monitoring and an ability to differentiate between sources of spoilage are critical for rapid and effective intervention to minimize deterioration or losses. Therefore, there is a keen interest in developing a straightforward, cost-effective, and efficient method for monitoring of stored grain. Sensor arrays are currently used for classifying liquors, perfumes, and the quality of food products by mimicking the mammalian olfactory system. The use of this technology for monitoring of stored grain and identification of the source of spoilage is a new application, which has the potential for broad impact. The main focus of the work described herein is on the fabrication and optimization of a carbon black (CB) polymer sensor array to monitor stored grain model volatiles associated with insect secretions (benzene derivatives) and fungi (aliphatic hydrocarbon derivatives). Various methods of statistical analysis (RSD, PCA, LDA, t test) were used to select polymers for the array that were optimum for distinguishing between important compound classes (quinones, alcohols) and to minimize the sensitivity for other parameters such as humidity. The performance of the developed sensor array was satisfactory to demonstrate identification and separation of stored grain model volatiles at ambient conditions.

  8. Microchamber arrays with an integrated long luminescence lifetime pH sensor.

    Poehler, Elisabeth; Pfeiffer, Simon A; Herm, Marc; Gaebler, Michael; Busse, Benedikt; Nagl, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    A pH probe with a microsecond luminescence lifetime was obtained via covalent coupling of 6-carboxynaphthofluorescein (CNF) moieties to ruthenium-tris-(1,10-phenanthroline)(2+). The probe was covalently attached to amino-modified poly-(2-hydroxyethyl)methacrylate (pHEMA) and showed a pH-dependent FRET with luminescence lifetimes of 681 to 1260 ns and a working range from ca. pH 6.5 to 9.0 with a pKa of 7.79 ± 0.14. The pH sensor matrix was integrated via spin coating as ca. 1- to 2-μm-thick layer into "CytoCapture" cell culture dishes of 6 mm in diameter. These contained a microcavity array of square-shaped regions of 40 μm length and width and 15 μm depth that was homogeneously coated with the pH sensor matrix. The sensor layer showed fast response times in both directions. A microscopic setup was developed that enabled imaging of the pH inside the microchamber arrays over many hours. As a proof of principle, we monitored the pH of Escherichia coli cell cultures grown in the microchamber arrays. The integrated sensor matrix allowed pH monitoring spatially resolved in every microchamber, and the differences in cell growth between individual chambers could be resolved and quantified.

  9. Application of Gas Sensor Arrays in Assessment of Wastewater Purification Effects

    Łukasz Guz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A gas sensor array consisting of eight metal oxide semiconductor (MOS type gas sensors was evaluated for its ability for assessment of the selected wastewater parameters. Municipal wastewater was collected in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in a primary sedimentation tank and was treated in a laboratory-scale sequential batch reactor (SBR. A comparison of the gas sensor array (electronic nose response to the standard physical-chemical parameters of treated wastewater was performed. To analyze the measurement results, artificial neural networks were used. E-nose—gas sensors array and artificial neural networks proved to be a suitable method for the monitoring of treated wastewater quality. Neural networks used for data validation showed high correlation between the electronic nose readouts and: (I chemical oxygen demand (COD (r = 0.988; (II total suspended solids (TSS (r = 0.938; (III turbidity (r = 0.940; (IV pH (r = 0.554; (V nitrogen compounds: N-NO3 (r = 0.958, N-NO2 (r = 0.869 and N-NH3 (r = 0.978; (VI and volatile organic compounds (VOC (r = 0.987. Good correlation of the abovementioned parameters are observed under stable treatment conditions in a laboratory batch reactor.

  10. Monitoring pressure profiles across an airfoil with a fiber Bragg grating sensor array

    Papageorgiou, Anthony W.; Parkinson, Luke A.; Karas, Andrew R.; Hansen, Kristy L.; Arkwright, John W.

    2018-02-01

    Fluid flow over an airfoil section creates a pressure difference across the upper and lower surfaces, thus generating lift. Successful wing design is a combination of engineering design and experience in the field, with subtleties in design and manufacture having significant impact on the amount of lift produced. Current methods of airfoil optimization and validation typically involve computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and extensive wind tunnel testing with pressure sensors embedded into the airfoil to measure the pressure over the wing. Monitoring pressure along an airfoil in a wind tunnel is typically achieved using surface pressure taps that consist of hollow tubes running from the surface of the airfoil to individual pressure sensors external to the tunnel. These pressure taps are complex to configure and not ideal for in-flight testing. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pressure sensing arrays provide a highly viable option for both wind tunnel and inflight pressure measurement. We present a fiber optic sensor array that can detect positive and negative pressure suitable for validating CFD models of airfoil profile sections. The sensing array presented here consists of 6 independent sensing elements, each capable of a pressure resolution of less than 10 Pa over the range of 70 kPa to 120 kPa. The device has been tested with the sensor array attached to a 90mm chord length airfoil section subjected to low velocity flow. Results show that the arrays are capable of accurately detecting variations of the pressure profile along the airfoil as the angle of attack is varied from zero to the point at which stall occurs.

  11. Intelligent Design of Metal Oxide Gas Sensor Arrays Using Reciprocal Kernel Support Vector Regression

    Dougherty, Andrew W.

    Metal oxides are a staple of the sensor industry. The combination of their sensitivity to a number of gases, and the electrical nature of their sensing mechanism, make the particularly attractive in solid state devices. The high temperature stability of the ceramic material also make them ideal for detecting combustion byproducts where exhaust temperatures can be high. However, problems do exist with metal oxide sensors. They are not very selective as they all tend to be sensitive to a number of reduction and oxidation reactions on the oxide's surface. This makes sensors with large numbers of sensors interesting to study as a method for introducing orthogonality to the system. Also, the sensors tend to suffer from long term drift for a number of reasons. In this thesis I will develop a system for intelligently modeling metal oxide sensors and determining their suitability for use in large arrays designed to analyze exhaust gas streams. It will introduce prior knowledge of the metal oxide sensors' response mechanisms in order to produce a response function for each sensor from sparse training data. The system will use the same technique to model and remove any long term drift from the sensor response. It will also provide an efficient means for determining the orthogonality of the sensor to determine whether they are useful in gas sensing arrays. The system is based on least squares support vector regression using the reciprocal kernel. The reciprocal kernel is introduced along with a method of optimizing the free parameters of the reciprocal kernel support vector machine. The reciprocal kernel is shown to be simpler and to perform better than an earlier kernel, the modified reciprocal kernel. Least squares support vector regression is chosen as it uses all of the training points and an emphasis was placed throughout this research for extracting the maximum information from very sparse data. The reciprocal kernel is shown to be effective in modeling the sensor

  12. Construction of MoS2/Si nanowire array heterojunction for ultrahigh-sensitivity gas sensor

    Wu, Di; Lou, Zhenhua; Wang, Yuange; Xu, Tingting; Shi, Zhifeng; Xu, Junmin; Tian, Yongtao; Li, Xinjian

    2017-10-01

    Few-layer MoS2 thin films were synthesized by a two-step thermal decomposition process. In addition, MoS2/Si nanowire array (SiNWA) heterojunctions exhibiting excellent gas sensing properties were constructed and investigated. Further analysis reveals that such MoS2/SiNWA heterojunction devices are highly sensitive to nitric oxide (NO) gas under reverse voltages at room temperature (RT). The gas sensor demonstrated a minimum detection limit of 10 ppb, which represents the lowest value obtained for MoS2-based sensors, as well as an ultrahigh response of 3518% (50 ppm NO, ˜50% RH), with good repeatability and selectivity of the MoS2/SiNWA heterojunction. The sensing mechanisms were also discussed. The performance of the MoS2/SiNWA heterojunction gas sensors is superior to previous results, revealing that they have great potential in applications relating to highly sensitive gas sensors.

  13. A Study on Group Key Agreement in Sensor Network Environments Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Jang, Seung-Jae; Lee, Young-Gu; Lee, Kwang-Hyung; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Jun, Moon-Seog

    2011-01-01

    These days, with the emergence of the concept of ubiquitous computing, sensor networks that collect, analyze and process all the information through the sensors have become of huge interest. However, sensor network technology fundamentally has wireless communication infrastructure as its foundation and thus has security weakness and limitations such as low computing capacity, power supply limitations and price. In this paper, and considering the characteristics of the sensor network environment, we propose a group key agreement method using a keyset pre-distribution of two-dimension arrays that should minimize the exposure of key and personal information. The key collision problems are resolved by utilizing a polygonal shape’s center of gravity. The method shows that calculating a polygonal shape’s center of gravity only requires a very small amount of calculations from the users. The simple calculation not only increases the group key generation efficiency, but also enhances the sense of security by protecting information between nodes. PMID:22164072

  14. Light-Regulated Electrochemical Sensor Array for Efficiently Discriminating Hazardous Gases.

    Liang, Hongqiu; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Huihui; Jin, Han; Zhang, Xiaowei; Jin, Qinghui; Zou, Jie; Haick, Hossam; Jian, Jiawen

    2017-10-27

    Inadequate detection limit and unsatisfactory discrimination features remain the challenging issues for the widely applied electrochemical gas sensors. Quite recently, we confirmed that light-regulated electrochemical reaction significantly enhanced the electrocatalytic activity, and thereby can potentially extend the detection limit to the parts per billion (ppb) level. Nevertheless, impact of the light-regulated electrochemical reaction on response selectivity has been discussed less. Herein, we systematically report on the effect of illumination on discrimination features via design and fabrication of a light-regulated electrochemical sensor array. Upon illumination (light on), response signal to the examined gases (C 3 H 6 , NO, and CO) is selectively enhanced, resulting in the sensor array demonstrating disparate response patterns when compared with that of the sensor array operated at light off. Through processing all the response patterns derived from both light on and light off with a pattern recognition algorithm, a satisfactory discrimination feature is observed. In contrast, apparent mutual interference between NO and CO is found when the sensor array is solely operated without illumination. The impact mechanism of the illumination is studied and it is deduced that the effect of the illumination on the discriminating features can be mainly attributed to the competition of electrocatalytic activity and gas-phase reactivity. If the enhanced electrocatalytic activity (to specific gas) dominates the whole sensing progress, enhancements in the corresponding response signal would be observed upon illumination. Otherwise, illumination gives a negligible impact. Hence, the response signal to part of the examined gases is selectively enhanced by illumination. Conclusively, light-regulated electrochemical reaction would provide an efficient approach to designing future smart sensing devices.

  15. Inversion for Sound Speed Profile by Using a Bottom Mounted Horizontal Line Array in Shallow Water

    Feng-Hua, Li; Ren-He, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Ocean acoustic tomography is an appealing technique for remote monitoring of the ocean environment. In shallow water, matched field processing (MFP) with a vertical line array is one of the widely used methods for inverting the sound speed profile (SSP) of water column. The approach adopted is to invert the SSP with a bottom mounted horizontal line array (HLA) based on MFP. Empirical orthonormal functions are used to express the SSP, and perturbation theory is used in the forward sound field calculation. This inversion method is applied to the data measured in a shallow water acoustic experiment performed in 2003. Successful results show that the bottom mounted HLA is able to estimate the SSP. One of the most important advantages of the inversion method with bottom mounted HLA is that the bottom mounted HLA can keep a stable array shape and is safe in a relatively long period. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  16. BRDF-dependent accuracy of array-projection-based 3D sensors.

    Heist, Stefan; Kühmstedt, Peter; Tünnermann, Andreas; Notni, Gunther

    2017-03-10

    In order to perform high-speed three-dimensional (3D) shape measurements with structured light systems, high-speed projectors are required. One possibility is an array projector, which allows pattern projection at several tens of kilohertz by switching on and off the LEDs of various slide projectors. The different projection centers require a separate analysis, as the intensity received by the cameras depends on the projection direction and the object's bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). In this contribution, we investigate the BRDF-dependent errors of array-projection-based 3D sensors and propose an error compensation process.

  17. True-color 640 ppi OLED arrays patterned by CA i-line photolithography

    Malinowski, P.E.; Ke, T.; Nakamura, A.; Chang, T.-Y.; Gokhale, P.; Steudel, S.; Janssen, D.; Kamochi, Y.; Koyama, I.; Iwai,Y.; Heremans, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, side-by-side patterning of red, green and blue OLEDs is demonstrated. To achieve 640 ppi arrays with 20 µm subpixel pitch, chemically amplified, i-line photoresist system with submicron resolution was used. These results show feasibility of obtaining full-color displays with

  18. Innovative multi-cantilever array sensor system with MOEMS read-out

    Ivaldi, F.; Bieniek, T.; Janus, P.; Grabiec, P.; Majstrzyk, W.; Kopiec, D.; Gotszalk, T.

    2016-11-01

    Cantilever based sensor system are a well-established sensor family exploited in several every-day life applications as well as in high-end research areas. The very high sensitivity of such systems and the possibility to design and functionalize the cantilevers to create purpose built and highly selective sensors have increased the interest of the scientific community and the industry in further exploiting this promising sensors type. Optical deflection detection systems for cantilever sensors provide a reliable, flexible method for reading information from cantilevers with the highest sensitivity. However the need of using multi-cantilever arrays in several fields of application such as medicine, biology or safety related areas, make the optical method less suitable due to its structural complexity. Working in the frame of a the Joint Undertaking project Lab4MEMS II our group proposes a novel and innovative approach to solve this issue, by integrating a Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical-System (MOEMS) with dedicated optics, electronics and software with a MOEMS micro-mirror, ultimately developed in the frame of Lab4MEMSII. In this way we are able to present a closely packed, lightweight solution combining the advantages of standard optical read-out systems with the possibility of recording multiple read-outs from large cantilever arrays quasi simultaneously.

  19. Retina-like sensor based on a lens array with a large field of view.

    Fan, Fan; Hao, Qun; Cheng, Xuemin

    2015-12-20

    This paper puts forward a retina-like sensor based on a lens array, which can be used in conventional optical systems. This sensor achieves log-polar mapping by dividing the imaging optical system's image plane using a lens array. In this paper the mathematical model has been set up with the relative structural parameters. Also, the simulation experiments and parameter analysis have been discussed to verify the reliability of this system. From the experiment results, it can be seen that this sensor realized the log-polar mapping with the transformed image output. Each lens corresponded to a circular region in the image plane with no crossover between different fields of view of adjacent lenses. When the number of rings changed, the relative error did not significantly change, and this error could be reduced to 1% when the number of lenses in each ring was increased. The work widely enlarged the application of this kind of sensor, which will lay a theoretical foundation for retina-like sensors.

  20. Development of the colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives and volatile organic compounds in air

    Kostesha, Natalie; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Johnsen, C

    2010-01-01

    a color difference map which gives a unique fingerprint for each explosive and volatile organic compound. Such sensing technology can be used to screen for relevant explosives in a complex background as well as to distinguish mixtures of volatile organic compounds distributed in gas phase. This sensor......In the framework of the research project 'Xsense' at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT and TNT, and identification of volatile organic compounds in the presence of water vapor in air...

  1. High performance architecture design for large scale fibre-optic sensor arrays using distributed EDFAs and hybrid TDM/DWDM

    Liao, Yi; Austin, Ed; Nash, Philip J.; Kingsley, Stuart A.; Richardson, David J.

    2013-09-01

    A distributed amplified dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) array architecture is presented for interferometric fibre-optic sensor array systems. This architecture employs a distributed erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) scheme to decrease the array insertion loss, and employs time division multiplexing (TDM) at each wavelength to increase the number of sensors that can be supported. The first experimental demonstration of this system is reported including results which show the potential for multiplexing and interrogating up to 4096 sensors using a single telemetry fibre pair with good system performance. The number can be increased to 8192 by using dual pump sources.

  2. Comparison of pH Data Measured with a pH Sensor Array Using Different Data Fusion Methods

    Yi-Hung Liao; Jung-Chuan Chou

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces different data fusion methods which are used for an electrochemical measurement using a sensor array. In this study, we used ruthenium dioxide sensing membrane pH electrodes to form a sensor array. The sensor array was used for detecting the pH values of grape wine, generic cola drink and bottled base water. The measured pH data were used for data fusion methods to increase the reliability of the measured results, and we also compared the fusion results with other differ...

  3. Comparison of pH Data Measured with a pH Sensor Array Using Different Data Fusion Methods

    Yi-Hung Liao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces different data fusion methods which are used for an electrochemical measurement using a sensor array. In this study, we used ruthenium dioxide sensing membrane pH electrodes to form a sensor array. The sensor array was used for detecting the pH values of grape wine, generic cola drink and bottled base water. The measured pH data were used for data fusion methods to increase the reliability of the measured results, and we also compared the fusion results with other different data fusion methods.

  4. Fabrication of graphene/titanium carbide nanorod arrays for chemical sensor application

    Fu, Chong [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Mingji, E-mail: limingji@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Hongji, E-mail: hongjili@yeah.net [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Organic Solar Cells and Photochemical Conversion, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Cuiping; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Vertically stacked graphene nanosheet/titanium carbide nanorod array/titanium (graphene/TiC nanorod array) wires were fabricated using a direct current arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition (DC arc plasma jet CVD) method. The graphene/TiC nanorod arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The TiO{sub 2} nanotube array was reduced to the TiC nanorod array, and using those TiC nanorods as nucleation sites, the vertical graphene layer was formed on the TiC nanorod surface. The multi-target response mechanisms of the graphene/TiC nanorod array were investigated for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). The vertically stacked graphene sheets facilitated the electron transfer and reactant transport with a unique porous surface, high surface area, and high electron transport network of CVD graphene sheets. The TiC nanorod array facilitated the electron transfer and firmly held the graphene layer. Thus, the graphene/TiC nanorod arrays could simultaneously respond to trace biomarkers and antihypertensive drugs. - Highlights: • Vertical graphene sheets were prepared with Ti as the catalyst via a CVD method. • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were key transition layers in the formation of the TiC nanorods. • Vertical growth mechanism of graphene products was discussed. • Biomolecules were detected to be a chemical sensor. • Response mechanism for analytes at the graphene/TiC nanorod array was discussed.

  5. Fabrication of graphene/titanium carbide nanorod arrays for chemical sensor application

    Fu, Chong; Li, Mingji; Li, Hongji; Li, Cuiping; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe

    2017-01-01

    Vertically stacked graphene nanosheet/titanium carbide nanorod array/titanium (graphene/TiC nanorod array) wires were fabricated using a direct current arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition (DC arc plasma jet CVD) method. The graphene/TiC nanorod arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The TiO 2 nanotube array was reduced to the TiC nanorod array, and using those TiC nanorods as nucleation sites, the vertical graphene layer was formed on the TiC nanorod surface. The multi-target response mechanisms of the graphene/TiC nanorod array were investigated for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). The vertically stacked graphene sheets facilitated the electron transfer and reactant transport with a unique porous surface, high surface area, and high electron transport network of CVD graphene sheets. The TiC nanorod array facilitated the electron transfer and firmly held the graphene layer. Thus, the graphene/TiC nanorod arrays could simultaneously respond to trace biomarkers and antihypertensive drugs. - Highlights: • Vertical graphene sheets were prepared with Ti as the catalyst via a CVD method. • TiO 2 nanotubes were key transition layers in the formation of the TiC nanorods. • Vertical growth mechanism of graphene products was discussed. • Biomolecules were detected to be a chemical sensor. • Response mechanism for analytes at the graphene/TiC nanorod array was discussed.

  6. Calibration of Hall sensor array for critical current measurement of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate

    Zhu, Yunpeng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Liyuan; Yang, Xinsheng; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract : HAS (Hall sensor array) is a powerful tool to detect the uniformity of HTS (high temperature superconductor) tape through mapping the distribution of remanent or shielding field along the surface of the tape. However, measurement of HTS tape with ferromagnetic parts by HSA is still an issue because the ferromagnetic substrate has influence on the magnetic field around the HTS layer. In this work, a continuous HSA system has been designed to measure the critical current of the YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate. The relationship between the remanent field and critical current was calibrated by the finite element method. The result showed that the HSA is an effective method for evaluating the critical current of the HTS tape with ferromagnetic substrate. - Highlight: • A continuous Hall sensor array system has been designed. • The inhomogeneity of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate can be detected by HAS. • Finite element method is an effective method for calibrating the remanent field.

  7. Calibration of Hall sensor array for critical current measurement of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate

    Zhu, Yunpeng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Liyuan [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Yang, Xinsheng, E-mail: xsyang@swjtu.edu.cn [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Zhao, Yong [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Abstract : HAS (Hall sensor array) is a powerful tool to detect the uniformity of HTS (high temperature superconductor) tape through mapping the distribution of remanent or shielding field along the surface of the tape. However, measurement of HTS tape with ferromagnetic parts by HSA is still an issue because the ferromagnetic substrate has influence on the magnetic field around the HTS layer. In this work, a continuous HSA system has been designed to measure the critical current of the YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate. The relationship between the remanent field and critical current was calibrated by the finite element method. The result showed that the HSA is an effective method for evaluating the critical current of the HTS tape with ferromagnetic substrate. - Highlight: • A continuous Hall sensor array system has been designed. • The inhomogeneity of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate can be detected by HAS. • Finite element method is an effective method for calibrating the remanent field.

  8. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles to Capture Lifelike Proteins: Application on the Multichannel Sensor Array Design

    Yumin Leng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical elements of proteins are similar to that of DNA (e.g., C, H, O, and N, and DNA shows different knotted architectures. So we imagine that proteins may show a wealth of highly complex structures, especially when proteins interact with each other. The imagination was proved by synthesizing gold nanoparticles (GNPs to capture the lifelike protein structures. The optical responses (i.e., color of as-prepared GNPs are found to be characteristic to a given protein (or heavy metal ion. Based on the “three colors” principle of Thomas Young, we extracted the red, green, and blue (RGB alterations of as-synthesized GNPs to fabricate multichannel sensor arrays for proteins (or heavy metal ions discrimination. The designed multichannel sensor arrays demonstrate possibilities in semiquantitative analysis of multiple analytes (e.g., proteins and heavy metal ions. This work is believed to open new opportunities for GNPs-based label-free sensing.

  9. Discrimination of honeys using colorimetric sensor arrays, sensory analysis and gas chromatography techniques.

    Tahir, Haroon Elrasheid; Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Jiyong, Shi; Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam

    2016-09-01

    Aroma profiles of six honey varieties of different botanical origins were investigated using colorimetric sensor array, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and descriptive sensory analysis. Fifty-eight aroma compounds were identified, including 2 norisoprenoids, 5 hydrocarbons, 4 terpenes, 6 phenols, 7 ketones, 9 acids, 12 aldehydes and 13 alcohols. Twenty abundant or active compounds were chosen as key compounds to characterize honey aroma. Discrimination of the honeys was subsequently implemented using multivariate analysis, including hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Honeys of the same botanical origin were grouped together in the PCA score plot and HCA dendrogram. SPME-GC/MS and colorimetric sensor array were able to discriminate the honeys effectively with the advantages of being rapid, simple and low-cost. Moreover, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to indicate the relationship between sensory descriptors and aroma compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of accelerants, fuels and post-combustion residues using a colorimetric sensor array.

    Li, Zheng; Jang, Minseok; Askim, Jon R; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2015-09-07

    A linear (1 × 36) colorimetric sensor array has been integrated with a pre-oxidation technique for detection and identification of a variety of fuels and post-combustion residues. The pre-oxidation method permits the conversion of fuel vapor into more detectable species and therefore greatly enhances the sensitivity of the sensor array. The pre-oxidation technique used a packed tube of chromic acid on an oxide support and was optimized in terms of the support and concentration. Excellent batch to batch reproducibility was observed for preparation and use of the disposable pre-oxidation tubes. Twenty automotive fuels including gasolines and diesel from five gasoline retailers were individually identifiable with no confusions or misclassifications in quintuplicate trials. Limits of detection were at sub-ppm concentrations for gasoline and diesel fuels. In addition, burning tests were performed on commonly used fire accelerants, and clear differentiation was achieved among both the fuels themselves and their volatile residues after burning.

  11. Robust site security using smart seismic array technology and multi-sensor data fusion

    Hellickson, Dean; Richards, Paul; Reynolds, Zane; Keener, Joshua

    2010-04-01

    Traditional site security systems are susceptible to high individual sensor nuisance alarm rates that reduce the overall system effectiveness. Visual assessment of intrusions can be intensive and manually difficult as cameras are slewed by the system to non intrusion areas or as operators respond to nuisance alarms. Very little system intrusion performance data are available other than discrete sensor alarm indications that provide no real value. This paper discusses the system architecture, integration and display of a multi-sensor data fused system for wide area surveillance, local site intrusion detection and intrusion classification. The incorporation of a novel seismic array of smart sensors using FK Beamforming processing that greatly enhances the overall system detection and classification performance of the system is discussed. Recent test data demonstrates the performance of the seismic array within several different installations and its ability to classify and track moving targets at significant standoff distances with exceptional immunity to background clutter and noise. Multi-sensor data fusion is applied across a suite of complimentary sensors eliminating almost all nuisance alarms while integrating within a geographical information system to feed a visual-fusion display of the area being secured. Real-time sensor detection and intrusion classification data is presented within a visual-fusion display providing greatly enhanced situational awareness, system performance information and real-time assessment of intrusions and situations of interest with limited security operator involvement. This approach scales from a small local perimeter to very large geographical area and can be used across multiple sites controlled at a single command and control station.

  12. MISSION-ORIENTED SENSOR ARRAYS AND UAVs – A CASE STUDY ON ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    N. M. Figueira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept of UAV mission design in geomatics, applied to the generation of thematic maps for a multitude of civilian and military applications. We discuss the architecture of Mission-Oriented Sensors Arrays (MOSA, proposed in Figueira et Al. (2013, aimed at splitting and decoupling the mission-oriented part of the system (non safety-critical hardware and software from the aircraft control systems (safety-critical. As a case study, we present an environmental monitoring application for the automatic generation of thematic maps to track gunshot activity in conservation areas. The MOSA modeled for this application integrates information from a thermal camera and an on-the-ground microphone array. The use of microphone arrays technology is of particular interest in this paper. These arrays allow estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA of the incoming sound waves. Information about events of interest is obtained by the fusion of the data provided by the microphone array, captured by the UAV, fused with information from the termal image processing. Preliminary results show the feasibility of the on-the-ground sound processing array and the simulation of the main processing module, to be embedded into an UAV in a future work. The main contributions of this paper are the proposed MOSA system, including concepts, models and architecture.

  13. Highly stretchable resistive pressure sensors using a conductive elastomeric composite on a micropyramid array.

    Choong, Chwee-Lin; Shim, Mun-Bo; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Jeon, Sanghun; Ko, Dong-Su; Kang, Tae-Hyung; Bae, Jihyun; Lee, Sung Hoon; Byun, Kyung-Eun; Im, Jungkyun; Jeong, Yong Jin; Park, Chan Eon; Park, Jong-Jin; Chung, U-In

    2014-06-04

    A stretchable resistive pressure sensor is achieved by coating a compressible substrate with a highly stretchable electrode. The substrate contains an array of microscale pyramidal features, and the electrode comprises a polymer composite. When the pressure-induced geometrical change experienced by the electrode is maximized at 40% elongation, a sensitivity of 10.3 kPa(-1) is achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Characterization of RF-spittered self-polarized PZT thin films for sensors arrays

    Suchaneck, G.; Lin, W. M.; Koehler, R.; Sandner, T.; Gerlach, G.; Krawietz, R.; Pompe, W.; Deineka, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 66, - (2002), s. 473-478 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015; GA ČR GA202/00/1425 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : self-polarized PZT * polarization and refractive index profiles * IR sensor array Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2002

  15. Aircraft Aerodynamic Parameter Detection Using Micro Hot-Film Flow Sensor Array and BP Neural Network Identification

    Ruiyi Que

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Air speed, angle of sideslip and angle of attack are fundamental aerodynamic parameters for controlling most aircraft. For small aircraft for which conventional detecting devices are too bulky and heavy to be utilized, a novel and practical methodology by which the aerodynamic parameters are inferred using a micro hot-film flow sensor array mounted on the surface of the wing is proposed. A back-propagation neural network is used to model the coupling relationship between readings of the sensor array and aerodynamic parameters. Two different sensor arrangements are tested in wind tunnel experiments and dependence of the system performance on the sensor arrangement is analyzed.

  16. Design of Tunnel Magnetoresistive-Based Circular MFL Sensor Array for the Detection of Flaws in Steel Wire Rope

    Liu Xiucheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel magnetoresistive (TMR devices have superior performances in weak magnetic field detection. In this study, TMR devices were first employed to form a circular magnetic flux leakage (MFL sensor for slight wire rope flaw detection. Two versions of this tailor-made circular TMR-based sensor array were presented for the inspection of wire ropes with the diameters of 14 mm and 40 mm, respectively. Helmholtz-like coils or a ferrite magnet-based magnetizer was selected to provide the proper magnetic field, in order to meet the technical requirements of the TMR devices. The coefficient of variance in the flaw detection performance of the sensor array elements was experimentally estimated at 4.05%. Both versions of the MFL sensor array were able to detect multiple single-broken wire flaws in the wire ropes. The accurate axial and circumferential positions of these broken wire flaws were estimated from the MFL scanning image results. In addition, the proposed TMR-based sensor array was applied to detect the MFL signal induced by slight surface wear defects. A mutual correlation analysis method was used to distinguish the signals caused by the lift-off fluctuation from the MFL scanning image results. The MFL sensor arrays presented in this study provide inspiration for the designing of tailor-made TMR-based circular sensor arrays for cylindrical ferromagnetic structural inspections.

  17. A Full Parallel Event Driven Readout Technique for Area Array SPAD FLIM Image Sensors

    Kaiming Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a full parallel event driven readout method which is implemented in an area array single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD image sensor for high-speed fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM. The sensor only records and reads out effective time and position information by adopting full parallel event driven readout method, aiming at reducing the amount of data. The image sensor includes four 8 × 8 pixel arrays. In each array, four time-to-digital converters (TDCs are used to quantize the time of photons’ arrival, and two address record modules are used to record the column and row information. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were performed in Matlab in terms of the pile-up effect induced by the readout method. The sensor’s resolution is 16 × 16. The time resolution of TDCs is 97.6 ps and the quantization range is 100 ns. The readout frame rate is 10 Mfps, and the maximum imaging frame rate is 100 fps. The chip’s output bandwidth is 720 MHz with an average power of 15 mW. The lifetime resolvability range is 5–20 ns, and the average error of estimated fluorescence lifetimes is below 1% by employing CMM to estimate lifetimes.

  18. Fault Detection Using the Clustering-kNN Rule for Gas Sensor Arrays

    Jingli Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The k-nearest neighbour (kNN rule, which naturally handles the possible non-linearity of data, is introduced to solve the fault detection problem of gas sensor arrays. In traditional fault detection methods based on the kNN rule, the detection process of each new test sample involves all samples in the entire training sample set. Therefore, these methods can be computation intensive in monitoring processes with a large volume of variables and training samples and may be impossible for real-time monitoring. To address this problem, a novel clustering-kNN rule is presented. The landmark-based spectral clustering (LSC algorithm, which has low computational complexity, is employed to divide the entire training sample set into several clusters. Further, the kNN rule is only conducted in the cluster that is nearest to the test sample; thus, the efficiency of the fault detection methods can be enhanced by reducing the number of training samples involved in the detection process of each test sample. The performance of the proposed clustering-kNN rule is fully verified in numerical simulations with both linear and non-linear models and a real gas sensor array experimental system with different kinds of faults. The results of simulations and experiments demonstrate that the clustering-kNN rule can greatly enhance both the accuracy and efficiency of fault detection methods and provide an excellent solution to reliable and real-time monitoring of gas sensor arrays.

  19. An Improved Zero Potential Circuit for Readout of a Two-Dimensional Resistive Sensor Array

    Jian-Feng Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With one operational amplifier (op-amp in negative feedback, the traditional zero potential circuit could access one element in the two-dimensional (2-D resistive sensor array with the shared row-column fashion but it suffered from the crosstalk problem for the non-scanned elements’ bypass currents, which were injected into array’s non-scanned electrodes from zero potential. Firstly, for suppressing the crosstalk problem, we designed a novel improved zero potential circuit with one more op-amp in negative feedback to sample the total bypass current and calculate the precision resistance of the element being tested (EBT with it. The improved setting non-scanned-electrode zero potential circuit (S-NSE-ZPC was given as an example for analyzing and verifying the performance of the improved zero potential circuit. Secondly, in the S-NSE-ZPC and the improved S-NSE-ZPC, the effects of different parameters of the resistive sensor arrays and their readout circuits on the EBT’s measurement accuracy were simulated with the NI Multisim 12. Thirdly, part features of the improved circuit were verified with the experiments of a prototype circuit. Followed, the results were discussed and the conclusions were given. The experiment results show that the improved circuit, though it requires one more op-amp, one more resistor and one more sampling channel, can access the EBT in the 2-D resistive sensor array more accurately.

  20. Monitoring and Evaluation of Alcoholic Fermentation Processes Using a Chemocapacitor Sensor Array

    Oikonomou, Petros; Raptis, Ioannis; Sanopoulou, Merope

    2014-01-01

    The alcoholic fermentation of Savatiano must variety was initiated under laboratory conditions and monitored daily with a gas sensor array without any pre-treatment steps. The sensor array consisted of eight interdigitated chemocapacitors (IDCs) coated with specific polymers. Two batches of fermented must were tested and also subjected daily to standard chemical analysis. The chemical composition of the two fermenting musts differed from day one of laboratory monitoring (due to different storage conditions of the musts) and due to a deliberate increase of the acetic acid content of one of the musts, during the course of the process, in an effort to spoil the fermenting medium. Sensor array responses to the headspace of the fermenting medium were compared with those obtained either for pure or contaminated samples with controlled concentrations of standard ethanol solutions of impurities. Results of data processing with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), demonstrate that this sensing system could discriminate between a normal and a potential spoiled grape must fermentation process, so this gas sensing system could be potentially applied during wine production as an auxiliary qualitative control instrument. PMID:25184490

  1. Fault Detection Using the Clustering-kNN Rule for Gas Sensor Arrays

    Yang, Jingli; Sun, Zhen; Chen, Yinsheng

    2016-01-01

    The k-nearest neighbour (kNN) rule, which naturally handles the possible non-linearity of data, is introduced to solve the fault detection problem of gas sensor arrays. In traditional fault detection methods based on the kNN rule, the detection process of each new test sample involves all samples in the entire training sample set. Therefore, these methods can be computation intensive in monitoring processes with a large volume of variables and training samples and may be impossible for real-time monitoring. To address this problem, a novel clustering-kNN rule is presented. The landmark-based spectral clustering (LSC) algorithm, which has low computational complexity, is employed to divide the entire training sample set into several clusters. Further, the kNN rule is only conducted in the cluster that is nearest to the test sample; thus, the efficiency of the fault detection methods can be enhanced by reducing the number of training samples involved in the detection process of each test sample. The performance of the proposed clustering-kNN rule is fully verified in numerical simulations with both linear and non-linear models and a real gas sensor array experimental system with different kinds of faults. The results of simulations and experiments demonstrate that the clustering-kNN rule can greatly enhance both the accuracy and efficiency of fault detection methods and provide an excellent solution to reliable and real-time monitoring of gas sensor arrays. PMID:27929412

  2. Micro-Drilling of Polymer Tubular Ultramicroelectrode Arrays for Electrochemical Sensors

    Niels B. Larsen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT, a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 µm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 µm were reproducibly fabricated. The electrode dimensions were analyzed by SEM after deposition of silver dendrites to visualize the electroactive electrode area. The electrochemical applicability of the electrodes was demonstrated by voltammetric and amperometric detection of ferri-/ferrocyanide. Recorded signals were in agreement with results from finite element modelling of the system. The tubular PEDOT ultramicroelectrode arrays were modified by prussian blue to enable the detection of hydrogen peroxide. A linear sensor response was demonstrated for hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.1 mM to 1 mM.

  3. Transition-edge sensor arrays for UV-optical-IR astrophysics

    Burney, J.; Bay, T.J.; Barral, J.; Brink, P.L.; Cabrera, B.; Castle, J.P.; Miller, A.J.; Nam, S.; Rosenberg, D.; Romani, R.W.; Tomada, A.

    2006-01-01

    Our research group has developed and characterized transition-edge sensor (TES) arrays for near IR-optical-near UV astrophysical observations. These detectors have a time-stamp accuracy of 0.3μs and an energy resolution of 0.16eV for 2.33eV photons at very high rates (30kHz). We have installed a 6x6 array of these TESs in an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator equipped with windows for direct imaging. We discuss new instrumentation progress and current data in all aspects related to successful operation of this camera system, including: detector and array performance, position dependence and cross-talk, low-temperature and readout electronics, quantum and system efficiency, IR filtering, and focus and imaging

  4. A 32-channel lattice transmission line array for parallel transmit and receive MRI at 7 tesla.

    Adriany, Gregor; Auerbach, Edward J; Snyder, Carl J; Gözübüyük, Ark; Moeller, Steen; Ritter, Johannes; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Vaughan, Tommy; Uğurbil, Kâmil

    2010-06-01

    Transmit and receive RF coil arrays have proven to be particularly beneficial for ultra-high-field MR. Transmit coil arrays enable such techniques as B(1) (+) shimming to substantially improve transmit B(1) homogeneity compared to conventional volume coil designs, and receive coil arrays offer enhanced parallel imaging performance and SNR. Concentric coil arrangements hold promise for developing transceiver arrays incorporating large numbers of coil elements. At magnetic field strengths of 7 tesla and higher where the Larmor frequencies of interest can exceed 300 MHz, the coil array design must also overcome the problem of the coil conductor length approaching the RF wavelength. In this study, a novel concentric arrangement of resonance elements built from capacitively-shortened half-wavelength transmission lines is presented. This approach was utilized to construct an array with whole-brain coverage using 16 transceiver elements and 16 receive-only elements, resulting in a coil with a total of 16 transmit and 32 receive channels. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. High-Speed Tactile Sensing for Array-Type Tactile Sensor and Object Manipulation Based on Tactile Information

    Wataru Fukui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a universal robot hand with tactile and other sensors. An array-type tactile sensor is crucial for dexterous manipulation of objects using a robotic hand, since this sensor can measure the pressure distribution on finger pads. The sensor has a very high resolution, and the shape of a grasped object can be classified by using this sensor. The more the number of measurement points provided, the higher the accuracy of the classification, but with a corresponding lengthening of the measurement cycle. In this paper, the problem of slow response time is resolved by using software for an array-type tactile sensor with high resolution that emulates the human sensor system. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated through experiments.

  6. Pairwise graphical models for structural health monitoring with dense sensor arrays

    Mohammadi Ghazi, Reza; Chen, Justin G.; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2017-09-01

    Through advances in sensor technology and development of camera-based measurement techniques, it has become affordable to obtain high spatial resolution data from structures. Although measured datasets become more informative by increasing the number of sensors, the spatial dependencies between sensor data are increased at the same time. Therefore, appropriate data analysis techniques are needed to handle the inference problem in presence of these dependencies. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that uses graphical models (GM) for considering the spatial dependencies between sensor measurements in dense sensor networks or arrays to improve damage localization accuracy in structural health monitoring (SHM) application. Because there are always unobserved damaged states in this application, the available information is insufficient for learning the GMs. To overcome this challenge, we propose an approximated model that uses the mutual information between sensor measurements to learn the GMs. The study is backed by experimental validation of the method on two test structures. The first is a three-story two-bay steel model structure that is instrumented by MEMS accelerometers. The second experimental setup consists of a plate structure and a video camera to measure the displacement field of the plate. Our results show that considering the spatial dependencies by the proposed algorithm can significantly improve damage localization accuracy.

  7. X-ray metrology of an array of active edge pixel sensors for use at synchrotron light sources

    Plackett, R.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Horswell, I.; Lockwood, G.; Shipsey, I.; Tartoni, N.; Williams, S.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the production and testing of an array of active edge silicon sensors as a prototype of a large array. Four Medipix3RX.1 chips were bump bonded to four single chip sized Advacam active edge n-on-n sensors. These detectors were then mounted into a 2 by 2 array and tested on B16 at Diamond Light Source with an x-ray beam spot of 2um. The results from these tests, compared with optical metrology demonstrate that this type of sensor is sensitive to the physical edge of the silicon, with only a modest loss of efficiency in the final two rows of pixels. We present the efficiency maps recorded with the microfocus beam and a sample powder diffraction measurement. These results give confidence that this sensor technology can be used effectively in larger arrays of detectors at synchrotron light sources.

  8. Assessment of Embedded Conjugated Polymer Sensor Arrays for Potential Load Transmission Measurement in Orthopaedic Implants

    Carolina Micolini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Load transfer through orthopaedic joint implants is poorly understood. The longer-term outcomes of these implants are just starting to be studied, making it imperative to monitor contact loads across the entire joint implant interface to elucidate the force transmission and distribution mechanisms exhibited by these implants in service. This study proposes and demonstrates the design, implementation, and characterization of a 3D-printed smart polymer sensor array using conductive polyaniline (PANI structures embedded within a polymeric parent phase. The piezoresistive characteristics of PANI were investigated to characterize the sensing behaviour inherent to these embedded pressure sensor arrays, including the experimental determination of the stable response of PANI to continuous loading, stability throughout the course of loading and unloading cycles, and finally sensor repeatability and linearity in response to incremental loading cycles. This specially developed multi-material additive manufacturing process for PANI is shown be an attractive approach for the fabrication of implant components having embedded smart-polymer sensors, which could ultimately be employed for the measurement and analysis of joint loads in orthopaedic implants for in vitro testing.

  9. Tactile Sensor Array with Fiber Bragg Gratings in Quasi-Distributed Sensing

    Marcelo A. Pedroso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the development of a quasi-distributed real-time tactile sensing system with a reduced number of fiber Bragg grating-based sensors and reports its use with a reconstruction method based on differential evolution. The sensing system is comprised of six fiber Bragg gratings encapsulated in silicone elastomer to form a tactile sensor array with total dimensions of 60 × 80 mm, divided into eight sensing cells with dimensions of 20 × 30 mm. Forces applied at the central position of the sensor array resulted in linear response curves for the gratings, highlighting their coupled responses and allowing the application of compressive sensing. The reduced number of sensors regarding the number of sensing cells results in an undetermined inverse problem, solved with a compressive sensing algorithm with the aid of differential evolution method. The system is capable of identifying and quantifying up to four different loads at four different cells with relative errors lower than 10.5% and signal-to-noise ratio better than 12 dB.

  10. A Steel Ball Surface Quality Inspection Method Based on a Circumferential Eddy Current Array Sensor.

    Zhang, Huayu; Xie, Fengqin; Cao, Maoyong; Zhong, Mingming

    2017-07-01

    To efficiently inspect surface defects on steel ball bearings, a new method based on a circumferential eddy current array (CECA) sensor was proposed here. The best probe configuration, in terms of the coil quality factor (Q-factor), magnetic field intensity, and induced eddy current density on the surface of a sample steel ball, was determined using 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-coil probes, for analysis and comparison. The optimal lift-off from the measured steel ball, the number of probe coils, and the frequency of excitation current suitable for steel ball inspection were obtained. Using the resulting CECA sensor to inspect 46,126 steel balls showed a miss rate of ~0.02%. The sensor was inspected for surface defects as small as 0.05 mm in width and 0.1 mm in depth.

  11. Development of Ultra-Low Power Metal Oxide Sensors and Arrays for Embedded Applications

    Lutz, Brent; Wind, Rikard; Kostelecky, Clayton; Routkevitch, Dmitri; Deininger, Debra

    2011-09-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor sensors are widely used as individual sensors and in arrays, and a variety of designs for low power microhotplates have been demonstrated.1 Synkera Technologies has developed an embeddable chemical microsensor platform, based on a unique ceramic MEMS technology, for practical implementation in cell phones and other mobile electronic devices. Key features of this microsensor platform are (1) small size, (2) ultra-low power consumption, (3) high chemical sensitivity, (4) accurate response to a wide-range of threats, and (5) low cost. The sensor platform is enabled by a combination of advances in ceramic micromachining, and precision deposition of sensing films inside the high aspect ratio pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO).

  12. A Steel Ball Surface Quality Inspection Method Based on a Circumferential Eddy Current Array Sensor

    Huayu Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To efficiently inspect surface defects on steel ball bearings, a new method based on a circumferential eddy current array (CECA sensor was proposed here. The best probe configuration, in terms of the coil quality factor (Q-factor, magnetic field intensity, and induced eddy current density on the surface of a sample steel ball, was determined using 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-coil probes, for analysis and comparison. The optimal lift-off from the measured steel ball, the number of probe coils, and the frequency of excitation current suitable for steel ball inspection were obtained. Using the resulting CECA sensor to inspect 46,126 steel balls showed a miss rate of ~0.02%. The sensor was inspected for surface defects as small as 0.05 mm in width and 0.1 mm in depth.

  13. A Low-Operating-Power and Flexible Active-Matrix Organic-Transistor Temperature-Sensor Array.

    Ren, Xiaochen; Pei, Ke; Peng, Boyu; Zhang, Zhichao; Wang, Zongrong; Wang, Xinyu; Chan, Paddy K L

    2016-06-01

    An organic flexible temperature-sensor array exhibits great potential in health monitoring and other biomedical applications. The actively addressed 16 × 16 temperature sensor array reaches 100% yield rate and provides 2D temperature information of the objects placed in contact, even if the object has an irregular shape. The current device allows defect predictions of electronic devices, remote sensing of harsh environments, and e-skin applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Nano-arrays of SAM by dip-pen nanowriting (DPN) technique for futuristic bio-electronic and bio-sensor applications

    Agarwal, Pankaj B.; Kumar, A.; Saravanan, R.; Sharma, A.K.; Shekhar, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Nano-arrays of bio-molecules have potential applications in many areas namely, bio-sensors, bio/molecular electronics and virus detection. Spot array, micro-contact printing and photolithography are used for micron size array fabrications while Dip-Pen Nanowriting (DPN) is employed for submicron/nano size arrays. We have fabricated nano-dots of 16-MHA (16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold substrate by DPN technique with different dwell time under varying relative humidity. These patterns were imaged in the same system in LFM (Lateral Force Microscopy) mode with fast scanning speed (5 Hz). The effect of humidity on size variation of nano-dots has been studied. During experiments, relative humidity (RH) was varied from 20% to 60%, while the temperature was kept constant ∼ 25 o C. The minimum measured diameter of the dot is ∼ 294 nm at RH = 20% for a dwell time of 2 s. The thickness of the 16-MHA dots, estimated in NanoRule image analysis software is ∼ 2 nm, which agrees well with the length of single MHA molecule (2.2 nm). The line profile has been used to estimate the size and thickness of dots. The obtained results will be useful in further development of nano-array based bio-sensors and bio-electronic devices.

  15. Hydrogel based sensor arrays (2 × 2) with perforated piezoresistive diaphragms for metabolic monitoring (in vitro).

    Orthner, M P; Lin, G; Avula, M; Buetefisch, S; Magda, J; Rieth, L W; Solzbacher, F

    2010-03-19

    This report details the first experimental results from novel hydrogel sensor array (2 × 2) which incorporates analyte diffusion pores into a piezoresistive diaphragm for the detection of hydrogel swelling pressures and hence chemical concentrations. The sensor assembly was comprised of three components, the active four sensors, HPMA/DMA/TEGDMA (hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA), N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMA) and crosslinker tetra-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA)) hydrogel, and backing plate. Each of the individual sensors of the array can be used with various hydrogels used to measure the presence of a number of stimuli including pH, ionic strength, and glucose concentrations. Ideally, in the future, these sensors will be used for continuous metabolic monitoring applications and implanted subcutaneously. In this paper and to properly characterize the sensor assembly, hydrogels sensitive to changes ionic strength were synthesized using hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA), N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMA) and crosslinker tetra-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and inserted into the sensor assembly. This hydrogel quickly and reversibly swells when placed environments of physiological buffer solutions (PBS) with ionic strengths ranging from 0.025 to 0.15 M, making it ideal for proof-of-concept testing and initial characterization. The assembly was wire bonded to a printed circuit board and coated with 3 ± 0.5 μm of Parylene-C using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to protect the sensor and electrical connections during ionic strength wet testing. Two versions of sensors were fabricated for comparison, the first incorporated diffusion pores into the diaphragm, and the second used a solid diaphragm with perforated backing plate. This new design (perforated diaphragm) was shown to have slightly higher sensitivity than solid diaphragm sensors with separate diffuse backing plates when coupled with the hydrogel. The sensitivities for the 1 mm

  16. Design Concept of Array ECT Sensor for Steam Generator Tubing Inspection

    Cho, Chan Hee; Lee, Tae Hun; Yoo, Hyun Ju [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The eddy current testing, which is one of the nondestructive examination methods, is widely used for the inspection of heat exchangers including steam generator tubing in the nuclear power plant. It uses electromagnetic induction to detect flaws in conductive materials. Two types of eddy current probes are conventionally used for the inspection of steam generator tubing according to the main purpose. One is the bobbin probe technology and the other is the rotating probe. During the inspection, they have restrictions for the flaw detection or the inspection speed. An array probe can be alternative to the bobbin and rotating probes. The design concept of array coils with high sensitivity is described in this paper. It is expected that the eddy current testing using this type of array sensors may provide high detectability and resolution for flaws in steam generator tubing. Eddy current technology has some barriers for the inspection of steam generator tubing in the nuclear power plant. Bobbin probes offer poor circumferential crack detection and rotating probes are time and money consuming due to the mechanical rotation. Array probe inspection technique can replace bobbin and rotating probe techniques due to its sensitivity for flaw detection and inspection speed. In general, circular-shaped coils are considered in an array eddy current probe.

  17. Urinary Colorimetric Sensor Array and Algorithm to Distinguish Kawasaki Disease from Other Febrile Illnesses.

    Zhen Li

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease (KD is an acute pediatric vasculitis of infants and young children with unknown etiology and no specific laboratory-based test to identify. A specific molecular diagnostic test is urgently needed to support the clinical decision of proper medical intervention, preventing subsequent complications of coronary artery aneurysms. We used a simple and low-cost colorimetric sensor array to address the lack of a specific diagnostic test to differentiate KD from febrile control (FC patients with similar rash/fever illnesses.Demographic and clinical data were prospectively collected for subjects with KD and FCs under standard protocol. After screening using a genetic algorithm, eleven compounds including metalloporphyrins, pH indicators, redox indicators and solvatochromic dye categories, were selected from our chromatic compound library (n = 190 to construct a colorimetric sensor array for diagnosing KD. Quantitative color difference analysis led to a decision-tree-based KD diagnostic algorithm.This KD sensing array allowed the identification of 94% of KD subjects (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] area under the curve [AUC] 0.981 in the training set (33 KD, 33 FC and 94% of KD subjects (ROC AUC: 0.873 in the testing set (16 KD, 17 FC. Color difference maps reconstructed from the digital images of the sensing compounds demonstrated distinctive patterns differentiating KD from FC patients.The colorimetric sensor array, composed of common used chemical compounds, is an easily accessible, low-cost method to realize the discrimination of subjects with KD from other febrile illness.

  18. High-resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed 4-pixel transition edge sensor array

    Guss, Paul; Rabin, Michael; Croce, Mark; Hoteling, Nathan; Schwellenbach, David; Kruschwitz, Craig; Mocko, Veronika; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate very high-resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed 4-pixel transition edge sensor (TES) array. The readout circuit consists of superconducting microwave resonators coupled to radio frequency superconducting-quantum-interference devices (RF-SQUIDs) and transduces changes in input current to changes in phase of a microwave signal. We used a flux-ramp modulation to linearize the response and avoid low-frequency noise. The result is a very high-resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed 4-pixel transition edge sensor array. We performed and validated a small-scale demonstration and test of all the components of our concept system, which encompassed microcalorimetry, microwave multiplexing, RF-SQUIDs, and software-defined radio (SDR). We shall display data we acquired in the first simultaneous combination of all key innovations in a 4-pixel demonstration, including microcalorimetry, microwave multiplexing, RF-SQUIDs, and SDR. We present the energy spectrum of a gadolinium-153 (153Gd) source we measured using our 4-pixel TES array and the RF-SQUID multiplexer. For each pixel, one can observe the two 97.4 and 103.2 keV photopeaks. We measured the 153Gd photon source with an achieved energy resolution of 70 eV, full width half maximum (FWHM) at 100 keV, and an equivalent readout system noise of 90 pA/pHz at the TES. This demonstration establishes a path for the readout of cryogenic x-ray and gamma ray sensor arrays with more elements and spectral resolving powers. We believe this project has improved capabilities and substantively advanced the science useful for missions such as nuclear forensics, emergency response, and treaty verification through the explored TES developments.

  19. A Customized Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Gas Sensor Array for Onion Quality Evaluation: System Development and Characterization

    Tharun Konduru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone, acetonitrile (nitrile, ethyl acetate (ester, and ethanol (alcohol. The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage.

  20. Low-Cost Ultrasonic Distance Sensor Arrays with Networked Error Correction

    Tianzhou Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Distance has been one of the basic factors in manufacturing and control fields, and ultrasonic distance sensors have been widely used as a low-cost measuring tool. However, the propagation of ultrasonic waves is greatly affected by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure. In order to solve the problem of inaccurate measurement, which is significant within industry, this paper presents a novel ultrasonic distance sensor model using networked error correction (NEC trained on experimental data. This is more accurate than other existing approaches because it uses information from indirect association with neighboring sensors, which has not been considered before. The NEC technique, focusing on optimization of the relationship of the topological structure of sensor arrays, is implemented for the compensation of erroneous measurements caused by the environment. We apply the maximum likelihood method to determine the optimal fusion data set and use a neighbor discovery algorithm to identify neighbor nodes at the top speed. Furthermore, we adopt the NEC optimization algorithm, which takes full advantage of the correlation coefficients for neighbor sensors. The experimental results demonstrate that the ranging errors of the NEC system are within 2.20%; furthermore, the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 0.01% after three iterations of this method, which means that the proposed method performs extremely well. The optimized method of distance measurement we propose, with the capability of NEC, would bring a significant advantage for intelligent industrial automation.

  1. Array-type sensor to determine corrosive conditions in high temperature water under gamma rays irradiation

    Satoh, T.; Tsukada, T.; Uchida, S.; Katoh, C.

    2010-01-01

    One of the problems to determine electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) in high temperature water under irradiation is to apply long-lived and reliable reference electrodes. In order to avoid troubles due to the reference electrode, a new concept to determine ECP without the reference electrode has been proposed. Several metal plates are applied as working electrodes and at the same time as the reference electrodes. Potential of the metal plates with stable oxide films on their surfaces show stable values in high temperature water. As a result of the combination of their potential values, ECP of each metal can be determined without any specific reference electrode. Array-type sensors consisting of several metal plates, e.g., Fe, Ni, Cr, Zr, Pt, Pd, Re, Ir, with well developed oxide films on their surface were prepared for ECP measurement in high temperature water under neutron/gamma ray irradiations. In order to confirm the feasibility of this concept, responses of the redox potentials of the pure metals to changes in the simulated BWR reactor water conditions were measured and the ECP was determined by the differences in potentials between a couple of metal plates. Major conclusions of the study are as follows: 1) The redox potentials of the Fe, Pt, Zr, Ir, Pd, and Re electrodes showed the different dependences on the changes in O 2 and H 2 O 2 concentrations. The redox potentials of the electrodes increased as the oxidant concentrations increased except for Zr electrode. The potential of the Zr electrode was kept the very low potential at the wide range of O 2 and H 2 O 2 concentrations differed form the other electrodes. 2) It was estimated that the redox potential of highly soluble metal may be increased, while that of low soluble metal may be decreased by an oxide film. The stable oxide film would cause the stable potential response of the electrode with oxide film. 3) The relationship between the oxidant concentrations and the redox potentials of the

  2. An optode sensor array for long term in situ Oxygen measurements in soil and sediment

    Rickelt, Lars F; Jensen, Louise Askær; Walpersdorf, Eva Christine

    2013-01-01

    Long-term measurements of molecular oxygen (O2) dynamics in wetlands are highly relevant for understanding the eff ects of water level changes on net greenhouse gas budgets in these ecosystems. However, such measurements have been limited due to a lack of suitable measuring equipment. We construc......Long-term measurements of molecular oxygen (O2) dynamics in wetlands are highly relevant for understanding the eff ects of water level changes on net greenhouse gas budgets in these ecosystems. However, such measurements have been limited due to a lack of suitable measuring equipment. We...... constructed an O2 optode sensor array for long-term in situ measurements in soil and sediment. Th e new device consists of a 1.3-m-long, cylindrical, spear-shaped rod equipped with 10 sensor spots along the shaft . Each spot contains a thermocouple fi xed with a robust fi beroptic O2 optode made...... characteristics of the sensor array system are presented along with a novel approach for temperature compensation of O2 optodes. During in situ application over several months in a peat bog, we used the new device to document pronounced variations in O2 distribution aft er marked shift s in water level. Th e...

  3. Stretchable Array of Highly Sensitive Pressure Sensors Consisting of Polyaniline Nanofibers and Au-Coated Polydimethylsiloxane Micropillars.

    Park, Heun; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; Hong, Soo Yeong; Jin, Sangwoo; Lee, Seung-Jung; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2015-10-27

    We report on the facile fabrication of a stretchable array of highly sensitive pressure sensors. The proposed pressure sensor consists of the top layer of Au-deposited polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars and the bottom layer of conductive polyaniline nanofibers on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The sensors are operated by the changes in contact resistance between Au-coated micropillars and polyaniline according to the varying pressure. The fabricated pressure sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 2.0 kPa(-1) in the pressure range below 0.22 kPa, a low detection limit of 15 Pa, a fast response time of 50 ms, and high stability over 10000 cycles of pressure loading/unloading with a low operating voltage of 1.0 V. The sensor is also capable of noninvasively detecting human-pulse waveforms from carotid and radial artery. A 5 × 5 array of the pressure sensors on the deformable substrate, which consists of PDMS islands for sensors and the mixed thin film of PDMS and Ecoflex with embedded liquid metal interconnections, shows stable sensing of pressure under biaxial stretching by 15%. The strain distribution obtained by the finite element method confirms that the maximum strain applied to the pressure sensor in the strain-suppressed region is less than 0.04% under a 15% biaxial strain of the unit module. This work demonstrates the potential application of our proposed stretchable pressure sensor array for wearable and artificial electronic skin devices.

  4. Detection of Defective Sensors in Phased Array Using Compressed Sensing and Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Shafqat Ullah Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A compressed sensing based array diagnosis technique has been presented. This technique starts from collecting the measurements of the far-field pattern. The system linking the difference between the field measured using the healthy reference array and the field radiated by the array under test is solved using a genetic algorithm (GA, parallel coordinate descent (PCD algorithm, and then a hybridized GA with PCD algorithm. These algorithms are applied for fully and partially defective antenna arrays. The simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid algorithm outperforms in terms of localization of element failure with a small number of measurements. In the proposed algorithm, the slow and early convergence of GA has been avoided by combining it with PCD algorithm. It has been shown that the hybrid GA-PCD algorithm provides an accurate diagnosis of fully and partially defective sensors as compared to GA or PCD alone. Different simulations have been provided to validate the performance of the designed algorithms in diversified scenarios.

  5. DNA-Catalytically Active Gold Nanoparticle Conjugates-Based Colorimetric Multidimensional Sensor Array for Protein Discrimination.

    Wei, Xiangcong; Chen, Zhengbo; Tan, Lulu; Lou, Tianhong; Zhao, Yan

    2017-01-03

    A series of single-strand oligonucleotides functionalized catalytically active gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) as nonspecific receptors have been designed to build a protein sensing array. We take advantage of the correlation between the catalytic activity and the exposed surface area of AuNPs, i.e., DNA-proteins interactions mask the surface area of AuNPs, leading to poor catalytic performance of AuNPs. As the number of DNA-bound proteins increases, the surfaces of AuNPs become more masked; thus, the time of 4- nitrophenol/NaBH 4 reaction for color change (yellow → colorless) of the solution increases. Taking advantage of three nonspecific SH-labeled DNA sequences (A15, C15, and T15) as array sensing elements and the color-change time (CCT) of the solution as signal readout, colorimetric response patterns can be obtained on the array and identified via linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Eleven proteins have been completely distinguished with 100% accuracy with the naked eye at the 30 nM level. Remarkably, two similar proteins (bovine serum albumin and human serum albumin), two different proteins (bovine serum albumin and concanavalin) at the same concentration, and the mixtures of the two proteins with different molar ratios have been discriminated with 100%. The practicability of this sensor array is further validated by high accuracy (100%) identification of 11 proteins in human serum samples.

  6. Enhancement of Frequency Stability Using Synchronization of a Cantilever Array for MEMS-Based Sensors

    Francesc Torres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Micro and nano electromechanical resonators have been widely used as single or multiple-mass detection sensors. Smaller devices with higher resonance frequencies and lower masses offer higher mass responsivities but suffer from lower frequency stability. Synchronization phenomena in multiple MEMS resonators have become an important issue because they allow frequency stability improvement, thereby preserving mass responsivity. The authors present an array of five cantilevers (CMOS-MEMS system that are forced to vibrate synchronously to enhance their frequency stability. The frequency stability has been determined in closed-loop configuration for long periods of time by calculating the Allan deviation. An Allan deviation of 0.013 ppm (@ 1 s averaging time for a 1 MHz cantilever array MEMS system was obtained at the synchronized mode, which represents a 23-fold improvement in comparison with the non-synchronized operation mode (0.3 ppm.

  7. General Voltage Feedback Circuit Model in the Two-Dimensional Networked Resistive Sensor Array

    JianFeng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the feature of the two-dimensional networked resistive sensor array, we firstly proposed a general model of voltage feedback circuits (VFCs such as the voltage feedback non-scanned-electrode circuit, the voltage feedback non-scanned-sampling-electrode circuit, and the voltage feedback non-scanned-sampling-electrode circuit. By analyzing the general model, we then gave a general mathematical expression of the effective equivalent resistor of the element being tested in VFCs. Finally, we evaluated the features of VFCs with simulation and test experiment. The results show that the expression is applicable to analyze the VFCs’ performance of parameters such as the multiplexers’ switch resistors, the nonscanned elements, and array size.

  8. Diode temperature sensor array for measuring and controlling micro scale surface temperature

    Han, Il Young; Kim, Sung Jin

    2004-01-01

    The needs of micro scale thermal detecting technique are increasing in biology and chemical industry. For example, thermal finger print, Micro PCR(Polymer Chain Reaction), TAS and so on. To satisfy these needs, we developed a DTSA(Diode Temperature Sensor Array) for detecting and controlling the temperature on small surface. The DTSA is fabricated by using VLSI technique. It consists of 32 array of diodes(1,024 diodes) for temperature detection and 8 heaters for temperature control on a 8mm surface area. The working principle of temperature detection is that the forward voltage drop across a silicon diode is approximately proportional to the inverse of the absolute temperature of diode. And eight heaters (1K) made of poly-silicon are added onto a silicon wafer and controlled individually to maintain a uniform temperature distribution across the DTSA. Flip chip packaging used for easy connection of the DTSA. The circuitry for scanning and controlling DTSA are also developed

  9. Feasibility study of patient motion monitoring by using tactile array sensors

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Kang, Seong-Hee; Kim, Dong-Su; Cho, Min-Seok; Kim, Kyeong-Hyeon; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kim, Siyong

    2015-07-01

    An ideal alignment method based on the external anatomical surface of the patient should consider the entire region of interest. However, optical-camera-based systems cannot blindly monitor such areas as the patient's back, for example. Furthermore, collecting enough information to correct the associated deformation error is impossible. The study aim is to propose a new patient alignment method using tactile array sensors that can measure the distributed pressure profiles along the contact surface. The TactArray system includes one sensor, a signal-conditioning device (USB drive/interface electronics, power supply, and cables), and a PC. The tactile array sensor was placed between the patient's back and the treatment couch, and the deformations at different location on the patient's back were evaluated. Three healthy male volunteers were enrolled in this study, and pressure profile distributions (PPDs) were obtained with and without immobilization. After the initial pretreatment setup using the laser alignment system, the PPD of the patient's back was acquired. The results were obtained at four different times and included a reference PPD dataset. The contact area and the center-of-pressure value were also acquired based on the PPD data for a more elaborate quantitative data analysis. To evaluate the clinical feasibility of using the proposed alignment method for reducing the deformation error, we implemented a real-time self-correction procedure. Despite the initial alignment, we confirmed that PPD variations existed in both cases of the volunteer studies (with and without the use of the immobilization tool). Additionally, we confirmed that the contact area and the center of pressure varied in both cases, and those variations were observed in all three volunteers. With the proposed alignment method and the real-time selfcorrection procedure, the deformation error was significantly reduced. The proposed alignment method can be used to account for the limitation of

  10. Rational Design of QCM-D Virtual Sensor Arrays Based on Film Thickness, Viscoelasticity, and Harmonics for Vapor Discrimination.

    Speller, Nicholas C; Siraj, Noureen; Regmi, Bishnu P; Marzoughi, Hassan; Neal, Courtney; Warner, Isiah M

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate an alternative strategy for creating QCM-based sensor arrays by use of a single sensor to provide multiple responses per analyte. The sensor, which simulates a virtual sensor array (VSA), was developed by depositing a thin film of ionic liquid, either 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([OMIm][Br]) or 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([OMIm][SCN]), onto the surface of a QCM-D transducer. The sensor was exposed to 18 different organic vapors (alcohols, hydrocarbons, chlorohydrocarbons, nitriles) belonging to the same or different homologous series. The resulting frequency shifts (Δf) were measured at multiple harmonics and evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) which revealed that analytes can be classified with extremely high accuracy. In almost all cases, the accuracy for identification of a member of the same class, that is, intraclass discrimination, was 100% as determined by use of quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). Impressively, some VSAs allowed classification of all 18 analytes tested with nearly 100% accuracy. Such results underscore the importance of utilizing lesser exploited properties that influence signal transduction. Overall, these results demonstrate excellent potential of the virtual sensor array strategy for detection and discrimination of vapor phase analytes utilizing the QCM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on QCM VSAs, as well as an experimental sensor array, that is based primarily on viscoelasticity, film thickness, and harmonics.

  11. Multi-parameter fibre Bragg grating sensor-array for thermal vacuum cycling test

    Cheng, L.; Ahlers, B.; Toet, P.; Casarosa, G.; Appolloni, M.

    2017-11-01

    Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor systems based on optical fibres are gaining interest in space applications. Studies on Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of the reusable launchers using FBG sensors have been carried out in the Future European Space Transportation Investigations Programme (FESTIP). Increasing investment in the development on FBG sensor applications is foreseen for the Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP). TNO has performed different SHM measurements with FBGs including on the VEGA interstage [1, 2] in 2006. Within the current project, a multi-parameter FBG sensor array demonstrator system for temperature and strain measurements is designed, fabricated and tested under ambient as well as Thermal Vacuum (TV) conditions in a TV chamber of the European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC site. The aim is the development of a multi-parameters measuring system based on FBG technology for space applications. During the TV tests of a Space Craft (S/C) or its subsystems, thermal measurements, as well as strain measurements are needed by the engineers in order to verify their prediction and to validate their models. Because of the dimensions of the test specimen and the accuracy requested to the measurement, a large number of observation/measuring points are needed. Conventional sensor systems require a complex routing of the cables connecting the sensors to their acquisition unit. This will add extra weight to the construction under test. FBG sensors are potentially light-weight and can easily be multiplexed in an array configuration. The different tasks comply of a demonstrator system design; its component selection, procurement, manufacturing and finally its assembly. The temperature FBG sensor is calibrated in a dedicated laboratory setup down to liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature at TNO. A temperature-wavelength calibration curve is generated. After a test programme definition a setup in thermal vacuum is realised at ESA premises including a mechanical

  12. Colorimetric Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Identification of Chemical Weapons and Explosives.

    Kangas, Michael J; Burks, Raychelle M; Atwater, Jordyn; Lukowicz, Rachel M; Williams, Pat; Holmes, Andrea E

    2017-03-04

    There is a significant demand for devices that can rapidly detect chemical-biological-explosive (CBE) threats on-site and allow for immediate responders to mitigate spread, risk, and loss. The key to an effective reconnaissance mission is a unified detection technology that analyzes potential threats in real time. In addition to reviewing the current state of the art in the field, this review illustrates the practicality of colorimetric arrays composed of sensors that change colors in the presence of analytes. This review also describes an outlook toward future technologies, and describes how they could possibly be used in areas such as war zones to detect and identify hazardous substances.

  13. Zero-crossing detection algorithm for arrays of optical spatial filtering velocimetry sensors

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Finn; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a zero-crossing detection algorithm for arrays of compact low-cost optical sensors based on spatial filtering for measuring fluctuations in angular velocity of rotating solid structures. The algorithm is applicable for signals with moderate signal-to-noise ratios, and delivers...... repeating the same measurement error for each revolution of the target, and to gain high performance measurement of angular velocity. The traditional zero-crossing detection is extended by 1) inserting an appropriate band-pass filter before the zero-crossing detection, 2) measuring time periods between zero...

  14. DOA estimation for conformal vector-sensor array using geometric algebra

    Meng, Tianzhen; Wu, Minjie; Yuan, Naichang

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the problem of direction of arrival (DOA) estimation is considered in the case of multiple polarized signals impinging on the conformal electromagnetic vector-sensor array (CVA). We focus on modeling the manifold holistically by a new mathematical tool called geometric algebra. Compared with existing methods, the presented one has two main advantages. Firstly, it acquires higher resolution by preserving the orthogonality of the signal components. Secondly, it avoids the cumbersome matrix operations while performing the coordinate transformations, and therefore, has a much lower computational complexity. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Frequency-domain readout multiplexing of transition-edge sensor arrays

    Lanting, T.M. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: tlanting@berkeley.edu; Arnold, K. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cho, Hsiao-Mei [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Clarke, John [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dobbs, Matt [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Holzapfel, William [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lee, Adrian T. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lueker, M. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Richards, P.L. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A.D. [Northrop-Grumman, Redondo Beach, CA 94278 (United States); Spieler, H.G. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We have demonstrated frequency-domain readout multiplexing of eight channels for superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometer arrays. The multiplexed readout noise is 6.5 pA/{radical}Hz, well below the bolometer dark noise of 15-20 pA/{radical}Hz. We measure an upper limit on crosstalk of 0.004 between channels adjacent in frequency which meets our design requirement of 0.01. We have observed vibration insensitivity in our frequency-domain multiplexed transition-edge sensors, making this system very attractive for telescope and satellite observations. We also discuss extensions to our multiplexed readout. In particular, we are developing a SQUID flux-locked loop that is entirely cold and collaborating on digital multiplexer technology in order to scale up the number of multiplexed channels.

  16. Compressive sensing-based electrostatic sensor array signal processing and exhausted abnormal debris detecting

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Li, Yue; Yang, Yongmin

    2018-05-01

    When faults happen at gas path components of gas turbines, some sparsely-distributed and charged debris will be generated and released into the exhaust gas. The debris is called abnormal debris. Electrostatic sensors can detect the debris online and further indicate the faults. It is generally considered that, under a specific working condition, a more serious fault generates more and larger debris, and a piece of larger debris carries more charge. Therefore, the amount and charge of the abnormal debris are important indicators of the fault severity. However, because an electrostatic sensor can only detect the superposed effect on the electrostatic field of all the debris, it can hardly identify the amount and position of the debris. Moreover, because signals of electrostatic sensors depend on not only charge but also position of debris, and the position information is difficult to acquire, measuring debris charge accurately using the electrostatic detecting method is still a technical difficulty. To solve these problems, a hemisphere-shaped electrostatic sensors' circular array (HSESCA) is used, and an array signal processing method based on compressive sensing (CS) is proposed in this paper. To research in a theoretical framework of CS, the measurement model of the HSESCA is discretized into a sparse representation form by meshing. In this way, the amount and charge of the abnormal debris are described as a sparse vector. It is further reconstructed by constraining l1-norm when solving an underdetermined equation. In addition, a pre-processing method based on singular value decomposition and a result calibration method based on weighted-centroid algorithm are applied to ensure the accuracy of the reconstruction. The proposed method is validated by both numerical simulations and experiments. Reconstruction errors, characteristics of the results and some related factors are discussed.

  17. A Study on Group Key Agreement in Sensor Network Environments Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Moon-Seog Jun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available These days, with the emergence of the concept of ubiquitous computing, sensor networks that collect, analyze and process all the information through the sensors have become of huge interest. However, sensor network technology fundamentally has wireless communication infrastructure as its foundation and thus has security weakness and limitations such as low computing capacity, power supply limitations and price. In this paper, and considering the characteristics of the sensor network environment, we propose a group key agreement method using a keyset pre-distribution of two-dimension arrays that should minimize the exposure of key and personal information. The key collision problems are resolved by utilizing a polygonal shape’s center of gravity. The method shows that calculating a polygonal shape’s center of gravity only requires a very small amount of calculations from the users. The simple calculation not only increases the group key generation efficiency, but also enhances the sense of security by protecting information between nodes.

  18. High Resolution Eddy-Current Wire Testing Based on a Gmr Sensor-Array

    Kreutzbruck, Marc; Allweins, Kai; Strackbein, Chris; Bernau, Hendrick

    2009-03-01

    Increasing demands in materials quality and cost effectiveness have led to advanced standards in manufacturing technology. Especially when dealing with high quality standards in conjunction with high throughput quantitative NDE techniques are vital to provide reliable and fast quality control systems. In this work we illuminate a modern electromagnetic NDE approach using a small GMR sensor array for testing superconducting wires. Four GMR sensors are positioned around the wire. Each GMR sensor provides a field sensitivity of 200 pT/√Hz and a spatial resolution of about 100 μm. This enables us to detect under surface defects of 100 μm in size in a depth of 200 μm with a signal-to-noise ratio of better than 400. Surface defects could be detected with a SNR of up to 10,000. Besides this remarkably SNR the small extent of GMR sensors results in a spatial resolution which offers new visualisation techniques for defect localisation, defect characterization and tomography-like mapping techniques. We also report on inverse algorithms based on either a Finite Element Method or an analytical approach. These allow for accurate defect localization on the urn scale and an estimation of the defect size.

  19. Reconfigurable Transmission Line for a Series-Fed Ku-Band Phased Array Using a Single Feed

    Host, Nicholas K.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda. Felix, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel approach to realize a lowcost phased array using a simple feeding mechanism. Specifically, a single coplanar stripline (CPS) transmission line is used to feed the antenna array elements. By controlling the CPS's dielectric properties using a movable dielectric plunger, scanning is achieved. Due to its simplicity, single feed, and no phase shifters, this approach leads to a dramatic reduction in cost which does not scale for larger arrays.

  20. Expansion of Smartwatch Touch Interface from Touchscreen to Around Device Interface Using Infrared Line Image Sensors

    Soo-Chul Lim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Touchscreen interaction has become a fundamental means of controlling mobile phones and smartwatches. However, the small form factor of a smartwatch limits the available interactive surface area. To overcome this limitation, we propose the expansion of the touch region of the screen to the back of the user’s hand. We developed a touch module for sensing the touched finger position on the back of the hand using infrared (IR line image sensors, based on the calibrated IR intensity and the maximum intensity region of an IR array. For complete touch-sensing solution, a gyroscope installed in the smartwatch is used to read the wrist gestures. The gyroscope incorporates a dynamic time warping gesture recognition algorithm for eliminating unintended touch inputs during the free motion of the wrist while wearing the smartwatch. The prototype of the developed sensing module was implemented in a commercial smartwatch, and it was confirmed that the sensed positional information of the finger when it was used to touch the back of the hand could be used to control the smartwatch graphical user interface. Our system not only affords a novel experience for smartwatch users, but also provides a basis for developing other useful interfaces.

  1. Expansion of Smartwatch Touch Interface from Touchscreen to Around Device Interface Using Infrared Line Image Sensors.

    Lim, Soo-Chul; Shin, Jungsoon; Kim, Seung-Chan; Park, Joonah

    2015-07-09

    Touchscreen interaction has become a fundamental means of controlling mobile phones and smartwatches. However, the small form factor of a smartwatch limits the available interactive surface area. To overcome this limitation, we propose the expansion of the touch region of the screen to the back of the user's hand. We developed a touch module for sensing the touched finger position on the back of the hand using infrared (IR) line image sensors, based on the calibrated IR intensity and the maximum intensity region of an IR array. For complete touch-sensing solution, a gyroscope installed in the smartwatch is used to read the wrist gestures. The gyroscope incorporates a dynamic time warping gesture recognition algorithm for eliminating unintended touch inputs during the free motion of the wrist while wearing the smartwatch. The prototype of the developed sensing module was implemented in a commercial smartwatch, and it was confirmed that the sensed positional information of the finger when it was used to touch the back of the hand could be used to control the smartwatch graphical user interface. Our system not only affords a novel experience for smartwatch users, but also provides a basis for developing other useful interfaces.

  2. Expansion of Smartwatch Touch Interface from Touchscreen to Around Device Interface Using Infrared Line Image Sensors

    Lim, Soo-Chul; Shin, Jungsoon; Kim, Seung-Chan; Park, Joonah

    2015-01-01

    Touchscreen interaction has become a fundamental means of controlling mobile phones and smartwatches. However, the small form factor of a smartwatch limits the available interactive surface area. To overcome this limitation, we propose the expansion of the touch region of the screen to the back of the user’s hand. We developed a touch module for sensing the touched finger position on the back of the hand using infrared (IR) line image sensors, based on the calibrated IR intensity and the maximum intensity region of an IR array. For complete touch-sensing solution, a gyroscope installed in the smartwatch is used to read the wrist gestures. The gyroscope incorporates a dynamic time warping gesture recognition algorithm for eliminating unintended touch inputs during the free motion of the wrist while wearing the smartwatch. The prototype of the developed sensing module was implemented in a commercial smartwatch, and it was confirmed that the sensed positional information of the finger when it was used to touch the back of the hand could be used to control the smartwatch graphical user interface. Our system not only affords a novel experience for smartwatch users, but also provides a basis for developing other useful interfaces. PMID:26184202

  3. Characteristics of a four element gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line array high power microwave source

    Johnson, J. M., E-mail: jared.johnson@ttu.edu; Reale, D. V.; Garcia, R. S.; Cravey, W. H.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Krile, J. T. [Department of Electromagnetics and Sensor Systems, Naval Surface Warfare Center - Dahlgren Division, Dahlgren, Virginia 22448 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, a solid-state four element array gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave system is presented as well as a detailed description of its subsystems and general output capabilities. This frequency agile S-band source is easily adjusted from 2-4 GHz by way of a DC driven biasing magnetic field and is capable of generating electric fields of 7.8 kV/m at 10 m correlating to 4.2 MW of RF power with pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Beam steering of the array at angles of ±16.7° is also demonstrated, and the associated general radiation pattern is detailed.

  4. A Review of Artificial Lateral Line in Sensor Fabrication and Bionic Applications for Robot Fish.

    Liu, Guijie; Wang, Anyi; Wang, Xinbao; Liu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Lateral line is a system of sense organs that can aid fishes to maneuver in a dark environment. Artificial lateral line (ALL) imitates the structure of lateral line in fishes and provides invaluable means for underwater-sensing technology and robot fish control. This paper reviews ALL, including sensor fabrication and applications to robot fish. The biophysics of lateral line are first introduced to enhance the understanding of lateral line structure and function. The design and fabrication of an ALL sensor on the basis of various sensing principles are then presented. ALL systems are collections of sensors that include carrier and control circuit. Their structure and hydrodynamic detection are reviewed. Finally, further research trends and existing problems of ALL are discussed.

  5. A Review of Artificial Lateral Line in Sensor Fabrication and Bionic Applications for Robot Fish

    Guijie Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral line is a system of sense organs that can aid fishes to maneuver in a dark environment. Artificial lateral line (ALL imitates the structure of lateral line in fishes and provides invaluable means for underwater-sensing technology and robot fish control. This paper reviews ALL, including sensor fabrication and applications to robot fish. The biophysics of lateral line are first introduced to enhance the understanding of lateral line structure and function. The design and fabrication of an ALL sensor on the basis of various sensing principles are then presented. ALL systems are collections of sensors that include carrier and control circuit. Their structure and hydrodynamic detection are reviewed. Finally, further research trends and existing problems of ALL are discussed.

  6. Fabrication of a thin-film capacitive force sensor array for tactile feedback in robotic surgery.

    Paydar, Omeed H; Wottawa, Christopher R; Fan, Richard E; Dutson, Erik P; Grundfest, Warren S; Culjat, Martin O; Candler, Rob N

    2012-01-01

    Although surgical robotic systems provide several advantages over conventional minimally invasive techniques, they are limited by a lack of tactile feedback. Recent research efforts have successfully integrated tactile feedback components onto surgical robotic systems, and have shown significant improvement to surgical control during in vitro experiments. The primary barrier to the adoption of tactile feedback in clinical use is the unavailability of suitable force sensing technologies. This paper describes the design and fabrication of a thin-film capacitive force sensor array that is intended for integration with tactile feedback systems. This capacitive force sensing technology could provide precise, high-sensitivity, real-time responses to both static and dynamic loads. Capacitive force sensors were designed to operate with optimal sensitivity and dynamic range in the range of forces typical in minimally invasive surgery (0-40 N). Initial results validate the fabrication of these capacitive force-sensing arrays. We report 16.3 pF and 146 pF for 1-mm(2) and 9-mm(2) capacitive areas, respectively, whose values are within 3% of theoretical predictions.

  7. A gas sensor array for the simultaneous detection of multiple VOCs.

    Zhang, Yumin; Zhao, Jianhong; Du, Tengfei; Zhu, Zhongqi; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Qingju

    2017-05-16

    Air quality around the globe is declining and public health is seriously threatened by indoor air pollution. Typically, indoor air pollutants are composed of a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are generally harmful to the human body, especially VOCs with low molecular weights (less than 100 Da). Moreover, in some situations, more than one type of VOC is present; thus, a device that can detect one or more VOCs simultaneously would be most beneficial. Here, we synthesized a sensor array with 4 units to detect 4 VOCs: acetone (unit 1), benzene (unit 2), methanol (unit 3) and formaldehyde (unit 4) simultaneously. All units were simultaneously exposed to 2.5 ppm of all four VOCs. The sensitivity of unit 1 was 14.67 for acetone and less than 2.54 for the other VOCs. The sensitivities of units 2, 3 and 4 to benzene, methanol and formaldehyde were 2 18.64, 20.98 and 17.26, respectively, and less than 4.01 for the other VOCs. These results indicated that the sensor array exhibited good selectivity and could be used for the real-time monitoring of indoor air quality. Thus, this device will be useful in situations requiring the simultaneous detection of multiple VOCs.

  8. ALAT PENDETEKSI KEBOCORAN GAS BERACUN CO PADA MOBIL DENGAN ARRAY SENSOR MENGGUNAKAN FUZZY CONTROLLER

    Slamet Widodo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi otomotif sekarang ini semakin pesat yaitu dengan fasilitas accessories mobil yang semakin lengkap. Namun berbagai fasilitas yang terdapat dalam mobil tanpa disadari menyimpan ancaman bahaya bagi pengguna mobil salah satunya ketika system pada AC (Air Conditioner terjadi kebocoran maka gas CO (karbon monoksida akan memenuhi ruang mobil yang tertutup. Gas CO ini sangat berbahaya karena gas ini tidak berwarna, tidak berbau, dan tidak berasa sehingga sulit untuk dideteksi yang dapat menyebabkan orang yang ada didalam mobil menjadi mati lemas tanpa disadari karena menghirup gas CO yang bocor. Dengan fenomena tersebut dibutuhkan sebuah alat yang dapat mendeteksi dan mengontrol kebocoran gas CO untuk memberikan rasa aman kepada pengguna mobil. Alat ini menggunakan kendali logika fuzzy sebagai proses pengambilan keputusan sebagai hasil nilai dari inferensi kerja array sensor. Pengendali utama pada sistem menggunakan mikrokontroller ATmega32. Ketika array sensor yaitu TGS2442 dan TGS2600 mendeteksi kadar gas CO >29,0 ppm berarti dalam status bahaya sehingga buzzer akan aktif diikuti motor DC yang menggerakkan kaca mobil agar terbuka. Berdasarkan lima kali pengujian yang dilakukan didapatkanlah rata-rata selisih error output gas sebesar 0.29 ppm disaat kondisi aman dan 3.87 ppm disaat kondisi bahaya.

  9. Infrared Range Sensor Array for 3D Sensing in Robotic Applications

    Yongtae Do

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and testing of multiple infrared range detectors arranged in a two-dimensional (2D array. The proposed system can collect the sparse three-dimensional (3D data of objects and surroundings for robotics applications. Three kinds of tasks are considered using the system: detecting obstacles that lie ahead of a mobile robot, sensing the ground profile for the safe navigation of a mobile robot, and sensing the shape and position of an object on a conveyor belt for pickup by a robot manipulator. The developed system is potentially a simple alternative to high-resolution (and expensive 3D sensing systems, such as stereo cameras or laser scanners. In addition, the system can provide shape information about target objects and surroundings that cannot be obtained using simple ultrasonic sensors. Laboratory prototypes of the system were built with nine infrared range sensors arranged in a 3×3 array and test results confirmed the validity of system.

  10. Ultrasensitive DNA sequence detection using nanoscale ZnO sensor arrays

    Kumar, Nitin; Dorfman, Adam; Hahm, Jong-in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 160 Fenske Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2006-06-28

    We report that engineered nanoscale zinc oxide structures can be effectively used for the identification of the biothreat agent, Bacillus anthracis by successfully discriminating its DNA sequence from other genetically related species. We explore both covalent and non-covalent linking schemes in order to couple probe DNA strands to the zinc oxide nanostructures. Hybridization reactions are performed with various concentrations of target DNA strands whose sequence is unique to Bacillus anthracis. The use of zinc oxide nanomaterials greatly enhances the fluorescence signal collected after carrying out duplex formation reaction. Specifically, the covalent strategy allows detection of the target species at sample concentrations at a level as low as a few femtomolar as compared to the detection sensitivity in the tens of nanomolar range when using the non-covalent scheme. The presence of the underlying zinc oxide nanomaterials is critical in achieving increased fluorescence detection of hybridized DNA and, therefore, accomplishing rapid and extremely sensitive identification of the biothreat agent. We also demonstrate the easy integration potential of nanoscale zinc oxide into high density arrays by using various types of zinc oxide sensor prototypes in the DNA sequence detection. When combined with conventional automatic sample handling apparatus and computerized fluorescence detection equipment, our approach can greatly promote the use of zinc oxide nanomaterials as signal enhancing platforms for rapid, multiplexed, high-throughput, highly sensitive, DNA sensor arrays.

  11. Ultrasensitive DNA sequence detection using nanoscale ZnO sensor arrays

    Kumar, Nitin; Dorfman, Adam; Hahm, Jong-in

    2006-01-01

    We report that engineered nanoscale zinc oxide structures can be effectively used for the identification of the biothreat agent, Bacillus anthracis by successfully discriminating its DNA sequence from other genetically related species. We explore both covalent and non-covalent linking schemes in order to couple probe DNA strands to the zinc oxide nanostructures. Hybridization reactions are performed with various concentrations of target DNA strands whose sequence is unique to Bacillus anthracis. The use of zinc oxide nanomaterials greatly enhances the fluorescence signal collected after carrying out duplex formation reaction. Specifically, the covalent strategy allows detection of the target species at sample concentrations at a level as low as a few femtomolar as compared to the detection sensitivity in the tens of nanomolar range when using the non-covalent scheme. The presence of the underlying zinc oxide nanomaterials is critical in achieving increased fluorescence detection of hybridized DNA and, therefore, accomplishing rapid and extremely sensitive identification of the biothreat agent. We also demonstrate the easy integration potential of nanoscale zinc oxide into high density arrays by using various types of zinc oxide sensor prototypes in the DNA sequence detection. When combined with conventional automatic sample handling apparatus and computerized fluorescence detection equipment, our approach can greatly promote the use of zinc oxide nanomaterials as signal enhancing platforms for rapid, multiplexed, high-throughput, highly sensitive, DNA sensor arrays

  12. Integration of Fiber-Optic Sensor Arrays into a Multi-Modal Tactile Sensor Processing System for Robotic End-Effectors

    Peter Kampmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing complexity of robotic missions and the development towards long-term autonomous systems, the need for multi-modal sensing of the environment increases. Until now, the use of tactile sensor systems has been mostly based on sensing one modality of forces in the robotic end-effector. The use of a multi-modal tactile sensory system is motivated, which combines static and dynamic force sensor arrays together with an absolute force measurement system. This publication is focused on the development of a compact sensor interface for a fiber-optic sensor array, as optic measurement principles tend to have a bulky interface. Mechanical, electrical and software approaches are combined to realize an integrated structure that provides decentralized data pre-processing of the tactile measurements. Local behaviors are implemented using this setup to show the effectiveness of this approach.

  13. Shock tunnel measurements of surface pressures in shock induced separated flow field using MEMS sensor array

    Sriram, R; Jagadeesh, G; Ram, S N; Hegde, G M; Nayak, M M

    2015-01-01

    Characterized not just by high Mach numbers, but also high flow total enthalpies—often accompanied by dissociation and ionization of flowing gas itself—the experimental simulation of hypersonic flows requires impulse facilities like shock tunnels. However, shock tunnel simulation imposes challenges and restrictions on the flow diagnostics, not just because of the possible extreme flow conditions, but also the short run times—typically around 1 ms. The development, calibration and application of fast response MEMS sensors for surface pressure measurements in IISc hypersonic shock tunnel HST-2, with a typical test time of 600 μs, for the complex flow field of strong (impinging) shock boundary layer interaction with separation close to the leading edge, is delineated in this paper. For Mach numbers 5.96 (total enthalpy 1.3 MJ kg −1 ) and 8.67 (total enthalpy 1.6 MJ kg −1 ), surface pressures ranging from around 200 Pa to 50 000 Pa, in various regions of the flow field, are measured using the MEMS sensors. The measurements are found to compare well with the measurements using commercial sensors. It was possible to resolve important regions of the flow field involving significant spatial gradients of pressure, with a resolution of 5 data points within 12 mm in each MEMS array, which cannot be achieved with the other commercial sensors. In particular, MEMS sensors enabled the measurement of separation pressure (at Mach 8.67) near the leading edge and the sharply varying pressure in the reattachment zone. (paper)

  14. Dual-reflector configuration in varied line-space grating displacement sensor

    Liu Zhengkun; Xu Xiangdong; Fu Shaojun; Zhou Qin; Liu Bin

    2008-01-01

    A method to improve the accuracy of the wavelength encoding varied line-space grating displacement sensor is presented. Based on the detailed analysis of the measured displacement errors from the single-mirror configuration sensor, a dual-reflector configuration is used to replace the previous configuration, and greatly decreases its errors. Experiments are conducted in order to make comparison of the two configurations. The results show that the measured displacement error of the sensor with dual-reflector configuration is lower than 0.03 mm in full scale (0 to 50 mm), only about 10% of the sensor with single-mirror configuration

  15. Proceedings of the Adaptive Sensor Array Processing Workshop (12th) Held in Lexington, MA on 16-18 March 2004 (CD-ROM)

    James, F

    2004-01-01

    ...: The twelfth annual workshop on Adaptive Sensor Array Processing presented a diverse agenda featuring new work on adaptive methods for communications, radar and sonar, algorithmic challenges posed...

  16. On-line methanol sensor system development for recombinant ...

    PANCHIGA

    2016-10-19

    Oct 19, 2016 ... Calibration of the methanol sensor system was done in a medium environment with ... by taking protein induction at a low temperature and a pH where protease ... molecular weight of 66.5 kDa, HSA comprises about one-.

  17. Towards Development of Microcalorimeter Arrays of Mo/Au Transition-Edge Sensors with Bismuth Absorbers

    Tralshawala, Nilesh; Brekosky, Regis; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Li, Mary; Stahle, Carl; Stahle, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    We report on our progress towards the development of arrays of X-ray microcalorimeters as candidates for the high resolution x-ray spectrometer on the Constellation-X mission. The microcalorimeter arrays (30 x 30) with appropriate pixel sizes (0.25 mm. x 0.25 mm) and high packing fractions (greater than 96%) are being developed. Each individual pixel has a 10 micron thick Bi X-ray absorber that is shaped like a mushroom to increase the packing fraction, and a Mo/Au proximity effect superconducting transition edge sensor (TES). These are deposited on a 0.25 or 0.5 micron thick silicon nitride membrane with slits to provide a controllable weak thermal link to the sink temperature. Studies are underway to model, test and optimize the TES pixel uniformity, critical current, heat capacity and the membrane thermal conductance in the array structure. Fabrication issues and procedures, and results of our efforts based on these optimizations will be provided.

  18. Titanium dioxide nanowire sensor array integration on CMOS platform using deterministic assembly.

    Gall, Oren Z; Zhong, Xiahua; Schulman, Daniel S; Kang, Myungkoo; Razavieh, Ali; Mayer, Theresa S

    2017-06-30

    Nanosensor arrays have recently received significant attention due to their utility in a wide range of applications, including gas sensing, fuel cells, internet of things, and portable health monitoring systems. Less attention has been given to the production of sensor platforms in the μW range for ultra-low power applications. Here, we discuss how to scale the nanosensor energy demand by developing a process for integration of nanowire sensing arrays on a monolithic CMOS chip. This work demonstrates an off-chip nanowire fabrication method; subsequently nanowires link to a fused SiO 2 substrate using electric-field assisted directed assembly. The nanowire resistances shown in this work have the highest resistance uniformity reported to date of 18%, which enables a practical roadmap towards the coupling of nanosensors to CMOS circuits and signal processing systems. The article also presents the utility of optimizing annealing conditions of the off-chip metal-oxides prior to CMOS integration to avoid limitations of thermal budget and process incompatibility. In the context of the platform demonstrated here, directed assembly is a powerful tool that can realize highly uniform, cross-reactive arrays of different types of metal-oxide nanosensors suited for gas discrimination and signal processing systems.

  19. High-Resolution Spin-on-Patterning of Perovskite Thin Films for a Multiplexed Image Sensor Array.

    Lee, Woongchan; Lee, Jongha; Yun, Huiwon; Kim, Joonsoo; Park, Jinhong; Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Dong Chan; Seo, Hyunseon; Lee, Hakyong; Yu, Ji Woong; Lee, Won Bo; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2017-10-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite thin films have attracted significant attention as an alternative to silicon in photon-absorbing devices mainly because of their superb optoelectronic properties. However, high-definition patterning of perovskite thin films, which is important for fabrication of the image sensor array, is hardly accomplished owing to their extreme instability in general photolithographic solvents. Here, a novel patterning process for perovskite thin films is described: the high-resolution spin-on-patterning (SoP) process. This fast and facile process is compatible with a variety of spin-coated perovskite materials and perovskite deposition techniques. The SoP process is successfully applied to develop a high-performance, ultrathin, and deformable perovskite-on-silicon multiplexed image sensor array, paving the road toward next-generation image sensor arrays. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Evolution of miniature detectors and focal plane arrays for infrared sensors

    Watts, Louis A.

    1993-06-01

    Sensors that are sensitive in the infrared spectral region have been under continuous development since the WW2 era. A quest for the military advantage of 'seeing in the dark' has pushed thermal imaging technology toward high spatial and temporal resolution for night vision equipment, fire control, search track, and seeker 'homing' guidance sensing devices. Similarly, scientific applications have pushed spectral resolution for chemical analysis, remote sensing of earth resources, and astronomical exploration applications. As a result of these developments, focal plane arrays (FPA) are now available with sufficient sensitivity for both high spatial and narrow bandwidth spectral resolution imaging over large fields of view. Such devices combined with emerging opto-electronic developments in integrated FPA data processing techniques can yield miniature sensors capable of imaging reflected sunlight in the near IR and emitted thermal energy in the Mid-wave (MWIR) and longwave (LWIR) IR spectral regions. Robotic space sensors equipped with advanced versions of these FPA's will provide high resolution 'pictures' of their surroundings, perform remote analysis of solid, liquid, and gas matter, or selectively look for 'signatures' of specific objects. Evolutionary trends and projections of future low power micro detector FPA developments for day/night operation or use in adverse viewing conditions are presented in the following test.

  1. Real-time odor discrimination using a bioelectronic sensor array based on the insect electroantennogram

    Myrick, A J; Hetling, J R; Park, K-C; Baker, T C

    2008-01-01

    Current trends in artificial nose research are strongly influenced by knowledge of biological olfactory systems. Insects have evolved over millions of years to detect and maneuver toward a food source or mate, or away from predators. The insect olfactory system is able to identify volatiles on a time scale that matches their ability to maneuver. Here, biological olfactory sense organs, insect antennae, have been exploited in a hybrid-device biosensor, demonstrating the ability to identify individual strands of odor in a plume passing over the sensor on a sub-second time scale. A portable system was designed to utilize the electrophysiological responses recorded from a sensor array composed of male or female antennae from four or eight different species of insects (a multi-channel electroantennogram, EAG). A computational analysis strategy that allows discrimination between odors in real time is described in detail. Following a training period, both semi-parametric and k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifiers with the ability to discard ambiguous responses are applied toward the classification of up to eight odors. EAG responses to individual strands in an odor plume are classified or discarded as ambiguous with a delay (sensor response to classification report) on the order of 1 s. The dependence of classification error rate on several parameters is described. Finally, the performance of the approach is compared to that of a minimal conditional risk classifier

  2. An Optical Wavefront Sensor Based on a Double Layer Microlens Array

    Hsiang-Chun Wei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine light aberrations, Shack-Hartmann optical wavefront sensors make use of microlens arrays (MLA to divide the incident light into small parts and focus them onto image planes. In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of long focal length MLA with various shapes and arrangements based on a double layer structure for optical wavefront sensing applications. A longer focal length MLA could provide high sensitivity in determining the average slope across each microlens under a given wavefront, and spatial resolution of a wavefront sensor is increased by numbers of microlenses across a detector. In order to extend focal length, we used polydimethysiloxane (PDMS above MLA on a glass substrate. Because of small refractive index difference between PDMS and MLA interface (UV-resin, the incident light is less refracted and focused in further distance. Other specific focal lengths could also be realized by modifying the refractive index difference without changing the MLA size. Thus, the wavefront sensor could be improved with better sensitivity and higher spatial resolution.

  3. Response Optimization of a Chemical Gas Sensor Array using Temperature Modulation

    Cristhian Durán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of the design and implementation of a simple conditioning circuit to optimize the electronic nose performance, where a temperature modulation method was applied to the heating resistor to study the sensor’s response and confirm whether they are able to make the discrimination when exposed to different volatile organic compounds (VOC’s. This study was based on determining the efficiency of the gas sensors with the aim to perform an electronic nose, improving the sensitivity, selectivity and repeatability of the measuring system, selecting the type of modulation (e.g., pulse width modulation for the analytes detection (i.e., Moscatel wine samples (2% of alcohol and ethyl alcohol (70%. The results demonstrated that by using temperature modulation technique to the heating resistors, it is possible to realize the discrimination of VOC’s in fast and easy way through a chemical sensors array. Therefore, a discrimination model based on principal component analysis (PCA was implemented to each sensor, with data responses obtaining a variance of 94.5% and accuracy of 100%.

  4. A Novel Two-Wire Fast Readout Approach for Suppressing Cable Crosstalk in a Tactile Resistive Sensor Array

    Jianfeng Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For suppressing the crosstalk problem due to wire resistances and contacted resistances of the long flexible cables in tactile sensing systems, we present a novel two-wire fast readout approach for the two-dimensional resistive sensor array in shared row-column fashion. In the approach, two wires are used for every driving electrode and every sampling electrode in the resistive sensor array. The approach with a high readout rate, though it requires a large number of wires and many sampling channels, solves the cable crosstalk problem. We also verified the approach’s performance with Multisim simulations and actual experiments.

  5. A Novel Two-Wire Fast Readout Approach for Suppressing Cable Crosstalk in a Tactile Resistive Sensor Array.

    Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Yu; Li, Jianqing; Song, Aiguo

    2016-05-18

    For suppressing the crosstalk problem due to wire resistances and contacted resistances of the long flexible cables in tactile sensing systems, we present a novel two-wire fast readout approach for the two-dimensional resistive sensor array in shared row-column fashion. In the approach, two wires are used for every driving electrode and every sampling electrode in the resistive sensor array. The approach with a high readout rate, though it requires a large number of wires and many sampling channels, solves the cable crosstalk problem. We also verified the approach's performance with Multisim simulations and actual experiments.

  6. A High-Sensitivity Flexible Eddy Current Array Sensor for Crack Monitoring of Welded Structures under Varying Environment.

    Chen, Tao; He, Yuting; Du, Jinqiang

    2018-06-01

    This paper develops a high-sensitivity flexible eddy current array (HS-FECA) sensor for crack monitoring of welded structures under varying environment. Firstly, effects of stress, temperature and crack on output signals of the traditional flexible eddy current array (FECA) sensor were investigated by experiments that show both stress and temperature have great influences on the crack monitoring performance of the sensor. A 3-D finite element model was established using Comsol AC/DC module to analyze the perturbation effects of crack on eddy currents and output signals of the sensor, which showed perturbation effect of cracks on eddy currents is reduced by the current loop when crack propagates. Then, the HS-FECA sensor was proposed to boost the sensitivity to cracks. Simulation results show that perturbation effect of cracks on eddy currents excited by the HS-FECA sensor gradually grows stronger when the crack propagates, resulting in much higher sensitivity to cracks. Experimental result further shows that the sensitivity of the new sensor is at least 19 times that of the original one. In addition, both stress and temperature variations have little effect on signals of the new sensor.

  7. Graphene Nanoplatelet-Polymer Chemiresistive Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Discrimination of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    Wiederoder, Michael S; Nallon, Eric C; Weiss, Matt; McGraw, Shannon K; Schnee, Vincent P; Bright, Collin J; Polcha, Michael P; Paffenroth, Randy; Uzarski, Joshua R

    2017-11-22

    A cross-reactive array of semiselective chemiresistive sensors made of polymer-graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) composite coated electrodes was examined for detection and discrimination of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The arrays employ a set of chemically diverse polymers to generate a unique response signature for multiple CWA simulants and background interferents. The developed sensors' signal remains consistent after repeated exposures to multiple analytes for up to 5 days with a similar signal magnitude across different replicate sensors with the same polymer-GNP coating. An array of 12 sensors each coated with a different polymer-GNP mixture was exposed 100 times to a cycle of single analyte vapors consisting of 5 chemically similar CWA simulants and 8 common background interferents. The collected data was vector normalized to reduce concentration dependency, z-scored to account for baseline drift and signal-to-noise ratio, and Kalman filtered to reduce noise. The processed data was dimensionally reduced with principal component analysis and analyzed with four different machine learning algorithms to evaluate discrimination capabilities. For 5 similarly structured CWA simulants alone 100% classification accuracy was achieved. For all analytes tested 99% classification accuracy was achieved demonstrating the CWA discrimination capabilities of the developed system. The novel sensor fabrication methods and data processing techniques are attractive for development of sensor platforms for discrimination of CWA and other classes of chemical vapors.

  8. Geospace Science from Ground-based Magnetometer Arrays: Advances in Sensors, Data Collection, and Data Integration

    Mann, Ian; Chi, Peter

    2016-07-01

    , acceleration, and loss of electrons in the radiation belts promise high profile science returns. Integrated, global scale data products also have potential importance and application for real-time monitoring of the space weather threats to electrical power grids from geomagnetically induced currents. Such data exploitation increasingly relies on the collaborations between multiple national magnetometer arrays to generate single data products with common file format and data properties. We review advances in geospace science which can be delivered by networks of ground-based magnetometers - in terms of advances in sensors, data collection, and data integration - including through collaborations within the Ultra-Large Terrestrial International Magnetometer Array (ULTIMA) consortium.

  9. A novel sensor array for field based ocular ultraviolet radiation measurements

    Fleming, D. P.; Walsh, J. E.; Moore, L. A.; Bergmanson, J. P.; McMahon, D.

    2006-01-01

    The intensification of terrestrial solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) due to the diminution of the ozone layer has promoted a variety of research into establishing the impact of this elevated potential dose of UVR on biological tissues. Certain anterior ocular tissues have been found to be susceptible to damage by incident UVR and potentially blinding diseases such as pterygium are thought to be a direct result of absorbed UVR at the nasal limbus. There is a need for more accurate quantification and localisation of incident UVR at the anterior ocular surface. A novel solar blind photodiode sensor array system has been designed, constructed and tested for this purpose. Initial measurements to quantify the irradiance across the anterior ocular surface within the latitudes known as the 'pterygium belt' provide us with a set of core data for different head orientations and tilt angles and indicate the accuracy and stability of the system. (authors)

  10. Heavy Ion Transient Characterization of a Photobit Hardened-by-Design Active Pixel Sensor Array

    Marshall, Paul W.; Byers, Wheaton B.; Conger, Christopher; Eid, El-Sayed; Gee, George; Jones, Michael R.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; Reed, Robert; Pickel, Jim; Kniffin, Scott

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents heavy ion data on the single event transient (SET) response of a Photobit active pixel sensor (APS) four quadrant test chip with different radiation tolerant designs in a standard 0.35 micron CMOS process. The physical design techniques of enclosed geometry and P-channel guard rings are used to design the four N-type active photodiode pixels as described in a previous paper. Argon transient measurements on the 256 x 256 chip array as a function of incident angle show a significant variation in the amount of charge collected as well as the charge spreading dependent on the pixel type. The results are correlated with processing and design information provided by Photobit. In addition, there is a large degree of statistical variability between individual ion strikes. No latch-up is observed up to an LET of 106 MeV/mg/sq cm.

  11. Source Localization with Acoustic Sensor Arrays Using Generative Model Based Fitting with Sparse Constraints

    Javier Macias-Guarasa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach for indoor acoustic source localization using sensor arrays. The proposed solution starts by defining a generative model, designed to explain the acoustic power maps obtained by Steered Response Power (SRP strategies. An optimization approach is then proposed to fit the model to real input SRP data and estimate the position of the acoustic source. Adequately fitting the model to real SRP data, where noise and other unmodelled effects distort the ideal signal, is the core contribution of the paper. Two basic strategies in the optimization are proposed. First, sparse constraints in the parameters of the model are included, enforcing the number of simultaneous active sources to be limited. Second, subspace analysis is used to filter out portions of the input signal that cannot be explained by the model. Experimental results on a realistic speech database show statistically significant localization error reductions of up to 30% when compared with the SRP-PHAT strategies.

  12. Multiple products management system with sensors array in automated storage and retrieval systems

    Vongbunyong, Supachai; Roengritronnachai, Perawat; Kongsanit, Savanut; Chanok-owat, Chawisa; Polchankajorn, Pongsakorn

    2018-01-01

    Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) have now been widely used in a number of industries due to its capability to automatically manage the storage of products in effective ways. One of the key features of AS/RS is that each rack is not assigned for a specific product resulting in the benefit of space utilization and logistics related issues. In this research, sensor arrays are equipped at each rack in order to enhance this feature. As a result, various products can be identified and mixed in each rack, so that the space utilization efficiency can be increased. To prove the concept, a prototype system consisting of a Cartesian robot that manages the storage and retrieval of products with 9 variations based on size and color. The concept of Cyber-Physical System and self-awareness of the system are also implemented in this concept prototype.

  13. A Novel Crosstalk Suppression Method of the 2-D Networked Resistive Sensor Array

    Jianfeng Wu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The 2-D resistive sensor array in the row–column fashion suffered from the crosstalk problem for parasitic parallel paths. Firstly, we proposed an Improved Isolated Drive Feedback Circuit with Compensation (IIDFCC based on the voltage feedback method to suppress the crosstalk. In this method, a compensated resistor was specially used to reduce the crosstalk caused by the column multiplexer resistors and the adjacent row elements. Then, a mathematical equivalent resistance expression of the element being tested (EBT of this circuit was analytically derived and verified by the circuit simulations. The simulation results show that the measurement method can greatly reduce the influence on the EBT caused by parasitic parallel paths for the multiplexers’ channel resistor and the adjacent elements.

  14. High-resolution parallel-detection sensor array using piezo-phototronics effect

    Wang, Zhong L.; Pan, Caofeng

    2015-07-28

    A pressure sensor element includes a substrate, a first type of semiconductor material layer and an array of elongated light-emitting piezoelectric nanostructures extending upwardly from the first type of semiconductor material layer. A p-n junction is formed between each nanostructure and the first type semiconductor layer. An insulative resilient medium layer is infused around each of the elongated light-emitting piezoelectric nanostructures. A transparent planar electrode, disposed on the resilient medium layer, is electrically coupled to the top of each nanostructure. A voltage source is coupled to the first type of semiconductor material layer and the transparent planar electrode and applies a biasing voltage across each of the nanostructures. Each nanostructure emits light in an intensity that is proportional to an amount of compressive strain applied thereto.

  15. Control of Turing patterns and their usage as sensors, memory arrays, and logic gates

    Muzika, František; Schreiber, Igor

    2013-10-01

    We study a model system of three diffusively coupled reaction cells arranged in a linear array that display Turing patterns with special focus on the case of equal coupling strength for all components. As a suitable model reaction we consider a two-variable core model of glycolysis. Using numerical continuation and bifurcation techniques we analyze the dependence of the system's steady states on varying rate coefficient of the recycling step while the coupling coefficients of the inhibitor and activator are fixed and set at the ratios 100:1, 1:1, and 4:5. We show that stable Turing patterns occur at all three ratios but, as expected, spontaneous transition from the spatially uniform steady state to the spatially nonuniform Turing patterns occurs only in the first case. The other two cases possess multiple Turing patterns, which are stabilized by secondary bifurcations and coexist with stable uniform periodic oscillations. For the 1:1 ratio we examine modular spatiotemporal perturbations, which allow for controllable switching between the uniform oscillations and various Turing patterns. Such modular perturbations are then used to construct chemical computing devices utilizing the multiple Turing patterns. By classifying various responses we propose: (a) a single-input resettable sensor capable of reading certain value of concentration, (b) two-input and three-input memory arrays capable of storing logic information, (c) three-input, three-output logic gates performing combinations of logical functions OR, XOR, AND, and NAND.

  16. Heterogeneous metal-oxide nanowire micro-sensor array for gas sensing

    DeMeo, Dante; E Vandervelde, Thomas; MacNaughton, Sam; Sonkusale, Sameer; Wang, Zhilong; Zhang, Xinjie

    2014-01-01

    Vanadium oxide, manganese oxide, tungsten oxide, and nickel oxide nanowires were investigated for their applicability as chemiresistive gas sensors. Nanowires have excellent surface-to-volume ratios which yield higher sensitivities than bulk materials. Sensing elements consisting of these materials were assembled in an array to create an electronic nose platform. Dielectrophoresis was used to position the nanomaterials onto a microfabricated array of electrodes, which was subsequently mounted onto a leadless chip carrier and printed circuit board for rapid testing. Samples were tested in an enclosed chamber with vapors of acetone, isopropanol, methanol, and aqueous ammonia. The change in resistance of each assembly was measured. Responses varied between nanowire compositions, each demonstrating unique and repeatable responses to different gases; this enabled direct detection of the gases from the ensemble response. Sensitivities were calculated based on the fractional resistance change in a saturated environment and ranged from 6 × 10 −4 to 2 × 10 −5 %change ppm −1 . (papers)

  17. Multi-sensor Array for High Altitude Balloon Missions to the Stratosphere

    Davis, Tim; McClurg, Bryce; Sohl, John

    2008-10-01

    We have designed and built a microprocessor controlled and expandable multi-sensor array for data collection on near space missions. Weber State University has started a high altitude research balloon program called HARBOR. This array has been designed to data log a base set of measurements for every flight and has room for six guest instruments. The base measurements are absolute pressure, on-board temperature, 3-axis accelerometer for attitude measurement, and 2-axis compensated magnetic compass. The system also contains a real time clock and circuitry for logging data directly to a USB memory stick. In typical operation the measurements will be cycled through in sequence and saved to the memory stick along with the clock's time stamp. The microprocessor can be reprogrammed to adapt to guest experiments with either analog or digital interfacing. This system will fly with every mission and will provide backup data collection for other instrumentation for which the primary task is measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature. The attitude data will be used to determine the orientation of the onboard camera systems to aid in identifying features in the images. This will make these images easier to use for any future GIS (geographic information system) remote sensing missions.

  18. Flow-through nanohole array based sensor implemented on analogue smartphone components

    Gomez-Cruz, Juan; Nair, Srijit; Ascanio, Gabriel; Escobedo, Carlos

    2017-08-01

    Mobile communications have massively populated the consumer electronics market over the past few years and it is now ubiquitous, providing a timeless opportunity for the development of smartphone-based technologies as point-of-care (POC) diagnosis tools1 . The expectation for a fully integrated smartphone-based sensor that enables applications such as environmental monitoring, explosive detection and biomedical analysis has increased among the scientific community in the past few years2,3. The commercialization forecast for smartphone-based sensing technologies is very promising, but reliable, miniature and cost-effective sensing platforms that can adapt to portable electronics in still under development. In this work, we present an integrated sensing platform based on flow-through metallic nanohole arrays. The nanohole arrays are 260 nm in diameter and 520 nm in pitch, fabricated using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) lithography. A white LED resembling a smartphone flash LED serves as light source to excite surface plasmons and the signal is recorded via a Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) module. The sensing abilities of the integrated sensing platform is demonstrated for the detection of (i) changes in bulk refractive index (RI), (ii) real-time monitoring of surface modification by receptor-analyte system of streptavidin-biotin.

  19. Robotic tool positioning process using a multi-line off-axis laser triangulation sensor

    Pinto, T. C.; Matos, G.

    2018-03-01

    Proper positioning of a friction stir welding head for pin insertion, driven by a closed chain robot, is important to ensure quality repair of cracks. A multi-line off-axis laser triangulation sensor was designed to be integrated to the robot, allowing relative measurements of the surface to be repaired. This work describes the sensor characteristics, its evaluation and the measurement process for tool positioning to a surface point of interest. The developed process uses a point of interest image and a measured point cloud to define the translation and rotation for tool positioning. Sensor evaluation and tests are described. Keywords: laser triangulation, 3D measurement, tool positioning, robotics.

  20. Two Dimensional Array of Piezoresistive Nanomechanical Membrane-Type Surface Stress Sensor (MSS with Improved Sensitivity

    Nico F. de Rooij

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generation of piezoresistive nanomechanical Membrane-type Surface stress Sensor (MSS chips, which consist of a two dimensional array of MSS on a single chip. The implementation of several optimization techniques in the design and microfabrication improved the piezoresistive sensitivity by 3~4 times compared to the first generation MSS chip, resulting in a sensitivity about ~100 times better than a standard cantilever-type sensor and a few times better than optical read-out methods in terms of experimental signal-to-noise ratio. Since the integrated piezoresistive read-out of the MSS can meet practical requirements, such as compactness and not requiring bulky and expensive peripheral devices, the MSS is a promising transducer for nanomechanical sensing in the rapidly growing application fields in medicine, biology, security, and the environment. Specifically, its system compactness due to the integrated piezoresistive sensing makes the MSS concept attractive for the instruments used in mobile applications. In addition, the MSS can operate in opaque liquids, such as blood, where optical read-out techniques cannot be applied.

  1. MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement

    Yonghua Qu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The canopy foliage clumping effect is primarily caused by the non-random distribution of canopy foliage. Currently, measurements of clumping index (CI by handheld instruments is typically time- and labor-intensive. We propose a low-cost and low-power automatic measurement system called Multi-point Linear Array of Optical Sensors (MLAOS, which consists of three above-canopy and nine below-canopy optical sensors that capture plant transmittance at different times of the day. Data communication between the MLAOS node is facilitated by using a ZigBee network, and the data are transmitted from the field MLAOS to a remote data server using the Internet. The choice of the electronic element and design of the MLAOS software is aimed at reducing costs and power consumption. A power consumption test showed that, when a 4000 mAH Li-ion battery is used, a maximum of 8–10 months of work can be achieved. A field experiment on a coniferous forest revealed that the CI of MLAOS may reveal a clumping effect that occurs within the canopy. In further work, measurement of the multi-scale clumping effect can be achieved by utilizing a greater number of MLAOS devices to capture the heterogeneity of the plant canopy.

  2. Biquaternion beamspace with its application to vector-sensor array direction findings and polarization estimations

    Li, Dan; Xu, Feng; Jiang, Jing Fei; Zhang, Jian Qiu

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a biquaternion beamspace, constructed by projecting the original data of an electromagnetic vector-sensor array into a subspace of a lower dimension via a quaternion transformation matrix, is first proposed. To estimate the direction and polarization angles of sources, biquaternion beamspace multiple signal classification (BB-MUSIC) estimators are then formulated. The analytical results show that the biquaternion beamspaces offer us some additional degrees of freedom to simultaneously achieve three goals. One is to save the memory spaces for storing the data covariance matrix and reduce the computation efforts of the eigen-decomposition. Another is to decouple the estimations of the sources' polarization parameters from those of their direction angles. The other is to blindly whiten the coherent noise of the six constituent antennas in each vector-sensor. It is also shown that the existing biquaternion multiple signal classification (BQ-MUSIC) estimator is a specific case of our BB-MUSIC ones. The simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of the analytical ones.

  3. Color Calibration for Colorized Vision System with Digital Sensor and LED Array Illuminator

    Zhenmin Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Color measurement by the colorized vision system is a superior method to achieve the evaluation of color objectively and continuously. However, the accuracy of color measurement is influenced by the spectral responses of digital sensor and the spectral mismatch of illumination. In this paper, two-color vision system illuminated by digital sensor and LED array, respectively, is presented. The Polynomial-Based Regression method is applied to solve the problem of color calibration in the sRGB and CIE  L⁎a⁎b⁎ color spaces. By mapping the tristimulus values from RGB to sRGB color space, color difference between the estimated values and the reference values is less than 3ΔE. Additionally, the mapping matrix ΦRGB→sRGB has proved a better performance in reducing the color difference, and it is introduced subsequently into the colorized vision system proposed for a better color measurement. Necessarily, the printed matter of clothes and the colored ceramic tile are chosen as the application experiment samples of our colorized vision system. As shown in the experimental data, the average color difference of images is less than 6ΔE. It indicates that a better performance of color measurement is obtained via the colorized vision system proposed.

  4. Geometrical modeling of a two-dimensional sensor array for determining spatial position of a passive object

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a model of an active sensor array which can determine the spatial position of a passive object by illuminating the object via a small set of emitters and measure the intensity of the reflection by means of a small set of receivers. All emitters and receivers are located...

  5. A patterned ZnO nanorod array/gas sensor fabricated by mechanoelectrospinning-assisted selective growth.

    Wang, Xiaomei; Sun, Fazhe; Huang, Yongan; Duan, Yongqing; Yin, Zhouping

    2015-02-21

    Micropatterned ZnO nanorod arrays were fabricated by the mechanoelectrospinning-assisted direct-writing process and the hydrothermal growth process, and utilized as gas sensors that exhibited excellent Ohmic behavior and sensitivity response to oxidizing gas NO2 at low concentrations (1-100 ppm).

  6. MEMS based monolithic Phased array using 3-bit Switched-line Phase Shifter

    A. Karmakr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article details the design of an electronically scanning phased array antenna with proposed fabrication process steps. Structure is based upon RF micro-electromechanical system (MEMS technology. Capacitive type shunt switches have been implemented here to cater high frequency operation. The architecture, which is deigned at 30 GHz, consists of 3-bit (11.25º, 22.5º and 45º integrated Switched-line phase shifter and a linearly polarized microstrip patch antenna. Detailed design tricks of the Ka-band phase shifter is outlined here. The whole design is targeted for future monolithic integration. So, the substrate of choice is High Resistive Silicon (ρ > 8kΩ-cm, tan δ =0.01 and ϵr =11.8. The overall circuit occupies an cross-sectional area of 20 × 5 mm2. The simulated results show that the phase shifter can provide nearly 11.25º/22.5º/45º phase shifts and their combinations at the expense of 1dB average insertion loss at 30 GHz for eight combinations. Practical fabrication process flow using surface micromachining is proposed here. Critical dimensions of the phased array structure is governed by the deign rules of the standard CMOS/MEMS foundry.

  7. The effect of line-broadening on the overall width of transition arrays in dense plasmas

    Hoarty, D.J.; Bentley, C.D.; Crowley, B.J.B.; Davidson, S.J.; Gales, S.G.; Graham, P.; Harris, J.W.O.; Iglesias, C.A.; James, S.F.; Smith, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have been performed, using the HELEN laser, to measure absorption spectra in the temperature range 20-60 eV and density range 0.5-3 g/cm 3 . K-shell spectra of aluminium were studied to investigate the effect of the plasma environment on the absorption spectrum. The experiments show the effect, at high-density, of array broadening and the merging of high series lines. Comparisons of the experimental absorption data to different opacity models are discussed. The experimental data are compared to calculations of the CASSANDRA opacity model, with and without the inclusion of electron impact broadening. The CASSANDRA code is in better agreement with experiment with electron impact broadening included. The data were also compared to the OPAL detailed term accounting model with reasonable agreement

  8. Sliding three-phase contact line of printed droplets for single-crystal arrays

    Kuang, Minxuan; Wu, Lei; Li, Yifan; Gao, Meng; Zhang, Xingye; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the behaviours of printed droplets is an essential requirement for inkjet printing of delicate three-dimensional (3D) structures or high-resolution patterns. In this work, molecular deposition and crystallization are regulated by manipulating the three-phase contact line (TCL) behaviour of the printed droplets. The results show that oriented single-crystal arrays are fabricated based on the continuously sliding TCL. Owing to the sliding of the TCL on the substrate, the outward capillary flow within the evaporating droplet is suppressed and the molecules are brought to the centre of the droplet, resulting in the formation of a single crystal. This work provides a facile strategy for controlling the structures of printed units by manipulating the TCL of printed droplets, which is significant for realizing high-resolution patterns and delicate 3D structures. (paper)

  9. Integrated arrays of air-dielectric graphene transistors as transparent active-matrix pressure sensors for wide pressure ranges.

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Ji, Sangyoon; Choi, Seiho; Pyo, Kyoung-Hee; Wan An, Byeong; Park, Jihun; Kim, Joohee; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Ki-Suk; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Heo, Jaeyeong; Park, Byong-Guk; Park, Jang-Ung

    2017-03-31

    Integrated electronic circuitries with pressure sensors have been extensively researched as a key component for emerging electronics applications such as electronic skins and health-monitoring devices. Although existing pressure sensors display high sensitivities, they can only be used for specific purposes due to the narrow range of detectable pressure (under tens of kPa) and the difficulty of forming highly integrated arrays. However, it is essential to develop tactile pressure sensors with a wide pressure range in order to use them for diverse application areas including medical diagnosis, robotics or automotive electronics. Here we report an unconventional approach for fabricating fully integrated active-matrix arrays of pressure-sensitive graphene transistors with air-dielectric layers simply formed by folding two opposing panels. Furthermore, this realizes a wide tactile pressure sensing range from 250 Pa to ∼3 MPa. Additionally, fabrication of pressure sensor arrays and transparent pressure sensors are demonstrated, suggesting their substantial promise as next-generation electronics.

  10. Synthesis of CdS nanorod arrays and their applications in flexible piezo-driven active H2S sensors

    Wang, Penglei; Deng, Ping; Nie, Yuxin; Zhao, Yayu; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    A flexible piezo-driven active H 2 S sensor has been fabricated from CdS nanorod arrays. By coupling the piezoelectric and gas sensing properties of CdS nanorods, the piezoelectric output generated by CdS nanorod arrays acts not only as a power source, but also as a response signal to H 2 S. Under externally applied compressive force, the piezoelectric output of CdS nanorod arrays is very sensitive to H 2 S. Upon exposure to 600 ppm H 2 S, the piezoelectric output of the device decreased from 0.32 V (in air) to 0.12 V. Such a flexible device can be driven by the tiny mechanical energy in our living environment, such as human finger pinching. Our research can stimulate a research trend on designing new material systems and device structures for high-performance piezo-driven active gas sensors. (paper)

  11. Real Time Assessment of Potable Water Quality in Distribution Network based on Low Cost Multi-Sensor Array

    Bhardwaj, Jyotirmoy; Gupta, Karunesh K.; Khatri, Punit

    2018-03-01

    New concepts and techniques are replacing traditional methods of water quality parameters measurement systems. This paper proposed a new way of potable water quality assessment in distribution network using Multi Sensor Array (MSA). Extensive research suggests that following parameters i.e. pH, Dissolved Oxygen (D.O.), Conductivity, Oxygen Reduction Potential (ORP), Temperature and Salinity are most suitable to detect overall quality of potable water. Commonly MSA is not an integrated sensor array on some substrate, but rather comprises a set of individual sensors measuring simultaneously different water parameters all together. Based on research, a MSA has been developed followed by signal conditioning unit and finally, an algorithm for easy user interfacing. A dedicated part of this paper also discusses the platform design and significant results. The Objective of this proposed research is to provide simple, efficient, cost effective and socially acceptable means to detect and analyse water bodies regularly and automatically.

  12. Fabrication of highly oriented reduced graphene oxide microbelts array for massive production of sensitive ammonia gas sensors

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Rongfu; Wang, Xiaona; Feng, Wei; Hu, PingAn; Wang, Zhenlong; O’Neill, William

    2013-01-01

    Patterning oriented reduced graphene oxide (rGO) into functional structures is significant for its application in electronics and sensors. A large array of highly oriented rGO microbelts are prepared by a soft lithography process. These rGO microbelts have a uniform structure that enables the massive production of graphene electronics using a simple mask shielding process. A high performance NH 3 sensor array which was fabricated from rGO microbelts exhibits a reproducible performance with the relative resistance response (ΔR/R 0 ) reaching 0.35, whilst offering a large concentration range response of 10 ppm ∼38%, showing these sensors to be both highly sensitive and responsive. The impact of working temperature on the response to NH 3 in low and high concentration ranges of NH 3 is also discussed. (paper)

  13. The smooth cyclotron line in Her X-1 as seen with nuclear spectroscopic telescope array

    Fürst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Bellm, Eric C.; Harrison, Fiona; Madsen, Kristin K.; Walton, Dominic J. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Staubert, Rüdiger; Klochkov, Dmitry [Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universität Tübingen (IAAT), D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse (France); Chenevez, Jerome; Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST, UMBC, and NASA GSFC, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wilms, Jörn [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany); William Zhang [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Her X-1, one of the brightest and best studied X-ray binaries, shows a cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) near 37 keV. This makes it an ideal target for a detailed study with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), taking advantage of its excellent hard X-ray spectral resolution. We observed Her X-1 three times, coordinated with Suzaku, during one of the high flux intervals of its 35 day superorbital period. This paper focuses on the shape and evolution of the hard X-ray spectrum. The broadband spectra can be fitted with a power law with a high-energy cutoff, an iron line, and a CRSF. We find that the CRSF has a very smooth and symmetric shape in all observations and at all pulse phases. We compare the residuals of a line with a Gaussian optical-depth profile to a Lorentzian optical-depth profile and find no significant differences, strongly constraining the very smooth shape of the line. Even though the line energy changes dramatically with pulse phase, we find that its smooth shape does not. Additionally, our data show that the continuum only changes marginally between the three observations. These changes can be explained with varying amounts of Thomson scattering in the hot corona of the accretion disk. The average, luminosity-corrected CRSF energy is lower than in past observations and follows a secular decline. The excellent data quality of NuSTAR provides the best constraint on the CRSF energy to date.

  14. Revealing the properties of oils from their dissolved hydrocarbon compounds in water with an integrated sensor array system.

    Qi, Xiubin; Crooke, Emma; Ross, Andrew; Bastow, Trevor P; Stalvies, Charlotte

    2011-09-21

    This paper presents a system and method developed to identify a source oil's characteristic properties by testing the oil's dissolved components in water. Through close examination of the oil dissolution process in water, we hypothesise that when oil is in contact with water, the resulting oil-water extract, a complex hydrocarbon mixture, carries the signature property information of the parent oil. If the dominating differences in compositions between such extracts of different oils can be identified, this information could guide the selection of various sensors, capable of capturing such chemical variations. When used as an array, such a sensor system can be used to determine parent oil information from the oil-water extract. To test this hypothesis, 22 oils' water extracts were prepared and selected dominant hydrocarbons analyzed with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS); the subsequent Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicates that the major difference between the extract solutions is the relative concentration between the volatile mono-aromatics and fluorescent polyaromatics. An integrated sensor array system that is composed of 3 volatile hydrocarbon sensors and 2 polyaromatic hydrocarbon sensors was built accordingly to capture the major and subtle differences of these extracts. It was tested by exposure to a total of 110 water extract solutions diluted from the 22 extracts. The sensor response data collected from the testing were processed with two multivariate analysis tools to reveal information retained in the response patterns of the arrayed sensors: by conducting PCA, we were able to demonstrate the ability to qualitatively identify and distinguish different oil samples from their sensor array response patterns. When a supervised PCA, Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA), was applied, even quantitative classification can be achieved: the multivariate model generated from the LDA achieved 89.7% of successful classification of the type of the

  15. Preliminary design of electrostatic sensors for MITICA beam line components

    Spagnolo, S., E-mail: spagnolo@igi.cnr.it; Spolaore, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Megavolt ITER Injector and Concept Advancement, the full-scale prototype of ITER neutral beam injector, is under construction in Italy. The device will generate deuterium negative ions, then accelerated and neutralized. The emerging beam, after removal of residual ions, will be dumped onto a calorimeter. The presence of plasma and its parameters will be monitored in the components of the beam-line, by means of specific electrostatic probes. Double probes, with the possibility to be configured as Langmuir probes and provide local ion density and electron temperature measurements, will be employed in the neutralizer and in the residual ion dump. Biased electrodes collecting secondary emission electrons will be installed in the calorimeter with the aim to provide a horizontal profile of the beam.

  16. A Multilayer Perceptron-Based Impulsive Noise Detector with Application to Power-Line-Based Sensor Networks

    Chien, Ying-Ren; Chen, Jie-Wei; Xu, Sendren Sheng-Dong

    2018-01-01

    For power-line-based sensor networks, impulsive noise (IN) will dramatically degrade the data transmission rate in the power line. In this paper, we present a multilayer perceptron (MLP)-based approach to detect IN in orthogonal frequency

  17. Virtual sensors for on-line wheel wear and part roughness measurement in the grinding process.

    Arriandiaga, Ander; Portillo, Eva; Sánchez, Jose A; Cabanes, Itziar; Pombo, Iñigo

    2014-05-19

    Grinding is an advanced machining process for the manufacturing of valuable complex and accurate parts for high added value sectors such as aerospace, wind generation, etc. Due to the extremely severe conditions inside grinding machines, critical process variables such as part surface finish or grinding wheel wear cannot be easily and cheaply measured on-line. In this paper a virtual sensor for on-line monitoring of those variables is presented. The sensor is based on the modelling ability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for stochastic and non-linear processes such as grinding; the selected architecture is the Layer-Recurrent neural network. The sensor makes use of the relation between the variables to be measured and power consumption in the wheel spindle, which can be easily measured. A sensor calibration methodology is presented, and the levels of error that can be expected are discussed. Validation of the new sensor is carried out by comparing the sensor's results with actual measurements carried out in an industrial grinding machine. Results show excellent estimation performance for both wheel wear and surface roughness. In the case of wheel wear, the absolute error is within the range of microns (average value 32 μm). In the case of surface finish, the absolute error is well below Ra 1 μm (average value 0.32 μm). The present approach can be easily generalized to other grinding operations.

  18. IDENTIFIKASI PROFIL DASAR LAUT MENGGUNAKAN INSTRUMEN SIDE SCAN SONAR DENGAN METODE BEAM PATTERN DISCRETE-EQUI-SPACED UNSHADED LINE ARRAY

    Muhammad Zainuddin Lubis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laut Punggur merupakan laut yang terletak di Batam, Kepulauan Riau yang mempunyai beragam habitat objek,dan bentuk struktur bawah laut yang memiliki dinamika laut yang sangat tinggi. Side scan sonar (SSS merupakan instrumen pengembangan sistem sonar yang mampu menunjukkan dalam gambar dua dimensional permukaan dasar laut dengan kondisi kontur, topografi, dan target secara bersamaan. Metode Beam Pattern Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array digunakan untuk menghitung beam pattern dua dimensi yang tergantung pada sudut dari gelombang suara yang masuk dari sumbu array yang diterima tergantung pada sudut di mana sinar suara pada array. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada Desember 2016 di laut Punggur,Batam, Kepulauan Riau-Indonesia, dengan koordinat 104 ° 08,7102 E dan 1° 03,2448 N sampai 1 ° 03.3977 N dan 104 ° 08,8133 E, menggunakan instrumen Side Scan Sonar C-Max CM2 Tow fish dengan frekuensi 325 kHz. Hasil yang diperoleh dari perekaman terdapat 7 target, dan Beam pattern dari metode Beam Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array target 4 memiliki nilai tertinggi pada directivity Pattern yaitu 21.08 dB. Hasil model beam pattern ini memiliki nilai pusat pada incidence angle (o terhadap Directivity pattern (dB tidak berada di nilai 0 ataupun pada pusat beam pattern yang dihasilkan pada target 6 dengan nilai incident angle -1.5 o dan 1.5o mengalami penurunan hingga -40 dB. Karakteristik sedimen dasar perairan di laut punggur ditemukan lebih banyak pasir. Hasil metode Beam Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array ditemukan bangkai kapal tenggelam.Kata Kunci: Side Scan Sonar, Beam Pattern Discrete-Equi-Spaced Unshaded Line Array, Incidence angle, Directivity pattern IDENTIFICATION OF SEABED PROFILE USING SIDE SCAN SONAR INSTRUMENT WITH PATTERN DISCRETE-EQUI-SPACED UNSHADED LINE ARRAY METHODRiau Islands is an island that has a variety of habitat objects, and forms of submarine structures that have a very high ocean dynamics, Punggur Sea is the sea

  19. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality.

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smith, Christian; Dahlqvist, Mathis

    2016-04-04

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been developed. The sensor is based on 3D image recognition, and the obtained pictures are analyzed with algorithms considering 59 quantified image parameters. The sensor counts individual suspended particles and classifies them as either bacteria or abiotic particles. The technology is capable of distinguishing and quantifying bacteria and particles in pure and mixed suspensions, and the quantification correlates with total bacterial counts. Several field applications have demonstrated that the technology can monitor changes in the concentration of bacteria, and is thus well suited for rapid detection of critical conditions such as pollution events in drinking water.

  20. Adaptive Pulsed Laser Line Extraction for Terrain Reconstruction using a Dynamic Vision Sensor

    Christian eBrandli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots need to know the terrain in which they are moving for path planning and obstacle avoidance. This paper proposes the combination of a bio-inspired, redundancy-suppressing dynamic vision sensor with a pulsed line laser to allow fast terrain reconstruction. A stable laser stripe extraction is achieved by exploiting the sensor’s ability to capture the temporal dynamics in a scene. An adaptive temporal filter for the sensor output allows a reliable reconstruction of 3D terrain surfaces. Laser stripe extractions up to pulsing frequencies of 500Hz were achieved using a line laser of 3mW at a distance of 45cm using an event-based algorithm that exploits the sparseness of the sensor output. As a proof of concept, unstructured rapid prototype terrain samples have been successfully reconstructed with an accuracy of 2mm.

  1. A High Performance Banknote Recognition System Based on a One-Dimensional Visible Light Line Sensor.

    Park, Young Ho; Kwon, Seung Yong; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2015-06-15

    An algorithm for recognizing banknotes is required in many fields, such as banknote-counting machines and automatic teller machines (ATM). Due to the size and cost limitations of banknote-counting machines and ATMs, the banknote image is usually captured by a one-dimensional (line) sensor instead of a conventional two-dimensional (area) sensor. Because the banknote image is captured by the line sensor while it is moved at fast speed through the rollers inside the banknote-counting machine or ATM, misalignment, geometric distortion, and non-uniform illumination of the captured images frequently occur, which degrades the banknote recognition accuracy. To overcome these problems, we propose a new method for recognizing banknotes. The experimental results using two-fold cross-validation for 61,240 United States dollar (USD) images show that the pre-classification error rate is 0%, and the average error rate for the final recognition of the USD banknotes is 0.114%.

  2. Short-Range Sensor for Underwater Robot Navigation using Line-lasers and Vision

    Hansen, Peter Nicholas; Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Christensen, David Johan

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a minimalistic laser-based range sensor, used for underwater inspection by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV). This range detection system system comprise two lasers projecting vertical lines, parallel to a camera’s viewing axis, into the environment. Using both lasers...

  3. On-line caloric value sensor and validation of dynamic models applied to municipal solid waste

    Kessel, van L.B.M.; Leskens, M.; Brem, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with two aspects concerning the optimization of municipal solid waste combustion (MSWC) processes. First of all, an on-line calorific value sensor is discussed by means of which the calorific value of the waste can be estimated from actual process data. Experimental results on a

  4. Nuclear Containment Inspection Using AN Array of Guided Wave Sensors for Damage Localization

    Cobb, A. C.; Fisher, J. L.

    2010-02-01

    Nuclear power plant containments are typically both the last line of defense against the release of radioactivity to the environment and the first line of defense to protect against intrusion from external objects. As such, it is important to be able to locate any damage that would limit the integrity of the containment itself. Typically, a portion of the containment consists of a metallic pressure boundary that encloses the reactor primary circuit. It is made of thick steel plates welded together, lined with concrete and partially buried, limiting areas that can be visually inspected for corrosion damage. This study presents a strategy using low frequency (<50 kHz) guided waves to find corrosion-like damage several meters from the probe in a mock-up of the containment vessel. A magnetostrictive sensor (MsS) is scanned across the width of the vessel, acquiring waveforms at a fixed interval. A beam forming strategy is used to localize the defects. Experimental results are presented for a variety of damage configurations, demonstrating the efficacy of this technique for detecting damage smaller than the ultrasonic wavelength.

  5. Design of a Wireless Sensor Module for Monitoring Conductor Galloping of Transmission Lines.

    Huang, Xinbo; Zhao, Long; Chen, Guimin

    2016-10-09

    Conductor galloping may cause flashovers and even tower collapses. The available conductor galloping monitoring methods often employ acceleration sensors to measure the conductor translations without considering the conductor twist. In this paper, a new sensor for monitoring conductor galloping of transmission lines based on an inertial measurement unit and wireless communication is proposed. An inertial measurement unit is used for collecting the accelerations and angular rates of a conductor, which are further transformed into the corresponding geographic coordinate frame using a quaternion transformation to reconstruct the galloping of the conductor. Both the hardware design and the software design are described in details. The corresponding test platforms are established, and the experiments show the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed monitoring sensor. The field operation of the proposed sensor in a conductor spanning 734 m also shows its effectiveness.

  6. Portable Amperometric Perchlorate Selective Sensors with Microhole Array-water/organic Gel Interfaces

    Lee, Sang Hyuk; Girault, Hubert H.; Lee, Hye Jin [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyungi [Gyeongbuk Technopark, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Girault, Hubert H. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-09-15

    A novel stick-shaped portable sensing device featuring a microhole array interface between the polyvinylchloride-2-nitrophenyloctylether (PVC-NPOE) gel and water phase was developed for in-situ sensing of perchlorate ions in real water samples. Perchlorate sensitive sensing responses were obtained based on measuring the current changes with respect to the assisted transfer reaction of perchlorate ions by a perchlorate selective ligand namely, bis(dibenzoylmethanato)Ni(II) (Ni(DBM){sub 2}) across the polarized microhole array interface. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the assisted transfer reaction of perchlorate ions by the Ni(DBM){sub 2} ligand when using the portable sensing device. The current response for the transfer of perchlorate anions by Ni(DBM){sub 2} across the micro-water/gel interface linearly increased as a function of the perchlorate ion concentration. The technique of differential pulse stripping voltammetry was also utilized to improve the sensitivity of the perchlorate anion detection down to 10 ppb. This was acquired by preconcentrating perchlorate anions in the gel layer by means of holding the ion transfer potential at 0 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) for 30 s followed by stripping the complexed perchlorate ion with the ligand. The effect of various potential interfering anions on the perchlorate sensor was also investigated and showed an excellent selectivity over Br{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, CH{sub 3}COO{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions. As a final demonstration, some regional water samples from the Sincheon river in Daegu city were analyzed and the data was verified with that of ion chromatography (IC) analysis from one of the Korean-certified water quality evaluation centers.

  7. Detection of coffee flavour ageing by solid-phase microextraction/surface acoustic wave sensor array technique (SPME/SAW).

    Barié, Nicole; Bücking, Mark; Stahl, Ullrich; Rapp, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The use of polymer coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor arrays is a very promising technique for highly sensitive and selective detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We present new developments to achieve a low cost sensor setup with a sampling method enabling the highly reproducible detection of volatiles even in the ppb range. Since the VOCs of coffee are well known by gas chromatography (GC) research studies, the new sensor array was tested for an easy assessable objective: coffee ageing during storage. As reference method these changes were traced with a standard GC/FID set-up, accompanied by sensory panellists. The evaluation of GC data showed a non-linear characteristic for single compound concentrations as well as for total peak area values, disabling prediction of the coffee age. In contrast, the new SAW sensor array demonstrates a linear dependency, i.e. being capable to show a dependency between volatile concentration and storage time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Solution-based analysis of multiple analytes by a sensor array: toward the development of an electronic tongue

    Savoy, Steven M.; Lavigne, John J.; Yoo, J. S.; Wright, John; Rodriguez, Marc; Goodey, Adrian; McDoniel, Bridget; McDevitt, John T.; Anslyn, Eric V.; Shear, Jason B.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Neikirk, Dean P.

    1998-12-01

    A micromachined sensor array has been developed for the rapid characterization of multi-component mixtures in aqueous media. The sensor functions in a manner analogous to that of the mammalian tongue, using an array composed of individually immobilized polystyrene-polyethylene glycol composite microspheres selectively arranged in micromachined etch cavities localized o n silicon wafers. Sensing occurs via colorimetric or fluorometric changes to indicator molecules that are covalently bound to amine termination sites on the polymeric microspheres. The hybrid micromachined structure has been interfaced directly to a charged-coupled-device that is used for the simultaneous acquisition of the optical data from the individually addressable `taste bud' elements. With the miniature sensor array, acquisition of data streams composed of red, green, and blue color patterns distinctive for the analytes in the solution are rapidly acquired. The unique combination of carefully chosen reporter molecules with water permeable microspheres allows for the simultaneous detection and quantification of a variety of analytes. The fabrication of the sensor structures and the initial colorimetric and fluorescent responses for pH, Ca+2, Ce+3, and sugar are reported. Interface to microfluidic components should also be possible, producing a complete sampling/sensing system.

  9. DOA and Polarization Estimation Using an Electromagnetic Vector Sensor Uniform Circular Array Based on the ESPRIT Algorithm.

    Wu, Na; Qu, Zhiyu; Si, Weijian; Jiao, Shuhong

    2016-12-13

    In array signal processing systems, the direction of arrival (DOA) and polarization of signals based on uniform linear or rectangular sensor arrays are generally obtained by rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT). However, since the ESPRIT algorithm relies on the rotational invariant structure of the received data, it cannot be applied to electromagnetic vector sensor arrays (EVSAs) featuring uniform circular patterns. To overcome this limitation, a fourth-order cumulant-based ESPRIT algorithm is proposed in this paper, for joint estimation of DOA and polarization based on a uniform circular EVSA. The proposed algorithm utilizes the fourth-order cumulant to obtain a virtual extended array of a uniform circular EVSA, from which the pairs of rotation invariant sub-arrays are obtained. The ESPRIT algorithm and parameter pair matching are then utilized to estimate the DOA and polarization of the incident signals. The closed-form parameter estimation algorithm can effectively reduce the computational complexity of the joint estimation, which has been demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  10. Analysis of transmission lines loaded with pairs of coupled resonant elements and application to sensors

    Naqui, J.; Su, L.; Mata, J.; Martín, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on the analysis of transmission lines loaded with pairs of magnetically coupled resonators. We have considered two different structures: (i) a microstrip line loaded with pairs of stepped impedance resonators (SIRs), and (ii) a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line loaded with pairs of split ring resonators (SRRs). In both cases, the line exhibits a single resonance frequency (transmission zero) if the resonators are identical (symmetric structure with regard to the line axis), and this resonance is different to the one of the line loaded with a single resonator due to inter-resonator coupling. If the structures are asymmetric, inter-resonator coupling enhances the distance between the two split resonance frequencies that arise. In spite that the considered lines and loading resonators are very different and are described by different lumped element equivalent circuit models, the phenomenology associated to the effects of coupling is exactly the same, and the resonance frequencies are given by identical expressions. The reported lumped element circuit models of both structures are validated by comparing the circuit simulations with extracted parameters with both electromagnetic simulations and experimental data. These structures can be useful for the implementation of microwave sensors based on symmetry properties. - Highlights: • Magnetic-coupling between resonant elements affects transmission properties. • Inter-resonant coupling enhances the distance of two resonant frequencies. • The structures are useful for sensors and comparators, etc

  11. Optical True Time Delay for Phased Array Antennas Composed of 2×2 Optical MEMS Switches and Fiber Delay Lines

    Back-Song; Lee; Jong-Dug; Shin; Boo-Gyoun; Kim

    2003-01-01

    We proposed an optical true time delay (TTD) for phased array antennas (PAAs) composed of 2×2 optical MEMS switches, single-mode fiber delay lines, and a fixed wavelength laser diode. A 3-bit TTD for 10 GHz PAAs was implemented with a time delay error less than ± 0.2 ps.

  12. Multi-mode sensor processing on a dynamically reconfigurable massively parallel processor array

    Chen, Paul; Butts, Mike; Budlong, Brad; Wasson, Paul

    2008-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel computing architecture that can be reconfigured in real time to adapt on demand to multi-mode sensor platforms' dynamic computational and functional requirements. This 1 teraOPS reconfigurable Massively Parallel Processor Array (MPPA) has 336 32-bit processors. The programmable 32-bit communication fabric provides streamlined inter-processor connections with deterministically high performance. Software programmability, scalability, ease of use, and fast reconfiguration time (ranging from microseconds to milliseconds) are the most significant advantages over FPGAs and DSPs. This paper introduces the MPPA architecture, its programming model, and methods of reconfigurability. An MPPA platform for reconfigurable computing is based on a structural object programming model. Objects are software programs running concurrently on hundreds of 32-bit RISC processors and memories. They exchange data and control through a network of self-synchronizing channels. A common application design pattern on this platform, called a work farm, is a parallel set of worker objects, with one input and one output stream. Statically configured work farms with homogeneous and heterogeneous sets of workers have been used in video compression and decompression, network processing, and graphics applications.

  13. Detection of mitochondrial DNA with the compact bead array sensor system (cBASS)

    Mulvaney, Shawn P.; Ibe, Carol N.; Caldwell, Jane M.; Levine, Jay F.; Whitman, Lloyd J.; Tamanaha, Cy R.

    2009-02-01

    Enteric pathogens are a significant contaminant in surface waters used for recreation, fish and shellfish harvesting, crop irrigation, and human consumption. The need for water monitoring becomes more pronounced when industrial, agricultural, and residential lands are found in close proximity. Fecal contamination is particularly problematic and identification of the pollution source essential to remediation efforts. Standard monitoring for fecal contamination relies on indicator organisms, but the technique is too broad to identify the source of contamination. Instead, real-time PCR of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an emerging method for identification of the contamination source. Presented herein, we evaluate an alternative technology, the compact Bead Array Sensor System (cBASS®) and its assay approach Fluidic Force Discrimination (FFD), for the detection of mtDNA. Previously, we achieved multiplexed, attomolar detection of toxins and femtomolar detection of nucleic acids in minutes with FFD assays. More importantly, FFD assays are compatible with a variety of complex matrices and therefore potentially applicable for samples where the matrix would interfere with PCR amplification. We have designed a triplex assay for the NADH gene found in human, swine, and bovine mtDNA and demonstrated the specific detection of human mtDNA spiked into a waste water sample.

  14. A Synthetic Phased Array Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor for Quantifying Bolt Tension

    Rasim Guldiken

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report our findings on implementing a synthetic phased array surface acoustic wave sensor to quantify bolt tension. Maintaining proper bolt tension is important in many fields such as for ensuring safe operation of civil infrastructures. Significant advantages of this relatively simple methodology is its capability to assess bolt tension without any contact with the bolt, thus enabling measurement at inaccessible locations, multiple bolt measurement capability at a time, not requiring data collection during the installation and no calibration requirements. We performed detailed experiments on a custom-built flexible bench-top experimental setup consisting of 1018 steel plate of 12.7 mm (½ in thickness, a 6.4 mm (¼ in grade 8 bolt and a stainless steel washer with 19 mm (¾ in of external diameter. Our results indicate that this method is not only capable of clearly distinguishing properly bolted joints from loosened joints but also capable of quantifying how loose the bolt actually is. We also conducted detailed signal-to-noise (SNR analysis and showed that the SNR value for the entire bolt tension range was sufficient for image reconstruction.

  15. Prediction of warmed-over flavour development in cooked chicken by colorimetric sensor array.

    Kim, Su-Yeon; Li, Jinglei; Lim, Na-Ri; Kang, Bo-Sik; Park, Hyun-Jin

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method based on colorimetric sensor array (CSA) for evaluation of warmed-over flavour (WOF) in cooked chicken. All samples were classified according to storage time by CSA coupled with principle component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The CSA data were used to establish prediction models with thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), pentanal, hexanal, or heptanal associated with WOF by partial least square regression (PLSR). For the TBARS model, the coefficient of determination (rp(2)) was 0.9997 in the prediction range of 0.28-0.69mg/kg. In each of the models for pentanal, hexanal, and heptanal, all rp(2) were higher than 0.960 in the range of 0.58-2.10mg/kg, 5.50-11.69mg/kg, and 0.09-0.16mg/kg, respectively. These results demonstrate that the CSA was able to predict WOF development and to distinguish between each storage time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Remote assessment of cultural heritage environments with wireless sensor array networks.

    Agbota, Henoc; Mitchell, John E; Odlyha, Marianne; Strlič, Matija

    2014-05-19

    The logistics and cost of environmental monitoring can represent challenges for heritage managers, partly because of the sheer number of environmental parameters to consider. There is a need for a system, capable of monitoring the holistic impact of the environment on cultural materials while remaining relatively easy to use and providing remote access. This paper describes a dosimetric system based on piezoelectric quartz crystal technology. The prototype sensing module consists of an array of piezoelectric quartz crystals (PQC) coated with different metals (Fe, Cu, Ni and Sn) and includes a temperature and relative humidity sensor. The communication module involves an 802.15.4 low-power radio and a GPRS gateway which allows real time visualisation of the measurements online. An energy management protocol ensures that the system consumes very low power between measurements. The paper also describes the results and experiences from two heritage field deployments, at Apsley House in London, UK, and at the Royal Palaces of Abomey in Benin. Evaluation of PQC measurements, temperature, relative humidity and the rate of successful transmission over the communication systems are also reported.

  17. A method to design high SNR nanoscale magnetic sensors using an array of tunnelling magneto-resistance (TMR) devices

    Gomez, P; Litvinov, D; Khizroev, S

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic method to design and calculate tunnelling magneto-resistance (TMR) sensors with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The sensing module consists of four TMR devices arranged in a Wheatstone-bridge configuration. Closed-form equations were obtained to calculate TMR sensor current, array output voltage, magneto-resistance ratio, overall noise (thermal and shot) and SNR for a given bandwidth. Using this technique we were able to maximize the SNR by tuning the many parameters of the TMR devices. Typical SNR values are in excess of 45 dB

  18. Study and Experiment on Non-Contact Voltage Sensor Suitable for Three-Phase Transmission Line.

    Zhou, Qiang; He, Wei; Xiao, Dongping; Li, Songnong; Zhou, Kongjun

    2015-12-30

    A voltage transformer, as voltage signal detection equipment, plays an important role in a power system. Presently, more and more electric power systems are adopting potential transformer and capacitance voltage transformers. Transformers are often large in volume and heavyweight, their insulation design is difficult, and an iron core or multi-grade capacitance voltage division structure is generally adopted. As a result, the detection accuracy of transformer is reduced, a huge phase difference exists between detection signal and voltage signal to be measured, and the detection signal cannot accurately and timely reflect the change of conductor voltage signal to be measured. By aiming at the current problems of electric transformation, based on electrostatic induction principle, this paper designed a non-contact voltage sensor and gained detection signal of the sensor through electrostatic coupling for the electric field generated by electric charges of the conductor to be measured. The insulation structure design of the sensor is simple and its volume is small; phase difference of sensor measurement is effectively reduced through optimization design of the electrode; and voltage division ratio and measurement accuracy are increased. The voltage sensor was tested on the experimental platform of simulating three-phase transmission line. According to the result, the designed non-contact voltage sensor can realize accurate and real-time measurement for the conductor voltage. It can be applied to online monitoring for the voltage of three-phase transmission line or three-phase distribution network line, which is in accordance with the development direction of the smart grid.

  19. Coagulation sensors based on magnetostrictive delay lines for biomedical and chemical engineering applications

    Maliaritsi, E.; Zoumpoulakis, L.; Simitzis, J.; Vassiliou, P.; Hristoforou, E.

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation sensors based on the magnetostrictive delay line technique are presented in this paper. They are based on magnetostrictive ribbons and are used for measuring the coagulation, curing or solidification time of different liquids. Experimental results indicate that the presented sensing elements can determine the blood coagulation with remarkable repeatability, thus allowing their use as blood coagulation sensors. Additionally, results indicate that they can also measure curing time of resins, solidification of fluids and coagulation of chemical substances, therefore allowing their implementation in chemical engineering applications

  20. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed transition-edge sensor array

    Noroozian, Omid [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Mates, John A. B.; Bennett, Douglas A.; Brevik, Justus A.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gao, Jiansong; Hilton, Gene C.; Horansky, Robert D.; Irwin, Kent D.; Schmidt, Daniel R.; Vale, Leila R.; Ullom, Joel N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Kang, Zhao [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    We demonstrate very high resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed two-pixel transition-edge sensor (TES) array. We measured a {sup 153}Gd photon source and achieved an energy resolution of 63 eV full-width-at-half-maximum at 97 keV and an equivalent readout system noise of 86 pA/√(Hz) at the TES. The readout circuit consists of superconducting microwave resonators coupled to radio-frequency superconducting-quantum-interference-devices and transduces changes in input current to changes in phase of a microwave signal. We use flux-ramp modulation to linearize the response and evade low-frequency noise. This demonstration establishes one path for the readout of cryogenic X-ray and gamma-ray sensor arrays with more than 10{sup 3} elements and spectral resolving powers R=λ/Δλ>10{sup 3}.

  1. A Robust and Low-Complexity Gas Recognition Technique for On-Chip Tin-Oxide Gas Sensor Array

    Farid Flitti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas recognition is a new emerging research area with many civil, military, and industrial applications. The success of any gas recognition system depends on its computational complexity and its robustness. In this work, we propose a new low-complexity recognition method which is tested and successfully validated for tin-oxide gas sensor array chip. The recognition system is based on a vector angle similarity measure between the query gas and the representatives of the different gas classes. The latter are obtained using a clustering algorithm based on the same measure within the training data set. Experimented results on our in-house gas sensors array show more than 98% of correct recognition. The robustness of the proposed method is tested by recognizing gas measurements with simulated drift. Less than 1% of performance degradation is noted at the worst case scenario which represents a significant improvement when compared to the current state-of-the-art.

  2. Silver nanowire/polymer composite soft conductive film fabricated by large-area compatible coating for flexible pressure sensor array

    Chen, Sujie; Li, Siying; Peng, Sai; Huang, Yukun; Zhao, Jiaqing; Tang, Wei; Guo, Xiaojun

    2018-01-01

    Soft conductive films composed of a silver nanowire (AgNW) network, a neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS over-coating layer and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer substrate are fabricated by large area compatible coating processes. The neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS layer is shown to be able to significantly improve the conductivity, stretchability and air stability of the conductive films. The soft conductive films are patterned using a simple maskless patterning approach to fabricate an 8 × 8 flexible pressure sensor array. It is shown that such soft conductive films can help to improve the sensitivity and reduce the signal crosstalk over the pressure sensor array. Project supported by the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (No. 16JC1400603).

  3. Least Squares Neural Network-Based Wireless E-Nose System Using an SnO₂ Sensor Array.

    Shahid, Areej; Choi, Jong-Hyeok; Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2018-05-06

    Over the last few decades, the development of the electronic nose (E-nose) for detection and quantification of dangerous and odorless gases, such as methane (CH₄) and carbon monoxide (CO), using an array of SnO₂ gas sensors has attracted considerable attention. This paper addresses sensor cross sensitivity by developing a classifier and estimator using an artificial neural network (ANN) and least squares regression (LSR), respectively. Initially, the ANN was implemented using a feedforward pattern recognition algorithm to learn the collective behavior of an array as the signature of a particular gas. In the second phase, the classified gas was quantified by minimizing the mean square error using LSR. The combined approach produced 98.7% recognition probability, with 95.5 and 94.4% estimated gas concentration accuracies for CH₄ and CO, respectively. The classifier and estimator parameters were deployed in a remote microcontroller for the actualization of a wireless E-nose system.

  4. Non-Contact Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Vital Signs Monitoring: A Review on Intelligent Phased-Array Doppler Sensor Design.

    Hall, Travis; Lie, Donald Y C; Nguyen, Tam Q; Mayeda, Jill C; Lie, Paul E; Lopez, Jerry; Banister, Ron E

    2017-11-15

    It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates) remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients' long-term vital signs data is available. Therefore, there has been a lot of research activities on developing a non-contact sensor system that can monitor a patient's vital signs and quickly transmit the information to healthcare professionals. Doppler-based radio-frequency (RF) non-contact vital signs (NCVS) monitoring system are particularly attractive for long term vital signs monitoring because there are no wires, electrodes, wearable devices, nor any contact-based sensors involved so the subjects may not be even aware of the ubiquitous monitoring. In this paper, we will provide a brief review on some latest development on NCVS sensors and compare them against a few novel and intelligent phased-array Doppler-based RF NCVS biosensors we have built in our labs. Some of our NCVS sensor tests were performed within a clutter-free anechoic chamber to mitigate the environmental clutters, while most tests were conducted within the typical Herman-Miller type office cubicle setting to mimic a more practical monitoring environment. Additionally, we will show the measurement data to demonstrate the feasibility of long-term NCVS monitoring. The measured data strongly suggests that our latest phased array NCVS system should be able to perform long-term vital signs monitoring intelligently and robustly, especially for situations where the subject is sleeping

  5. A Fusion Approach to Feature Extraction by Wavelet Decomposition and Principal Component Analysis in Transient Signal Processing of SAW Odor Sensor Array

    Prashant SINGH

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical analysis of a new approach for development of surface acoustic wave (SAW sensor array based odor recognition system. The construction of sensor array employs a single polymer interface for selective sorption of odorant chemicals in vapor phase. The individual sensors are however coated with different thicknesses. The idea of sensor coating thickness variation is for terminating solvation and diffusion kinetics of vapors into polymer up to different stages of equilibration on different sensors. This is expected to generate diversity in information content of the sensors transient. The analysis is based on wavelet decomposition of transient signals. The single sensor transients have been used earlier for generating odor identity signatures based on wavelet approximation coefficients. In the present work, however, we exploit variability in diffusion kinetics due to polymer thicknesses for making odor signatures. This is done by fusion of the wavelet coefficients from different sensors in the array, and then applying the principal component analysis. We find that the present approach substantially enhances the vapor class separability in feature space. The validation is done by generating synthetic sensor array data based on well-established SAW sensor theory.

  6. Fabrication of close-packed TES microcalorimeter arrays using superconducting molybdenum/gold transition-edge sensors

    Finkbeiner, F. M.; Brekosky, R. P.; Chervenak, J. A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Li, M. J.; Lindeman, M. A.; Stahle, C. K.; Stahle, C. M.; Tralshawala, N.

    2002-02-01

    We present an overview of our efforts in fabricating Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays for use in astronomical x-ray spectroscopy. Two distinct types of array schemes are currently pursued: 5×5 single pixel TES array where each pixel is a TES microcalorimeter, and Position-Sensing TES (PoST) array. In the latter, a row of 7 or 15 thermally-linked absorber pixels is read out by two TES at its ends. Both schemes employ superconducting Mo/Au bilayers as the TES. The TES are placed on silicon nitride membranes for thermal isolation from the structural frame. The silicon nitride membranes are prepared by a Deep Reactive Ion Etch (DRIE) process into a silicon wafer. In order to achieve the concept of closely packed arrays without decreasing its structural and functional integrity, we have already developed the technology to fabricate arrays of cantilevered pixel-sized absorbers and slit membranes in silicon nitride films. Furthermore, we have started to investigate ultra-low resistance through-wafer micro-vias to bring the electrical contact out to the back of a wafer. .

  7. Ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer array integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics

    Lu, Y.; Fung, S.; Wang, Q.; Horsley, D. A. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tang, H.; Boser, B. E. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tsai, J. M.; Daneman, M. [InvenSense, Inc., 1745 Technology Drive, San Jose, California 95110 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This paper presents an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor based on a 24 × 8 array of 22 MHz piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers (PMUTs) with 100 μm pitch, fully integrated with 180 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry through eutectic wafer bonding. Each PMUT is directly bonded to a dedicated CMOS receive amplifier, minimizing electrical parasitics and eliminating the need for through-silicon vias. The array frequency response and vibration mode-shape were characterized using laser Doppler vibrometry and verified via finite element method simulation. The array's acoustic output was measured using a hydrophone to be ∼14 kPa with a 28 V input, in reasonable agreement with predication from analytical calculation. Pulse-echo imaging of a 1D steel grating is demonstrated using electronic scanning of a 20 × 8 sub-array, resulting in 300 mV maximum received amplitude and 5:1 contrast ratio. Because the small size of this array limits the maximum image size, mechanical scanning was used to image a 2D polydimethylsiloxane fingerprint phantom (10 mm × 8 mm) at a 1.2 mm distance from the array.

  8. Configuration-controlled Au nanocluster arrays on inverse micelle nano-patterns: versatile platforms for SERS and SPR sensors

    Jang, Yoon Hee; Chung, Kyungwha; Quan, Li Na; Špačková, Barbora; Šípová, Hana; Moon, Seyoung; Cho, Won Joon; Shin, Hae-Young; Jang, Yu Jin; Lee, Ji-Eun; Kochuveedu, Saji Thomas; Yoon, Min Ji; Kim, Jihyeon; Yoon, Seokhyun; Kim, Jin Kon; Kim, Donghyun; Homola, Jiří; Kim, Dong Ha

    2013-11-01

    Nanopatterned 2-dimensional Au nanocluster arrays with controlled configuration are fabricated onto reconstructed nanoporous poly(styrene-block-vinylpyridine) inverse micelle monolayer films. Near-field coupling of localized surface plasmons is studied and compared for disordered and ordered core-centered Au NC arrays. Differences in evolution of the absorption band and field enhancement upon Au nanoparticle adsorption are shown. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with theoretical studies based on the finite-difference time-domain method and rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The realized Au nanopatterns are exploited as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering and integrated into Kretschmann-type SPR sensors, based on which unprecedented SPR-coupling-type sensors are demonstrated.Nanopatterned 2-dimensional Au nanocluster arrays with controlled configuration are fabricated onto reconstructed nanoporous poly(styrene-block-vinylpyridine) inverse micelle monolayer films. Near-field coupling of localized surface plasmons is studied and compared for disordered and ordered core-centered Au NC arrays. Differences in evolution of the absorption band and field enhancement upon Au nanoparticle adsorption are shown. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with theoretical studies based on the finite-difference time-domain method and rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The realized Au nanopatterns are exploited as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering and integrated into Kretschmann-type SPR sensors, based on which unprecedented SPR-coupling-type sensors are demonstrated. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM image and UV-vis absorption spectrum of citrate-capped Au NPs, AFM images of Au NC arrays on the PS-b-P4VP (41k-24k) template, ImageJ-analyzed results of PS-b-P4VP (41k-24k)-templated Au NC arrays, calculated %-surface coverage values, SEM images of Au NC arrays on the PS-b-P2VP (172k-42k

  9. Molecularly Imprinted Sol-Gel-Based QCM Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Recognition of Volatile Aldehydes

    Chuanjun Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The detection and recognition of metabolically derived aldehydes, which have been identified as important products of oxidative stress and biomarkers of cancers; are considered as an effective approach for early cancer detection as well as health status monitoring. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor arrays based on molecularly imprinted sol-gel (MISG materials were developed in this work for highly sensitive detection and highly selective recognition of typical aldehyde vapors including hexanal (HAL; nonanal (NAL and bezaldehyde (BAL. The MISGs were prepared by a sol-gel procedure using two matrix precursors: tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS and tetrabutoxytitanium (TBOT. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APT; diethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (EAP and trimethoxy-phenylsilane (TMP were added as functional monomers to adjust the imprinting effect of the matrix. Hexanoic acid (HA; nonanoic acid (NA and benzoic acid (BA were used as psuedotemplates in view of their analogous structure to the target molecules as well as the strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the matrix. Totally 13 types of MISGs with different components were prepared and coated on QCM electrodes by spin coating. Their sensing characters towards the three aldehyde vapors with different concentrations were investigated qualitatively. The results demonstrated that the response of individual sensors to each target strongly depended on the matrix precursors; functional monomers and template molecules. An optimization of the 13 MISG materials was carried out based on statistical analysis such as principle component analysis (PCA; multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. The optimized sensor array consisting of five channels showed a high discrimination ability on the aldehyde vapors; which was confirmed by quantitative comparison with a randomly selected array. It was suggested that both the molecularly imprinting (MIP effect and the matrix

  10. Localization of CO2 Leakage from a Circular Hole on a Flat-Surface Structure Using a Circular Acoustic Emission Sensor Array

    Xiwang Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leak localization is essential for the safety and maintenance of storage vessels. This study proposes a novel circular acoustic emission sensor array to realize the continuous CO2 leak localization from a circular hole on the surface of a large storage vessel in a carbon capture and storage system. Advantages of the proposed array are analyzed and compared with the common sparse arrays. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale stainless steel plate and leak signals were obtained from a circular hole in the center of this flat-surface structure. In order to reduce the influence of the ambient noise and dispersion of the acoustic wave on the localization accuracy, ensemble empirical mode decomposition is deployed to extract the useful leak signal. The time differences between the signals from the adjacent sensors in the array are calculated through correlation signal processing before estimating the corresponding distance differences between the sensors. A hyperbolic positioning algorithm is used to identify the location of the circular leak hole. Results show that the circular sensor array has very good directivity toward the circular leak hole. Furthermore, an optimized method is proposed by changing the position of the circular sensor array on the flat-surface structure or adding another circular sensor array to identify the direction of the circular leak hole. Experiential results obtained on a 100 cm × 100 cm stainless steel plate demonstrate that the full-scale error in the leak localization is within 0.6%.

  11. A METEOROLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR POWER LINES BASED ON GIS AND MULTI-SENSOR INTEGRATION

    Z. Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Power lines, exposed in the natural environment, are vulnerable to various kinds of meteorological factors. Traditional research mainly deals with the influence of a single meteorological condition on the power line, which lacks of comprehensive effects evaluation and analysis of the multiple meteorological factors. In this paper, we use multiple meteorological monitoring data obtained by multi-sensors to implement the meteorological risk assessment and early warning of power lines. Firstly, we generate meteorological raster map from discrete meteorological monitoring data using spatial interpolation. Secondly, the expert scoring based analytic hierarchy process is used to compute the power line risk index of all kinds of meteorological conditions and establish the mathematical model of meteorological risk. By adopting this model in raster calculator of ArcGIS, we will have a raster map showing overall meteorological risks for power line. Finally, by overlaying the power line buffer layer to that raster map, we will get to know the exact risk index around a certain part of power line, which will provide significant guidance for power line risk management. In the experiment, based on five kinds of observation data gathered from meteorological stations in Guizhou Province of China, including wind, lightning, rain, ice, temperature, we carry on the meteorological risk analysis for the real power lines, and experimental results have proved the feasibility and validity of our proposed method.

  12. Infrared detectors, focal plane arrays, and imaging sensors; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    Dereniak, Eustace L.; Sampson, Robert T.

    1989-10-01

    The present conference on advancements in IR detectors, Schottky-barrier focal plane arrays, CCD image analysis, and HgCdTe materials gives attention to a 256 x 256 PtSi array for IR astronomy, proposals for a second-generation meteosat's advanced optical payload, cryogenic bipolar technology for on-focal-plane signal processing, a parallel cellular processing system for fast generation of perspective plots, and ultrahigh-speed CCD image sensors for scanning applications. Also discussed are MBE GaAs rib waveguide experiments at 10.6 microns, an interferometric thermal detector, the development status of superconducting IR detector research, the absorption coefficients of n-type Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te samples, and the influence of the surface channel on crosstalk in HgCdTe photovoltaic arrays.

  13. Integrated X-ray and charged particle active pixel CMOS sensor arrays using an epitaxial silicon sensitive region

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bichsel, Hans; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Weiman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    Integrated CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) arrays have been fabricated and tested using X-ray and electron sources. The 128 by 128 pixel arrays, designed in a standard 0.25 micron process, use a ∼10 micron epitaxial silicon layer as a deep detection region. The epitaxial layer has a much greater thickness than the surface features used by standard CMOS APS, leading to stronger signals and potentially better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, minority carriers confined within the epitaxial region may diffuse to neighboring pixels, blur images and reduce peak signal intensity. But for low-rate, sparse-event images, centroid analysis of this diffusion may be used to increase position resolution. Careful trade-offs involving pixel size and sense-node area verses capacitance must be made to optimize overall performance. The prototype sensor arrays, therefore, include a range of different pixel designs, including different APS circuits and a range of different epitaxial layer contact structures. The fabricated arrays were tested with 1.5 GeV electrons and Fe-55 X-ray sources, yielding a measured noise of 13 electrons RMS and an SNR for single Fe-55 X-rays of greater than 38

  14. A study on volatile organic compounds emitted by in-vitro lung cancer cultured cells using gas sensor array and SPME-GCMS.

    Thriumani, Reena; Zakaria, Ammar; Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun; Jeffree, Amanina Iymia; Helmy, Khaled Mohamed; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah; Omar, Mohammad Iqbal; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Persaud, Krishna C

    2018-04-02

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from exhaled breath from human bodies have been proven to be a useful source of information for early lung cancer diagnosis. To date, there are still arguable information on the production and origin of significant VOCs of cancer cells. Thus, this study aims to conduct in-vitro experiments involving related cell lines to verify the capability of VOCs in providing information of the cells. The performances of e-nose technology with different statistical methods to determine the best classifier were conducted and discussed. The gas sensor study has been complemented using solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry. For this purpose, the lung cancer cells (A549 and Calu-3) and control cell lines, breast cancer cell (MCF7) and non-cancerous lung cell (WI38VA13) were cultured in growth medium. This study successfully provided a list of possible volatile organic compounds that can be specific biomarkers for lung cancer, even at the 24th hour of cell growth. Also, the Linear Discriminant Analysis-based One versus All-Support Vector Machine classifier, is able to produce high performance in distinguishing lung cancer from breast cancer cells and normal lung cells. The findings in this work conclude that the specific VOC released from the cancer cells can act as the odour signature and potentially to be used as non-invasive screening of lung cancer using gas array sensor devices.

  15. Deflection estimation of a wind turbine blade using FBG sensors embedded in the blade bonding line

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Woo-Ram; Jeong, Min-Soo; Lee, In; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the deflection of flexible composite wind turbine blades is very important to prevent the blades from hitting the tower. Several researchers have used fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors—a type of optical fiber sensor (OFS)—to monitor the structural behavior of the blades. They can be installed on the surface and/or embedded in the interior of composites. However, the typical installation positions of OFSs present several problems, including delamination of sensing probes and a higher risk of fiber breakage during installation. In this study, we proposed using the bonding line between the shear web and spar cap as a new installation position of embedded OFSs for estimating the deflection of the blades. Laboratory coupon tests were undertaken preliminarily to confirm the strain measuring capability of embedded FBG sensors in adhesive layers, and the obtained values were verified by comparison with results obtained by electrical strain gauges and finite element analysis. We performed static loading tests on a 100 kW composite wind turbine blade to evaluate its deflections using embedded FBG sensors positioned in the bonding line. The deflections were estimated by classical beam theory considering a rigid body rotation near the tip of the blade. The evaluated tip deflections closely matched those measured by a linear variable differential transformer. Therefore, we verified the capability of embedded FBG sensors for evaluating the deflections of wind turbine blades. In addition, we confirmed that the bonding line between the shear web and spar cap is a practical location to embed the FBG sensors. (paper)

  16. An Optical Fiber-Based Sensor Array for the Monitoring of Zinc and Copper Ions in Aqueous Environments

    Steven Kopitzke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper and zinc are elements commonly used in industrial applications as aqueous solutions. Before the solutions can be discharged into civil or native waterways, waste treatment processes must be undertaken to ensure compliance with government guidelines restricting the concentration of ions discharged in solution. While currently there are methods of analysis available to monitor these solutions, each method has disadvantages, be it high costs, inaccuracy, and/or being time-consuming. In this work, a new optical fiber-based platform capable of providing fast and accurate results when performing solution analysis for these metals is described. Fluorescent compounds that exhibit a high sensitivity and selectivity for either zinc or copper have been employed for fabricating the sensors. These sensors demonstrated sub-part-per-million detection limits, 30-second response times, and the ability to analyze samples with an average error of under 10%. The inclusion of a fluorescent compound as a reference material to compensate for fluctuations from pulsed excitation sources has further increased the reliability and accuracy of each sensor. Finally, after developing sensors capable of monitoring zinc and copper individually, these sensors are combined to form a single optical fiber sensor array capable of simultaneously monitoring concentration changes in zinc and copper in aqueous environments.

  17. Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays

    Yang, Kyoung

    2005-01-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the Phase I SBIR project entitled "Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays...

  18. Field-programmable gate array based controller for multi spot light-addressable potentiometric sensors with integrated signal correction mode

    Werner, Carl Frederik; Schusser, Sebastian; Spelthahn, Heiko [Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Juelich Campus, Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Heinrich-Mussmann-Strasse 1, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Wagner, Torsten; Yoshinobu, Tatsuo [Tohoku University, Department of Electronic Engineering, 6-6-05 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Schoening, Michael J., E-mail: schoening@fh-aachen.de [Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Juelich Campus, Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Heinrich-Mussmann-Strasse 1, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: > Flexible up-scalable design of a light-addressable potentiometric sensor set-up. > Utilisation of a field-programmable gate array to address LAPS measurement spots. > Measurements in amplitude-mode and phase-mode for different pH solutions. > Amplitude, phase and frequency behaviour of LAPS for single and multiple light stimulus. > Signal calibration method by brightness control to compensated systematic errors. - Abstract: A light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) can measure the concentration of one or several analytes at the sensor surface simultaneously in a spatially resolved manner. A modulated light pointer stimulates the semiconductor structure at the area of interest and a responding photocurrent can be read out. By simultaneous stimulation of several areas with light pointers of different modulation frequencies, the read out can be performed at the same time. With the new proposed controller electronic based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), it is possible to control the modulation frequencies, phase shifts, and light brightness of multiple light pointers independently and simultaneously. Thus, it is possible to investigate the frequency response of the sensor, and to examine the analyte concentration by the determination of the surface potential with the help of current/voltage curves and phase/voltage curves. Additionally, the ability to individually change the light intensities of each light pointer is used to perform signal correction.

  19. Hydrogen Detection With a Gas Sensor Array – Processing and Recognition of Dynamic Responses Using Neural Networks

    Gwiżdż Patryk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An array consisting of four commercial gas sensors with target specifications for hydrocarbons, ammonia, alcohol, explosive gases has been constructed and tested. The sensors in the array operate in the dynamic mode upon the temperature modulation from 350°C to 500°C. Changes in the sensor operating temperature lead to distinct resistance responses affected by the gas type, its concentration and the humidity level. The measurements are performed upon various hydrogen (17-3000 ppm, methane (167-3000 ppm and propane (167-3000 ppm concentrations at relative humidity levels of 0-75%RH. The measured dynamic response signals are further processed with the Discrete Fourier Transform. Absolute values of the dc component and the first five harmonics of each sensor are analysed by a feed-forward back-propagation neural network. The ultimate aim of this research is to achieve a reliable hydrogen detection despite an interference of the humidity and residual gases.

  20. Research on Flow Field Perception Based on Artificial Lateral Line Sensor System

    Guijie Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In nature, the lateral line of fish is a peculiar and important organ for sensing the surrounding hydrodynamic environment, preying, escaping from predators and schooling. In this paper, by imitating the mechanism of fish lateral canal neuromasts, we developed an artificial lateral line system composed of micro-pressure sensors. Through hydrodynamic simulations, an optimized sensor structure was obtained and the pressure distribution models of the lateral surface were established in uniform flow and turbulent flow. Carrying out the corresponding underwater experiment, the validity of the numerical simulation method is verified by the comparison between the experimental data and the simulation results. In addition, a variety of effective research methods are proposed and validated for the flow velocity estimation and attitude perception in turbulent flow, respectively and the shape recognition of obstacles is realized by the neural network algorithm.

  1. Underwater tracking of a moving dipole source using an artificial lateral line: algorithm and experimental validation with ionic polymer–metal composite flow sensors

    Abdulsadda, Ahmad T; Tan, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the lateral line system of fish, arrays of flow sensors have been proposed as a new sensing modality for underwater robots. Existing studies on such artificial lateral lines (ALLs) have been mostly focused on the localization of a fixed underwater vibrating sphere (dipole source). In this paper we examine the problem of tracking a moving dipole source using an ALL system. Based on an analytical model for the moving dipole-generated flow field, we formulate a nonlinear estimation problem that aims to minimize the error between the measured and model-predicted magnitudes of flow velocities at the sensor sites, which is subsequently solved with the Gauss–Newton scheme. A sliding discrete Fourier transform (SDFT) algorithm is proposed to efficiently compute the evolving signal magnitudes based on the flow velocity measurements. Simulation indicates that it is adequate and more computationally efficient to use only the signal magnitudes corresponding to the dipole vibration frequency. Finally, experiments conducted with an artificial lateral line consisting of six ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) flow sensors demonstrate that the proposed scheme is able to simultaneously locate the moving dipole and estimate its vibration amplitude and traveling speed with small errors. (paper)

  2. A nuclear on-line sensor for continuous control of vanadium content in oil pipelines

    Rizk, R.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Trace amounts of vanadium in crude oil and in heavy distillate fuels are very harmful due to their corrosive action. Thus the necessity arises for continuous control of the vanadium content in oil pipelines. Moreover, the development of a nuclear on-line sensor that can continuously analyze the vanadium content in oil pipelines may lead to a better control of processing operations. In this paper a feasibility study for on-line analysis of vanadium in crude oil by means of neutron activation analysis is presented. (author)

  3. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been...... and quantifying bacteria and particles in pure and mixed suspensions, and the quantification correlates with total bacterial counts. Several field applications have demonstrated that the technology can monitor changes in the concentration of bacteria, and is thus well suited for rapid detection of critical...... conditions such as pollution events in drinking water....

  4. A VIRTUAL SKY WITH EXTRAGALACTIC H I AND CO LINES FOR THE SQUARE KILOMETRE ARRAY AND THE ATACAMA LARGE MILLIMETER/SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY

    Obreschkow, D.; Kloeckner, H.-R.; Heywood, I.; Rawlings, S.; Levrier, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a sky simulation of the atomic H I-emission line and the first 10 12 C 16 O rotational emission lines of molecular gas in galaxies beyond the Milky Way. The simulated sky field has a comoving diameter of 500 h -1 Mpc; hence, the actual field of view depends on the (user-defined) maximal redshift z max ; e.g., for z max = 10, the field of view yields ∼4 x 4 deg 2 . For all galaxies, we estimate the line fluxes, line profiles, and angular sizes of the H I and CO-emission lines. The galaxy sample is complete for galaxies with cold hydrogen masses above 10 8 M sun . This sky simulation builds on a semi-analytic model of the cosmic evolution of galaxies in a Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. The evolving CDM distribution was adopted from the Millennium Simulation, an N-body CDM simulation in a cubic box with a side length of 500 h -1 Mpc. This side length limits the coherence scale of our sky simulation: it is long enough to allow the extraction of the baryon acoustic oscillations in the galaxy power spectrum, yet the position and amplitude of the first acoustic peak will be imperfectly defined. This sky simulation is a tangible aid to the design and operation of future telescopes, such as the Square Kilometre Array, Large Millimeter Telescope, and Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. The results presented in this paper have been restricted to a graphical representation of the simulated sky and fundamental dN/dz analyses for peak flux density limited and total flux limited surveys of H I and CO. A key prediction is that H I will be harder to detect at redshifts z ∼> 2 than predicted by a no-evolution model. The future verification or falsification of this prediction will allow us to qualify the semi-analytic models.

  5. Expansion of Smartwatch Touch Interface from Touchscreen to Around Device Interface Using Infrared Line Image Sensors

    Lim, Soo-Chul; Shin, Jungsoon; Kim, Seung-Chan; Park, Joonah

    2015-01-01

    Touchscreen interaction has become a fundamental means of controlling mobile phones and smartwatches. However, the small form factor of a smartwatch limits the available interactive surface area. To overcome this limitation, we propose the expansion of the touch region of the screen to the back of the user’s hand. We developed a touch module for sensing the touched finger position on the back of the hand using infrared (IR) line image sensors, based on the calibrated IR intensity and the maxi...

  6. Integrated cantilever-based flow sensors with tunable sensitivity for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations in microfluidic systems

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different...... is directly proportional to the flow rate fluctuations in the microfluidic channel. The SiN cantilevers show a detection limit below 1 nL/min and the thinnest SU-8 cantilevers a detection limit below 5 nL/min. Finally, the sensor is applied for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations generated by external...

  7. Testing of Streckeisen STS-5A and Nanometrics Trillium 120PH Sensors for the Alaska Transportable Array

    Abbasi Baghbadorani, A.; Aderhold, K.; Bloomquist, D.; Frassetto, A.; Miller, P. E.; Busby, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Starting in 2014, the IRIS Transportable Array facility began to install and operate seismic stations in Alaska and western Canada. By the end of the project, the full deployment of the array will cover a grid of 280 stations spaced about 85 km apart covering all of mainland Alaska and parts of the Yukon, British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories. Approximately 200 stations will be operated directly by IRIS through at least 2019. A key aspect of the Alaska TA is the need for stations to operate autonomously, on account of the high cost of installation and potential subsequent visits to remote field-sites to repair equipment. The TA is using newly developed broadband seismometers Streckeisen STS-5A and Nanometrics Trillium-120PH, designed for installation in shallow posthole emplacements. These new instruments were extensively vetted beforehand, but they are still relatively new to the TA inventory. Here we will assess their performance under deployment conditions and after repeated commercial shipping and travel to the field. Our objective is to provide a thorough accounting of the identified failures of the existing inventory of posthole instruments. We will assess the practices and results of instrument testing by the PASSCAL Instrument Center/Array Operations Facility (PIC/AOF), Alaska Operations Center (AOC), and broadband seismic sensor manufacturers (Streckeisen, Nanometrics) in order to document potential factors in and stages during the process for instrument failures. This will help to quantify the overall reliability of the TA seismic sensors and quality of TA practices and data collection, and identify potential considerations in future TA operations. Our results show that the overall rate of failure of all posthole instruments is improved station performance after sensor replacement, and that these are key elements in assessing whether or not a sensor should be replaced in the field.

  8. A Closed-Form Error Model of Straight Lines for Improved Data Association and Sensor Fusing

    Volker Sommer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Linear regression is a basic tool in mobile robotics, since it enables accurate estimation of straight lines from range-bearing scans or in digital images, which is a prerequisite for reliable data association and sensor fusing in the context of feature-based SLAM. This paper discusses, extends and compares existing algorithms for line fitting applicable also in the case of strong covariances between the coordinates at each single data point, which must not be neglected if range-bearing sensors are used. Besides, in particular, the determination of the covariance matrix is considered, which is required for stochastic modeling. The main contribution is a new error model of straight lines in closed form for calculating quickly and reliably the covariance matrix dependent on just a few comprehensible and easily-obtainable parameters. The model can be applied widely in any case when a line is fitted from a number of distinct points also without a priori knowledge of the specific measurement noise. By means of extensive simulations, the performance and robustness of the new model in comparison to existing approaches is shown.

  9. 600 GHz resonant mode in a parallel array of Josephson tunnel junctions connected by superconducting microstrip lines

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Mygind, Jesper

    1994-01-01

    on experimental and numerical investigations of a resonant step observed at a voltage corresponding to 600 GHz in the dc current-voltage characteristic of a parallel array of 20 identical small NbAl2O3Nb Josephson junctions interconnected by short sections of superconducting microstrip line. The junctions...... are mutually phase locked due to collective interaction with the line sections excited close to the half wavelength resonance. The phase locking range can be adjusted by means of an external dc magnetic field and the step size varies periodically with the magnetic field. The largest step corresponds...

  10. Inexpensive on-line alcohol sensor for fermentation monitoring and control

    Birch, S W; Turner, A P.F.; Ashby, R E

    1987-01-01

    An inorganic electrochemical fuel cell sensor was interfaced to a microcomputer and used to measure on-line the alcohol concentration in the off-gas of a fermentor. A calibration curve was obtained for methanol (linear range 0-9 g/l) and ethanol (linear range 0-6 g/l) to relate the alcohol concentration in the fermentor liquid with that in the off-gas. The consumption of methanol in a batch fermentation of the methylotroph Ps.BB1 was monitored (sampling frequency of 5 minutes) and compared with samples taken for off-line analysis by GLC. On-line control of the methanol concentration in a fed-batch fermentation was achieved by proportional and integral control. 24 references.

  11. Low-Temperature Rapid Fabrication of ZnO Nanowire UV Sensor Array by Laser-Induced Local Hydrothermal Growth

    Sukjoon Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate ZnO nanowire based UV sensor by laser-induced hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire. By inducing a localized temperature rise using focused laser, ZnO nanowire array at ~15 μm size consists of individual nanowires with ~8 μm length and 200~400 nm diameter is readily synthesized on gold electrode within 30 min at the desired position. The laser-induced growth process is consecutively applied on two different points to bridge the micron gap between the electrodes. The resultant photoconductive ZnO NW interconnections display 2~3 orders increase in the current upon the UV exposure at a fixed voltage bias. It is also confirmed that the amount of photocurrent can be easily adjusted by changing the number of ZnO NW array junctions. The device exhibits clear response to the repeated UV illumination, suggesting that this process can be usefully applied for the facile fabrication of low-cost UV sensor array.

  12. On-line structural damage localization and quantification using wireless sensors

    Hsu, Ting-Yu; Huang, Shieh-Kung; Lu, Kung-Chung; Loh, Chin-Hsiung; Wang, Yang; Lynch, Jerome Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a wireless sensing system is designed to realize on-line damage localization and quantification of a structure using a frequency response function change method (FRFCM). Data interrogation algorithms are embedded in the computational core of the wireless sensing units to extract the necessary structural features, i.e. the frequency spectrum segments around eigenfrequencies, automatically from measured structural response for the FRFCM. Instead of the raw time history of the structural response, the extracted compact structural features are transmitted to the host computer. As a result, with less data transmitted from the wireless sensors, the energy consumed by the wireless transmission is reduced. To validate the performance of the proposed wireless sensing system, a six-story steel building with replaceable bracings in each story is instrumented with the wireless sensors for on-line damage detection during shaking table tests. The accuracy of the damage detection results using the wireless sensing system is verified through comparison with the results calculated from data recorded of a traditional wired monitoring system. The results demonstrate that, by taking advantage of collocated computing resources in wireless sensors, the proposed wireless sensing system can locate and quantify damage with acceptable accuracy and moderate energy efficiency

  13. A High Performance Banknote Recognition System Based on a One-Dimensional Visible Light Line Sensor

    Young Ho Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for recognizing banknotes is required in many fields, such as banknote-counting machines and automatic teller machines (ATM. Due to the size and cost limitations of banknote-counting machines and ATMs, the banknote image is usually captured by a one-dimensional (line sensor instead of a conventional two-dimensional (area sensor. Because the banknote image is captured by the line sensor while it is moved at fast speed through the rollers inside the banknote-counting machine or ATM, misalignment, geometric distortion, and non-uniform illumination of the captured images frequently occur, which degrades the banknote recognition accuracy. To overcome these problems, we propose a new method for recognizing banknotes. The experimental results using two-fold cross-validation for 61,240 United States dollar (USD images show that the pre-classification error rate is 0%, and the average error rate for the final recognition of the USD banknotes is 0.114%.

  14. Measurement of response time and detection of degradation in pressure sensor/sensing-line systems

    Buchanan, M.E.; Miller, L.F.; Kerlin, T.W.; Ragan, G.; March-Leuba, J.; Thie, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A team evaluated several methods for remote measurement of the response time and detection of degradation (blockage or air in lines) of pressure sensor/sensing line systems typical of nuclear power plants. A method was developed for obtaining the response time of force-balance pressure transmitters by briefly interrupting the power supply to the transmitter. The data thus generated are then analyzed in conjunction with a model to predict transmitter response to an actual pressure perturbation. The research team also evaluated a pressure perturbation method for determining the asymptotic delay time of a pressure-sensing line and found that this method yields accurate results for essentially unblocked sensing lines. However, these pressure perturbation tests are not recommended for use in nuclear power plants because they are difficult to implement on-line. A third method for remote measurement applied noise analysis method that yielded accurate estimates of asymptotic delay times for blockage or air in sensing lines. Even though noise analysis methods worked well in the laboratory, it is recommended that further evaluation be performed in operating nuclear plants. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of response time and detection of degradation in pressure sensor/sensing line systems

    Buchanan, M.E.; Miller, L.F.; Thie, J.A.; Kerlin, T.W.; Ragan, G.E.; March-Leuba, J.

    1985-09-01

    A team evaluated several methods for remote measurement of the response time and detection of degradation (blockage or air in lines) of pressure sensor/sensing line systems typical of nuclear power plants. A method was developed for obtaining the response time of force-balance pressure transmitters by briefly interrupting the power supply to the transmitter. The data thus generated are then analyzed in conjunction with a model to predict transmitter response to an actual pressure perturbation. The research team also evaluated a pressure perturbation method for determining the asymptotic delay time of a pressure-sensing line and found that this method yields accurate results for essentially unblocked sensing lines. However, these pressure perturbation tests are not recommended for use in nuclear power plants because they are difficult to implement on-line. A third method for remote measurement applied noise analysis methods that yielded accurate estimates of asymptotic delay times for blockage or air in sensing lines. Even though noise analysis methods worked well in the laboratory, it is recommended that further evaluation be performed in operating nuclear plants

  16. Automated optical testing of LWIR objective lenses using focal plane array sensors

    Winters, Daniel; Erichsen, Patrik; Domagalski, Christian; Peter, Frank; Heinisch, Josef; Dumitrescu, Eugen

    2012-10-01

    The image quality of today's state-of-the-art IR objective lenses is constantly improving while at the same time the market for thermography and vision grows strongly. Because of increasing demands on the quality of IR optics and increasing production volumes, the standards for image quality testing increase and tests need to be performed in shorter time. Most high-precision MTF testing equipment for the IR spectral bands in use today relies on the scanning slit method that scans a 1D detector over a pattern in the image generated by the lens under test, followed by image analysis to extract performance parameters. The disadvantages of this approach are that it is relatively slow, it requires highly trained operators for aligning the sample and the number of parameters that can be extracted is limited. In this paper we present lessons learned from the R and D process on using focal plane array (FPA) sensors for testing of long-wave IR (LWIR, 8-12 m) optics. Factors that need to be taken into account when switching from scanning slit to FPAs are e.g.: the thermal background from the environment, the low scene contrast in the LWIR, the need for advanced image processing algorithms to pre-process camera images for analysis and camera artifacts. Finally, we discuss 2 measurement systems for LWIR lens characterization that we recently developed with different target applications: 1) A fully automated system suitable for production testing and metrology that uses uncooled microbolometer cameras to automatically measure MTF (on-axis and at several o-axis positions) and parameters like EFL, FFL, autofocus curves, image plane tilt, etc. for LWIR objectives with an EFL between 1 and 12mm. The measurement cycle time for one sample is typically between 6 and 8s. 2) A high-precision research-grade system using again an uncooled LWIR camera as detector, that is very simple to align and operate. A wide range of lens parameters (MTF, EFL, astigmatism, distortion, etc.) can be

  17. A Framework for the Comparative Assessment of Neuronal Spike Sorting Algorithms towards More Accurate Off-Line and On-Line Microelectrode Arrays Data Analysis.

    Regalia, Giulia; Coelli, Stefania; Biffi, Emilia; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal spike sorting algorithms are designed to retrieve neuronal network activity on a single-cell level from extracellular multiunit recordings with Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). In typical analysis of MEA data, one spike sorting algorithm is applied indiscriminately to all electrode signals. However, this approach neglects the dependency of algorithms' performances on the neuronal signals properties at each channel, which require data-centric methods. Moreover, sorting is commonly performed off-line, which is time and memory consuming and prevents researchers from having an immediate glance at ongoing experiments. The aim of this work is to provide a versatile framework to support the evaluation and comparison of different spike classification algorithms suitable for both off-line and on-line analysis. We incorporated different spike sorting "building blocks" into a Matlab-based software, including 4 feature extraction methods, 3 feature clustering methods, and 1 template matching classifier. The framework was validated by applying different algorithms on simulated and real signals from neuronal cultures coupled to MEAs. Moreover, the system has been proven effective in running on-line analysis on a standard desktop computer, after the selection of the most suitable sorting methods. This work provides a useful and versatile instrument for a supported comparison of different options for spike sorting towards more accurate off-line and on-line MEA data analysis.

  18. Evaluation of different types of sensors and their positioning for on-line PD detection and localisation in distribution cables

    Wielen, van der P.C.J.M.; Veen, J.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.

    2003-01-01

    Different types of sensors can be used for on-line detection and localisation of PDs in medium voltage cables. These sensors can be placed on different locations in the substa-tions where the cable under test is terminated. Both aspects have a significant influence on the measured signals. In this

  19. Vortex lattices in different configurations of periodic pinning line-arrays

    Lima, Clessio Leao S.; Cabral, Leonardo R.E.; Souza Silva, Clecio C. de; Aguiar, J. Albino

    2006-01-01

    The vortex lattice (VL) ground-state configurations are found using Monte Carlo (MC) simulated annealing with a local molecular dynamics (MD) in the London limit. We study the field dependence of the melting temperature for commensurate and incommensurate vortex lattices interacting with different periodic arrays of pinning. We also investigated the proliferation of topological defects and its dependence on the periodic pinning array symmetry and temperature

  20. Reliability of Measured Data for pH Sensor Arrays with Fault Diagnosis and Data Fusion Based on LabVIEW

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Lin, Chin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Fault diagnosis (FD) and data fusion (DF) technologies implemented in the LabVIEW program were used for a ruthenium dioxide pH sensor array. The purpose of the fault diagnosis and data fusion technologies is to increase the reliability of measured data. Data fusion is a very useful statistical method used for sensor arrays in many fields. Fault diagnosis is used to avoid sensor faults and to measure errors in the electrochemical measurement system, therefore, in this study, we use fault diagn...

  1. Relative localization in wireless sensor networks for measurement of electric fields under HVDC transmission lines.

    Cui, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Yuan, Haiwen; Song, Xiao; Hu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luxing

    2015-02-04

    In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes' neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  2. Relative Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks for Measurement of Electric Fields under HVDC Transmission Lines

    Yong Cui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes’ neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  3. SU-E-T-111: Development of Proton Dosimetry System Using Fiber-Optic Cerenkov Radiation Sensor Array

    Son, J [National Cancer Center, Ilsan, Gyeonggi-do, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M; Shin, D; Lim, Y; Lee, S; Kim, J; Kim, J [National Cancer Center, Goyangsi, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, U [National Medical Center in Korea, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, M [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We had developed and evaluated a new dosimetric system for proton therapy using array of fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor (FOCRS) which can measure a percent depth dose (PDD) instantly. In this study, the Bragg peaks and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) of the proton beams measured by FOCRS array were compared with those measured by an ion chamber. Methods and Method: We fabricated an optical fiber array of FOCRS in a handmade phantom which is composed of poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA). There are 75 holes of 1mm diameter inside the phantom which is designed to be exposed in direction of beam when it is emerged in water phantom. The proton beam irradiation was carried out using IBA cyclotron PROTEUS 235 at national cancer center in Korea and a commercial data acquisition system was used to digitize the analog signal. Results: The measured Bragg peak and SOBP for the proton ranges of 7∼ 20 cm were well matched with the result from ion chamber. The comparison results show that the depth of proton beam ranges and the width of SOBP measured by array of FOCRS are comparable with the measurement from multi-layer ion chamber (MLIC) although there are some uncertainty in the measurement of FOCRS array for some specific beam ranges. Conclusion: The newly developed FOCRS array based dosimetric system for proton therapy can efficiently reduce the time and effort needed for proton beam range measurement compared to the conventional method and has the potential to be used for the proton pencil beam application.

  4. Non-Contact Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Vital Signs Monitoring: A Review on Intelligent Phased-Array Doppler Sensor Design

    Hall, Travis; Nguyen, Tam Q.; Mayeda, Jill C.; Lie, Paul E.; Lopez, Jerry; Banister, Ron E.

    2017-01-01

    It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates) remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients’ long-term vital signs data is available. Therefore, there has been a lot of research activities on developing a non-contact sensor system that can monitor a patient’s vital signs and quickly transmit the information to healthcare professionals. Doppler-based radio-frequency (RF) non-contact vital signs (NCVS) monitoring system are particularly attractive for long term vital signs monitoring because there are no wires, electrodes, wearable devices, nor any contact-based sensors involved so the subjects may not be even aware of the ubiquitous monitoring. In this paper, we will provide a brief review on some latest development on NCVS sensors and compare them against a few novel and intelligent phased-array Doppler-based RF NCVS biosensors we have built in our labs. Some of our NCVS sensor tests were performed within a clutter-free anechoic chamber to mitigate the environmental clutters, while most tests were conducted within the typical Herman-Miller type office cubicle setting to mimic a more practical monitoring environment. Additionally, we will show the measurement data to demonstrate the feasibility of long-term NCVS monitoring. The measured data strongly suggests that our latest phased array NCVS system should be able to perform long-term vital signs monitoring intelligently and robustly, especially for situations where the subject is

  5. Non-Contact Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Vital Signs Monitoring: A Review on Intelligent Phased-Array Doppler Sensor Design

    Travis Hall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients’ long-term vital signs data is available. Therefore, there has been a lot of research activities on developing a non-contact sensor system that can monitor a patient’s vital signs and quickly transmit the information to healthcare professionals. Doppler-based radio-frequency (RF non-contact vital signs (NCVS monitoring system are particularly attractive for long term vital signs monitoring because there are no wires, electrodes, wearable devices, nor any contact-based sensors involved so the subjects may not be even aware of the ubiquitous monitoring. In this paper, we will provide a brief review on some latest development on NCVS sensors and compare them against a few novel and intelligent phased-array Doppler-based RF NCVS biosensors we have built in our labs. Some of our NCVS sensor tests were performed within a clutter-free anechoic chamber to mitigate the environmental clutters, while most tests were conducted within the typical Herman-Miller type office cubicle setting to mimic a more practical monitoring environment. Additionally, we will show the measurement data to demonstrate the feasibility of long-term NCVS monitoring. The measured data strongly suggests that our latest phased array NCVS system should be able to perform long-term vital signs monitoring intelligently and robustly, especially for situations where the

  6. Nanostructured Fiber Optic Cantilever Arrays and Hybrid MEMS Sensors for Chemical and Biological Detection, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in nano-/micro-scale sensor fabrication and molecular recognition surfaces offer promising opportunities to develop miniaturized hybrid fiber optic and...

  7. Data-driven modeling of nano-nose gas sensor arrays

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Larsen, Jan; Nielsen, Claus Højgård

    2010-01-01

    We present a data-driven approach to classification of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor data. The sensor is a nano-nose gas sensor that detects concentrations of analytes down to ppm levels using plasma polymorized coatings. Each sensor experiment takes approximately one hour hence...... the number of available training data is limited. We suggest a data-driven classification model which work from few examples. The paper compares a number of data-driven classification and quantification schemes able to detect the gas and the concentration level. The data-driven approaches are based on state...

  8. Data–driven modeling of nano-nose gas sensor arrays

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Larsen, Jan; Nielsen, Claus Højgård

    2010-01-01

    We present a data-driven approach to classification of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor data. The sensor is a nano-nose gas sensor that detects concentrations of analytes down to ppm levels using plasma polymorized coatings. Each sensor experiment takes approximately one hour hence...... the number of available training data is limited. We suggest a data-driven classification model which work from few examples. The paper compares a number of data-driven classification and quantification schemes able to detect the gas and the concentration level. The data-driven approaches are based on state...

  9. Remote monitoring of bond line defects between a composite panel and a stiffener using distributed piezoelectric sensors

    Yu, Xudong; Fan, Zheng; Puliyakote, Sreedhar; Castaings, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) using ultrasonic guided waves has proven to be attractive for the identification of damage in composite plate-like structures, due to its realization of both significant propagation distances and reasonable sensitivity to defects. However, topographical features such as bends, lap joints, and bonded stiffeners are often encountered in these structures, and they are susceptible to various types of defects as a consequence of stress concentration and cyclic loading during the service life. Therefore, the health condition of such features has to be assessed effectively to ensure the safe operation of the entire structure. This paper proposes a novel feature guided wave (FGW) based SHM strategy, in which proper FGWs are exploited as a screening tool to rapidly interrogate the representative stiffener-adhesive bond-composite skin assembly. An array of sensors permanently attached to the vicinity of the feature is used to capture scattered waves from the localized damage occurring in the bond line. This technique is combined with an imaging approach, and the damage reconstruction is achieved by the synthetic focusing algorithm using these scattered signals. The proposed SHM scheme is implemented in both the 3D finite element simulation and the experiment, and the results are in good agreement, demonstrating the feasibility of such SHM strategy.

  10. Adaptive LINE-P: An Adaptive Linear Energy Prediction Model for Wireless Sensor Network Nodes.

    Ahmed, Faisal; Tamberg, Gert; Le Moullec, Yannick; Annus, Paul

    2018-04-05

    In the context of wireless sensor networks, energy prediction models are increasingly useful tools that can facilitate the power management of the wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. However, most of the existing models suffer from the so-called fixed weighting parameter, which limits their applicability when it comes to, e.g., solar energy harvesters with varying characteristics. Thus, in this article we propose the Adaptive LINE-P (all cases) model that calculates adaptive weighting parameters based on the stored energy profiles. Furthermore, we also present a profile compression method to reduce the memory requirements. To determine the performance of our proposed model, we have used real data for the solar and wind energy profiles. The simulation results show that our model achieves 90-94% accuracy and that the compressed method reduces memory overheads by 50% as compared to state-of-the-art models.

  11. A Type-2 Block-Component-Decomposition Based 2D AOA Estimation Algorithm for an Electromagnetic Vector Sensor Array

    Yu-Fei Gao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a two-dimensional angle of arrival (2D AOA estimation algorithm for the electromagnetic vector sensor (EMVS array based on Type-2 block component decomposition (BCD tensor modeling. Such a tensor decomposition method can take full advantage of the multidimensional structural information of electromagnetic signals to accomplish blind estimation for array parameters with higher resolution. However, existing tensor decomposition methods encounter many restrictions in applications of the EMVS array, such as the strict requirement for uniqueness conditions of decomposition, the inability to handle partially-polarized signals, etc. To solve these problems, this paper investigates tensor modeling for partially-polarized signals of an L-shaped EMVS array. The 2D AOA estimation algorithm based on rank- ( L 1 , L 2 , · BCD is developed, and the uniqueness condition of decomposition is analyzed. By means of the estimated steering matrix, the proposed algorithm can automatically achieve angle pair-matching. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the present algorithm has the advantages of both accuracy and robustness of parameter estimation. Even under the conditions of lower SNR, small angular separation and limited snapshots, the proposed algorithm still possesses better performance than subspace methods and the canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD method.

  12. Gas Sensors Characterization and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) Hardware Implementation for Gas Identification Using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

    Benrekia, Fayçal; Attari, Mokhtar; Bouhedda, Mounir

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a primitive gas recognition system for discriminating between industrial gas species. The system under investigation consists of an array of eight micro-hotplate-based SnO2 thin film gas sensors with different selectivity patterns. The output signals are processed through a signal conditioning and analyzing system. These signals feed a decision-making classifier, which is obtained via a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with Very High-Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language. The classifier relies on a multilayer neural network based on a back propagation algorithm with one hidden layer of four neurons and eight neurons at the input and five neurons at the output. The neural network designed after implementation consists of twenty thousand gates. The achieved experimental results seem to show the effectiveness of the proposed classifier, which can discriminate between five industrial gases. PMID:23529119

  13. ESPRIT And Uniform Linear Arrays

    Roy, R. H.; Goldburg, M.; Ottersten, B. E.; Swindlehurst, A. L.; Viberg, M.; Kailath, T.

    1989-11-01

    Abstract ¬â€?ESPRIT is a recently developed and patented technique for high-resolution estimation of signal parameters. It exploits an invariance structure designed into the sensor array to achieve a reduction in computational requirements of many orders of magnitude over previous techniques such as MUSIC, Burg's MEM, and Capon's ML, and in addition achieves performance improvement as measured by parameter estimate error variance. It is also manifestly more robust with respect to sensor errors (e.g. gain, phase, and location errors) than other methods as well. Whereas ESPRIT only requires that the sensor array possess a single invariance best visualized by considering two identical but other-wise arbitrary arrays of sensors displaced (but not rotated) with respect to each other, many arrays currently in use in various applications are uniform linear arrays of identical sensor elements. Phased array radars are commonplace in high-resolution direction finding systems, and uniform tapped delay lines (i.e., constant rate A/D converters) are the rule rather than the exception in digital signal processing systems. Such arrays possess many invariances, and are amenable to other types of analysis, which is one of the main reasons such structures are so prevalent. Recent developments in high-resolution algorithms of the signal/noise subspace genre including total least squares (TLS) ESPRIT applied to uniform linear arrays are summarized. ESPRIT is also shown to be a generalization of the root-MUSIC algorithm (applicable only to the case of uniform linear arrays of omni-directional sensors and unimodular cisoids). Comparisons with various estimator bounds, including CramerRao bounds, are presented.

  14. Resonance line shape, strain and electric potential distributions of composite magnetoelectric sensors

    Martina Gerken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiferroic composite magnetoelectric (ME sensors are based on the elastic coupling of a magnetostrictive phase and a piezoelectric phase. A deformation of the magnetostrictive phase causes strain in the piezoelectric phase and thus an induced voltage. Such sensors may be applied both for static as well as for dynamic magnetic field measurements. Particularly high sensitivities are achieved for operation at a mechanical resonance. Here, the resonance line shape of layered (2-2 composite cantilever ME sensors at the first bending-mode resonance is investigated theoretically. Finite element method (FEM simulations using a linear material model reveal an asymmetric resonance profile and a zero-response frequency for the ME coefficient. Frequency-dependent strain and electric potential distributions inside the magnetoelectric composite are studied for the case of a magnetostrictive-piezoelectric bilayer. It is demonstrated that a positive or a negative voltage may be induced across the piezoelectric layer depending on the position of the neutral plane. The frequency-dependent induced electric potential is investigated for structured cantilevers that exhibit magnetostriction only at specific positions. For static operation an induced voltage is obtained locally at positions with magnetostriction. In addition to this direct effect a resonance-assisted effect is observed for dynamic operation. Magnetostriction in a limited area of the cantilever causes a global vibration of the cantilever. Thus, deformation of the piezoelectric layer and an induced electric potential also occur in areas of the cantilever without magnetostriction. The direct and the resonance-assisted pathway may induce voltages of equal or of opposite sign. The net induced voltage results from the superposition of the two effects. As the resonance-assisted induced voltage changes sign upon passing the resonance frequency, while the direct component is constant, an asymmetric line

  15. Biomimetic flow-sensor arrays based on the filiform hairs on the cerci of crickets

    Wiegerink, Remco J.; Floris, J.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Izadi, N.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report on the latest developments in biomimetic flow-sensors based on the flow sensitive mechano-sensors of crickets. Crickets have one form of acoustic sensing evolved in the form of mechanoreceptive sensory hairs. These filiform hairs are highly perceptive to low-frequency sound

  16. A Sensitive Sensor Cell Line for the Detection of Oxidative Stress Responses in Cultured Human Keratinocytes

    Ute Hofmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B’ promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked a 1.7-fold increase in total glutathione and a ~300-fold induction of transcript level of the gene coding for heat shock protein HSP70B’. An extract of Arnica montana flowers resulted in a strong induction of the HSP70B’ gene and a pronounced decrease of total glutathione in keratinocytes. The HSP70B’ promoter-based sensor cells conveniently detected cadmium-induced stress using GFP fluorescence as read-out with a limit of detection of 6 µM cadmium. In addition the sensor cells responded to exposure of cells to A. montana extract with induction of GFP fluorescence. Thus, the HaCaT sensor cells provide a means for the automated detection of the compromised redox status of keratinocytes as an early indicator of the development of human skin disorders and could be applied for the prediction of skin irritation in more complex in vitro 3D human skin models and in the development of micro-total analysis systems (µTAS that may be utilized in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacology and drug screenings.

  17. Development of a solid-state multi-sensor array camera for real time imaging of magnetic fields

    Benitez, D; Gaydecki, P; Quek, S; Torres, V

    2007-01-01

    The development of a real-time magnetic field imaging camera based on solid-state sensors is described. The final laboratory comprises a 2D array of 33 x 33 solid state, tri-axial magneto-inductive sensors, and is located within a large current-carrying coil. This may be excited to produce either a steady or time-varying magnetic field. Outputs from several rows of sensors are routed to a sub-master controller and all sub-masters route to a master-controller responsible for data coordination and signal pre-processing. The data are finally streamed to a host computer via a USB interface and the image generated and displayed at a rate of several frames per second. Accurate image generation is predicated on a knowledge of the sensor response, magnetic field perturbations and the nature of the target respecting permeability and conductivity. To this end, the development of the instrumentation has been complemented by extensive numerical modelling of field distribution patterns using boundary element methods. Although it was originally intended for deployment in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reinforced concrete, it was soon realised during the course of the work that the magnetic field imaging system had many potential applications, for example, in medicine, security screening, quality assurance (such as the food industry), other areas of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), designs associated with magnetic fields, teaching and research

  18. Highly Sensitive and Reproducible SERS Sensor for Biological pH Detection Based on a Uniform Gold Nanorod Array Platform.

    Bi, Liyan; Wang, Yunqing; Yang, Ying; Li, Yuling; Mo, Shanshan; Zheng, Qingyin; Chen, Lingxin

    2018-05-09

    Conventional research on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based pH sensors often depends on nanoparticle aggregation, whereas the variability in nanoparticle aggregation gives rise to poor repeatability in the SERS signal. Herein, we fabricated a gold nanorod array platform via an efficient evaporative self-assembly method. The platform exhibits great SERS sensitivity with an enhancement factor of 5.6 × 10 7 and maintains excellent recyclability and reproducibility with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of less than 8%. On the basis of the platform, we developed a highly sensitive bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy)-linked (BMP) SERS-based pH sensor to report pH ranging from pH 3.0 to pH 8.0. The intensity ratio variation of 1004 and 1096 cm -1 in 4-MPy showed excellent pH sensitivity, which decreased as the surrounding pH increased. Furthermore, this BMP SERS-based pH sensor was employed to measure the pH value in C57BL/6 mouse blood. We have demonstrated that the pH sensor has great advantages such as good stability, reliability, and accuracy, which could be extended for the design of point-of-care devices.

  19. Cross-Selectivity Enhancement of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene-Based Sensor Arrays for Detecting Acetone and Ethanol

    Ali Daneshkhah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two methods for cross-selectivity enhancement of porous poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP/carbon black (CB composite-based resistive sensors are provided. The sensors are tested with acetone and ethanol in the presence of humid air. Cross-selectivity is enhanced using two different methods to modify the basic response of the PVDF-HFP/CB sensing platform. In method I, the adsorption properties of PVDF-HFP/CB are altered by adding a polyethylene oxide (PEO layer or by treating with infrared (IR. In method II, the effects of the interaction of acetone and ethanol are enhanced by adding diethylene carbonate (DEC or PEO dispersed in DEC (PEO/DEC to the film. The results suggest the approaches used in method I alter the composite ability to adsorb acetone and ethanol, while in method II, they alter the transduction characteristics of the composite. Using these approaches, sensor relative response to acetone was increased by 89% compared with the PVDF-HFP/CB untreated film, whereas sensor relative response to ethanol could be decreased by 57% or increased by 197%. Not only do these results demonstrate facile methods for increasing sensitivity of PVDF-HFP/CB film, used in parallel they demonstrate a roadmap for enhancing system cross-selectivity that can be applied to separate units on an array. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures and results are presented and discussed.

  20. An application of neural network for Structural Health Monitoring of an adaptive wing with an array of FBG sensors

    Mieloszyk, Magdalena; Skarbek, Lukasz; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw; Krawczuk, Marek

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an application of neural networks to determinate the level of activation of shape memory alloy actuators of an adaptive wing. In this concept the shape of the wing can be controlled and altered thanks to the wing design and the use of integrated shape memory alloy actuators. The wing is assumed as assembled from a number of wing sections that relative positions can be controlled independently by thermal activation of shape memory actuators. The investigated wing is employed with an array of Fibre Bragg Grating sensors. The Fibre Bragg Grating sensors with combination of a neural network have been used to Structural Health Monitoring of the wing condition. The FBG sensors are a great tool to control the condition of composite structures due to their immunity to electromagnetic fields as well as their small size and weight. They can be mounted onto the surface or embedded into the wing composite material without any significant influence on the wing strength. The paper concentrates on analysis of the determination of the twisting moment produced by an activated shape memory alloy actuator. This has been analysed both numerically using the finite element method by a commercial code ABAQUS (registered) and experimentally using Fibre Bragg Grating sensor measurements. The results of the analysis have been then used by a neural network to determine twisting moments produced by each shape memory alloy actuator.

  1. Development of a solid-state multi-sensor array camera for real time imaging of magnetic fields

    Benitez, D.; Gaydecki, P.; Quek, S.; Torres, V.

    2007-07-01

    The development of a real-time magnetic field imaging camera based on solid-state sensors is described. The final laboratory comprises a 2D array of 33 x 33 solid state, tri-axial magneto-inductive sensors, and is located within a large current-carrying coil. This may be excited to produce either a steady or time-varying magnetic field. Outputs from several rows of sensors are routed to a sub-master controller and all sub-masters route to a master-controller responsible for data coordination and signal pre-processing. The data are finally streamed to a host computer via a USB interface and the image generated and displayed at a rate of several frames per second. Accurate image generation is predicated on a knowledge of the sensor response, magnetic field perturbations and the nature of the target respecting permeability and conductivity. To this end, the development of the instrumentation has been complemented by extensive numerical modelling of field distribution patterns using boundary element methods. Although it was originally intended for deployment in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reinforced concrete, it was soon realised during the course of the work that the magnetic field imaging system had many potential applications, for example, in medicine, security screening, quality assurance (such as the food industry), other areas of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), designs associated with magnetic fields, teaching and research.

  2. Micromachined silicon parallel acoustic delay lines as time-delayed ultrasound detector array for real-time photoacoustic tomography

    Cho, Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Wang, L. V.; Zou, J.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the development of a new 16-channel parallel acoustic delay line (PADL) array for real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The PADLs were directly fabricated from single-crystalline silicon substrates using deep reactive ion etching. Compared with other acoustic delay lines (e.g., optical fibers), the micromachined silicon PADLs offer higher acoustic transmission efficiency, smaller form factor, easier assembly, and mass production capability. To demonstrate its real-time photoacoustic imaging capability, the silicon PADL array was interfaced with one single-element ultrasonic transducer followed by one channel of data acquisition electronics to receive 16 channels of photoacoustic signals simultaneously. A PAT image of an optically-absorbing target embedded in an optically-scattering phantom was reconstructed, which matched well with the actual size of the imaged target. Because the silicon PADL array allows a signal-to-channel reduction ratio of 16:1, it could significantly simplify the design and construction of ultrasonic receivers for real-time PAT.

  3. Micromachined silicon parallel acoustic delay lines as time-delayed ultrasound detector array for real-time photoacoustic tomography

    Cho, Y; Chang, C-C; Zou, J; Wang, L V

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a new 16-channel parallel acoustic delay line (PADL) array for real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The PADLs were directly fabricated from single-crystalline silicon substrates using deep reactive ion etching. Compared with other acoustic delay lines (e.g., optical fibers), the micromachined silicon PADLs offer higher acoustic transmission efficiency, smaller form factor, easier assembly, and mass production capability. To demonstrate its real-time photoacoustic imaging capability, the silicon PADL array was interfaced with one single-element ultrasonic transducer followed by one channel of data acquisition electronics to receive 16 channels of photoacoustic signals simultaneously. A PAT image of an optically-absorbing target embedded in an optically-scattering phantom was reconstructed, which matched well with the actual size of the imaged target. Because the silicon PADL array allows a signal-to-channel reduction ratio of 16:1, it could significantly simplify the design and construction of ultrasonic receivers for real-time PAT. (paper)

  4. Flight route Designing and mission planning Of power line inspecting system Based On multi-sensor UAV

    Xiaowei, Xie; Zhengjun, Liu; Zhiquan, Zuo

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain various information of power facilities such as spatial location, geometry, images data and video information in the infrared and ultraviolet band and so on, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) power line inspecting system needs to integrate a variety of sensors for data collection. Low altitude and side-looking imaging are required for UAV flight to ensure sensors to acquire high-quality data and device security. In this paper, UAV power line inspecting system is deferent from existing ones that used in Surveying and Mapping. According to characteristics of UAV for example equipped multiple sensor, side-looking imaging, working at low altitude, complex terrain conditions and corridor type flight, this paper puts forward a UAV power line inspecting scheme which comprehensively considered of the UAV performance, sensor parameters and task requirements. The scheme is finally tested in a region of Guangdong province, and the preliminary results show that the scheme is feasible

  5. Array-based genotyping and genetic dissimilarity analysis of a set of maize inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups

    Jambrović Antun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the results of the detailed array-based genotyping obtained by using the Illumina MaizeSNP50 BeadChip of eleven inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups relevant for maize breeding in Southeast Europe - European Corn Belt. The objectives of this study were to assess the utility of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip platform by determining its descriptive power and to assess genetic dissimilarity of the inbred lines. The distribution of the SNPs was found not completely uniform among chromosomes, but average call rate was very high (97.9% and number of polymorphic loci was 33200 out of 50074 SNPs with known mapping position indicating descriptive power of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip. The dendrogram obtained from UPGMA cluster analysis as well as principal component analysis (PCA confirmed pedigree information, undoubtedly distinguishing lines according to their background in two population varieties of Reid Yellow Dent and Lancaster Sure Crop. Dissimilarity analysis showed that all of the inbred lines could be distinguished from each other. Whereas cluster analysis did not definitely differentiate Mo17 and Ohio inbred lines, PCA revealed clear genetic differences between them. The studied inbred lines were confirmed to be genetically diverse, representing a large proportion of the genetic variation occurring in two maize heterotic groups.

  6. Dipole-source localization using biomimetic flow-sensor arrays positioned as lateral-line system

    Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Kolster, M.L.; Bruinink, C.M.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In-plane linear displacements of microelectromechanical systems are measured with subnanometer accuracy by observing the periodic micropatterns with a charge-coupled device camera attached to an optical microscope. The translation of the microstructure is retrieved from the video by phase-shift

  7. Wheel/rail noise generated by a high-speed train investigated with a line array of microphones

    Barsikow, B.; King, W. F.; Pfizenmaier, E.

    1987-10-01

    Radiated noise generated by a high-speed electric train travelling at speeds up to 250 km/h has been measured with a line array of microphones mounted along the wayside in two different orientations. The test train comprised a 103 electric locomotive, four Intercity coaches, and a dynamo coach. Some of the wheels were fitted with experimental wheel-noise absorbers. By using the directional capabilities of the array, the locations of the dominant sources of wheel/rail radiated noise were identified on the wheels. For conventional wheels, these sources lie near or on the rim at an average height of about 0·2 m above the railhead. The effect of wheel-noise absorbers and freshly turned treads on radiated noise were also investigated.

  8. Rectangular Schlumberger resistivity arrays for delineating vadose zone clay-lined fractures in shallow tuff

    Miele, M.; Laymon, D.; Gilkeson, R.; Michelotti, R.

    1996-01-01

    Rectangular Schlumberger arrays can be used for 2-dimensional lateral profiling of apparent resistivity at a unique current electrode separation, hence single depth of penetration. Numerous apparent resistivity measurements are collected moving the potential electrodes (fixed MN spacing) within a rectangle of defined dimensions. The method provides a fast, cost-effective means for the collection of dense resistivity data to provide high-resolution information on subsurface hydrogeologic conditions. Several rectangular Schlumberger resistivity arrays were employed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1989 through 1995 in an area adjacent to and downhill from an outfall pipe, septic tank, septic drainfield, and sump. Six rectangular arrays with 2 AB spacings were used to delineate lateral low resistivity anomalies that may be related to fractures that contain clay and/or vadose zone water. Duplicate arrays collected over a three year time period exhibited very good data repeatability. The properties of tritium make it an excellent groundwater tracer. Because tritium was present in discharged water from all of the anthropogenic sources in the vicinity it was used for this purpose. One major low resistivity anomaly correlates with relatively high tritium concentrations in the tuff. This was determined from borehole samples collected within and outside of the anomalous zone. The anomaly is interpreted to be due to fractures that contain clay from the soil profile. The clay was deposited in the fractures by aeolian processes and by surface water infiltration. The fractures likely served as a shallow vadose zone groundwater pathway

  9. Secure and Time-Aware Communication of Wireless Sensors Monitoring Overhead Transmission Lines.

    Mazur, Katarzyna; Wydra, Michal; Ksiezopolski, Bogdan

    2017-07-11

    Existing transmission power grids suffer from high maintenance costs and scalability issues along with a lack of effective and secure system monitoring. To address these problems, we propose to use Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) as a technology to achieve energy efficient, reliable, and low-cost remote monitoring of transmission grids. With WSNs, smart grid enables both utilities and customers to monitor, predict and manage energy usage effectively and react to possible power grid disturbances in a timely manner. However, the increased application of WSNs also introduces new security challenges, especially related to privacy, connectivity, and security management, repeatedly causing unpredicted expenditures. Monitoring the status of the power system, a large amount of sensors generates massive amount of sensitive data. In order to build an effective Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for a smart grid, we focus on designing a methodology of efficient and secure delivery of the data measured on transmission lines. We perform a set of simulations, in which we examine different routing algorithms, security mechanisms and WSN deployments in order to select the parameters that will not affect the delivery time but fulfill their role and ensure security at the same time. Furthermore, we analyze the optimal placement of direct wireless links, aiming at minimizing time delays, balancing network performance and decreasing deployment costs.

  10. Non-line-of-sight optical wireless sensor network operating in multiscattering channel

    Kedar, Debbie; Arnon, Shlomi

    2006-11-01

    Networks of sensors are envisaged to be major participants in future data-gathering systems for civilian and military applications, including medical and environmental monitoring and surveillance, home security, agriculture, and industry. Typically, a very large number of miniature sensing and communicating nodes are distributed ad hoc at the location of interest, where they establish a network and wirelessly communicate sensed data either to one another or to a base station using various network topologies. The optical modality is a potential solution for the links, due to the small and lightweight hardware and low power consumption, as well as other special features. Notably, the backscattering of light by molecules and aerosols in the atmosphere can function as a vehicle of communication in a way similar to the deployment of numerous tiny reflecting mirrors. The scattering of light at solar-blind ultraviolet wavelengths is of particular interest since scattering by atmospheric particles is significant and ambient solar interference is minimal. In this paper we derive a mathematical model of a simple and low-cost non-line-of-sight (NLOS) optical wireless sensor network operating in the solar-blind ultraviolet spectral range. The viability and limitations of the internode link are evaluated and found to facilitate miniature operational sensor networks.

  11. An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors for permanent magnet spherical actuators with 3D magnet array.

    Yan, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I-Ming

    2014-10-24

    An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors is proposed for permanent magnet (PM) spherical actuators with three-dimensional (3D) magnet array. As there is no contact between the measurement system and the rotor, this method could effectively avoid friction torque and additional inertial moment existing in conventional approaches. Curved surface fitting method based on exponential approximation is proposed to formulate the magnetic field distribution in 3D space. The comparison with conventional modeling method shows that it helps to improve the model accuracy. The Hall-effect sensors are distributed around the rotor with PM poles to detect the flux density at different points, and thus the rotor orientation can be computed from the measured results and analytical models. Experiments have been conducted on the developed research prototype of the spherical actuator to validate the accuracy of the analytical equations relating the rotor orientation and the value of magnetic flux density. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the rotor orientation precisely, and the measurement accuracy could be improved by the novel 3D magnet array. The study result could be used for real-time motion control of PM spherical actuators.

  12. Blood leakage detection during dialysis therapy based on fog computing with array photocell sensors and heteroassociative memory model.

    Wu, Jian-Xing; Huang, Ping-Tzan; Lin, Chia-Hung; Li, Chien-Ming

    2018-02-01

    Blood leakage and blood loss are serious life-threatening complications occurring during dialysis therapy. These events have been of concerns to both healthcare givers and patients. More than 40% of adult blood volume can be lost in just a few minutes, resulting in morbidities and mortality. The authors intend to propose the design of a warning tool for the detection of blood leakage/blood loss during dialysis therapy based on fog computing with an array of photocell sensors and heteroassociative memory (HAM) model. Photocell sensors are arranged in an array on a flexible substrate to detect blood leakage via the resistance changes with illumination in the visible spectrum of 500-700 nm. The HAM model is implemented to design a virtual alarm unit using electricity changes in an embedded system. The proposed warning tool can indicate the risk level in both end-sensing units and remote monitor devices via a wireless network and fog/cloud computing. The animal experimental results (pig blood) will demonstrate the feasibility.

  13. Blood leakage detection during dialysis therapy based on fog computing with array photocell sensors and heteroassociative memory model

    Wu, Jian-Xing; Huang, Ping-Tzan; Li, Chien-Ming

    2018-01-01

    Blood leakage and blood loss are serious life-threatening complications occurring during dialysis therapy. These events have been of concerns to both healthcare givers and patients. More than 40% of adult blood volume can be lost in just a few minutes, resulting in morbidities and mortality. The authors intend to propose the design of a warning tool for the detection of blood leakage/blood loss during dialysis therapy based on fog computing with an array of photocell sensors and heteroassociative memory (HAM) model. Photocell sensors are arranged in an array on a flexible substrate to detect blood leakage via the resistance changes with illumination in the visible spectrum of 500–700 nm. The HAM model is implemented to design a virtual alarm unit using electricity changes in an embedded system. The proposed warning tool can indicate the risk level in both end-sensing units and remote monitor devices via a wireless network and fog/cloud computing. The animal experimental results (pig blood) will demonstrate the feasibility. PMID:29515815

  14. An Automated Sensing System for Steel Bridge Inspection Using GMR Sensor Array and Magnetic Wheels of Climbing Robot

    Rui Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the main causes of deterioration of steel bridges. It may cause metal loss and fatigue cracks in the steel components, which would lead to the collapse of steel bridges. This paper presents an automated sensing system to detect corrosion, crack, and other kinds of defects using a GMR (Giant Magnetoresistance sensor array. Defects will change the relative permeability and electrical conductivity of the material. As a result, magnetic field density generated by ferromagnetic material and the magnetic wheels will be changed. The defects are able to be detected by using GMR sensor array to measure the changes of magnetic flux density. In this study, magnetic wheels are used not only as the adhesion device of the robot, but also as an excitation source to provide the exciting magnetic field for the sensing system. Furthermore, compared to the eddy current method and the MFL (magnetic flux leakage method, this sensing system suppresses the noise from lift-off value fluctuation by measuring the vertical component of induced magnetic field that is perpendicular to the surface of the specimen in the corrosion inspection. Simulations and experimental results validated the feasibility of the system for the automated defect inspection.

  15. Reliability of measured data for pH sensor arrays with fault diagnosis and data fusion based on LabVIEW.

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Lin, Chin-Yi

    2013-12-13

    Fault diagnosis (FD) and data fusion (DF) technologies implemented in the LabVIEW program were used for a ruthenium dioxide pH sensor array. The purpose of the fault diagnosis and data fusion technologies is to increase the reliability of measured data. Data fusion is a very useful statistical method used for sensor arrays in many fields. Fault diagnosis is used to avoid sensor faults and to measure errors in the electrochemical measurement system, therefore, in this study, we use fault diagnosis to remove any faulty sensors in advance, and then proceed with data fusion in the sensor array. The average, self-adaptive and coefficient of variance data fusion methods are used in this study. The pH electrode is fabricated with ruthenium dioxide (RuO2) sensing membrane using a sputtering system to deposit it onto a silicon substrate, and eight RuO2 pH electrodes are fabricated to form a sensor array for this study.

  16. Reliability of Measured Data for pH Sensor Arrays with Fault Diagnosis and Data Fusion Based on LabVIEW

    Yi-Hung Liao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis (FD and data fusion (DF technologies implemented in the LabVIEW program were used for a ruthenium dioxide pH sensor array. The purpose of the fault diagnosis and data fusion technologies is to increase the reliability of measured data. Data fusion is a very useful statistical method used for sensor arrays in many fields. Fault diagnosis is used to avoid sensor faults and to measure errors in the electrochemical measurement system, therefore, in this study, we use fault diagnosis to remove any faulty sensors in advance, and then proceed with data fusion in the sensor array. The average, self-adaptive and coefficient of variance data fusion methods are used in this study. The pH electrode is fabricated with ruthenium dioxide (RuO2 sensing membrane using a sputtering system to deposit it onto a silicon substrate, and eight RuO2 pH electrodes are fabricated to form a sensor array for this study.

  17. A force sensor using nanowire arrays to understand biofilm formation (Conference Presentation)

    Sahoo, Prasana K.; Cavalli, Alessandro; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Murillo, Duber M.; Souza, Alessandra A.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Cotta, Monica A.

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the cellular signaling and function at the nano-bio interface can pave the way towards developing next-generation smart diagnostic tools. From this perspective, limited reports detail so far the cellular and subcellular forces exerted by bacterial cells during the interaction with abiotic materials. Nanowire arrays with high aspect ratio have been used to detect such small forces. In this regard, live force measurements were performed ex-vivo during the interaction of Xylella fastidiosa bacterial cells with InP nanowire arrays. The influence of nanowire array topography and surface chemistry on the response and motion of bacterial cells was studied in detail. The nanowire arrays were also functionalized with different cell adhesive promoters, such as amines and XadA1, an afimbrial protein of X.fastidiosa. By employing the well-defined InP nanowire arrays platform, and single cell confocal imaging system, we were able to trace the bacterial growth pattern, and show that their initial attachment locations are strongly influenced by the surface chemistry and nanoscale surface topography. In addition, we measure the cellular forces down to few nanonewton range using these nanowire arrays. In case of nanowire functionalized with XadA1, the force exerted by vertically and horizontally attached single bacteria on the nanowire is in average 14% and 26% higher than for the pristine array, respectively. These results provide an excellent basis for live-cell force measurements as well as unravel the range of forces involved during the early stages of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.

  18. Opto-electronic scanning of colour pictures with P/sup 2/CCC-all solid state line sensors

    Damann, H; Rabe, G; Zinke, M; Herrmann, M; Imjela, R; Laasch, I; Mueller, J; Neumann, K; Tauchen, G; Woelber, J

    1982-04-01

    A new one-chip all solid state line sensor (P/sup 2/CCD-Tricoli) has been realized as a basis for the opto-electronic scanning of colour pictures. The three photosensitive lines for the colour components red, green and blue contain each 652 photo elements. They are arranged in parallel on one silicon crystal, with distances of some 100 ..mu..m. The line sensor is supplied with an extra designed driving circuitry and a signal processing. For colour splitting a colour separating digital phase grating has been developed which generates the three colour components in its three central diffraction orders. Using all the development components ('Tricoli'-line-sensor, electronic circuitry, colour separation grating) a model of a slide scanner has been built up, which succesfully demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed colour scanning system.

  19. ''SensArray'' voltage sensor analysis in an inductively coupled plasma

    Titus, M. J.; Hsu, C. C.; Graves, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    A commercially manufactured PlasmaVolt sensor wafer was studied in an inductively coupled plasma reactor in an effort to validate sensor measurements. A pure Ar plasma at various powers (25-420 W), for a range of pressures (10-80 mT), and bias voltages (0-250 V) was utilized. A numerical sheath simulation was simultaneously developed in order to interpret experimental results. It was found that PlasmaVolt sensor measurements are proportional to the rf-current through the sheath. Under conditions such that the sheath impedance is dominantly capacitive, sensor measurements follow a scaling law derived from the inhomogeneous sheath model of Lieberman and Lichtenberg, [Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing (Wiley, New York, 2005)]. Under these conditions, sensor measurements are proportional to the square root of the plasma density at the plasma-sheath interface, the one-fourth root of the electron temperature, and the one-fourth root of the rf bias voltage. When the sheath impedance becomes increasingly resistive, the sensor measurements deviate from the scaling law and tend to be directly proportional to the plasma density. The measurements and numerical sheath simulation demonstrate the scaling behavior as a function of changing sheath impedance for various plasma conditions.

  20. Process Development And Simulation For Cold Fabrication Of Doubly Curved Metal Plate By Using Line Array Roll Set

    Shim, D. S.; Jung, C. G.; Seong, D. Y.; Yang, D. Y.; Han, J. M.; Han, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    For effective manufacturing of a doubly curved sheet metal, a novel sheet metal forming process is proposed. The suggested process uses a Line Array Roll Set (LARS) composed of a pair of upper and lower roll assemblies in a symmetric manner. The process offers flexibility as compared with the conventional manufacturing processes, because it does not require any complex-shaped die and loss of material by blank-holding is minimized. LARS allows flexibility of the incremental forming process and adopts the principle of bending deformation, resulting in a slight deformation in thickness. Rolls composed of line array roll sets are divided into a driving roll row and two idle roll rows. The arrayed rolls in the central lines of the upper and lower roll assemblies are motor-driven so that they deform and transfer the sheet metal using friction between the rolls and the sheet metal. The remaining rolls are idle rolls, generating bending deformation with driving rolls. Furthermore, all the rolls are movable in any direction so that they are adaptable to any size or shape of the desired three-dimensional configuration. In the process, the sheet is deformed incrementally as deformation proceeds simultaneously in rolling and transverse directions step by step. Consequently, it can be applied to the fabrication of doubly curved ship hull plates by undergoing several passes. In this work, FEM simulations are carried out for verification of the proposed incremental forming system using the chosen design parameters. Based on the results of the simulation, the relationship between the roll set configuration and the curvature of a sheet metal is determined. The process information such as the forming loads and torques acting on every roll is analyzed as important data for the design and development of the manufacturing system

  1. Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Coal Gasifier Refractory Health

    Wang, Anbo [Center for Photonics Technology, Blacksburgh, VA (United States); Yu, Zhihao [Center for Photonics Technology, Blacksburgh, VA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program “Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Coal Gasifier Refractory Health,” funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The scope of work entails analyses of traveling grating generation technologies in an optical fiber, as well as the interrogation of the gratings to infer a distributed temperature along the fiber, for the purpose of developing a real-time refractory health condition monitoring technology for coal gasifiers. During the project period, which is from 2011-2015, three different sensing principles were studied, including four-wave mixing (FWM), coherent optical time-domain reflectometer (C-OTDR) and Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). By comparing the three methods, the BOTDA was selected for further development into a complete bench-top sensing system for the proposed high-temperature sensing application. Based on the input from Eastman Chemical, the industrial collaborator on this project, a cylindrical furnace was designed and constructed to simulate typical gasifier refractory temperature conditions in the laboratory, and verify the sensor’s capability to fully monitor refractory conditions on the back-side at temperatures up to 1000°C. In the later stages of the project, the sensing system was tested in the simulated environment for its sensing performance and high-temperature survivability. Through theoretical analyses and experimental research on the different factors affecting the sensor performance, a sensor field deployment strategy was proposed for possible future sensor field implementations.

  2. Low temperature preparation of Ag-doped ZnO nanowire arrays for sensor and light-emitting diode applications

    Lupan, O.; Viana, B.; Cretu, V.; Postica, V.; Adelung, R.; Pauporté, T.

    2016-02-01

    Transition metal doped-oxide semiconductor nanostructures are important to achieve enhanced and new properties for advanced applications. We describe the low temperature preparation of ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod (NW/NR) arrays by electrodeposition at 90 °C. The NWs have been characterized by SEM, EDX, transmittance and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The integration of Ag in the crystal is shown. Single nanowire/nanorod of ZnO:Ag was integrated in a nanosensor structure leading to new and enhanced properties. The ultraviolet (UV) response of the nanosensor was investigated at room temperature. Experimental results indicate that ZnO:Ag (0.75 μM) nanosensor possesses faster response/recovery time and better response to UV light than those reported in literature. The sensor structure has been also shown to give a fast response for the hydrogen detection with improved performances compared to pristine ZnO NWs. ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod arrays electrochemically grown on p-type GaN single crystal layer is also shown to act as light emitter in LED structures. The emission wavelength is red-shifted compared to pristine ZnO NW array. At low Ag concentration a single UV-blue emission is found whereas at higher concentration of dopant the emission is broadened and extends up to the red wavelength range. Our study indicates that high quality ZnO:Ag NW/NR prepared at low temperature by electrodeposition can serve as building nanomaterials for new sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs) structures with low-power consumption.

  3. On-line testing of response time and calibration of temperature and pressure sensors in nuclear power plants

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Periodic calibrations and response time measurements are necessary for temperature and pressure sensors in the safety systems of nuclear power plants. Conventional measurement methods require the test to be performed at the sensor location or involve removing the sensor from the process and performing the tests in a laboratory or on the bench. The conventional methods are time consuming and have the potential of causing wear and tear on the equipment, can expose the test personnel to radiation and other harsh environments, and increase the length of the plant outage. Also, the conventional methods do not account for the installation effects which may have an influence on sensor performance. On-line testing methods alleviate these problems by providing remote sensor response time and calibration capabilities. For temperature sensors such as Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) and thermocouples, an on-line test method called the Loop Current Step Response (LCSR) technique has been developed, and for pressure transmitters, an on-line method called noise analysis which was available for reactor diagnostics was validated for response time testing applications. Both the LCSR and noise analysis tests are performed periodically in U.S. nuclear power plants to meet the plant technical specification requirements for response time testing of safety-related sensors. Automated testing of the calibration of both temperature and pressure sensors can be accomplished through an on-line monitoring system installed in the plant. The system monitors the DC output of the sensors over the fuel cycle to determine if any calibration drift has occurred. Changes in calibration can be detected using signal averaging and intercomparison methods and analytical redundancy techniques. (author)

  4. High figure of merit ultra-compact 3-channel parallel-connected photonic crystal mini-hexagonal-H1 defect microcavity sensor array

    Wang, Chunhong; Sun, Fujun; Fu, Zhongyuan; Ding, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Chao; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Jiawen; Tian, Huiping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a photonic crystal (PhC) butt-coupled mini-hexagonal-H1 defect (MHHD) microcavity sensor is proposed. The MHHD microcavity is designed by introducing six mini-holes into the initial H1 defect region. Further, based on a well-designed 1 ×3 PhC Beam Splitter and three optimal MHHD microcavity sensors with different lattice constants (a), a 3-channel parallel-connected PhC sensor array on monolithic silicon on insulator (SOI) is proposed. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations method is performed to demonstrate the high performance of our structures. As statistics show, the quality factor (Q) of our optimal MHHD microcavity attains higher than 7×104, while the sensitivity (S) reaches up to 233 nm/RIU(RIU = refractive index unit). Thus, the figure of merit (FOM) >104 of the sensor is obtained, which is enhanced by two orders of magnitude compared to the previous butt-coupled sensors [1-4]. As for the 3-channel parallel-connected PhC MHHD microcavity sensor array, the FOMs of three independent MHHD microcavity sensors are 8071, 8250 and 8250, respectively. In addition, the total footprint of the proposed 3-channel parallel-connected PhC sensor array is ultra-compactness of 12.5 μm ×31 μm (width × length). Therefore, the proposed high FOM sensor array is an ideal platform for realizing ultra-compact highly parallel refractive index (RI) sensing.

  5. Point-source reconstruction with a sparse light-sensor array for optical TPC readout

    Rutter, G; Richards, M; Bennieston, A J; Ramachers, Y A

    2011-01-01

    A reconstruction technique for sparse array optical signal readout is introduced and applied to the generic challenge of large-area readout of a large number of point light sources. This challenge finds a prominent example in future, large volume neutrino detector studies based on liquid argon. It is concluded that the sparse array option may be ruled out for reasons of required number of channels when compared to a benchmark derived from charge readout on wire-planes. Smaller-scale detectors, however, could benefit from this technology.

  6. An intelligent sensor array distributed system for vibration analysis and acoustic noise characterization of a linear switched reluctance actuator.

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  7. Improved sensing characteristics of dual-gate transistor sensor using silicon nanowire arrays defined by nanoimprint lithography

    Lim, Cheol-Min; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Ki Joong; Oh, Young Kyoung; Shin, Yong-Beom; Cho, Won-Ju

    2017-12-01

    This work describes the construction of a sensitive, stable, and label-free sensor based on a dual-gate field-effect transistor (DG FET), in which uniformly distributed and size-controlled silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays by nanoimprint lithography act as conductor channels. Compared to previous DG FETs with a planar-type silicon channel layer, the constructed SiNW DG FETs exhibited superior electrical properties including a higher capacitive-coupling ratio of 18.0 and a lower off-state leakage current under high-temperature stress. In addition, while the conventional planar single-gate (SG) FET- and planar DG FET-based pH sensors showed the sensitivities of 56.7 mV/pH and 439.3 mV/pH, respectively, the SiNW DG FET-based pH sensors showed not only a higher sensitivity of 984.1 mV/pH, but also a lower drift rate of 0.8% for pH-sensitivity. This demonstrates that the SiNW DG FETs simultaneously achieve high sensitivity and stability, with significant potential for future biosensing applications.

  8. An Intelligent Sensor Array Distributed System for Vibration Analysis and Acoustic Noise Characterization of a Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator

    Maria Calado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs. The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  9. Response Characterization of a Fiber Optic Sensor Array with Dye-Coated Planar Waveguide for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Jae-Sung Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a multi-array side-polished optical-fiber gas sensor for the detection of volatile organic compound (VOC gases. The side-polished optical-fiber coupled with a polymer planar waveguide (PWG provides high sensitivity to alterations in refractive index. The PWG was fabricated by coating a solvatochromic dye with poly(vinylpyrrolidone. To confirm the effectiveness of the sensor, five different sensing membranes were fabricated by coating the side-polished optical-fiber using the solvatochromic dyes Reinhardt’s dye, Nile red, 4-aminophthalimide, 4-amino-N-methylphthalimide, and 4-(dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, which have different polarities that cause changes in the effective refractive index of the sensing membrane owing to evanescent field coupling. The fabricated gas detection system was tested with five types of VOC gases, namely acetic acid, benzene, dimethylamine, ethanol, and toluene at concentrations of 1, 2,…,10 ppb. Second-regression and principal component analyses showed that the response properties of the proposed VOC gas sensor were linearly shifted bathochromically, and each gas showed different response characteristics.

  10. The smooth cyclotron line in her x-1 as seen with nuclear spectroscopic telescope array

    Fuerst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Staubert, Ruediger

    2013-01-01

    , and a CRSF. We find that the CRSF has a very smooth and symmetric shape, in all observations and at all pulse-phases. We compare the residuals of a line with a Gaussian optical depth profile to a Lorentzian optical depth profile and find no significant differences, strongly constraining the very smooth shape....... We observed Her X-1 three times, coordinated with Suzaku, during one of the high flux intervals of its 35d super-orbital period. This paper focuses on the shape and evolution of the hard X-ray spectrum. The broad-band spectra can be fitted with a powerlaw with a high-energy cutoff, an iron line...... of the line. Even though the line energy changes dramatically with pulse phase, we find that its smooth shape does not. Additionally, our data show that the continuum is only changing marginally between the three observations. These changes can be explained with varying amounts of Thomson scattering...

  11. Signal Space Separation Method for a Biomagnetic Sensor Array Arranged on a Flat Plane for Magnetocardiographic Applications: A Computer Simulation Study

    2018-01-01

    Although the signal space separation (SSS) method can successfully suppress interference/artifacts overlapped onto magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals, the method is considered inapplicable to data from nonhelmet-type sensor arrays, such as the flat sensor arrays typically used in magnetocardiographic (MCG) applications. This paper shows that the SSS method is still effective for data measured from a (nonhelmet-type) array of sensors arranged on a flat plane. By using computer simulations, it is shown that the optimum location of the origin can be determined by assessing the dependence of signal and noise gains of the SSS extractor on the origin location. The optimum values of the parameters LC and LD, which, respectively, indicate the truncation values of the multipole-order ℓ of the internal and external subspaces, are also determined by evaluating dependences of the signal, noise, and interference gains (i.e., the shield factor) on these parameters. The shield factor exceeds 104 for interferences originating from fairly distant sources. However, the shield factor drops to approximately 100 when calibration errors of 0.1% exist and to 30 when calibration errors of 1% exist. The shielding capability can be significantly improved using vector sensors, which measure the x, y, and z components of the magnetic field. With 1% calibration errors, a vector sensor array still maintains a shield factor of approximately 500. It is found that the SSS application to data from flat sensor arrays causes a distortion in the signal magnetic field, but it is shown that the distortion can be corrected by using an SSS-modified sensor lead field in the voxel space analysis. PMID:29854364

  12. Signal Space Separation Method for a Biomagnetic Sensor Array Arranged on a Flat Plane for Magnetocardiographic Applications: A Computer Simulation Study

    Kensuke Sekihara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the signal space separation (SSS method can successfully suppress interference/artifacts overlapped onto magnetoencephalography (MEG signals, the method is considered inapplicable to data from nonhelmet-type sensor arrays, such as the flat sensor arrays typically used in magnetocardiographic (MCG applications. This paper shows that the SSS method is still effective for data measured from a (nonhelmet-type array of sensors arranged on a flat plane. By using computer simulations, it is shown that the optimum location of the origin can be determined by assessing the dependence of signal and noise gains of the SSS extractor on the origin location. The optimum values of the parameters LC and LD, which, respectively, indicate the truncation values of the multipole-order ℓ of the internal and external subspaces, are also determined by evaluating dependences of the signal, noise, and interference gains (i.e., the shield factor on these parameters. The shield factor exceeds 104 for interferences originating from fairly distant sources. However, the shield factor drops to approximately 100 when calibration errors of 0.1% exist and to 30 when calibration errors of 1% exist. The shielding capability can be significantly improved using vector sensors, which measure the x, y, and z components of the magnetic field. With 1% calibration errors, a vector sensor array still maintains a shield factor of approximately 500. It is found that the SSS application to data from flat sensor arrays causes a distortion in the signal magnetic field, but it is shown that the distortion can be corrected by using an SSS-modified sensor lead field in the voxel space analysis.

  13. Ti/TiO 2 nanotube array electrode as a new sensor to ...

    The Ti/TiO2 nanotube array (Ti-NTA) electrode was prepared by anodizing of the Ti foil ... and the pH=3.0 and =1.0 V (vs. reference electrode) were determined as the ... It was found that the photocurrent of EG was linearly dependent on the ...

  14. Confined surface plasmon sensors based on strongly coupled disk-in-volcano arrays.

    Ai, Bin; Wang, Limin; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yu, Ye; Zhang, Gang

    2015-02-14

    Disk-in-volcano arrays are reported to greatly enhance the sensing performance due to strong coupling in the nanogaps between the nanovolcanos and nanodisks. The designed structure, which is composed of a nanovolcano array film and a disk in each cavity, is fabricated by a simple and efficient colloidal lithography method. By tuning structural parameters, the disk-in-volcano arrays show greatly enhanced resonances in the nanogaps formed by the disks and the inner wall of the volcanos. Therefore they respond to the surrounding environment with a sensitivity as high as 977 nm per RIU and with excellent linear dependence on the refraction index. Moreover, through mastering the fabrication process, biological sensing can be easily confined to the cavities of the nanovolcanos. The local responsivity has the advantages of maximum surface plasmon energy density in the nanogaps, reducing the sensing background and saving expensive reagents. The disk-in-volcano arrays also possess great potential in applications of optical and electrical trapping and single-molecule analysis, because they enable establishment of electric fields across the gaps.

  15. Numerical and Experimental Characterization of Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Structures with Embedded Piezoelectric Sensor-Actuator Arrays for Ultrasonic Applications

    Klaudiusz Holeczek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents preliminary numerical and experimental studies of active textile-reinforced thermoplastic composites with embedded sensor-actuator arrays. The goal of the investigations was the assessment of directional sound wave generation capability using embedded sensor-actuator arrays and developed a wave excitation procedure for ultrasound measurement tasks. The feasibility of the proposed approach was initially confirmed in numerical investigations assuming idealized mechanical and geometrical conditions. The findings were validated in real-life conditions on specimens of elementary geometry. Herein, the technological aspects of unique automated assembly of thermoplastic films containing adapted thermoplastic-compatible piezoceramic modules and conducting paths were described.

  16. Wireless Power Supply via Coupled Magnetic Resonance for on-line Monitoring Wireless Sensor of High-voltage Electrical Equipment

    Xingkui, Mao; Qisheng, Huang; Yudi, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    On-line monitoring of high-voltage electrical equipment (HV-EE) aiming to detect faults effectively has become crucial to avoid serious accidents. Moreover, highly reliable power supplies are the key component for the wireless sensors equipped in such on-line monitoring systems. Therefore......, in this paper, the wireless power supply via coupled magnetic resonance (MR-WPS) is proposed for powering the wireless sensor and the associated wireless sensor solution is also proposed. The key specifications of the MR-WPS working in switchgear cabinet with a harsh operation environment are analyzed...... power is able to be delivered to the wireless sensor through the designed MR-WPS, and therefore the theoretical analysis and design is verified....

  17. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor for Fault Detection in Radial and Network Transmission Lines

    Mehdi Shadaram

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fiber optic based sensor capable of fault detection in both radial and network overhead transmission power line systems is investigated. Bragg wavelength shift is used to measure the fault current and detect fault in power systems. Magnetic fields generated by currents in the overhead transmission lines cause a strain in magnetostrictive material which is then detected by Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG. The Fiber Bragg interrogator senses the reflected FBG signals, and the Bragg wavelength shift is calculated and the signals are processed. A broadband light source in the control room scans the shift in the reflected signal. Any surge in the magnetic field relates to an increased fault current at a certain location. Also, fault location can be precisely defined with an artificial neural network (ANN algorithm. This algorithm can be easily coordinated with other protective devices. It is shown that the faults in the overhead transmission line cause a detectable wavelength shift on the reflected signal of FBG and can be used to detect and classify different kind of faults. The proposed method has been extensively tested by simulation and results confirm that the proposed scheme is able to detect different kinds of fault in both radial and network system.

  18. On Line Disaster Response Community: People as Sensors of High Magnitude Disasters Using Internet GIS

    Kris Kodrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Ocean tsunami (2004 and Hurricane Katrina (2005 reveal the coming of age of the on-line disaster response community. Due to the integration of key geospatial technologies (remote sensing - RS, geographic information systems - GIS, global positioning systems – GPS and the Internet, on-line disaster response communities have grown. They include the traditional aspects of disaster preparedness, response, recovery, mitigation, and policy as facilitated by governmental agencies and relief response organizations. However, the contribution from the public via the Internet has changed significantly. The on-line disaster response community includes several key characteristics: the ability to donate money quickly and efficiently due to improved Internet security and reliable donation sites; a computer-savvy segment of the public that creates blogs, uploads pictures, and disseminates information – oftentimes faster than government agencies, and message boards to create interactive information exchange in seeking family members and identifying shelters. A critical and novel occurrence is the development of “people as sensors” - networks of government, NGOs, private companies, and the public - to build rapid response databases of the disaster area for various aspects of disaster relief and response using geospatial technologies. This paper examines these networks, their products, and their future potential.

  19. Graphene-based fine-tunable optical delay line for optical beamforming in phased-array antennas.

    Tatoli, Teresa; Conteduca, Donato; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Ciminelli, Caterina; Armenise, Mario N

    2016-06-01

    The design of an integrated graphene-based fine-tunable optical delay line on silicon nitride for optical beamforming in phased-array antennas is reported. A high value of the optical delay time (τg=920  ps) together with a compact footprint (4.15  mm2) and optical loss graphene-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer switches and two vertically stacked microring resonators between which a graphene capacitor is placed. The tuning range is obtained by varying the value of the voltage applied to the graphene electrodes, which controls the optical path of the light propagation and therefore the delay time. The graphene provides a faster reconfigurable time and low values of energy dissipation. Such significant advantages, together with a negligible beam-squint effect, allow us to overcome the limitations of conventional RF beamformers. A highly efficient fine-tunable optical delay line for the beamsteering of 20 radiating elements up to ±20° in the azimuth direction of a tile in a phased-array antenna of an X-band synthetic aperture radar has been designed.

  20. The Xsense project: The application of an intelligent sensor array for high sensitivity handheld explosives detectors

    Kostesha, Natalie; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Bosco, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Multiple independent sensors are used in security and military applications in order to increase sensitivity, selectivity and data reliability. The Xsense project has been initiated at the Technical University of Denmark in collaboration with a number of partners in an effort to produce a handheld...

  1. Design and Test of an Oscillation-based System Architecture for DNA Sensor Arrays

    Liu, Hongyuan; Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Richardson, Andrew; Zhang, X.; Nouet, Pascal; Azais, Florence

    2005-01-01

    A DfT strategy for MEMS-based DNA sensors is investigated in this paper. Based on a fault-free and defect model developed for a single sensing element and the VHDL-AMS simulation results, it is implied that an oscillation-based interface might be a potential solution for both testing and read out of

  2. Highly ordered nanowire arrays on plastic substrates for ultrasensitive flexible chemical sensors.

    McAlpine, Michael C; Ahmad, Habib; Wang, Dunwei; Heath, James R

    2007-05-01

    The development of a robust method for integrating high-performance semiconductors on flexible plastics could enable exciting avenues in fundamental research and novel applications. One area of vital relevance is chemical and biological sensing, which if implemented on biocompatible substrates, could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable monitoring systems. Semiconducting nanowires (and nanotubes) are particularly sensitive chemical sensors because of their high surface-to-volume ratios. Here, we present a scalable and parallel process for transferring hundreds of pre-aligned silicon nanowires onto plastic to yield highly ordered films for low-power sensor chips. The nanowires are excellent field-effect transistors, and, as sensors, exhibit parts-per-billion sensitivity to NO2, a hazardous pollutant. We also use SiO2 surface chemistries to construct a 'nano-electronic nose' library, which can distinguish acetone and hexane vapours via distributed responses. The excellent sensing performance coupled with bendable plastic could open up opportunities in portable, wearable or even implantable sensors.

  3. Highly ordered nanowire arrays on plastic substrates for ultrasensitive flexible chemical sensors

    McAlpine, Michael C.; Ahmad, Habib; Wang, Dunwei; Heath, James R.

    2007-05-01

    The development of a robust method for integrating high-performance semiconductors on flexible plastics could enable exciting avenues in fundamental research and novel applications. One area of vital relevance is chemical and biological sensing, which if implemented on biocompatible substrates, could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable monitoring systems. Semiconducting nanowires (and nanotubes) are particularly sensitive chemical sensors because of their high surface-to-volume ratios. Here, we present a scalable and parallel process for transferring hundreds of pre-aligned silicon nanowires onto plastic to yield highly ordered films for low-power sensor chips. The nanowires are excellent field-effect transistors, and, as sensors, exhibit parts-per-billion sensitivity to NO2, a hazardous pollutant. We also use SiO2 surface chemistries to construct a `nano-electronic nose' library, which can distinguish acetone and hexane vapours via distributed responses. The excellent sensing performance coupled with bendable plastic could open up opportunities in portable, wearable or even implantable sensors.

  4. A Synchronized Sensor Array for Remote Monitoring of Avian and Bat Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities

    Suryan, Robert [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Department of Fisheries and Wildlife; Albertani, Roberto [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering; Polagye, Brian [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    2016-07-15

    Wind energy production in the U.S. is projected to increase to 35% of our nation’s energy by 2050. This substantial increase in the U.S. is only a portion of the global wind industry growth, as many countries strive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A major environmental concern and potential market barrier for expansion of wind energy is bird and bat mortality from impacts with turbine blades, towers, and nacelles. Carcass surveys are the standard protocol for quantifying mortality at onshore sites. This method is imperfect, however, due to survey frequency at remote sites, removal of carcasses by scavengers between surveys, searcher efficiency, and other biases as well as delays of days to weeks or more in obtaining information on collision events. Furthermore, carcass surveys are not feasible at offshore wind energy sites. Near-real-time detection and quantification of interaction rates is possible at both onshore and offshore wind facilities using an onboard, integrated sensor package with data transmitted to central processing centers. We developed and experimentally tested an array of sensors that continuously monitors for interactions (including impacts) of birds and bats with wind turbines. The synchronized array includes three sensor nodes: (1) vibration (accelerometers and contact microphones), (2) optical (visual and infrared spectrum cameras), and (3) bioacoustics (acoustic and ultrasonic microphones). Accelerometers and contact acoustic microphones are placed at the root of each blade to detect impact vibrations and sound waves propagating through the structure. On-board data processing algorithms using wavelet analysis detect impact signals exceeding background vibration. Stereo-visual and infrared cameras were placed on the nacelle to allow target tracking, distance, and size calculations. On-board image processing and target detection algorithms identify moving targets within the camera field of view. Bioacoustic recorders monitor vocalizations

  5. Multi-National Banknote Classification Based on Visible-light Line Sensor and Convolutional Neural Network.

    Pham, Tuyen Danh; Lee, Dong Eun; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-07-08

    Automatic recognition of banknotes is applied in payment facilities, such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and banknote counters. Besides the popular approaches that focus on studying the methods applied to various individual types of currencies, there have been studies conducted on simultaneous classification of banknotes from multiple countries. However, their methods were conducted with limited numbers of banknote images, national currencies, and denominations. To address this issue, we propose a multi-national banknote classification method based on visible-light banknote images captured by a one-dimensional line sensor and classified by a convolutional neural network (CNN) considering the size information of each denomination. Experiments conducted on the combined banknote image database of six countries with 62 denominations gave a classification accuracy of 100%, and results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms previous methods.

  6. Sensors for on-line monitoring of water chemistry parameters for NPP`s

    Alltonen, P; Maekelae, K [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-02-01

    The on-line monitoring of the water chemistry parameters of aqueous solutions in nuclear power plants is considered essential to control corrosion phenomena. New sensors and electrodes that can be used under plant operating conditions are key components to the application of this technology. The research and development programs are running to develop practical instruments. The experimental capabilities available to research high temperature and pressure phenomena is growing rapidly. It is now possible to experimentally measure all information needed to make estimations and predictions concerning reactions taking place in the coolant of an operating reactor. However, further development of devices and practical experiences are needed to meet the requirement of power stations. (author). 8 refs, 8 figs.

  7. Sensors for on-line monitoring of water chemistry parameters for NPP's

    Alltonen, P.; Maekelae, K.

    1997-01-01

    The on-line monitoring of the water chemistry parameters of aqueous solutions in nuclear power plants is considered essential to control corrosion phenomena. New sensors and electrodes that can be used under plant operating conditions are key components to the application of this technology. The research and development programs are running to develop practical instruments. The experimental capabilities available to research high temperature and pressure phenomena is growing rapidly. It is now possible to experimentally measure all information needed to make estimations and predictions concerning reactions taking place in the coolant of an operating reactor. However, further development of devices and practical experiences are needed to meet the requirement of power stations. (author). 8 refs, 8 figs

  8. Aircraft engine sensor fault diagnostics using an on-line OBEM update method.

    Xiaofeng Liu

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a method to update the on-line health reference baseline of the On-Board Engine Model (OBEM to maintain the effectiveness of an in-flight aircraft sensor Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI system, in which a Hybrid Kalman Filter (HKF was incorporated. Generated from a rapid in-flight engine degradation, a large health condition mismatch between the engine and the OBEM can corrupt the performance of the FDI. Therefore, it is necessary to update the OBEM online when a rapid degradation occurs, but the FDI system will lose estimation accuracy if the estimation and update are running simultaneously. To solve this problem, the health reference baseline for a nonlinear OBEM was updated using the proposed channel controller method. Simulations based on the turbojet engine Linear-Parameter Varying (LPV model demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed FDI system in the presence of substantial degradation, and the channel controller can ensure that the update process finishes without interference from a single sensor fault.

  9. On-line component ratio measurement of oil/gas/water mixtures using an admittance sensor

    Andersen, J A

    1984-01-01

    The operator of a production platform is primarily interested in which types of fluids a well is producing and how quickly these different components are being produced. The component ratio and production rate of a well vary during the life of a field. To optimize production, measurement of each well's output is thus desirable. Current designs for subsea production systems lack means of continuously measuring three-component flows. A new method of component ratio measurement is described. The fraction of oil, gas and water flowing between two insulated electrode plates is determined by measuring both the electrical conductance and suseptance across the sensor. A preliminary evaluation of the new measurement system has been performed using a process oil/ water/air mixture. The method is not limited to small pipe diameters. The only possible limitation is that for low velocities in very large pipe diameters an in-line mixer may be required. Advantages of this new system are that real-time measurement of void fraction and water content is possible if a non-intrusive rugged sensor is used, and there are no range limitations, as each component may be measured for any given concentration. 4 references.

  10. Recognizing Banknote Fitness with a Visible Light One Dimensional Line Image Sensor

    Tuyen Danh Pham

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In general, dirty banknotes that have creases or soiled surfaces should be replaced by new banknotes, whereas clean banknotes should be recirculated. Therefore, the accurate classification of banknote fitness when sorting paper currency is an important and challenging task. Most previous research has focused on sensors that used visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light. Furthermore, there was little previous research on the fitness classification for Indian paper currency. Therefore, we propose a new method for classifying the fitness of Indian banknotes, with a one-dimensional line image sensor that uses only visible light. The fitness of banknotes is usually determined by various factors such as soiling, creases, and tears, etc. although we just consider banknote soiling in our research. This research is novel in the following four ways: first, there has been little research conducted on fitness classification for the Indian Rupee using visible-light images. Second, the classification is conducted based on the features extracted from the regions of interest (ROIs, which contain little texture. Third, 1-level discrete wavelet transformation (DWT is used to extract the features for discriminating between fit and unfit banknotes. Fourth, the optimal DWT features that represent the fitness and unfitness of banknotes are selected based on linear regression analysis with ground-truth data measured by densitometer. In addition, the selected features are used as the inputs to a support vector machine (SVM for the final classification of banknote fitness. Experimental results showed that our method outperforms other methods.

  11. Recognizing Banknote Fitness with a Visible Light One Dimensional Line Image Sensor.

    Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Young Ho; Kwon, Seung Yong; Nguyen, Dat Tien; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2015-08-27

    In general, dirty banknotes that have creases or soiled surfaces should be replaced by new banknotes, whereas clean banknotes should be recirculated. Therefore, the accurate classification of banknote fitness when sorting paper currency is an important and challenging task. Most previous research has focused on sensors that used visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light. Furthermore, there was little previous research on the fitness classification for Indian paper currency. Therefore, we propose a new method for classifying the fitness of Indian banknotes, with a one-dimensional line image sensor that uses only visible light. The fitness of banknotes is usually determined by various factors such as soiling, creases, and tears, etc. although we just consider banknote soiling in our research. This research is novel in the following four ways: first, there has been little research conducted on fitness classification for the Indian Rupee using visible-light images. Second, the classification is conducted based on the features extracted from the regions of interest (ROIs), which contain little texture. Third, 1-level discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is used to extract the features for discriminating between fit and unfit banknotes. Fourth, the optimal DWT features that represent the fitness and unfitness of banknotes are selected based on linear regression analysis with ground-truth data measured by densitometer. In addition, the selected features are used as the inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) for the final classification of banknote fitness. Experimental results showed that our method outperforms other methods.

  12. On-line defect detection of aluminum coating using fiber optic sensor

    Patil, Supriya S.; Shaligram, A. D.

    2015-03-01

    Aluminum metallization using the sprayed coating for exhaust mild steel (MS) pipes of tractors is a standard practice for avoiding rusting. Patches of thin metal coats are prone to rusting and are thus considered as defects in the surface coating. This paper reports a novel configuration of the fiber optic sensor for on-line checking the aluminum metallization uniformity and hence for defect detection. An optimally chosen high bright 440 nm BLUE LED (light-emitting diode) launches light into a transmitting fiber inclined at the angle of 60° to the surface under inspection placed adequately. The reflected light is transported by a receiving fiber to a blue enhanced photo detector. The metallization thickness on the coated surface results in visually observable variation in the gray shades. The coated pipe is spirally inspected by a combination of linear and rotary motions. The sensor output is the signal conditioned and monitored with RISHUBH DAS. Experimental results show the good repeatability in the defect detection and coating non-uniformity measurement.

  13. Time-Domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Techniques Suitable for Solid-State Imaging Sensor Arrays

    Robert K. Henderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully demonstrated video-rate CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD-based cameras for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM by applying innovative FLIM algorithms. We also review and compare several time-domain techniques and solid-state FLIM systems, and adapt the proposed algorithms for massive CMOS SPAD-based arrays and hardware implementations. The theoretical error equations are derived and their performances are demonstrated on the data obtained from 0.13 μm CMOS SPAD arrays and the multiple-decay data obtained from scanning PMT systems. In vivo two photon fluorescence lifetime imaging data of FITC-albumin labeled vasculature of a P22 rat carcinosarcoma (BD9 rat window chamber are used to test how different algorithms perform on bi-decay data. The proposed techniques are capable of producing lifetime images with enough contrast.

  14. Wide-range frequency selectivity in an acoustic sensor fabricated using a microbeam array with non-uniform thickness

    Shintaku, Hirofumi; Kotera, Hidetoshi; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Zusho, Kazuki; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated the fabrication of a microbeam array (MBA) with various thicknesses and investigated the suitability it for an acoustic sensor with wide-range frequency selectivity. For this, an MBA composed of 64 beams, with thicknesses varying from 2.99–142 µm, was fabricated by using single gray-scale lithography and a thick negative photoresist. The vibration of the beams in air was measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer; the resonant frequencies of the beams were measured to be from 11.5 to 290 kHz. Lastly, the frequency range of the MBA with non-uniform thickness was 10.9 times that of the MBA with uniform thickness. (paper)

  15. A line array based near field imaging technique for characterising acoustical properties of elongated targets

    Driessen, F.P.G.

    1995-01-01

    With near field imaging techniques the acoustical pressure waves at distances other than the recorded can be calculated. Normally, acquisition on a two dimensional plane is necessary and extrapolation is performed by a Rayleigh integral. A near field single line instead of two dimensional plane

  16. All-Elastomer 3-Axis Contact Resistive Tactile Sensor Arrays and Micromilled Manufacturing Methods Thereof

    Charalambides, Alexandros (Inventor); Bergbreiter, Sarah (Inventor); Penskiy, Ivan (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    At least one tactile sensor includes an insulating layer and a conductive layer formed on the surface of the insulating layer. The conductive layer defines at least one group of flexible projections extending orthogonally from the surface of the insulating layer. The flexible projections include a major projection extending a distance orthogonally from the surface and at least one minor projection that is adjacent to and separate from the major projection wherein the major projection extends a distance orthogonally that is greater than the distance that the minor projection extends orthogonally. Upon a compressive force normal to, or a shear force parallel to, the surface, the major projection and the minor projection flex such that an electrical contact resistance is formed between the major projection and the minor projection. A capacitive tactile sensor is also disclosed that responds to the normal and shear forces.

  17. Wireless Health Monitoring for Large Arrays of MEMS Sensors and Actuators, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I project is to demonstrate an automated on-line structural health monitoring system for aircraft structures using a combination of...

  18. Magnetic measurements using array of integrated Hall sensors on the CASTOR tokamak

    Ďuran, Ivan; Hronová-Bilyková, Olena; Stöckel, Jan; Sentkerestiová, J.; Havlíček, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 10 (2008), 10F123-10F123 ISSN 0034-6748. [Topical Conference on High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics/17th./. Albuquerque, 11.05.2008-15.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Galvanomagnetic Sensor * Fusion Reactor * Magnetic Diagnostics * CASTOR tokamak Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.738, year: 2008

  19. Implementation of an Optical Readout System for High-Sensitivity Terahertz Microelectromechanical Sensor Array

    2014-09-01

    rod moves about the illumination scene, the pixels in the detector start to flicker . The ‘ flickering ’ effect is due to the metal rod blocking THz...still possible to mitigate convective heat exchange between the sensor and the ambient surroundings. To mitigate the effects of convective heat...detector start to flicker . The ‘ flickering ’ effect is due to the metal rod blocking THz radiation. This effect is more apparent in the video

  20. The Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array (M3A: system development and initial results

    K. Nittis

    Full Text Available Operational forecasting of ocean circulation and marine ecosystem fluctuations requires multi-parametric real-time measurements of physical and biochemical properties. The architecture of a system that is able to provide such measurements from the upper-thermocline layers of the Mediterranean Sea is described here. The system was developed for the needs of the Mediterranean Forecasting System and incorporates state-of-the-art sensors for optical and chemical measurements in the upper 100 m and physical measurements down to 500 m. Independent moorings that communicate via hydro-acoustic modems are hosting the sensors. The satellite data transfer and the large autonomy allow for the operation of the system in any open-ocean site. The system has been in pre-operational use in the Cretan Sea since January 2000. The results of this pilot phase indicate that multi-parametric real-time observations with the M3A system are feasible, if a consistent maintenance and re-calibration program is followed. The main limitations of the present configuration of M3A are related: (a to bio-fouling that primarily affects the turbidity and secondarily affects the other optical sensors, and (b to the limited throughput of the currently used satellite communication system.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (instruments and techniques. Oceanography: general (ocean prediction Oceanography: physical (upper ocean process