WorldWideScience

Sample records for line seating arrangements

  1. Finding an optimal seating arrangement for employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoslav Čerkez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with modelling a specifc problem called the Optimal Seating Arrangement (OSA as an Integer Linear Program and demonstrated that the problem can be efficiently solved by combining branch-and-bound and cutting plane methods. OSA refers to a specific scenario that could possibly happen in a corporative environment, i.e. when a company endeavors to minimize travel costs when employees travel to an organized event. Each employee is free to choose the time to travel to and from an event and it depends on personal reasons. The paper differentiates between using different travel possibilities in the OSA problem, such as using company assigned or a company owned vehicles, private vehicles or using public transport, if needed. Also, a user-friendly web application was made and is available to the public for testing purposes.

  2. Seating Arrangement, Group Composition and Competition-driven Interaction: Effects on Students' Performance in Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxas, R. M.; Monterola, C.; Carreon-Monterola, S. L.

    2010-01-01

    We probe the effect of seating arrangement, group composition and group-based competition on students' performance in Physics using a teaching technique adopted from Mazur's peer instruction method. Ninety eight lectures, involving 2339 students, were conducted across nine learning institutions from February 2006 to June 2009. All the lectures were interspersed with student interaction opportunities (SIO), in which students work in groups to discuss and answer concept tests. Two individual assessments were administered before and after the SIO. The ratio of the post-assessment score to the pre-assessment score and the Hake factor were calculated to establish the improvement in student performance. Using actual assessment results and neural network (NN) modeling, an optimal seating arrangement for a class was determined based on student seating location. The NN model also provided a quantifiable method for sectioning students. Lastly, the study revealed that competition-driven interactions increase within-group cooperation and lead to higher improvement on the students' performance.

  3. Factored Facade Acquisition using Symmetric Line Arrangements

    KAUST Repository

    Ceylan, Duygu

    2012-05-01

    We introduce a novel framework for image-based 3D reconstruction of urban buildings based on symmetry priors. Starting from image-level edges, we generate a sparse and approximate set of consistent 3D lines. These lines are then used to simultaneously detect symmetric line arrangements while refining the estimated 3D model. Operating both on 2D image data and intermediate 3D feature representations, we perform iterative feature consolidation and effective outlier pruning, thus eliminating reconstruction artifacts arising from ambiguous or wrong stereo matches. We exploit non-local coherence of symmetric elements to generate precise model reconstructions, even in the presence of a significant amount of outlier image-edges arising from reflections, shadows, outlier objects, etc. We evaluate our algorithm on several challenging test scenarios, both synthetic and real. Beyond reconstruction, the extracted symmetry patterns are useful towards interactive and intuitive model manipulations.

  4. Factored Facade Acquisition using Symmetric Line Arrangements

    KAUST Repository

    Ceylan, Duygu; Mitra, Niloy J.; Li, Hao; Weise, Thibaut; Pauly, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel framework for image-based 3D reconstruction of urban buildings based on symmetry priors. Starting from image-level edges, we generate a sparse and approximate set of consistent 3D lines. These lines are then used

  5. Enhancing social inclusion of children with externalizing problems through classroom seating arrangements: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Y.H.M. van den; Stoltz, S.E.M.J.

    2018-01-01

    Inclusive education has brought new challenges for teachers, including the search for a suitable place in the classroom for children with externalizing problems. In the current study, we examined whether a careful rearrangement of the classroom seats could promote social acceptance and more

  6. Mexico; 2013 Review Under the Flexible Credit Line Arrangement

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses Mexico’ Review Under the Flexible Credit Line (FCL) Arrangement. Significant progress has been made in advancing far-reaching structural reforms, signaling Mexico’s commitment to address deep-rooted impediments to growth. The economy slowed down in early 2013, but is expected to recover starting in the second half of the year. Mexico’s financial markets have functioned reasonably well through the recent global volatility, although with some currency depreciation and a ris...

  7. Nuclear yield determinations using isotope-separator-on-line arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudstam, G.

    1975-01-01

    The delay between the formation of a nuclear reaction product and its collection in front of measuring equipment in ISOL arrangements using integrated target-ion source systems has been analyzed. It is shown that a typical delay function takes the form const x (1-esup(-γt))esup(-μt) with γ >> μ. The results can be used for decay corrections in nuclear yield determinations. (Auth.)

  8. Engineering Mathematical Analysis Method for Productivity Rate in Linear Arrangement Serial Structure Automated Flow Assembly Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chan Sin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Productivity rate (Q or production rate is one of the important indicator criteria for industrial engineer to improve the system and finish good output in production or assembly line. Mathematical and statistical analysis method is required to be applied for productivity rate in industry visual overviews of the failure factors and further improvement within the production line especially for automated flow line since it is complicated. Mathematical model of productivity rate in linear arrangement serial structure automated flow line with different failure rate and bottleneck machining time parameters becomes the basic model for this productivity analysis. This paper presents the engineering mathematical analysis method which is applied in an automotive company which possesses automated flow assembly line in final assembly line to produce motorcycle in Malaysia. DCAS engineering and mathematical analysis method that consists of four stages known as data collection, calculation and comparison, analysis, and sustainable improvement is used to analyze productivity in automated flow assembly line based on particular mathematical model. Variety of failure rate that causes loss of productivity and bottleneck machining time is shown specifically in mathematic figure and presents the sustainable solution for productivity improvement for this final assembly automated flow line.

  9. Root cause analysis of SI line-seated thermal sleeve separation failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Jhung, Myung Jo; Kim, Hho Jung

    2004-01-01

    At conventional pressurized water reactors, a thermal sleeve (named simply 'sleeve' hereafter) is seated inside the nozzle part of each Safety Injection (SI) branch pipe to prevent and relieve potential excessive transient thermal stress in the nozzle wall when a cold water is injected during the safety injection mode Recently, mechanical failures that the sleeves are separated from the SI branch pipe and fall into the connected cold leg main pipe were occurred in sequence at Yonggwang units 5 and 6 and Ulchin unit 5. There were many activities and efforts to figure out the causes of those failures with experts' reasoning, but the proposed causes were derived from superficial views rather than physically concrete grounds or analysis results. The prerequisites to find out the root causes of failure mechanism will be to identify the flow situation in the pipe junction area connecting the cold leg with the SI pipe and to know the vibration characteristics of sleeves. This paper investigates the flow field in the pipe junction thru a numerical simulation and vibration characteristics of thermal sleeves thru a modal analysis, from which the root causes of sleeve separation mechanism are analyzed

  10. The number of pickers and stock-keeping unit arrangement on a uni-directional picking line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagspihl, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The order picking process is often the single largest expense in a distribution centre (DC. The DC considered in this paper uses a picking line configuration to perform order picking. The number of pickers in a picking line, and the initial arrangement of stock-keeping units (SKUs, are two important factors that affect the total completion time of the picking lines. In this paper, the picking line configuration is simulated with an agent-based approach to describe the behaviour of an individual picker. The simulation is then used to analyse the effect of the number of pickers and the SKU arrangement. Verification and validation of this model shows that the model represents the real-world picking line to a satisfactory degree. Marginal analysis (MA was chosen to determine a ‘good’ number of pickers by means of the simulation model. A look-up table is presented to provide decision support for the choice of a ‘good’ number of pickers to improve completion times of the picking line, for the properties of a specific picking line. The initial SKU arrangement on a picking line is shown to be a factor that can affect the level of picker congestion and the total completion time. The greedy ranking and partitioning (GRP and organ pipe arrangement (OPA techniques from the literature, as well as the historical SKU arrangements used by the retailer under consideration, were compared with the proposed classroom discipline heuristic (CDH for SKU arrangement. It was found that the CDH provides an more even spread of SKUs that are picked most frequently, thus decreasing congestion and total completion time.

  11. 75 FR 62560 - Exemption and Equivalent Arrangements Under the International Convention on Load Lines, 1966, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... familiar load line feature is the well-known ``Plimsoll mark'' visible on each side of the hull. However... load lines allow unrestricted operations on any ocean, at any time of year (an extreme example being....'' When an exemption is granted, a certificate of exemption may be issued. Exemptions: Both ICLL Article 6...

  12. Calculation of heat transfer in transversely stream-lined tube bundles with chess arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaj, V.K.

    1978-01-01

    A semiempirical theory of heat transfer in transversely stream-lined chess-board tube bundles has been developed. The theory is based on a single cylinder model and involves external flow parameter evaluation on the basis of the solidification principle of a vortex zone. The effect of turbulence is estimated according to experimental results. The method is extended to both average and local heat transfer coefficients. Comparison with experiment shows satisfactory agreement

  13. Experimental Study of Thermo-hydraulic Characteristics of Surfaces with In-line Dimple Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Burtsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a conducted experimental study of the heat exchange intensification on the surfaces covered with a regular vortex-generating relief that is an in-line array of the shallow hemispherical dimples. Using 12 configuration options with the Reynolds numbers in the range of (0.2-7.0 106 as an example, it analyses how a longitudinal and cross step of the in-line dimple array (density dimples effects on the processes of heat exchange intensification and resistance.The monocomponent strain-gauge balance allows us to define a value of the resistance coefficient by direct weighing of models (located in parallel in a flow of "relief" and smooth "reference" ones being under study. Distribution fields of heat – transfer factor are determined by recording a cooling process of the surface of studied models having high spatial and temporary resolution. All researches were conducted with one-shot data record of these thermal and hydraulic measurements for the smooth (reference surfaces and the studied surfaces covered with a regular vortex-generating relief (dimples. The error of determined parameters was no more than ±5%.The oil-sooty method allows us to visualize flow around a regular relief and obtain a flow pattern for 12 options of dimples configuration. The analysis has been carried out and a compliance of the flow patterns with the field of heat-transfer factors has been obtained.It has been found that for the in-line configuration a Reynolds analogy factor for most models is nonlinearly dependent on the Reynolds number. The friction intensification, at first, falls (to some Reynolds number and, further, starts increasing, tending to the friction intensification value with self-similarity flow around. Thus with increasing Reynolds number, the heattransfer factor intensification falls (more slowly than resistance intensification.

  14. Car Seat Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Car Seat Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  15. Magnetic separation technique for groundwater by five HTS melt-processed bulk magnets arranged in a line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T.; Seki, H.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Fujishiro, H.; Hayashi, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Stiehler, C.

    2011-01-01

    A magnetic separation was practically conducted by 10-pole HTS bulk magnets. The HTS bulk magnets were activated to 2.5 T by feeding pulsed fields of 6 T. The separation ratio of actual groundwater exceeded 70% at less than 4.8 l/min. The flocks without magnetite powder were obviously attracted to the magnetic poles. A magnetic separation study for groundwater purification has been practically conducted by using the multi-pole magnet system. The magnetic pole was composed of 10 open magnetic spaces by arranging five HTS melt-processed bulk magnets in a line in a vacuum sheath. The individual bulk magnets were activated by feeding intense pulsed magnetic fields up to 6 T. The magnetic field distribution was estimated with respect to various pole arrangements. The actual groundwater samples of Sanjo City were processed so as to form large precipitates by adding the coagulant and pH controlling. The maximum separation ratio of the iron-bearing precipitates has exceeded over 70% when slurry water was exposed to 10 magnetic poles of up to 2.5 T at a flowing rate of less than 4.8 l/min. An obvious attraction of flocks to the magnetic poles was observed even when the water contains no magnetite powder at the flow rate of 1.01 l/min. This implies the validity of the multi-pole magnet system with respect to the actual application to water purification.

  16. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  17. Flow Interactions of Two- and Three-Dimensional Networked Bio-Inspired Control Elements in an In-Line Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Melike; Moored, Keith

    2018-04-19

    We present experiments that examine the modes of interaction, the collective performance and the role of three-dimensionality in two pitching propulsors in an in-line arrangement. Both two-dimensional foils and three-dimensional rectangular wings of $AR = 2$ are examined. \\kwm{In contrast to previous work, two interaction modes distinguished as the coherent and branched wake modes are not observed to be directly linked to the propulsive efficiency, although they are linked to peak thrust performance and minimum power consumption as previously described \\cite[]{boschitsch2014propulsive}.} \\kwm{In fact, in closely-spaced propulsors peak propulsive efficiency of the follower occurs near its minimum power and this condition \\kwm{ reveals a} branched wake mode. Alternatively, for propulsors spaced far apart peak propulsive efficiency of the follower occurs near its peak thrust and this condition \\kwm{reveals a} coherent wake mode.} By examining the collective performance, it is discovered that there is an optimal spacing between the propulsors to maximize the collective efficiency. For two-dimensional foils the optimal spacing of $X^* = 0.75$ and the synchrony of $\\phi = 2\\pi /3$ leads to a collective efficiency and thrust enhancement of 50\\% and 32\\%, respectively, as compared to two isolated foils. In comparison, for $AR = 2$ wings the optimal spacing of $X^* = 0.25$ and the synchrony of $\\phi = 7\\pi /6$ leads to a collective efficiency and thrust enhancement of 30\\% and 22\\%, respectively. In addition, at the optimal conditions the collective lateral force coefficients in both the two- and three-dimensional cases are negligible, while operating off these conditions can lead to non-negligible lateral forces. Finally, the peak efficiency of the collective and the follower are shown to have opposite trends with increasing spacing in two- and three-dimensional flows. This is correlated to the breakdown of the impinging vortex on the follower wing in three

  18. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  19. Experimental investigation of turbulent flow past four grooved and smooth cylinders in an in-line square arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladjedel O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of turbulent flow past four cylinders in square arrangement with a space ratio of (T/D = P/D = 2.88 is performed. The investigation focuses on effects of Reynolds number and the shape of cylinders on the force and pressure coefficients of the cylinders. Two cases are investigated: four smooth cylinders (case1 and four grooved cylinders (case2. The cylinders are equipped with two grooves placed on the external surface at 90° and 270° degrees. The pressure distributions along the tubes (22 circumferential pressure taping were determined for a variation of the azimuthal angle from 0 to 360deg. The drag and lift forces are measured using the TE 44 balance. The results show a bistable flow often exists behind the downstream cylinders is observed. By rising the Reynolds number the pressure coefficient increases in the absolute value.

  20. Seal arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    A hydraulically balanced face type shaft seal is provided in which the opening and closing seal face areas retain concentricity with each other in the event of lateral shaft displacement. The seal arrangement is for a vertical high pressure pump, indented for use in the cooling system of a nuclear reactor. (Auth.)

  1. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  2. Misuse of car safety seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, M J; Stroup, K B; Gerhart, S

    1988-01-01

    Correct use of car seats for small children is essential to prevent serious injuries and death from automotive accidents. Failure to use a car seat properly can contribute to serious injury or death of a child. A case study in which misuse of a car seat occurred is reported. The infant died of hemorrhage and shock secondary to liver laceration which resulted from excessive pressure over the abdomen sustained on impact. Surveys of car seat use for small children prior to and following a child restraint law are also reported. Observers noted types of car seats and specific forms of misuse. Survey results suggest that parents are more likely to misuse car seats for infants than toddlers. Medical professionals can reinforce the importance of proper car seat use by incorporating specific car seat use questions into the patient interview and by providing educational materials.

  3. Classroom Management: Seating Solutions [and] Hooray for Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan; Edgar, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Two articles present suggestions for enhancing classroom management in creative ways. The first article describes how to use flexible seating arrangements to encourage cooperation, friendship, and community. The second article discusses how to encourage and work with classroom volunteers from the community. (SM)

  4. Fire resistant aircraft seat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabold, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The establishment of a technical data base for individual seat materials in order to facilitate materials selections is reviewed. The thermal response of multi-layer constructions representative of the basic functional layers of a typical future seat is examined. These functional layers include: (1) decorative fabric cover; (2) slip sheet (topper); (3) fire blocking layer; (4) cushion reinforcement; and (5) cushioning layer. The implications for material selection for full-scale seats are discussed.

  5. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  6. The Study of Fabric Performance for Car Seats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonin Havelka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the investigation of the performance of car seat fabrics in terms of physiological comfort of sitting, specifi cally their water vapour resistance and air permeability. The current work presents an alternative approach to increasing the effectiveness of car seat fabrics through a combination of newly designed middle layer with forced convection achieved by a supplementary suction ventilation device. The supplementary device was designed to measure water vapour permeability by means of the sweating guarded hot plate (SGHP system. It consists of two parts: a frame to grip a tested sample for measurements within the SGHP system and two suction ventilators which are arranged at one end of the mentioned frame in order to provide suction into the tested fabric plane during the SGHP test. The results of this investigation show that water vapour transport is increased by approximately 20% compared to the standard way of measurement by means of SGHP because of forced air flow in the plane of ribbed – channelled structure of the car seat middle layer. The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future practice. The combination of a car seat cover with channelled structure and forced air fl ow improves physiological comfort of sitting which is a key issue for both drivers and manufacturers. The suggested device for forced air flow convection in the plane of a car seat fabric has not yet been part of an actual car seat, however it is possible to use its principles in a smart car seat prototype.

  7. Take your seats: Leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lynn Harms

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite an overall body symmetry, human behaviour is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias.

  8. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    NPPs. - Where RBs have an influence over land use around NPPs, they use the knowledge of their local or resident inspectors to inform decisions. - Inspectors check that appropriate action levels or criteria to identify an actual or radiological emergency are clearly defined and readily available to decision makers. - When observing emergency exercises inspectors check that: an appropriate and timely declaration is made, plant operators respond in accordance with the emergency plan and emergency instructions, and an appropriate level of response is initiated on and off-site. - RBs conduct follow-up inspections after real events, to ensure that the correct emergency response has been followed. - Inspectors verify that reliable data will be used to support the evaluation of environmental impact from a nuclear or radiological emergency, to the extent that this is within the jurisdiction of the RB. - Routine inspections and emergency exercise observations include a check that lines of communication are sufficiently resilient. - When observing emergency exercises inspectors, where practicable, check that timely, accurate and consistent information is provided to the public, in accordance with the off-site emergency plan. - RBs inspect the ability of the operator to give accurate medical and radiological information about casualties, to enable the correct treatment to be given. - Additional emergency equipment that is held in reserve off-site, provided to enhance resilience (post Fukushima), is included in the RB planned inspection and/or emergency exercise programme. - Inspectors check that licensee staff are adequately trained to connect and use additional equipment provided to enhance resilience. - Inspectors utilise the NPP operator's approved on-site emergency plan when inspecting on-site emergency arrangements. - RBs include human factors staff in emergency exercise evaluation teams to consider safety culture and human performance. - RBs consider the need for exercise

  9. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.

    2011-01-01

    two with the commander and pilot seats on the top and the two remaining seats underneath, thereby limiting the amount of clearance for the crewmembers seated in the bottom seat. The inner mold line of these types of vehicles are fixed due to other design constraints; therefore, it is essential that all seats incorporate additional clearance to account for adequate spinal growth thereby ensuring that the crew can safely ingress the seat and be strapped in prior to its return to earth. If there is not enough clearance to account for spinal growth deltas between seats then there is the potential that crewmembers will not be able to comfortably and safely fit into their seats. The crewmember in the bottom stacked seat may even have negative clearance with the seat above him or her which could lead to potential ingress/egress issues or potentially injury of the crewmember during landing. These impacts are specific to these types of vehicles with stacked seat configuration. Without proper knowledge of the amount of spinal elongation, or growth, which occurs due to microgravity and space flight, the design of future vehicle(s) or suits may cause injury, discomfort, and limit crew accommodation and crew complements. The experiment primarily aimed to collect seated height data for subjects exposed to microgravity environments, and feed new information regarding the effect of elongation of the spine forward into the design of the Orion. The data collected during the experiment included, two seated height measurement and two digital pictures of seated height pre-, in-, and post-flight. In addition to seated height, crewmembers had an optional task of collecting stature , standing height. Seated height data was obtained from 29 crewmembers that included 8 ISS increment crew (2 females and 6 males) and 21 Shuttle crew (1 female, 20 males), and whose mean age was 48 years ( 4 years). This study utilized the last six Shuttle flights, STS-128 to STS-134. The results show that

  10. Three-Dimensional Cellular Arrangement in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines TOV-21G and SKOV-3 is Associated with Apoptosis-Related miRNA Expression Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Aline Brito; Silva, Luciana Maria; Gonçales, Nikole Gontijo; Carvalho, Maria Raquel Santos; da Silva Filho, Agnaldo Lopes; da Conceição Braga, Letícia

    2018-01-06

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy, and the lack of chemoresistance biomarkers contributes to the poor prognosis. Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been investigated in EOC to understand its relationship with chemoresistance and recurrence. In this context, in vitro cultivation-models are important tools for CSC studies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in cancer, CSC regulation and apoptosis. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the tumorsphere model as CSC-enrichment method in EOC studies and investigate apoptosis-related miRNAs in tumorspheres-derived EOC cell lines. TOV-21G and SKOV-3 were cultured in monolayer and tumorspheres. Genetic profiles of cell lines were obtained using COSMIC database. CD24/CD44/CD146/CD177 and ALDH1 markers were evaluated in cell lines and tumorspheres-derived by flow cytometry. Eleven miRNAs were selected by in silico analysis for qPCR analysis. According to COSMIC, TOV-21G and SKOV-3 have eight and nine cancer-related mutations, respectively. TOV-21G showed a CD44 +/high /CD24 -/low /CD117 -/low /CD146 -/low /ALDH1 low profile in both culture models; thus, no significant difference between cultivation models was identified. SKOV-3 showed a CD44 +/high /CD24 +/high / CD117 -/low /CD146 -/low /ALDH1 low profile in both culture models, although the tumorsphere model showed a significant increase in CD24 +/high subpopulation (ovarian CSC-like). Among eleven miRNAs, we observed differences in miRNA expression between culture models. MiR-26a was overexpressed in TOV-21G tumorspheres, albeit downregulated in SKOV-3 tumorspheres. MiR-125b-5p, miR-17-5p and miR-221 was downregulated in tumorsphere model in both cell lines. Given that tumorsphere-derived SKOV-3 had a higher ratio of CD24 +/high cells, we suggest that miR-26a, miR-125b-5p, miR-17-5p and miR-221 downregulation could be related to poor EOC prognosis.

  11. Seat Adjustment Design of an Intelligent Robotic Wheelchair Based on the Stewart Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Er Hsu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A wheelchair user makes direct contact with the wheelchair seat, which serves as the interface between the user and the wheelchair, for much of any given day. Seat adjustment design is of crucial importance in providing proper seating posture and comfort. This paper presents a multiple-DOF (degrees of freedom seat adjustment mechanism, which is intended to increase the independence of the wheelchair user while maintaining a concise structure, light weight, and intuitive control interface. This four-axis Stewart platform is capable of heaving, pitching, and swaying to provide seat elevation, tilt-in-space, and sideways movement functions. The geometry and types of joints of this mechanism are carefully arranged so that only one actuator needs to be controlled, enabling the wheelchair user to adjust the seat by simply pressing a button. The seat is also equipped with soft pressure-sensing pads to provide pressure management by adjusting the seat mechanism once continuous and concentrated pressure is detected. Finally, by comparing with the manual wheelchair, the proposed mechanism demonstrated the easier and more convenient operation with less effort for transfer assistance.

  12. Optical Arrangement and Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Processing of electromagnetic radiation is described, said incoming electromagnetic radiation comprising radiation in a first wavelength interval and a plurality of spatial frequencies. An arrangement comprises a focusing arrangement for focusing the incoming electromagnetic radiation, a first ca...

  13. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  14. On arrangements of pseudohyperplanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To every realizable oriented matroid there corresponds an arrangement of ... An important object missing in the context of pseudo-arrangements is an analogue ...... to extend this correspondence we use the language of metrical-hemisphere ...

  15. Active Suspension of Truck Seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kawana

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The driver’s seat of a heavy duty truck is usually mounted on a spring–damper assembly anchored to the cab floor. To improve riding comfort, this study investigated the effects of mounting a computer-controlled actuator in parallel with the traditional spring–damper assembly. A dynamic model of the seat is represented by a two degree-of-freedom system, including a cushion. In this paper, a control system is designed, using optimal control theory, which minimizes rms vertical acceleration at a point representing the driver’s hip point. In this system, accelerations of the hip point, the seat frame and the cab floor are picked up and integrated to obtain the state variables to be fed back and fed forward to the actuator through a digital computer. The actuator is constructed with electric servo-motor and ball-screw mechanism. The experimental study was carried out on a shaker, which simulates the vibrations of the cab floor in actual service. Results were obtained for both a dummy and a real human body. The vibration test produced rms accelerations of the seat and the hip point of about 1.0 m/s2 without the actuator, while the rms accelerations were suppressed to about 0.5 m/s2 at a rms input voltage to the servo-motor of 1.0 V.

  16. NASA Standards Inform Comfortable Car Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    NASA developed standards, which included the neutral body posture (NBP), to specify ways to design flight systems that support human health and safety. Nissan Motor Company, with US offices in Franklin, Tennessee, turned to NASA's NBP research for the development of a new driver's seat. The 2013 Altima now features the new seat, and the company plans to incorporate the seats in upcoming vehicles.

  17. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... passenger has not been shown to affect the safety of an unborn baby in a crash. Injuries from car crashes tend to be less serious in people who are sitting in the back seat. If you are not driving, you may want to sit in the back seat. It is still important to wear a seat belt, no matter where ...

  18. The U-line line balancing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  19. Applications of Mechatronics in Seating Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Maňák

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechatronics is gradually being used in different fields of the production process and final products. In the field of home seating furniture, it has not been formally declared as such yet. The purpose of further development of seating furniture is to improve its ergonomic parameters, to improve user comfort in controlling and using seating furniture or to provide new additional functions of seating furniture. Application of mechatronic principles can be presumed within the framework of this development. An analysis of the current state of reclining seating furniture, which uses mechanical and electromechanical positioning mechanisms, is conducted in order to formulate possible fields of applying mechatronics. The analysis defines individual ergonomic parameters which are influenced in reclining of seating furniture. This analysis is used as a basis for formulating a hypothesis describing potential development fields of applying mechatronics in home seating furniture.

  20. Topics in hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Aguiar, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    This monograph studies the interplay between various algebraic, geometric and combinatorial aspects of real hyperplane arrangements. It provides a careful, organized and unified treatment of several recent developments in the field, and brings forth many new ideas and results. It has two parts, each divided into eight chapters, and five appendices with background material. Part I gives a detailed discussion on faces, flats, chambers, cones, gallery intervals, lunes and other geometric notions associated with arrangements. The Tits monoid plays a central role. Another important object is the category of lunes which generalizes the classical associative operad. Also discussed are the descent and lune identities, distance functions on chambers, and the combinatorics of the braid arrangement and related examples. Part II studies the structure and representation theory of the Tits algebra of an arrangement. It gives a detailed analysis of idempotents and Peirce decompositions, and connects them to the classical th...

  1. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  2. Package and Assisted Travel Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ordinary legislative procedure before the European Parliament and the Council, there is a proposal of the European Commission for the adoption of a new directive that would bring the regulation of the contract on organized tours into line with current market development of organized trips. The proposal is intended to regulate the various combinations of travel services that are today offered to passengers, particularly online, which are identical or comparable to the travel services provided in a classic pre-arranged package. The subject of the paper are the provisions of the proposal of the directive which govern the field of application of the proposed directive, in particular the proposed changes regarding the concept of "package" contained in the European Commission proposal and amendments of the European Parliament, as well as the analysis of the proposed new concept of "assisted travel arrangements." The paper also critically refers to the method of targeted maximum harmonization as a proposed new intensity of the harmonization. The conclusion is that, despite the welcome updating of an outdated text of the directive on package travel which is line with the current market needs, the proposed text of the new directive is burdened with technical and complex definitions that could lead to significant difficulties in their transposition into the provisions of national law of the Member States.

  3. National arrangements for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    After a presentation of several letters exchanged between the French health ministry and public agencies in charge of public health or nuclear safety after a radiotherapy accident in Epinal, this report comments the evolution of needs in cancerology care and the place given to radiotherapy. It outlines the technological and organisational evolution of radiotherapy and presents the distribution of radiotherapy equipment, of radio-therapists and other radiotherapy professionals in France. Within the context of radiotherapy accidents which occurred in 2007, it presents the regulatory arrangements which aimed at improving the safety, short term and middle term arrangements which are needed to support and structure radiotherapy practice quality. It stresses the fact that the system will deeply evolve by implementing a radiotherapy vigilance arrangement and a permanent follow-on and adaptation plan based on surveys and the creation of a national committee

  4. Nuclear reactor internals arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, E.; Andrews, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor internals arrangement is disclosed which facilitates reactor refueling. A reactor vessel and a nuclear core is utilized in conjunction with an upper core support arrangement having means for storing withdrawn control rods therein. The upper core support is mounted to the underside of the reactor vessel closure head so that upon withdrawal of the control rods into the upper core support, the closure head, the upper core support and the control rods are removed as a single unit thereby directly exposing the core for purposes of refueling

  5. Rotary kiln arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    In a rotary kiln arrangement in which a reaction is to occur between counterflowing reactants and material is discharged through a hopper, an injector for at least one reactant extends into a reaction zone of the kiln, means being provided for the reaction zone to be maintained within a desired temperature range. The said means includes heating elements for adjusting the temperature of the injected reactant to a temperature within the desired range while it is in the injector. The arrangement may be used in the production of uranium oxides from uranium hexafluoride. (author)

  6. Best connected rectangular arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendra Shekhawat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It can be found quite often in the literature that many well-known architects have employed either the golden rectangle or the Fibonacci rectangle in their works. On contrary, it is rare to find any specific reason for using them so often. Recently, Shekhawat (2015 proved that the golden rectangle and the Fibonacci rectangle are one of the best connected rectangular arrangements and this may be one of the reasons for their high presence in architectural designs. In this work we present an algorithm that generates n-4 best connected rectangular arrangements so that the proposed solutions can be further used by architects for their designs.

  7. Digital Recovery Sequencer - Advanced Concept Ejection Seats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ross, David A; Cotter, Lee; Culhane, David; Press, Matthew J

    2005-01-01

    .... Continued usage of the Analog Sequencer is undesirable due to limitations with respect to its installed life, electronic component obsolescence, flexibility to accommodate seat safety improvements...

  8. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan

    2010-08-01

    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  9. Descriptive study of electromagnetic wave distribution for various seating positions: using digital textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seomun, GyeongAe; Kim, YoungHwan; Lee, Jung-Ah; Jeong, KwangHoon; Park, Seon-A; Kim, Miran; Noh, Wonjung

    2014-04-01

    To better understand environmental electromagnetic wave exposure during the use of digital textbooks by elementary school students, we measured numeric values of the electromagnetic fields produced by tablet personal computers (TPCs). Specifically, we examined the distribution of the electromagnetic waves for various students' seating positions in an elementary school that uses digital textbooks. Electric and magnetic fields from TPCs were measured using the HI-3603 Visual Display Terminal/ Very Low Frequency (VDT/VLF) radiation measurement system. Electromagnetic field values from TPCs measured at a student's seat and at a teacher's computer were deemed not harmful to health. However, electromagnetic field values varied based on the distance between students, other electronic devices such as a desktop computers, and student posture while using a TPC. Based on these results, it is necessary to guide students to observe proper posture and to arrange seats at an appropriate distance in the classroom.

  10. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  11. The dynamic response of human subjects while seated in car seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, M H; Magnusson, M; Broman, N H; Hasson, T

    1998-01-01

    A pendulum impact method was used to establish the dynamic response of the seated subject. Threaded K wires were placed in the L3 spinous process. The gain and phase angle between the platform and the vertebra were established. The response of the subject was observed while seated on a platform and a variety of other seats. The seats were found to be very important in the attenuation of the impulse, leading to a higher transmissibility. Clinical Relevance Skeletal impact through the lower extremity is quite common in many occupations. The importance of posture and seat design in attenuation of impulses has been established.

  12. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  13. Technical note: Spine loading in automotive seating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenk, R.; Franz, M.; Bubb, H.; Vink, P.

    2012-01-01

    For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load

  14. Seat belt injuries and sigmoid colon trauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Eltahir, E M; Hamilton, D

    1997-01-01

    Colonic seat belt injuries are rare but carry higher mortality rates than small bowel injuries. The case of a 44 year old man is described who had severe sigmoid colon compression injury from his seat belt a few days after a road traffic accident.

  15. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  16. Cable support arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, E.; Murray, A.

    1983-01-01

    A cable support arrangement extending from a refuelling level floor of a nuclear reactor to the inner shield of a double rotatable shield comprises a linearly extensible cable support and disciplining boom, reaching from the floor to the main shield, and a circumferentially extensible cable support and disciplining means running from the end of the boom to a fixed end on the inner shield. (author)

  17. The Seated Soldier Study: Posture and Body Shape in Vehicle Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    lasers in four towers arranged in a square create a line on the subject as they move synchronously from top to bottom. Two cameras on each of the four...of the scanner being assembled and the scanner draped with curtains to control light and provide privacy. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 22 Figure 16...with special reference to the limbs. WADC Technical Report No. 55-159. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH: Wright Air Development Center

  18. Steam generator arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ssinegurski, E.

    1981-01-01

    A steam flow path arrangement for covering the walls of the rear gas pass of a steam generator is disclosed. The entire flow passes down the sidewalls with a minor portion then passing up through the rear wall to a superheater inlet header at an intermediate elevation. The major portion of the flow passes up the front wall and through hanger tubes to a roof header. From there the major portion passes across the roof and down the rear wall to the superheater inlet header at the intermediate elevation

  19. Environmental and psychosocial factors affecting seat belt use among Turkish front-seat occupants in Ankara: two observation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simşekoğlu, Ozlem; Lajunen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Low seat belt use rate among car occupants is one of the main problems contributing to low driver and passenger safety in Turkey, where injury and fatality rates of car occupants are very high in traffic crashes. The present article consists of two observation studies, which were conducted in Ankara. The first study aimed at investigating environmental factors and occupant characteristics affecting seat belt use among front-seat occupants, and the objective of the second study was to investigate the relationship between driver and front-seat passenger seat belt use. In the first study, 4, 227 front-seat occupants (drivers or front seat passengers) were observed on four different road sides and, in the second study 1, 398 front seat occupants were observed in car parks of five different shopping centers in Ankara. In both observations, front-seat occupants' seat bet use (yes, no), sex (male, female), and age ( 50 years) were recorded. The data were analyzed using chi-square statistics and binary logistic regression techniques. Results of the first study showed that seat belt use proportion among observed front seat occupants was very low (25%). Being female and traveling on intercity roads were two main factors positively related to use a seat belt among front-seat occupants. High correlations between seat belt use of the drivers and front-seat passengers were found in the second study. Overall, low seat belt use rate (25%) among the front-seat occupants should be increased urgently for an improved driver and passenger safety in Turkey. Seat belt campaigns especially tailored for male front-seat occupants and for the front-seat occupants traveling on city roads are needed to increase seat belt use rates among them. Also, both drivers and passengers may have an important role in enforcing seat belt use among themselves.

  20. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  1. Port entry arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken, J.C.; King, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to describe the safety scheme port authorities should establish to deal with any contingency that may result from the visit of a nuclear powered ship. The safety scheme should be devised to cover both normal operation and any accident conditions that could arise while the ship is in port. The paper is divided into three parts. The three parts being: background information, general instructions, and emergency procedures. The background information will describe the nature of the hazards a port authority has to be prepared to deal with, and the philosophical basis for a berthing policy. In the part dealing with general instructions the objective of the safety scheme will be described. Also this part will describe the composition of the Port Safety Panel, allocation of responsibilities, passage and berthing arrangements, general safety precautions, records required, and rescue arrangements. In the part dealing with emergency procedures the role of: the Ship's Master, Harbour Authorities, Local Police, and local Health Services are discussed. As an Appendix to the paper a copy of the safety scheme that has been devised for visits of nuclear merchant ships to Southampton is given

  2. Arrangement for formation perforating and fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, B M; Vitsenii, E M; Zheltov, Yu P; Nikolaev, S I

    1962-03-06

    An arrangement for perforating and hydraulic fracturing, to be lowered on a wire line, consists of a chamber with a shaped charge, a head and a nozzle. This arrangement enables carrying out, simultaneously, the operations of perforating and fracturing. The device may be equipped with separate sections with shaped charges and a powder chamber in which powder charges are placed, designed to be ignited in sequence by slow- acting electric igniters. For controlling the gas pressure and strengthening the arrangement in the zone of perforation, the device is equipped with rubber seals which release the ring elements under pressure of explosive gas. Between the walls of the casing and the rubber seals is an annular space through the gas escapes.

  3. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat, of...

  4. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  5. Power distribution arrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An arrangement and a method for distributing power supplied by a power source to two or more of loads (e.g., electrical vehicular systems) is disclosed, where a representation of the power taken by a particular one of the loads from the source is measured. The measured representation of the amount...... of power taken from the source by the particular one of the loads is compared to a threshold to provide an overload signal in the event the representation exceeds the threshold. Control signals dependant on the occurring of the overload signal are provided such that the control signal decreases the output...... power of the power circuit in case the overload signal occurs...

  6. Thermally actuated linkage arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    A reusable thermally actuated linkage arrangement includes a first link member having a longitudinal bore therein adapted to receive at least a portion of a second link member therein, the first and second members being sized to effect an interference fit preventing relative movement there-between at a temperature below a predetermined temperature. The link members have different coefficients of thermal expansion so that when the linkage is selectively heated by heating element to a temperature above the predetermined temperature, relative longitudinal and/or rotational movement between the first and second link members is enabled. Two embodiments of a thermally activated linkage are disclosed which find particular application in actuators for a grapple head positioning arm in a nuclear reactor fuel handling mechanism to facilitate back-up safety retraction of the grapple head independently from the primary fuel handling mechanism drive system. (author)

  7. Inductive circuit arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, Peter; Coxon, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A switched coil arrangement is connected in a bridge configuration of four switches S 1 , S 2 , S 3 and S 4 which are each shunted by diodes D 1 , D 2 , D 3 and D 4 so that current can flow in either direction through a coil L depending on the setting of the switches. A capacitor C is connected across the bridge through a switch S 5 to receive the inductive energy stored in coil L on breaking the current flow path through the coil. The electrostatic energy stored in capacitor C can then be used to supply current through the coil in the reverse direction either immediately or after a time delay. Coil L may be a superconductive coil. Losses in the circuit can be made up by a trickle charge of capacitor C from a separate supply V 2 . The device may be used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  8. Camshaft bearing arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoi, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1986-06-10

    A bearing arrangement is described for the camshaft of an internal combustion engine or the like which camshaft is formed along its length in axial order with a first bearing surface, a first cam lobe, a second bearing surface, a second cam lobe, a third bearing surface, a third cam lobe and a fourth bearing surface, the improvement comprising first bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the first bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface, second bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the second bearing surface and journaling the second bearing surface, third bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the third bearing surface and journaling the third bearing surface, and fourth bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the fourth bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface.

  9. Valve seat pores sealed with thermosetting monomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmore, A. B.

    1966-01-01

    Hard anodic coating provides a smooth wear resistant value seating surface on a cast aluminum alloy valve body. Vacuum impregnation with a thermosetting monomer, diallyl phthalate, seals the pores on the coating to prevent galvanic corrosion.

  10. The dynamic response of human subjects while seated in car seats.

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, M. H.; Magnusson, M.; Broman, N. H.; Hasson, T.

    1998-01-01

    A pendulum impact method was used to establish the dynamic response of the seated subject. Threaded K wires were placed in the L3 spinous process. The gain and phase angle between the platform and the vertebra were established. The response of the subject was observed while seated on a platform and a variety of other seats. The seats were found to be very important in the attenuation of the impulse, leading to a higher transmissibility. Clinical Relevance Skeletal impact through the lower ext...

  11. Seat-belt message and the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  12. High frequency ignition arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canup, R E

    1977-03-03

    The invention concerns an HF ignition arrangement for combustion engines with a transistor oscillator. As this oscillator requires a current of 10A, with peak currents up to about 50A, it is not sensible to take this current through the remote ignition switch for switching it on and off. According to the invention the HF high voltage transformer of the ignition is provided with a control winding, which only requires a few milliamps DC and which can therefore be switched via the ignition switch. If the ignition switch is in the 'running' position, then a premagnetising DC current flows through the control winding, which suppresses the oscillation of the oscillator which has current flowing through it, until this current is interrupted by the interruptor contacts controlled by the combustion engine, so that the oscillations of the oscillator start immediately; the oscillator only continues to oscillate during the period during which the interruptor contacts controlled by the machine are open and interrupt the premagnetisation current. The control winding is short circuited in the 'off' position of the ignition switch.

  13. Transfer arrangement for sealable enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxup, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    An arrangement for transferring items to or from e.g. a glovebox, in a closed moveable container. The glovebox port has a door having a non-rotatable outer portion and a rotatable inner portion. The container has a lid having a non-rotatable outer portion and a rotatable inner portion, the outer portion having a thin lip. The port has a thin lip which can be aligned with the lip of the lid. The outer portion of the door retains a peripheral sealing ring and the rim of the container retains a similar ring which can sandwich and bridge the two lips. The container is attached to the port by a rotatable locking ring. Via an externally rotatable and slidable shaft, lined at its inner end to the inner portion of the door, the latter is rotatable to disengage the door from the port, couple this inner portion to that of the lid, disengage the lid from the container, and move the coupled door and lid back and laterally away from the port, and vice versa. (author)

  14. Deep-seated sarcomas of the penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Antunes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal neoplasias represent 5% of tumors affecting the penis. Due to the rarity of such tumors, there is no agreement concerning the best method for staging and managing these patients. Sarcomas of the penis can be classified as deep-seated if they derive from the structures forming the spongy body and the cavernous bodies. Superficial lesions are usually low-grade and show a small tendency towards distant metastasis. In contrast, deep-seated lesions usually show behavior that is more aggressive and have poorer prognosis. The authors report 3 cases of deep-seated primary sarcomas of the penis and review the literature on this rare and aggressive neoplasia.

  15. Classic romance in electronic arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizin M.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available this article analyses the transformation of the performing arts of classical romance in the terms of electronic sound and performance via electronic sounds arrangements. The author focuses on the problem of synthesis of electronic sound arrangements and classical romance, offering to acquire the skills of the creative process in constantly changing conditions of live performances.

  16. IAEA paper on institutional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    At its fifth series of meetings, Working Group 3 received a background paper prepared by the IAEA which had a threefold purpose: firstly, to provide an overview on institutional arrangements under consideration by the INFCE Working Groups; secondly, to explore potential relationships between the various institutional arrangements under consideration; and thirdly, to identify areas where further analysis might be desirable

  17. International survey of seat belt use exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E

    2006-08-01

    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  18. Civil aircraft side-facing seat research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has standards and regulations that are intended to protect aircraft : occupants in the event of a crash. However, side-facing seats were not specifically addressed when aircraft seat : dynamic test standards ...

  19. The Effects of Prototype Helicopter Seat Cushion Concepts on Human Body Vibration Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    ...), and thigh, and the input at the seat. Seating configurations included the rigid seat, a current inventory seat cushion, and a prototype cushion with an inflatable thigh support in both the deflated and inflated positions...

  20. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.

  1. 75 FR 58340 - Airworthiness Directives; Koito Industries, Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... under Executive Order 13132. This proposed AD would not have a substantial direct effect on the States... cable, hook and loop (hook and loop is a generic term for Velcro), leather cover that is glued to seat...

  2. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012 & 2014, All States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for 2012 national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for 2012 state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012....

  3. 49 CFR 571.207 - Standard No. 207; Seating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... standard establishes requirements for seats, their attachment assemblies, and their installation to....2. General performance requirements. When tested in accordance with S5, each occupant seat shall... than a school bus; a passenger seat on a school bus with a GVWR greater than 4,536 kilograms (10,000...

  4. Classroom Seating Considerations for 21st Century Students and Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Eugene J.; Kenyon, Melaine C.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative, cross-sectional research study explored students' perceptions of five different seating styles within typical classrooms in an urban public higher education institution. The five seating styles included: modern mobile chairs, tablet arm chairs, fixed tiered seating with tablet arms, rectangle tables with standard chairs, and…

  5. The Impact of Seating Location and Seating Type on Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Meeks, Michael; Knotts, Tami; James, Karen; Williams, Felice; Vassar, John; Wren, Amy

    2013-01-01

    While an extensive body of research exists regarding the delivery of course knowledge and material, much less attention has been paid to the performance effect of seating position within a classroom. Research findings are mixed as to whether students in the front row of a classroom outperform students in the back row. Another issue that has not been fully examined in higher education is the effect of environmental factors, specifically seating type, on student performance. This study examines...

  6. Determinants of flexible work arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbu, Miruna

    2014-01-01

    Flexible work arrangements such as allowing employees to work at home are used in firms, especially since information and communication technologies have become so widespread. Using individual-level data from 10,884 German employees, this paper analyses the determinants of working at home as a form of flexible work arrangements. The analysis is based on descriptive analyses and a discrete choice model using a probit estimation approach. The results reveal that men have a higher...

  7. The Politics of Legal Arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the place of formal legal arrangements in the politics surrounding the hybrid, enmeshed public-in-the-private forms of authority this special issue focuses on. It does so by analyzing the significance of one specific legal arrangement, the Duty of Care, for the politics...... and divisions currently organizing debates about the regulation of commercial security as well as about managerialism in international law more generally....

  8. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180 0 rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements

  9. Design Control Systems of Human Machine Interface in the NTVS-2894 Seat Grinder Machine to Increase the Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardi, S.; Ardyansyah, D.

    2018-02-01

    In the Manufacturing of automotive spare parts, increased sales of vehicles is resulted in increased demand for production of engine valve of the customer. To meet customer demand, we carry out improvement and overhaul of the NTVS-2894 seat grinder machine on a machining line. NTVS-2894 seat grinder machine has been decreased machine productivity, the amount of trouble, and the amount of downtime. To overcome these problems on overhaul the NTVS-2984 seat grinder machine include mechanical and programs, is to do the design and manufacture of HMI (Human Machine Interface) GP-4501T program. Because of the time prior to the overhaul, NTVS-2894 seat grinder machine does not have a backup HMI (Human Machine Interface) program. The goal of the design and manufacture in this program is to improve the achievement of production, and allows an operator to operate beside it easier to troubleshoot the NTVS-2894 seat grinder machine thereby reducing downtime on the NTVS-2894 seat grinder machine. The results after the design are HMI program successfully made it back, machine productivity increased by 34.8%, the amount of trouble, and downtime decreased 40% decrease from 3,160 minutes to 1,700 minutes. The implication of our design, it could facilitate the operator in operating machine and the technician easer to maintain and do the troubleshooting the machine problems.

  10. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  11. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder Jit

    This research focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of an adaptive seat suspension employing magnetorheological energy absorber with the objective of minimizing injury potential to seated occupant of different weights subjected to broader crash intensities. The research was segmented into three tasks: (1) development of magnetorheological energy absorber, (2) biodynamic modeling of a seated occupant, and (3) control schemes for shock mitigation. A linear stroking semi-active magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m/s. MREA design was optimized on the basis of Bingham-plastic model (BPM model) in order to maximize the energy absorption capabilities at high impact velocities. Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to validate MREA performance. Subsequently, low-speed cyclic testing (0-2 Hz subjected to 0-5.5 A) and high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m/s at 0 A) were conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Later, a nonlinear four degrees-of-freedom biodynamic model representing a seated 50th percentile male occupant was developed on the basis of experiments conducted on Hybrid II 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device. The response of proposed biodynamic model was compared quantitatively against two different biodynamic models from the literature that are heavily implemented for obtaining biodynamic response under impact conditions. The proposed biodynamic model accurately predicts peak magnitude, overall shape and the duration of the biodynamic transient response, with minimal phase shift. The biodynamic model was further validated against 16 impact tests conducted on horizontal accelerator facility at NAVAIR for two different shock intensities. Compliance effects of human body were also investigated on the performance of adaptive seat suspension by comparing the proposed biodynamic model

  12. La nuova sfida di SEAT Pagine Gialle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Landini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available SEAT Pagine Gialle’s new challengeSEAT Pagine Gialle is a company that for over 80 years has provided information services, search and communication tools.The companies success and notoriety is built on a customer base of about 20 million families and 3 million professional operators with a continually updated technology with which it integrates with detailed geographical information that allows it to reach millions of users every day. The services the company offers include an advanced cartographic web-based search, satellite and aerial photos, the calculation of driving instructions, weather forecasts and traffic information, 360 degree views and the modelling of whole cities in 3D.

  13. A field-based approach for examining bicycle seat design effects on seat pressure and perceived stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressel, Eadric; Bliss, Shantelle; Cronin, John

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various bicycle seat designs on seat pressure and perceived stability in male and female cyclists using a unique field-based methodology. Thirty participants, comprising male and female cyclists, pedaled a bicycle at 118W over a 350m flat course under three different seat conditions: standard seat, a seat with a partial anterior cutout, and a seat with a complete anterior cutout. The pressure between the bicycle seat and perineum of the cyclist was collected with a remote pressure-sensing mat, and perceived stability was assessed using a continuous visual analogue scale. Anterior seat pressure and stability values for the complete cutout seat were significantly lower (p<0.05; 62-101%) than values for the standard and partial cutout designs. These findings were consistent between males and females. Our results would support the contention that the choice of saddle design should not be dictated by interface pressure alone since optimal anterior seat pressure and perceived seat stability appear to be inversely related.

  14. The seated bus passenger--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, J A

    1978-09-01

    The paper describes the inter-relationship of anthropometry, rig studies and dynamic testing of aspects related to problems of the seated bus passenger. It seeks to draw together sub-sections of a very large study sponsored by the government through the Transport and Road Research Laboratory and undertaken by the Human Factors Group of Leyland Truck and Bus. It is relevant to all those designing passenger carrying transport systems.

  15. Arranged marriages annulled by law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H

    1996-06-01

    The arranged marriages of 210 young people in Yongle Town in Zunyi County of Guizhou Province were dissolved in 1995. The proportion of child betrothals, which generally happens among close relatives, is as high as 85% in the town. Some engagements, known as fetus betrothals or belt betrothals, are arranged before the children are born or while they are still infants strapped (belted) to their mothers. Dissemination of information from the Constitution, the Marriage Law, and the Regulations on the Registration of Marriage concerning marriage, healthier births, and good upbringing of children, and other information on reproductive health, has shown young people that they have the freedom to love and marry of their own free will, that their marriage is protected by law, and that consanguineous marriage is harmful to the health of future generations. Some convinced their parents that their arranged marriages should be annulled.

  16. Sealing arrangement for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, I.L.S.; Sievwright, R.W.T.; Elliott, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A sealing arrangement for hermetically sealing two mating surfaces comprises two seals arranged to lie between the surfaces. Each seal provides hermetic sealing over a respective different temperature range and lie serially along the surfaces between the regions to be isolated. A main seal integrity test arrangement is provided in the form of a port and passage. This allows for the introduction of a fluid into or the evacuation of a region between the two seals to detect a leak. The port is also provided with at least two test port seals which seal with a plug. The plug is also provided with a test port to allow the integrity of the test port seal to be tested. (UK)

  17. Storage arrangements for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    A storage arrangement for spent nuclear fuel either irradiated or pre-irradiated or for vitrified waste after spent fuel reprocessing, comprises a plenum chamber which has a base pierced by a plurality of openings each of which has sealed to it an open topped tube extending downwards and closed at its lower end. The plenum chamber, with the tubes, forms an air-filled enclosure associated with an exhaust system for exhausting air from the system through filters to maintain the interior of the enclosure at sub-atmospheric pressure. The tubes are arranged to accommodate the stored fuel and the arrangement includes a means for producing a flow of cooling air over the exterior of the tubes so that the latter effectively form a plurality of heat exchangers in close proximity to the fuel. The air may be caused to flow over the tube surfaces by a natural thermosyphon process. (author)

  18. Patient positioning and supporting arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, M.; James, R.C.; Slinn, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    This patent specification describes an E.M.I. claim relating to a patient positioning and support arrangement for a computerised axial tomography system, the arrangement comprising a curved platter upon which the patient can be disposed, a table having a curved groove to accommodate the platter, and means for driving the platter slidably along the groove; the platter being formed of a substantially rigid platform shaped to conform to the groove, and a shroud, secured to the platter and disposed between the platter and the surface of the groove, so as to permit the platter to slide smoothly. (U.K.)

  19. Nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement is described wherein a plurality of actuators, disposed in a pattern laterally surrounding a group of elongated fuel assemblies, press against respective contiguous fuel assemblies on the periphery of the group to reduce the clearance between adjacent fuel assemblies thereby forming a more compacted, vibration resistant core structure. 7 claims, 4 drawing figures

  20. Teaching Determinants Using Rook Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Anders O. F.

    2018-01-01

    Teaching determinants poses significant challenges to the instructor of a proof-based undergraduate linear algebra course. The standard definition by cofactor expansion is ugly, lacks symmetry, and is hard for students to use in proofs. We introduce a visual definition of the determinant that interprets permutations as arrangements of…

  1. Special Issue: Flexible Work Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Barney, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Section 1 contains five chapters on flexible work arrangements, self-employment, working from home, part-time professionals, job sharing, and temporary employment. Section 2 includes reviews of four books on working flexibly, concluding with a list of 23 additional readings. (SK)

  2. Arrangement for guiding transport cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent relates especially to x-ray equipment such as that used for computerized tomography, and in particular to an arrangement for guiding and supporting a plurality of power transmission cables and cooling hoses in a flexible manner. (U.K.)

  3. Storage arrangements for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ealing, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A storage arrangement for nuclear fuel has a plurality of storage tubes connected by individual pipes to manifolds which are connected, in turn, to an exhaust system for maintaining the tubes at sub-atmospheric pressure, and means for producing a flow of a cooling fluid, such as air, over the exterior surfaces of the tubes. (author)

  4. Flow control arrangements for centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderton, G.W.; Davidge, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    In a centrifuge plant for the separation of uranium isotopes, when a centrifuge machine breaks down, light gas is produced. This gas can cause adjacent machines to break down, so propagating the fault. The present invention provides flow control arrangements in gas pipes to the centrifuge, whereby sudden egress of gas from a failed machine is inhibited. (author)

  5. SEAT CHOICE AND DISTANCE JUDGMENT IN PUBLIC SPACES (1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Olavo Avalone; Munakata, Jun

    2015-10-01

    This research assessed whether public space users will adopt a least-effort approach and choose a less suitable seat nearby or seek the most suitable seat, even if it is farther away from them when the decision is made. How distance assessment affects seat choice was investigated through an observational survey, which allowed the identification of behavioral patterns. Those behavioral patterns were then tested in a paired comparison experiment with 40 participants. The results showed that the effect of distance on seat choice is related to the difference in distance between the options and that a sufficient difference can cause trade-offs between distance and seat properties. The necessary difference in distance is conditioned by the activity and the seat properties.

  6. Optimization of Aircraft Seat Cushion Fire Blocking Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    function of cost and weight, and the costs of labor involved in assembling a ccmposite seat cushion. The same classes of high char yield polymers that are...SEAT LATER DESIGN REPORT NRBBNBsg$$$$$$NN$$R$$$$$ SEAT DESIGN NUMBER: 009 LAYER NAME CODE NO. S MANUFACTURER 5 COST FACTORS . LABOR ...72621, 9096.. 7SS43. 73757. 77147. DELTA COSTS 0. 8340. 2922. 1136. 4327. ACOSOS in Iho..aS Of dollars. COST SUIRNY REPORT Re ....... VONR3 MORFA

  7. Seat Belt Use Intention among Brazilian Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    TORQUATO, RENATA; FRANCO, CLÁUDIO M. A; BIANCHI, ALESSANDRA

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore self-reported seat belt use and group differences in different scenarios in a Brazilian sample and research the variables related to it. 120 college students answered a questionnaire with variables from the theory of planned behavior in order to evaluate the intention of seat belt use among car occupants. Results indicated that attitude and intention were the variables that most contributed to explaining seat belt use. Intention was highly correlat...

  8. A Functional Analysis of DOD Implementation of Seat Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rasmussen, David

    1999-01-01

    .... Seat management, also known as desktop outsourcing, involves the acquisition and management of all hardware and software, desktop and network management, operations management, support services...

  9. A target fibre study on seats in public houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, E; Griffin, R M

    1998-01-01

    A target fibre survey was conducted to assess the random occurrence of a blue wool fibre on seats in public houses throughout the United Kingdom. Fibre tape lifts were taken from 80 seats. Four seats yielded matching fibres and five of these were found on one seat. A total of 292 fibres were identified; nine fibres proved indistinguishable from the target after comparison microscopy, microspectro-photometry and attempts at thin layer chromatography, and two of these fibres were still apparently indistinguishable after TLC analysis although only one dye component was visible.

  10. Choice of the recording arrangement for bubble chamber holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The main characteristics of the different recording arrangements are compared. The in-line system is the most simple and the cheapest but it does not suit to all types of chambers. The side-band systems yield different sorts of images and require different coherence, stability and energy conditions according to the type of illumination of the bubbles. (orig.)

  11. 75 FR 30775 - Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ..., Recreational Diving seat, Education seat, Archaeological Research seat, Maritime Museum seat, Youth seat, and... by NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries. It is one of 13 sanctuaries and protects the wreck..., Recreational Diving, the US Navy, Virginia and North Carolina Department of Historic Resources, the National...

  12. Will the Driver Seat Ever Be Empty?

    OpenAIRE

    Fraichard , Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Self-driving technologies have matured and improved to the point that, in the past few years, self-driving cars have been able to safely drive an impressive number of kilometers. It should be noted though that, in all cases, the driver seat was never empty: a human driver was behind the wheel, ready to take over whenever the situation dictated it. This is an interesting paradox since the point of a self-driving car is to remove the most unreliable part of the car, namely the human driver. So,...

  13. Vibration isolation of a ship's seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agahi, Maryam; Samani, Mehrdad B.; Behzad, Mehdi

    2005-05-01

    Different factors cause vibration. These vibrations make the voyages difficult and reduce comfort and convenience in passenger ships. In this paper, the creating factors of vibration have discussed first, then with mathematical modelling it will be attempted to minimize the vibration over the crew's seat. The modelling consists of a system with two degrees of freedom and by using vibrationisolation with passive method of Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) it will be tried to reduce the vibration over personnel. Moreover using active control systems will be compared with passive systems.

  14. 76 FR 31803 - Airworthiness Directives; Koito Industries, Ltd., Seats and Seating Systems Approved Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... CONTACT: Patrick Farina, Aerospace Engineer, Cabin Safety Branch, ANM-150L, FAA, Los Angeles Aircraft... understands that the FAA considers this phased testing structure as an acceptable testing plan, but also... the suspect seats were witnessed by FAA ``delegates'' (designated engineering representatives (DERs...

  15. The Impact of Seating Location and Seating Type on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Michael D.; Knotts, Tami L.; James, Karen D.; Williams, Felice; Vassar, John A.; Wren, Amy Oakes

    2013-01-01

    While an extensive body of research exists regarding the delivery of course knowledge and material, much less attention has been paid to the performance effect of seating position within a classroom. Research findings are mixed as to whether students in the front row of a classroom outperform students in the back row. Another issue that has not…

  16. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  17. Development of electrostatic charging evaluation equipment for automobile seat; Jidoshayo seat no taidensei shiken hyoka sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    When passengers get out of vehicle, electrostatics is generated by separation of seat cloth and passenger cloth, and then charged to passenger`s body. It has been impossible for us to simulate this induction charging phenomenon with current evaluation equipments. We developed a new seat cloth evaluation equipments using induction charging plate, which enables us to simulate the phenomenon. This paper describes this new electrostatic charging evaluation method for automobile seat cloth. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Tax issues in structuring gas process arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverach, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The current status of various tax issues regarding ownership, operation and financing of gas processing facilities in Canada was discussed. Frequently, energy companies are not taxed because of their large pools of un-depreciated capital cost and other resource related accounts. In addition, their time horizons for taxability are being extended in line with the expansion of their businesses. However, other investors are fully taxable, hence they wish to shelter their income through the use of tax efficient investment arrangements. This paper provides a detailed description of the tax treatment of gas processing facilities, tax implications of various structures between the producer and the investor such as lease, processing fee arrangements etc., and use of 'Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expense' (CRCE) for cogeneration projects within processing plants. All these need to be considered before completing a financing transaction involving a gas processing facility, since the manner in which the transaction is completed will determine the advantages and benefits from an income tax perspective. The accounting and legal aspects must be similarly scrutinized to ensure that the intended results for all parties are achieved. 8 figs

  19. Joint overbooking and seat allocation for fare families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Robert; Fiig, Thomas; Bondoux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Revenue Management Systems (RMS) traditionally solve the seat allocation problem separately from the overbooking problem. Overbooking is managed by inflating the authorization levels obtained from seat allocation by various heuristics. This approach although suboptimal, is necessitated because...... independent demand model, which is readily solved. The resulting availability control can easily by implemented in existing RMS...

  20. Assessment of Rail Seat Abrasion Patterns and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Rail seat abrasion (RSA) of concrete ties is manifested by the loss of material under the rail seat area and, in extreme cases, results in loss of rail clip holding power, reverse rail cant, and gauge widening. RSA was measured in several curves on t...

  1. Restraint use and seating position among children in motor vehicles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Just over a third of the children were seated on the front seat of the vehicle, ... meaning adult will be dislodged by the huge gravitational forces in the case of an ..... action. 2009. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241563840_.

  2. Identifying strategies to improve the effectiveness of booster seat laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this project was to identify strategies to improve the effectiveness of booster seat laws. The project explored the possible factors that relate to the use and nonuse of booster seats, and examined the attitudes of law enforcement of...

  3. Musculoskeletal analysis of driving fatigue: The influence of seat adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majid, Noor Aliah binti Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Fareez Edzuan; Jamaludin, Mohd Syahmi

    2013-01-01

    Main causes for discomfort experienced by vehicle drivers during driving were investigated using a rigid-body model originally developed in the AnyBody Modeling System [1]. The interactions between the human body and the car-seat in various combinations of seat-pan/backrest inclinations and the e...

  4. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... the airplane who is at least 2 years old; and (2) An approved safety belt for separate use by each...

  5. Self-reported seat discomfort among Dutch commercial truck drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Comfort is an attribute that today’s consumers demand more and more. The seat has an important role to play in fulfilling these comfort expectations. Seating comfort is a major concern for drivers and other members of the work force who are exposed to extended periods of sitting and its associated

  6. Moduli of weighted hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Lahoz, Martí; Macrí, Emanuele; Stellari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on a large class of geometric objects in moduli theory and provides explicit computations to investigate their families. Concrete examples are developed that take advantage of the intricate interplay between Algebraic Geometry and Combinatorics. Compactifications of moduli spaces play a crucial role in Number Theory, String Theory, and Quantum Field Theory – to mention just a few. In particular, the notion of compactification of moduli spaces has been crucial for solving various open problems and long-standing conjectures. Further, the book reports on compactification techniques for moduli spaces in a large class where computations are possible, namely that of weighted stable hyperplane arrangements.

  7. New arrangements in climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, B.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Climate policy, its content and the way it is being organised, is changing, both nationally and internationally. The Kyoto Protocol and its effects form an important catalyst for this process. The focus in climate discourse is increasingly on 'differentiation' and 'flexibilisation', while the role of the industrial sectors involved has changed since 1997, among other things expressed in the increasing influence exerted by the business community and the declining power of the environmental movement. There is a transition underway, from pluralist to private policy arrangements

  8. Arrangement for selectively irradiating webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihme, B.

    1975-01-01

    The arrangement for selectively irradiating a web includes a perforated band of a radiation impermeable substance which is guided in an endless path via a pair of guide rollers and has two juxtaposed runs in this path. A take-up roller conveys a web of material past one of the runs at a side thereof remote from the other run, the direction of movement of the web being other than parallel to that of the band and, preferably, normal thereto. An electron accelerator is provided at the far side of the run remote from the web and is effective for directing a radiation beam at the web through the perforations

  9. Lightweight, fire-retardant, crashworthy aircraft seat cushioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslim, Leonard A.; Mcdonough, Paul T.

    1991-01-01

    A two page discussion of non-aerospace seating applications and the design of NASA's safety seat cushioning (SSC) is presented. The SSC was designed for both safety and comfort in order to replace polyurethane cushioning which is flammable and produces lethal fumes upon combustion. The SSC is composed of advanced fabric reinforced composites and is lightweight, fire-retardent, and crashworthy. The seat design consists of central elliptical tubular spring supports made of fire-resistant and fatigue-durable composites surrounded by a fire-blocking sheath. The cushioning is made crashworthy by incorporating energy-absorbing, viscoelastic layers between the nested, elliptical-hoop springs. The design is intended to provide comfortable seating that meets aircraft-loading requirements without using the conventional polyurethane materials. The designs of an aircraft seat and structural components of the SSC are also presented.

  10. The effects of seat belt legislation on road traffic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinca, G W; Dooley, B J

    1977-04-01

    The compulsory wearing of seat belts, first introduced in the world in Victoria in 1970, has effectively reduced the number of deaths and injuries by approximately one-third for car occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. Initially, the legislation did not apply to children under the age of eight years, but in 1975 a further law was introduced banning children from the front seat of any vehicle unless properly harnessed. Seat belts offer the best protection for front seat drivers and passengers involved in frontal impacts, but offer less protection to the recipient of a side impact. Ten per cent of car occupants admitted to hospital after a frontal impact show injuries, mostly minor, directly attibutable to the wearing of seat belts.

  11. Radiation detector arrangements and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.

    1989-01-01

    The patent describes a radiation detector arrangement. It comprises at least one detector element in the form of a temperature-sensitive resistor whose electrical resistance changes in response to radiation incident on the detector element, the resistor having a high positive temperature coefficient of electrical resistance at a transition in its electrical conductance, circuit means for applying a voltage across the resistor during operation of the detector arrangement, and temperature-regulation means for regulating the temperature of the resistor so as to operate the resistor in the transition, characterised in that the temperature-regulation means comprises the resistor and the circuit means which passes sufficient current through the resistor by resistance heating to a position in the transition at which a further increase in its temperature in response to incident radiation reduces the resistance heating by reducing the current, thereby stabilizing the temperature of the resistor at the position. The positive temperature coefficient at the position being sufficiently high that the change in the resistance heating produced by a change in the temperature of the resistor at the position is larger than a change in power of the incident radiation required to produce that same change in temperature of the resistor in the absence of any change in resistance heating

  12. Support force measures of midsized men in seated positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Tamara Reid; Hubbard, Robert P

    2007-02-01

    Two areas not well researched in the field of seating mechanics are the distribution of normal and shear forces, and how those forces change with seat position. The availability of these data would be beneficial for the design and development of office, automotive and medical seats. To increase our knowledge in the area of seating mechanics, this study sought to measure the normal and shear loads applied to segmental supports in 12 seated positions, utilizing three inclination angles and four levels of seat back articulation that were associated with automotive driving positions. Force data from six regions, including the thorax, sacral region, buttocks, thighs, feet, and hand support were gathered using multi-axis load cells. The sample contained 23 midsized subjects with an average weight of 76.7 kg and a standard deviation of 4.2 kg, and an average height of 1745 mm with a standard deviation of 19 mm. Results were examined in terms of seat back inclination and in terms of torso articulation for relationships between seat positions and support forces. Using a repeated measures analysis, significant differences (p<0.05) were identified for normal forces relative to all inclination angles except for forces occurring at the hand support. Other significant differences were observed between normal forces behind the buttocks, pelvis, and feet for torso articulations. Significant differences in the shear forces occurred under the buttocks and posterior pelvis during changes in seat back inclination. Significant differences in shear forces were also identified for torso articulations. These data suggest that as seat back inclination or torso articulation change, significant shifts in force distribution occur.

  13. 75 FR 36062 - Availability of Conservation Seat and Diving Operations Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Conservation Seat and Diving Operations Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Conservation and Diving Operations... Jennifer Morgan, NOAA--Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, 4700 Avenue U, Bldg. 216, Galveston...

  14. Drivers' attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Passengers, especially those in rear seating positions, use seat belts less frequently than drivers. In-vehicle technology can inform drivers when their passengers are unbuckled and encourage passengers to use belts. The current study collected information about drivers' attitudes toward passenger belt use and belt reminders for front passengers and children in back seats. A national telephone survey of 1218 people 18 and older was conducted, of which 477 respondents were drivers who transport a front seat passenger at least once a week and 254 were drivers who transport an 8- to 15-year-old child in the back seat. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward belt use by their front passengers or rear child passengers and preferences for different passenger belt reminder features. Ninety percent of drivers who regularly transport front seat passengers said that the passengers always use seat belts. Reported belt use was even higher among 8- to 15-year-old children in the back seat (97%). Among the drivers whose children do not always buckle up, about half said their child unbuckled the belt during the trip. Almost every full-time belt use driver (96%) would encourage front passengers to buckle up if not belted, compared to 57 percent of part-time belt users and nonusers. In contrast, nearly every driver who transports children in the back seat would encourage their belt use, regardless of the driver's belt use habits. Most drivers who transport front passengers wanted passenger belt reminders to encourage passengers to buckle up. Most of these drivers wanted a chime/buzzer or warning light or text display and wanted the reminder to last indefinitely. Most drivers who transport child passengers in the rear seat wanted the vehicle to indicate whether child passengers are unbuckled. A large majority of these drivers wanted notifications via a visual diagram of seating positions and belt use, a chime/buzzer, and a warning light or text display. These drivers

  15. Patient sensing and indicating arrangement for a computed tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for sensing and indicating if a cross section of a patient extends beyond an image reconstruction circle during examination. The arrangement is positioned within a generally vertical gantry having a generally cylindrical opening for receiving the patient. The arrangement includes a plurality of light emitting sources disposed within the gantry and which are closely adjacent the reconstruction circle. Each light emitting source projects a light beam along a line which is parallel with the plane of the reconstruction circle and tangent to a cylinder having a diameter and central axis in agreement with the reconstruction circle. The light beams extend substantially across the opening in the gantry and generally inscribe the reconstruction circle. A plurality of photodetectors are disposed within the gantry and aligned to receive each of the light beams. The photodetectors are interconnected to the system by means for indicating an interruption of any of the light beams between any of the sources and detectors

  16. 29 CFR 779.229 - Other arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.229 Other arrangements. With respect to those arrangements...” establishment will be considered a part of the same “enterprise.” For example, whether a franchise, lease, or... the enterprise which grants the franchise, right, or concession. (S. Rept. 145, 87th Cong., 1st Sess...

  17. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal dialysis...

  18. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.

  19. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules by either photon-induced pure revibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically-reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of the isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope. The laser configuration used to generate the photon beam is fully described

  20. International arrangements against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, G.

    1987-01-01

    International efforts to show the spread of nuclear weapons have created an international norm of nonproliferation, backed by a variety of enforcement mechanisms. Together they are often referred to as the nonproliferation regime. This regime is reviewed, starting with the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty. The centerpiece of the regime, the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), signed in 1968, now has 135 parties, including most of the advanced industrial nuclear countries. Results of the 1985 NPT Review Conference are briefly discussed; the 86 NPT parties that attended reaffirmed the treaty's value, pledged continued support for the IAEA safeguards system, and called upon nonsigners to renounce nuclear weapons and accept IAEA safeguards. A section is devoted to the physical protection of nuclear materials, facilities, and weapons. Finally, recommendations are presented to improve international arrangements against nuclear terrorists

  1. Importance of Grid Center Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaogullari, O.; Usul, N.

    2012-12-01

    In Digital Elevation Modeling, grid size is accepted to be the most important parameter. Despite the point density and/or scale of the source data, it is freely decided by the user. Most of the time, arrangement of the grid centers are ignored, even most GIS packages omit the choice of grid center coordinate selection. In our study; importance of the arrangement of grid centers is investigated. Using the analogy between "Raster Grid DEM" and "Bitmap Image", importance of placement of grid centers in DEMs are measured. The study has been conducted on four different grid DEMs obtained from a half ellipsoid. These grid DEMs are obtained in such a way that they are half grid size apart from each other. Resulting grid DEMs are investigated through similarity measures. Image processing scientists use different measures to investigate the dis/similarity between the images and the amount of different information they carry. Grid DEMs are projected to a finer grid in order to co-center. Similarity measures are then applied to each grid DEM pairs. These similarity measures are adapted to DEM with band reduction and real number operation. One of the measures gives function graph and the others give measure matrices. Application of similarity measures to six grid DEM pairs shows interesting results. These four different grid DEMs are created with the same method for the same area, surprisingly; thirteen out of 14 measures state that, the half grid size apart grid DEMs are different from each other. The results indicated that although grid DEMs carry mutual information, they have also additional individual information. In other words, half grid size apart constructed grid DEMs have non-redundant information.; Joint Probability Distributions Function Graphs

  2. CODAC systems arrangement and connectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, Hitesh Kumar, E-mail: hkgulati@gmail.com; Beltran, David; Kuehn, Ingo; Kotamaki, Miikka; Makijarvi, Petri; Wallander, Anders

    2013-10-15

    termination point for CODAC Network infrastructure. The CODAC Network cables running from the nearest CODAC Network hutch will terminate in these panels. Network panels are installed at strategic locations close to plant system I and C cubicles. This paper will describe more details about the physical arrangement of CODAC systems in different buildings on ITER platform for different purpose and their planned connectivity. This paper will also provide more information about the volume allocations for CODAC components, planned cabling arrangement and other infrastructure requirements like electrical and cooling etc.

  3. MACRO MODEL OF SEAT BELT USE BY CAR DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  4. A comparative policy analysis of seat belt laws : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-24

    This analysis examined data from a variety of sources to estimate the benefit of enhancing Iowas current law to require all : passengers to use seat belts. In addition to assessing Iowans opinions about changing the law, a literature review, a ...

  5. Controversial Swedish science minister loses seat in reshuffle

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylawan, P

    1998-01-01

    Carl Tham, who introduced sweeping changes to higher education and research, has lost his seat in a cabinet reshuffle. As science minister for 4 years he redirected funding to applied science and established new regional universities (1 page).

  6. Materials for fire resistant passenger seats in aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoro, G.; Moussa, A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the selection of cushioning foam and upholstery fabric materials for aircraft passenger seats. Polyurethane, polychloroprene, polyimide, and polyphosphazene are the foam materials considered; and a variety of commercial and developmental fabrics (including wool, cotton, synthetics, and blends) are examined. Viable approaches to the design of fire-resistant seat assemblies are indicated. Results of an experimental laboratory study of fabrics and fabric/foam assemblies exposed to external point-source radiative heat flux are discussed.

  7. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  8. Infant bath seats, drowning and near-drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, R W; Donald, T

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of infant bathtub seats in drowning and near-drowning episodes in infants. A review was conducted of the files of the Forensic Science Centre and Child Protection Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, for significant immersion incidents in infants involving bathtub seats from January 1998 to December 2003. A total of six cases of drowning occurred over the 6-year period of the study in children under 2 years of age, including two infants. One of these cases, a 7-month-old boy, had been left unattended for some time in an adult bath in a bathtub seat. He was found drowned, having submerged after slipping down and becoming trapped in the seat. Three near-drowning episodes occurred in children under the age of 2 years, including two boys aged 7 and 8 months, both of whom had been left for some time in adult baths in bath seats. Both were successfully resuscitated and treated in hospital. These cases demonstrate the vulnerability of infants to immersion incidents when left unattended in bathtubs. Bathtubs are particularly dangerous for infants as the slippery and smooth surfaces predispose to loss of balance and make escape from water difficult. Infant bathtub seats may give parents and child carers a false sense of security leading to infants being left unattended. Unfortunately, however, infants may fall out of, or slip and become trapped in, such seats. Infants and young children cannot be left unsupervised in water, and devices used as bathing aids such as bathtub seats may contribute to immersion incidents.

  9. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.

    2008-03-01

    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  10. Autist mobile seat's frame strength simulation used in a car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryo, S. H.; Jamari, J.; Naufal, G. K.; Ismail, R.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Desiningrum, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Going on a car with autistic children needs a special handling. Autistic children that tend to be hyperactive in the car may disturb driving. A tool is needed to keep them in a calm state when they are in the car. Autist Mobile Seat is an aid for the autistic children when going on a car. The aid is an additional seat paired with the main seat of the car. This aid consists of three main things: Main frame, body skin, and pneumatic system. Frame as the main component supporting the Autist Mobile Seat functions as a holder as well as a body skin retainer in order to be able to retain the body of the autistic children. The strength of the frame from this Autist Mobile Seat should be counted as an anticipation from the failure of the frame function when receiving load when used by the autistic children in the car. Consequently, a test on the frame of the Autist Mobile Seat towards the load received should be conducted by using a method of FEM (Finite Element Method) with the help of commercial software. The simulation produces the maximum strength, the frame towards the load received as well as the critical point on the frame when loading occurs.

  11. SEAT BELT USE AMONG CAR USERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KULANTHAYAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  12. Seat and seatbelt accommodation in fire apparatus: Anthropometric aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Wilbur, Michael; Lackore, J Roger; Routley, J Gordon

    2015-11-01

    This study developed anthropometric information on U.S. firefighters to guide fire-apparatus seat and seatbelt designs and future standards development. A stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. participated in the study. The study results suggested 498 mm in width, 404 mm in depth, and 365-476 mm in height for seat pans; 429-522 mm in width and 542 mm in height for seat back; 871 mm in height for head support; a seat space of 733 mm at shoulder and 678 mm at hip; and a knee/leg clearance of 909 mm in fire truck cab. Also, 1520 mm of lap belt web effective length and 2828 mm of lap-and-shoulder belt web effective length were suggested. These data for fire-truck seats and seatbelts provide a foundation for fire apparatus manufacturers and standards committees to improve firefighter seat designs and seatbelt usage compliance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Design and Evaluation Methods for Optimizing Ejection Seat Cushions for Comfort and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    buttocks to the seat cushion or seat pan. Kohara , a Japaners Investigator discussed the problems of seating comfort and the measuren.ent of buttock/seat...loads In an unpublished report in 1965 (23) and subsequently In a magazine article In 1966 (24). Kohara was able to weasure pressures by means of...Isolation. Kohara has also studied the vibration Isolation requirements in high speed trains (23, 2’). Howeveri the seat cushion has been used only rarely in

  14. Flexible Working Time Arrangements in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the flexible working time arrangements in Bulgaria, using a life-course perspective. Two important features have to be outlined, namely: underdeveloped flexible forms of employment in the country, including working time arrangement, and lack of previous analysis on flexible working time arrangements from the angle of life-course perspective. The author describes the regulatory framework, collective agreements at national and company level as a frame w...

  15. Living Arrangements of Young Adults in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Schwanitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1 across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2 by taking into account cross-time variability. In doing so, we pay careful attention to a comprehensive conceptualisation of living arrangements (including extended and non-family living arrangements. The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of family structure and household arrangements in Europe by examining and mapping the cross-national and cross-temporal variety of young adults’ living arrangements. For our analysis we use data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series International (IPUMSi for the census rounds 1980, 1990, and 2000 for eight European countries (Austria, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal, Romania, and Switzerland. We employ log-linear models to ascertain the influence of individual and contextual factors on living arrangements. The analyses lend further support to a North/West – South/East divide in living arrangements and general gender differentials in extended family living. Other interesting results are the heterogeneity in the living arrangements of single mothers across geographic areas, and the upward trend of extended household living for young men and women between 1980 and 2000.

  16. Correlation analysis of fracture arrangement in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Randall; Gale, Julia F. W.; Gómez, Leonel A.; Laubach, Stephen E.

    2018-03-01

    We present new techniques that overcome limitations of standard approaches to documenting spatial arrangement. The new techniques directly quantify spatial arrangement by normalizing to expected values for randomly arranged fractures. The techniques differ in terms of computational intensity, robustness of results, ability to detect anti-correlation, and use of fracture size data. Variation of spatial arrangement across a broad range of length scales facilitates distinguishing clustered and periodic arrangements-opposite forms of organization-from random arrangements. Moreover, self-organized arrangements can be distinguished from arrangements due to extrinsic organization. Traditional techniques for analysis of fracture spacing are hamstrung because they account neither for the sequence of fracture spacings nor for possible coordination between fracture size and position, attributes accounted for by our methods. All of the new techniques reveal fractal clustering in a test case of veins, or cement-filled opening-mode fractures, in Pennsylvanian Marble Falls Limestone. The observed arrangement is readily distinguishable from random and periodic arrangements. Comparison of results that account for fracture size with results that ignore fracture size demonstrates that spatial arrangement is dominated by the sequence of fracture spacings, rather than coordination of fracture size with position. Fracture size and position are not completely independent in this example, however, because large fractures are more clustered than small fractures. Both spatial and size organization of veins here probably emerged from fracture interaction during growth. The new approaches described here, along with freely available software to implement the techniques, can be applied with effect to a wide range of structures, or indeed many other phenomena such as drilling response, where spatial heterogeneity is an issue.

  17. Development of a method for rating climate seat comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffelmeier, M.; Classen, E.

    2017-10-01

    The comfort aspect in the vehicle interior is becoming increasingly important. A high comfort level offers the driver a good and secure feeling and has a strong influence on passive traffic safety. One important part of comfort is the climate aspect, especially the microclimate that emerges between passenger and seat. In this research, different combinations of typical seat materials are used. Fourteen woven and knitted fabrics and eight leathers and its substitutes for the face fabric layer, one foam, one non-woven and one 3D spacer for the plus pad layer and for the support layer three foam types with variations in structure and raw material as well as one rubber hair structure were investigated. To characterise this sample set by thermo-physiological aspects (e.g. water vapour resistance Ret, thermal resistance Rct, buffering capacity of water vapour Fd) regular and modified sweating guarded hotplates were used according to DIN EN ISO 11092. The results of the material characterisation confirm the common knowledge that seat covers out of textiles have better water vapour resistance values than leathers and its substitutes. Subject trials in a driving simulator were executed to rate the subjective sensation while driving in a vehicle seat. With a thermal, sweating Manikin (Newton Type, Thermetrics) objective product measurements were carried out on the same seat. Indeed the subject trials show that every test subject has his or her own subjective perception concerning the climate comfort. The results of the subject trials offered the parameters for the Newton measuring method. Respectively the sweating rate, sit-in procedure, ambient conditions and sensor positions on and between the seat layers must be comparable with the subject trials. By taking care of all these parameters it is possible to get repeatable and reliable results with the Newton Manikin. The subjective feelings of the test subjects, concerning the microclimate between seat and passenger, provide

  18. The Surprising Impact of Seat Location on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Katherine K.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2005-01-01

    Every physics instructor knows that the most engaged and successful students tend to sit at the front of the class and the weakest students tend to sit at the back. However, it is normally assumed that this is merely an indication of the respective seat location preferences of weaker and stronger students. Here we present evidence suggesting that in fact this may be mixing up the cause and effect. It may be that the seat selection itself contributes to whether the student does well or poorly, rather than the other way around. While a number of studies have looked at the effect of seat location on students, the results are often inconclusive, and few, if any, have studied the effects in college classrooms with randomly assigned seats. In this paper, we report on our observations of a large introductory physics course in which we randomly assigned students to particular seat locations at the beginning of the semester. Seat location during the first half of the semester had a noticeable impact on student success in the course, particularly in the top and bottom parts of the grade distribution. Students sitting in the back of the room for the first half of the term were nearly six times as likely to receive an F as students who started in the front of the room. A corresponding but less dramatic reversal was evident in the fractions of students receiving As. These effects were in spite of many unusual efforts to engage students at the back of the class and a front-to-back reversal of seat location halfway through the term. These results suggest there may be inherent detrimental effects of large physics lecture halls that need to be further explored.

  19. Living arrangements of young adults in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwanitz, Katrin; Mulder, Clara H.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1) across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2) by

  20. Contingent and Alternative Work Arrangements, Defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Anne E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the definitions of contingent workers and alternative work arrangements used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to analyze data, and presents aggregate estimates of the number of workers in each group. Discusses the overlap between contingent workers and workers in alternative arrangements. (Author/JOW)

  1. 78 FR 40131 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... INFORMATION: This subsequent arrangement concerns the retransfer of 302,188 kg of U.S.-origin natural uranium..., Saskatchewan, Canada, to Springfields Fuels Ltd. in Lancashire, United Kingdom. The material, which is... arrangement concerning the retransfer of nuclear material of United States origin will not be inimical to the...

  2. Exploring the design of a lightweight, sustainable and comfortable aircraft seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorikou, A; Vink, P; de Pauw, I C; Braca, A

    2016-07-19

    Making a lightweight seat that is also comfortable can be contradictory because usually comfort improvement means adding a feature (e.g. headrest, adjustable lumbar support, movable armrests, integrated massage systems, etc.), which makes seats heavier. This paper explores the design of an economy class aircraft seat that aims to be lightweight, comfortable and sustainable. Theory about comfort in seats, ergonomics, lightweight design, Biomimicry and Cradle to cradle was studied and resulted in a list of requirements that the new seat should satisfy. The design process resulted in a new seat that is 36% lighter than the reference seat, which showed that a significant weight reduction can be achieved. This was completed by re-designing the backrest and seat pan and integrating their functions into a reduced number of parts. Apart from the weight reduction that helps in reducing the airplane's environmental impact, the seat also satisfies most of the other sustainability requirements such as the use of recyclable materials, design for disassembly, easy to repair. A user test compared the new seat with a premium economy class aircraft seat and the level of comfort was similar. Strong points of the new design were identified such as the lumbar support and the cushioning material, as well as shortcomings on which the seat needs to be improved, like the seat pan length and the first impression. Long term comfort tests are still needed as the seat is meant for long-haul flights.

  3. Experimental study on occupant evacuation in narrow seat aisle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shenshi; Lu, Shouxiang; Lo, Siuming; Li, Changhai; Guo, Yafei

    2018-07-01

    Narrow seat aisle is an important area in the train car interior due to the large passenger population, however evacuation therein has not gained enough concerns. In this experimental study, the occupant evacuation of the narrow seat aisle area is investigated, with the aisle width of 0.4-0.6 m and the evacuation direction of forward and backward. The evacuation behaviors are analyzed based on the video record, and the discussion is carried out in the aspect of evacuation time, crowdedness, evacuation order, and aisle conflicts. The result shows that with the increasing aisle width, total evacuation time and the average specific evacuation rate decrease. The aisle is crowded for some time, with a large linear occupant densities. The evacuation order of each occupant is mainly related to the seat position. Moreover, it is found that the aisle conflicts can be well described by Burstedde's model. This study gives a useful benchmark for evacuation simulation of narrow seat aisle, and provides reference to safety design of seat area in train cars.

  4. Thermal comfort of seats as visualized by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Rosemary Bom Conselho; Pereira, Romeu Rodrigues; Aguilar, Maria Teresa Paulino; Cardoso, Antônio Valadão

    2017-07-01

    Published studies that deal with the question of how the temperature of chair seats influences human activities are few, but the studies considering such a factor, a function of the type of material, could contribute to improvements in the design of chairs. This study evaluates seat temperatures of 8 types of chairs made of different materials. The parts of the furniture that people come into contact with, and the thermal response of the material to heating and cooling have been evaluated. Infrared thermography was used for this, as it is a non-contact technique that does not present any type of risk in the measurement of temperatures. Seats made of synthetic leather (leatherette), wood and polyester fabric were found to have the highest temperatures, and the plywood seat showed the lowest. The study has also revealed that thermography can contribute to studies of thermal comfort of chair seats in addition to determining the most suitable material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Children's and Adults' Comfort Experience of Extra Seat Belts When Riding in the Rear Seat of a Passenger Car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Hansson, Ida; Bohman, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore passengers' comfort experience of extra seat belts during on-road driving in the rear seat of a passenger car and to investigate how the use of extra belts affects children's and adults' attitudes to the product. Two different seat belt systems were tested, criss-cross (CC) and backpack (BP), consisting of the standard 3-point belt together with an additional 2-point belt. In total, 32 participants (15 children aged 6-10, 6 youths aged 11-15, and 11 adults aged 20-79, who differed considerably in size, shape, and proportions) traveled for one hour with each system, including city traffic and highway driving. Four video cameras monitored the test subject during the drive. Subjective data regarding emotions and perceived discomfort were collected in questionnaires every 20 min. A semistructured interview was held afterwards. All participant groups accepted the new products and especially the increased feeling of safety (P car. CC was appreciated for its symmetry, comfort, and the perceived feeling of safety. Some participants found CC unpleasant because the belts tended to slip close to the neck, described as a strangling feeling. BP was simpler to use and did not cause annoyance to the neck in the way CC did. Instead, it felt asymmetric and to some extent less safe than CC. Body size and shape affected seat belt fit to a great extent, which in turn affected the experience of comfort, both initially and over time. Perceived safety benefit and experienced comfort were the most determinant factors for the attitude toward the extra seat belts. The extra seat belts were perceived as being better than the participants had expected before the test, and they became more used to them over time. This exploratory study provided valuable knowledge from a user perspective for further development of new seat belt systems in cars. In addition to an increased feeling of safety, seat belt fit and comfort are supplementary influencing

  6. MIT-Skywalker: Evaluating comfort of bicycle/saddle seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Rogerio S; Hamilton, Taya; Daher, Ali R; Hirai, Hiroaki; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    The MIT-Skywalker is a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. This device has been designed based on the concept of a passive walker and provides three distinct training modes: discrete movement, rhythmic movement, and balance training. In this paper, we present our efforts to evaluate the comfort of a bicycle/saddle seat design for the system's novel actuated body weight support device. We employed different bicycle and saddle seats and evaluated comfort using objective and subjective measures. Here we will summarize the results obtained from a study of fifteen healthy subjects and one stroke patient that led to the selection of a saddle seat design for the MIT-Skywalker.

  7. Exchange rate arrangements: From extreme to "normal"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beker Emilija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies theoretical and empirical location dispersion of exchange rate arrangements - rigid-intermediate-flexible regimes, in the context of extreme arrangements of a currency board, dollarization and monetary union moderate characteristics of intermediate arrangements (adjustable pegs crawling pegs and target zones and imperative-process "normalization" in the form of a managed or clean floating system. It is established that de iure and de facto classifications generate "fear of floating" and "fear of pegging". The "impossible trinity" under the conditions of capital liberalization and globalization creates a bipolar view or hypothesis of vanishing intermediate exchange rate regimes.

  8. Morphophysiology and nutritive value of signalgrass in silvipastoral system with different tree arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joysiene Sanguinete Coelho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the effect of different special arrangements in forage yield, nutritive value and structure of the understory of signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens in silvipastoral system with different regrowth times. The design was in complete randomized block with tree replicates in a factorial scheme with split-plots 2 × 2 × 5 consisting two spatial arrangements [Double lines 9 × (2 × 2m and simple lines (9 × 2m] in two sampling places (in the middle of the intercropping and under the three canopy in the plot and five regrowth times (35, 42, 49, 56 e 63 days in the split-plot. It was used a silvipastoral system established since June, 2008 in degraded pasture with signalgrass predominance. The pasture was homogenized by grazing at 15 cm from the soil level. Were evaluated the dry matter yield leaf:stem ratio, light interception and leaf area index. In addition were evaluated the nutritive value characteristics dry matter content, neutral and acid detergent fiber, crude protein and lignin. The photosynthetic active radiation was monitored. The use of simple or double lines did not influence the leaf area index, light interception and dry mass yield. The leaf:stem ratio was influenced by the sampling place only in the double line arrangement. The neutral detergent fiber was substantially high in the double line arrangement. Therefore, the use of double lines reduces the photosynthetic active radiation amount incident in the understory, but does not reduce the forage yield in relation to simple line arrangements. These results indicate the use of double lines arrangement may allow the harvest of more threes without reduce the pasture production.

  9. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczak, P.; Lewandowski, J.; Choryński, A.; Szwed, M.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2015-06-01

    The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements) project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency) of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  10. Percentage compensation arrangements: suspect, but not illegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, F P

    2001-01-01

    Percentage compensation arrangements, in which a service is outsourced to a contractor that is paid in accordance with the level of its performance, are widely used in many business sectors. The HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) has shown concern that these arrangements in the healthcare industry may offer incentives for the performance of unnecessary services or cause false claims to be made to Federal healthcare programs in violation of the antikickback statute and the False Claims Act. Percentage compensation arrangements can work and need not run afoul of the law as long as the healthcare organization carefully oversees the arrangement and sets specific safeguards in place. These safeguards include screening contractors, carefully evaluating their compliance programs, and obligating them contractually to perform within the limits of the law.

  11. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Matczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  12. Renewable energy and Scottish trading arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project involving the participation of the Scottish Renewables Forum (SRF) in the ongoing Ofgem consultation process concerning the future electricity trading arrangements in Scotland. The present administrative arrangements, the activities of the SRF, the prospects for the British Electricity Trading and Transmission Arrangements (BETTA), generator connection policy, and transmission access are discussed, and an overview of consultations relating to Scotland-England interconnection access is presented. The appendices cover the SRF responses to the Ofgem consultation, a discussion paper in advance of the SRF meeting with Ofgem in April 2001, an SRF trading update, the SRF's responses to Ofgem's Environmental Action Plan, the Scottish Embedded Generators Working Group's terms of reference and draft paper on issues, and a briefing on prices in administered arrangements

  13. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be

  14. Living arrangements and mental health in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Martelin, Tuija; Martikainen, Pekka; Pirkola, Sami; Koskinen, Seppo

    2006-01-01

    Background Non‐married persons are known to have poor mental health compared with married persons. Health differences between marital status groups may largely arise from corresponding differences in interpersonal social bonds. However, official marital status mirrors the social reality of persons to a decreasing extent, and living arrangements may be a better measure of social bonds. Little is known about mental health in different living arrangement groups. This study aims to establish the extent and determinants of mental health differences by living arrangement in terms of psychological distress (GHQ) and DSM‐IV psychiatric disorders (CIDI). Methods Data were used from the nationally representative cross sectional health 2000 survey, conducted in 2000–1 in Finland. Altogether 4685 participants (80%) aged 30–64 years were included in these analyses; comprehensive information was available on measures of mental health and living arrangements. Living arrangements were measured as follows: married, cohabiting, living with other(s) than a partner, and living alone. Results Compared with the married, persons living alone and those living with other(s) than a partner were approximately twice as likely to have anxiety or depressive disorders. Cohabiters did not differ from the married. In men, psychological distress was similarly associated with living arrangements. Unemployment, lack of social support, and alcohol consumption attenuated the excess psychological distress and psychiatric morbidity of persons living alone and of those living with other(s) than a partner by about 10%–50% each. Conclusions Living arrangements are strongly associated with mental health, particularly among men. Information on living arrangements, social support, unemployment, and alcohol use may facilitate early stage recognition of poor mental health in primary health care. PMID:16698975

  15. People management implications of virtual workplace arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ortlepp; X. Hloma

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that led to an organisation implementing a particular form of virtual workplace arrangement, namely, home-based work. The benefits and disadvantages associated with this form of work arrangement are explored from both the managers' and home-based employees' perspectives. Design/Methodology/Approach: Given the exploratory nature of the empirical study on which this paper is based, a qualitative research design was adopt...

  16. Flexible working, individual performance and employee attitudes: comparing formal and informal arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    De Menezes, Lilian M.; Kelliher, Clare

    2016-01-01

    In the context of a wider trend to individualize HRM, this paper examines the relationship between flexible working arrangements and individual performance. Drawing on a range of theories, it examines potential indirect effects on employee performance via job satisfaction and organizational commitment and analyses whether these relationships vary according to whether the arrangement was set up through a formal process, or negotiated informally between the employee and their line manager. Exta...

  17. Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2004-01-01

    An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of

  18. Vertical retort with arrangements for special heating, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstenberg, R

    1922-02-28

    A vertical retort with arrangements for special heating of upper and lower zones and special gas outlets on the highest and lowest parts of the retort is characterized in that the lower gas outlet on the one side serves for feeding the burner for heating both upper zone as well as the lower, and on the other side runs to the collecting line for the gas, which emerges from the upper opening, while on the lower end of the retort is fastened a coke cooler, whose walls can be cooled with air supplied for the drying of the combustibles or with water, which is supplied for the steam generation.

  19. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clarke

    2015-02-01

    Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  20. Evaluation of the League General Insurance Company child safety seat distribution program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the child safety seat distribution initiated by the League General Insurance Company in June 1979. The program provides child safety seats as a benefit under the company's auto insurance policies to policy-holder...

  1. Optimum design of automobile seat using statistical design support system; Tokeiteki sekkei shien system no jidoshayo seat eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwamura, T [NHK Spring Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Shiratori, M; Yu, Q; Koda, I [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The authors proposed a new practical optimum design method called statistical design support system, which consists of five steps: the effectivity analysis, reanalysis, evaluation of dispersion, the optimiza4ion and evaluation of structural reliability. In this study, the authors applied the present system to analyze and optimum design of an automobile seat frame subjected to crushing. This study should that the present method could be applied to the complex nonlinear problems such as large deformation, material nonlinearity as well as impact problem. It was shown that the optimum design of the seat frame has been solved easily using the present system. 6 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Effectiveness of media and enforcement campaigns in increasing seat belt usage rates in a state with a secondary seat belt law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Vinod; Nambisan, Shashi S; Singh, Ashok K; Pearl, Traci

    2009-08-01

    In 2005, in terms of seat belt usage rates, Nevada ranked third nationally and first among states with secondary seat belt use enforcement laws in the United States. An effective combination of a media-based education and enforcement campaign helped in this regard. The objective of this article is to document the effectiveness of enforcement and media-based education and outreach campaigns on the seat belt usage rates in Nevada, a state with a secondary seat belt usage law. Observational data on seat belt usage and passenger fatality data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of enforcement campaigns and media-based education and outreach campaigns. Data based on observations of about 40,000 vehicles in each of the years 2003 to 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analyses show that a significant increase in seat belt usage rates among both drivers and passengers for both genders resulted from the accompanying the media and enforcement campaigns. The results from this study indicate that effective and well-planned media/enforcement campaigns can have a significant impact on seat belt usage rates even in a state where the enforcement of seat belt laws can only be as a secondary violation. They validate and expand on findings from other efforts documented in the literature. These results demonstrate that, if coordinated properly, media and enforcement campaigns work very effectively in increasing seat belt usage rates even in states with secondary seat belt laws.

  3. Unsteady Flow Interactions Between Pitching Wings In Schooling Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Melike; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    In nature, many fish aggregate into large groups or schools for protection against predators, for social interactions and to save energy during migrations. Regardless of their prime motivation, fish experience three-dimensional flow interactions amongst themselves that can improve or hamper swimming performance and give rise to fluid-mediated forces between individuals. To date, the unsteady, three-dimensional flow interactions among schooling fish remains relatively unexplored. In order to study these interactions, the caudal fins of two interacting fish are idealized as two finite span pitching wings arranged in mixtures of canonical in-line and side-by-side arrangements. The forces and moments acting on the wings in the streamwise and cross-stream directions are quantified as the arrangement and the phase delay between the wings is altered. Particle image velocimetry is employed to characterize the flow physics during high efficiency locomotion. Finally, the forces and flowfields of two-dimensional pitching wings are compared with three-dimensional wings to distinguish how three-dimensionality alters the flow interactions in schools of fish.

  4. Vehicle seat design : state of the art and recent development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Delbressine, F.L.M.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Mokhtar, A.S.; Abdullah, E.J.; Adam, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Seats are one of the most important components of vehicles and they are the place where professional driver spend most of their time. For example, according to Occupational Outlook Handbook by United State Department of Labor, the truck drivers frequently work 50 or more hours a week. The truck

  5. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which...

  6. Design Optimisation and Conrol of a Pilot Operated Seat Valve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Brian; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2004-01-01

    The paper gives an approach for optimisation of the bandwidth of a pilot operated seat valve for mobile applications. Physical dimensions as well as parameters of the implemented control loop are optimised simultaneously. The frequency response of the valve varies as a function of the pressure drop...

  7. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for the expeditionary fighting vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemenz, G J; Hu, W; Wereley, N M

    2009-01-01

    The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an amphibious vehicle designed to operate through harsh conditions and at much higher speeds than its predecessors. These unique capabilities and broadly varying operational conditions lead to a complex design and human factors scenario for the forward seating positions that cannot be solved using conventional passive seat suspension systems. Injurious shock loads transmitted to the occupants when traversing over water in high sea states and/or at high speeds, as well as harmful shock and vibration transmitted to the occupants when the vehicle is travelling over land, pose a threat to occupant health and significantly limit mission duration. In this study, a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension is developed which adapts to broadly varying operational conditions, as well as occupant weight, to provide optimal protection of EFV occupants. It is shown that this MR seat suspension system will reduce the shock and vibration transmitted to the occupant by up to 33% and 65%, respectively, as compared to the existing passive suspension.

  8. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for the expeditionary fighting vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiemenz, G J [Techno-Sciences, Inc., 11750 Beltsville Dr. Ste. 300, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Hu, W; Wereley, N M [Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20712 (United States)], E-mail: greg@technosci.com, E-mail: wereley@umd.edu

    2009-02-01

    The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an amphibious vehicle designed to operate through harsh conditions and at much higher speeds than its predecessors. These unique capabilities and broadly varying operational conditions lead to a complex design and human factors scenario for the forward seating positions that cannot be solved using conventional passive seat suspension systems. Injurious shock loads transmitted to the occupants when traversing over water in high sea states and/or at high speeds, as well as harmful shock and vibration transmitted to the occupants when the vehicle is travelling over land, pose a threat to occupant health and significantly limit mission duration. In this study, a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension is developed which adapts to broadly varying operational conditions, as well as occupant weight, to provide optimal protection of EFV occupants. It is shown that this MR seat suspension system will reduce the shock and vibration transmitted to the occupant by up to 33% and 65%, respectively, as compared to the existing passive suspension.

  9. Knowledge, attitude and use of seat belt among commercial drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of seat belt usage in reducing the severity of the sequelae of road traffic accidents is widely known. ... Each correct response to the knowledge questions was scored one mark and wrong response or non-response was ...

  10. Experimental verification of numerical calculations of railway passenger seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligaj, B.; Wirwicki, M.; Karolewska, K.; Jasińska, A.

    2018-04-01

    The construction of railway seats is based on industry regulations and the requirements of end users, i.e. passengers. The two main documents in this context are the UIC 566 (3rd Edition, dated 7 January 1994) and the EN 12663-1: 2010+A1:2014. The study was to carry out static load tests of passenger seat frames. The paper presents the construction of the test bench and the results of experimental and numerical studies of passenger seat rail frames. The test bench consists of a frame, a transverse beam, two electric cylinders with a force value of 6 kN, and a strain gauge amplifier. It has a modular structure that allows for its expansion depending on the structure of the seats. Comparing experimental results with numerical results for points A and B allowed to determine the existing differences. It follows from it that higher stress values are obtained by numerical calculations in the range of 0.2 MPa to 35.9 MPa.

  11. Designing Train Passenger Seat by Kansei Engineering in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapsari Sakya Nabila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport adoption is still major problem in Indonesia. Integrating impression and emotion to service may change the image of public transport, leading to fast adoption rate. As product development technique, Kansei Engineering is well known to facilitate that integration. This paper communicates the implementation of Kansei Engineering (KE in designing train passenger seat in Indonesia. The train between Bandung-Solo (8 hours journey was chosen to be the investigated object. The train was selected to be refurbished by introducing a new passenger seat design, emphasizing on the improvement of passenger experience. As the first step of KE type I technique, travel experience of the existing passengers were taken into the consideration for selecting Kansei words. It was found that the relevant Kansei words to design passenger train seat in Indonesia were: comfort, people-friendly, multifunction, safe, soft, spacious, relaxing, superior, maintainable, strong, producible, minimalist, attractive, modern, unique, and durable. Upon understanding the semantic meaning of those words, physical properties and technical specification were produced by consulting to the related members. Finally, a passenger seat with synthetic leather cover, modular design, foldable table, individual power point, bluesilver color, and adjusted to Indonesian’s anthropometry data was proposed as the final design

  12. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  13. Knowledge, attitude and use of seat belt among commercial drivers in Sokoto Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Abiola

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: This study has identified high level of knowledge, positive attitude and reported use of seat belt. It is recommended that public awareness of the safety benefits of seat belts and strong enforcement are necessary to achieve optimal use of seat belt.

  14. 76 FR 23793 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... seats on the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: (1) Research Member seat and (2...

  15. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... bolt holes or the centroid of any other means of attachment to the structure specified in 4.1.3.1... are either: (a) For designated seating positions that are common to the same occupant seat and that... common to the same occupant seat, but that face in the same direction, if the vertical centerline of the...

  16. Meiotic transmission of Drosophila pseudoobscura chromosomal arrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Meisel

    Full Text Available Drosophila pseudoobscura harbors a rich gene arrangement polymorphism on the third chromosome generated by a series of overlapping paracentric inversions. The arrangements suppress recombination in heterokaryotypic individuals, which allows for the selective maintenance of coadapted gene complexes. Previous mapping experiments used to determine the degree to which recombination is suppressed in gene arrangement heterozygotes produced non-recombinant progeny in non-Mendelian ratios. The deviations from Mendelian expectations could be the result of viability differences between wild and mutant chromosomes, meiotic drive because of achiasmate pairing of homologues in heterokaryotypic females during meiosis, or a combination of both mechanisms. The possibility that the frequencies of the chromosomal arrangements in natural populations are affected by mechanisms other than adaptive selection led us to consider these hypotheses. We performed reciprocal crosses involving both heterozygous males and females to determine if the frequency of the non-recombinant progeny deviates significantly from Mendelian expectations and if the frequencies deviate between reciprocal crosses. We failed to observe non-Mendelian ratios in multiple crosses, and the frequency of the non-recombinant classes differed in only one of five pairs of reciprocal crosses despite sufficient power to detect these differences in all crosses. Our results indicate that deviations from Mendelian expectations in recombination experiments involving the D. pseudoobscura inversion system are most likely due to fitness differences of gene arrangement karyotypes in different environments.

  17. Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ribnikar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, more useful classification of exchange rate regimes is the first topic of the paper. The second topic is how exchange rate regimes influence or determine monetary arrangements and monetary policy or monetary policy regimes: monetary autonomy versus monetary nonautonomy and discretion in monetary policy versus commitment in monetary policy. Both topics are important for countries on their path to the EU and the euro area

  18. The combined fatigue effects of sequential exposure to seated whole body vibration and physical, mental, or concurrent work demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Marcus; Lang, Angelica E; Stobart, Jamie; Kociolek, Aaron M; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Trask, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Many occupations in agriculture, construction, transportation, and forestry are non-routine, involving non-cyclical tasks, both discretionary and non-discretionary work breaks, and a mix of work activities. Workers in these industries are exposed to seated whole body vibration (WBV) and tasks consisting of physical, mental, or a combination of demands. Risk assessment tools for non-routinized jobs have emerged but there remains a need to understand the combined effects of different work demands to improve risk assessment methods and ultimately inform ergonomists and workers on optimum work arrangement and scheduling strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate fatigue-related human responses of WBV sequentially combined with physical, mental, or concurrent physical and mental demands. Sixteen healthy participants performed four conditions on four separate days: (1) physically demanding work, (2) mentally demanding work, (3) concurrent work, and (4) control quiet sitting. For each condition, participants performed two 15-minute bouts of the experimental task, separated by 30-minutes of simulated WBV based on realistic all-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding data. A test battery of fatigue measures consisting of biomechanical, physiological, cognitive, and sensorimotor measurements were collected at four interval periods: pre-session, after the first bout of the experimental task and before WBV, after WBV and before the second bout of the experimental task, and post-session. Nine measures demonstrated statistically significant time effects during the control condition; 11, 7, and 12 measures were significant in the physical, mental, and concurrent conditions, respectively. Overall, the effects of seated WBV in combination with different tasks are not additive but possibly synergistic or antagonistic. There appears to be a beneficial effect of seated ATV operation as a means of increasing task variation; but since excessive WBV may independently pose a health

  19. People management implications of virtual workplace arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ortlepp

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that led to an organisation implementing a particular form of virtual workplace arrangement, namely, home-based work. The benefits and disadvantages associated with this form of work arrangement are explored from both the managers' and home-based employees' perspectives. Design/Methodology/Approach: Given the exploratory nature of the empirical study on which this paper is based, a qualitative research design was adopted so as to ensure that the data collection process was dynamic and probing in nature. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were therefore used as instruments for data collection. Findings: The research findings indicate that virtual work arrangements such as home-based work arrangements have advantages for both employers and employees. For instance, reduction of costs associated with office space and facilities, decrease in absenteeism rates, increased employee job satisfaction and improvements in employees' general quality of life. However, a number of negative experiences related to this form of virtual work arrangement are also evident, for example, feelings of isolation as well as stress related to the inability to have firm boundaries between work and family responsibilities. Implications: Based on the insights gained from the findings in the empirical study, a number of areas that need to be given specific attention when organisations are introducing virtual workplace arrangements of this nature are identified. Recommendations made in this article are important for human resource management specialists as well as core business policy makers considering different forms of organisational design. Originality/Value: Maximising the quality of production and service provided has become the prime objective in most organisations in the 21st century. Technology has made it possible for some jobs to be performed at any place at any time and has facilitated the

  20. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FLIGHT PERSONNEL FOR DESIGNING DAMPERS FOR SHOCKPROOF SEATS OF HELICOPTER CREWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Yu B; Ignatovich, S N; Strakhov, A Yu

    The article discusses anthropometric design of shockproof pilot seats for state-of-the-art helicopters. Object of the investigation was anthropometric parameters of the helicopter aviation personnel of the Russian interior troops. It was stated that the body parameters essential for designing helicopter seat dampers are mass of the body part that presses against the seat in the seating position, and eye level above the seat surface. An uncontrolled seat damper ensuring shockproof safety to 95 % helicopter crews must be designed for the body mass contacting the seat of 99.7 kg and eye level above the seat of 78.6 cm. To absorb.shock effectively, future dampers should be adjustable to pilot's body parameters. The optimal approach to anthropometric design of a helicopter seat is development of type pilot' body models with due account of pilot's the flight outfit and seat geometry. Principle criteria of type models are body mass and eye level. The authors propose a system of type body models facilitating specification of anthropometric data helicopter seat developers.

  1. Military Technology and Conventional Weapons Export Controls: The Wassenaar Arrangement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    This report provides background on the Wassenaar Arrangement, which was formally established in July 1996 as a multilateral arrangement aimed at controlling exports of conventional weapons and related...

  2. The transmission of vertical vibration through seats: Influence of the characteristics of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-12-01

    The transmission of vibration through a seat depends on the impedance of the seat and the apparent mass of the seat occupant. This study was designed to determine how factors affecting the apparent mass of the body (age, gender, physical characteristics, backrest contact, and magnitude of vibration) affect seat transmissibility. The transmission of vertical vibration through a car seat was measured with 80 adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with two backrest conditions (no backrest and backrest), and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Linear regression models were used to study the effects of subject physical characteristics (age, gender, and anthropometry) and features of their apparent mass (resonance frequency, apparent mass at resonance and at 12 Hz) on the measured seat transmissibility. The strongest predictor of both the frequency of the principal resonance in seat transmissibility and the seat transmissibility at resonance was subject age, with other factors having only marginal effects. The transmissibility of the seat at 12 Hz depended on subject age, body mass index, and gender. Although subject weight was strongly associated with apparent mass, weight was not strongly associated with seat transmissibility. The resonance frequency of the seat decreased with increases in the magnitude of the vibration excitation and increased when subjects made contact with the backrest. Inter-subject variability in the resonance frequency and transmissibility at resonance was less with greater vibration excitation, but was largely unaffected by backrest contact. A lumped parameter seat-person model showed that changes in seat transmissibility with age can be predicted from changes in apparent mass with age, and that the dynamic stiffness of the seat appeared to increase with increased loading so as to compensate for increases in subject apparent mass associated with increased sitting

  3. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    1980-04-23

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  4. Circuit arrangement for indicating radiation dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virag, Ernoe; Nyari, Istvan; Simon, Jozsef; Styevko, Mihaly; Krampe, Geza.

    1981-01-01

    The invention presents a dosemeter electronic circuit arrangement indicating hazardous dose rate threshold. If the treshold is reached or exceeded, well distinguished sound and light alarm is turned on immidiately. Moreover, certain critical levels can also be indicated by making the intermittent singalling continuous. (A.L.)

  5. 45 CFR 63.4 - Cooperative arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... another State, to apply for assistance. (b) A joint application made by two or more applicants for... activities performed by each of the joint applicants or may have a combined budget. If joint applications... authorizing separate amounts for each of the joint applicants. (c) In the case of each cooperative arrangement...

  6. Metacognitive Scaffolding in an Innovative Learning Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Inge; van Boxtel, Carla A. M.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of metacognitive scaffolds on learning outcomes of collaborating students in an innovative learning arrangement. The triads were supported by computerized scaffolds, which were dynamically integrated into the learning process and took a structuring or problematizing form. In an experimental design the two…

  7. 15 CFR 743.1 - Wassenaar Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wassenaar Arrangement. 743.1 Section 743.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU... following: a. 30 elements or less; or b. Incorporating time delay-and-integration within the element and...

  8. Arrangement of Renal Arteries in Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazensky, David; Flesarova, Slavka

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe origin, localization, and variations of renal arteries in guinea pig. The study was carried out on 26 adult guinea pigs. We prepared corrosion casts of the guinea pig arterial system. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 was used as the casting medium. In 57.7% of specimens, a. renalis dextra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis. In 38.5% of specimens, two aa. renales dextrae were present with variable origin and arrangement. The presence of three aa. renales dextrae we found in one specimen. In 76.9% of specimens, a. renalis sinistra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis and variable arrangement. In 23.1% of specimens, we found two aa. renales sinistrae with variable origin and arrangement. The anatomical knowledge of the renal arteries, and its variations are of extreme importance for the surgeon that approaches the retroperitoneal region in several experiments, results of which are extrapolated in human. This is the first work dealing with the description of renal arteries arrangement in guinea pig. Anat Rec, 300:556-559, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 75 FR 346 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Uses of Nuclear Energy. This subsequent arrangement concerns the retransfer of 28,409 kg of U.S.-origin... Fuels in Kanakawa-ken, Japan. The material, which is currently located at Cameco, Port Hope, Ontario, will be transferred to Global Nuclear Fuel, Kanakawa-ken, Japan to be fabricated into fuel pellets and...

  10. 77 FR 35366 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... arrangement concerns the retransfer of 6,672,212 g of U.S.-origin enriched uranium fuel fabrications scrap, containing 233,977 g of the isotope U-235 (less than five percent enrichment), from Nuclear Fuel Industries... material, which is currently located at Nuclear Fuels Industries, Ltd. in Japan, will be transferred to...

  11. 78 FR 72072 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... g of U.S.-origin atomized low-enriched uranium-7wt. % molybdenum powder, containing 365.638 g in the..., which is located at and was prepared by KAERI, will be used for the irradiation test of full-size fuel... subsequent arrangement concerning the retransfer of nuclear material of United States origin will not be...

  12. 75 FR 82005 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... arrangement concerns the retransfer of 29,887 kg of U.S.-origin natural uranium dioxide (88.00% U), 26,300 kg... Fuel Co. Ltd. in Yuson-Gu, Taejon, South Korea. The material, which is currently located at Cameco, will be transferred for fuel fabrication by Korea Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd for final use in a civilian...

  13. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, M.R.; Constantineau, E.J.; Groves, G.E.

    1997-08-19

    An efficient pump system is described for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers. 12 figs.

  14. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantineau, Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Groves, Gordon E. (Tijeras, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An efficient pump system for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers.

  15. Analysis of Ejection Seat Stability Using Easy Program. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    BODY AXiS FURCE COMPONENT. L ACTING ON THE AiRPLANc FROM THE CATAPULT (Ld) C ILA1(3) - PORT ONE X,Y,L AIRPLANE BODY AXIS TORQUE COMPONENTS C ACrINu...THE AIRPLANE (FT) C EAPI3) - EARTH TO AIRPLANc . EULER ANGLES (DEG) C SKPt3) - XtYZ EARTh POSITIGN VECTOR OF THE SEAT REFERENCE L POINT (FT) f- LST(3

  16. Analysis of Transportation Alternatives for Ejection Seat Training

    OpenAIRE

    Gambel, Ray; Lundy, David; Murphy, William; Southmost Consulting

    2011-01-01

    EMBA Project Report EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Student Military Aviators who complete primary flight training at Training Wing FOUR and select jets for their advanced training track will require Naval Aviation Survival Training Program (NASTP) Class 1 training until the T-6B replaces the T-34C as the primary flight training aircraft. This Class 1 training instructs students in ejection seat equipment and procedures for emergency egress of their new aircraft. Of the eight available Aviation Survi...

  17. A social media program to increase adolescent seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stacy A; Zhang, Ni; Applewhite, Courtney; Fowler, Katherine; Holcomb, John B

    2017-09-01

    In response to motor vehicle crashes remaining the leading cause of death for teenagers in the United States, a nursing clinical group (n = 10) in conjunction with a local hospital injury prevention program created an educational campaign to bolster seat belt use. The nursing students created an Instagram account to serve as an educational tool to promote seat belt use among teenagers aged 14-19, and the program was presented at three high school health fairs. In all, 135 postings were made to the account over a 3-month period. The number of likes posted by high school students was the unit of analysis. The most significant result (p = .01) was the difference between postings most liked (celebrities wearing seat belts) and least liked (postings made at the high school health fair), otherwise, differences among postings liked (humor postings, response requests, pictures of celebrities, factual data) were not significant. Instagram user engagement, measured in number of likes, is indicative that social media provides platforms to promote injury prevention efforts. Further research is needed to identify measurable elements of social media and to follow-up on behavioral changes following participation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Assessing ergonomic risks of software: Development of the SEAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, S Camille; Mehta, Ranjana K; Ritchey, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Software utilizing interaction designs that require extensive dragging or clicking of icons may increase users' risks for upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. The purpose of this research is to develop a Self-report Ergonomic Assessment Tool (SEAT) for assessing the risks of software interaction designs and facilitate mitigation of those risks. A 28-item self-report measure was developed by combining and modifying items from existing industrial ergonomic tools. Data were collected from 166 participants after they completed four different tasks that varied by method of input (touch or keyboard and mouse) and type of task (selecting or typing). Principal component analysis found distinct factors associated with stress (i.e., demands) and strain (i.e., response). Repeated measures analyses of variance showed that participants could discriminate the different strain induced by the input methods and tasks. However, participants' ability to discriminate between the stressors associated with that strain was mixed. Further validation of the SEAT is necessary but these results indicate that the SEAT may be a viable method of assessing ergonomics risks presented by software design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Machine for development impact tests in sports seats and similar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, R M

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the stages of development of a machine to perform impact tests in sport seats, seats for spectators and multiple seats. This includes reviews and recommendations for testing laboratories that have needs similar to the laboratory where unfolded this process.The machine was originally developed seeking to meet certain impact tests in accordance with the NBR15925 standards; 15878 and 16031. The process initially included the study of the rules and the election of the tests for which the machine could be developed and yet all reports and outcome of interaction with service providers and raw materials.For operating facility, it was necessary to set entirely the machine control, which included the concept of dialogue with operator, the design of the menu screens and the procedures for submission and registration of results. To ensure reliability in the process, the machine has been successfully calibrated according to the requirements of the Brazilian network of calibration.The criticism to this enterprise covers the technical and economic aspects involved and points out the main obstacles that were needed to overcome. (paper)

  20. Affirmative Action: Reservation Seats untuk Perempuan di Parlemen India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Yunita Kurniaty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to help us understand and analyze women's efforts in the policy-making process to increase their political participation in the constitutional and electoral processes. We can also see the extent to which the values rooted in the patriarchal culture in a society and what can be done and reduce them. Affirmative action is carried out in India by applying the system of reservation seats for women in the Indian Parliament. This is done in India is proven to increase the number of women in the Indian Parliament. By the way there are quotas for women as a strategy for accessing the political arena has growing support among MPs. In this study, Indonesia could get a reservation seats of learning about the system is done. To increase the representation in the "area" is very difficult to be touched by a quota system which is run now, it can be done with reservation seats quota to ensure women's representation in parliament.

  1. Crash characteristics and injury patterns of restrained front seat occupants in far-side impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Halloway, Dale E; Pintar, Frank A; Maiman, Dennis J; Szabo, Aniko; Rudd, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    the front seat at the MAIS 3+ level, although it was reversed at the lower level. The extent zone of 3+ increased the odds compared to the extent zones of 1 to 2 at both MAIS 2+ and MAIS 3+ injuries. Odds ratios and confidence intervals are given. The findings are as follows: head and thorax are the more frequently injured body regions, and the prevalence of cranium injuries is similar at both injury severities; thoracic injuries are more prevalent at the MAIS 3+ level; the presence of another front seat occupant plays a role in MAIS 3+ trauma; injuries continue to occur at changes in velocity representative of side impact environments; and mean demographic factors are close to mid-size automotive anthropometry, indicating the need to pursue this line of study. Because data were gathered from only 4 years, it would be important to include additional NASS-CDS database years, rescore injuries from previous years, and analyze other international databases to reinforce these findings for advancing safety for far-side occupants.

  2. 46 CFR 180.150 - Survival craft embarkation arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft embarkation arrangements. 180.150 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 180.150 Survival craft embarkation arrangements. (a) A launching appliance approved under approval...

  3. 46 CFR 188.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 188.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 188.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall be in accordance with the requirements for...

  4. 46 CFR 195.06-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 195.06-1 Section... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 195.06-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall be...

  5. 46 CFR 90.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 90.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 90.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with subchapter W (Lifesaving...

  6. 46 CFR 70.28-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 70.28-1 Section... PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 70.28-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on passenger vessels must be in accordance with subchapter W...

  7. Stochastic arrangement increasing risks in financial engineering andactuarial science – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We review recent research results on stochastic arrangement increasing risks in financialand actuarial risk management, including allocation of deductibles and coverage limits concerned withmultiple dependent risks in an insurance policy, the independence model and the threshold models fora portfolio of defaults risks with dependence, and the optimal capital allocation for a financial institutewith multiple line of business.

  8. Creating flexible work arrangements through idiosyncratic deals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Severin; Rousseau, Denise M; Glaser, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    A survey of 887 employees in a German government agency assessed the antecedents and consequences of idiosyncratic arrangements individual workers negotiated with their supervisors. Work arrangements promoting the individualization of employment conditions, such as part-time work and telecommuting, were positively related to the negotiation of idiosyncratic deals ("i-deals"). Worker personal initiative also had a positive effect on i-deal negotiation. Two types of i-deals were studied: flexibility in hours of work and developmental opportunities. Flexibility i-deals were negatively related and developmental i-deals positively related to work-family conflict and working unpaid overtime. Developmental i-deals were also positively related to increased performance expectations and affective organizational commitment, while flexibility i-deals were unrelated to either. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Storage arrangement for nuclear reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    Said invention is intended for providing an arrangement of spent fuel assembly storage inside which the space is efficiently used without accumulating a critical mass. The storage is provided for long fuel assemblies having along their longitudinal axis an active part containing the fuel and an inactive part empty of fuel. Said storage arrangement comprises a framework constituting some long-shaped cells designed so as each of them can receive a fuel assembly. Means of axial positioning of said assembly in a cell make it possible to support the fuel assemblies inside the framework according to a spacing ratio, along the cell axis, such as the active part of an assembly is adjacent to the inactive part of the adjacent assemblies [fr

  10. Validation of seat-off and seat-on in repeated sit-to-stand movements using a single-body-fixed sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Lummel, R C; Ainsworth, E; Hausdorff, J M; Lindemann, U; Beek, P J; Van Dieën, J H

    2012-01-01

    The identification of chair rise phases is a prerequisite for quantifying sit-to-stand movements. The aim of this study is to validate seat-off and seat-on detection using a single-body-fixed sensor against detection based on chair switches. A single sensor system with three accelerometers and three gyroscopes was fixed around the waist. Synchronized on–off switches were placed under the chair. Thirteen older adults were recruited from a residential care home and fifteen young adults were recruited among college students. Subjects were asked to complete two sets of five trials each. Six features of the trunk movement during seat-off and seat-on were calculated automatically, and a model was developed to predict the moment of seat-off and seat-on transitions. The predictions were validated with leave-one-out cross-validation. Feature extraction failed in two trials (0.7%). For the optimal combination of seat-off predictors, cross-validation yielded a mean error of 0 ms and a mean absolute error of 51 ms. For the best seat-on predictor, cross-validation yielded a mean error of –3 ms and a mean absolute error of 127 ms. The results of this study demonstrate that seat-off and seat-on in repeated sit-to-stand movements can be detected semi-automatically in young and older adults using a one-body-fixed sensor system with an accuracy of 51 and 127 ms, respectively. The use of the ambulatory instrumentation is feasible for non-technically trained personnel. This is an important step in the development of an automated method for the quantification of sit-to-stand movements in clinical practice. (paper)

  11. Method and arrangement of distillation of shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, S V

    1920-03-29

    A method is given of distilling shale and other bituminous materials utilizing the heat from the combustion of the residue, possibly with additional heat from other fuels. It is characterized by the shale, which is arranged in layers, being first submitted to a process of distillation utilizing the heat mentioned, and at the same time recovering the products of distillation, and second the shale being burned without disturbing the layers to any appreciable extent. The patent has 16 more claims.

  12. Core arrangement in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Masayuki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the number of fuel assemblies whose locations are to be changed upon fuel exchange, as well as unify the power distribution in the core by arranging, in a chess board configuration, a plurality pattern of unit reactor lattices each containing fuel assemblies of different burnup degrees in orthogonal positions to each other. Constitution: A first pattern of unit reactor lattice is formed by disposing fuel assemblies of burnup degree 1 and fuel assemblies of burnup degree 3 at orthogonal positions to each other. A second pattern of unit reactor lattice is formed by disposing fuel assemblies of burnup degree 2 and fuel assemblies of burnup degree 1 at orthogonal positions to each other. The unit lattices each in such a dispositions are arranged in a chess board arrangement. Since, the fuel assemblies of the burnup degree 1 in the first pattern unit lattices proceed to the burnup degree 2 and the fuel assemblies of the burnup degree 2 in the second pattern unit lattices proceed to the burnup degree 3 up to the fuel exchange stage, fuel exchange and movement have only to be made, not for those fuel assemblies, but for another half of the fuel assemblies. (Kawakami, Y.)

  13. Recurring part arrangements in shape collections

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2014-05-01

    Extracting semantically related parts across models remains challenging, especially without supervision. The common approach is to co-analyze a model collection, while assuming the existence of descriptive geometric features that can directly identify related parts. In the presence of large shape variations, common geometric features, however, are no longer sufficiently descriptive. In this paper, we explore an indirect top-down approach, where instead of part geometry, part arrangements extracted from each model are compared. The key observation is that while a direct comparison of part geometry can be ambiguous, part arrangements, being higher level structures, remain consistent, and hence can be used to discover latent commonalities among semantically related shapes. We show that our indirect analysis leads to the detection of recurring arrangements of parts, which are otherwise difficult to discover in a direct unsupervised setting. We evaluate our algorithm on ground truth datasets and report advantages over geometric similarity-based bottom-up co-segmentation algorithms. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The making of local hospital discharge arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burau, Viola; Bro, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Background Timely discharge is a key component of contemporary hospital governance and raises questions about how to move to more explicit discharge arrangements. Although associated organisational changes closely intersect with professional interests, there are relatively few studies in the lite......Background Timely discharge is a key component of contemporary hospital governance and raises questions about how to move to more explicit discharge arrangements. Although associated organisational changes closely intersect with professional interests, there are relatively few studies...... in the literature on hospital discharge that explicitly examine the role of professional groups. Recent contributions to the literature on organisational studies of the professions help to specify how professional groups in hospitals contribute to the introduction and routinisation of discharge arrangements...... for patients with prostate cancer in two hospitals in Denmark. This represents a typical case that involves changes in professional practice without being first and foremost a professional project. The multiple case design also makes the findings more robust. The analysis draws from 12 focus groups...

  15. Recurring part arrangements in shape collections

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi; Cohen-Or, Daniel; Averkiou, Melinos; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2014-01-01

    Extracting semantically related parts across models remains challenging, especially without supervision. The common approach is to co-analyze a model collection, while assuming the existence of descriptive geometric features that can directly identify related parts. In the presence of large shape variations, common geometric features, however, are no longer sufficiently descriptive. In this paper, we explore an indirect top-down approach, where instead of part geometry, part arrangements extracted from each model are compared. The key observation is that while a direct comparison of part geometry can be ambiguous, part arrangements, being higher level structures, remain consistent, and hence can be used to discover latent commonalities among semantically related shapes. We show that our indirect analysis leads to the detection of recurring arrangements of parts, which are otherwise difficult to discover in a direct unsupervised setting. We evaluate our algorithm on ground truth datasets and report advantages over geometric similarity-based bottom-up co-segmentation algorithms. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Frequency Arrangement For 700 MHz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancans G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 694-790 MHz (700 MHz band was allocated by the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12 in ITU Region 1 (Europe included, to the mobile service on a co-primary basis with other services to which this band was allocated on the primary basis and identified for the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT. At the same time, the countries of Region 1 will be able also to continue using these frequencies for their broadcasting services if necessary. This allocation will be effective immediately after 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15. In order to make the best possible use of this frequency band for mobile service, a worldwide harmonized frequency arrangement is to be prepared to allow for large economies of scale and international roaming as well as utilizing the available spectrum in the best possible way, minimizing possible interference between services, facilitating deployment and cross-border coordination. The authors analyze different possible frequency arrangements and conclude on the frequency arrangement most suitable for Europe.

  17. General arrangement and systems integration of the BPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.G.; Mueller, J.P.; Shampinato, P.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the integration of Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) tokamak components, peripheral equipment, service lines, and the test cell facility which are being carried out to satisfy the functional requirements of all systems, maximize hands-on maintenance of peripheral equipment, and maximize access space around the machine for remote maintenance. The test cell configuration provides a center cell to house the tokamak device, close-in North and South Cells for locating peripheral equipment for hands-on maintenance and trenches are located in the test cell floor to carry away service lines to East, West, and South Diagnostic Areas. Equipment lines that service the device core components have been integrated in the design of the cryostat and locally arranged to maximize remote maintenance access to the device core and center cell peripheral equipment. a circular pipe corridor has been located in the basement to localize floor penetrations, prevent activation of the basement, and provide support structure directly under the machine. These and other configurational design details have been developed in the process of fully integrating all BPX systems and subsystems

  18. Multi-leg Seat Inventory Control Based on EMSU and Virtual Bucket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Expected marginal seat revenue (EMSR is a well-known method for airline seat inventory control airlines. However, this method employs a static model to study the dynamic reservation process, and does not take into account the risk tolerance of policy makers. Expected marginal seat utility (EMSU replaces revenue by utility, which addresses the real situation of seat inventory control. However, there is still a lack of multi-leg seat control algorithms based on EMSU. Therefore, using EMSU and bucket algorithms, this paper applies the Markov decision-making process to simulate the flight reservation process and builds a dynamic multi-leg seat inventory control model. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. [Use of seat belts and mobile phone while driving in Florence: trend from 2005 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorini, Chiara; Pellegrino, Elettra; Mannocci, Federico; Allodi, Guendalina; Indiani, Laura; Mersi, Anna; Petrioli, Giuseppe; Santini, Maria Grazia; Garofalo, Giorgio; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    to evaluate the trend over time of the use of seat belts by drivers and passengers of cars and vans and the use of hand held mobile phone while driving in Florence from 2005 to 2009. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: direct observations (58,773 vehicles) have been conducted to detect the use of seat belts by occupants of cars and vans, and the use of mobile phone while driving. It has been carried out correlation analysis between the use of the seat belt by occupants of vehicles and between the simultaneous use of this device and mobile phone while driving.Moreover, it has been carried out time series analysis (ARIMA Box Jenkins) of in the prevalence of the use of seat belts by occupants of vehicles observed, of mobile phone by drivers and the trend of the risk to drive using the mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to drive using the mobile phone with fastened seat belt. seat belts were used on average by 75.7% of drivers, 75.5% of front passengers and 25.1% of rear passengers. The average mobile phone use while driving was 4.5%. Drivers most frequently fasten seat belt if front passengers use it and while they do not use mobile phone. The use of seat belts by drivers and front passengers has not changed over time, whereas the use of mobile phone while driving has significantly increased. The prevalence of using mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to use it with fastened seat belt while driving has significantly decreased over the years, indicating an increase in the use of mobile phone, especially among those who fasten the seat belt. it is necessary to plan and realize stronger interventions in the whole area.

  20. Race, belief in destiny, and seat belt usage: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, I

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 1063 individuals found that when belief in destiny was statistically controlled, differences in seat belt use by race disappeared. Thus, racial differences in seat belt use are statistically accounted for and might be explained by belief in destiny. Efforts to increase seat belt use should target minority groups rather than include them in broadbrush programs. Further, these efforts should take into account this important difference in motivation. PMID:1585969

  1. A new landing impact attenuation seat in manned spacecraft biologically-inspired by felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When manned spacecraft comes back to the earth, it relies on the impact attenuation seat to protect astronauts from injuries during landing phase. Hence, the seat needs to transfer impact load, as small as possible, to the crew. However, there is little room left for traditional seat to improve further. Herein, a new seat system biologically-inspired by felids’ landing is proposed. Firstly, a series of experiments was carried out on cats and tigers, in which they were trained to jump down voluntarily from different heights. Based on the ground reaction forces combined with kinematics, the experiment indicated that felids’ landing after self-initial jump was a multi-step impact attenuation process and the new seat was inspired by this. Then the construction and work process of new seat were redesigned to realize the multi-step impact attenuation. The dynamic response of traditional and new seat is analyzed under the identical conditions and the results show that the new concept seat can significantly weaken the occupant overload in two directions compared with that of traditional seat. As a consequence, the risk of injury evaluated for spinal and head is also lowered, meaning a higher level of protection which is especially beneficial to the debilitated astronaut.

  2. Assessment of the vibration on the foam legged and sheet metal-legged passenger seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dahil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aim ed to decrease the vibration reaching to passenger from the legs of vehicle seats. In order to determine the levels of vibrations reaching at passengers, a test pad placed under the passenger seat was used, and HVM100 device was used for digitizing the information obtained. By transferring the vibration data to system by using HVM100 device, the acceleration graphics were prepared with Blaze software. As a result, it was determined that the acceleration values of seat legs made of foam material were lower than that of seat legs made of 2 mm thick sheet metal, so they damped the vibration better.

  3. Development of Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry Data in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    The Constellation Program is designing a new vehicle based off of new anthropometric requirements. These requirements specify the need to account for a spinal elongation factor for anthropometric measurements involving the spine, such as eye height and seated height. However, to date there is no data relating spinal elongation to a seated posture. Only data relating spinal elongation to stature has been collected in microgravity. Therefore, it was proposed to collect seated height in microgravity to provide the Constellation designers appropriate data for their analyses. This document will describe the process in which the best method to collect seated height in microgravity was developed.

  4. Resection of deep-seated brain glioma by microsurgery assisted with neuronavigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Ming; Zhou Youxin; Sun Chunming; Zhang Shiming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of neuronavigator assisted microsurgery for deep-seated brain glioma. Methods: The electromagnetic neuronavigation system had been applied for microsurgery of deep-seated brain glioma in fifteen cases. Results: Ten from 15 patients were totally removed, 2 were subtotally removed and 3 were partial removed.All patients had no new neurological deficit. Conclusion: The neuronavigator assisted microsurgery for deep-seated brain glioma is of characters including accurate location, minimal invasiveness, and can enhance the rate of total resection and decrease the operative complications in the patients with deep-seated brain glioma. (authors)

  5. Car safety seat usage and selection among families attending University Hospital Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scully, P

    2016-05-01

    The safest way for children to travel within a car is by provision of a weight-appropriate safety-seat. To investigate this, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adult parents who had children under 12 years, and collected information related to: car use, safety-seat legislation, and type of safety-seat employed. Data were reviewed on 120 children from 60 respondents. Ninety-eight (81.7%) children were transported daily by car. Forty-eight (81.4%) respondents were aware that current safety-seat legislation is based on the weight of the child. One hundred and seven (89.9%) children were restrained during travel using a car safety-seat. One hundred and two (96.2%) safety seats were newly purchased, installed in 82.3% (88) cases by family members with installation instructions fully read in 58 (55.2%) cases. Ninety-nine (83.2%) children were restrained using an appropriate safety-seat for their weight. The results show that four out of five families are employing the most appropriate safety-seat for their child, so providing an effective mechanism to reduce car-related injury. However, the majority of safety-seats are installed by family members, which may have child safety consequences.

  6. Effects of Wheelchair Seat-height Settings on Alternating Lower Limb Propulsion With Both Legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Tomoyuki; Asami, Toyoko; Matsuo, Kiyomi; Kubo, Atsuko; Okigawa, Etsumi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of seat-height settings of wheelchairs with alternating propulsion with both legs. Seven healthy individuals with no orthopedic disease participated. Flexion angles at initial contact (FA-IC) of each joint, range of motion during propulsion period (ROM-PP), and ground reaction force (GRF) were measured using a three dimensional motion capture system and force plates, and compared with different seat-height settings. Statistically significant relationships were found between seat-height and speed, stride length, knee FA-IC, ankle FA-IC, hip ROM-PP, vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), and anterior posterior ground reaction force (APGRF). Speed, hip ROM-PP, VGRF and APGRF increased as the seat-height was lowered. This effect diminished when the seat-height was set below -40 mm. VGRF increased as the seat-height was lowered. The results suggest that the seat-height effect can be attributed to hip ROM-PP; therefore, optimal foot propulsion cannot be achieved when the seat height is set either too high or too low. Efficient foot propulsion of the wheelchair can be achieved by setting the seat height to lower leg length according to a combination of physical characteristics, such as the user's physical functions, leg muscles, and range of motion.

  7. 75 FR 39656 - Availability of Seats for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... (alternate), Research and Monitoring (member), Research and Monitoring (alternate), South Florida Ecosystem... seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the...

  8. Elderly road collision injury outcomes associated with seat positions and seatbelt use in a rapidly aging society-A case study in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Noh

    Full Text Available Aging has long been regarded as one of the most critical factors affecting crash injury outcomes. In South Korea, where the elderly population is projected to reach 35.9% by 2050, the implications of an increasing number of elderly vehicle users on road safety are evident. In this research, the confounding effect of occupant age in a vehicle in terms of seat position and seatbelt use was investigated. In addition, elderly occupants were divided into a younger-old group aged between 65 and 74 years and an older-old group aged 75 years and older in an effort to assess whether the conventional elderly age standard of 65 years should be reconsidered.A multinomial logit framework was adopted to predict two-level injury severity using collision data between 2008 and 2015. Predictor variables included gender, age group, seat position, seatbelt, road type, road slope, road surface, road line, and type of vehicle. Five models, a base model with no interactions and four interaction models which were combinations of age group, seatbelt use and seat position, were devised and evaluated.With no interacting term, age was the most prominent predictor. Elderly occupants were most likely to suffer from severe injury without a seatbelt in all seat positions, and the use of a seatbelt reduced this likelihood the most in the elderly group as well. Front passenger seats had the highest risk to elderly occupants, while the driver seat was statistically insignificant. When the elderly group was divided into the younger-old group and the older-old group, the older-olds were found to be much more vulnerable compared to the younger-olds. In particular, older drivers were five times more likely to suffer a severe injury without a seatbelt.The degree of injury severity of elderly occupants was reduced the most with the use of a seatbelt, demonstrating the importance of using seat restraints. The sharp increase in the risk of injury of the older-old group suggests that the

  9. Elderly road collision injury outcomes associated with seat positions and seatbelt use in a rapidly aging society-A case study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Yuna; Yoon, Yoonjin

    2017-01-01

    Aging has long been regarded as one of the most critical factors affecting crash injury outcomes. In South Korea, where the elderly population is projected to reach 35.9% by 2050, the implications of an increasing number of elderly vehicle users on road safety are evident. In this research, the confounding effect of occupant age in a vehicle in terms of seat position and seatbelt use was investigated. In addition, elderly occupants were divided into a younger-old group aged between 65 and 74 years and an older-old group aged 75 years and older in an effort to assess whether the conventional elderly age standard of 65 years should be reconsidered. A multinomial logit framework was adopted to predict two-level injury severity using collision data between 2008 and 2015. Predictor variables included gender, age group, seat position, seatbelt, road type, road slope, road surface, road line, and type of vehicle. Five models, a base model with no interactions and four interaction models which were combinations of age group, seatbelt use and seat position, were devised and evaluated. With no interacting term, age was the most prominent predictor. Elderly occupants were most likely to suffer from severe injury without a seatbelt in all seat positions, and the use of a seatbelt reduced this likelihood the most in the elderly group as well. Front passenger seats had the highest risk to elderly occupants, while the driver seat was statistically insignificant. When the elderly group was divided into the younger-old group and the older-old group, the older-olds were found to be much more vulnerable compared to the younger-olds. In particular, older drivers were five times more likely to suffer a severe injury without a seatbelt. The degree of injury severity of elderly occupants was reduced the most with the use of a seatbelt, demonstrating the importance of using seat restraints. The sharp increase in the risk of injury of the older-old group suggests that the age standard of

  10. Airflow Characteristics at the Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nagano, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    A method for active control over the interaction between the free convection flow around occupant‘s body and locally applied airflow from front on the velocity field at the breathing zone of a seated person was studied. A workplace equipped with personalised ventilation (PV) generating flow from......) was installed below the table board, above the thighs of the manikin, and was used to exhaust the air of the free convection flow coming from the lower body parts of the manikin. The velocity field at the breathing zone was measured with Particle Image Velocimetry consisting of a dual cavity laser and two CCD...

  11. Seat pressure measurement technologies: considerations for their evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyi, D E; Porter, J M; Robertson, N K

    1998-04-01

    Interface pressure measurement has generated interest in the automotive industry as a technique which could be used in the prediction of driver discomfort for various car seat designs, and provide designers and manufacturers with rapid information early on in the design process. It is therefore essential that the data obtained are of the highest quality, relevant and have some quantitative meaning. Exploratory experimental work carried out with the commercially available Talley Pressure Monitor is outlined. This led to a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of this system and the re-design of the sensor matrix. Such evaluation, in the context of the actual experimental environment, is considered essential.

  12. Affirmative Action: Reservation Seats untuk Perempuan di Parlemen India

    OpenAIRE

    Evi Yunita Kurniaty

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to help us understand and analyze women's efforts in the policy-making process to increase their political participation in the constitutional and electoral processes. We can also see the extent to which the values rooted in the patriarchal culture in a society and what can be done and reduce them. Affirmative action is carried out in India by applying the system of reservation seats for women in the Indian Parliament. This is done in India is proven to increase the number of w...

  13. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, J. D.; Kablec, E. G.; Klimas, P. C.

    1983-09-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the end thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby including stal conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  14. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, Jack D.; Kadlec, Emil G.; Klimas, Paul C.

    1985-01-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the ends thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby inducing stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  15. Improved microgrid arrangement for integrated imaging polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaster, Daniel A; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-04-01

    For almost 20 years, microgrid polarimetric imaging systems have been built using a 2×2 repeating pattern of polarization analyzers. In this Letter, we show that superior spatial resolution is achieved over this 2×2 case when the analyzers are arranged in a 2×4 repeating pattern. This unconventional result, in which a more distributed sampling pattern results in finer spatial resolution, is also achieved without affecting the conditioning of the polarimetric data-reduction matrix. Proof is provided theoretically and through Stokes image reconstruction of synthesized data.

  16. A Circularly Arranged Sextuple Triptycene Gear Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ube, Hitoshi; Yamada, Ryo; Ishida, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Shiro, Motoo; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

    2017-11-22

    Herein we report the synthesis of a circularly arranged sextuple triptycene gear molecule, hexakis(10-dodecyloxy-9-triptycyl)ethynylbenzene, via the trimerization of the corresponding triyne with a cobalt catalyst. The six triptycene gears are closely engaged with each other as confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure analysis, and their motion in solution was established by NMR spectroscopy. Notably, when one bulky RuCp* complex was attached to one triptycene gear, the whole movement of the six gears was highly restricted via their mechanical engagement. Development of such a multigear molecule would provide a structural basis for molecular motion transmission systems with a switching function.

  17. Method of operating an electromagnet arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldie, F.T.D.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for operating an electromagnet arrangement comprising a main electromagnet and a number of correction coils for applying correction fields to the field produced by the main electromagnet to produce a resultant desired homogeneous magnetic field in a given volume. The method comprises obtaining the least squares fit values for the correction coil currents. If the required current in any coil lies outside a range of permissible values for that coil current a special procedure is described to find the selection of coil currents providing the lowest squared deviation between the desired and actual fields consistent with the permissible currents in the coils. (author)

  18. UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

  19. Vibration control of an energy regenerative seat suspension with variable external resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Nong

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, an energy regenerative seat suspension with a variable external resistance is proposed and built, and a semi-active controller for its vibration control is also designed and validated. The energy regenerative seat suspension is built with a three-phase generator and a gear reducer, which are installed in the scissors structure centre of the seat suspension, and the vibration energy is directly harvested from the rotary movement of suspension's scissors structure. The electromagnetic torque of the semi-active seat suspension actuator is controlled by an external variable resistor. An integrated model including the seat suspension's kinematics and the generator is built and proven to match the test result very well. A simplified experimental phenomenon model is also built based on the test results for the controller design. A state feedback H∞ controller is proposed for the regenerative seat suspension's semi-active vibration control. The proposed regenerative seat suspension and its controller are validated with both simulations and experiments. A well-tuned passive seat suspension is applied to evaluate the regenerative seat's performance. Based on ISO 2631-1, the frequency-weighted root mean square (FW-RMS) acceleration of the proposed seat suspension has a 22.84% reduction when compared with the passive one, which indicates the improvement of ride comfort. At the same time, the generated RMS power is 1.21 W. The proposed regenerative seat suspension can greatly improve the driver's ride comfort and has the potential to be developed to a self-powered semi-active system.

  20. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clarke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. House dust mites produce allergens which can cause or aggravate diseases such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. The objectives of this study are to quantify typical house dust mite and Der p 1 allergen levels in child car seats, and to determine external variables that may influence mite populations in cars. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. Dust samples were collected from the child car seats and driver seats of 106 cars using a portable vacuum sampling pump over a two minute sampling period. Mites were counted and identified and results were expressed as mites per gram (mites/g of dust, while Der p 1 content of samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Questionnaires were completed by participants to identify environmental and behavioural effects on mite populations. Results were analysed using General Linear Model (GLM procedures. [b]Results[/b]. Twelve species of mites, of which nine are known to produce harmful allergens, were recorded from 212 dust samples. Over 80% of drivers’ seats and over 77% of child car seats harboured dust mites with a significant correlation (p = 0.001 between the mites/g of dust and Der p 1 content recovered from each seat. A mean of 53 mites/g of dust per seat was recovered, with a mean Der p 1 level of 1.1µg/g. Over 12% of driver seats and 15% of child car seats contained house dust mite levels sufficient to be risk factors for sensitisation and allergic reactions. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  1. Fabrics for fire resistant passenger seats in aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoro, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    The essential elements of the problem and of approaches to improved fire resistance in aircraft seats are reviewed. The performance requirements and availability of materials, delay in the ignition of upholstery fabric by a small source are considered a realistic objective. Results of experimental studies on the thermal response of fabrics and fabric/foam combinations suggest significant conclusions regarding: (1) the ignition behavior of a commercial 90/10 wool/nylon upholstery fabric relative to fabrics made from thermally stable polymers; (2) the role of the foam backing; (3) the behavior of seams. These results, coupled with data from other sources, also confirm the importance of materials' interactions in multicomponent assemblies, and the need for system testing prior to materials' selection. The use of an interlinear or thermal barrier between upholstery fabric and foam is a promising and viable approach to improved fire resistance of the seat assembly, but experimental evaluation of specific combinations of materials or systems is an essential part of the selection process.

  2. Restaurant No. 1 seating capacity increases by 240

    CERN Document Server

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    These days you need patience when looking for a seat in Restaurant No. 1 to eat your lunch. The opening of the new dining room, which will increase the restaurant’s seating capacity by 240, should alleviate the problem and improve service.   The new restaurant area. For the past several years the number of people using Restaurant No. 1 has grown steadily. Now, for a change, the restaurant itself is growing. Luz Lopez-Hernandez, leader of the project in the GS Department, explains: “Enlarging the restaurant has been on the GS Department's agenda for several years, but the project really got off the ground in 2009. Once it was approved and the design completed, construction itself only took seven months.” Seven months later, the restaurant extension is indeed on the verge of opening. One of the people who will be particularly happy is Joël Nallet, who manages the Novae restaurant: “I am thrilled, because until now, even if we managed to increase...

  3. The benefit of seat belt legislation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    1989-09-01

    Legislation for compulsory wearing of seat belts by car drivers and front seat passengers has been acclaimed as a major public health advance. Reports from other countries, and two recent evaluative studies in the United Kingdom, have suggested that legislation reduces both deaths and injuries. To assess the effect of the UK law 5 years after its implementation, trends in routine data for 1976-1987 have been reviewed. There were two sources of data: mortality statistics, published by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in the quarterly Monitor DH4, and road accident statistics, recorded by the police and published by the Department of Transport. There is a downward trend in deaths over the period, but the data show little impact from the law. One explanation for this lack of effect is the risk compensation hypothesis, which suggests that "safety" improvements are transferred by drivers into increased performance--the amount and speed of travel. Public health policies need to take into account the complex behavioural interactions between travel and safety choices if they are to affect underlying trends.

  4. Development of a shear force measurement dummy for seat comfort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Guk Kim

    Full Text Available Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0.999; transverse sensitivity: <1%. The dummy is manufactured in compliance with the SAE standards (SAE J826 and incorporates shear sensors into its design. We measure the shear force under four driving conditions and at five different speeds using a sedan; results showed that the shear force increases with speed under all driving conditions. In the case of acceleration and deceleration, shear force significantly changes in the lower body of the dummy. During right and left turns, it significantly changes in the upper body of the dummy.

  5. Development of a shear force measurement dummy for seat comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Guk; Ko, Chang-Yong; Kim, Dong Hyun; Song, Ye Eun; Kang, Tae Uk; Ahn, Sungwoo; Lim, Dohyung; Kim, Han Sung

    2017-01-01

    Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0.999; transverse sensitivity: <1%). The dummy is manufactured in compliance with the SAE standards (SAE J826) and incorporates shear sensors into its design. We measure the shear force under four driving conditions and at five different speeds using a sedan; results showed that the shear force increases with speed under all driving conditions. In the case of acceleration and deceleration, shear force significantly changes in the lower body of the dummy. During right and left turns, it significantly changes in the upper body of the dummy.

  6. The seating mechanics of head-neck modular tapers in vitro: Load-displacement measurements, moisture, and rate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Eric S; Shenoy, Aarti A; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2018-04-01

    The mechanically assisted crevice corrosion performance of head-neck modular tapers is a significant concern in orthopedic biomaterials. Fretting crevice corrosion processes in modular tapers are thought to be influenced by a wide array of factors including seating mechanics of the junction, hence there is a need for in vitro test methods that can assess their performance. This study presented a test method to directly measure the load-displacement seating mechanics of modular tapers and used this method to compare the seating mechanics for different tapers, moisture, seating loads and seating rates. Seating mechanics were explored whereby the instantaneous load-displacement behavior of the head seating onto the neck is captured and used to define the mechanics of seating. Two distinct taper design/material combinations were assembled wet or dry using axially applied loads (500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 N) at two loading rates of 100 and 10 4  N/s (n = 5 for each condition) using a servohydraulic test frame. The results showed that pull-off strength scaled with seating load and ranged between 43% and 68% of seating load depending on sample and wetness. Tapers seated wet had higher pull-off strengths (2,200 ± 300 N) than those seated dry (1,800 ± 200 N, p mechanics (load-displacement plots) varied due to sample type and due to wetness with differences in seating energy, seating stiffness, and seating displacement. These results show the detailed mechanics of seating during assembly and provide significant insight into the complex interplay of factors associated with even "ideal" seating (axial, quasistatic) loading. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:1164-1172, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Seat belt use to save face: impact on drivers' body region and nature of injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Seat belt use is the single most effective way to save lives and reduce injuries in motor vehicle crashes. However, some case reports described seat belt use as a double-edged sword because some injuries are related to seat belt use in motor vehicle crashes. To comprehensively understand the effects of seat belt use, we systemically investigated the association between seat belt use and injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes. The injury information was obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data and categorized by using the diagnosis codes based on the Barell injury diagnosis matrix. A total of 10,479 drivers (≥15 years) in passenger vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. Seat belt use significantly reduced the proportions of traumatic brain injury (10.4% non-seat belt; 4.1% seat belt) and other head, face, and neck injury (29.3% non-seat belt; 16.6% seat belt) but increased the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury (17.9% non-seat belt; 35.5% seat belt). Although the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury was increased in drivers with seat belt use, the severity of injury was decreased, such as fracture (4.2% with seat belt use; 22.0% without seat belt use). Furthermore, the total medical charges decreased due to the change of injury profiles in drivers with seat belt use from a higher percentage of fractures (average cost for per case $26,352) to a higher percentage of sprains and/or strains ($1,897) with spine: thoracic to coccyx injury. This study provide a comprehensive picture for understanding the protective effect of seat belt use on injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes.

  8. Development of a Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Program's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to accommodate the full population range of crewmembers according to the anthropometry requirements stated in the Human-Systems Integration Requirement (HSIR) document (CxP70024). Seated height is one of many critical dimensions of importance to the CEV designers in determining the optimum seat configuration in the vehicle. Changes in seated height may have a large impact to the design, accommodation, and safety of the crewmembers. Seated height can change due to elongation of the spine when crewmembers are exposed to microgravity. Spinal elongation is the straightening of the natural curvature of the spine and the expansion of inter-vertebral disks. This straightening occurs due to fluid shifts in the body and the lack of compressive forces on the spinal vertebrae. Previous studies have shown that as the natural curvature of the spine straightens, an increase in overall height of 3% of stature occurs which has been the basis of the current HSIR requirements. However due to variations in the torso/leg ratio and impact of soft tissue, data is nonexistent as to how spinal elongation specifically affects the measurement of seated height. In order to obtain this data, an experiment was designed to collect spinal elongation data while in a seated posture in microgravity. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative data that represents the amount of change that occurs in seated height due to spinal elongation in microgravity environments. Given the schedule and budget constraints of ISS and Shuttle missions and the uniqueness of the problem, a methodology had to be developed to ensure that the seated height measurements were accurately collected. Therefore, simulated microgravity evaluations were conducted to test the methodology and procedures of the experiment. This evaluation obtained seat pan pressure and seated height data to a) ensure that the lap restraint provided sufficient

  9. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The agency...

  10. 22 CFR 92.63 - Arrangement of papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrangement of papers. 92.63 Section 92.63... and Letters Rogatory § 92.63 Arrangement of papers. Unless special instructions to the contrary are received, the various papers comprising the completed record of the depositions should usually be arranged...

  11. 46 CFR 117.150 - Survival craft embarkation arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft embarkation arrangements. 117.150 Section... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 117.150 Survival craft embarkation... apparatus when either— (1) The embarkation station for the survival craft is on a deck more than 4.5 meters...

  12. 46 CFR 108.525 - Survival craft number and arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft number and arrangement. 108.525 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.525 Survival craft number and arrangement. (a... arrangement of survival craft: (1) Lifeboats with an aggregate capacity to accommodate the total number of...

  13. Entry into and Consequences of Nonstandard Work Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Donna S.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the impact on workers of being in a nonstandard employment arrangement. Examines the distribution of workers among various arrangements and looks at aspects of work behavior and life events that may have influenced their working in a nonstandard arrangement. (Author/JOW)

  14. European top managers' support for work-life arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357424662

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, work-life arrangements increasingly became an integral part of the organization of work. Arrangements such as telecommuting, flextime, part-time hours, and various types of leave arrangements are available to employees in many organizations. Top managers, such as CEOs, CFOs and

  15. 47 CFR 1.9020 - Spectrum manager leasing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum manager leasing arrangements. 1.9020... Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9020 Spectrum manager leasing arrangements. (a) Overview... may enter into a spectrum manager leasing arrangement, without the need for prior Commission approval...

  16. Best seating condition in children with spastic cerebral palsy : One type does not fit all

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angsupaisal, Mattana; Dijkstra, Linze-Jaap; la Bastide-van Gemert, Sacha; van Hoorn, Jessika F.; Burger, Karine; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2017-01-01

    Background: The effect of forward-tilting of the seat surface and foot-support in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) is debated. Aim: To assess the effect of forward-tilting of the seat surface and foot-support in children with CP on kinematic head stability and reaching. Methods: Nineteen

  17. Comparative study of potential whiplash injuries for different occupant seated positions during rear end accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerović, Senad; Tomasch, Ernst; Gutsche, Andreas J; Prebil, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Whiplash injuries to the cervical spine represent a considerable economic burden on society with medical conditions, in some cases persisting for more than a year. Numerous studies of whiplash injuries have been made for occupant normal seated position, leaving the analysis of neck injuries for out-of-normal positions not well documented. For that purpose, a detailed human cervical spine finite element model was developed. The analysis was made for four most common occupant seated positions, such as: Normal Position with the torso against the seat back and the head looking straight ahead, Torso Lean forward position with the torso away from the seat back for approximately 10°, Head Flexed position with the head flexed forward approximately 20° from the normal position and Head-Flexed with Torso Lean forward position with the head flexed forward approximately 20° and torso 10° from the normal position. The comparative study included the analysis of capsular ligament deformation and the level of S-curvature of the cervical spine. The model developed predicted that Head Flexed seated position and Head-Flexed with Torso Lean forward seated position are most threatening for upper and lower cervical spine capsular ligament, respectively. As for the level of S-curvature, the model predicted that Head-Flexed with Torso Lean forward seated position would be most prone to neck injuries associated with it. This study demonstrated that the occupant seated position has a significant influence on potential whiplash injuries.

  18. Kineto-dynamic design optimisation for vehicle-specific seat-suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Wen-Bin; Shui, Yijie; Rakheja, Subhash

    2017-11-01

    Designs and analyses of seat-suspension systems are invariably performed considering effective vertical spring rate and damping properties, while neglecting important contributions due to kinematics of the widely used cross-linkage mechanism. In this study, a kineto-dynamic model of a seat-suspension is formulated to obtain relations for effective vertical suspension stiffness and damping characteristics as functions of those of the air spring and the hydraulic damper, respectively. The proposed relations are verified through simulations of the multi-body dynamic model of the cross-linkage seat-suspension in the ADAMS platform. The validity of the kineto-dynamic model is also demonstrated through comparisons of its vibration transmission response with the experimental data. The model is used to identify optimal air spring coordinates to attain nearly constant natural frequency of the suspension, irrespective of the seated body mass and seated height. A methodology is further proposed to identify optimal damping requirements for vehicle-specific suspension designs to achieve minimal seat effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT) and vibration dose value (VDV) considering vibration spectra of different classes of earthmoving vehicles. The shock and vibration isolation performance potentials of the optimal designs are evaluated under selected vehicle vibration superimposed with shock motions. Results show that the vehicle-specific optimal designs could provide substantial reductions in the SEAT and VDV values for the vehicle classes considered.

  19. 75 FR 31691 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats: Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... would actually make the requirement less restrictive than what is already in the voluntary standard. For... various water levels and possible head positions of occupants vs. angles of bath seats to determine what... instructional literature or warnings, it is foreseeable that caregivers will install the bath seat on a wet and...

  20. Creative thinking of design and redesign on SEAT aircraft cabin testbed: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    this paper, the intuition approach in the design and redesign of the environmental friendly innovative aircraft cabin simulator is presented.. The aircraft cabin simulator is a testbed that used for European Project SEAT (Smart tEchnologies for Stress free Air Travel). The SEAT project aims to

  1. 75 FR 66064 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... following vacant seats on the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Advisory Council...

  2. 77 FR 27188 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Chumash Community...

  3. 78 FR 5779 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Business Alternate...

  4. 75 FR 57444 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Period for Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... following vacant seats on the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Advisory Council...

  5. Pattern of seat belt use and its associated factors among taxi drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Road traffic injuries constitute a major public health concern that demands effective interventions. Use of car seat belts is recommended as an effective intervention to reduce serious and fatal road traffic injuries. The study intended to investigate the pattern of seat belt use and its correlates among taxi drivers in ...

  6. Demonstration of the Trauma Nurses Talk Tough seat belt diversion program in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Trauma Nurses Talk Tough is a seat belt diversion program originally developed at the Legacy Emanuel Hospital in Portland, Oregon, in 1988. Attendance at the course is a condition for a one-time dismissal of a seat belt citation without fine or court...

  7. A study on mechanism of wear on body seat in nozzle of diesel fuel injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeonggee, Son; Yamashita, Toru; Sato, Susumu; Kosaka, Hidenori; Masuko, Masabumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2013-06-01

    Wear of nozzle's body seat of diesel fuel injector, which is caused by the collision of needle on the body seat in a nozzle, affects fuel spray behaviors and injection characteristics. Recently, to reduce the wear of body seat, DLC nozzles are widely used. The DLC on the needle which is called diamond-like carbon has a certain effect in reducing wear of body seat. However, disallowable wear is reported at limited engine operating conditions. Moreover, the wear mechanism of body seat with DLC coated needle has not been made clear yet. In this study, the influence of temperature of the body seat and fuel property on the wear of DLC nozzle was investigated with a newly developed wear testing device which was constructed based on common-rail injection system. Worn surfaces of body seat were observed by FE-SEM, laser scanning microscope and EPMA. The obtained results from the measurements show that DLC nozzle has much less wear amount than non-DLC nozzle on the body seat and the corrosive wear effect is suppressed with DLC nozzle. (orig.)

  8. Seat-belt use still low in Kuwait: self-reported driving behaviours among adult drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Sudha R; Ottensmeyer, C Andrea; Landry, Michel D; Alfadhli, Jarrah; Procter, Steven; Jacob, Susan; Hamdan, Elham; Bouhaimed, Manal

    2014-01-01

    Kuwait mandated seat-belt use by drivers in 1976 and by front seat passengers in 1994. The study objectives were to identify and estimate current factors associated with seat-belt use and levels of potentially unsafe driving behaviours in Kuwait. In 2010, 741 adults were surveyed regarding driving habits and history. Only 41.6% of drivers reported always using a seat belt. Front seat passenger belt use was more common (30.5%) than rear seat belt use (6.5%). Distracted driving behaviours were common, including mobile phone use ('always' or 'almost always': 51.1%) and texting/SMS (32.4%). Logistic regression indicated that drivers who were young (18-19 years), male, Kuwaiti nationals or non-Kuwaiti Arabs, drove over the speed limit, had traffic violation tickets or >1 car crashes in the last year, were less likely to use seat belts. Targeted initiatives to increase public awareness and to enforce car-safety legislation, including use of seat belts, are necessary to decrease the health burden of car crashes in Kuwait.

  9. 49 CFR 571.209 - Standard No. 209; Seat belt assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... seat belt assembly to fit the user, including such hardware that may be integral with a buckle... the proper use of the assembly, stressing particularly the importance of wearing the assembly snugly... of Standard No. 208. (a)(1) A manual seat belt assembly, which is subject to the requirements of S5.1...

  10. Numerical investigation of thermal performance of a water-cooled mini-channel heat sink for different chip arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikadar, Amitav, E-mail: amitav453@gmail.com; Hossain, Md. Mahamudul; Morshed, A. K. M. M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Heat transfer from electronic chip is always challenging and very crucial for electronic industry. Electronic chips are assembled in various manners according to the design conditions and limitationsand thus the influence of chip assembly on the overall thermal performance needs to be understand for the efficient design of electronic cooling system. Due to shrinkage of the dimension of channel and continuous increment of thermal load, conventional heat extraction techniques sometimes become inadequate. Due to high surface area to volume ratio, mini-channel have the natural advantage to enhance convective heat transfer and thus to play a vital role in the advanced heat transfer devices with limited surface area and high heat flux. In this paper, a water cooled mini-channel heat sink was considered for electronic chip cooling and five different chip arrangements were designed and studied, namely: the diagonal arrangement, parallel arrangement, stacked arrangement, longitudinal arrangement and sandwiched arrangement. Temperature distribution on the chip surfaces was presented and the thermal performance of the heat sink in terms of overall thermal resistance was also compared. It is found that the sandwiched arrangement of chip provides better thermal performance compared to conventional in line chip arrangement.

  11. Grinding arrangement for ball nose milling cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, C. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A grinding arrangement for spiral fluted ball nose end mills and like tools includes a tool holder for positioning the tool relative to a grinding wheel. The tool is mounted in a spindle within the tool holder for rotation about its centerline and the tool holder is pivotably mounted for angular movement about an axis which intersects that centerline. A follower arm of a cam follower secured to the spindle cooperates with a specially shaped cam to provide rotation of the tool during the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle, by an amount determined by the cam profile. In this way the surface of the cutting edge in contact with the grinding wheel is maintained at the same height on the grinding wheel throughout the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle.

  12. Considerations on impact factors and institutional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The Delegation makes three comments on the work of the Group. First, the Group should consider the development of international safety standards governing occupational and environmental protection. Non-proliferation measures should not override these standards. Second, safeguards for reprocessing and plutonium recycle must be improved. The Japanese INFCE/DEP./WG-4/122 and French INFCE/DEP./WG-4/58 proposals are valuable contributions to this objective but the Group as a whole should make a broad assessment of safeguards. Lastly, the Delegation supports the development of new institutional arrangements for the fuel cycle which balance the rights and obligations of both suppliers and customers. In particular, the establishment of International Plutonium Storage is supported

  13. High mass isotope separation process and arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically identical but isotopically different molecules by either photon-induced pure rovibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically identical but isotopically different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope

  14. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in

  15. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in the first

  16. Effect of a Dynamic Seating Surface on Postural Control and Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Erna Rosenlund; Trew, Lisa

    Purpose: The purpose was to investigate if a seating system involving a dynamic material covering the seat back and base improves postural control, alignment and function in children with cerebral palsy and to investigate consequences of adapting The Seated Postural Control Measure to a target...... group with multifunctional disabilities. Relevance: Developing sitting systems for disabled persons is of great importance to avoid sitting problems, to increase the level of functioning and postural control which will have an impact on their daily living and activities. This project takes its starting...... Ethical Committee. Outcome measures were Seated Postural Control Measure (SPCM), which was modified to meet the children’s needs, was used to measure alignment and function. Force Sensitive Applications (FSA) on the seat surfaces was used to measure postural movements and interface pressure. All tests...

  17. A study on arrangement characteristics of microparticles in sedimentation on flat and round substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Eunju; Son, Minhee; Kim, Kwanoh; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Yoo, Yeong-Eun; Choi, Doo-Sun; Kim, Jungchul; Yoon, Seok Ho; Yoon, Jae Sung

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances of microfabrication techniques have enabled diverse structures and devices on the microscale. This fabrication method using microparticles is one of the most promising technologies because it can provide a cost effective process for large areas. So, many researchers are studying modulation and manipulation of the microparticles in solution to obtain a proper arrangement. However, the microparticles are in sedimentation status during the process in many cases, which makes it difficult to control their arrangement. In this study, droplets containing microparticles were placed on a substrate with minimal force and we investigated the arrangement of these microparticles after evaporation of the liquid. Experiments have been performed with upward and downward substrates to change the direction of gravity. The geometry of substrates was also changed, which were flat or round. The results show that the arrangement depends on the size of particles and gravity and geometry of the substrate. The arrangement also depends on the movement of the contact line of the droplets, which may recede or be pinned during evaporation. This study is expected to provide a method of the fabrication process for microparticles which may not be easily manipulated due to sedimentation.

  18. Hardfacing materials used in valves for seating and wear surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, W.G.

    1996-01-01

    Most valves and essentially all critical service valves utilize hardfacing materials for seating and wear surfaces to minimize wear and galling. The type of hardfacing materials used, the methods of deposition, and the quality of the final product all contribute to the wear characteristics, required operating force, and life of the final product. Over the last forty years the most prevalent hardfacing materials furnished to the commercial nuclear industry consisted of cobalt base and nickel base materials. In the last several years there has been extensive development and evaluation work performed on iron base hardfacing materials. This presentation will address the wear characteristics of the various materials and the importance of consistent quality of deposited materials necessary to achieve optimum product performance and longevity

  19. Hardfacing materials used in valves for seating and wear surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, W.G.

    1996-12-01

    Most valves and essentially all critical service valves utilize hardfacing materials for seating and wear surfaces to minimize wear and galling. The type of hardfacing materials used, the methods of deposition, and the quality of the final product all contribute to the wear characteristics, required operating force, and life of the final product. Over the last forty years the most prevalent hardfacing materials furnished to the commercial nuclear industry consisted of cobalt base and nickel base materials. In the last several years there has been extensive development and evaluation work performed on iron base hardfacing materials. This presentation will address the wear characteristics of the various materials and the importance of consistent quality of deposited materials necessary to achieve optimum product performance and longevity.

  20. Social prejudice hindering proper use of car safety seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Akelma, Ahmet Zulfikar; Orun, Emel; Yesilyurt, Kubra; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur

    2013-12-01

    The compliance of parents with child passenger safety (CPS) has been mainly explained by their level of knowledge. Social, ethnic and cultural factors have not been investigated in detail. This study investigated the rate of compliance of parents with CPS guidelines, as well as the factors hindering it. Parents of infants aged 2-10 days were enrolled. The proportions of families obtaining a car safety seat (CSS; 57%) and complying with CPS recommendations (2%) were very low. Most of the parents thought CSS were harmful for infants (mother, 57%; father, 63%), despite having already purchased one. Parents believed their children to be too small to use CSS and cannot sit in CSS because they should lie flat on their backs at all times. These prejudices may be due to the social and cultural circumstances specific to Turkey, or corresponding findings may be found in countries with similar socioeconomic status. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. 76 FR 64074 - Request for Applications for Vacant Seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... for Vacant Seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office... ONMS is seeking applications for the following six vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks National... experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations...

  2. 77 FR 57481 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Models EMB-135 and EMB-145 Series; Airplane Seats with Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... flammability of seat cushions. With the seat design being mostly fabric and metal, the contribution to a fire..., large, non-metallic panels that would affect survivability during a post-crash fire event. The.... At the time the applicable rules were written, seats were designed with a metal frame covered by...

  3. Naturalistic driving study of rear seat child occupants: Quantification of head position using a Kinect™ sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Kim, Jinyong; Loeb, Helen; Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Bohman, Katarina; Charlton, Judith L

    2016-09-01

    Restraint performance is evaluated using anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) positioned in prescribed, optimal seating positions. Anecdotally, humans-children in particular-assume a variety of positions that may affect restraint performance. Naturalistic driving studies (NDSs), where cameras and other data acquisition systems are placed in a vehicle used by participants during their regular transportation, offer means to collect these data. To date, these studies have used conventional video and analysis methods and, thus, analyses have largely been qualitative. This article describes a recently completed NDS of child occupants in which their position was monitored using a Kinect sensor to quantify their head position throughout normal, everyday driving trips. A study vehicle was instrumented with a data acquisition system to measure vehicle dynamics, a set of video cameras, and a Kinect sensor providing 3D motion capture at 1 Hz of the rear seat occupants. Participant families used the vehicle for all driving trips over 2 weeks. The child occupants' head position was manually identified via custom software from each Kinect color image. The 3D head position was then extracted and its distribution summarized by seat position (left, rear, center) and restraint type (forward-facing child restraint system [FFCRS], booster seat, seat belt). Data from 18 families (37 child occupants) resulted in 582 trips (with children) for analysis. The average age of the child occupants was 45.6 months and 51% were male. Twenty-five child occupants were restrained in FFCRS, 9 in booster seats, and 3 in seat belts. As restraint type moved from more to less restraint (FFCRS to booster seat to seat belt), the range of fore-aft head position increased: 218, 244, and 340 mm on average, respectively. This observation was also true for left-right movement for every seat position. In general, those in the center seat position demonstrated a smaller range of head positions. For the first

  4. An Active Seat Controller with Vehicle Suspension Feedforward and Feedback States: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Alfadhli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Active seat suspensions can be used to reduce the harmful vertical vibration of a vehicle’s seat by applying an external force using a closed loop controller. Many of the controllers found in the literature are difficult to implement practically, because they are based on using unavailable or difficult and costly measurements. This paper presents both simulation and experimental studies of five novel, simple, and cost-effective control strategies to be used for an active seat suspension in order to improve ride comfort at low frequencies below 20 Hz. These strategies use available and measurable feedforward (preview information states from the vehicle secondary suspension, as well as feedback states from the seat suspension, together with gains optimised to minimise the occupant vibration. The gains were optimised using a genetic algorithm (GA, with a fitness function based on the seat effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT factor. Constraints on the control force and the seat suspension stroke were also included in the optimisation algorithm. Simulation and laboratory experimental tests were carried out to assess the performance of the proposed controllers according to the ISO 2631-1 standard, in both the frequency and time domains with a range of different road profiles. The experimental tests were performed using a multi-axis simulation table (MAST and a physical active seat suspension configured as a hardware-in-loop (HIL simulation with a virtual linear quarter vehicle model (QvM. The results demonstrate that the proposed controllers substantially attenuate the vertical vibration at the driver’s seat compared with both a passive and a proportional-integral-derivative (PID active seat suspension and thus improve ride comfort together with reducing vibration-linked health risks. Moreover, experimental results show that employing both feedforward information and feedback vehicle body and seat acceleration signals in the controller

  5. Nonconformities in real-world fatal crashes--electronic stability control and seat belt reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Many new safety systems are entering the market. Vision Zero is a safety strategy aiming at the elimination of fatalities and impairing injuries by the use of a holistic model for safe traffic to develop a safe system. The aim of this article is to analyze fatalities in modern cars with respect to the Vision Zero model with special respect to electronic stability control (ESC) systems and modern seat belt reminders (SBRs). The model is used to identify and understand cases where cars with ESC systems lost control and where occupants were unbelted in a seat with seat belt reminders under normal driving conditions. The model for safe traffic was used to analyze in-depth studies of fatal crashes with respect to seat belt use and loss of control. Vehicles from 2003 and later in crashes from January 2004 to mid-2010 were analyzed. The data were analyzed case by case. Cars that were equipped with ESC systems and lost control and occupants not using the seat belt in a seat with a seat belt reminder were considered as nonconformities. A total of 138 fatal crashes involving 152 fatally injured occupants were analyzed. Cars with ESC systems had fewer loss-of-control-relevant cases than cars without ESC systems. Thirteen percent of the ESC-equipped vehicles had loss-of-control-relevant crashes and 36 percent of the cars without ESC systems had loss-of-control-relevant crashes. The analysis indicates that only one car of the 9 equipped with ESC that lost control did it on a road surface with relevant friction when driving within the speed restriction of the road. In seats with seat belt reminders that are in accordance with the European New Car Assessment Programme's (Euro NCAP) protocol, 93 percent of the occupants were using a seat belt. In seats without reminders this number was 74 percent. This study shows that ESC systems result in a very significant reduction in fatal crashes, especially under normal driving conditions. Under extreme driving conditions such as speeding

  6. Status of ACCULINNA beam line

    CERN Document Server

    Rodin, A M; Bogdanov, D D; Golovkov, M S; Fomichev, A S; Sidorchuk, S I; Slepnev, R S; Wolski, R; Ter-Akopian, G M; Oganessian, Yu T; Yukhimchuk, A A; Perevozchikov, V V; Vinogradov, Yu I; Grishenchkin, S K; Demin, A M; Zlatoustovskii, S V; Kuryakin, A V; Filchagin, S V; Ilkaev, R I

    2003-01-01

    The separator ACCULINNA was upgraded to achieve new experimental requirements. The beam line was extended by new ion-optical elements beyond the cyclotron hall. The new arrangements yield much better background conditions. The intensities of sup 6 He and sup 8 He radioactive beams produced in fragmentation of 35 A MeV sup 1 sup 1 B ions were increased up to a factor of 10. The upgraded beam line was used in experiments to study the sup 5 H resonance states populated in the t+t reaction. A cryogenic liquid tritium target was designed and installed at the separator beam line.

  7. Bands and chromosome arrangement in interphase nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, N.O.; Bianchi, M.A.; Matayoshi, T.

    1977-01-01

    Chromosomes from the vole mouse Akodon dolores and from laboratory mouse showed the presence of G-bands after 3 minutes digestion with trypsin and Giemsa stain. Simultaneously, 30- to 40% of the interphase nuclei exhibited a dark ring parallel to the nuclear contour and a radial array of the chromatin in the internal and external regions of the ring. The origin and meaning of this ring image was analyzed by combining progressive trypsinizations with other methods such as C-banding procedures, autoradiography with 3 HTdR, staining with quinacrine mustard and 33258 Hoechst fluorochromes. Moreover, the presence of the dark ring was also investigated in cells treated with actinomycin and in control cells not subjected to any treatment. The results obtained allowed to assume that in interphase nuclei the chromosomes have chromatin bridges which connect the dark G-bands and that these bridges are probably involved in maintaining an ordered architecture of the nucleus with fixed chromosome positions in regard to the nuclear envelope and in regard to other chromosomes. Trypsinization produces a disruption of the interphase chromatin arrangement and the subsequent appearance of a dark ring formed by the combination of constitutive heterochromatin and dark G-bands. (auth.)

  8. Process arrangement options for Defense waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    Current plans are to immobilize the SRP high-level liquid wastes in a high integrity form. Borosilicate glass was selected in 1977 as the reference waste form and a mjaor effort is currently underway to develop the required technology. A large new facility, referred to as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is being designed to carry out this mission, with project authorization targeted for 1982 and plant startup in 1989. However, a number of other process arrangements or manufacturing strategies, including staging the major elements of the project or using existing SRP facilities for some functions, have been suggested in lieu of building the reference DWPF. This study assesses these various options and compares them on a technical and cost basis with the DWPF. Eleven different manufacturing options for SRP defense waste solidification were examined in detail. These cases are: (1) vitrification of acid waste at current generation rate; (2) vitrification of current rate acid waste and caustic sludge; (3 and 4) vitrification of the sludge portion of neutralized waste; (5) decontamination of salt cake and storage of concentrated cesium and strontium for later immobilization; (6) processing waste in a facility with lower capacity than the DWPF; (7) processing waste in a combination of existing and new facilities; (8) waste immobilization in H Canyon; (9) vitrification of both sludge and salt; (10) DWPF with onsite storage; (11) deferred authorization of DWPF

  9. Contractual arrangements for uranium exploration and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    Uranium exploration in WOCA, stabilized since 1985 at a level of annual expenditures of US $120-150 million. About half of this amount is funded by mining companies based in the uranium consumer countries such as the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the Republic of Korea, Japan, United Kingdom etc. and expended outside their home countries, mainly in Australia, Canada and USA, but also in a number of African countries. As WOCA's uranium production is concentrated in a few countries, in 1986, Australia, Canada, South Africa and USA had a combined share of nearly 70% of the total, a stronger diversification of uranium supplies may be desirable in the future. This expected trend may result in the planning or uranium exploration projects by international uranium companies in countries in Africa, Asia and South America. To provide information which can be helpful for both parties in the negotiations of cooperation agreement is the scope of this document. It contains a brief introductory part including an overview of the development of the different forms of international cooperation, a case history provided by Zambia, a report listing the essential subjects to be included in an uranium agreement as well as an example of a structure of contractual arrangements. This part is followed by an extensive annex with three ''no-names-no numbers'' contract texts, which were concluded in the later part of the 1970s and beginning of the 1980s

  10. Strike a balance with flexible working arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-12-15

    Monthly Economic Diversity column for the Tri-City Herald - Topic: Telworking - Excerpt below: As the holiday season kicks into high gear, work-life balance is on many of our minds. How can I meet all of my work commitments this month when no one will be in the office, and still strategically use very little vacation time to stretch the holiday break from four days to fourteen? Am I right? I think most all of us want to stay engaged with our professional lives while maintaining the freedom to prioritize our personal lives. And many employers have come up with ways to help us achieve that balance. Teleworking is not a brand new concept, but is certainly gaining steam as employers and employees alike try to find ways to meet a variety of wants and needs. There are benefits to both sides when it comes to offering flexible working arrangements such as teleworking. For businesses attempting to meet sustainability targets by reducing employee commuting and associated impacts to energy and environment, the benefits of this option can really add up.

  11. Biomechanical investigation of prolonged driving in an ergonomically designed truck seat prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Michelle; McKinnon, Colin; Viggiani, Dan; Johnson, Michel J; Callaghan, Jack P; Albert, Wayne J

    2018-03-01

    A postural evaluation during a prolonged driving task was conducted to determine the ergonomic validity of a new freely adjustable truck seat prototype. Twenty participants were recruited to perform two 2-h simulated driving sessions. Postures were assessed using motion capture, accelerometers and pressure pads. Subjective discomfort was also monitored in 15-min increments using ratings of perceived discomfort (RPD) and the Automotive Seating Discomfort Questionnaire. Participants had a more neutral spine posture during the first hour of the drive and reported lower RPDs while sitting in the prototype. Pairing the gluteal backrest panel with the adjustable seat pan helped reduce the average sitting pressure. The industry-standard truck seat may lead to the development of poor whole body posture, and the proposed ergonomic redesign of a new truck seat helped improve sitting posture and reduce perceived discomfort. Practitioner Summary: A new freely adjustable truck seat prototype was compared to an Industry standard seat to assess hypothesised improvements to sitting posture and discomfort for long haul driving. It was found that the adjustable panels in the prototype helped promote spine posture, reduce sitting pressure and improved discomfort ratings.

  12. Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S

    2013-01-01

    The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Performance of Rear Facing Child Restraint Systems on the CMVSS 213 Bench and Vehicle Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylko, Suzanne; Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic response of rear-facing child restraint systems (RFCRS) installed on the CMVSS 213 sled bench and a selection of vehicle seats. Thirty-six sled tests were conducted: three models of rear facing CRS with an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representing a 12 month old child (CRABI) were affixed via lower anchors (LATCH), 3 point belt without CRS base, and 3 point belt with CRS base to one of three vehicle seats or the CMVSS 213 bench seat. All CRS were subjected to an identical sled acceleration pulse. Two types of matched pair analysis: “bench-to-vehicle” and “method of attachment” were conducted. Statistically significant differences were observed in the kinematic responses of the ATD and the CRS. This is the first study to quantify differences between the regulatory bench and vehicle seats on a system level and evaluate the influence of attachment method. Our results show that the difference in RFCRS forward excursion between 3-point belt with base and LATCH installations was between 1 and 7 percent on the bench and 22 to 76 percent on the vehicle seats. When evaluating the dynamic performance of RFCRS, the use of real vehicle seats from vehicles that commonly carry children may provide valuable insight. The findings would require further confirmation using a broader selection of RFCRS and vehicle seats, before generalizable conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24406967

  14. Physiological Motion Axis for the Seat of a Dynamic Office Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Roman Peter; Bauer, Christoph Markus; Oetiker, Sarah; Kool, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine and verify the optimal location of the motion axis (MA) for the seat of a dynamic office chair. Background A dynamic seat that supports pelvic motion may improve physical well-being and decrease the risk of sitting-associated disorders. However, office work requires an undisturbed view on the work task, which means a stable position of the upper trunk and head. Current dynamic office chairs do not fulfill this need. Consequently, a dynamic seat was adapted to the physiological kinematics of the human spine. Method Three-dimensional motion tracking in free sitting helped determine the physiological MA of the spine in the frontal plane. Three dynamic seats with physiological, lower, and higher MA were compared in stable upper body posture (thorax inclination) and seat support of pelvic motion (dynamic fitting accuracy). Spinal kinematics during sitting and walking were compared. Results The physiological MA was at the level of the 11th thoracic vertebra, causing minimal thorax inclination and high dynamic fitting accuracy. Spinal motion in active sitting and walking was similar. Conclusion The physiological MA of the seat allows considerable lateral flexion of the spine similar to walking with a stable upper body posture and a high seat support of pelvic motion. Application The physiological MA enables lateral flexion of the spine, similar to walking, without affecting stable upper body posture, thus allowing active sitting while focusing on work. PMID:27150530

  15. Occupant Kinematics in Simulated Autonomous Driving Vehicle Collisions: Influence of Seating Position, Direction and Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yuichi; Hayashi, Shigeki; Yamada, Katsunori; Gotoh, Mitsuaki

    2017-11-01

    This two-part study analyzed occupant kinematics in simulated collisions of future automated driving vehicles in terms of seating configuration. In part one, a frontal collision was simulated with four occupants with the front seats reversed. The left front seat occupant was unbelted while the others were belted. In part two of the study, occupant restraint was examined in various seating configurations using a single seat model with a three-point seatbelt. The seat direction with respect to impact was considered as forward, rearward, and lateral facing in 45 degree increments. The effect of seat recline was also studied in the forward-facing and rear-facing cases by assuming three positions: driving position, resting position and relaxed position. Occupants were represented by human body finite element models. The results of part one showed that the front seat (rear-facing) occupants were restrained by the seatback, resulting in T1 forward displacement less than 100 mm; the rear seat occupants were restrained by the seatbelt resulting larger T1 forward displacement more than 500 mm. The results of the part two showed the directional dependence of occupant restraint. Greater T1 displacements were observed when the occupant faced lateral or front oblique. However, the seatbelt provided some restraint in all directions considered. The seatback generated contact force to the occupant when it was in the impact direction, including the lateral directions. The relaxed position allowed increased excursion compared to the driving position when the occupant faced rearward, but the magnitude of this increase was lower with lower impact speed.

  16. Disturbance observer based Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control for an active seat suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Fei; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Bangji

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a disturbance observer based Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy controller is proposed for an active seat suspension; both simulations and experiments have been performed verifying the performance enhancement and stability of the proposed controller. The controller incorporates closed-loop feedback control using the measured acceleration of the seat and deflection of the suspension; these two variables can be easily measured in practical applications, thus allowing the proposed controller to be robust and adaptable. A disturbance observer that can estimate the disturbance caused by friction, model simplification, and controller output error has also been used to compensate a H∞ state feedback controller. The TS fuzzy control method is applied to enhance the controller's performance by considering the variation of driver's weight during operation. The vibration of a heavy duty vehicle seat is largest in the frequency range between 2 Hz and 4 Hz, in the vertical direction; therefore, it is reasonable to focus on controlling low frequency vibration amplitudes and maintain the seat suspensions passivity at high frequency. Moreover, both the simulation and experimental results show that the active seat suspension with the proposed controller can effectively isolate unwanted vibration amplitudes below 4.5 Hz, when compared with a well-tuned passive seat suspension. The active controller has been further validated under bump and random road tests with both a 55 kg and a 70 kg loads. The bump road test demonstrated the controller has good transient response capabilities. The random road test result has been presented both in the time domain and the frequency domain. When with the above two loads, the controlled seat suspensions root-mean-square (RMS) accelerations were reduced by 45.5% and 49.5%, respectively, compared with a well-tuned passive seat suspension. The proposed active seat suspension controller has great potential and is very practical for application

  17. Optimization of geometry of annular seat valves suitable for Digital Displacement fluid power pumps/motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Daniel; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    Digital Displacement Fluid Power is an upcoming technology setting new standards for the achievable efficiency of fluid power pumps and motors. The core element of the Digital Displacement technology is high performance electronically controlled seat valves, which must exhibit very low flow...... work an annular seat valve suitable for use in Digital Displacement units is considered, and the ring geometry is optimized using finite element analysis including non-linear material behaviour, contact elements and fluid pressure penetrating load, closely reflecting the actual load of the seat valve...

  18. Airline seat inventory control benefiting from currency differentials to enhance revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Love

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop an airline seat inventory control model which will capitalise on currency differentials that exist between city pairs. The approach taken here is to maximise Expected Marginal Seat Revenues as proposed by Belobaba for non-nested fare classes. the basic Expected Marginal Seat Revenue model is extended to explicitly include the effects of overbooking. Data from the South African Airways return flight between Cape Town and London is utilised to demonstrate the model.

  19. Optical properties of quasiperiodically arranged semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werchner, Marco

    2009-12-18

    This work consists of two parts which are entitled ''One-Dimensional Resonant Fibonacci Quasicrystals'' and ''Resonant Tunneling of Light in Silicon Nanostructures''. A microscopic theory has been applied to investigate the optical properties of the respective semiconductor nanostructures. The studied one-dimensional resonant Fibonacci quasicrystals consist of GaAs quantum wells (QW) that are separated by either a large spacer L or a small one S. These spacers are arranged according to the Fibonacci sequence LSLLSLSL.. The average spacing satisfies a generalized Bragg condition with respect to the 1s-exciton resonance of the QWs. A theory, that makes use of the transfer-matrix method and that allows for the microscopic description of many-body effects such as excitation-induced dephasing caused by the Coulomb scattering of carriers, has been applied to compute the optical spectra of such structures. A pronounced sharp reflectivity minimum is found in the vicinity of the heavy-hole resonance both in the measured as well as in the calculated linear 54-QW spectra. Specifically, the influence of the carrier density, of the QW arrangement, of a detuning away from the exact Bragg condition, of the average spacing as well as of the ratio of the optical path lengths of the large and small spacers L and S, respectively, and of the QW number on the optical properties of the samples have been studied. Additionally, self-similarity among reflection spectra corresponding to different QW numbers that exceed a Fibonacci number by one is observed, which identifies certain spectral features as true fingerprints of the Fibonacci spacing. In the second part, resonant tunneling of light in stacked structures consisting of alternating parallel layers of silicon and air have been studied theoretically.Light may tunnel through the air barrier due to the existence of evanescent waves inside the air layers if the neighboring silicon layer is close

  20. Human Rights Arrangement on Indonesian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Masribut Sardol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article 1 paragraph (3 of the Constitution of 1945 (UUD 1945 stated that Indonesia is a Rule of Law. One feature of the Rule of Law is the existence of human rights in the state administration. Indonesia, since independence on August 17, 1945 has asserted the defense of human rights as stated in the opening clause and in the torso of the 1945 Constitution Article 27-34. In the era of reform, on the Government of President Habibie, the President and the Parliament ratified the UN convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading human dignity into Law number 5 of 1998. Then the MPR also publishes the statutes of MPR No. XVII/MPR/1998 on Human Rights, which was followed up with the appearance of Law No. 39 of 1999 on human rights. In accordance with the law in Indonesia based on the sort of Law No. 12 of 2011, the actual products that have been issued by the Government (the MPR, DPR and President that follow up the substance of Human Rights in the Constitution with established Assembly and the law is already correct. But when the MPR then does the second amendment to the Constitution on August 18, 2000 by adding a special article chapters and contains about Human Rights (as mentioned in Chapter X-A section 28 A-J, have made the complexity hierarchy of law in Indonesia because it is not in accordance with the substance of article 7 of Law No. 12 of 2011. How To Cite: Sardol, S. (2014. Human Rights Arrangement on Indonesian Law. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 85-100. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.105

  1. Institutional arrangements for a multinational reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.B.; Chayes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper lists some of the major issues that would have to be faced in negotiating the institutional structure of a multinational nuclear-fuel center. None of the organization problems is inherently insoluble. Difficulties are exacerbated by the large number of questions, their interrelations, and the complexity of the assumed structure. However, the assumptions posed the most difficult case. A reduction in membership and in the ambitious scope of the enterprise, at least at the outset, would greatly reduce the complexity of the organizational structure and the difficulty of negotiations. The analysis suggests that multinational fuel-cycle activities should start out more modestly, perhaps only with joint appraisal by a relatively few countries with existing geographic or economic connections. If operations are contemplated it would seem that the first step should be joint arrangements for spent-fuel storage, with the decision to go forward to more elaborate activities deferred. This approach would not only be simpler and permit the parties to gain experience working together, but it would have the virtue of delaying reprocessing until it was clear that there was a real need for it. Even on this reduced basis, the negotiating task would not be easy. The key, of course, to overcoming difficult technical problems of institutional structure is politial will--the genuine commitment of the participants to the aims and values of the enterprise. This suggests that any effort to cajole--not to say coerce--participation in a multinational fuel-cycle enterprise would be wholly misplaced. A reluctant partner would have available an infinitude of points and issues to create plausible, irritating, and ultimately defeating delay and complication in the negotiating process. Only assent freely given in the perception that the enterprise really serves the interest of the countries involved will be able to surmount the many institutional problems that will inevitably arise

  2. Support mechanism for a mirrored surface or other arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    An adjustment mechanism such as a three point spherical mount for adjustably supporting a planer mirror or other type of arrangement relative to a plane defined by a given pair of intersecting perpendicular axes is disclosed herein. This mechanism includes first means for fixedly supporting the mirror or other arrangement such that the latter is positionable within the plane defined by the given pair of intersecting perpendicular axes. This latter means and the mirror or other such arrangement are supported by second means for limited movement back and forth about either of the intersecting axes. Moreover, this second means supports the first means and the mirror or other arrangement such that the latter is not movable in any other way whereby the point on the mirror or other arrangement coinciding with the intersection of the given axes does not move or float, thereby making the ability to adjust the mirror or other such arrangement more precise and accurate.

  3. Concepts for institutional arrangements for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The paper focuses on the role of institutional arrangements in developing a consensus in international nuclear cooperation. Institutional arrangements are defined as undertakings and activities by governments or private entities to facilitate the efficient and secure functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle. The first two sections of the paper explore the historical role of cooperative arrangements, suggest criteria for evaluating the usefulness of institutional arrangements, and review the status of the discussion of institutional arrangements in INFCE Working Groups as of December 1978. The final section of the paper, explores potential relationships between various institutional arrangements and suggests that certain areas such as, the standardization of nuclear practices, joint commercial and development undertakings, nuclear supply assurances, and the settlement of disputes may have broad application for several stages of the fuel cycle and merit further study

  4. Electricity generation sectors under purchase obligation: support arrangement analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    This report aims at assessing the operation of the support arrangement by which currently benefit some electricity production sectors in France (renewable energies, co-generation) with respect to the evolution of the energy mix within the frame of energy transition. Other support arrangements presently adopted in Europe are also addressed as lessons to be learned. Criteria are established for any support arrangement. The report presents the French and European context regarding such support arrangement with purchasing obligation, and addresses the future evolutions of the European Commission. It highlights challenges for the electric system and for the energy market (impact on investments, optimization of market operation), describes and assesses the French purchasing obligation arrangement, and describes and assesses other existing support arrangements

  5. Baffle-former arrangement for nuclear reactor vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, O.J.; Berringer, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    A baffle-former arrangement for the reactor vessel internals of a nuclear reactor is described. The arrangement includes positioning of formers at the same elevations as the fuel assembly grids, and positioning flow holes in the baffle plates directly beneath selected former grid elevations. The arrangement reduces detrimental cross flows, maintains proper core barrel and baffle temperatures, and alleviates the potential of overpressurization within the baffle-former assembly under assumed major accident conditions

  6. Optimal support arrangement of piping systems using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, T.; Okado, S.; Fujii, I.; Itami, K.

    1996-01-01

    The support arrangement is one of the important factors in the design of piping systems. Much time is required to decide the arrangement of the supports. The authors applied a genetic algorithm to find the optimum support arrangement for piping systems. Examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the genetic algorithm. Good results are obtained when applying the genetic algorithm to the actual designing of the piping system

  7. Ulysses arrangements in psychiatry: a matter of good care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremmen, I; Widdershoven, G; Beekman, A; Zuijderhoudt, R; Sevenhuijsen, S

    2008-02-01

    This article concerns the issue of how an ethic of care perspective may contribute to both normative theory and mental health care policy discussions on so called Ulysses arrangements, a special type of advance directives in psychiatry. The debate on Ulysses arrangements has predominantly been waged in terms of autonomy conceived of as the right to non-intervention. On the basis of our empirical investigations into the experiences of persons directly involved with Ulysses arrangements, we argue that a care ethics perspective may broaden and deepen the debate on Ulysses arrangements, by introducing additional concepts, such as vulnerability, responsibility and mutuality, and by refining familiar concepts, such as autonomy.

  8. Spiral phyllotaxis underlies constrained variation in Anemone (Ranunculaceae) tepal arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Miho S; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2018-05-01

    Stabilization and variation of floral structures are indispensable for plant reproduction and evolution; however, the developmental mechanism regulating their structural robustness is largely unknown. To investigate this mechanism, we examined positional arrangement (aestivation) of excessively produced perianth organs (tepals) of six- and seven-tepaled (lobed) flowers in six Anemone species (Ranunculaceae). We found that the tepal arrangement that occurred in nature varied intraspecifically between spiral and whorled arrangements. Moreover, among the studied species, variation was commonly limited to three types, including whorls, despite five geometrically possible arrangements in six-tepaled flowers and two types among six possibilities in seven-tepaled flowers. A spiral arrangement, on the other hand, was unique to five-tepaled flowers. A spiral phyllotaxis model with stochasticity on initiating excessive primordia accounted for these limited variations in arrangement in cases when the divergence angle between preexisting primordia was less than 144°. Moreover, interspecific differences in the frequency of the observed arrangements were explained by the change of model parameters that represent meristematic growth and differential organ growth. These findings suggest that the phyllotaxis parameters are responsible for not only intraspecific stability but interspecific difference of floral structure. Decreasing arrangements from six-tepaled to seven-tepaled Anemone flowers demonstrate that the stabilization occurs as development proceeds to increase the component (organ) number, in contrast from the intuition that the variation will be larger due to increasing number of possible states (arrangements).

  9. Design and evaluation of a suspension seat to reduce vibration exposure of subway operators: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Pierre; Beaugrand, Sylvie; Boutin, Jérôme; Larue, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Subway operators have complained about discomfort caused by whole-body vibration. To address this problem, a suspension seat with extensive ergonomic features has been adapted to the confined space of the subway operator cab. The suspension was modified from an existing suspension in order to reduce the dominant frequency of the subway vertical vibration (2.4 Hz). The suspension seat has been extensively tested on a vertical hydraulic shaker. These tests have shown that the SEAT value was lower for a higher vibration level, for higher subject weight, and for the suspension adjusted at median height. The seat also produces a lower SEAT value when there was a predominance of the 6 Hz vibration component. The horizontal seat adjustments had no influence on the suspension SEAT value. Removing the suspension damper also decreases the SEAT value for all the tested configurations. The final version of the suspension seat prototype was validated during normal subway operation with 19 different operators having weight in the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile of the operator population. Accelerations were measured with triaxial accelerometers at the seat cushion, above the suspension and on the floor. In addition to the vibration measurements, each operator was asked about his perceived discomfort from vibration exposure. Globally, the suspension seat attenuated the vertical vibration (SEAT values from 0.86 to 0.99), but discomfort due to amplification of the 2.4 Hz component occurred when the suspension height was adjusted at the minimum, even when the global weighted acceleration was lower (SEAT value < 1). These results suggest that in order to reduce the discomfort caused by whole-body vibration, the transmissibility of the seat should also be considered, in particular when there is a dominant frequency in the vibration spectra.

  10. Effectiveness of Ford's belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, A; Wells, J; Farmer, C

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study investigated the effectiveness in increasing seat belt use of Ford's belt reminder system, a supplementary system that provides intermittent flashing lights and chimes for five minutes if drivers are not belted.

  11. Increasing seat belt use through state-level demonstration projects : a compendium of initial findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report summarizes the efforts and results from four of six State-level demonstration projects supported with cooperative agreements from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The projects were intended to increase seat belt use sta...

  12. Expanding the seat belt program strategies toolbox: a starter kit for trying new program ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore alternative strategies for increasing seat belt use. Researchers examined behavior : change strategies proven effective in education, healthcare, advertising, and marketing, and they considered how these : ...

  13. Effect of the "Long Term Solution" Seat Pack on Harvard II (CT156) Aircrew Accommodation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    ...). A previous study determined that any increase in seat thickness would likely have repercussions on the ability of the taller individuals to see all of the information displayed by the Electronic...

  14. Acquisition: Defense Hotline Allegations Concerning the Procurement of the Seat Management Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...) to the development of the Seat Management initiative, We performed the audit in response to allegations made to the Defense Hotline concerning the contracting for the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense...

  15. Seat belt, DWI, and other traffic violations among recent immigrants in Florida and Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Phase I of this project identified two States, Florida and Tennessee, that maintain information on drivers traffic violations and residency status. : Phase II analyzed State databases to examine seat belt nonuse, DWI, and other traffic safety viol...

  16. 76 FR 31453 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Single-Occupant Side-Facing Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... or furnishing that will support the pelvis, upper arm, chest, and head of an occupant seated next to.... 3. Thoracic Trauma: Thoracic trauma index (TTI) injury criterion must be substantiated by dynamic...

  17. SIT (seated immobility thromboembolism) syndrome: a 21st century lifestyle hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Richard; Heuser, Patricia; Raymond, Nigel

    2005-04-01

    The association between prolonged seated immobility and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is well recognised in relation to travel. In this case series, we report the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) following prolonged sitting in relation to work and/or recreation. The cases were characterised by the considerable length of time the individuals sat, the extensive nature of the VTE events in young individuals without other recognised risk factors, and the lack of recognition by the attending doctors of seated immobility as the likely major risk factor. While recognising that the association may be coincidental rather than causal, we propose the acronym 'SIT' (seated immobility thromboembolism) syndrome to encompass all forms of seated immobility associated with VTE.

  18. Comparison of interior crashworthiness observed in passenger train accidents and 8G dynamic seat sled tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    The Office of Research and Development of the Federal Railroad Administration conducts engineering research to address protection of passengers and crew during train accidents. This research includes accident investigations and dynamic seat testing t...

  19. The 2007 click it or ticket high-visibility seat belt mobilization : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    In May 2007 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration : sponsored the fifth national Click It or Ticket (CIOT) : high-visibility seat belt enforcement mobilization, which followed : the CIOT program model of earned and paid media : publicizi...

  20. Evaluation of the May 2005 Click It or Ticket mobilization to increase seat belt use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) is an intense, short-duration, seat belt publicity and enforcement program. The CIOT May 2005 Mobilization involved approximately $33 million of purchased media. Law enforcement agencies across the Nation reported issuing mo...

  1. 76 FR 14651 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department... applicants for the following seats on the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: (1...

  2. 75 FR 44215 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department... applicants for the following seats on the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Member...

  3. 75 FR 81224 - Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  4. 77 FR 33718 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department... applications for the following vacant seats on the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  5. 75 FR 9390 - Availability of Seats for the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  6. 76 FR 12070 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seat on the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  7. 76 FR 12069 - Availability of Seats for the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  8. 77 FR 15359 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department... applications for the following vacant seats on the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  9. 76 FR 77780 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  10. 76 FR 51953 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department... applicants for the following seat on the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: (2...

  11. 75 FR 3444 - Availability of Seats for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  12. 76 FR 41763 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  13. 76 FR 68428 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  14. 77 FR 66073 - Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  15. 75 FR 16075 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  16. 75 FR 57442 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  17. 77 FR 27719 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  18. 75 FR 17899 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  19. 75 FR 16074 - Availability of Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Sanctuary Advisory Council: Conservation. Applicants are chosen based upon their particular expertise and...

  20. 76 FR 66274 - Availability of Seats for the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  1. 76 FR 27307 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seat on the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  2. 75 FR 17899 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department... applicants for the following seats on the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Member...

  3. 77 FR 56190 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seat on the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  4. Tilted seat position for non-ambulant individuals with neurological and neuromuscular impairment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, S M; Porter, D; Pountney, T E

    2007-12-01

    To determine the effects of tilt-in-space seating on outcomes for people with neurological or neuromuscular impairment who cannot walk. Search through electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED). Discussions with researchers who are active in field. Selection criteria included interventional studies that investigated the effects of seat tilt on outcome or observational studies that identified outcomes for those who had used tilt-in-space seating in populations with neurological or neuromuscular impairments. Two reviewers independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed quality and extracted data. Nineteen studies were identified which fulfilled the selection criteria. Seventeen of these were essentially before-after studies investigating the immediate effects of tilting the seating. All studies looked at populations with neurological impairment, and most were on children with cerebral palsy (n=8) or adults with spinal cord injury (n=8). REVIEWER'S CONCLUSION: Posterior tilt can reduce pressures at the interface under the pelvis.

  5. EVALUATING EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE REAR SEATS OF THE ELECTRIC VEHICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Lu, Meng; Wu, Tong; Yang, Lei; Wu, Tongning

    2018-03-23

    In the electric vehicles (EVs), children can sit on a safety seat installed in the rear seats. Owing to their smaller physical dimensions, their heads, generally, are closer to the underfloor electrical systems where the magnetic field (MF) exposure is the greatest. In this study, the magnetic flux density (B) was measured in the rear seats of 10 different EVs, for different driving sessions. We used the measurement results from different heights corresponding to the locations of the heads of an adult and an infant to calculate the induced electric field (E-field) strength using anatomical human models. The results revealed that measured B fields in the rear seats were far below the reference levels by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Although small children may be exposed to higher MF strength, induced E-field strengths were much lower than that of adults due to their particular physical dimensions.

  6. Design Method for Fast Switching Seat Valves for Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    corresponding to the piston movement, which has been shown to facilitate superior part load efficiency combined with high bandwidth compared to traditional displacement machines. However, DD machines need fast switching on-off valves with low pressure loss for efficient operation, especially in fast rotating......Digital Displacement (DD) machines are upcoming technology where the displacement of each pressure chamber is controlled electronically by use of two fast switching seat valves. The effective displacement and operation type (pumping/motoring) may be controlled by manipulating the seat valves...... method for DD seat valves are presented, taking into account the significant aspects related to obtaining efficient DD valves with basis in a given DD machine specifications. The seat area is minimized and the stroke length is minimized to obtain fast switching times while considering the pressure loss...

  7. Car child safety seats use among Iranian children in Mashad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Jarahi, Lida

    2016-01-01

    Despite the strong evidence of child safety seats (CSSs) effectiveness in reducing injuries, it is still rarely used in some societies. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and predictors of CSS use in Mashad, Iran. Five hundred ninety kindergarten children whose parents owned a car were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked about using CSS for their children, reasons for CSS use/non-use, demographics, history of road traffic injuries and receiving any advice on CSS. Of families, 25.5% expressed that they used CSS for their child at present or any time in the past, but only 6.3% of children travelled restrained in CSS at the time of study. Age-appropriate CSS use was reported in 14.5% of infants and 2.3% of 1-5-year-old children. A significant relationship was observed between lower child age, higher maternal education and high family income with CSS use. The main reasons for CSS none-use were reported as not feeling the need (42%), followed by its high price (22%). Use of CSS was uncommon. The financial concerns and information gap about the essential need for CSS should be considered as priorities for action especially among lower socio-economic groups of society.

  8. Application of YAG laser cladding to the flange seating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Koki; Ninomiya, Kazuyuki; Nezaki, Koji

    1999-01-01

    Stainless cladding on carbon steel is usually conducted by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) or gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). YAG ( Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet) laser welding is superior to these methods of welding in the following respects : (1) The heat affected zone (HAZ) is narrower and there is less distortion. (2) YAG laser cladding has the required chemical compositions, even with possibly fewer welding layers under controlled dilution. (3) Greater welding speed. YAG laser cladding application to vessel flange seating surfaces was examined in this study and the results are discussed. The following objectives were carried out : (1) Determination of welding conditions for satisfactory cladding layers and (2) whether cladding would be adequately possible at a cornered section of a stair-like plate, assuming actual flange shape. (3) Measurement of welding distortion and heat affected zone in carbon steel. The welding conditions for producing no-crack deposit with low dilution in carbon steel were clarified and welding by which cladding at cornered section would be possible was achieved. welding distortion by YAG laser was found less than with GTAW and HAZ made by first layer welding could be tempered appropriately by second layer welding. (author)

  9. Thermometry system development for thermoradiotherapy of deep-seated tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeev, A. M.; Ivanov, S. M.; Perelstein, E. A.; Polozov, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic hyperthermia (including RF hyperthermia) in combination with radiotherapy (called thermoradiotherapy) is one of widely used contemporary cancer treatment methods. The independent electron linac and RF system or their combinations are necessary for effective therapy. Whole-body hyperthermia is used for treatment of metastatic cancer that was spread throughout the body, regional one is used for treatment of part of the body (for instance leg or abdominal cavity). Local hyperthermia with characteristic size of heating volume of 20-100 mm permits to heat tumour without overheating of healthy tissues. The thermometry of deep suited tissues during the hyperthermia process is an important and complex task. Invasive methods as thermistors, optical sensors or thermo-couples can not be widely used because all of them are able to transport tumor cells to the healthy region of the patient body. Distant methods of the temperature measurement such, as radiothermometry and acoustic thermometry can not be used for tissues seated deeper than 5-7 cm. One of possible ways to solve the problem of temperature measurement of the deep suited tissues is discussed in this article: it was proposed to use the same electrodes for RF hyperthermia and thermometry. As known electrodynamics characteristics of tissues are sufficiently depends on temperature. It was proposed to use this effect for active radiothermometry in local hyperthermia. Two opposite RF dipoles can be used as generator and receiver of pick-up signal.

  10. Enhancement of pressurizer safety valve operability by seating design improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisidis, N.T.; Ratiu, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Operating conditions specific to pressurizer safety valves (PSVs) have led to numerous problems and have caused industry and NRC concerns regarding the adequacy of spring-loaded self-actuated safety valves for reactor coolant system (RCS) overpressure protection. Specific concerns are: setpoint drift, spurious actuations, and pressure protection. Specific concerns are: setpoint drift, spurious actuations, and leakage. Based on testing and valve construction analysis of a Crosby model 6M6 PSV (Moisidis and Ratiu, 1992), it was established that the primary contributor to the valve problems is a susceptibility to weak seating. To eliminate spring instability, a new spring washer was designed, which guides the spring and precludes its rotation from the reference installed position. Results of tests performed on a prototype PSV equipped with the modified upper spring washer has shown significant improvements in valve operability and a consistent setpoint reproducibility to less than ±1% of the PSV setpoint (testing of baseline, unmodified valve, resulted in a setpoint drift of ± 2%). Enhanced valve operability will result in a significant decrease in operating and maintenance costs associated with valve maintenance and testing. In addition, the enhanced setpoint reproducibility will allow the development of a nitrogen to steam correlation for future in-house PSV testing which will result in further reductions in costs associated with valve testing

  11. Enhancement of pressurizer safety valve operability by seating design improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisidis, N.T.; Ratiu, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Operating conditions specific to Pressurizer Safety Valves (PSVs) have led to numerous problems and have caused industry and NRC concerns regarding the adequacy of spring loaded self-actuated safety valves for Reactor Coolant System (RCS) overpressure protection. Specific concerns are: setpoint drift, spurious actuations and leakage. Based on testing and valve construction analysis of a Crosby model 6M6 PSV, it was established that the primary contributor to the valve problems is a susceptibility to weak seating. To eliminate spring instability, a new spring washer was designed, which guides the spring and precludes its rotation from the reference installed position. Results of tests performed on a prototype PSV equipped with the modified upper spring washer has shown significant improvements in valve operability and a consistent setpoint reproducibility to less than ±1% of the PSV setpoint (testing of baseline, unmodified valve, resulted in a setpoint drift of ±2%). Enhanced valve operability will result in a significant decrease in operating and maintenance costs associated with valve maintenance and testing. In addition, the enhanced setpoint reproducibility will allow the development of a nitrogen to steam correlation for future in-house PSV testing which will result in further reductions in costs associated with valve testing

  12. 26 CFR 1.482-7A - Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... into a cost sharing agreement to develop manufacturing intangibles for a new product line A. USP and FS... (FS) enter into a cost sharing arrangement to develop new food products, dividing costs on the basis.... See generally § 1.864-2(a). (2) Limitation on allocations. The district director shall not make...

  13. A Motion Control of a Robotic Walker for Continuous Assistance during Standing, Walking and Seating Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Chugo, Daisuke; Takase, Kunikatsu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an active walker system for standing, walking and seating operation continuously which cooperates the developed standing assistance system with safety and stability. For realizing these conditions, our walker coordinates the assisting position cooperating the standing assistance manipulator according to the posture of the patient. Furthermore, our walker adjusts a seating position when the patient sit down which has high risk for falling down. Using our proposed syst...

  14. The Influence of Tractor-Seat Height above the Ground on Lateral Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gomez-Gil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations.

  15. Evaluation of the seat fastening in the frame of a road bus submitted to frontal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Walber

    Full Text Available The collective intercity transportation by bus is currently a mean of locomotion much sought after by people. Security in accidents is a very important factor that must be taken into account in design of bus body structure, being the evaluation of passenger safety of this type of vehicle is an important subject that should be checked, because in many accidents occur disconnection between seats and fastening members causing serious passengers injury, often fatal. This work aims at evaluation the behavior of frame fixing of seats of intercity bus bodies, submitted to the frontal impact situation in a rigid wall of 100% offset, through evaluation by finite element method (FEM. This study uses a numerical model corresponding to the body structure and chassis, developed through flexible beam elements, combining with shell elements for the structure of the seats and its fastening members, with the objective of not missing the essential aspects of the problem, allowing the solution with a reduced computational time. The numerical model of bus body and seat was impacted against a rigid wall at a speed of 8.89 m/s, being its validation according to the deceleration curve established by Regulation 80. Then it was gotten the Von Mises stress in fastening members of the seat structure in bus body. It is also presented a proposal to improve the fastening of the seat structure, comparing the results of the stress gotten in the two types fastening submitted to the frontal impact.

  16. Using naturalistic driving data to identify variables associated with infrequent, occasional, and consistent seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McClafferty, Julie A; Berlin, Sharon P; Hankey, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Seat belt use is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce traffic fatalities and injuries. The success of efforts to increase use is measured by road side observations and self-report questionnaires. These methods have shortcomings, with the former requiring a binary point estimate and the latter being subjective. The 100-car naturalistic driving study presented a unique opportunity to study seat belt use in that seat belt status was known for every trip each driver made during a 12-month period. Drivers were grouped into infrequent, occasional, or consistent seat belt users based on the frequency of belt use. Analyses were then completed to assess if these groups differed on several measures including personality, demographics, self-reported driving style variables as well as measures from the 100-car study instrumentation suite (average trip speed, trips per day). In addition, detailed analyses of the occasional belt user group were completed to identify factors that were predictive of occasional belt users wearing their belts. The analyses indicated that consistent seat belt users took fewer trips per day, and that increased average trip speed was associated with increased belt use among occasional belt users. The results of this project may help focus messaging efforts to convert occasional and inconsistent seat belt users to consistent users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. "Hot Seat" Questioning: A Technique to Promote and Evaluate Student Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Anthony

    Several approaches have been proposed to include students in classroom dialogue, including "think-pair-share" and "talk to your neighbor." I recently implemented an additional technique in which four students answer questions in a "Hot Seat" at the front of the classroom. An unforeseen by-product of this was student-initiated peer instruction outside of the classroom. A small case study (approximately 50 students) on the effect of the Hot Seat using the midterm exam showed that students were 9.5 +/- 3.2% more likely to correctly answer a question related to material covered while they occupied the Hot Seat. Analysis of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test revealed that they were twice as likely to learn their Hot Seat material. A survey revealed one likely reason: Students typically spent 15-60 additional minutes preparing for class on their two assigned Hot Seat dates. Curiously, students received no significant benefit (2.2 +/- 3.6%) from their second turn in the Hot Seat, possibly reflecting student immunization to its motivational pressure.

  18. Financial Arrangements and Relationship Quality in Low-Income Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Fenaba R.; Sassler, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the association between household financial arrangements and relationship quality using a representative sample of low-income couples with children. We detailed the banking arrangements couples utilize, assessed which factors relate to holding a joint account versus joint and separate, only separate, or no account, and analyzed…

  19. Flexible Work Arrangements in ARL Libraries. SPEC Kit #180.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Diane, Comp.; And Others

    This report presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members about the current climate and practices regarding flexible work arrangements. Data are reported on the availability of schedule flexibility, job exchange, part-time arrangements, and leaves, as well as information about faculty status, tenure,…

  20. 28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for arranging drug counseling... MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.44 Procedures for arranging drug counseling. The contract center staff shall hold a program...

  1. 48 CFR 3001.105-1 - Publication and code arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication and code arrangement. 3001.105-1 Section 3001.105-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Purpose, Authority, Issuance 3001.105-1 Publication and code arrangement. (a) The HSAR is published in: (1...

  2. 48 CFR 501.105-1 - Publication and code arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication and code arrangement. 501.105-1 Section 501.105-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES... 501.105-1 Publication and code arrangement. The GSAR is published in the following sources: (a) Daily...

  3. Ulysses arrangements in psychiatry: a matter of good care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, I.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Zuijderhoudt, R.H.; Sevenhuijsen, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article concerns the issue of how an ethic of care perspective may contribute to both normative theory and mental health care policy discussions on so called Ulysses arrangements, a special type of advance directives in psychiatry. The debate on Ulysses arrangements has predominantly been waged

  4. Ulysses Arrangements in psychiatry: A matter of good care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, C.C.M.; Widdershoven, G.G; Beekman, A; Zuijderhoudt, R.; Sevenhuijsen, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article concerns the issue of how an ethic of care perspective may contribute to both normative theory and mental health care policy discussions on so called Ulysses arrangements, a special type of advance directives in psychiatry. The debate on Ulysses arrangements has predominantly been waged

  5. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into contractual...

  6. Do Knowledge Arrangements Affect Student Reading Comprehension of Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Yi; Tung, Yu-Neng; Hwang, Bi-Chi; Lin, Chen-Yung; Che-Di, Lee; Chang, Yung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Various sequences for teaching genetics have been proposed. Three seventh-grade biology textbooks in Taiwan share similar key knowledge assemblages but have different knowledge arrangements. To investigate the influence of knowledge arrangements on student understanding of genetics, we compared students' reading comprehension of the three texts…

  7. 29 CFR 779.230 - Franchise and other arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise and other arrangements. 779.230 Section 779.230... Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.230 Franchise and other.... The quotation in § 779.229 from the Senate Report shows that Congress recognized that some franchise...

  8. On capital allocation for stochastic arrangement increasing actuarial risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the increasing convex ordering of the optimal discounted capital allocations for stochastic arrangement increasing risks with stochastic arrangement decreasing occurrence times. The application to optimal allocation of policy limits is presented as an illustration as well.

  9. European top managers’ support for work-life arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Wike M.; van der Lippe, Tanja; den Dulk, Laura; Das Dores Horta Guerreiro, Maria; Kanjuo Mrčela, Aleksandra; Niemistö, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    Top managers—defined as CEOs, CFOs and members of boards of directors—decide to what degree their organization offers employees work-life arrangements. This study focuses on the conditions under which they support such arrangements. A factorial survey of 202 top managers in five European countries

  10. The effects of different source arrangement on the irradiation efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongyue; Shi Peixin; Lin Yin

    1999-01-01

    The effects of 8 different arrangements with 16 pencil sources on irradiation productivity were studied by using a self-designed computer program. The results showed that the fashion of decentralized arrangement had a higher irradiation productivity than that of centralized in a static and uniform field

  11. BIRTHDAY CAKE ACTIVITY STRUCTURED ARRANGEMENT FOR HELPING CHILDREN DETERMINING QUANTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatialthinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused onone component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and onecomponent of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. Thisstudy focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which weinvestigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability inmaking structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities bylooking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children wereable to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties eitherto determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structuresto easily recognize number of objects.Keywords: structures, structured arrangement, cardinality DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.1.1.790.53-70

  12. The microscopic investigation of structures of moving flux lines by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have used a variety of microscopic techniques to reveal the structure and motion of flux line arrangements, when the flux lines in low Tc type II superconductors are caused to move by a transport current. Using small-angle neutron scattering by the flux line lattice (FLL), we are able to demonstrate directly the ...

  13. Attitudes towards child restrains and seat belts usage in the learned population of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Emaduddin; Ejaz, Kiran; Waheed, Shahan; Kazi, Ghazala Irfan; Khursheed, Munawar

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicles crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of injury related morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Recent evidence proves that properly used child seat belts can dramatically reduce the risk of severe and life-threatening injury from MVCs. There are rarities of thought and inspiration regarding the use of child seat belts in our society and region, therefore we lack of data regarding factors and paucity of usage of child seat belts in motor vehicles. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of child seat belt usage among the educated population in Karachi, Pakistan. Altogether 304 employees were investigated. They were employees of Aga Khan University who were using their cars and having children younger than 10 years old. A cross sectional observational study was designed, and a 36-item questionnaire in English was used to collect data on participants' demographic details, designation, educational level, economic status, validity of driving license, number of children and cars, availability of adult seat belts and child seat belts along with their functionality, awareness, knowledge and attitude toward its use, and reason of not using these devices. SPSS version 20 for Windows was used to analyze the data and the Chi-square test was used. Totally 290 participants were recruited with a response rate of 72% (212). Of 212 participants, 126 (59%) were male. 154 (72.6%) participants had valid driver licenses, and 154 (72.6%) had adult seat belts in their vehicles. Only 32 (15%) reported regular use of adult seat belts. Although 168 (79.2%) participants had some knowledge about child restrains (CRs), only 65 (22%) had CRs in their cars. Eighty-two (38.7%) participants got the knowledge about CRs and seat belts from media. Mothers were more concerned about the use of CRs than fathers. Only 14 (6.6%) parents were found to use both adult and child seat belts all the time. Of the 157 parents who did not us use CRs, 42 considered unnecessary

  14. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxiang Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group. The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4% were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3% were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3% were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the

  15. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention. PMID

  16. Impact of Active Climate Control Seats on Energy Use, Fuel Use, and CO2 Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutzer, Cory J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rugh, John P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Titov, Eugene V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kekelia, Bidzina [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-28

    A project was developed through collaboration between Gentherm and NREL to determine the impact of climate control seats for light-duty vehicles in the United States. The project used a combination of experimentation and analysis, with experimental results providing critical input to the analysis process. First, outdoor stationary vehicle testing was performed at NREL's facility in Golden, CO using multiple occupants. Two pre-production Ford Focus electric vehicles were used for testing; one containing a standard inactive seat and the second vehicle containing a Gentherm climate control seat. Multiple maximum cool-down and steady-state cooling tests were performed in late summer conditions. The two vehicles were used to determine the increase in cabin temperature when using the climate control seat in comparison to the baseline vehicle cabin temperature with a standard seat at the equivalent occupant whole-body sensation. The experiments estimated that on average, the climate control seats allowed for a 2.61 degrees Celsius increase in vehicle cabin temperature at equivalent occupant body sensation compared to the baseline vehicle. The increased cabin air temperature along with their measured energy usage were then used as inputs to the national analysis process. The national analysis process was constructed from full vehicle cabin, HVAC, and propulsion models previously developed by NREL. In addition, three representative vehicle platforms, vehicle usage patterns, and vehicle registration weighted environmental data were integrated into the analysis process. Both the baseline vehicle and the vehicle with climate control seats were simulated, using the experimentally determined cabin temperature offset of 2.61degrees Celsius and added seat energy as inputs to the climate control seat vehicle model. The U.S. composite annual fuel use savings for the climate control seats over the baseline A/C system was determined to be 5.1 gallons of gasoline per year per

  17. METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE MAXIMUM ARRANGEMENT FACTOR OF FOOTWEAR PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRIŞCU Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By classic methodology, designing footwear is a very complex and laborious activity. That is because classic methodology requires many graphic executions using manual means, which consume a lot of the producer’s time. Moreover, the results of this classical methodology may contain many inaccuracies with the most unpleasant consequences for the footwear producer. Thus, the costumer that buys a footwear product by taking into consideration the characteristics written on the product (size, width can notice after a period that the product has flaws because of the inadequate design. In order to avoid this kind of situations, the strictest scientific criteria must be followed when one designs a footwear product. The decisive step in this way has been made some time ago, when, as a result of powerful technical development and massive implementation of electronical calculus systems and informatics, This paper presents a product software for determining all possible arrangements of a footwear product’s reference points, in order to automatically acquire the maximum arrangement factor. The user multiplies the pattern in order to find the economic arrangement for the reference points. In this purpose, the user must probe few arrangement variants, in the translation and rotate-translation system. The same process is used in establishing the arrangement factor for the two points of reference of the designed footwear product. After probing several variants of arrangement in the translation and rotation and translation systems, the maximum arrangement factors are chosen. This allows the user to estimate the material wastes.

  18. Topographic precursors and geological structures of deep-seated catastrophic landslides caused by Typhoon Talas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Tsou, Ching-Ying; Matsushi, Yuki; Hiraishi, Narumi; Matsuzawa, Makoto

    2013-11-01

    Typhoon Talas crossed the Japanese Islands between 2 and 5 September 2011, causing more than 70 deep-seated catastrophic landslides in a Jurassic to Paleogene-lower Miocene accretion complex. Detailed examination of the topographic features of 10 large landslides before the event, recorded on 1-m DEMs based on airborne laser scanner surveys, showed that all landslides had small scarps near their future crowns prior to the slide, and one landslide had linear depressions along its future crown as precursor topographic features. These scarps and linear depressions were caused by gravitational slope deformation that preceded the catastrophic failure. Although the scarps may have been enlarged by degradation, their sizes relative to the whole slopes suggest that minimal slope deformation had occurred in the period immediately before the catastrophic failure. The scarp ratio, defined as the ratio of length of a scarp to that of the whole slope both measured along the slope line, ranged from 5% to 21%. Careful examination of aerial photographs from another four large landslides, for which no high-resolution DEMs were available, suggested that they also developed scarps at their heads beforehand. Twelve of the 14 landslides we surveyed in the field had sliding surfaces with wedge-shaped discontinuities that consisted of faults and bedding, suggesting that the buildup of pore pressure occurs readily on wedge-shaped discontinuities in a gravitationally deformed rock body. Most of the faults were undulatory and were probably thrust faults that formed during accretion. Other types of gravitational deformation were also active; e.g., flexural toppling and buckling were observed to have preceded one landslide.

  19. Spatial arrangement of faults and opening-mode fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, S. E.; Lamarche, J.; Gauthier, B. D. M.; Dunne, W. M.; Sanderson, David J.

    2018-03-01

    Spatial arrangement is a fundamental characteristic of fracture arrays. The pattern of fault and opening-mode fracture positions in space defines structural heterogeneity and anisotropy in a rock volume, governs how faults and fractures affect fluid flow, and impacts our understanding of the initiation, propagation and interactions during the formation of fracture patterns. This special issue highlights recent progress with respect to characterizing and understanding the spatial arrangements of fault and fracture patterns, providing examples over a wide range of scales and structural settings. Five papers describe new methods and improvements of existing techniques to quantify spatial arrangement. One study unravels the time evolution of opening-mode fracture spatial arrangement, which are data needed to compare natural patterns with progressive fracture growth in kinematic and mechanical models. Three papers investigate the role of evolving diagenesis in localizing fractures by mechanical stratigraphy and nine discuss opening-mode fracture spatial arrangement. Two papers show the relevance of complex cluster patterns to unconventional reservoirs through examples of fractures in tight gas sandstone horizontal wells, and a study of fracture arrangement in shale. Four papers demonstrate the roles of folds in fracture localization and the development spatial patterns. One paper models along-fault friction and fluid pressure and their effects on fault-related fracture arrangement. Contributions address deformation band patterns in carbonate rocks and fault size and arrangement above a detachment fault. Three papers describe fault and fracture arrangements in basement terrains, and three document fracture patterns in shale. This collection of papers points toward improvement in field methods, continuing improvements in computer-based data analysis and creation of synthetic fracture patterns, and opportunities for further understanding fault and fracture attributes in

  20. A joint econometric analysis of seat belt use and crash-related injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluru, Naveen; Bhat, Chandra R

    2007-09-01

    This paper formulates a comprehensive econometric structure that recognizes two important issues in crash-related injury severity analysis. First, the impact of a factor on injury severity may be moderated by various observed and unobserved variables specific to an individual or to a crash. Second, seat belt use is likely to be endogenous to injury severity. That is, it is possible that intrinsically unsafe drivers do not wear seat belts and are the ones likely to be involved in high injury severity crashes because of their unsafe driving habits. The preceding issues are considered in the current research effort through the development of a comprehensive model of seat belt use and injury severity that takes the form of a joint correlated random coefficients binary-ordered response system. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of such a model formulation and application not only in the safety analysis literature, but in the econometrics literature in general. The empirical analysis is based on the 2003 General Estimates System (GES) data base. Several types of variables are considered to explain seat belt use and injury severity levels, including driver characteristics, vehicle characteristics, roadway design attributes, environmental factors, and crash characteristics. The results, in addition to confirming the effects of various explanatory variables, also highlight the importance of (a) considering the moderating effects of unobserved individual/crash-related factors on the determinants of injury severity and (b) seat belt use endogeneity. From a policy standpoint, the results suggest that seat belt non-users, when apprehended in the act, should perhaps be subjected to both a fine (to increase the chances that they wear seat belts) as well as mandatory enrollment in a defensive driving course (to attempt to change their aggressive driving behaviors).

  1. Injury severity and seating position in accidents with German EMS helicopters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkelbein, Jochen; Spelten, Oliver; Neuhaus, Christopher; Hinkelbein, Mandy; Özgür, Enver; Wetsch, Wolfgang A

    2013-10-01

    Accident rates and fatality rates for Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) missions have been investigated recently, but none of these studies considered the influence of the seating position in the helicopter. The aim of the present descriptive and observational study was to analyze injury severity depending on the seating position during HEMS accidents in Germany. Data from the German Federal Agency for Flight Accident Investigation was gathered for a period of 40 years (from 1970 to 2009). The seating position in the aircraft during the accident and the resulting injury severity (i.e., 1=no; 2=slight; 3=severe; and 4=fatal) were recorded. Injury severity was compared using the Fisher's exact test. P values accidents were investigated (n=61 accidents did not lead to any injuries in the occupants, n=7 accidents resulted in minor, and n=6 in severe injuries, and lethal injuries resulted from n=15 accidents). The occupant in the "patient" position was most likely to suffer from deadly injuries (44.9%), followed by the HEMS crew member rear seat (25.0%), compared to lower lethality rates in the other seating positions (9.4-11.2%). Sitting on the HEMS crew member rear seat also was associated with the highest percentage of severe and minor injuries (12.5% each). In HEMS accidents, the patients' position and the HEMS crew member rear seat were found to be at the highest risk for fatal or severe injuries. These results support the urgent requirement of a large international data base for HEMS accidents as a basis for further studies to improve the safety in HEMS missions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Compatibility of booster seats and vehicles in the U.S. market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Julie A; Agnew, Amanda M; Bolte, John H

    2018-05-19

    The objective of this study was to analyze booster and rear vehicle seat dimensions to identify the most frequent compatibility problems. Measurements were collected from 40 high-back and backless boosters and 95 left rear and center rear row seating positions in 50 modern vehicles. Dimensions were compared for 3,800 booster/vehicle seat combinations. For validation and estimation of tolerance and correction factors, 72 booster installations were physically completed and compared with measurement-based compatibility predictions. Dimensions were also compared to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) volumetric envelopes of forward-facing child restraints and boosters. Seat belt buckles in outboard positions accommodated the width of boosters better than center positions (success rates of 85.4 and 34.7%, respectively). Adequate head restraint clearance occurred in 71.9 to 77.2% of combinations, depending on the booster's head support setting. Booster recline angles aligned properly with vehicle seat cushion angles in 71.5% of combinations. In cases of poor angle alignment, booster angles were more obtuse than the vehicle seat angles 97.7% of the time. Head restraint interference exacerbated angle alignment issues. Data indicate success rates above 90% for boosters being fully supported by the length of the seat cushion and for adequate height clearance with the vehicle roofline. Comparison to ISO envelopes indicates that most boosters on the U.S. market are taller and angled more obtusely than ISO target envelopes. This study quantifies some of the common interferences between boosters and vehicles that may complicate booster usage. Data are useful for design and to prioritize specific problem areas.

  3. Compliance with Use of Seat Belt among Commercial Drivers in a Nigerian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole C. Omolase

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed at determining compliance with use of seat belt among commercial intercity drivers. METHOD: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Owo, South West Nigeria among commercial intercity drivers between June and September, 2009. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria prior to commencement of this study. The permission of the leadership of Road Transport Workers’ Union was also sought and obtained. Ninety intercity commercial drivers out of the estimated one hundred and sixty intercity commercial drivers in the community were enrolled in this study. Informed consent was obtained from each of the respondents. The data obtained was collated and analyzed with SPSS 15.0.1 statistical soft ware version. RESULTS: Ninety respondents were enrolled in this study. The driving experience of the respondents revealed that most respondents: 53 (58.9% had more than 20 years driving experience. Most respondents;78 (86.7% complied with use of seat belt .The main barrier to compliance with seat belt was short trip;28 (50.9%.Most respondents; 67 (74.4%were in support of penalization of defaulters. The major source of awareness about seat belt was Federal Road Safety Corps;59 (65.6%. CONCLUSION: Most respondents complied with use of seat belt. The major barrier to compliance with seat belt was short trip within the community. The Federal Road Safety Corps should enforce compliance with the use of seat belt most especially within communities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 281-286

  4. William Barlow and the Determination of Atomic Arrangement in Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauskopf, Seymour H

    2015-04-01

    William Barlow (1845-1934) was an important if unconventional scientist, known for having developed the 'closest-packing' atomic models of crystal structure. He resumed an early nineteenth-century tradition of utilizing crystallographical and chemical data to determine atomic arrangements in crystals. This essay recounts Barlow's career and scientific activity in three parts: (a) His place in the tradition of determining atomic arrangement in context of this earlier tradition and of contemporaneous developments of crystallography and chemistry, (b) his unconventional career, and (c) the 'success' of his program to determine atomic arrangements in crystals and its influence on the work of William Lawrence Bragg.

  5. Modeling and Analysis of Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Nonlinear Seat Suspension for Off-Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Zhenhua; Zhu, Bing; Li, Xuefei; Wang, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency vibrations (0.5–5 Hz) that harm drivers occur in off-road vehicles. Thus, researchers have focused on finding methods to effectively isolate or control low-frequency vibrations. A novel nonlinear seat suspension structure for off-road vehicles is designed, whose static characteristics and seat-human system dynamic response are modeled and analyzed, and experiments are conducted to verify the theoretical solutions. Results show that the stiffness of this nonlinear seat suspension...

  6. Seating position, seat belt wearing, and the consequences in facial fractures in car occupants Posição no veículo, uso de cinto de segurança e suas conseqüências nas fraturas de face em ocupantes de carros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Siqueira Franco Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Trauma caused by traffic accidents is among the main etiologies involved in the occurrence of facial fractures throughout the world. However, the trauma mechanisms involved are different according to the location where the study was performed, due to different conditions of development, legislation, and culture. A retrospective study was done between February 2001 and July 2006, with the purpose of determining the epidemiology and the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of facial fractures among car occupants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. METHODS: Data were collected from 297 patients admitted with facial fractures to the emergency room of the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School. Within this period, 151 individuals had been involved in traffic accidents, among which 56 (37.08% were inside passenger cars. These were grouped based on the seating position that they were occupying at the time of the accident and the wearing of seat belts. Data concerning the number and location of fracture lines were obtained from the different groups, and a fracture/patient index (F/P I was calculated to compare and make reference to the impact energy among these groups, for subsequent analysis and discussion. RESULTS: 323 fracture lines occurred among 56 patients who were car occupants. By applying the F/P I, we obtained higher values in the group of rear-seat passengers who were not wearing seat belts (7.23 fractures per patient, followed by the group of drivers not wearing seat belts (6.33 fractures per patient, the group of front-seat passengers not wearing seat belts (5.58 fractures per patient, the group of drivers wearing seat belts (5.54 fractures per patient and, finally, the group of front-seat passengers wearing seat belts (4.00 fractures per patient. None of the rear-seat passengers was wearing seat belts. CONCLUSION: The data collected indicate that the driver position shows a high incidence of facial

  7. Factors associated with rear seating of children in motor vehicles: a study in two low-income, predominantly Hispanic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg-Seth, Jennifer; Hemenway, David; Gallagher, Susan S; Lissy, Karen S; Ross, Julie B

    2004-07-01

    This study examined child seating patterns in two predominantly low-income, Hispanic communities in Massachusetts. The purpose was to determine the factors associated with child rear seating in the community as a whole and for a subset of Hispanic motorists. Five hundred and five vehicles carrying child passengers and no adult other than the driver were observed in parking lots of fast food restaurants and grocery stores. Four hundred and thirty-two vehicle drivers agreed to be interviewed. A child was defined as a passenger younger than age 12 as determined by appearance and height (head below the vehicle headrest when seated). Variables under study included driver gender, age, ethnicity, and educational attainment; driver shoulder belt use; driver perception of passenger-side airbag presence; and the number and ages of children in the car. Overall, 51% of vehicles were observed with all children seated in the rear. In a bivariate analysis, child rear seating was strongly associated with female drivers ( P = 0.01), younger drivers ( P = 0.02) driver shoulder belt use ( P safety behavior (e.g. seat belt use). Messages should be culturally appropriate and should emphasize driver seat belt use in conjunction with rear seating and the importance of rear seating regardless of the presence of a passenger-side airbag.

  8. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions.

  9. Feasibility study for the development and marketing of magnesium seats for motor coaches and other modes of public transit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, F. [IC-2 Technologies Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Audet, J.F. [J-F Audet Courtier Stratege, Carignan, PQ (Canada)

    2004-06-01

    Magnesium is currently used for seats in many minivans and luxury cars, as well as in some high speed trains. This paper addresses concerns about the use of magnesium in manufacturing seats for public transit vehicles. This paper aimed to validate the feasibility of magnesium and/or aluminum passenger seats and determine if they met weight and cost reduction objectives currently set by the public transportation industry. An assessment of the North American bus and motor coach market was made, and passenger seat design standards were reviewed. Additionally, magnesium samples were tested to ensure industry standards for material flammability and toxic fumes emissions during exposure to intense heat. Corrosion testing and a comparison with automobile industry tests were made. A number of manufacturing case studies were conducted, including life-cycle costs and comparisons with the manufacture of traditional steel seats. It was concluded that a lighter-weight seat is both technically possible and economically viable. In terms of flammability, magnesium seats met all required industry standards, and when combined with excellent seat design, increased the safety of seat occupants projected forward during collisions. In addition, magnesium's ability to absorb vibration was seen as a substantial benefit in terms of passenger comfort. In terms of manufacturing cost alone, a magnesium-aluminum hybrid was recommended. 15 refs., 25 tabs., 24 figs.

  10. Research Paper: Impact of Air Seat Cushions and Ball Chairs on Classroom Behavior of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Matin Sadr

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion In the present study, therapy balls and or cushioned chairs for ASD students facilitated in-seat and on-task behaviors and improved classroom performance. It seems that using these alternative seating chairs can satisfy the subjects’ needs to sensory stimuli, and therefore, decreases their sensory seeking behaviors which interferes with their academic achievements. While, using therapy ball chairs for these students may facilitate in-seat behavior and decrease autistic behavior in class, the student’s response to dynamic seating is different individually. Therefore, chair selection must be based on vestibular reaction of the students.

  11. Ergonomic Evaluation of Space Shuttle Light-Weight Seat Lever Position and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, J.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During a Shuttle flight in the early part of 1999, one of the crewmembers was unable to operate the backrest lever for the light-weight seat in microgravity. It is essential that the crewmembers are able to adjust this back-rest lever, which is titled forward 2 degrees from vertical during launch and then moved backwards to 10 degrees aft of vertical upon reaching orbit. This adjustment is needed to cushion the crewmembers during an inadvertent crash landing situation. The original Shuttle seats, which had seat controls located on the front left and right sides of the seat, were replaced recently with the new light-weight seats. The controls for these new, seats were moved to the night side with one control at the front and the other at the back. While it was uncertain whether the problem encountered was unique to that crewmember or not it was clear to the personnel responsible for maintaining the Shuttle seats that not knowing the cause of the problem posed a safety concern for NASA. Hence the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) of the Johnson Space Center was requested to perform an evaluation of the seat controls and provide NASA with appropriate recommendations on whether the seat lever positions and operations should be modified. The ABF designed an experiment to investigate the amount of pull force exerted by subjects, wearing an unpressurized or pressurized crew launch escape suit, when controls were placed in the front and back (on the right side) of the light-weight seat. Single-axis load cells were attached to the seat levers, which measured the maximum static pull forces that were exerted by the subjects. Twelve subjects, six male and six female, participated in this study. Each subject was asked to perform the pull test at least three times for each combination of lever position and suit pressure conditions. The results from this study showed that as a whole (or in general), the subjects were able to pull on the lever at the back position with

  12. Fuel arrangement for high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a fuel arrangement for a high temperature gas cooled reactor including fuel assemblies with separate directly cooled fissile and fertile fuel elements removably inserted in an elongated moderator block also having a passageway for control elements

  13. Arrangement to reduce the failure frequency of heat condensate pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liskow, E.; Apelt, W.; Krause, W.; Meisel, L.

    1988-01-01

    The arrangement of throttling devices in heat condensate pipes of NPP with WWER-440 type reactors aims at reducing their failure frequency, ensuring an energetically favourable operation, and enhancing the availability and safety of NPP units

  14. Friendship Repertoires and Care Arrangement: A Praxeological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Friends are important companions and serve as sources for diverse dimensions of social support, including elderly care. Rather than researching populations that have already established care arrangements including friends, the author seeks to understand relationship systems with a focus on the inner logic friendship to consequently describe and understand involved care arrangements, be it with family members or friends. To illustrate the diversity of friendship repertoires, qualitative interviews with older adult Germans are analyzed regarding cognitive concepts of friendships in contrast to familiar ties as well as social practices around relationship systems. While some repertoires successfully include chosen ties in their care arrangements, others not only focus on family, they do not wish to receive care from friends. The article's praxeological approach highlights the need to reflect habitual differences when thinking about elderly informal care arrangements. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. The new electricity trading arrangements: prospects for market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1999-09-01

    This Briefing Paper from OXERA argues that the OFGEM proposals will not solve the fundamental market problems and might even make things worse. They focus too narrowly on the technical design of one small part of the market (the Balancing Mechanism and associated imbalance settlement process), without considering the market context and dynamics. OXERA argues that the central emphasis of the White Paper was misplaced: reform of the electricity trading arrangements, the basis of the government's strategy, will not solve the upstream and downstream market problems. The Briefing Paper includes analysis of: the structure and operation of the proposed new electricity trading arrangements; risk in the electricity wholesale market, and the responses of market participants; the interaction between the new trading arrangements and other energy market developments - in particular, vertical integration between generators and suppliers; energy supply competition, and wider government policy; the prospects for market development under the new electricity trading arrangements. (author)

  16. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which we investigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability in making structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities by looking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children were able to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties either to determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structures to easily recognize number of objects.

  17. Evolution of Land Rental Arrangements in Rural Ghana: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zones of Ghana, their varied characters, trends of evolution, and the driving forces .... arrangements have not been given the needed attention in policy, perhaps due to ... markets follows a five-stage trajectory, which can broadly be divided into.

  18. Children's postdivorce residence arrangements and parental experienced time pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Franciëlla; Poortman, Anne Rigt; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Although the rise in postdivorce joint physical custody has fueled scholarly interest in its impact on children, consequences for parents remain understudied. Because children's residence arrangements determine time and coordination demands associated with child care, this study investigated the

  19. On the Modeling of a MEMS Based Capacitive Accelerometer for Measurement of Tractor Seat Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alidoost

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Drivers of heavy vehicles often face with higher amplitudes of frequencies range between 1-80 Hz. Hence, this range of frequency results in temporary or even sometimes permanent damages to the health of drivers. Examples for these problems are damages to the vertebral column and early tiredness, which both reduce the driver’s performance significantly. One solution to this problem is to decrease the imposed vibration to the driver’s seat by developing an active seat system. These systems require an online measuring unit to sense vibrations transferred to the seat. The measuring unit can include a capacitive micro-accelerometer on the basis of MEMS which measure online vibrations on the seat. In this study, the mechanical behavior of a capacitive micro-accelerometer for the vibration range applied to a tractor seat has been simulated. The accelerometer is capable to measure step, impact and harmonic external excitations applied to the system. The results of the study indicate that, with increasing the applied voltage, the system sensitivity also increases, but the measuring range of vibrations decreases and vice versa. The modeled accelerometer, at damping ratio of 0.67 is capable to measure accelerations within the frequency range of lower than 130 Hz.

  20. Evaluating the impact of child safety seat check-up events on parental knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Ashley B; Jones, Ches; Nunez, Casandra

    2002-12-01

    Riding unrestrained is the greatest risk factor for death and injury among children in motor vehicles. Restraining a child can reduce the risk of death for that child by up to 71%. However, despite increased awareness, child safety seat usage rates are still disturbingly low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact that child safety seat check-up events have on parental knowledge on child safety seats and installation. The subjects for this study were 101 parents/caregivers who attended child safety seat check-up events in northwest Arkansas from May 2000 through June 2001. A 20-item survey was conducted via the telephone. Results showed that the check-up events in northwest Arkansas have had an impact on self-efficacy. The participants of the events were primarily Caucasian and females in the 30-34 age group. Nine of 10 subjects scored in the high knowledge category. Conclusions are that check-up events do have an impact on parental knowledge and are accepted by the target group. Additionally, participants believed that car seats are of great importance and do protect their children in the event of a crash.

  1. Child seat belt guidelines: Examining the 4 feet 9 inches rule as the standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Amber M; Aitken, Mary E; Mullins, Samantha H; Miller, Beverly K; Pomtree, Mindy M; Ulloa, Erin M; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Saylors, Marie E

    2017-08-01

    Current American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations regarding transition from child safety/booster seat to adult safety belt use indicate that children should be at least 4 feet 9 inches, 8 years old, or 80 pounds. Proper fit in the vehicle seat, assessed with a five-point fit test, should also be met. Although most children reach 4 feet 9 inches around age 8 years, each child and vehicle presents a unique combination; thus a child may not fit appropriately in all vehicle types using only the 4 feet 9 inches requirement. We enrolled children, aged 7 years to 12 years, into our study. Height, weight, and demographic data were obtained. A Child Passenger Safety Technician then performed the five-point fit test in each of a uniform lineup of five vehicles. Data were collected on fit in the standard vehicle seat and also in a booster seat. We set 90% as the threshold proportion of children who meet all criteria for proper fit to validate current recommendations of a height of 4 feet 9 inches. Data were collected on 388 children. The percentage of 90% proper fit was met in the compact car and small sport-utility vehicle (SUV). However, only 80 (77%) of 104 students (p vehicles (large SUVs and trucks). This emphasizes the need for evaluation of fit by a trained personnel and/or development of standard back seat dimensions in all vehicles for maximum safety. Epidemiologic study, level III; Therapeutic study, level V.

  2. Towards evidence-based classification in wheelchair sports: impact of seating position on wheelchair acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlandewijck, Yves C; Verellen, Joeri; Tweedy, Sean

    2011-07-01

    In most Paralympic wheelchair sports, active trunk range of movement is assessed by observing shoulder girdle excursion during active trunk movements and is a key determinant of an athlete's class. However, to date research evaluating the impact of reduced trunk range of movement on wheelchair sports performance has not been conducted. In the present study, 15 non-disabled male participants performed two 20-s sprints on a wheelchair ergometer in each of three seating positions. Positions were typical of those used to enhance sitting stability in wheelchair sport and each impacted available trunk range of movement differently: condition-90 (seated with thighs horizontal; unrestricted range of movement) condition-45 (seated with thighs in 45°), and condition-0 (seated with hips maximally flexed; minimum range of movement). In condition-90, the trunk only actively contributed to the first push; for the remainder of the sprint, the trunk was held almost isometrically at 48.2° to the horizontal (range 42.1-56.4°). Similar patterns were observed for both condition-45 and condition-0. Compared with condition-90, participants in condition-0 had reduced capacity to accelerate of statistical (P sports performance, including strapping, seating position, and impairments of trunk muscle power and coordination.

  3. Experimental Investigation of a Temperature-Controlled Car Seat Powered by an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, H.; Wang, Y. P.; Yuan, X. H.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.

    2016-03-01

    To improve the riding comfort and rational utilization of the electrical energy captured by an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG), a temperature-controlled car seat was constructed to adjust the temperature of the car seat surface. Powered by the ATEG and the battery, the seat-embedded air conditioner can improve the riding comfort using a thermoelectric device to adjust the surface temperature of the seat, with an air duct to regulate the cold side and hot side of the thermoelectric device. The performance of the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and theoretical analysis on the optimum state of the TEC device are put forward. To verify the rationality of the air duct design and to ensure sufficient air supply, the velocity field of the air duct system was obtained by means of the finite element method. To validate the reliability of the numerical simulation, the air velocity around the thermoelectric device was measured by a wind speed transmitter. The performance of the temperature-controlled car seat has been validated and is in good agreement with bench tests and real vehicle tests.

  4. A cost benefit analysis of an enhanced seat belt enforcement program in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G T; Olukoga, I A

    2005-04-01

    To examine whether a program to increase the wearing of seat belts in a South African urban area would be worthwhile in societal terms. A cost benefit analysis of a one year enhanced seat belt enforcement program in eThekwini (Durban) Municipality. Data were drawn from two main sources--a 1998 study of the cost of road crashes in South Africa and, given the absence of other data, a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of various types of interventions to reduce road crash casualties in the United States--and were analyzed using cost benefit analysis. A program designed to enforce greater wearing of seat belts, estimated to cost 2 million rand in one year, could be reasonably expected to increase seat belt usage rates by 16 percentage points and reduce fatalities and injuries by 9.5%. This would result in saved social costs of 13.6 million rand in the following year or a net present value of 11.6 million rand. There would also be favorable consequences for municipal finances. Investment in a program to increase seat belt wearing rates is highly profitable in societal terms.

  5. Analysis of WBV on standing and seated passengers during off-peak operation in KL monorail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnan, K.; Bakhsh, Q.; Ahmed, A.; Ali, D.; Jamali, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) was analyzed on the standing and seated passenger during off-peak operating hours when train was on the track. The experiments were conducted on two car train at one constant location (bogie-1, which is near to driver’s cabin) during downward direction from KL sentral station towards Titiwangsa station. The aim of this study was to analyze that, in which posture of passenger’s exposures the maximum level of WBV. Since, one passenger was performed the whole journey in standing posture whereas, the other passenger was in seated posture. The result obtained from experiments for the RMS accelerations (Arms), maximum acceleration (Amax) and minimum acceleration (Amin) during the trip. As per standard ISO 2631-1, the daily vibration exposure (A8), Vibration Dose value (VDV) and Crest Factor (CF) of this trip for both standing and sitting orientations were calculated. Results shows that the seated passenger was exposed to longer periods of continuous vibration as compared to the standing passenger. Whereas, the Vibration Dose value (VDV) value was greater than the action value as per ISO 2631-1 and within the limit values. The study concluded that whole body vibration transmitted towards both passengers either standing or seated during their journey. But in overall results comparison of both orientations, the seated passengers gained higher vibration than the standing one.

  6. Flow Characteristics and Sizing of Annular Seat Valves for Digital Displacement Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nørgård

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the steady-state flow characteristics and power losses of annular seat valves for digital displacement machines. Annular seat valves are promising candidates for active check-valves used in digital displacement fluid power machinery which excels in efficiency in a broad operating range. To achieve high machine efficiency, the valve flow losses and the required electrical power needed for valve switching should be low. The annular valve plunger geometry, of a valve prototype developed for digital displacement machines, is parametrized by three parameters: stroke length, seat radius and seat width. The steady-state flow characteristics are analyzed using static axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamics. The pressure drops and flow forces are mapped in the valve design space for several different flow rates. The simulated results are compared against measurements using a valve prototype. Using the simulated maps to estimate the flow power losses and a simple generic model to estimate the electric power losses, both during digital displacement operation, optimal designs of annular seat valves, with respect to valve power losses, are derived under several different operating conditions.

  7. Seal and bearing arrangement for use in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazan, J.M.; Ritz, W.C.; Sharbaugh, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    A combination seal and bearing arrangement for use in a nuclear reactor including a vessel and vessel cover is disclosed herein. The vessel cover itself includes at least one rotatable plug which serves to perform certain position related functions within the reactor vessel and the combination seal and bearing arrangement is provided for sealing the annular opening around the rotation plug while, at the same time, providing a bearing support for the latter

  8. The Implications of Flexible Staffing Arrangements for Job Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Houseman, Susan N.; Polivka, Anne E.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the job stability of workers in a wide range of flexible staffing arrangements: agency temporary, direct-hire temporary, on-call, contract company, independent contractor, and regular part-time work. We draw upon two data sources in our analysis. The first is a nationwide survey of employers on their use of flexible staffing arrangements conducted by the Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. This survey provides evidence on why employers use various types of flex...

  9. Institutional arrangements of Currency Boards - Comparative Macroeconomic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lubomira Anastassova

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on the comparative macroeconomic analysis of the differences stemming from the extent to which the institutional framework of the currency board arrangement is implemented in the legal and regulatory systems in the different countries. The main objective of taking into consideration and examining the currency board institutional arrangements is to distinguish between the impact that currency board countries and countries with pegged exchange rate have on different m...

  10. Living arrangements in Western Europe: does cultural origin matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliano, Paola

    2006-01-01

    Why are there such large differences in living arrangements across Western European countries? Conventional economic analyses have not been successful in explaining differences in living arrangements and particularly the dramatic increase in the fraction of young adults living with their parents in Mediterranean Europe. This paper presents a cultural interpretation. I argue that the sexual revolution of the 1970s - by liberalizing parental attitudes - had a differential impact on living arran...

  11. National arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity (NAIR) 1982/83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    A summary is presented of the data on incidents notified under the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity (NAIR), extending the data previously reported to include information for 1982/83. The categories of incidents discussed include transport, damaged sources or containers, undamaged sources, empty containers found and hoaxes or false alarms. It is concluded that the Arrangements continue to demonstrate their value in minimizing the alarm potentially inherent in even minor incidents involving radioactive materials. (U.K.)

  12. Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement in Consideration of Decommissioning

    OpenAIRE

    Won-Jun Choi; Myung-Sub Roh; Chang-Lak Kim

    2017-01-01

    A new concept termed the Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement (INBA) strategy is a new nuclear power plant building arrangement method which encompasses upfront consideration of more efficient decommissioning. Although existing decommissioning strategies such as immediate dismantling and differed dismantling has the advantage of either early site restoration or radioactive decommissioning waste reduction, the INBA strategy has the advantages of both strategies. In this research...

  13. Labour Arrangements in Cassava Production in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abila, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of labour arrangements on the profitability of cassava enterprises in Oyo North Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for data collection, while data were analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary analysis. The results show that the prevalent labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are: a combination of Family, Hired and Contract labour (38.9%; Family-Hired labour (27.8%; Family-Contract labour (31.1%. The gross margin per hectares across labour arrangements are N279481.99 (all-labour, N286044.24 (family-hired, N216940.10 (familycontract, and N235000.00 (family only. The returns on a naira invested on variable costs across different labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are N2.04 (all-labour, N3.66 (family-hired, N2.37 (familycontract, and N2.61 (family only. This implies that a unit (N1 variable cost in the various labour arrangements of all-labour, family/hired, family/contract and family only in cassava production will yield a marginal return of N3.04, N3.66, N2.37 and N2.61 respectively. Family-hired labour arrangement yields higher marginal return per unit of manday and one naira spent than all other arrangements. The study recommends among others the application of laboursaving technologies and an optimum combination of various labour arrangements to reduce the cost of labour used in cassava production.

  14. Study on Pole Arrangement of the CEDM Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Myoung Goo; Kim, Hyun Min; Cho, Yeon Ho; Choi, Taek Sang

    2013-01-01

    The coil stack assembly is important for reliable operation of the CEDM, there have been efforts to improve the design by optimizing the design parameters such as dimensions and winding turns. However, magnetic forces of the CEDM can also change by different pole arrangement even if their design parameters are the same. Since the latch coil and lift coil are installed connected to each other, they produce magnetically coupled field when they are energized at the same time. This coupling field can affect the magnetic force of the CEDM significantly. In this paper, coil pole arrangement effects are studied. Electro-magnetic analysis is performed for the different pole arrangements of the CEDM coils to calculate the magnetic forces. Pole arrangement effects on magnetic forces were studied by static analysis of the CEDM magnetic field. Magnetic forces were calculated and compared for the two different pole arrangements of the coils. The results show that the magnetic poles of the lift coil and latch coil shall be arranged to have the same magnetic pole direction to achieve higher magnetic force

  15. Living Arrangements and Suicidal Ideation among the Korean Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Lee, Yun-Suk; Lee, Jinkook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines how living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for older adults in South Korea, which has the highest suicide rate among OECD countries, and a particularly high suicide rate for older persons. Methods Analyzing a sample of 5,795 women and 3,758 men aged 65 and older from a nationwide representative cross-sectional data set, we examined how many older adults think about suicide over a one-year period, why they think about suicide, and whether living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation. Results About one out of twelve respondents in our sample reported suicidal ideation. While women and men did not differ in the prevalence of suicidal ideation, women attributed their suicidal feelings to health problems, while men attributed theirs to economic difficulties. Logistic regression results indicated that living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for men but not women. Older men living with a spouse were less likely to have suicidal ideation than older men with other living arrangements (i.e., living alone, living with children without spouse, living with spouse and others). Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of living arrangements to older men’s suicidal ideation. We discuss gender differences in the implications of living arrangements to suicidal ideation within the context of Confucian culture. PMID:26317145

  16. Living arrangements and suicidal ideation among the Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Lee, Yun-Suk; Lee, Jinkook

    2016-12-01

    This study examines how living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for older adults in South Korea, which has the highest suicide rate among OECD countries, and a particularly high suicide rate for older persons. Analyzing a sample of 5795 women and 3758 men aged 65 and older from a nationwide representative cross-sectional data-set, we examined how many older adults think about suicide over a one-year period, why they think about suicide, and whether living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation. About 1 out of 12 respondents in our sample reported suicidal ideation. While women and men did not differ in the prevalence of suicidal ideation, women attributed their suicidal feelings to health problems, while men attributed theirs to economic difficulties. Logistic regression results indicated that living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for men but not women. Older men living with a spouse were less likely to have suicidal ideation than older men with other living arrangements (i.e., living alone, living with children without spouse, living with spouse, and others). Our results highlight the importance of living arrangements to older men's suicidal ideation. We discuss gender differences in the implications of living arrangements to suicidal ideation within the context of Confucian culture.

  17. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  18. Concepts and embodiment design of a reentry recumbent seating system for the NASA Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmillan, Scott; Looby, Brent; Devany, Chris; Chudej, Chris; Brooks, Barry

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the generation of a recumbent seating system which will be used by NASA to shuttle astronauts from the Russian space station Mir. We begin by examining the necessity for designing a special couch for the returning astronauts. Next, we discuss the operating conditions and constraints of the recumbent seating system and provide a detailed function structure. After working through the conceptual design process, we came up with ten alternative designs which are presented in the appendices. These designs were evaluated and weighted to systematically determine the best choice for embodiment design. A detailed discussion of all components of the selected system follows with design calculations for the seat presented in the appendices. The report concludes with an evaluation of the resulting design and recommendations for further development.

  19. Wheelchair Seating Assessment and Intervention: A Comparison Between Telerehabilitation and Face-to-Face Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Ingrid G; Liu, Lili; Sekulic, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This study compared outcomes of wheelchair seating and positioning interventions provided by telerehabilitation (n=10) and face-to-face (n=20; 10 in each of two comparison groups, one urban and one rural). Comparison clients were matched to the telerehabilitation clients in age, diagnosis, and type of seating components received. Clients and referring therapists rated their satisfaction and identified if seating intervention goals were met. Clients recorded travel expenses incurred or saved, and all therapists recorded time spent providing service. Wait times and completion times were tracked. Clients seen by telerehabilitation had similar satisfaction ratings and were as likely to have their goals met as clients seen face-to-face; telerehabilitation clients saved travel costs. Rural referring therapists who used telerehabilitation spent more time in preparation and follow-up than the other groups. Clients assessed by telerehabilitation had shorter wait times for assessment than rural face-to-face clients, but their interventions took as long to complete. PMID:25945159

  20. Analysis of vibroprotection characteristics of pneumatic relaxation seat suspension with capability of vibration energy recuperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyashenko Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes mechanism and control algorithm for pneumatic relaxation system of suspension with vibration energy recuperation applied to standard vehicle operator seat (“Sibeko” company. Mathematical model of the seat pneumatic relaxation suspension with two additional air volumes was created. Pneumatic motor – recuperator activated by means of air flow from the one additional volume to another is installed in air piping between additional volumes. Computational research was made in Matlab/Simulink. Amplitude-frequency characteristics of transmission coefficient for standard and proposed suspensions were plotted for preliminary evaluation of vibration protection properties of seat suspension. Performed comparative analysis of amplitude-frequency characteristics shows that noticeable improvement of vibration protection properties of pneumatic relaxation suspension system with vibration energy recuperation in comparison with standard system both in region of resonance disturbances and in above-resonance region. Main ways for further improvement of vibration protection properties of proposed system were marked out.

  1. Oil Stiction in Fast Switching Annular Seat Valves for Digital Displacement Fluid Power Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    Digital Displacement (DD) fluid power machines utilizes electronically controlled seat valves connected to pressure chambers to obtain variable displacement with high operational efficiency and high bandwidth. To achieve high efficiency, fast valve switching is essential and all aspects related...... to the dynamic behaviour of the seat valves must be considered to optimize the machine efficiency. A significant effect influencing the valves switching performance is the presence of oil stiction when separating the contact surfaces in valve opening movement. This oil stiction force is limited by cavitation...... for low pressure levels, e.g. valves connected to the low pressure manifold, however for valves operated at higher pressure levels, the oil stiction force is dominating when the separating surfaces are close to contact. This paper presents an analytic solution to the oil stiction force for annular seat...

  2. Flow Characteristics and Sizing of Annular Seat Valves for Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Bech, Michael Møller; Andersen, Torben O.

    2018-01-01

    operating range. To achieve high machine efficiency, the valve flow losses and the required electrical power needed for valve switching should be low. The annular valve plunger geometry, of a valve prototype developed for digital displacement machines, is parametrized by three parameters: stroke length......This paper investigates the steady-state flow characteristics and power losses of annular seat valves for digital displacement machines. Annular seat valves are promising candidates for active check-valves used in digital displacement fluid power machinery which excels in efficiency in a broad...... a valve prototype. Using the simulated maps to estimate the flow power losses and a simple generic model to estimate the electric power losses, both during digital displacement operation, optimal designs of annular seat valves, with respect to valve power losses, are derived under several different...

  3. Performance robustness of a magnetorheological seat suspension to temperature variations using skyhook control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicholas L.; Wereley, Norman M.; Choi, Young-Tai; Hiemenz, Gregory J.; Hu, Wei

    2009-03-01

    The harmonic steady-state responses of an MR seat isolator, designed and fabricated at the University of Maryland for the driver/commander seat of the Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV), are measured over a temperature range from 100°C to 1000°C, and the damper behavior is characterized using a variant of the nonlinear Bingham plastic model. The effect of damper self-heating on the model parameters is investigated and the trends with temperature variation are presented. Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate seat isolation performance across a broad frequency spectrum as temperature and payload vary. Conclusions are drawn about the performance robustness to temperature variations of the semi-active skyhook control algorithm typically utilized in vibration isolation problems.

  4. Semi-active variable stiffness vibration control of vehicle seat suspension using an MR elastomer isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Nong

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study on continuously variable stiffness control of vehicle seat suspension using a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator. A concept design for an MRE isolator is proposed in the paper and its behavior is experimentally evaluated. An integrated seat suspension model, which includes a quarter-car suspension and a seat suspension with a driver body model, is used to design a sub-optimal H ∞ controller for an active isolator. The desired control force generated by this active isolator is then emulated by the MRE isolator through its continuously variable stiffness property when the actuating condition is met. The vibration control effect of the MRE isolator is evaluated in terms of driver body acceleration responses under both bump and random road conditions. The results show that the proposed control strategy achieves better vibration reduction performance than conventional on–off control

  5. Rear seat safety: Variation in protection by occupant, crash and vehicle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; Jermakian, Jessica S; Kallan, Michael J; McCartt, Anne T; Arbogast, Kristy B; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Myers, Rachel K

    2015-07-01

    Current information on the safety of rear row occupants of all ages is needed to inform further advances in rear seat restraint system design and testing. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics of occupants in the front and rear rows of model year 2000 and newer vehicles involved in crashes and determine the risk of serious injury for restrained crash-involved rear row occupants and the relative risk of fatal injury for restrained rear row vs. front passenger seat occupants by age group, impact direction, and vehicle model year. Data from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) and Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) were queried for all crashes during 2007-2012 involving model year 2000 and newer passenger vehicles. Data from NASS-CDS were used to describe characteristics of occupants in the front and rear rows and to determine the risk of serious injury (AIS 3+) for restrained rear row occupants by occupant age, vehicle model year, and impact direction. Using a combined data set containing data on fatalities from FARS and estimates of the total population of occupants in crashes from NASS-CDS, logistic regression modeling was used to compute the relative risk (RR) of death for restrained occupants in the rear vs. front passenger seat by occupant age, impact direction, and vehicle model year. Among all vehicle occupants in tow-away crashes during 2007-2012, 12.3% were in the rear row where the overall risk of serious injury was 1.3%. Among restrained rear row occupants, the risk of serious injury varied by occupant age, with older adults at the highest risk of serious injury (2.9%); by impact direction, with rollover crashes associated with the highest risk (1.5%); and by vehicle model year, with model year 2007 and newer vehicles having the lowest risk of serious injury (0.3%). Relative risk of death was lower for restrained children up to age 8 in the rear compared with passengers in the right

  6. Car seat inspection among children older than 3 years: Using data to drive practice in child passenger safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Amber M; Teddy, Amy J; Macy, Michelle L

    2015-09-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of unintentional death and disability among children 4 years to 12 years of age in the United States. Despite the high risk of injury from motor vehicle crashes in this age group, parental awareness and child passenger safety programs in particular may lack focus on this age group. This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of child passenger safety seat checklist forms from two Safe Kids coalitions in Michigan (2013) to identify restraint type upon arrival to car seat inspections. Other variables were included if the coalition provided a new child safety seat and if the child had a sibling who underwent a car seat inspection. χ statistics were used to compare change in restraint use on arrival and at departure, the proportion of children attending a car seat inspection event by age, the age category of children by site, the proportion of children with siblings also undergoing a car seat inspection by age, and the distribution of a new child safety seat by age. Data were available from 1,316 Safe Kids Huron Valley and 3,215 Safe Kids Greater Grand Rapids car seat inspections. Just 10.8% of the total seats inspected were booster seats. Child safety seats for infant and young children were more commonly inspected (rear-facing carrier [40.3%], rear-facing convertible [10.2%], and forward-facing [19.3%] car seats). Few children at inspections used a seat belt only (5.4%) or had no restraint (13.8%). Children 4 years and older were found to be in a suboptimal restraint at least 30% of the time. Low proportions of parents use car seat inspections for children in the booster seat age group. The proportion of children departing the inspection in a more protective restraint increased with increasing age. This highlights an area of weakness in child passenger safety programs and signals an opportunity to strengthen efforts on The Booster Age Child. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.

  7. Child seat belt guidelines: Examining the 4 feet 9 inches rule as the standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Amber M; Aitken, Mary E; Mullins, Samantha H; Miller, Beverly K; Pomtree, Mindy M; Ulloa, Erin M; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Saylors, Marie E

    2017-11-01

    Current American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations regarding transition from child safety/booster seat to adult safety belt use indicate that children should be at least 4 feet 9 inches, 8 years old, or 80 pounds. Proper fit in the vehicle seat, assessed with a five-point fit test, should also be met. Although most children reach 4 feet 9 inches around age 8 years, each child and vehicle presents a unique combination; thus a child may not fit appropriately in all vehicle types using only the 4 feet 9 inches requirement. We enrolled children, aged 7 years to 12 years, into our study. Height, weight, and demographic data were obtained. A Child Passenger Safety Technician then performed the five-point fit test in each of a uniform lineup of five vehicles. Data were collected on fit in the standard vehicle seat and also in a booster seat. We set 90% as the threshold proportion of children who meet all criteria for proper fit to validate current recommendations of a height of 4 feet 9 inches. Data were collected on 388 children. The percentage of 90% proper fit was met in the compact car and small sport-utility vehicle (SUV). However, only 80 (77%) of 104 students (p guidelines for an adult seat belt do not meet safety requirements for fit, especially in larger, commonly used vehicles (large SUVs and trucks). This emphasizes the need for evaluation of fit by a trained personnel and/or development of standard back seat dimensions in all vehicles for maximum safety. Epidemiologic level 1.

  8. Ergonomic Analysis of Tricycle Sidecar Seats: Basis for Proposed Standard Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Godoy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergonomics (also called human factors engineering is the study of human characteristics for the appropriate design of the living and work environment. It is applied in various industrial areas which includes transportation.Tricycle being one of the most common means of public transportation in Lipa City has various adaptations to suit the culture, and environment. The purpose of this study is to analyze the variability in design of the tricycles in Lipa City, Philippines and propose a standard ergonomically designed tricycle sidecar seat for a greater population. The study was conducted at 26 tricycle terminals with 232 tricycle samples within Lipa City proper including the public market area where 400 commuters were given questionnaires to determine the risk factors associated with the existing tricycle sidecar seat design. Anthropometric measurements of 100 males and 100 female commuters were obtained together with the sidecar dimensions of 232 tricycles to substantiate the observed variations in design. Using the design for the average and design for the extremes, it was found out that most of the tricycles in Lipa City, Philippines have inappropriate inclined seat and lowered sidecar seat pan height which can result to leg and abdominal pain; narrowed seat pan depth which caused pressure on buttocks and legs; narrowed backrest width which can cause upper and low back pain; low backrest height that can pose upper back pain; which can also result to abdominal pain; inclined backrest and limited vertical clearance which can cause upper back pain and neck pain. The researcher proposed a sidecar seat design standard which can be used by the Land Transportation Office, and Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board to provide ease, comfort, and convenience to the passengers.

  9. The influence of parental education and other socio-economic factors on child car seat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rok Simon, Mateja; Korošec, Aleš; Bilban, Marjan

    2017-03-01

    The behaviour of parents in ensuring car passenger safety for their children is associated with socio-economic (SE) status of the family; however, the influence of parental education has rarely been researched and the findings are contradictory. The aim of the study was to clarify whether parental education influences the use of a child car seat during short rides. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in outpatient clinics for children's healthcare across Slovenia. 904 parents of 3-year-old children participated in the study; the response rate was 95.9%. A self-administered questionnaire was used. A binary multiple logistic regression was applied to assess the association between parental unsafe behaviour as dependent variable, and education and other SE factors as independent variables. 14.6% of parents did not use a child car seat during short rides. Families where mother had low or college education had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat than families where mother had a university education. Single-parent families and those who lived in areas with low or medium SE status also had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat. Low educational attainment influences parents' behaviour regarding the non-use of a child car seat. Low parental education is not the only risk factor since some highly educated parents also have high odds of unsafe behaviour. All parents should therefore be included in individually tailored safety counselling programmes. SE inequalities could be further reduced with provision of free child car seats for eligible families.

  10. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  11. The repeatability and reproducibility of the BioRID IIg in a repeatable laboratory seat based on a production car seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, David; Depinet, Paul; Lorenz, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Informal Group on GTR No. 7 Phase 2 are working to define a build level for the BioRID II rear impact (whiplash) crash test dummy that ensures repeatable and reproducible performance in a test procedure that has been proposed for future legislation. This includes the specification of dummy hardware, as well as the development of comprehensive certification procedures for the dummy. This study evaluated whether the dummy build level and certification procedures deliver the desired level of repeatability and reproducibility. A custom-designed laboratory seat was made using the seat base, back, and head restraint from a production car seat to ensure a representative interface with the dummy. The seat back was reinforced for use in multiple tests and the recliner mechanism was replaced by an external spring-damper mechanism. A total of 65 tests were performed with 6 BioRID IIg dummies using the draft GTR No.7 sled pulse and seating procedure. All dummies were subject to the build, maintenance, and certification procedures defined by the Informal Group. The test condition was highly repeatable, with a very repeatable pulse, a well-controlled seat back response, and minimal observed degradation of seat foams. The results showed qualitatively reasonable repeatability and reproducibility for the upper torso and head accelerations, as well as for T1 Fx and upper neck Fx . However, reproducibility was not acceptable for T1 and upper neck Fz or for T1 and upper neck My . The Informal Group has not selected injury or seat assessment criteria for use with BioRID II, so it is not known whether these channels would be used in the regulation. However, the ramping-up behavior of the dummy showed poor reproducibility, which would be expected to affect the reproducibility of dummy measurements in general. Pelvis and spine characteristics were found to significantly influence the dummy measurements for which poor reproducibility was

  12. Active Prompting to Decrease Cell Phone Use and Increase Seat Belt Use While Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Michael; Helms, Bridgett; Simpson, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 3 to 33, with 43,005 (118 per day) Americans killed in 2002 alone. Seat belt use reduces the risk of serious injury in an accident, and refraining from using a cell phone while driving reduces the risk of an accident. Cell phone use while driving increases accident rates, and leads to 2,600 U.S. fatalities each year. An active prompting procedure was employed to increase seat belt use and decrease cell phone use among drivers ex...

  13. The optimization of aircraft seat cushion fire-blocking layers. Full Scale: Test description and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, K. J.; Duskin, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    Full-scale burn tests were conducted on thirteen different seat cushion configurations in a cabin fire simulator. The fire source used was a quartz lamp radiant energy panel with a propane pilot flame. During each test, data were recorded for cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, rate of weight loss of test specimens, and cabin temperatures. When compared to existing passenger aircraft seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advance materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance.

  14. ACES II Seat Roller Study: Findings of Detrimental Friction under High Windblast or Adverse Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    speed, in zero wind) kt = knot lbf = pounds of force (=1 lbm x 1g) lbm = pounds of mass (=1/32.174 of a slug) MDRC = Multi-Axial Dynamic Response...pilot whose weight has been waived to the modern limits (i.e. originally limited to 211 lbm pilots for seat qualification, now waived up to 245 lbm ...below [repeating Ref-1 figures], by the DRS of the subject mishap, and by the aft seat (heavyweight; 198 lbm nude, 95th percentile) of sled test 110E

  15. Body height and arterial pressure in seated and supine young males during +2 G centrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedsen, Sine K.; Eiken, Ola; Kölegård, Roger

    2015-01-01

    by the use of a human centrifuge would increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) more in tall than in short males in the seated position. In short (162-171cm, n=8) and tall (194-203cm, n=10) healthy males (18-41yr), brachial arterial pressure, heart rate (HR) and cardiac output were measured during +2G...... centrifugation, while they were seated upright with the legs kept horizontal (+2Gz). In a separate experiment, the same measurements were done with the subjects supine (+2Gx). During +2Gz MAP increased in the short (22±2 mmHg, P 

  16. Automated recognition of rear seat occupants' head position using Kinect™ 3D point cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Helen; Kim, Jinyong; Arbogast, Kristy; Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Cross, Suzanne; Charlton, Judith

    2017-12-01

    Child occupant safety in motor-vehicle crashes is evaluated using Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) seated in optimal positions. However, child occupants often assume suboptimal positions during real-world driving trips. Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children (Bohman et al., 2011). There is therefore a need to understand the interaction of children with the Child Restraint System to optimize protection. Naturalistic driving studies (NDS) will improve understanding of out-of-position (OOP) trends. To quantify OOP positions, an NDS was conducted. Families used a study vehicle for two weeks during their everyday driving trips. The positions of rear-seated child occupants, representing 22 families, were evaluated. The study vehicle - instrumented with data acquisition systems, including Microsoft Kinect™ V1 - recorded rear seat occupants in 1120 driving 26 trips. Three novel analytical methods were used to analyze data. To assess skeletal tracking accuracy, analysts recorded occurrences where Kinect™ exhibited invalid head recognition among a randomly-selected subset (81 trips). Errors included incorrect target detection (e.g., vehicle headrest) or environmental interference (e.g., sunlight). When head data was present, Kinect™ was correct 41% of the time; two other algorithms - filtering for extreme motion, and background subtraction/head-based depth detection are described in this paper and preliminary results are presented. Accuracy estimates were not possible because of their experimental nature and the difficulty to use a ground truth for this large database. This NDS tested methods to quantify the frequency and magnitude of head positions for rear-seated child occupants utilizing Kinect™ motion-tracking. This study's results informed recent ATD sled tests that replicated observed positions (most common and most extreme), and assessed the validity of child

  17. Characterization of Vertical Impact Device Acceleration Pulses Using Parametric Assessment: Phase 3 Wiaman Seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    711 HPW/RHCPT) and their in-house technical support contractor , Infoscitex, conducted a series of tests to identify the performance capabilities of...Cell Seat Configuration Drop Ht . (in) Mean Peak Acceleration (G) Mean Velocity Change (ft/s) SH1 WS1 20 80.08 ± 3.71 13.54 ± 0.49 SH2...6. Test Matrix for VID Response with WS2 Test Cell Seat (Felt) Configuration Drop Ht . (in) Mean Peak Acceleration (G

  18. The risk of whiplash-induced medical impairment in rear-end impacts for males and females in driver seat compared to front passenger seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Jonsson

    2013-07-01

    Females had a relative risk of medical impairment of 3.1 compared to men after adjustment for the average increased risk in the driver position. The driver position had a doubled relative risk compared to the front passenger position. As a conclusion it may be of value to take risk differences between male and female occupants and between driver and front passenger positions into account in future automotive car and seat construction.

  19. Modular high power diode lasers with flexible 3D multiplexing arrangement optimized for automated manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könning, Tobias; Bayer, Andreas; Plappert, Nora; Faßbender, Wilhelm; Dürsch, Sascha; Küster, Matthias; Hubrich, Ralf; Wolf, Paul; Köhler, Bernd; Biesenbach, Jens

    2018-02-01

    A novel 3-dimensional arrangement of mirrors is used to re-arrange beams from 1-D and 2-D high power diode laser arrays. The approach allows for a variety of stacking geometries, depending on individual requirements. While basic building blocks, including collimating optics, always remain the same, most adaptations can be realized by simple rearrangement of a few optical components. Due to fully automated alignment processes, the required changes can be realized in software by changing coordinates, rather than requiring customized mechanical components. This approach minimizes development costs due to its flexibility, while reducing overall product cost by using similar building blocks for a variety of products and utilizing a high grade of automation. The modules can be operated with industrial grade water, lowering overall system and maintenance cost. Stackable macro coolers are used as the smallest building block of the system. Each cooler can hold up to five diode laser bars. Micro optical components, collimating the beam, are mounted directly to the cooler. All optical assembly steps are fully automated. Initially, the beams from all laser bars propagate in the same direction. Key to the concept is an arrangement of deflectors, which re-arrange the beams into a 2-D array of the desired shape and high fill factor. Standard multiplexing techniques like polarization- or wavelengths-multiplexing have been implemented as well. A variety of fiber coupled modules ranging from a few hundred watts of optical output power to multiple kilowatts of power, as well as customized laser spot geometries like uniform line sources, have been realized.

  20. The Effect of Various Finish Line Configurations on the Marginal Seal and Occlusal Discrepancy of Cast Full Crowns After Cementation - An In-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemane, Vaishali; Akulwar, Ravikumar Suryakanth; Meshram, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    The marginal fit of crowns is of clinical importance. It is found that marginal and occlusal discrepancies are commonly increased following cementation. The resistance of cementing materials is a factor that prevents cast restorations from being correctly seated. Different finish lines behave differently in facilitating the escape of the cement. When the escape path of the cement decreases, the crown fails to seat further. This study was planned with an aim to evaluate the effect of various finish lines on the marginal seal and occlusal seat of full crown preparations. Six stainless steel metal dies were machined to simulate molar crown preparations. The diameter was 10 mm and height was 6mm. The occlusal surface was kept flat and a small circular dimple was machined for reorientation of the wax pattern and metal copings, margins of various designs were machined accurately. The margins prepared were Group A- 90(0)C shoulder, Group B- Rounded shoulder, Group C- 45 degree sloped shoulder, Group D- Chamfer, Group E- Long chamfer, Group F- Feather edge. Full cast metal crowns of base metal alloy were fabricated over the metal dies. Zinc phosphate luting cement was used for the cementation. After twenty four hours, the cemented crown and die assembly were embedded in clear acrylic resin so as to hold the assembly together while sectioning. Twenty four hours later, all the samples were sectioned sagitally. The sectioned halves were focused under a stereomicroscope and the cement spaces were measured to the nearest micron. The cement thickness was measured at two points on the occlusal surface and one at each margin. Significant differences were observed in the occlusal seat and marginal seal of all the finish line configurations. The rounded shoulder had the best occlusal seat, followed by 90(0)C shoulder. The occlusal seat and marginal seal afforded by the shoulder finish lines were similar whereas there was a vast difference in the seating and sealing of long chamfer

  1. Interference of Different Types of Seats on Postural Control System during a Forward-Reaching Task in Individuals with Paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho; Takara, Kelly; Metring, Nathalia Lopes; Reis, Julia Guimaraes; Cliquet, Alberto, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of wheelchair seats on paraplegic individuals' postural control using a maximum anterior reaching test. Balance evaluations during 50, 75, and 90% of each individual's maximum reach in the forward direction using two different cushions on seat (one foam and one gel) and a no-cushion condition…

  2. The effect of shaped wheelchair cushion and lumbar supports on under-seat pressure, comfort, and pelvic rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Kersti; Björk, Maarit; Erdugan, Ann-Marie; Hansson, Anna-Karin; Rustner, Birgitta

    2009-09-01

    A wheelchair seat and position help clients perform daily activities. The comfort of the wheelchair can encourage clients to participate in daily activities and can help prevent future complications. This study evaluates how a shaped seat-cushion and two different back supports affect under-seat pressure, comfort, and pelvic rotation. Thirty healthy subjects were tested using two differently equipped manual wheelchairs. One wheelchair had a Velcro adjustable back seat and a plane seat-cushion. The other wheelchair had a non-adjustable sling-back seat and a plane cushion. The second wheelchair was also equipped with a shaped cushion and/or a detachable lumbar support. Under-seat pressure, estimated comfort, and pelvic rotation were measured after 10 min in each wheelchair outfit. Peak pressure increased with the shaped cushion compared to the plane cushion. No significant difference in estimated comfort was found. Pelvic posterior-rotation was reduced with the adjustable or detachable back-support irrespective of the shape of the seat cushion. To support a neutral pelvic position and spinal curvature, a combination of a shaped cushion and a marked lumbar support is most effective.

  3. 75 FR 52614 - Special Conditions: Embraer Model ERJ 170-100 SU Series Airplanes; Seats With Non-Traditional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... being mostly fabric and metal, the contribution to a fire in the cabin had been minimized and was not..., non-metallic panels that would affect survivability during a post-crash fire event. The applicable..., seats were designed with a metal frame covered by fabric, not with large, non-metallic panels. Seats...

  4. 75 FR 81224 - Availability of Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations and Commercial Fishing Seats for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations and Commercial Fishing Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National... Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce DOC). ACTION... seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Recreational Diving, Oil...

  5. Explaining state-to-state differences in seat belt use : an analysis of socio-demographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    "Despite the extensive evidence about the benefits of seat belt use, there is a great deal of variation in use within the US. For example, the national average for seat belt use in 2009 was 84 percent while the state-level averages ranged from 68 per...

  6. Topology Selection and Analysis of Actuator for Seat Valves suitable for use in Digital Displacement Pumps/Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Daniel; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    seat valves is developed, and the resulting dynamic response of the seat valve is presented. Requirements for the valve actuator is established based on the DD application, and three feasible actuator topologies are analyzed by means of transient electro-magnetic FEA simulation. From this analysis...

  7. New arrangement for the air cleanup system to recover tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Takahashi, Kohsaku; Munakata, Kenzo; Fukada, Satoshi; Kotoh, Kenji; Takeishi, Toshiharu

    1997-01-01

    At present, the standard arrangement of the air cleanup system responsible for emergency tritium recovery from room air is a catalytic oxidation bed with a heater followed by an adsorption bed with a cooler. One disadvantage of this arrangement is that trouble with the heater or the cooler could result in a loss of capacity to recover tritium. Another disadvantage of the catalyst-adsorption-bed arrangement is that tritiated water must be recovered with a high decontamination factor after dilution with a large amount of water vapor in the working atmosphere. The performance of a new arrangement for the air cleanup system, which consists of a precious metal catalyst bed preceded by an adsorption bed without heating equipment, is discussed. According to calculations, most of the tritium released to the room air is recovered in the catalyst bed through oxidation, adsorption, and isotope exchange reaction when the new arrangement is applied. The adsorption bed placed before the catalyst bed dehumidifies the process gas to such a degree that the oxidation reaction of tritium in the catalyst bed is not hindered by water vapor. 15 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Role of crystal arrangement on the mechanical performance of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bingbing; Wang, Raorao; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2012-10-01

    The superior mechanical properties of enamel, such as excellent penetration and crack resistance, are believed to be related to the unique microscopic structure. In this study, the effects of hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystallite orientation on the mechanical behavior of enamel have been investigated through a series of multiscale numerical simulations. A micromechanical model, which considers the HAP crystal arrangement in enamel prisms, the hierarchical structure of HAP crystals and the inelastic mechanical behavior of protein, has been developed. Numerical simulations revealed that, under compressive loading, plastic deformation progression took place in enamel prisms, which is responsible for the experimentally observed post-yield strain hardening. By comparing the mechanical responses for the uniform and non-uniform arrangement of HAP crystals within enamel prisms, it was found that the stiffness for the two cases was identical, while much greater energy dissipation was observed in the enamel with the non-uniform arrangement. Based on these results, we propose an important mechanism whereby the non-uniform arrangement of crystals in enamel rods enhances energy dissipation while maintaining sufficient stiffness to promote fracture toughness, mitigation of fracture and resistance to penetration deformation. Further simulations indicated that the non-uniform arrangement of the HAP crystals is a key factor responsible for the unique mechanical behavior of enamel, while the change in the nanostructure of nanocomposites could dictate the Young's modulus and yield strength of the biocomposite. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association Between NCAP Ratings and Real-World Rear Seat Occupant Risk of Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Kristina B; Gruschow, Siobhan; Durbin, Dennis R; Curry, Allison E

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have evaluated the correlation between U.S. or Euro New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) ratings and injury risk to front seat occupants, in particular driver injuries. Conversely, little is known about whether NCAP 5-star ratings predict real-world risk of injury to restrained rear seat occupants. The NHTSA has identified rear seat occupant protection as a specific area under consideration for improvements to its NCAP. In order to inform NHTSA's efforts, we examined how NCAP's current 5-star rating system predicts risk of moderate or greater injury among restrained rear seat occupants in real-world crashes. We identified crash-involved vehicles, model year 2004-2013, in NASS-CDS (2003-2012) with known make and model and nonmissing occupant information. We manually matched these vehicles to their NCAP star ratings using data on make, model, model year, body type, and other identifying information. The resultant linked NASS-CDS and NCAP database was analyzed to examine associations between vehicle ratings and rear seat occupant injury risk; risk to front seat occupants was also estimated for comparison. Data were limited to restrained occupants and occupant injuries were defined as any injury with a maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2 or greater. We linked 95% of vehicles in NASS-CDS to a specific vehicle in NCAP. The 18,218 vehicles represented an estimated 6 million vehicles with over 9 million occupants. Rear seat passengers accounted for 12.4% of restrained occupants. The risk of injury in all crashes for restrained rear seat occupants was lower in vehicles with a 5-star driver rating in frontal impact tests (1.4%) than with 4 or fewer stars (2.6%, P =.015); results were similar for the frontal impact passenger rating (1.3% vs. 2.4%, P =.024). Conversely, side impact driver and passenger crash tests were not associated with rear seat occupant injury risk (driver test: 1.7% for 5-star vs. 1.8% for 1-4 stars; passenger test: 1.6% for 5

  10. The seat of ground water discharge as ore-mabilizing factor in the formatian of hydrogenic uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natal'chenko, B.I.; Gol'dshtejn, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    The role of structural-hydrogeological factor in the process of ore-controlling zoning development during hydrogeneous deposit formation is discussed, as reflecting in the most objective way the spreading of stratal oxidation zones and morphology of uranium mineralization as regards discharge seats because there are only they which mobilize stratal waters for active displacement. The types of discharge seats of stratal waters and their effect on formation of ore-controlling zones of stratal oxidation with uranium mineralization are presented. The conclusion is drawn that local and regional discharge seats of stratal waters dictate both the spacing of regional fronts of stratal-oxidized rocks and their ore content degree. The displacement of discharge seats or their growing into local regions of alimentation results in reorganization of the total ore-controlling zoning, which enables to consider the seats of water discharge as ore-mobilizing structures in the formation of hydrogenic uranium deposits

  11. Glycan structures contain information for the spatial arrangement of glycoproteins in the plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kristen Hall

    Full Text Available Glycoconjugates at the cell surface are crucial for cells to communicate with each other and the extracellular microenvironment. While it is generally accepted that glycans are vectorial biopolymers, their information content is unclear. This report provides evidence that distinct N-glycan structures influence the spatial arrangement of two integral membrane glycoproteins, Kv3.1 and E-cadherin, at the adherent membrane which in turn alter cellular properties. Distinct N-glycan structures were generated by heterologous expression of these glycoproteins in parental and glycosylation mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Unlike the N-linked glycans, the O-linked glycans of the mutant cell lines are similar to those of the parental cell line. Western and lectin blots of total membranes and GFP immunopurified samples, combined with glycosidase digestion reactions, were employed to verify the glycoproteins had predominantly complex, oligomannose, and bisecting type N-glycans from Pro(-5, Lec1, and Lec10B cell lines, respectively. Based on total internal reflection fluorescence and differential interference contrast microscopy techniques, and cellular assays of live parental and glycosylation mutant CHO cells, we propose that glycoproteins with complex, oligomannose or bisecting type N-glycans relay information for localization of glycoproteins to various regions of the plasma membrane in both a glycan-specific and protein-specific manner, and furthermore cell-cell interactions are required for deciphering much of this information. These distinct spatial arrangements also impact cell adhesion and migration. Our findings provide direct evidence that N-glycan structures of glycoproteins contribute significantly to the information content of cells.

  12. Do organizational and political-legal arrangements explain financial wrongdoing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechel, Harland; Zheng, Lu

    2016-12-01

    The 2008 financial crisis was a systemic problem with deep-rooted structural causes that created opportunities to engage in financial malfeasance, a form of corporate wrongdoing. However, few quantitative studies exist on the effects of organizational and political-legal arrangements on financial malfeasance. In this paper, we examine the effects of organizational and political-legal arrangements that emerged in the 1990s in the FIRE sector (i.e., financial, insurance, and real estate) on financial malfeasance. Our historical contextualization demonstrates how changes in the political-legal arrangements facilitate the emergence of new corporate structures and opportunities for financial malfeasance. Our longitudinal quantitative analysis demonstrates that US FIRE sector corporations with a more complex organizational structure, larger size, lower dividend payment, and higher executive compensation are more prone to commit financial malfeasance. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  13. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan-Warren, E.

    2004-01-01

    Response arrangements are required for the transport of radioactive materials, under both transport and health and safety legislation, to safeguard persons, property and the environment in the event of incidents and emergencies. Responsibilities fall on both government and industry: government is responsible for ensuring public safety and providing information and reassurance. This responsibility is discharged for each type of incident by a nominated ''lead department'', supported as appropriate by other government departments and agencies; for their part, operators are obliged to have arrangements in place for dealing with the practicalities of any reasonably foreseeable incident, including recovery and onward transport of a package, and any required clean-up or restoration of the environment. This paper outlines both the government and industry arrangements in Great Britain. The principles of response and intervention are discussed, together with the lead department concept, regulatory requirements, and the plans developed by the transport industry to ensure a nation-wide response capability

  14. 29 CFR 779.228 - Types of arrangements contemplated by exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.228 Types of arrangements... section 3(s) would not otherwise apply: (a) Any arrangement, whether by agreement, franchise or otherwise...

  15. Improvements in or relating to radiation detection arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation detection arrangement is described that that comprises a number of scintillator devices, and a single multi-channel photomultiplier tube. Light from the scintillator devices is incident on the photocathode through an entrance window in the tube and multiplier entrance separating means are provided whereby light from each of the devices is made to be incident upon the channel entrances of photomultiplier tube. Various geometrical forms for the scintillator devices are described. This arrangement avoids the use of large number of small photomultiplier tubes, which is expensive and gives rise to difficulties in stacking the tubes in closely spaced side-by-side relationship. (U.K.)

  16. Six-strut arrangements for cartesian movements of mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, T.; Zeschke, Th.; Reichardt, G.; Lammert, H.; Gudat, W.

    2001-01-01

    At BESSY a new six-strut arrangement for general small travel mirror adjustment mechanisms has been developed. This patented (Patent DE 10042802.5) arrangement allows very simple movements in all six linear and rotational degrees of freedom. The movements of the mirror are simply determined by moving either one drive, or up to three drives by the same amount. The first mirror adjustment systems of this design is successfully in operation since the start of BESSY II. Their performance and reliability is very satisfactory. This contribution will present the concepts

  17. Concepts for institutional arrangements for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    These concepts deal with establishing a framework for the analysis of institutional arrangements, with institutional arrangements under consideration in the working groups on fuel and heavy water availability, enrichment availability, assurances of long-term supply, reprocessing-plutonium handling-recycling, fast breeder reactors, spent fuel management, waste management and disposal, and advanced reactor concepts. The standardization of nuclear practices, joint commercial and development undertakings, nuclear supply assurances, developing a consensus in international nuclear co-operation, and settlements of disputes are treated

  18. Editorial: Spatial arrangement of faults and opening-mode fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Stephen E.; Lamarche, Juliette; Gauthier, Bertand D. M.; Dunne, William M.

    2018-03-01

    This issue of the Journal of Structural Geology titled Spatial arrangement of faults and opening-mode fractures explores a fundamental characteristic of fault and fracture arrays. The pattern of fault and opening-mode fracture positions in space defines structural heterogeneity and anisotropy in a rock volume, governs how faults and fractures affect fluid flow, and impacts our understanding of the initiation, propagation and interactions during the formation of fracture patterns. This special issue highlights recent progress with respect to characterizing and understanding the spatial arrangements of fault and fracture patterns, providing examples over a wide range of scales and structural settings.

  19. Support system, excavation arrangement, and process of supporting an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Bill W.

    2017-08-01

    A support system, an excavation arrangement, and a process of supporting an object are disclosed. The support system includes a weight-bearing device and a camming mechanism positioned below the weight-bearing device. A downward force on the weight-bearing device at least partially secures the camming mechanism to opposing surfaces. The excavation arrangement includes a borehole, a support system positioned within and secured to the borehole, and an object positioned on and supported by the support system. The process includes positioning and securing the support system and positioning the object on the weight-bearing device.

  20. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of a bus seat buffer to mitigate frontal crash effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisławek, Sebastian; Dziewulski, Paweł; Sławiński, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    The paper considers the problem of coach occupant safety during crash events. The authors present a simple low-cost seat buffer concept which may mitigate the effects of frontal impact. The method of computer simulation was chosen to solve the problem efficiently. The Finite Element Method (FEM) implemented in the LS-DYNA commercial code was used. The testing procedure was based on European Commission regulations, under which vehicles move at a defined speed. Simulations have shown that seat occupants suffer serious trauma during a crash, with the head experiencing relatively high acceleration, thus resulting in an HIC36 of 1490. The installation of a protective buffer mounted on the upper part of the seat reduced the HIC36 to only 510. However, in its current form it does not meet the requirements of the regulations. Further modifications to the overlay shape and structure are essential in order to better improve the deceleration of passengers' bodies. Moreover, a detailed model of seats and their anchorage should be taken into account. A more flexible structure should provide more positive and more accurate results.

  2. Users in the Driver's Seat: A New Approach to Classifying Teaching Methods in a University Repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Susanne; Oberhuemer, Petra; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Neumann, S., Oberhuemer, P., & Koper, R. (2009). Users in the Driver's Seat: A New Approach to Classifying Teaching Methods in a University Repository. In U. Cress, V. Dimitrova & M. Specht (Eds.), Learning in the Synergy of Multiple Disciplines. Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on

  3. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  4. 76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0078] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... integration of electrical signals from vehicle crash sensors would work with the requested mechanical seat... (350,000) of the vehicles were stopped in the traffic lane prior to the crash event (pg. 22, Table 7...

  5. Active Prompting to Decrease Cell Phone Use and Increase Seat Belt Use while Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Michael; Helms, Bridgett; Simpson, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 3 to 33, with 43,005 (118 per day) Americans killed in 2002 alone. Seat belt use reduces the risk of serious injury in an accident, and refraining from using a cell phone while driving reduces the risk of an accident. Cell phone use while driving increases accident rates, and leads…

  6. Neck injury criteria and certification procedure for side-facing aircraft seats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Forbes, P.A.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.; DeWeese, R.; Moorcroft, D.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents research started in 2002 that identified the potential need for explicit neck injury criteria and tolerances for certification of side-facing seats in aircraft. Laboratory sled tests with full-body postmortem human subjects proved that there is a substantial risk for serious

  7. Optimum design of seat region in valves suitable for digital displacement machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    Digital displacement fluid power is an upcoming technology setting new standards for the achievable efficiency in variable displacement fluid power pumps and motors. In the present work, an annular seat valve suitable for use in digital displacement units is considered, and the valve geometry...

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.124 - What are coach-class Seating Upgrade Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... traveler's personal choice and therefore is at the traveler's personal expense. An agency travel... Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10... reimburse the additional seat choice fee, according to internal agency policy. [FTR Amdt. 2009-06, 74 FR...

  9. Non-Invasive Detection of Respiration and Heart Rate with a Vehicle Seat Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wusk, Grace; Gabler, Hampton

    2018-05-08

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a seat sensor designed for occupant classification from a production passenger vehicle to measure an occupant’s respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) in a laboratory setting. Relaying occupant vital signs after a crash could improve emergency response by adding a direct measure of the occupant state to an Advanced Automatic Collision Notification (AACN) system. Data was collected from eleven participants with body weights ranging from 42 to 91 kg using a Ford Mustang passenger seat and seat sensor. Using a ballistocardiography (BCG) approach, the data was processed by time domain filtering and frequency domain analysis using the fast Fourier transform to yield RR and HR in a 1-min sliding window. Resting rates over the 30-min data collection and continuous RR and HR signals were compared to laboratory physiological instruments using the Bland-Altman approach. Differences between the seat sensor and reference sensor were within 5 breaths per minute for resting RR and within 15 beats per minute for resting HR. The time series comparisons for RR and HR were promising with the frequency analysis technique outperforming the peak detection technique. However, future work is necessary for more accurate and reliable real-time monitoring of RR and HR outside the laboratory setting.

  10. Measurement of the functional impact of adaptive seating technology in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Many young children with cerebral palsy have motor impairments that affect their ability to sit and do activities unsupported. They often rely on special adaptive seating devices for postural control and stability. Healthcare practitioners generally accept that these products improve functioning in

  11. Virtual Seating in the Globe Theatre: Appreciating Film Adaptations of Shakespeare's Plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    While it may be true that different interpretations of Shakespeare's words elicit varied responses, Shakespeare's popularity in Renaissance England was due in large part to his ability to appeal to a socially and educationally diverse audience. Shakespeare knew what it took to fill the seats. To encourage appreciation of Shakespeare's universal…

  12. 75 FR 66686 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, School Bus Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... loose belts) also applies to seats that have wheelchair positions or side emergency doors behind them... have wheelchair positions or side emergency doors behind them); and, the test requirements for self... which correspond to the size of some high school football players) and school buses closer in weight to...

  13. Three experiments to support the design of lightweight comfortable vehicle seats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Franz, M.; Kampa, I.; Zenk, R.

    2012-01-01

    Seats need to be more lightweight for airplanes, cars, busses and even trains to contribute to a better environment and to reduce energy consumption. However, a reduction in comfort due to weight reduction is not preferable, which opens a new area of research: improving comfort with a minimum of

  14. Impact of Implementing a Primary Enforcement Seat Belt Law in Florida : A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    On June 30, 2009, Florida implemented a primary seat belt law. The State was already engaged in a Rural : Demonstration Program (RDP) to increase belt usage in rural areas in the northern part of the State and participated : regularly in annual Click...

  15. Estimated medical cost savings in Utah by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report examines 2007 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to : a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Utah if a primary seat : belt law is implemented. The savings a...

  16. Estimated medical cost savings in Nevada by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This report examines 2007 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Nevada if a primary seat belt law is implemented. The savings are...

  17. Estimated medical cost savings in Rhode Island by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This report examines 2006 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Rhode Island if a primary seat belt law is implemented. The savin...

  18. Estimated medical cost savings in Massachusetts by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This report examines 2006 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Massachusetts if a primary seat belt law is implemented. The savi...

  19. Estimated medical cost savings in Vermont by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This report examines 2005 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to the State of Vermont if a primary seat belt law is implemented. T...

  20. STS-37 Commander Nagel in commanders seat on OV-104's flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Commander Steven R. Nagel, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), sits at commanders station on the forward flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Surrounding Nagel are the seat headrest, control panels, checklists, forward flight deck windows, and three drinking water containers with straws attached to forward panel F2.