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Sample records for line search strategy

  1. Search strategies

    Oliver, B. M.

    Attention is given to the approaches which would provide the greatest chance of success in attempts related to the discovery of extraterrestrial advanced cultures in the Galaxy, taking into account the principle of least energy expenditure. The energetics of interstellar contact are explored, giving attention to the use of manned spacecraft, automatic probes, and beacons. The least expensive approach to a search for other civilizations involves a listening program which attempts to detect signals emitted by such civilizations. The optimum part of the spectrum for the considered search is found to be in the range from 1 to 2 GHz. Antenna and transmission formulas are discussed along with the employment of matched gates and filters, the probable characteristics of the signals to be detected, the filter-signal mismatch loss, surveys of the radio sky, the conduction of targeted searches.

  2. Intermittent search strategies

    Bénichou, O.; Loverdo, C.; Moreau, M.; Voituriez, R.

    2011-01-01

    This review examines intermittent target search strategies, which combine phases of slow motion, allowing the searcher to detect the target, and phases of fast motion during which targets cannot be detected. It is first shown that intermittent search strategies are actually widely observed at various scales. At the macroscopic scale, this is, for example, the case of animals looking for food; at the microscopic scale, intermittent transport patterns are involved in a reaction pathway of DNA-binding proteins as well as in intracellular transport. Second, generic stochastic models are introduced, which show that intermittent strategies are efficient strategies that enable the minimization of search time. This suggests that the intrinsic efficiency of intermittent search strategies could justify their frequent observation in nature. Last, beyond these modeling aspects, it is proposed that intermittent strategies could also be used in a broader context to design and accelerate search processes.

  3. Optimal intermittent search strategies

    Rojo, F; Budde, C E; Wio, H S

    2009-01-01

    We study the search kinetics of a single fixed target by a set of searchers performing an intermittent random walk, jumping between different internal states. Exploiting concepts of multi-state and continuous-time random walks we have calculated the survival probability of a target up to time t, and have 'optimized' (minimized) it with regard to the transition probability among internal states. Our model shows that intermittent strategies always improve target detection, even for simple diffusion states of motion

  4. Optimal intermittent search strategies

    Rojo, F; Budde, C E [FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA Cordoba (Argentina); Wio, H S [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Universidad de Cantabria and CSIC E-39005 Santander (Spain)

    2009-03-27

    We study the search kinetics of a single fixed target by a set of searchers performing an intermittent random walk, jumping between different internal states. Exploiting concepts of multi-state and continuous-time random walks we have calculated the survival probability of a target up to time t, and have 'optimized' (minimized) it with regard to the transition probability among internal states. Our model shows that intermittent strategies always improve target detection, even for simple diffusion states of motion.

  5. Switching strategies to optimize search

    Shlesinger, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Search strategies are explored when the search time is fixed, success is probabilistic and the estimate for success can diminish with time if there is not a successful result. Under the time constraint the problem is to find the optimal time to switch a search strategy or search location. Several variables are taken into account, including cost, gain, rate of success if a target is present and the probability that a target is present. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)

  6. Tales from the Field: Search Strategies Applied in Web Searching

    Soohyung Joo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In their web search processes users apply multiple types of search strategies, which consist of different search tactics. This paper identifies eight types of information search strategies with associated cases based on sequences of search tactics during the information search process. Thirty-one participants representing the general public were recruited for this study. Search logs and verbal protocols offered rich data for the identification of different types of search strategies. Based on the findings, the authors further discuss how to enhance web-based information retrieval (IR systems to support each type of search strategy.

  7. University Students' Online Information Searching Strategies in Different Search Contexts

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of search context played in university students' online information searching strategies. A total of 304 university students in Taiwan were surveyed with questionnaires in which two search contexts were defined as searching for learning, and searching for daily life information. Students' online search strategies…

  8. Constructing Effective Search Strategies for Electronic Searching.

    Flanagan, Lynn; Parente, Sharon Campbell

    Electronic databases have grown tremendously in both number and popularity since their development during the 1960s. Access to electronic databases in academic libraries was originally offered primarily through mediated search services by trained librarians; however, the advent of CD-ROM and end-user interfaces for online databases has shifted the…

  9. Simplified automatic on-line document searching

    Ebinuma, Yukio

    1983-01-01

    The author proposed searching method for users who need not-comprehensive retrieval. That is to provide flexible number of related documents for the users automatically. A group of technical terms are used as search terms to express an inquiry. Logical sums of the terms in the ascending order of frequency of the usage are prepared sequentially and automatically, and then the search formulas, qsub(m) and qsub(m-1) which meet certain threshold values are selected automatically also. Users justify precision of the search output up to 20 items retrieved by the formula qsub(m). If a user wishes more than 30% of recall ratio, the serach result should be output by qsub(m), and if he wishes less than 30% of it, it should be output by qsub(m-1). The search by this method using one year volume of INIS Database (76,600 items) and five inquiries resulted in 32% of recall ratio and 36% of precision ratio on the average in the case of qsub(m). The connecting time of a terminal was within 15 minutes per an inquiry. It showed more efficiency than that of an inexperienced searcher. The method can be applied to on-line searching system for database in which natural language only or natural language and controlled vocabulary are used. (author)

  10. [The smile line, a literature search].

    van der Geld, P A; van Waas, M A

    2003-09-01

    Beautiful teeth, visible when smiling, are in line with the present ideal of beauty. The display of teeth when smiling is determined by the smile line: the projection of the lower border of the upper lip on the maxillary teeth when smiling. On the basis of a literature search the determining methods of the smile line are discussed, demographic data of the position of the smile line are given, and factors of influence are examined. There is no unequivocal method for determining the position of the smile line. A rough distinction can be made between qualitative and (semi)-quantitative methods. The (semi)-quantitative methods have clear advantages for research purposes, but their reliability is unknown. It was demonstrated that among minimally 40% of subjects the maxillary gingiva was not visible when smiling. The mandibular gingiva was not visible when smiling among more than 90% of subjects. Furthermore, it appeared that among women the smile line was on average higher situated than among men and that it has not yet been proven that the smile line will be situated lower when growing older.

  11. Searching CLEF-IP by Strategy

    W. Alink (Wouter); R. Cornacchia (Roberto); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractTasks performed by intellectual property specialists are often ad hoc, and continuously require new approaches to search a collection of documents. We therefore investigate the benets of a visual `search strategy builder' to allow IP search experts to express their approach to

  12. Routine development of objectively derived search strategies

    Hausner Elke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past few years, information retrieval has become more and more professionalized, and information specialists are considered full members of a research team conducting systematic reviews. Research groups preparing systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines have been the driving force in the development of search strategies, but open questions remain regarding the transparency of the development process and the available resources. An empirically guided approach to the development of a search strategy provides a way to increase transparency and efficiency. Methods Our aim in this paper is to describe the empirically guided development process for search strategies as applied by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen, or "IQWiG". This strategy consists of the following steps: generation of a test set, as well as the development, validation and standardized documentation of the search strategy. Results We illustrate our approach by means of an example, that is, a search for literature on brachytherapy in patients with prostate cancer. For this purpose, a test set was generated, including a total of 38 references from 3 systematic reviews. The development set for the generation of the strategy included 25 references. After application of textual analytic procedures, a strategy was developed that included all references in the development set. To test the search strategy on an independent set of references, the remaining 13 references in the test set (the validation set were used. The validation set was also completely identified. Discussion Our conclusion is that an objectively derived approach similar to that used in search filter development is a feasible way to develop and validate reliable search strategies. Besides creating high-quality strategies, the widespread application of this approach will result in a

  13. Collaborative Search Strategies for Green Innovation

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    Recent innovation and strategy research emphasizes the importance of firm’s search for external knowledge to improve innovation performance. We focus on such search strategies within the domain of sustainable innovation in which problems are inherently complex and the relevant knowledge is widely...... dispersed. Hence, firms need to collaborate. We shed new light on collaborative search strategies led by firms in general and for solving environmental problems in particular. Both topics are largely absent in the extant open innovation literature. Using data from the European Seventh Framework Program...... for Research and Technological Development (FP7), our results indicate that the problem-solving potential of a search strategy increases with the diversity of existing knowledge of the partners in a consortium and with the experience of the partners involved. Moreover, we identify a substantial negative effect...

  14. A novel line segment detection algorithm based on graph search

    Zhao, Hong-dan; Liu, Guo-ying; Song, Xu

    2018-02-01

    To overcome the problem of extracting line segment from an image, a method of line segment detection was proposed based on the graph search algorithm. After obtaining the edge detection result of the image, the candidate straight line segments are obtained in four directions. For the candidate straight line segments, their adjacency relationships are depicted by a graph model, based on which the depth-first search algorithm is employed to determine how many adjacent line segments need to be merged. Finally we use the least squares method to fit the detected straight lines. The comparative experimental results verify that the proposed algorithm has achieved better results than the line segment detector (LSD).

  15. Statistical data evaluation in mobile gamma spectrometry. An optimisation of on-line search strategies in the scenario of lost point sources

    Hjerpe, T.; Samuelsson, C.

    1999-01-01

    There is a potential risk that hazardous radioactive sources could enter the environment, e.g. via satellite debris, smuggled radioactive goods or lost metal scrap. From a radiation protection point of view there is a need for rapid and reliable methods for locating and identifying sources. Car-borne and air-borne detector systems are suitable for the task. The condition in this work is a situation where the missing radionuclide is known, which is not an unlikely scenario. The possibility that the source is located near a road can be high, and thus motivating a car-borne spectrometer system. The main object is to optimise on-line statistical methods in order to achieve a high probability for locating point sources, or hot spots, and still have reasonably few false alarms from variations in the natural background radiation. Data were obtained from a car-borne 3 litres (NaI(Tl) detector and two point sources, located at various distances from the road. The nuclides used were 137 Cs and 131 I. Spectra were measured stationary on the road. From these measurements spectra we have reconstructed spectra applicable to different speed and sampling times; the time 3 seconds and 50 km/h are used in this work. The maximum distance a source can be located from the road and still be detected is estimated with four different statistical analysis methods. This distance is called the detection distance, DD. The method is applied on gross counts in the full energy peak window. For each method alarm thresholds has been calculated from background data obtained in Scania (Skaane), in the south of Sweden. The results show a 30-50% difference in DD's. With this semi-theoretical approach, the two sources could be detected from 250 m ( 137 Cs, 6GBq) and 200 m ( 131 I, 4GBq). (au)

  16. Motion Vector Estimation Using Line-Square Search Block Matching Algorithm for Video Sequences

    Guo Bao-long

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Motion estimation and compensation techniques are widely used for video coding applications but the real-time motion estimation is not easily achieved due to its enormous computations. In this paper, a new fast motion estimation algorithm based on line search is presented, in which computation complexity is greatly reduced by using the line search strategy and a parallel search pattern. Moreover, the accurate search is achieved because the small square search pattern is used. It has a best-case scenario of only 9 search points, which is 4 search points less than the diamond search algorithm. Simulation results show that, compared with the previous techniques, the LSPS algorithm significantly reduces the computational requirements for finding motion vectors, and also produces close performance in terms of motion compensation errors.

  17. Formalized search strategies for human risk contributions

    Rasmussen, J.; Pedersen, O.M.

    1982-07-01

    For risk management, the results of a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) as well as the underlying assumptions can be used as references in a closed-loop risk control; and the analyses of operational experiences as a means of feedback. In this context, the need for explicit definition and documentation of the PRA coverage, including the search strategies applied, is discussed and aids are proposed such as plant description in terms of a formal abstraction hierarchy and use of cause-consequence-charts for the documentation of not only the results of PRA but also of its coverage. Typical human risk contributions are described on the basis of general plant design features relevant for risk and accident analysis. With this background, search strategies for human risk contributions are treated: Under the designation ''work analysis'', procedures for the analysis of familiar, well trained, planned tasks are proposed. Strategies for identifying human risk contributions outside this category are outlined. (author)

  18. A stochastic model for intermittent search strategies

    Benichou, O; Coppey, M; Moreau, M; Suet, P H; Voituriez, R

    2005-01-01

    It is often necessary, in scientific or everyday life problems, to find a randomly hidden target. What is then the optimal strategy to reach it as rapidly as possible? In this article, we develop a stochastic theory for intermittent search behaviours, which are often observed: the searcher alternates phases of intensive search and slow motion with fast displacements. The first results of this theory have already been announced recently. Here we provide a detailed presentation of the theory, as well as the full derivation of the results. Furthermore, we explicitly discuss the minimization of the time needed to find the target

  19. Formalized Search Strategies for Human Risk Contributions

    Rasmussen, Jens; Pedersen, O. M.

    For risk management, the results of a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) as well as the underlying assumptions can be used as references in a closed-loop risk control; and the analyses of operational experiences as a means of feedback. In this context, the need for explicit definition...... risk contributions are described on the basis of general plant design features relevant for risk and accident analysis. With this background, search strategies for human risk contributions are treated: Under the designation "work analysis", procedures for the analysis of familiar, well trained, planned...... tasks are proposed. Strategies for identifying human risk contributions outside this category are outlined....

  20. SPIRES I: on-line search guide

    Addis, L.

    1975-06-01

    SPIRES I is the first generation of the on-line Stanford Public Information Retrieval System. Designed as a prototype system, SPIRES I was later moved to the SLAC computing facility where it has been routinely available to SLAC users in the field of high-energy physics. The scope and use of the SPIRES I system are described in this manual

  1. Organizational Search Strategy: An Examination of Interdependencies, Locus and Temporality of Search

    Ebrahim, Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Notwithstanding the ample research on organizational search and its performance implications, the factors that shape the organizations’ search strategy is fairly under-explored. This study investigates how problems’ characteristics influence the managerial decision of searching jointly or

  2. Chance and strategy in search processes

    Moreau, M; Bénichou, O; Loverdo, C; Voituriez, R

    2009-01-01

    We consider a searcher in quest of a target in two situations: in the presence of an infinite number of identical, Poisson distributed targets, and in the presence of a unique target in a finite territory. The searcher alternates intensive search phases, during which it scans the neighbouring territory but does not move, and displacement phases with no target detection. We study the problem of determining the best strategy of displacement for minimizing the mean search time: either a deterministic or a stochastic trajectory. With a reasonable simplifying hypothesis, we show that for Poisson distributed targets, deterministic, self-avoiding trajectories are more efficient than stochastic ones if the detection process involves no memory skills and can be modelled by a Markov process. In contrast, if the detection process is not Markovian, it can be better for the searcher to follow a stochastic trajectory rather than a self-avoiding trajectory, and we give an explicit example of such a memory law. In the case of a unique target, self-avoiding trajectories are always better if an infinite time is available for the search, whereas stochastic trajectories can be more efficient if the searcher has to find the target before a given deadline. Moreover, we show that the gain due to a deterministic trajectory, compared to a stochastic one, is not significant in the case of a large network containing a unique target. Additionally, for various examples of displacement trajectories, we compute the overall mean search time and study its minimization as a function of the mean duration of the detection process

  3. Noise propagation in iterative reconstruction algorithms with line searches

    Qi, Jinyi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the propagation of noise in iterative image reconstruction algorithms. We derive theoretical expressions for the general form of preconditioned gradient algorithms with line searches. The results are applicable to a wide range of iterative reconstruction problems, such as emission tomography, transmission tomography, and image restoration. A unique contribution of this paper comparing to our previous work [1] is that the line search is explicitly modeled and we do not use the approximation that the gradient of the objective function is zero. As a result, the error in the estimate of noise at early iterations is significantly reduced

  4. Randomized Search Strategies With Imperfect Sensors

    Gage, Douglas W

    1993-01-01

    .... An important class of coverage applications are those that involve a search, in which a number of searching elements move about within a prescribed search area in order to find one or more target...

  5. Expert Search Strategies: The Information Retrieval Practices of Healthcare Information Professionals.

    Russell-Rose, Tony; Chamberlain, Jon

    2017-10-02

    Healthcare information professionals play a key role in closing the knowledge gap between medical research and clinical practice. Their work involves meticulous searching of literature databases using complex search strategies that can consist of hundreds of keywords, operators, and ontology terms. This process is prone to error and can lead to inefficiency and bias if performed incorrectly. The aim of this study was to investigate the search behavior of healthcare information professionals, uncovering their needs, goals, and requirements for information retrieval systems. A survey was distributed to healthcare information professionals via professional association email discussion lists. It investigated the search tasks they undertake, their techniques for search strategy formulation, their approaches to evaluating search results, and their preferred functionality for searching library-style databases. The popular literature search system PubMed was then evaluated to determine the extent to which their needs were met. The 107 respondents indicated that their information retrieval process relied on the use of complex, repeatable, and transparent search strategies. On average it took 60 minutes to formulate a search strategy, with a search task taking 4 hours and consisting of 15 strategy lines. Respondents reviewed a median of 175 results per search task, far more than they would ideally like (100). The most desired features of a search system were merging search queries and combining search results. Healthcare information professionals routinely address some of the most challenging information retrieval problems of any profession. However, their needs are not fully supported by current literature search systems and there is demand for improved functionality, in particular regarding the development and management of search strategies. ©Tony Russell-Rose, Jon Chamberlain. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 02.10.2017.

  6. Harmony Search for Balancing Two-sided Assembly Lines

    Hindriyanto Dwi Purnomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-sided assembly lines balancing problems are important problem for large-sized products such as cars and buses, in which, tasks operations can be performed in the two sides of the line. In this paper, Harmony Search algorithm is proposed to solve two-sided assembly lines balancing problems type-I (TALBP-I. The proposed method adopts the COMSOAL heuristic and specific features of TALBP in the Harmony operators – the harmony memory consideration, random selection and pitch adjustment – in order to maintain the local and global search. The proposed method is evaluated based on 6 benchmark problems that are commonly used in TALBP. The experiment results show that the proposed method work well and produces better solution than the heuristic method and genetic algorithm.

  7. A search for spectral lines in gamma-ray bursts using TGRS

    Kurczynski, P.; Palmer, D.; Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.; Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. L.; Ramaty, R.; Hurley, K.; Madden, N. W.; Pehl, R. H.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of an ongoing search for narrow spectral lines in gamma-ray burst data. TGRS, the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer aboard the Wind satellite is a high energy-resolution Ge device. Thus it is uniquely situated among the array of space-based, burst sensitive instruments to look for line features in gamma-ray burst spectra. Our search strategy adopts a two tiered approach. An automated 'quick look' scan searches spectra for statistically significant deviations from the continuum. We analyzed all possible time accumulations of spectra as well as individual spectra for each burst. Follow-up analysis of potential line candidates uses model fitting with F-test and χ 2 tests for statistical significance

  8. Galaxy Strategy for Ligo-Virgo Gravitational Wave Counterpart Searches

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Kanner, Jonah; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nissanke, Samaya; Singer, Leo P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we continue a line of inquiry begun in Kanner et al. which detailed a strategy for utilizing telescopes with narrow fields of view, such as the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT), to localize gravity wave (GW) triggers from LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) / Virgo. If one considers the brightest galaxies that produce 50 percent of the light, then the number of galaxies inside typical GW error boxes will be several tens. We have found that this result applies both in the early years of Advanced LIGO when the range is small and the error boxes large, and in the later years when the error boxes will be small and the range large. This strategy has the beneficial property of reducing the number of telescope pointings by a factor 10 to 100 compared with tiling the entire error box. Additional galaxy count reduction will come from a GW rapid distance estimate which will restrict the radial slice in search volume. Combining the bright galaxy strategy with a convolution based on anticipated GW localizations, we find that the searches can be restricted to about 18 plus or minus 5 galaxies for 2015, about 23 plus or minus 4 for 2017, and about 11 plus or minus for 2020. This assumes a distance localization at the putative neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) merger range mu for each target year, and these totals are integrated out to the range. Integrating out to the horizon would roughly double the totals. For localizations with r (rotation) greatly less than mu the totals would decrease. The galaxy strategy we present in this work will enable numerous sensitive optical and X-ray telescopes with small fields of view to participate meaningfully in searches wherein the prospects for rapidly fading afterglow place a premium on a fast response time.

  9. Web-based information search and retrieval: effects of strategy use and age on search success.

    Stronge, Aideen J; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between strategy use and search success on the World Wide Web (i.e., the Web) for experienced Web users. An additional goal was to extend understanding of how the age of the searcher may influence strategy use. Current investigations of information search and retrieval on the Web have provided an incomplete picture of Web strategy use because participants have not been given the opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge of Web strategies while also searching for information on the Web. Using both behavioral and knowledge-engineering methods, we investigated searching behavior and system knowledge for 16 younger adults (M = 20.88 years of age) and 16 older adults (M = 67.88 years). Older adults were less successful than younger adults in finding correct answers to the search tasks. Knowledge engineering revealed that the age-related effect resulted from ineffective search strategies and amount of Web experience rather than age per se. Our analysis led to the development of a decision-action diagram representing search behavior for both age groups. Older adults had more difficulty than younger adults when searching for information on the Web. However, this difficulty was related to the selection of inefficient search strategies, which may have been attributable to a lack of knowledge about available Web search strategies. Actual or potential applications of this research include training Web users to search more effectively and suggestions to improve the design of search engines.

  10. Linac4 chopper line commissioning strategy

    Bellodi, G; Lombardi, A M; Posocco, P A; Sargsyan, E

    2010-01-01

    The report outlines the strategy for beam-based commissioning of the Linac4 3 MeV chopper line as currently scheduled to start in the second half of 2011 in the Test Stand Area. A dedicated temporary diagnostics test bench will complement the measurement devices foreseen for permanent installation in the chopper line. A commissioning procedure is set out as a series of consecutive phases, each one supposed to meet a well- defined milestone in the path to fully characterise the beam-line. Specific set-ups for each stage are defined in terms of beam characteristics, machine settings and diagnostics used. Operational guidelines are given and expected results at the relative points of measurements are shown for simulated scenarios (on the basis of multi-particle tracking studies carried out with the codes PATH and TRACEWin). These are then interpreted in the light of the resolution limits of the available diagnostics instruments to assess the precision reach on individual measurements and the feasibility of techn...

  11. The Effect of Teaching Search Strategies on Perceptual Performance.

    van der Gijp, Anouk; Vincken, Koen L; Boscardin, Christy; Webb, Emily M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Naeger, David M

    2017-06-01

    Radiology expertise is dependent on the use of efficient search strategies. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of teaching search strategies on trainee's accuracy in detecting lung nodules at computed tomography. Two search strategies, "scanning" and "drilling," were tested with a randomized crossover design. Nineteen junior radiology residents were randomized into two groups. Both groups first completed a baseline lung nodule detection test allowing a free search strategy, followed by a test after scanning instruction and drilling instruction or vice versa. True positive (TP) and false positive (FP) scores and scroll behavior were registered. A mixed-design analysis of variance was applied to compare the three search conditions. Search strategy instruction had a significant effect on scroll behavior, F(1.3) = 54.2, P search (M = 15.3, SD = 4.6), t(18) = 4.44, P search. FP scores for drilling (M = 7.3, SD = 5.6) were significantly lower than for free search (M = 12.5, SD = 7.8), t(18) = 4.86, P < 0.001. Teaching a drilling strategy is preferable to teaching a scanning strategy for finding lung nodules. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Uncovering Web search strategies in South African higher education

    Surika Civilcharran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of the enormous amount of information available on the Web and the fact that search engines are continuously evolving to enhance the search experience, students are nevertheless faced with the difficulty of effectively retrieving information. It is, therefore, imperative for the interaction between students and search tools to be understood and search strategies to be identified, in order to promote successful information retrieval. Objectives: This study identifies the Web search strategies used by postgraduate students and forms part of a wider study into information retrieval strategies used by postgraduate students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN, Pietermaritzburg campus, South Africa. Method: Largely underpinned by Thatcher’s cognitive search strategies, the mixed-methods approach was utilised for this study, in which questionnaires were employed in Phase 1 and structured interviews in Phase 2. This article reports and reflects on the findings of Phase 2, which focus on identifying the Web search strategies employed by postgraduate students. The Phase 1 results were reported in Civilcharran, Hughes and Maharaj (2015. Results: Findings reveal the Web search strategies used for academic information retrieval. In spite of easy access to the invisible Web and the advent of meta-search engines, the use of Web search engines still remains the preferred search tool. The UKZN online library databases and especially the UKZN online library, Online Public Access Catalogue system, are being underutilised. Conclusion: Being ranked in the top three percent of the world’s universities, UKZN is investing in search tools that are not being used to their full potential. This evidence suggests an urgent need for students to be trained in Web searching and to have a greater exposure to a variety of search tools. This article is intended to further contribute to the design of undergraduate training programmes in order to deal

  13. Online Information Search Performance and Search Strategies in a Health Problem-Solving Scenario.

    Sharit, Joseph; Taha, Jessica; Berkowsky, Ronald W; Profita, Halley; Czaja, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Although access to Internet health information can be beneficial, solving complex health-related problems online is challenging for many individuals. In this study, we investigated the performance of a sample of 60 adults ages 18 to 85 years in using the Internet to resolve a relatively complex health information problem. The impact of age, Internet experience, and cognitive abilities on measures of search time, amount of search, and search accuracy was examined, and a model of Internet information seeking was developed to guide the characterization of participants' search strategies. Internet experience was found to have no impact on performance measures. Older participants exhibited longer search times and lower amounts of search but similar search accuracy performance as their younger counterparts. Overall, greater search accuracy was related to an increased amount of search but not to increased search duration and was primarily attributable to higher cognitive abilities, such as processing speed, reasoning ability, and executive function. There was a tendency for those who were younger, had greater Internet experience, and had higher cognitive abilities to use a bottom-up (i.e., analytic) search strategy, although use of a top-down (i.e., browsing) strategy was not necessarily unsuccessful. Implications of the findings for future studies and design interventions are discussed.

  14. Designing Search UX Strategies for eCommerce Success

    Nudelman, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Best practices, practical advice, and design ideas for successful ecommerce search A glaring gap has existed in the market for a resource that offers a comprehensive, actionable design patterns and design strategies for ecommerce search-but no longer. With this invaluable book, user experience designer and user researcher Greg Nudelman shares his years of experience working on popular ecommerce sites as he tackles even the most difficult ecommerce search design problems. Nudelman helps you create highly effective and intuitive ecommerce search design solutions and he takes a unique forward-thi

  15. Search for Directed Networks by Different Random Walk Strategies

    Zhu, Zi-Qi; Jin, Xiao-Ling; Huang, Zhi-Long

    2012-03-01

    A comparative study is carried out on the efficiency of five different random walk strategies searching on directed networks constructed based on several typical complex networks. Due to the difference in search efficiency of the strategies rooted in network clustering, the clustering coefficient in a random walker's eye on directed networks is defined and computed to be half of the corresponding undirected networks. The search processes are performed on the directed networks based on Erdös—Rényi model, Watts—Strogatz model, Barabási—Albert model and clustered scale-free network model. It is found that self-avoiding random walk strategy is the best search strategy for such directed networks. Compared to unrestricted random walk strategy, path-iteration-avoiding random walks can also make the search process much more efficient. However, no-triangle-loop and no-quadrangle-loop random walks do not improve the search efficiency as expected, which is different from those on undirected networks since the clustering coefficient of directed networks are smaller than that of undirected networks.

  16. Optimal intermittent search strategies: smelling the prey

    Revelli, J A; Wio, H S; Rojo, F; Budde, C E

    2010-01-01

    We study the kinetics of the search of a single fixed target by a searcher/walker that performs an intermittent random walk, characterized by different states of motion. In addition, we assume that the walker has the ability to detect the scent left by the prey/target in its surroundings. Our results, in agreement with intuition, indicate that the prey's survival probability could be strongly reduced (increased) if the predator is attracted (or repelled) by the trace left by the prey. We have also found that, for a positive trace (the predator is guided towards the prey), increasing the inhomogeneity's size reduces the prey's survival probability, while the optimal value of α (the parameter that regulates intermittency) ceases to exist. The agreement between theory and numerical simulations is excellent.

  17. Optimal intermittent search strategies: smelling the prey

    Revelli, J A; Wio, H S [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Universidad de Cantabria and CSIC, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Rojo, F; Budde, C E [Fa.M.A.F., Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2010-05-14

    We study the kinetics of the search of a single fixed target by a searcher/walker that performs an intermittent random walk, characterized by different states of motion. In addition, we assume that the walker has the ability to detect the scent left by the prey/target in its surroundings. Our results, in agreement with intuition, indicate that the prey's survival probability could be strongly reduced (increased) if the predator is attracted (or repelled) by the trace left by the prey. We have also found that, for a positive trace (the predator is guided towards the prey), increasing the inhomogeneity's size reduces the prey's survival probability, while the optimal value of {alpha} (the parameter that regulates intermittency) ceases to exist. The agreement between theory and numerical simulations is excellent.

  18. The impact of PICO as a search strategy tool on literature search quality

    Eriksen, Mette Brandt; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This review aimed to determine, if the use of the PICO model (Patient Intervention Comparison Outcome) as a search strategy tool affects the quality of the literature search. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library...... and three studies were included, data was extracted, risk of bias was assessed and a qualitative analysis was conducted. The included studies compared PICO to PIC or link to related articles in PubMed; PICOS and SPIDER. One study compared PICO to unguided searching. Due to differences in intervention...

  19. STRATEGIES IN SEARCH FOR INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIPS

    Denise de Freitas

    Full Text Available Introduction: Internationalization is the process which integrates universal, intercultural or global dimension in a program, in this case, postgraduate. It can be understood as the process of increasing participation in international operations. Method: To offer design and motivational logistics on how to run a process of international scientific relationship. Results: It is necessary to develop several different aspects to be reached internationalization: to know the fundamentals of internationalization; to have international vision; to promote strategy for internationalization; to know the characteristics of an institutional center of internationalization; and to understand the institutional advantages of internationalization. Conclusion: Internationalization is essential to aerate the Brazilian postgraduate and not mischaracterize or weakens the process. On the contrary, it contributes to increase its vitality and capacity for innovation. Today is not possible to imagine science without internationalization.

  20. Improved Seam-Line Searching Algorithm for UAV Image Mosaic with Optical Flow.

    Zhang, Weilong; Guo, Bingxuan; Li, Ming; Liao, Xuan; Li, Wenzhuo

    2018-04-16

    Ghosting and seams are two major challenges in creating unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) image mosaic. In response to these problems, this paper proposes an improved method for UAV image seam-line searching. First, an image matching algorithm is used to extract and match the features of adjacent images, so that they can be transformed into the same coordinate system. Then, the gray scale difference, the gradient minimum, and the optical flow value of pixels in adjacent image overlapped area in a neighborhood are calculated, which can be applied to creating an energy function for seam-line searching. Based on that, an improved dynamic programming algorithm is proposed to search the optimal seam-lines to complete the UAV image mosaic. This algorithm adopts a more adaptive energy aggregation and traversal strategy, which can find a more ideal splicing path for adjacent UAV images and avoid the ground objects better. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively solve the problems of ghosting and seams in the panoramic UAV images.

  1. Search strategies in practice: Influence of information and task constraints.

    Pacheco, Matheus M; Newell, Karl M

    2018-01-01

    The practice of a motor task has been conceptualized as a process of search through a perceptual-motor workspace. The present study investigated the influence of information and task constraints on the search strategy as reflected in the sequential relations of the outcome in a discrete movement virtual projectile task. The results showed that the relation between the changes of trial-to-trial movement outcome to performance level was dependent on the landscape of the task dynamics and the influence of inherent variability. Furthermore, the search was in a constrained parameter region of the perceptual-motor workspace that depended on the task constraints. These findings show that there is not a single function of trial-to-trial change over practice but rather that local search strategies (proportional, discontinuous, constant) adapt to the level of performance and the confluence of constraints to action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Line Search Multilevel Truncated Newton Algorithm for Computing the Optical Flow

    Lluís Garrido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the implementation details and give the experimental results of three optimization algorithms for dense optical flow computation. In particular, using a line search strategy, we evaluate the performance of the unilevel truncated Newton method (LSTN, a multiresolution truncated Newton (MR/LSTN and a full multigrid truncated Newton (FMG/LSTN. We use three image sequences and four models of optical flow for performance evaluation. The FMG/LSTN algorithm is shown to lead to better optical flow estimation with less computational work than both the LSTN and MR/LSTN algorithms.

  3. A Nonmonotone Line Search Filter Algorithm for the System of Nonlinear Equations

    Zhong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new iterative method based on the line search filter method with the nonmonotone strategy to solve the system of nonlinear equations. The equations are divided into two groups; some equations are treated as constraints and the others act as the objective function, and the two groups are just updated at the iterations where it is needed indeed. We employ the nonmonotone idea to the sufficient reduction conditions and filter technique which leads to a flexibility and acceptance behavior comparable to monotone methods. The new algorithm is shown to be globally convergent and numerical experiments demonstrate its effectiveness.

  4. Computational assessment of visual search strategies in volumetric medical images.

    Wen, Gezheng; Aizenman, Avigael; Drew, Trafton; Wolfe, Jeremy M; Haygood, Tamara Miner; Markey, Mia K

    2016-01-01

    When searching through volumetric images [e.g., computed tomography (CT)], radiologists appear to use two different search strategies: "drilling" (restrict eye movements to a small region of the image while quickly scrolling through slices), or "scanning" (search over large areas at a given depth before moving on to the next slice). To computationally identify the type of image information that is used in these two strategies, 23 naïve observers were instructed with either "drilling" or "scanning" when searching for target T's in 20 volumes of faux lung CTs. We computed saliency maps using both classical two-dimensional (2-D) saliency, and a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamic saliency that captures the characteristics of scrolling through slices. Comparing observers' gaze distributions with the saliency maps showed that search strategy alters the type of saliency that attracts fixations. Drillers' fixations aligned better with dynamic saliency and scanners with 2-D saliency. The computed saliency was greater for detected targets than for missed targets. Similar results were observed in data from 19 radiologists who searched five stacks of clinical chest CTs for lung nodules. Dynamic saliency may be superior to the 2-D saliency for detecting targets embedded in volumetric images, and thus "drilling" may be more efficient than "scanning."

  5. An inertia-free filter line-search algorithm for large-scale nonlinear programming

    Chiang, Nai-Yuan; Zavala, Victor M.

    2016-02-15

    We present a filter line-search algorithm that does not require inertia information of the linear system. This feature enables the use of a wide range of linear algebra strategies and libraries, which is essential to tackle large-scale problems on modern computing architectures. The proposed approach performs curvature tests along the search step to detect negative curvature and to trigger convexification. We prove that the approach is globally convergent and we implement the approach within a parallel interior-point framework to solve large-scale and highly nonlinear problems. Our numerical tests demonstrate that the inertia-free approach is as efficient as inertia detection via symmetric indefinite factorizations. We also demonstrate that the inertia-free approach can lead to reductions in solution time because it reduces the amount of convexification needed.

  6. Statistical evaluation and measuring strategy for extremely small line shifts

    Hansen, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    For a measuring situation limited by counting statistics, but where the level of precision is such that possible systematic errors are a major concern, it is proposed to determine the position of a spectral line from a measured line segment by applying a bias correction to the centre of gravity of the segment. This procedure is statistically highly efficient and not sensitive to small errors in assumptions about the line shape. The counting strategy for an instrument that takes data point by point is also considered. It is shown that an optimum (''two-point'') strategy exists; a scan of the central part of the line is 68% efficient by this standard. (Auth.)

  7. Performance comparison of a new hybrid conjugate gradient method under exact and inexact line searches

    Ghani, N. H. A.; Mohamed, N. S.; Zull, N.; Shoid, S.; Rivaie, M.; Mamat, M.

    2017-09-01

    Conjugate gradient (CG) method is one of iterative techniques prominently used in solving unconstrained optimization problems due to its simplicity, low memory storage, and good convergence analysis. This paper presents a new hybrid conjugate gradient method, named NRM1 method. The method is analyzed under the exact and inexact line searches in given conditions. Theoretically, proofs show that the NRM1 method satisfies the sufficient descent condition with both line searches. The computational result indicates that NRM1 method is capable in solving the standard unconstrained optimization problems used. On the other hand, the NRM1 method performs better under inexact line search compared with exact line search.

  8. A search strategy for occupational health intervention studies

    Verbeek, J.; Salmi, J.; Pasternack, I.; Jauhiainen, M.; Laamanen, I.; Schaafsma, F.; Hulshof, C.; van Dijk, F.

    2005-01-01

    As a result of low numbers and diversity in study type, occupational health intervention studies are not easy to locate in electronic literature databases. To develop a search strategy that facilitates finding occupational health intervention studies in Medline, both for researchers and

  9. A Competitive and Experiential Assignment in Search Engine Optimization Strategy

    Clarke, Theresa B.; Clarke, Irvine, III

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increase in ad spending and demand for employees with expertise in search engine optimization (SEO), methods for teaching this important marketing strategy have received little coverage in the literature. Using Bloom's cognitive goals hierarchy as a framework, this experiential assignment provides a process for educators who may be new…

  10. The Development of Visual Search Strategies in Biscriptal Readers.

    Liow, Susan Rikard; Green, David; Tam, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    To test whether cognitive processing in bilingual depends on script combinations and language proficiency, this study investigated the development of alphabetic and logographic visual search strategies in two kinds of biscriptals: (1) Malay-English and (2) Chinese-English readers. Results support the view that there are script implications of…

  11. PubMed searches: overview and strategies for clinicians.

    Lindsey, Wesley T; Olin, Bernie R

    2013-04-01

    PubMed is a biomedical and life sciences database maintained by a division of the National Library of Medicine known as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). It is a large resource with more than 5600 journals indexed and greater than 22 million total citations. Searches conducted in PubMed provide references that are more specific for the intended topic compared with other popular search engines. Effective PubMed searches allow the clinician to remain current on the latest clinical trials, systematic reviews, and practice guidelines. PubMed continues to evolve by allowing users to create a customized experience through the My NCBI portal, new arrangements and options in search filters, and supporting scholarly projects through exportation of citations to reference managing software. Prepackaged search options available in the Clinical Queries feature also allow users to efficiently search for clinical literature. PubMed also provides information regarding the source journals themselves through the Journals in NCBI Databases link. This article provides an overview of the PubMed database's structure and features as well as strategies for conducting an effective search.

  12. Strategies to optimize MEDLINE and EMBASE search strategies for anesthesiology systematic reviews. An experimental study.

    Volpato, Enilze de Souza Nogueira; Betini, Marluci; Puga, Maria Eduarda; Agarwal, Arnav; Cataneo, Antônio José Maria; Oliveira, Luciane Dias de; Bazan, Rodrigo; Braz, Leandro Gobbo; Pereira, José Eduardo Guimarães; El Dib, Regina

    2018-01-15

    A high-quality electronic search is essential for ensuring accuracy and comprehensiveness among the records retrieved when conducting systematic reviews. Therefore, we aimed to identify the most efficient method for searching in both MEDLINE (through PubMed) and EMBASE, covering search terms with variant spellings, direct and indirect orders, and associations with MeSH and EMTREE terms (or lack thereof). Experimental study. UNESP, Brazil. We selected and analyzed 37 search strategies that had specifically been developed for the field of anesthesiology. These search strategies were adapted in order to cover all potentially relevant search terms, with regard to variant spellings and direct and indirect orders, in the most efficient manner. When the strategies included variant spellings and direct and indirect orders, these adapted versions of the search strategies selected retrieved the same number of search results in MEDLINE (mean of 61.3%) and a higher number in EMBASE (mean of 63.9%) in the sample analyzed. The numbers of results retrieved through the searches analyzed here were not identical with and without associated use of MeSH and EMTREE terms. However, association of these terms from both controlled vocabularies retrieved a larger number of records than did the use of either one of them. In view of these results, we recommend that the search terms used should include both preferred and non-preferred terms (i.e. variant spellings and direct/indirect order of the same term) and associated MeSH and EMTREE terms, in order to develop highly-sensitive search strategies for systematic reviews.

  13. Searching for evidence: Knowledge and search strategies used by forensic scientists

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Leijenhorst, H.

    2001-01-01

    The Forensic Science Laboratory of The Netherlands is suffering from a growing backlog due to an increasing number of cases, which results in long delivery times of research reports within a number of departments. The project, "Strategies for Searching Trace Evidence," was started by the Forensic

  14. Modification of the Armijo line search to satisfy the convergence properties of HS method

    Mohammed Belloufi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hestenes-Stiefel (HS conjugate gradient algorithm is a useful tool of unconstrainednumerical optimization, which has good numerical performance but no global convergence result under traditional line searches. This paper proposes a line search technique that guarantee the globalconvergence of the Hestenes-Stiefel (HS conjugate gradient method. Numerical tests are presented tovalidate the different approaches.

  15. Search strategies on the Internet: general and specific.

    Bottrill, Krys

    2004-06-01

    Some of the most up-to-date information on scientific activity is to be found on the Internet; for example, on the websites of academic and other research institutions and in databases of currently funded research studies provided on the websites of funding bodies. Such information can be valuable in suggesting new approaches and techniques that could be applicable in a Three Rs context. However, the Internet is a chaotic medium, not subject to the meticulous classification and organisation of classical information resources. At the same time, Internet search engines do not match the sophistication of search systems used by database hosts. Also, although some offer relatively advanced features, user awareness of these tends to be low. Furthermore, much of the information on the Internet is not accessible to conventional search engines, giving rise to the concept of the "Invisible Web". General strategies and techniques for Internet searching are presented, together with a comparative survey of selected search engines. The question of how the Invisible Web can be accessed is discussed, as well as how to keep up-to-date with Internet content and improve searching skills.

  16. Global Search Strategies for Solving Multilinear Least-Squares Problems

    Mats Andersson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The multilinear least-squares (MLLS problem is an extension of the linear least-squares problem. The difference is that a multilinear operator is used in place of a matrix-vector product. The MLLS is typically a large-scale problem characterized by a large number of local minimizers. It originates, for instance, from the design of filter networks. We present a global search strategy that allows for moving from one local minimizer to a better one. The efficiency of this strategy is illustrated by the results of numerical experiments performed for some problems related to the design of filter networks.

  17. Strategies to improve sleep during extended search and rescue operations.

    Jenkins, Jennifer Lee; Fredericksen, Kim; Stone, Roger; Tang, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated strategies to improve sleeping conditions during search and rescue operations during disaster response. Forty members of the Montgomery County (Maryland) Urban Search and Rescue Team were surveyed for individual sleep habits and sleeping aids used during extended deployments. Team members were also asked to suggest methods to improve sleep on future deployments. The average amount of sleep during field operations was 5.4 hours with a range of 4-8 hours. Eight percent surveyed would prefer another schedule besides the 12-hour work day, all of whom proposed three 8-hour shifts. Fifteen percent of participants were interested in a pharmacological sleeping aid. Fifty percent of search and rescue members interviewed would consider using nonpharmacological sleeping aids. Furthermore, 40% of participants stated they had successfully devised self-employed methods of sleep aids for previous deployments, such as ear plugs, massage, mental imagery, personal routines, music and headphones, reading, and blindfolds. This study suggests that availability of both pharmacological and nonpharmacological sleeping aids to search and rescue workers via the team cache could impact the quantity of sleep. Further investigation into methods of optimizing sleep during field missions could theoretically show enhanced performance through various aspects of missions including mitigation of errors, improved productivity, and improved overall physiological and emotional well-being of search and rescue personnel.

  18. In Search of Search Engine Marketing Strategy Amongst SME's in Ireland

    Barry, Chris; Charleton, Debbie

    Researchers have identified the Web as a searchers first port of call for locating information. Search Engine Marketing (SEM) strategies have been noted as a key consideration when developing, maintaining and managing Websites. A study presented here of SEM practices of Irish small to medium enterprises (SMEs) reveals they plan to spend more resources on SEM in the future. Most firms utilize an informal SEM strategy, where Website optimization is perceived most effective in attracting traffic. Respondents cite the use of ‘keywords in title and description tags’ as the most used SEM technique, followed by the use of ‘keywords throughout the whole Website’; while ‘Pay for Placement’ was most widely used Paid Search technique. In concurrence with the literature, measuring SEM performance remains a significant challenge with many firms unsure if they measure it effectively. An encouraging finding is that Irish SMEs adopt a positive ethical posture when undertaking SEM.

  19. Optimal swimming strategies in mate searching pelagic copepods

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Male copepods must swim to find females, but swimming increases the risk of meeting predators and is expensive in terms of energy expenditure. Here I address the trade-offs between gains and risks and the question of how much and how fast to swim using simple models that optimise the number...... of lifetime mate encounters. Radically different swimming strategies are predicted for different feeding behaviours, and these predictions are tested experimentally using representative species. In general, male swimming speeds and the difference in swimming speeds between the genders are predicted...... and observed to increase with increasing conflict between mate searching and feeding. It is high in ambush feeders, where searching (swimming) and feeding are mutually exclusive and low in species, where the matured males do not feed at all. Ambush feeding males alternate between stationary ambush feeding...

  20. Can collective searches profit from Levy walk strategies?

    Santos, M C; Da Luz, M G E [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba-PR, 81531-990 (Brazil); Raposo, E P [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife-PE, 50670-901 (Brazil); Viswanathan, G M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio-AL, 57072-970 (Brazil)], E-mail: luz@fisica.ufpr.br

    2009-10-30

    We address the problem of collective searching in which a group of walkers, guided by a leader, looks for randomly located target sites. In such a process, the necessity to maintain the group aggregated imposes a constraint in the foraging dynamics. We discuss four different models for the system collective behavior, with the leader and followers performing Gaussian as well as truncated Levy walks. In environments with low density of targets we show that Levy foraging is advantageous for the whole group, when compared with Gaussian strategy. Furthermore, certain extra rules must be incorporated in the individuals' dynamics, so that a compromise between the trend to keep the group together and the global efficiency of search is met. The exact character of these rules depends on specific details of the foraging process, such as regeneration of target sites and energy costs.

  1. Search for an in-line nitric acid analyzer

    Gallagher, K.Y.; Johnson, C.M.

    1980-10-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify possible techniques for measuring mineral acid normality in the presence of heavy metal salts, undissolved solids, and high radiation fields. Of the techniques noted, eight were identified that could be applicable to the objective. The possibilities were reduced to two methods, which warrant further investigation. These two are refractometry and a modified coulometric-polarographic method. All methods are discussed in detail followed by rationale for including or rejecting each for further investigation

  2. Formulation of a Production Strategy for a Software Product Line

    2009-08-01

    Strategy 9 5.1 Identifying the Critical Factors 9 5.1.1 Market Analysis 10 5.1.2 Building a Business Case 10 5.1.3 Scoping 10 5.1.4 Technology...ability to deliver new products quickly (i.e., its time to market ). The production strategy for a software product line is the high-level description of... strategy . The critical factors mentioned above refer to both market conditions that affect an organ- ization and how an organization’s products can

  3. Encounters with the OPAC: On-Line Searching in Public Libraries.

    Slone, Deborah J.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a qualitative study that explored strategies and behaviors of public library users during interaction with an online public access catalog, and users' confidence in finding needed information online. Discusses results of questionnaires, interviews, and observations that examined unknown-item searches, area searches, and known-item…

  4. The retrieval efficiency test of descriptors and free vocabulary terms in INIS on-line search

    Ebinuma, Yukio; Takahashi, Satoko

    1981-01-01

    The test was done for 1) search topics with appropriate descriptors, 2) search topics with considerably broader descriptors, 3) search topics with no appropriate descriptors. As to (1) and (2) the retrieval efficiency was the same both on descriptor system and on keyword system (descriptors + free terms), and the search formulas were easily constructed. As to (3) the descriptor system ensured the recall ratio but decreased the precision ratio. On the other hand the keyword system made the construction of search formulas easy and resulted in good retrieval efficiency. The search system which is available both for full match method of descriptors and truncation method of keywords is desirable because each method can be selected according to the searcher's strategy and search topics. Free-term system seems unnecessary. (author)

  5. Two Complementary Strategies for New Physics Searches at Lepton Colliders

    Hooberman, Benjamin Henry [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-07-06

    In this thesis I present two complementary strategies for probing beyond-the-Standard Model physics using data collected in e+e- collisions at lepton colliders. One strategy involves searching for effects at low energy mediated by new particles at the TeV mass scale, at which new physics is expected to manifest. Several new physics scenarios, including Supersymmetry and models with leptoquarks or compositeness, may lead to observable rates for charged lepton-flavor violating processes, which are forbidden in the Standard Model. I present a search for lepton-flavor violating decays of the Υ(3S) using data collected with the BABAR detector. This study establishes the 90% confidence level upper limits BF(Υ(3S) → eτ) < 5.0 x 10-6 and BF(Υ(3S) → μτ) < 4.1 x 10-6 which are used to place constraints on new physics contributing to lepton-flavor violation at the TeV mass scale. An alternative strategy is to increase the collision energy above the threshold for new particles and produce them directly. I discuss research and development efforts aimed at producing a vertex tracker which achieves the physics performance required of a high energy lepton collider. A small-scale vertex tracker prototype is constructed using Silicon sensors of 50 μm thickness and tested using charged particle beams. This tracker achieves the targeted impact parameter resolution of σLP = (5⊕10 GeV/pT) as well as a longitudinal vertex resolution of (260 ± 10) μm, which is consistent with the requirements of a TeV-scale lepton collider. This detector research and development effort must be motivated and directed by simulation studies of physics processes. Investigation of a dark matter-motivated Supersymmetry scenario is presented, in which the dark matter is composed of Supersymmetric neutralinos. In this scenario, studies of the e+e- → H0A0 production process allow for

  6. Návrh on-line komunikační strategie divadla Činoherní klub

    Šojdelová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The theme of the diploma thesis is called "On-line Communications Strategy Plan for the Cinoherni klub theatre". The theoretical part of the thesis deals mainly with internet marketing and communications strategies in a business. A method called Search Engine Marketing (SEM) is described in details in this part. The thesis deals also with some possibilities of how to effectively use internet advertising to drive traffic to company's websites. In the practical part of the thesis a specific int...

  7. Search Engine Marketing (SEM: Financial & Competitive Advantages of an Effective Hotel SEM Strategy

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Search Engine Marketing and Optimization (SEO, SEM are keystones of a hotels marketing strategy, in fact research shows that 90% of travelers start their vacation planning with a Google search. Learn five strategies that can enhance a hotels SEO and SEM strategies to boost bookings.

  8. Search Engine Marketing (SEM): Financial & Competitive Advantages of an Effective Hotel SEM Strategy

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-01-01

    Search Engine Marketing and Optimization (SEO, SEM) are keystones of a hotels marketing strategy, in fact research shows that 90% of travelers start their vacation planning with a Google search. Learn five strategies that can enhance a hotels SEO and SEM strategies to boost bookings.

  9. New hybrid conjugate gradient methods with the generalized Wolfe line search.

    Xu, Xiao; Kong, Fan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The conjugate gradient method was an efficient technique for solving the unconstrained optimization problem. In this paper, we made a linear combination with parameters β k of the DY method and the HS method, and putted forward the hybrid method of DY and HS. We also proposed the hybrid of FR and PRP by the same mean. Additionally, to present the two hybrid methods, we promoted the Wolfe line search respectively to compute the step size α k of the two hybrid methods. With the new Wolfe line search, the two hybrid methods had descent property and global convergence property of the two hybrid methods that can also be proved.

  10. Improving Search Strategies of Auditors – A Focus Group on Reflection Interventions

    Fessl, Angela; Pammer, Viktoria; Wiese, Michael; Thalmann, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Financial auditors routinely search internal as well as public knowledge bases as part of the auditing process. Efficient search strategies are crucial for knowledge workers in general and for auditors in particular. Modern search technology quickly evolves; and features beyond keyword search like fac-etted search or visual overview of knowledge bases like graph visualisations emerge. It is therefore desirable for auditors to learn about new innovations and to explore and experiment with such...

  11. Testing search strategies for systematic reviews in the Medline literature database through PubMed.

    Volpato, Enilze S N; Betini, Marluci; El Dib, Regina

    2014-04-01

    A high-quality electronic search is essential in ensuring accuracy and completeness in retrieved records for the conducting of a systematic review. We analysed the available sample of search strategies to identify the best method for searching in Medline through PubMed, considering the use or not of parenthesis, double quotation marks, truncation and use of a simple search or search history. In our cross-sectional study of search strategies, we selected and analysed the available searches performed during evidence-based medicine classes and in systematic reviews conducted in the Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, Brazil. We analysed 120 search strategies. With regard to the use of phrase searches with parenthesis, there was no difference between the results with and without parenthesis and simple searches or search history tools in 100% of the sample analysed (P = 1.0). The number of results retrieved by the searches analysed was smaller using double quotations marks and using truncation compared with the standard strategy (P = 0.04 and P = 0.08, respectively). There is no need to use phrase-searching parenthesis to retrieve studies; however, we recommend the use of double quotation marks when an investigator attempts to retrieve articles in which a term appears to be exactly the same as what was proposed in the search form. Furthermore, we do not recommend the use of truncation in search strategies in the Medline via PubMed. Although the results of simple searches or search history tools were the same, we recommend using the latter.

  12. Literature search strategies for conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating qualitative systematic reviews.

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Johnson, E Diane

    2013-01-01

    To report literature search strategies for the purpose of conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating qualitative systematic reviews. Qualitative systematic reviews lie on a continuum from knowledge-building and theory-generating to aggregating and summarizing. Different types of literature searches are needed to optimally support these dissimilar reviews. Articles published between 1989-Autumn 2011. These documents were identified using a hermeneutic approach and multiple literature search strategies. Redundancy is not the sole measure of validity when conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating systematic reviews. When conducting these types of reviews, literature searches should be consistent with the goal of fully explicating concepts and the interrelationships among them. To accomplish this objective, a 'berry picking' approach is recommended along with strategies for overcoming barriers to finding qualitative research reports. To enhance integrity of knowledge-building and theory-generating systematic reviews, reviewers are urged to make literature search processes as transparent as possible, despite their complexity. This includes fully explaining and rationalizing what databases were used and how they were searched. It also means describing how literature tracking was conducted and grey literature was searched. In the end, the decision to cease searching also needs to be fully explained and rationalized. Predetermined linear search strategies are unlikely to generate search results that are adequate for purposes of conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating qualitative systematic reviews. Instead, it is recommended that iterative search strategies take shape as reviews evolve. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Usefulness of systematic review search strategies in finding child health systematic reviews in MEDLINE

    Boluyt, Nicole; Tjosvold, Lisa; Lefebvre, Carol; Klassen, Terry P.; Offringa, Martin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and precision of existing search strategies for retrieving child health systematic reviews in MEDLINE using PubMed. DESIGN: Filter (diagnostic) accuracy study. We identified existing search strategies for systematic reviews, combined them with a filter that

  14. The relationship between emotion regulation strategies and job search behavior among fourth-year university students.

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Huihui; Zhang, Xue; Fang, Ping

    2017-08-01

    The job search process is a stressful experience. This study investigated the effect of emotion regulation strategies on job search behavior in combination with anxiety and job search self-efficacy among Chinese university fourth-year students (N = 816, mean age = 21.98, 31.5% male, 34.9% majored in science, 18.0% from "211 Project" universities). Results showed that cognitive reappraisal was positively related to job search behavior, while expressive suppression was negatively related to job search behavior. Additionally, anxiety was negatively related to job search behavior, while job search self-efficacy was positively associated with job search behavior. Moreover, both anxiety and job search self-efficacy mediated the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and job search behavior. In general, emotion regulation strategies played an important role in job search behavior. Implications include the notion that emotion regulation interventions may be helpful to increase job search behavior among university students. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Search strategies for top partners in composite Higgs models

    Gripaios, Ben; Müller, Thibaut; Parker, M. A.; Sutherland, Dave

    2014-08-01

    We consider how best to search for top partners in generic composite Higgs models. We begin by classifying the possible group representations carried by top partners in models with and without a custodial SU(2) × SU(2) ⋊ 2 symmetry protecting the rate for Z → decays. We identify a number of minimal models whose top partners only have electric charges of , , or and thus decay to top or bottom quarks via a single Higgs or electroweak gauge boson. We develop an inclusive search for these based on a top veto, which we find to be more effective than existing searches. Less minimal models feature light states that can be sought in final states with like-sign leptons and so we find that 2 straightforward LHC searches give a reasonable coverage of the gamut of composite Higgs models.

  16. Benchmark models, planes lines and points for future SUSY searches at the LHC

    AbdusSalam, S.S.; Allanach, B.C.; Dreiner, H.K.

    2012-03-01

    We define benchmark models for SUSY searches at the LHC, including the CMSSM, NUHM, mGMSB, mAMSB, MM-AMSB and p19MSSM, as well as models with R-parity violation and the NMSSM. Within the parameter spaces of these models, we propose benchmark subspaces, including planes, lines and points along them. The planes may be useful for presenting results of the experimental searches in different SUSY scenarios, while the specific benchmark points may serve for more detailed detector performance tests and comparisons. We also describe algorithms for defining suitable benchmark points along the proposed lines in the parameter spaces, and we define a few benchmark points motivated by recent fits to existing experimental data.

  17. Benchmark models, planes lines and points for future SUSY searches at the LHC

    AbdusSalam, S.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Allanach, B.C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics; Dreiner, H.K. [Bonn Univ. (DE). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Inst.] (and others)

    2012-03-15

    We define benchmark models for SUSY searches at the LHC, including the CMSSM, NUHM, mGMSB, mAMSB, MM-AMSB and p19MSSM, as well as models with R-parity violation and the NMSSM. Within the parameter spaces of these models, we propose benchmark subspaces, including planes, lines and points along them. The planes may be useful for presenting results of the experimental searches in different SUSY scenarios, while the specific benchmark points may serve for more detailed detector performance tests and comparisons. We also describe algorithms for defining suitable benchmark points along the proposed lines in the parameter spaces, and we define a few benchmark points motivated by recent fits to existing experimental data.

  18. An Efficient Hybrid Conjugate Gradient Method with the Strong Wolfe-Powell Line Search

    Ahmad Alhawarat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate gradient (CG method is an interesting tool to solve optimization problems in many fields, such as design, economics, physics, and engineering. In this paper, we depict a new hybrid of CG method which relates to the famous Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP formula. It reveals a solution for the PRP case which is not globally convergent with the strong Wolfe-Powell (SWP line search. The new formula possesses the sufficient descent condition and the global convergent properties. In addition, we further explained about the cases where PRP method failed with SWP line search. Furthermore, we provide numerical computations for the new hybrid CG method which is almost better than other related PRP formulas in both the number of iterations and the CPU time under some standard test functions.

  19. Benchmark Models, Planes, Lines and Points for Future SUSY Searches at the LHC

    AbdusSalam, S S; Dreiner, H K; Ellis, J; Ellwanger, U; Gunion, J; Heinemeyer, S; Krämer, M; Mangano, M L; Olive, K A; Rogerson, S; Roszkowski, L; Schlaffer, M; Weiglein, G

    2011-01-01

    We define benchmark models for SUSY searches at the LHC, including the CMSSM, NUHM, mGMSB, mAMSB, MM-AMSB and p19MSSM, as well as models with R-parity violation and the NMSSM. Within the parameter spaces of these models, we propose benchmark subspaces, including planes, lines and points along them. The planes may be useful for presenting results of the experimental searches in different SUSY scenarios, while the specific benchmark points may serve for more detailed detector performance tests and comparisons. We also describe algorithms for defining suitable benchmark points along the proposed lines in the parameter spaces, and we define a few benchmark points motivated by recent fits to existing experimental data.

  20. Academic Users' Information Searching on Research Topics: Characteristics of Research Tasks and Search Strategies

    Du, Jia Tina; Evans, Nina

    2011-01-01

    This project investigated how academic users search for information on their real-life research tasks. This article presents the findings of the first of two studies. The study data were collected in the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) in Brisbane, Australia. Eleven PhD students' searching behaviors on personal research topics were…

  1. A three-term conjugate gradient method under the strong-Wolfe line search

    Khadijah, Wan; Rivaie, Mohd; Mamat, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Recently, numerous studies have been concerned in conjugate gradient methods for solving large-scale unconstrained optimization method. In this paper, a three-term conjugate gradient method is proposed for unconstrained optimization which always satisfies sufficient descent direction and namely as Three-Term Rivaie-Mustafa-Ismail-Leong (TTRMIL). Under standard conditions, TTRMIL method is proved to be globally convergent under strong-Wolfe line search. Finally, numerical results are provided for the purpose of comparison.

  2. The topography of the environment alters the optimal search strategy for active particles

    Volpe, Giorgio; Volpe, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    In environments with scarce resources, adopting the right search strategy can make the difference between succeeding and failing, even between life and death. At different scales, this applies to molecular encounters in the cell cytoplasm, to animals looking for food or mates in natural landscapes, to rescuers during search and rescue operations in disaster zones, and to genetic computer algorithms exploring parameter spaces. When looking for sparse targets in a homogeneous environment, a combination of ballistic and diffusive steps is considered optimal; in particular, more ballistic Lévy flights with exponent α≤1 are generally believed to optimize the search process. However, most search spaces present complex topographies. What is the best search strategy in these more realistic scenarios? Here, we show that the topography of the environment significantly alters the optimal search strategy toward less ballistic and more Brownian strategies. We consider an active particle performing a blind cruise search for nonregenerating sparse targets in a 2D space with steps drawn from a Lévy distribution with the exponent varying from α=1 to α=2 (Brownian). We show that, when boundaries, barriers, and obstacles are present, the optimal search strategy depends on the topography of the environment, with α assuming intermediate values in the whole range under consideration. We interpret these findings using simple scaling arguments and discuss their robustness to varying searcher's size. Our results are relevant for search problems at different length scales from animal and human foraging to microswimmers' taxis to biochemical rates of reaction.

  3. Astrophysical search strategies for accelerator blind dark matter

    Wells, J.D.

    1998-04-01

    A weakly interacting dark matter particle may be very difficult to discover at an accelerator because it either (1) is too heavy, (2) has no standard model gauge interactions, or (3) is almost degenerate with other states. In each of these cases, searches for annihilation products in the galactic halo are useful probes of dark matter properties. Using the example of supersymmetric dark matter, the author demonstrates how astrophysical searches for dark matter may provide discovery and mass information inaccessible to collider physics programs such as the Tevatron and LHC

  4. Search for gravitational redshifted absorption lines in LMXB Serpens X-1

    Yoneda, Hiroki; Done, Chris; Paerels, Frits; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin

    2018-04-01

    The equation of state for ultradense matter can be tested from observations of the ratio of mass to radius of neutron stars. This could be measured precisely from the redshift of a narrow line produced on the surface. X-rays bursts have been intensively searched for such features, but so far without detection. Here instead we search for redshifted lines in the persistent emission, where the accretion flow dominates over the surface emission. We discuss the requirements for narrow lines to be produced, and show that narrow absorption lines from highly ionized iron can potentially be observable in accreting low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs; low B field) that have either low spin or low inclination so that Doppler broadening is small. This selects Serpens X-1 as the only potential candidate persistent LMXB due to its low inclination. Including surface models in the broad-band accretion flow model predicts that the absorption line from He-like iron at 6.7 keV should be redshifted to ˜5.1-5.7 keV (10-15 km for 1.4 M⊙) and have an equivalent width of 0.8-8 eV for surface temperatures of 7-10 × 106 K. We use the high-resolution Chandra grating data to give a firm upper limit of 2-3 eV for an absorption line at ˜5 keV. We discuss possible reasons for this lack of detection (the surface temperature and the geometry of the boundary layer etc.). Future instruments with better sensitivity are required in order to explore the existence of such features.

  5. Design of Underwater Robot Lines Based on a Hybrid Automatic Optimization Strategy

    Wenjing Lyu; Weilin Luo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid automatic optimization strategy is proposed for the design of underwater robot lines. Isight is introduced as an integration platform. The construction of this platform is based on the user programming and several commercial software including UG6.0, GAMBIT2.4.6 and FLUENT12.0. An intelligent parameter optimization method, the particle swarm optimization, is incorporated into the platform. To verify the strategy proposed, a simulation is conducted on the underwater robot model 5470, which originates from the DTRC SUBOFF project. With the automatic optimization platform, the minimal resistance is taken as the optimization goal;the wet surface area as the constraint condition; the length of the fore-body, maximum body radius and after-body’s minimum radius as the design variables. With the CFD calculation, the RANS equations and the standard turbulence model are used for direct numerical simulation. By analyses of the simulation results, it is concluded that the platform is of high efficiency and feasibility. Through the platform, a variety of schemes for the design of the lines are generated and the optimal solution is achieved. The combination of the intelligent optimization algorithm and the numerical simulation ensures a global optimal solution and improves the efficiency of the searching solutions.

  6. Win-Win transport strategies: searching for synergies.

    Valdés Serrano, Cristina; Monzón de Cáceres, Andrés; García Benítez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The need of an urban transport strategy on urban areas which solves the environmental problems derived from traffic without decreasing the trip attraction of these urban areas is taken for granted. Besides there is also a clear consensus among researchers and institutions in the need for integrated transport strategies (May et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2006). But there is still a lack of knowledge on the policy measures to be implemented. This research aims to deepen in the understanding of h...

  7. Knowledge in Artificial Intelligence Systems: Searching the Strategies for Application

    Kornienko, Alla A.; Kornienko, Anatoly V.; Fofanov, Oleg B.; Chubik, Maxim P.

    2015-01-01

    The studies based on auto-epistemic logic are pointed out as an advanced direction for development of artificial intelligence (AI). Artificial intelligence is taken as a system that imitates the solution of complicated problems by human during the course of life. The structure of symbols and operations, by which intellectual solution is performed, as well as searching the strategic reference points for those solutions, which are caused by certain structures of symbols and operations, – are co...

  8. Strategies for the search of life in the universe

    Schneider, Jean

    1996-01-01

    The discovery of an increasing number of Jupiter-like planets in orbit around other stars (or extra-solar planets) is a promising first step toward the search for Life in the Universe. We review all aspects of the question: - definition of Life - definition and characterization of the `habitable zone' around a star - overview of detection methods of planets, with special attention to habitable planets - present fingings - future projects.

  9. Expert Search Strategies: The Information Retrieval Practices of Healthcare Information Professionals

    Russell-Rose, Tony; Chamberlain, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Background Healthcare information professionals play a key role in closing the knowledge gap between medical research and clinical practice. Their work involves meticulous searching of literature databases using complex search strategies that can consist of hundreds of keywords, operators, and ontology terms. This process is prone to error and can lead to inefficiency and bias if performed incorrectly. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the search behavior of healthcare inform...

  10. The Impact of On-line Searching on Document Supply Services at Individual Libraries

    Hosono, Kimio; Tanaka, Isao; Fukazawa, Yoshiko

    As use of on-line searching services has progressed in libraries, requests on primary materials have increased much more than before. For the purpose of clarifying this trend and countermeasures against it a survey by questionnaire was conducted in 1985. The respondants from totally 112 libraries are as follows ; 60 industrial libraries, 41 academic libraries and 11 libraries of research institutes and laboratories. It was shown that industrial libraries have received more requests on primary materials mostly resulting from on-line searching while the requests have not increased remarkably in academic libraries. Regardless the type of libraries, almost all libraries can not fully meet the requests with their own collection so that industrial libraries have to rely on external information services and academic libraries utilize interlibrary loan system. Requests are sent via on-line from industrial libraries, and by mail from academic libraries. In fact, any-libraries are not likely to review their material-collecting policy. Therefore it is urgent to establish the system which enables use of external information services or interlibrary loan system more than ever.

  11. Talk as a Metacognitive Strategy during the Information Search Process of Adolescents

    Bowler, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This paper describes a metacognitive strategy related to the social dimension of the information search process of adolescents. Method: A case study that used naturalistic methods to explore the metacognitive thinking nd associated emotions of ten adolescents. The study was framed by Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model and…

  12. A rational analysis of alternating search and reflection strategies in problem solving

    Taatgen, N; Shafto, MG; Langley, P

    1997-01-01

    In this paper two approaches to problem solving, search and reflection, are discussed, and combined in two models, both based on rational analysis (Anderson, 1990). The first model is a dynamic growth model, which shows that alternating search and reflection is a rational strategy. The second model

  13. Alumni Job Search Strategies, Class of 2011. GMAC[R] Data-to-Go Series

    Graduate Management Admission Council, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Examining the job search strategies and employment outcomes for Class of 2011 graduate business school alumni sheds light on current job market trends and the effort required to secure a first job after earning a graduate business degree. This fact sheet highlights the job search methods used by Class of 2011 business school graduates as reported…

  14. Protein-Level Integration Strategy of Multiengine MS Spectra Search Results for Higher Confidence and Sequence Coverage.

    Zhao, Panpan; Zhong, Jiayong; Liu, Wanting; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Gong

    2017-12-01

    Multiple search engines based on various models have been developed to search MS/MS spectra against a reference database, providing different results for the same data set. How to integrate these results efficiently with minimal compromise on false discoveries is an open question due to the lack of an independent, reliable, and highly sensitive standard. We took the advantage of the translating mRNA sequencing (RNC-seq) result as a standard to evaluate the integration strategies of the protein identifications from various search engines. We used seven mainstream search engines (Andromeda, Mascot, OMSSA, X!Tandem, pFind, InsPecT, and ProVerB) to search the same label-free MS data sets of human cell lines Hep3B, MHCCLM3, and MHCC97H from the Chinese C-HPP Consortium for Chromosomes 1, 8, and 20. As expected, the union of seven engines resulted in a boosted false identification, whereas the intersection of seven engines remarkably decreased the identification power. We found that identifications of at least two out of seven engines resulted in maximizing the protein identification power while minimizing the ratio of suspicious/translation-supported identifications (STR), as monitored by our STR index, based on RNC-Seq. Furthermore, this strategy also significantly improves the peptides coverage of the protein amino acid sequence. In summary, we demonstrated a simple strategy to significantly improve the performance for shotgun mass spectrometry by protein-level integrating multiple search engines, maximizing the utilization of the current MS spectra without additional experimental work.

  15. Websites for children: search strategies and interface design. Three studies on children's search performance and evaluation

    Jochmann-Mannak, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Children experience all kinds of problems using search interfaces for adults such as Google. The research reported in this dissertation is about the design of informational interfaces for children between 8 and 12 years old. The goal of the research was to learn more about interfaces that ‘work’ for

  16. How Interface Design and Search Strategy Influence Children’s Search Performance and Evaluation

    Jochmann-Mannak, Hanna; Lentz, Leo; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Sanders, Ted

    This chapter presents an experiment with 158 children, aged 10 to 12, in which search performance and attitudes towards an informational Website are investigated. The same Website was designed in 3 different types of interface design varying in playfulness of navigation structure and in playfulness

  17. A conjugate gradient method with descent properties under strong Wolfe line search

    Zull, N.; ‘Aini, N.; Shoid, S.; Ghani, N. H. A.; Mohamed, N. S.; Rivaie, M.; Mamat, M.

    2017-09-01

    The conjugate gradient (CG) method is one of the optimization methods that are often used in practical applications. The continuous and numerous studies conducted on the CG method have led to vast improvements in its convergence properties and efficiency. In this paper, a new CG method possessing the sufficient descent and global convergence properties is proposed. The efficiency of the new CG algorithm relative to the existing CG methods is evaluated by testing them all on a set of test functions using MATLAB. The tests are measured in terms of iteration numbers and CPU time under strong Wolfe line search. Overall, this new method performs efficiently and comparable to the other famous methods.

  18. Frequency domain optical tomography using a conjugate gradient method without line search

    Kim, Hyun Keol; Charette, Andre

    2007-01-01

    A conjugate gradient method without line search (CGMWLS) is presented. This method is used to retrieve the local maps of absorption and scattering coefficients inside the tissue-like test medium, with the synthetic data. The forward problem is solved with a discrete-ordinates finite-difference method based on the frequency domain formulation of radiative transfer equation. The inversion results demonstrate that the CGMWLS can retrieve simultaneously the spatial distributions of optical properties inside the medium within a reasonable accuracy, by reducing cross-talk between absorption and scattering coefficients

  19. Search strategy for theorem proving in artificial systems. II

    Lovitskii, V A; Barenboim, M S

    1981-01-01

    For Pt.I see IBID., p.28 (1981). An algorithm is presented, realizing the strategy of part I, by constructing a graph of disproofs. The idea central to the algorithm is to choose pairs of literals with the highest probability at the given moment, rather than to choose literals at random. 3 references.

  20. Search strategy for theorem proving in artificial systems. I

    Lovitskii, V A; Barenboim, M S

    1981-01-01

    A strategy is contrived, employing the language of finite-order predicate calculus, for finding proofs of theorems. A theorem is formulated, based on 2 known theorems on purity and absorption, and used to determine 5 properties of a set of propositions. 3 references.

  1. Users’ Perceived Difficulties and Corresponding Reformulation Strategies in Google Voice Search

    Wei Jeng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report users’ perceptions of query input errors and query reformulation strategies in voice search using data collected through a laboratory user study. Our results reveal that: 1 users’ perceived obstacles during a voice search can be related to speech recognition errors and topic complexity; 2 users naturally develop different strategies to deal with various types of words (e.g., acronyms, single-worded queries, non-English words with high error rates in speech recognition; and 3 users can have various emotional reactions when encounter voice input errors and they develop preferred usage occasions for voice search.

  2. Win the game of Googleopoly unlocking the secret strategy of search engines

    Bradley, Sean V

    2015-01-01

    Rank higher in search results with this guide to SEO and content building supremacy Google is not only the number one search engine in the world, it is also the number one website in the world. Only 5 percent of site visitors search past the first page of Google, so if you're not in those top ten results, you are essentially invisible. Winning the Game of Googleopoly is the ultimate roadmap to Page One Domination. The POD strategy is what gets you on that super-critical first page of Google results by increasing your page views. You'll learn how to shape your online presence for Search Engine

  3. Confirming preferences or collecting data? Information search strategies and romantic partner selection.

    Hennessy, Michael H; Fishbein, Marty; Curtis, Brenda; Barrett, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    This article investigates two kinds of information search strategies in the context of selecting romantic partners. Confirmatory searching occurs when people ask for more information about a romantic partner in order to validate or confirm their assessment. Balanced searches are characterized by a search for risk information for partners rated as attractive and for attractiveness information about partners rated as risky in order to attain a more complete evaluation. A factorial survey computer program randomly constructed five types of partner descriptions and college-age respondents evaluated nine descriptions in terms of both health risk and romantic attractiveness outcomes. The results show little evidence of balanced search strategies: for all vignette types the respondents searched for attractiveness information. Regression analysis of the search outcomes showed no difference between males and females in the desire for attractiveness or risk information, the amount of additional information desired, or the proportion of descriptions for which more information was desired. However, an attractive physical appearance did increase the amount of additional information desired and the proportion of vignettes for which more information was desired. The results were generally inconsistent with a balanced search hypothesis; a better characterization of the respondents' strategy might be "confirmatory bias."

  4. Intermittent random walks: transport regimes and implications on search strategies

    Gomez Portillo, Ignacio; Campos, Daniel; Méndez, Vicenç

    2011-01-01

    We construct a transport model for particles that alternate rests of random duration and flights with random velocities. The model provides a balance equation for the mesoscopic particle density obtained from the continuous-time random walk framework. By assuming power laws for the distributions of waiting times and flight durations (for any velocity distribution with finite moments) we have found that the model can yield all the transport regimes ranging from subdiffusion to ballistic depending on the values of the characteristic exponents of the distributions. In addition, if the exponents satisfy a simple relationship it is shown how the competition between the tails of the distributions gives rise to a diffusive transport. Finally, we explore how the details of this intermittent transport process affect the success probability in an optimal search problem where an individual searcher looks for a target distributed (heterogeneously) in space. All the results are conveniently checked with numerical simulations

  5. An automated supernova search and the design strategy

    Colgate, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The design considerations for an automated supernova search are reviewed. If supernova are to be found a week after explosion well before light maximum of both Types I and II, and if a rate of finding of 52 per year is justified, then one needs to keep roughly 5000 galaxies under surveillance out of a full set of 15,000 galaxies at ≅50 Mpc distance. For detection at 1% of Type I maximum light requires a 30-inch telescope, 10 photoelectrons per pixel threshold, a 128 x 128 pixel photodetector operating with a 3-second integration time, and 2 seconds to slew and settle ≅1 0 . A system designed to perform this function in real-time is described. 7 refs

  6. Critical Assessment of Search Strategies in Systematic Reviews in Endodontics.

    Yaylali, Ibrahim Ethem; Alaçam, Tayfun

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform an overview of literature search strategies in systematic reviews (SRs) published in 2 endodontic journals, Journal of Endodontics and International Endodontic Journal. A search was done by using the MEDLINE (PubMed interface) database to retrieve the articles published between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2015. The last search was on January 10, 2016. All the SRs published in the 2 journals were retrieved and screened. Eligible SRs were assessed by using 11 questions about search strategies in the SRs that were adapted from 2 guidelines (ie, AMSTAR checklist and the Cochrane Handbook). A total of 83 SRs were retrieved by electronic search. Of these, 55 were from the Journal of Endodontics, and 28 were from the International Endodontic Journal. After screening, 2 SRs were excluded, and 81 SRs were included in the study. Some issues, such as search of grey literature and contact with study authors, were not fully reported (30% and 25%, respectively). On the other hand, some issues, such as the use of index terms and key words and search in at least 2 databases, were reported in most of the SRs (97% and 95%, respectively). The overall quality of the search strategy in both journals was 61%. No significant difference was found between the 2 journals in terms of evaluation criteria (P > .05). There exist areas for improving the quality of reporting of search strategies in SRs; for example, grey literature should be searched for unpublished studies, no language limitation should be applied to databases, and authors should make an attempt to contact the authors of included studies to obtain further relevant information. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of search strategies in systematic reviews of adverse effects to other systematic reviews.

    Golder, Su; Loke, Yoon K; Zorzela, Liliane

    2014-06-01

    Research indicates that the methods used to identify data for systematic reviews of adverse effects may need to differ from other systematic reviews. To compare search methods in systematic reviews of adverse effects with other reviews. The search methodologies in 849 systematic reviews of adverse effects were compared with other reviews. Poor reporting of search strategies is apparent in both systematic reviews of adverse effects and other types of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews of adverse effects are less likely to restrict their searches to MEDLINE or include only randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The use of other databases is largely dependent on the topic area and the year the review was conducted, with more databases searched in more recent reviews. Adverse effects search terms are used by 72% of reviews and despite recommendations only two reviews report using floating subheadings. The poor reporting of search strategies in systematic reviews is universal, as is the dominance of searching MEDLINE. However, reviews of adverse effects are more likely to include a range of study designs (not just RCTs) and search beyond MEDLINE. © 2014 Crown Copyright.

  8. Development and use of a content search strategy for retrieving studies on patients' views and preferences.

    Selva, Anna; Solà, Ivan; Zhang, Yuan; Pardo-Hernandez, Hector; Haynes, R Brian; Martínez García, Laura; Navarro, Tamara; Schünemann, Holger; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2017-08-30

    Identifying scientific literature addressing patients' views and preferences is complex due to the wide range of studies that can be informative and the poor indexing of this evidence. Given the lack of guidance we developed a search strategy to retrieve this type of evidence. We assembled an initial list of terms from several sources, including the revision of the terms and indexing of topic-related studies and, methods research literature, and other relevant projects and systematic reviews. We used the relative recall approach, evaluating the capacity of the designed search strategy for retrieving studies included in relevant systematic reviews for the topic. We implemented in practice the final version of the search strategy for conducting systematic reviews and guidelines, and calculated search's precision and the number of references needed to read (NNR). We assembled an initial version of the search strategy, which had a relative recall of 87.4% (yield of 132/out of 151 studies). We then added some additional terms from the studies not initially identified, and re-tested this improved version against the studies included in a new set of systematic reviews, reaching a relative recall of 85.8% (151/out of 176 studies, 95% CI 79.9 to 90.2). This final version of the strategy includes two sets of terms related with two domains: "Patient Preferences and Decision Making" and "Health State Utilities Values". When we used the search strategy for the development of systematic reviews and clinical guidelines we obtained low precision values (ranging from 2% to 5%), and the NNR from 20 to 50. This search strategy fills an important research gap in this field. It will help systematic reviewers, clinical guideline developers, and policy-makers to retrieve published research on patients' views and preferences. In turn, this will facilitate the inclusion of this critical aspect when formulating heath care decisions, including recommendations.

  9. The role of off-line and online strategies for successful product positioning

    Yaneva D. E.; Zlateva D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the article is done on off-line and online strategies that companies use for their successful positioning. The goal is to establish the role and the significance of the strategies for successful product positioning in off-line and online environment.

  10. Blackout risk prevention in a smart grid based flexible optimal strategy using Grey Wolf-pattern search algorithms

    Mahdad, Belkacem; Srairi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A generalized optimal security power system planning strategy for blackout risk prevention is proposed. • A Grey Wolf Optimizer dynamically coordinated with Pattern Search algorithm is proposed. • A useful optimized database dynamically generated considering margin loading stability under severe faults. • The robustness and feasibility of the proposed strategy is validated in the standard IEEE 30 Bus system. • The proposed planning strategy will be useful for power system protection coordination and control. - Abstract: Developing a flexible and reliable power system planning strategy under critical situations is of great importance to experts and industrials to minimize the probability of blackouts occurrence. This paper introduces the first stage of this practical strategy by the application of Grey Wolf Optimizer coordinated with pattern search algorithm for solving the security smart grid power system management under critical situations. The main objective of this proposed planning strategy is to prevent the practical power system against blackout due to the apparition of faults in generating units or important transmission lines. At the first stage the system is pushed to its margin stability limit, the critical loads shedding are selected using voltage stability index. In the second stage the generator control variables, the reactive power of shunt and dynamic compensators are adjusted in coordination with minimization the active and reactive power at critical loads to maintain the system at security state to ensure service continuity. The feasibility and efficiency of the proposed strategy is applied to IEEE 30-Bus test system. Results are promising and prove the practical efficiency of the proposed strategy to ensure system security under critical situations

  11. HB-Line Plutonium Oxide Data Collection Strategy

    Watkins, R. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Varble, J. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Jordan, J. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions

    2015-05-26

    HB-Line and H-Canyon will handle and process plutonium material to produce plutonium oxide for feed to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). However, the plutonium oxide product will not be transferred to the MFFF directly from HB-Line until it is packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. In the interim, HB-Line will load plutonium oxide into an inner, filtered can. The inner can will be placed in a filtered bag, which will be loaded into a filtered outer can. The outer can will be loaded into a certified 9975 with getter assembly in compliance with onsite transportation requirement, for subsequent storage and transfer to the K-Area Complex (KAC). After DOE-STD-3013-2012 container packaging capabilities are established, the product will be returned to HB-Line to be packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. To support the transfer of plutonium oxide to KAC and then eventually to MFFF, various material and packaging data will have to be collected and retained. In addition, data from initial HB-Line processing operations will be needed to support future DOE-STD-3013-2012 qualification as amended by the HB-Line DOE Standard equivalency. As production increases, the volume of data to collect will increase. The HB-Line data collected will be in the form of paper copies and electronic media. Paper copy data will, at a minimum, consist of facility procedures, nonconformance reports (NCRs), and DCS print outs. Electronic data will be in the form of Adobe portable document formats (PDFs). Collecting all the required data for each plutonium oxide can will be no small effort for HB-Line, and will become more challenging once the maximum annual oxide production throughput is achieved due to the sheer volume of data to be collected. The majority of the data collected will be in the form of facility procedures, DCS print outs, and laboratory results. To facilitate complete collection of this data, a traveler form will be developed which

  12. Multi-scale strategies for dealing with moving contact lines

    Smith, Edward R.; Theodorakis, Panagiotis; Craster, Richard V.; Matar, Omar K.

    2017-11-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) has great potential to elucidate the dynamics of the moving contact line. As a more fundamental model, it can provide a priori results for fluid-liquid interfaces, surface tension, viscosity, phase change, and near wall stick-slip behaviour which typically show very good agreement to experimental results. However, modelling contact line motion combines all this complexity in a single problem. In this talk, MD simulations of the contact line are compared to the experimental results obtained from studying the dynamics of a sheared liquid bridge. The static contact angles are correctly matched to the experimental data for a range of different electro-wetting results. The moving contact line results are then compared for each of these electro-wetting values. Despite qualitative agreement, there are notable differences between the simulation and experiments. Many MD simulation have studied contact lines, and the sheared liquid bridge, so it is of interest to review the limitations of this setup in light of this discrepancy. A number of factors are discussed, including the inter-molecular interaction model, molecular-scale surface roughness, model of electro-wetting and, perhaps most importantly, the limited system sizes possible using MD simulation. EPSRC, UK, MEMPHIS program Grant (EP/K003976/1), RAEng Research Chair (OKM).

  13. Search strategy has influenced the discovery rate of human viruses.

    Rosenberg, Ronald; Johansson, Michael A; Powers, Ann M; Miller, Barry R

    2013-08-20

    A widely held concern is that the pace of infectious disease emergence has been increasing. We have analyzed the rate of discovery of pathogenic viruses, the preeminent source of newly discovered causes of human disease, from 1897 through 2010. The rate was highest during 1950-1969, after which it moderated. This general picture masks two distinct trends: for arthropod-borne viruses, which comprised 39% of pathogenic viruses, the discovery rate peaked at three per year during 1960-1969, but subsequently fell nearly to zero by 1980; however, the rate of discovery of nonarboviruses remained stable at about two per year from 1950 through 2010. The period of highest arbovirus discovery coincided with a comprehensive program supported by The Rockefeller Foundation of isolating viruses from humans, animals, and arthropod vectors at field stations in Latin America, Africa, and India. The productivity of this strategy illustrates the importance of location, approach, long-term commitment, and sponsorship in the discovery of emerging pathogens.

  14. Research on the optimization strategy of web search engine based on data mining

    Chen, Ronghua

    2018-04-01

    With the wide application of search engines, web site information has become an important way for people to obtain information. People have found that they are growing in an increasingly explosive manner. Web site information is verydifficult to find the information they need, and now the search engine can not meet the need, so there is an urgent need for the network to provide website personalized information service, data mining technology for this new challenge is to find a breakthrough. In order to improve people's accuracy of finding information from websites, a website search engine optimization strategy based on data mining is proposed, and verified by website search engine optimization experiment. The results show that the proposed strategy improves the accuracy of the people to find information, and reduces the time for people to find information. It has an important practical value.

  15. The BIOSIS data base: Evaluation of its indexes and the STRATBLDR, CHEMFILE, STAIRS and DIALOG systems for on-line searching

    Nees, M.; Green, H. O.

    1977-01-01

    An IBM-developed program, STAIRS, was selected for performing a search on the BIOSIS file. The evaluation of the hardware and search systems and the strategies used are discussed. The searches are analyzed by type of end user.

  16. A comparison of information functions and search strategies for sensor planning in target classification.

    Zhang, Guoxian; Ferrari, Silvia; Cai, Chenghui

    2012-02-01

    This paper investigates the comparative performance of several information-driven search strategies and decision rules using a canonical target classification problem. Five sensor models are considered: one obtained from classical estimation theory and four obtained from Bernoulli, Poisson, binomial, and mixture-of-binomial distributions. A systematic approach is presented for deriving information functions that represent the expected utility of future sensor measurements from mutual information, Rènyi divergence, Kullback-Leibler divergence, information potential, quadratic entropy, and the Cauchy-Schwarz distance. The resulting information-driven strategies are compared to direct-search, alert-confirm, task-driven (TS), and log-likelihood-ratio (LLR) search strategies. Extensive numerical simulations show that quadratic entropy typically leads to the most effective search strategy with respect to correct-classification rates. In the presence of prior information, the quadratic-entropy-driven strategy also displays the lowest rate of false alarms. However, when prior information is absent or very noisy, TS and LLR strategies achieve the lowest false-alarm rates for the Bernoulli, mixture-of-binomial, and classical sensor models.

  17. Sleuth: A quasi-model-independent search strategy for new physics

    Bruce O. Knuteson

    2001-01-01

    How can we search for new physics when we only vaguely know what it should look like? How can we perform an unbiased yet data-driven search? If we see apparently anomalous events in our data, how can we quantify their ''interestingness'' a posteriori? We present an analysis strategy (SLEUTH) that simultaneously addresses each of these questions, and we demonstrate its application to over thirty exclusive final states in data collected by D0 in Run I of the Fermilab Tevatron

  18. Optimal Search Strategy of Robotic Assembly Based on Neural Vibration Learning

    Lejla Banjanovic-Mehmedovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents implementation of optimal search strategy (OSS in verification of assembly process based on neural vibration learning. The application problem is the complex robot assembly of miniature parts in the example of mating the gears of one multistage planetary speed reducer. Assembly of tube over the planetary gears was noticed as the most difficult problem of overall assembly. The favourable influence of vibration and rotation movement on compensation of tolerance was also observed. With the proposed neural-network-based learning algorithm, it is possible to find extended scope of vibration state parameter. Using optimal search strategy based on minimal distance path between vibration parameter stage sets (amplitude and frequencies of robots gripe vibration and recovery parameter algorithm, we can improve the robot assembly behaviour, that is, allow the fastest possible way of mating. We have verified by using simulation programs that search strategy is suitable for the situation of unexpected events due to uncertainties.

  19. Research on Line Patrol Strategy of 110kV Transmission Line after Lightning Strike

    Li Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning faults occupy in the majority of instantaneous fault and reclosing can usually be successful, so power supply can be restored without immediate patrol in many cases. Firstly, this paper introduces the lightning fault positioning and identifying method. Then test electrical performance of insulators after lightning strike from 110kV lines. Data shows that lightning strike has little effect on the electric performance of insulator. Finally, illustrating disposal process of the 110 kV transmission line after lightning fault, certifying that the power supply reliability be ensured without line patrol.

  20. A new nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient under strong Wolfe-Powell line search

    Mohamed, Nur Syarafina; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    A nonlinear conjugate gradient method (CG) plays an important role in solving a large-scale unconstrained optimization problem. This method is widely used due to its simplicity. The method is known to possess sufficient descend condition and global convergence properties. In this paper, a new nonlinear of CG coefficient βk is presented by employing the Strong Wolfe-Powell inexact line search. The new βk performance is tested based on number of iterations and central processing unit (CPU) time by using MATLAB software with Intel Core i7-3470 CPU processor. Numerical experimental results show that the new βk converge rapidly compared to other classical CG method.

  1. A Semidefinite Programming Based Search Strategy for Feature Selection with Mutual Information Measure.

    Naghibi, Tofigh; Hoffmann, Sarah; Pfister, Beat

    2015-08-01

    Feature subset selection, as a special case of the general subset selection problem, has been the topic of a considerable number of studies due to the growing importance of data-mining applications. In the feature subset selection problem there are two main issues that need to be addressed: (i) Finding an appropriate measure function than can be fairly fast and robustly computed for high-dimensional data. (ii) A search strategy to optimize the measure over the subset space in a reasonable amount of time. In this article mutual information between features and class labels is considered to be the measure function. Two series expansions for mutual information are proposed, and it is shown that most heuristic criteria suggested in the literature are truncated approximations of these expansions. It is well-known that searching the whole subset space is an NP-hard problem. Here, instead of the conventional sequential search algorithms, we suggest a parallel search strategy based on semidefinite programming (SDP) that can search through the subset space in polynomial time. By exploiting the similarities between the proposed algorithm and an instance of the maximum-cut problem in graph theory, the approximation ratio of this algorithm is derived and is compared with the approximation ratio of the backward elimination method. The experiments show that it can be misleading to judge the quality of a measure solely based on the classification accuracy, without taking the effect of the non-optimum search strategy into account.

  2. Improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with local search strategy

    Maolong Xi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization, which was motivated by analysis of particle swarm optimization and quantum system, has shown compared performance in finding the optimal solutions for many optimization problems to other evolutionary algorithms. To address the problem of premature, a local search strategy is proposed to improve the performance of quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. In proposed local search strategy, a super particle is presented which is a collection body of randomly selected particles’ dimension information in the swarm. The selected probability of particles in swarm is different and determined by their fitness values. To minimization problems, the fitness value of one particle is smaller; the selected probability is more and will contribute more information in constructing the super particle. In addition, in order to investigate the influence on algorithm performance with different local search space, four methods of computing the local search radius are applied in local search strategy and propose four variants of local search quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. Empirical studies on a suite of well-known benchmark functions are undertaken in order to make an overall performance comparison among the proposed methods and other quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. The simulation results show that the proposed quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization variants have better advantages over the original quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization.

  3. Searches for H2O masers toward narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Yoshiaki, Hagiwara; Doi, Akihiro; Hachisuka, Kazuya; Horiuchi, Shinji

    2018-05-01

    We present searches for 22 GHz H2O masers toward 36 narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s), selected from known NLS1s with vsys ≲ 41000 km s-1. Out of the 36 NLS1s in our sample, 11 have been first surveyed in our observations, while the observations of other NLS1s were previously reported in literature. In our survey, no new water maser source from NLS1s was detected at the 3σ rms level of 8.4 mJy to 144 mJy, which depends on different observing conditions or inhomogeneous sensitivities of each observation using three different telescopes. It is likely that the non-detection of new masers in our NLS1 sample is primarily due to insufficient sensitivities of our observations. Including the five known NLS1 masers, the total detection rate of the H2O maser in NLS1s is not remarkably different from that of type 2 Seyfert galaxies or LINERs. However, more extensive and systematic searches of NLS1 would be required for a statistical discussion of the detection rate of the NLS1 maser, compared with that of type 2 Seyferts or LINERs.

  4. Recovery Strategies in On-Line Service Failure

    Ozuem, Wilson; Lancaster, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Despite a proliferation of a number of studies on service failures and recovery in e-service settings, there is a paucity of knowledge of ways in which service failures and recovery practices are implemented in the fashion industry. Drawing on constructivist perspective, this study offers a new perspective on an effective relational mechanism that would bridge the rupture between consumers and companies particularly in the on-line fashion sector. The analysis adds to studies on service failur...

  5. Enhanced Missing Proteins Detection in NCI60 Cell Lines Using an Integrative Search Engine Approach.

    Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Garin-Muga, Alba; Prieto, Gorka; Bejarano, Bartolomé; Marcilla, Miguel; Marín-Vicente, Consuelo; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Casal, J Ignacio; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Corrales, Fernando J; Segura, Victor

    2017-12-01

    The Human Proteome Project (HPP) aims deciphering the complete map of the human proteome. In the past few years, significant efforts of the HPP teams have been dedicated to the experimental detection of the missing proteins, which lack reliable mass spectrometry evidence of their existence. In this endeavor, an in depth analysis of shotgun experiments might represent a valuable resource to select a biological matrix in design validation experiments. In this work, we used all the proteomic experiments from the NCI60 cell lines and applied an integrative approach based on the results obtained from Comet, Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem. This workflow benefits from the complementarity of these search engines to increase the proteome coverage. Five missing proteins C-HPP guidelines compliant were identified, although further validation is needed. Moreover, 165 missing proteins were detected with only one unique peptide, and their functional analysis supported their participation in cellular pathways as was also proposed in other studies. Finally, we performed a combined analysis of the gene expression levels and the proteomic identifications from the common cell lines between the NCI60 and the CCLE project to suggest alternatives for further validation of missing protein observations.

  6. The search for dark matter in xenon: Innovative calibration strategies and novel search channels

    Reichard, Shayne Edward

    The direct detection dark matter experiment XENON1T became operational in early 2016, heralding the era of tonne-scale dark matter detectors. Direct detection experiments typically search for elastic scatters of dark matter particles off target nuclei. XENON1T's larger xenon target provides the advantage of stronger dark matter signals and lower background rates compared to its predecessors, XENON10 and XENON100; but, at the same time, calibration of the detector's response to backgrounds with traditional external sources becomes exceedingly more difficult. A 220Rn source is deployed on the XENON100 dark matter detector in order to address the challenges in calibration of tonne-scale liquid noble element detectors. I show that the subsequent 212Pb beta emission can be used for low-energy electronic recoil calibration in searches for dark matter. The isotope spreads throughout the entire active region of the detector, and its activity naturally decays below background level within a week after the source is closed. I find no increase in the activity of the troublesome 222Rn background after calibration. Alpha emitters are also distributed throughout the detector and facilitate calibration of its response to 222Rn. Using the delayed coincidence of 220Rn/216Po, I map for the first time the convective motion of particles in the XENON100 detector. Additionally, I make a competitive measurement of the half-life of 212Po, t1/2=293.9+/-(1.0)stat+/-(0.6)ns. In contrast to the elastic scattering of dark matter particles off nuclei, I explore inelastic scattering where the nucleus is excited to a low-lying state of 10-100 keV, with a subsequent prompt de-excitation. I use the inelastic structure factors for the odd-mass xenon isotopes based on state-of-the-art large-scale shell-model calculations with chiral effective field theory WIMP-nucleon currents, finding that the inelastic channel is comparable to or can dominate the elastic channel for momentum transfers around 150 Me

  7. Developing optimal search strategies for detecting clinically sound prognostic studies in MEDLINE: an analytic survey

    Haynes R Brian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical end users of MEDLINE have a difficult time retrieving articles that are both scientifically sound and directly relevant to clinical practice. Search filters have been developed to assist end users in increasing the success of their searches. Many filters have been developed for the literature on therapy and reviews but little has been done in the area of prognosis. The objective of this study is to determine how well various methodologic textwords, Medical Subject Headings, and their Boolean combinations retrieve methodologically sound literature on the prognosis of health disorders in MEDLINE. Methods An analytic survey was conducted, comparing hand searches of journals with retrievals from MEDLINE for candidate search terms and combinations. Six research assistants read all issues of 161 journals for the publishing year 2000. All articles were rated using purpose and quality indicators and categorized into clinically relevant original studies, review articles, general papers, or case reports. The original and review articles were then categorized as 'pass' or 'fail' for methodologic rigor in the areas of prognosis and other clinical topics. Candidate search strategies were developed for prognosis and run in MEDLINE – the retrievals being compared with the hand search data. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the search strategies were calculated. Results 12% of studies classified as prognosis met basic criteria for scientific merit for testing clinical applications. Combinations of terms reached peak sensitivities of 90%. Compared with the best single term, multiple terms increased sensitivity for sound studies by 25.2% (absolute increase, and increased specificity, but by a much smaller amount (1.1% when sensitivity was maximized. Combining terms to optimize both sensitivity and specificity achieved sensitivities and specificities of approximately 83% for each. Conclusion Empirically derived

  8. Implementing an ambidextrous sales strategy at the front line: an internal marketing perspective

    van der Borgh, W.; de Jong, A.; Nijssen, E.J.; Ahearne, M.; Bigné, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ambidextrous sales strategies, wherein managers pursue the concurrent sale of new and existing products, often fail at the front line. A proposed internal marketing perspective accounts for the role of two vertical relational mechanisms (manager ambidexterity and salesperson organizational

  9. Enhancing Islamic Students’ Reading Comprehension through Predict Organize Search Summarize Evaluate Strategy

    Darmayenti Darmayenti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a report of an experimental research project conducted in a reading comprehension course for first-year students of the Adab Faculty of the State Institute for Islamic Studies Imam Bonjol Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia, during the academic year 2015/2016. The “Predict Organize Search Summarize Evaluate” (POSSE is one strategy that can enhance students’ comprehension in reading. Two classes of Arabic and History students chosen through cluster random sampling technique were used as the sample of the research. Reading tests were used to collect the data which was given to both of classes on pre-test and post-test. The result of the research showed that the implementation of Predict Organize Search Summarize Evaluate strategy gave a significant difference in term of the students-learning outcome between the students who were taught through POSSE strategy and by traditional one. The finding of the study showed that teaching reading by using POSSE strategy gave significant effect towards students’ reading comprehension. This strategy could improve the students’ reading component on finding topic. It can be concluded that using POSSE Strategy has improved Indonesian students’ reading comprehension. It is also recommended for English lecturers use POSSE strategy as one of teaching strategies for reading comprehension.

  10. Wayfinding search strategies and matching familiarity in the built environment through virtual navigation

    Dijkstra, J.; Vries, de B.; Jessurun, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    There is an underestimation of the conscious and unconscious wayfinding search strategies in a virtual built environment without signage information. Wayfinding is the process of determining and following a path or route between an origin and destination.This is the base of the experiment discussed

  11. Design and Implementation of Cancellation Tasks for Visual Search Strategies and Visual Attention in School Children

    Wang, Tsui-Ying; Huang, Ho-Chuan; Huang, Hsiu-Shuang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a computer-assisted cancellation test system (CACTS) to understand the visual attention performance and visual search strategies in school children. The main aim of this paper is to present our design and development of the CACTS and demonstrate some ways in which computer techniques can allow the educator not only to obtain more…

  12. WANDERER IN THE MIST: THE SEARCH FOR INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE, AND RECONNAISSANCE (ISR) STRATEGY

    2017-06-01

    the production of over 383,000 photographic prints to support various intelligence , mapping, and 15...WANDERER IN THE MIST: THE SEARCH FOR INTELLIGENCE , SURVEILLANCE, AND RECONNAISSANCE (ISR) STRATEGY BY MAJOR RYAN D. SKAGGS, USAF...program from the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) in 2004. He is a career intelligence officer with over 13 years of experience across a

  13. The “I’m Feeling Lucky Syndrome”: Teacher-Candidates’ Knowledge of Web Searching Strategies

    Corinne Laverty

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for web literacy has become increasingly important with the exponential growth of learning materials on the web that are freely accessible to educators. Teachers need the skills to locate these tools and also the ability to teach their students web search strategies and evaluation of websites so they can effectively explore the web by themselves. This study examined the web searching strategies of 253 teachers-in-training using both a survey (247 participants and live screen capture with think aloud audio recording (6 participants. The results present a picture of the strategic, syntactic, and evaluative search abilities of these students that librarians and faculty can use to plan how instruction can target information skill deficits in university student populations.

  14. Institutional Embeddedness of Search Strategies and the Implications for Innovation Performance

    Grimpe, Christoph; Sofka, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms’ search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms’ search...... ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin...... for external knowledge while higher magnitudes of institutional change decrease it. Our results provide important insights for management on how to adapt search strategies to the institutional context....

  15. A fast search strategy for gravitational waves from low-mass x-ray binaries

    Messenger, C; Woan, G

    2007-01-01

    We present a new type of search strategy designed specifically to find continuously emitting gravitational wave sources in known binary systems. A component of this strategy is based on the incoherent summation of frequency-modulated binary signal sidebands, a method previously employed in the detection of electromagnetic pulsar signals from radio observations. The search pipeline can be divided into three stages: the first is a wide bandwidth, F-statistic search demodulated for sky position. This is followed by a fast second stage in which areas in frequency space are identified as signal candidates through the frequency domain convolution of the F-statistic with an approximate signal template. For this second stage only precise information on the orbit period and approximate information on the orbital semi-major axis are required a priori. For the final stage we propose a fully coherent Markov chain Monte Carlo based follow-up search on the frequency subspace defined by the candidates identified by the second stage. This search is particularly suited to the low-mass x-ray binaries, for which orbital period and sky position are typically well known and additional orbital parameters and neutron star spin frequency are not. We note that for the accreting x-ray millisecond pulsars, for which spin frequency and orbital parameters are well known, the second stage can be omitted and the fully coherent search stage can be performed. We describe the search pipeline with respect to its application to a simplified phase model and derive the corresponding sensitivity of the search

  16. Information search and decision making: effects of age and complexity on strategy use.

    Queen, Tara L; Hess, Thomas M; Ennis, Gilda E; Dowd, Keith; Grühn, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    The impact of task complexity on information search strategy and decision quality was examined in a sample of 135 young, middle-aged, and older adults. We were particularly interested in the competing roles of fluid cognitive ability and domain knowledge and experience, with the former being a negative influence and the latter being a positive influence on older adults' performance. Participants utilized 2 decision matrices, which varied in complexity, regarding a consumer purchase. Using process tracing software and an algorithm developed to assess decision strategy, we recorded search behavior, strategy selection, and final decision. Contrary to expectations, older adults were not more likely than the younger age groups to engage in information-minimizing search behaviors in response to increases in task complexity. Similarly, adults of all ages used comparable decision strategies and adapted their strategies to the demands of the task. We also examined decision outcomes in relation to participants' preferences. Overall, it seems that older adults utilize simpler sets of information primarily reflecting the most valued attributes in making their choice. The results of this study suggest that older adults are adaptive in their approach to decision making and that this ability may benefit from accrued knowledge and experience. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Strategies for Power Line Communications Smart Metering Network Deployment

    Alberto Sendin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids are becoming a reality all over the world. Nowadays, the research efforts for the introduction and deployment of these grids are mainly focused on the development of the field of Smart Metering. This emerging application requires the use of technologies to access the significant number of points of supply (PoS existing in the grid, covering the Low Voltage (LV segment with the lowest possible costs. Power Line Communications (PLC have been extensively used in electricity grids for a variety of purposes and, of late, have been the focus of renewed interest. PLC are really well suited for quick and inexpensive pervasive deployments. However, no LV grid is the same in any electricity company (utility, and the particularities of each grid evolution, architecture, circumstances and materials, makes it a challenge to deploy Smart Metering networks with PLC technologies, with the Smart Grid as an ultimate goal. This paper covers the evolution of Smart Metering networks, together with the evolution of PLC technologies until both worlds have converged to project PLC-enabled Smart Metering networks towards Smart Grid. This paper develops guidelines over a set of strategic aspects of PLC Smart Metering network deployment based on the knowledge gathered on real field; and introduces the future challenges of these networks in their evolution towards the Smart Grid.

  18. Identifying quality improvement intervention publications - A comparison of electronic search strategies

    Rubenstein Lisa V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence base for quality improvement (QI interventions is expanding rapidly. The diversity of the initiatives and the inconsistency in labeling these as QI interventions makes it challenging for researchers, policymakers, and QI practitioners to access the literature systematically and to identify relevant publications. Methods We evaluated search strategies developed for MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed based on free text words, Medical subject headings (MeSH, QI intervention components, continuous quality improvement (CQI methods, and combinations of the strategies. Three sets of pertinent QI intervention publications were used for validation. Two independent expert reviewers screened publications for relevance. We compared the yield, recall rate, and precision of the search strategies for the identification of QI publications and for a subset of empirical studies on effects of QI interventions. Results The search yields ranged from 2,221 to 216,167 publications. Mean recall rates for reference publications ranged from 5% to 53% for strategies with yields of 50,000 publications or fewer. The 'best case' strategy, a simple text word search with high face validity ('quality' AND 'improv*' AND 'intervention*' identified 44%, 24%, and 62% of influential intervention articles selected by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ experts, a set of exemplar articles provided by members of the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE group, and a sample from the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group (EPOC register of studies, respectively. We applied the search strategy to a PubMed search for articles published in 10 pertinent journals in a three-year period which retrieved 183 publications. Among these, 67% were deemed relevant to QI by at least one of two independent raters. Forty percent were classified as empirical studies reporting on a QI intervention. Conclusions The presented

  19. Penerapan Teknik Seo (Search Engine Optimization pada Website dalam Strategi Pemasaran melalui Internet

    Rony Baskoro Lukito

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is how to optimize a web design that can increase the number of visitors. The number of Internet users in the world continues to grow in line with advances in information technology. Products and services marketing media do not just use the printed and electronic media. Moreover, the cost of using the Internet as a medium of marketing is relatively inexpensive when compared to the use of television as a marketing medium. The penetration of the internet as a marketing medium lasted for 24 hours in different parts of the world. But to make an internet site into a site that is visited by many internet users, the site is not only good from the outside view only. Web sites that serve as a medium for marketing must be built with the correct rules, so that the Web site be optimal marketing media. One of the good rules in building the internet site as a marketing medium is how the content of such web sites indexed well in search engines like google. Search engine optimization in the index will be focused on the search engine Google for 83% of internet users across the world using Google as a search engine. Search engine optimization commonly known as SEO (Search Engine Optimization is an important rule that the internet site is easier to find a user with the desired keywords.

  20. Evaluating random search strategies in three mammals from distinct feeding guilds.

    Auger-Méthé, Marie; Derocher, Andrew E; DeMars, Craig A; Plank, Michael J; Codling, Edward A; Lewis, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    Searching allows animals to find food, mates, shelter and other resources essential for survival and reproduction and is thus among the most important activities performed by animals. Theory predicts that animals will use random search strategies in highly variable and unpredictable environments. Two prominent models have been suggested for animals searching in sparse and heterogeneous environments: (i) the Lévy walk and (ii) the composite correlated random walk (CCRW) and its associated area-restricted search behaviour. Until recently, it was difficult to differentiate between the movement patterns of these two strategies. Using a new method that assesses whether movement patterns are consistent with these two strategies and two other common random search strategies, we investigated the movement behaviour of three species inhabiting sparse northern environments: woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), barren-ground grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus). These three species vary widely in their diets and thus allow us to contrast the movement patterns of animals from different feeding guilds. Our results showed that although more traditional methods would have found evidence for the Lévy walk for some individuals, a comparison of the Lévy walk to CCRWs showed stronger support for the latter. While a CCRW was the best model for most individuals, there was a range of support for its absolute fit. A CCRW was sufficient to explain the movement of nearly half of herbivorous caribou and a quarter of omnivorous grizzly bears, but was insufficient to explain the movement of all carnivorous polar bears. Strong evidence for CCRW movement patterns suggests that many individuals may use a multiphasic movement strategy rather than one-behaviour strategies such as the Lévy walk. The fact that the best model was insufficient to describe the movement paths of many individuals suggests that some animals living in sparse environments may use

  1. Moduli Dark Matter and the Search for Its Decay Line using Suzaku X-Ray Telescope

    Kusenko, Alexander; Loewenstein, Michael; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2013-01-01

    Light scalar fields called moduli arise from a variety of different models involving supersymmetry and/or string theory; thus their existence is a generic prediction of leading theories for physics beyond the standard model. They also present a formidable, long-standing problem for cosmology. We argue that an anthropic solution to the moduli problem exists in the case of small moduli masses and that it automatically leads to dark matter in the form of moduli. The recent discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs boson implies a lower bound on the moduli mass of about a keV. This form of dark matter is consistent with the observed properties of structure formation, and it is amenable to detection with the help of x-ray telescopes. We present the results of a search for such dark matter particles using spectra extracted from the first deep x-ray observations of the Draco and Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxies, which are darkmatter- dominated systems with extreme mass-to-light ratios and low intrinsic backgrounds. No emission line is positively detected, and we set new constraints on the relevant new physics.

  2. Sensitivity and predictive value of 15 PubMed search strategies to answer clinical questions rated against full systematic reviews.

    Agoritsas, Thomas; Merglen, Arnaud; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Combescure, Christophe; Garin, Nicolas; Perrier, Arnaud; Perneger, Thomas V

    2012-06-12

    Clinicians perform searches in PubMed daily, but retrieving relevant studies is challenging due to the rapid expansion of medical knowledge. Little is known about the performance of search strategies when they are applied to answer specific clinical questions. To compare the performance of 15 PubMed search strategies in retrieving relevant clinical trials on therapeutic interventions. We used Cochrane systematic reviews to identify relevant trials for 30 clinical questions. Search terms were extracted from the abstract using a predefined procedure based on the population, interventions, comparison, outcomes (PICO) framework and combined into queries. We tested 15 search strategies that varied in their query (PIC or PICO), use of PubMed's Clinical Queries therapeutic filters (broad or narrow), search limits, and PubMed links to related articles. We assessed sensitivity (recall) and positive predictive value (precision) of each strategy on the first 2 PubMed pages (40 articles) and on the complete search output. The performance of the search strategies varied widely according to the clinical question. Unfiltered searches and those using the broad filter of Clinical Queries produced large outputs and retrieved few relevant articles within the first 2 pages, resulting in a median sensitivity of only 10%-25%. In contrast, all searches using the narrow filter performed significantly better, with a median sensitivity of about 50% (all P PubMed pages. These results can help clinicians apply effective strategies to answer their questions at the point of care.

  3. Research on Energy-Saving Operation Strategy for Multiple Trains on the Urban Subway Line

    Jianqiang Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption for multiple trains on the urban subway line is predominantly affected by the operation strategy. This paper proposed an energy-saving operation strategy for multiple trains, which is suitable for various line conditions and complex train schedules. The model and operation modes of the strategy are illustrated in detail, aiming to take full use of regenerative braking energy in complex multi-train systems with different departure intervals and dwell times. The computing method is proposed by means of the heuristic algorithm to obtain the optimum operation curve for each train. The simulation result based on a real urban subway line is provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed energy-saving operation strategy.

  4. Search strategy in a complex and dynamic environment (the Indian Ocean case)

    Loire, Sophie; Arbabi, Hassan; Clary, Patrick; Ivic, Stefan; Crnjaric-Zic, Nelida; Macesic, Senka; Crnkovic, Bojan; Mezic, Igor; UCSB Team; Rijeka Team

    2014-11-01

    The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (MH370) in the early morning hours of 8 March 2014 has exposed the disconcerting lack of efficient methods for identifying where to look and how to look for missing objects in a complex and dynamic environment. The search area for plane debris is a remote part of the Indian Ocean. Searches, of the lawnmower type, have been unsuccessful so far. Lagrangian kinematics of mesoscale features are visible in hypergraph maps of the Indian Ocean surface currents. Without a precise knowledge of the crash site, these maps give an estimate of the time evolution of any initial distribution of plane debris and permits the design of a search strategy. The Dynamic Spectral Multiscale Coverage search algorithm is modified to search a spatial distribution of targets that is evolving with time following the dynamic of ocean surface currents. Trajectories are generated for multiple search agents such that their spatial coverage converges to the target distribution. Central to this DSMC algorithm is a metric for the ergodicity.

  5. Information-seeking strategies and science content understandings of sixth-grade students using on-line learning environments

    Hoffman, Joseph Loris

    1999-11-01

    This study examined the information-seeking strategies and science content understandings learners developed as a result of using on-line resources in the University of Michigan Digital Library and on the World Wide Web. Eight pairs of sixth grade students from two teachers' classrooms were observed during inquiries for astronomy, ecology, geology, and weather, and a final transfer task assessed learners' capabilities at the end of the school year. Data included video recordings of students' screen activity and conversations, journals and completed activity sheets, final artifacts, and semi-structured interviews. Learners' information-seeking strategies included activities related to asking, planning, tool usage, searching, assessing, synthesizing, writing, and creating. Analysis of data found a majority of learners posed meaningful, openended questions, used technological tools appropriately, developed pertinent search topics, were thoughtful in queries to the digital library, browsed sites purposefully to locate information, and constructed artifacts with novel formats. Students faced challenges when planning activities, assessing resources, and synthesizing information. Possible explanations were posed linking pedagogical practices with learners' growth and use of inquiry strategies. Data from classroom-lab video and teacher interviews showed varying degrees of student scaffolding: development and critique of initial questions, utilization of search tools, use of journals for reflection on activities, and requirements for final artifacts. Science content understandings included recalling information, offering explanations, articulating relationships, and extending explanations. A majority of learners constructed partial understandings limited to information recall and simple explanations, and these occasionally contained inaccurate conceptualizations. Web site design features had some influence on the construction of learners' content understandings. Analysis of

  6. Efficient on-line setup correction strategies using plan-intent functions

    Keller, Harry; Jaffray, David A.; Rosewall, Tara; White, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) delivery systems on-line set-up correction strategies have gained in popularity. Usually, the correction workload of these strategies is high compared to off-line strategies as daily setup corrections have to be performed based on a predefined action level. In this work, it is proposed that on-line strategies must not only be judged in terms of workload but also in terms of efficacy. While workload can be easily predicted for such strategies, the efficacy must ultimately reflect the efficiency with which the original treatment plan intent is met. The purpose of this work is to investigate the tradeoff between workload and efficacy of three different on-line set-up correction strategies: The common fixed action level strategy and two novel on-line setup correction strategies, i.e., a dose-volume histogram (DVH) constraint and an equivalent uniform dose (EUD) score strategy that aim directly for better compliance with original treatment plan intent. All strategies were reformulated in terms of a score function that reflected treatment plan intent. A retrospective study was conducted on 5 prostate patients (7-field conformal, 79.8 Gy, 42 fractions). PTV margins were 10 mm except in the posterior direction (7 mm). The original treatment plan intent for these patients was defined using a set of DVH constraints. The results show that the on-line setup correction strategy based on a fixed action level of 3 mm resulted in a considerable correction workload. For larger action levels, a dose benefit (in terms of EUD) in the rectum and bladder was observed for all patients which is clinically ''fortuitous'' but difficult to take advantage of. In contrast, the application of the two novel strategies generally resulted in a controlled decrease of the dose to the rectum and the bladder with a smaller workload. It is concluded that using information about target anatomy and the planned dose distribution allows the

  7. Improving the basic skills of teaching mathematics through learning with search-solve-create-share strategy

    Rahayu, D. V.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Darhim

    2018-05-01

    This study examined to see the improvement of prospective teachers’ basic skills of teaching mathematics through search-solve-create-share learning strategy based on overall and Mathematical Prior Knowledge (MPK) and interaction of both. Quasi experiments with the design of this experimental-non-equivalent control group design involved 67 students at the mathematics program of STKIP Garut. The instrument used in this study included pre-test and post-test. The result of this study showed that: (1) The improvement and achievement of the basic skills of teaching mathematics of the prospective teachers who get the learning of search-solve-create-share strategy is better than the improvement and achievement of the prospective teachers who get the conventional learning as a whole and based on MPK; (2) There is no interaction between the learning used and MPK on improving and achieving basic skills of teaching mathematics.

  8. Martian methane plume models for defining Mars rover methane source search strategies

    Nicol, Christopher; Ellery, Alex; Lynch, Brian; Cloutis, Ed

    2018-07-01

    The detection of atmospheric methane on Mars implies an active methane source. This introduces the possibility of a biotic source with the implied need to determine whether the methane is indeed biotic in nature or geologically generated. There is a clear need for robotic algorithms which are capable of manoeuvring a rover through a methane plume on Mars to locate its source. We explore aspects of Mars methane plume modelling to reveal complex dynamics characterized by advection and diffusion. A statistical analysis of the plume model has been performed and compared to analyses of terrestrial plume models. Finally, we consider a robotic search strategy to find a methane plume source. We find that gradient-based techniques are ineffective, but that more sophisticated model-based search strategies are unlikely to be available in near-term rover missions.

  9. Evolution of optimal Lévy-flight strategies in human mental searches

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Recent analysis of empirical data [Radicchi, Baronchelli, and Amaral, PloS ONE1932-620310.1371/journal.pone.0029910 7, e029910 (2012)] showed that humans adopt Lévy-flight strategies when exploring the bid space in online auctions. A game theoretical model proved that the observed Lévy exponents are nearly optimal, being close to the exponent value that guarantees the maximal economical return to players. Here, we rationalize these findings by adopting an evolutionary perspective. We show that a simple evolutionary process is able to account for the empirical measurements with the only assumption that the reproductive fitness of the players is proportional to their search ability. Contrary to previous modeling, our approach describes the emergence of the observed exponent without resorting to any strong assumptions on the initial searching strategies. Our results generalize earlier research, and open novel questions in cognitive, behavioral, and evolutionary sciences.

  10. Emergence of an optimal search strategy from a simple random walk.

    Sakiyama, Tomoko; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2013-09-06

    In reports addressing animal foraging strategies, it has been stated that Lévy-like algorithms represent an optimal search strategy in an unknown environment, because of their super-diffusion properties and power-law-distributed step lengths. Here, starting with a simple random walk algorithm, which offers the agent a randomly determined direction at each time step with a fixed move length, we investigated how flexible exploration is achieved if an agent alters its randomly determined next step forward and the rule that controls its random movement based on its own directional moving experiences. We showed that our algorithm led to an effective food-searching performance compared with a simple random walk algorithm and exhibited super-diffusion properties, despite the uniform step lengths. Moreover, our algorithm exhibited a power-law distribution independent of uniform step lengths.

  11. Testing the effectiveness of simplified search strategies for updating systematic reviews.

    Rice, Maureen; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Kenny, Meghan; Raina, Parminder; Sherifali, Diana

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the study was to test the overall effectiveness of a simplified search strategy (SSS) for updating systematic reviews. We identified nine systematic reviews undertaken by our research group for which both comprehensive and SSS updates were performed. Three relevant performance measures were estimated, that is, sensitivity, precision, and number needed to read (NNR). The update reference searches for all nine included systematic reviews identified a total of 55,099 citations that were screened resulting in final inclusion of 163 randomized controlled trials. As compared with reference search, the SSS resulted in 8,239 hits and had a median sensitivity of 83.3%, while precision and NNR were 4.5 times better. During analysis, we found that the SSS performed better for clinically focused topics, with a median sensitivity of 100% and precision and NNR 6 times better than for the reference searches. For broader topics, the sensitivity of the SSS was 80% while precision and NNR were 5.4 times better compared with reference search. SSS performed well for clinically focused topics and, with a median sensitivity of 100%, could be a viable alternative to a conventional comprehensive search strategy for updating this type of systematic reviews particularly considering the budget constraints and the volume of new literature being published. For broader topics, 80% sensitivity is likely to be considered too low for a systematic review update in most cases, although it might be acceptable if updating a scoping or rapid review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Looking for trouble: a description of oculomotor search strategies during live CCTV operation.

    Stainer, Matthew J; Scott-Brown, Kenneth C; Tatler, Benjamin W

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has begun to address how CCTV operators in the modern control room attempt to search for crime (e.g., Howard et al., 2011). However, an often-neglected element of the CCTV task is that the operators have at their disposal a multiplexed wall of scenes, and a single spot-monitor on which they can select any of these feeds for inspection. Here we examined how 2 trained CCTV operators used these sources of information to search from crime during a morning, afternoon, and night-time shift. We found that they spent surprisingly little time viewing the multiplex wall, instead preferentially spending most of their time searching on the single-scene spot-monitor. Such search must require a sophisticated understanding of the surveilled environment, as the operators must make their selection of which screen to view based on their prediction of where crime is likely to occur. This seems to be reflected in the difference in the screens that they selected to view at different times of the day. For example, night-clubs received close monitoring at night, but were seldom viewed in mid-morning. Such narrowing of search based on a contextual understanding of an environment is not a new idea (e.g., Torralba et al., 2006), and appears to contribute to operator's selection strategy. This research prompts new questions regarding the nature of representation that operators have of their environment, and how they might develop expectation-based search strategies to countermand the demands of the large influx of visual information. Future research should ensure not to neglect examination of operator behavior "in the wild" (Hutchins, 1995a), as such insights are difficult to gain from laboratory based paradigms alone.

  13. Looking for trouble: A description of oculomotor search strategies during live CCTV operation.

    Matthew James Stainer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has begun to address how CCTV operators in the modern control room attempt to search for crime (e.g., Howard et al., 2011. However, an often-neglected element of the CCTV task is that the operators have at their disposal a multiplexed wall of scenes, and a single spot-monitor on which they can select any of these feeds for inspection. Here we examined how 2 trained CCTV operators used these sources of information to search from crime during a morning, afternoon and night-time shift. We found that they spent surprisingly little time viewing the multiplex wall, instead preferentially spending most of their time searching on the single-scene spot-monitor. Such search must require a sophisticated understanding of the surveilled environment, as the operators must make their selection of which screen to view based on their prediction of where crime is likely to occur. This seems to be reflected in the difference in the screens that they selected to view at different times of the day. For example, night-clubs received close monitoring at night, but were seldom viewed in mid-morning. Such narrowing of search based on a contextual understanding of an environment is not a new idea (e.g., Torralba et al., 2006, and appears to contribute to operator’s selection strategy. This research prompts new questions regarding the nature of representation that operators have of their environment, and how they might develop expectation-based search strategies to countermand the demands of the large influx of visual information. Future research should ensure not to neglect examination of operator behavior ‘in the wild’ (Hutchins, 1995a, as such insights are difficult to gain from laboratory based paradigms alone.

  14. Search Strategies Used by Older Adults in a Virtual Reality Place Learning Task.

    Davis, Rebecca L; Weisbeck, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Older adults often have problems finding their way in novel environments such as senior living residences and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to examine the types of self-reported search strategies and cues that older adults use to find their way in a virtual maze. Healthy, independently living older adults (n = 129) aged 55-96 were tested in a virtual maze task over a period of 3 days in which they had to repeatedly find their way to a specified goal. They were interviewed about their strategies on days 1 and 3. Content analysis was used to identify the strategies and cues described by the participants in order to find their way. Strategies and cues used were compared among groups. The participants reported the use of multiple spatial and non-spatial strategies, and some of the strategies differed among age groups and over time. The oldest age group was less likely to use strategies such as triangulation and distance strategies. All participants used visual landmarks to find their way, but the use of geometric cues (corners) was used less by the older participants. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of how older adults find their way in complex environments. The understanding of how wayfinding changes with age is essential in order to design more supportive environments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. An Improved Harmony Search Based on Teaching-Learning Strategy for Unconstrained Optimization Problems

    Shouheng Tuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmony search (HS algorithm is an emerging population-based metaheuristic algorithm, which is inspired by the music improvisation process. The HS method has been developed rapidly and applied widely during the past decade. In this paper, an improved global harmony search algorithm, named harmony search based on teaching-learning (HSTL, is presented for high dimension complex optimization problems. In HSTL algorithm, four strategies (harmony memory consideration, teaching-learning strategy, local pitch adjusting, and random mutation are employed to maintain the proper balance between convergence and population diversity, and dynamic strategy is adopted to change the parameters. The proposed HSTL algorithm is investigated and compared with three other state-of-the-art HS optimization algorithms. Furthermore, to demonstrate the robustness and convergence, the success rate and convergence analysis is also studied. The experimental results of 31 complex benchmark functions demonstrate that the HSTL method has strong convergence and robustness and has better balance capacity of space exploration and local exploitation on high dimension complex optimization problems.

  16. Search for gamma-ray spectral lines with the Fermi Large Area Telescope and dark matter implications

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D’Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Essig, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Izaguirre, E.; Jogler, T.; Kamae, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Malyshev, D.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Romani, R. W.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siegal-Gaskins, J.; Siskind, E. J.; Snyder, A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.

    2013-10-22

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a theoretical class of particles that are excellent dark matter candidates. WIMP annihilation or decay may produce essentially monochromatic γ rays detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) against the astrophysical γ -ray emission of the Galaxy. We have searched for spectral lines in the energy range 5–300 GeV using 3.7 years of data, reprocessed with updated instrument calibrations and an improved energy dispersion model compared to the previous Fermi-LAT Collaboration line searches. We searched in five regions selected to optimize sensitivity to different theoretically motivated dark matter density distributions. We did not find any globally significant lines in our a priori search regions and present 95% confidence limits for annihilation cross sections of self-conjugate WIMPs and decay lifetimes. Our most significant fit occurred at 133 GeV in our smallest search region and had a local significance of 3.3 standard deviations, which translates to a global significance of 1.5 standard deviations. We discuss potential systematic effects in this search, and examine the feature at 133 GeV in detail. We find that the use both of reprocessed data and of additional information in the energy dispersion model contributes to the reduction in significance of the linelike feature near 130 GeV relative to significances reported in other works. We also find that the feature is narrower than the LAT energy resolution at the level of 2 to 3 standard deviations, which somewhat disfavors the interpretation of the 133 GeV feature as a real WIMP signal.

  17. Optimal search strategies for detecting cost and economic studies in EMBASE

    Haynes R Brian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic evaluations in the medical literature compare competing diagnosis or treatment methods for their use of resources and their expected outcomes. The best evidence currently available from research regarding both cost and economic comparisons will continue to expand as this type of information becomes more important in today's clinical practice. Researchers and clinicians need quick, reliable ways to access this information. A key source of this type of information is large bibliographic databases such as EMBASE. The objective of this study was to develop search strategies that optimize the retrieval of health costs and economics studies from EMBASE. Methods We conducted an analytic survey, comparing hand searches of journals with retrievals from EMBASE for candidate search terms and combinations. 6 research assistants read all issues of 55 journals indexed by EMBASE for the publishing year 2000. We rated all articles using purpose and quality indicators and categorized them into clinically relevant original studies, review articles, general papers, or case reports. The original and review articles were then categorized for purpose (i.e., cost and economics and other clinical topics and depending on the purpose as 'pass' or 'fail' for methodologic rigor. Candidate search strategies were developed for economic and cost studies, then run in the 55 EMBASE journals, the retrievals being compared with the hand search data. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the search strategies were calculated. Results Combinations of search terms for detecting both cost and economic studies attained levels of 100% sensitivity with specificity levels of 92.9% and 92.3% respectively. When maximizing for both sensitivity and specificity, the combination of terms for detecting cost studies (sensitivity increased 2.2% over the single term but at a slight decrease in specificity of 0.9%. The maximized combination of terms

  18. Librarian co-authors correlated with higher quality reported search strategies in general internal medicine systematic reviews.

    Rethlefsen, Melissa L; Farrell, Ann M; Osterhaus Trzasko, Leah C; Brigham, Tara J

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether librarian and information specialist authorship was associated with better reported systematic review (SR) search quality. SRs from high-impact general internal medicine journals were reviewed for search quality characteristics and reporting quality by independent reviewers using three instruments, including a checklist of Institute of Medicine Recommended Standards for the Search Process and a scored modification of the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies instrument. The level of librarian and information specialist participation was significantly associated with search reproducibility from reported search strategies (Χ(2) = 23.5; P Librarian co-authored SRs had significantly higher odds of meeting 8 of 13 analyzed search standards than those with no librarian participation and six more than those with mentioned librarian participation. One-way ANOVA showed that differences in total search quality scores between all three groups were statistically significant (F2,267 = 10.1233; P librarian or information specialist co-authors are correlated with significantly higher quality reported search strategies. To minimize bias in SRs, authors and editors could encourage librarian engagement in SRs including authorship as a potential way to help improve documentation of the search strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimal Control Strategy Search Using a Simplest 3-D PWR Xenon Oscillation Simulator

    Yoichiro, Shimazu

    2004-01-01

    Power spatial oscillations due to the transient xenon spatial distribution are well known as xenon oscillation in large PWRs. When the reactor size becomes larger than the current design, then even radial oscillations can be also divergent. Even if the radial oscillation is convergent, when some control rods malfunction occurs, it is necessary to suppress the oscillation in as short time as possible. In such cases, optimal control strategy is required. Generally speaking the optimality search based on the modern control theory requires a lot of calculation for the evaluation of state variables. In the case of control rod malfunctions the xenon oscillation could be three dimensional. In such case, direct core calculations would be inevitable. From this point of view a very simple model, only four point reactor model, has been developed and verified. In this paper, an example of a procedure and the results for optimal control strategy search are presented. It is shown that we have only one optimal strategy within a half cycle of the oscillation with fixed control strength. It is also shown that a 3-D xenon oscillation introduced by a control rod malfunction can not be controlled by only one control step as can be done for axial oscillations. They might be quite strong limitations to the operators. Thus it is recommended that a strategy generator, which is quick in analyzing and easy to use, might be installed in a monitoring system or operator guiding system. (author)

  20. Online strategies to facilitate health-related knowledge transfer: a systematic search and review.

    Mairs, Katie; McNeil, Heather; McLeod, Jordache; Prorok, Jeanette C; Stolee, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Health interventions and practices often lag behind the available research, and the need for timely translation of new health knowledge into practice is becoming increasingly important. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic search and review of the literature on online knowledge translation techniques that foster the interaction between various stakeholders and assist in the sharing of ideas and knowledge within the health field. The search strategy included all published literature in the English language since January 2003 and used the medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (cinahl), embase and Inspec databases. The results of the review indicate that online strategies are diverse, yet all are applicable in facilitating online health-related knowledge translation. The method of knowledge sharing ranged from use of wikis, discussion forums, blogs, and social media to data/knowledge management tools, virtual communities of practice and conferencing technology - all of which can encourage online health communication and knowledge translation. Online technologies are a key facilitator of health-related knowledge translation. This review of online strategies to facilitate health-related knowledge translation can inform the development and improvement of future strategies to expedite the translation of research to practice. © 2013 Health Libraries Group of CILIP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Validation of a search strategy to identify nutrition trials in PubMed using the relative recall method.

    Durão, Solange; Kredo, Tamara; Volmink, Jimmy

    2015-06-01

    To develop, assess, and maximize the sensitivity of a search strategy to identify diet and nutrition trials in PubMed using relative recall. We developed a search strategy to identify diet and nutrition trials in PubMed. We then constructed a gold standard reference set to validate the identified trials using the relative recall method. Relative recall was calculated by dividing the number of references from the gold standard our search strategy identified by the total number of references in the gold standard. Our gold standard comprised 298 trials, derived from 16 included systematic reviews. The initial search strategy identified 242 of 298 references, with a relative recall of 81.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 76.3%, 85.5%]. We analyzed titles and abstracts of the 56 missed references for possible additional terms. We then modified the search strategy accordingly. The relative recall of the final search strategy was 88.6% (95% CI: 84.4%, 91.9%). We developed a search strategy to identify diet and nutrition trials in PubMed with a high relative recall (sensitivity). This could be useful for establishing a nutrition trials register to support the conduct of future research, including systematic reviews. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design of an On-Line Query Language for Full Text Patent Search.

    Glantz, Richard S.

    The design of an English-like query language and an interactive computer environment for searching the full text of the U.S. patent collection are discussed. Special attention is paid to achieving a transparent user interface, to providing extremely broad search capabilities (including nested substitution classes, Kleene star events, and domain…

  3. A search for the millimetre lines of HCN in Comets Wilson 1987 VII and Machholz 1988 XV

    Crouvisier, J.; Despois, D.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Gerard, E.; Paubert, G.; Johansson, L. E. B.; Ekelund, L.; Winnberg, A.; Ge, W.; Irvine, W. M.; Kinzel, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.

    1990-08-01

    The J(1-0) lines of HCN at 89 GHz were searched for in Comet Wilson 1987 VII, with the FCRAO, the SEST and the IRAM radio telescopes between February and June 1987. There was no firm detection, but significant upper limits were obtained, which put severe constraints on the HCN production rate in that comet. A direct comparison with the observations of P/Halley suggests that the HCN abundance relative to water might be smaller in Comet Wilson by at least a factor of two. The J(1-0) and J(3-2) lines of HCN at 89 and 266 GHz were searched for in Comet Machholz 1988 XV when it was close to perihelion at 0.17 AU from the sun. There was no detection. At that moment, the comet was probably no longer active.

  4. The Impact of Competencies, Information Search, and Competitive Strategy on the Export Performance

    Lena Elitan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This confirmatory study is aimed at analyzing the impact of relationships, information search, and competencies on competitive strategy and SMEs performance in Indonesia. The study used 100 SMEs samples that obtained through mailed questionnaires. The results show: Firstly, the perception of information, information sources, and export competence has no significant effect on competitive strategy. However the findings for SMEs in Indonesia, indicated that export related information has negative effects on competitive strategy. Secondly, export competencies has an enormous influence on the company’s capacity and ability to use information appropriately, when the company must deal with challenges or when the company is eager to take advantage of the opportunities to increase growth and profitability. Thirdly, competitive strategy does not directly affect export performance but it is moderated by the environment uncertainty. It indicates that the influence of competitive strategy would be greater in an uncertain business environment. The uncertain business environment will encourage companies to explore competitive strategy to improve their performance.

  5. The Impact of Competencies, Information Search, and Competitive Strategy on the Export Performance

    Lena Elitan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This confirmatory study is aimed at analyzing the impact of relationships, information search, and competencies on competitive strategy and SMEs performance in Indonesia. The study used 100 SMEs samples that obtained through mailed questionnaires. The results show: Firstly, the perception of information, information sources, and export competence has no significant effect on competitive strategy. However the findings for SMEs in Indonesia, indicated that export related information has negative effects on competitive strategy. Secondly, export competencies has an enormous influence on the company’s capacity and ability to use information appropriately,when the company must deal with challenges or when the company is eager to take advantage of the opportunities to increase growth and profitability. Thirdly, competitive strategy does not directly affect export performance but it is moderated by the environment uncertainty. It indicates that the influence of competitive strategy would be greater in an uncertain business environment. The uncertain business environment will encourage companies to explore competitive strategy to improve their performance.

  6. The efficiency of different search strategies in estimating parsimony jackknife, bootstrap, and Bremer support

    Müller Kai F

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For parsimony analyses, the most common way to estimate confidence is by resampling plans (nonparametric bootstrap, jackknife, and Bremer support (Decay indices. The recent literature reveals that parameter settings that are quite commonly employed are not those that are recommended by theoretical considerations and by previous empirical studies. The optimal search strategy to be applied during resampling was previously addressed solely via standard search strategies available in PAUP*. The question of a compromise between search extensiveness and improved support accuracy for Bremer support received even less attention. A set of experiments was conducted on different datasets to find an empirical cut-off point at which increased search extensiveness does not significantly change Bremer support and jackknife or bootstrap proportions any more. Results For the number of replicates needed for accurate estimates of support in resampling plans, a diagram is provided that helps to address the question whether apparently different support values really differ significantly. It is shown that the use of random addition cycles and parsimony ratchet iterations during bootstrapping does not translate into higher support, nor does any extension of the search extensiveness beyond the rather moderate effort of TBR (tree bisection and reconnection branch swapping plus saving one tree per replicate. Instead, in case of very large matrices, saving more than one shortest tree per iteration and using a strict consensus tree of these yields decreased support compared to saving only one tree. This can be interpreted as a small risk of overestimating support but should be more than compensated by other factors that counteract an enhanced type I error. With regard to Bremer support, a rule of thumb can be derived stating that not much is gained relative to the surplus computational effort when searches are extended beyond 20 ratchet iterations per

  7. A new family of Polak-Ribiere-Polyak conjugate gradient method with the strong-Wolfe line search

    Ghani, Nur Hamizah Abdul; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Conjugate gradient (CG) method is an important technique in unconstrained optimization, due to its effectiveness and low memory requirements. The focus of this paper is to introduce a new CG method for solving large scale unconstrained optimization. Theoretical proofs show that the new method fulfills sufficient descent condition if strong Wolfe-Powell inexact line search is used. Besides, computational results show that our proposed method outperforms to other existing CG methods.

  8. Number line estimation strategies in children with mathematical learning difficulties measured by eye tracking

    van 't Noordende, Jaccoline E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369862422; van Hoogmoed, Anne H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314839496; Schot, Willemijn D; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241607949

    INTRODUCTION: Number line estimation is one of the skills related to mathematical performance. Previous research has shown that eye tracking can be used to identify differences in the estimation strategies children with dyscalculia and children with typical mathematical development use on number

  9. Number line estimation strategies in children with mathematical learning difficulties measured by eye tracking

    van’t Noordende, Jaccoline E.; van Hoogmoed, Anne H.; Schot, Willemijn D.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Number line estimation is one of the skills related to mathematical performance. Previous research has shown that eye tracking can be used to identify differences in the estimation strategies children with dyscalculia and children with typical mathematical development use on number

  10. Search strategies for pair production of heavy Higgs bosons decaying invisibly at the LHC

    Arganda, E.; Diaz-Cruz, J. L.; Mileo, N.; Morales, R. A.; Szynkman, A.

    2018-04-01

    The search for heavy Higgs bosons at the LHC represents an intense experimental program, carried out by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, which includes the hunt for invisible Higgs decays and dark matter candidates. No significant deviations from the SM backgrounds have been observed in any of these searches, imposing significant constraints on the parameter space of different new physics models with an extended Higgs sector. Here we discuss an alternative search strategy for heavy Higgs bosons decaying invisibly at the LHC, focusing on the pair production of a heavy scalar H together with a pseudoscalar A, through the production mode q q bar →Z* → HA. We identify as the most promising signal the final state made up of 4 b +ET miss, coming from the heavy scalar decay mode H → hh → b b bar b b bar , with h being the discovered SM-like Higgs boson with mh = 125GeV, together with the invisible channel of the pseudoscalar. We work within the context of simplified MSSM scenarios that contain quite heavy sfermions of most types with O (10)TeV masses, while the stops are heavy enough to reproduce the 125 GeV mass for the lightest SM-like Higgs boson. By contrast, the gauginos/higgsinos and the heavy MSSM Higgs bosons have masses near the EW scale. Our search strategies, for a LHC center-of-mass energy of √{ s } = 14TeV, allow us to obtain statistical significances of the signal over the SM backgrounds with values up to ∼ 1.6 σ and ∼ 3 σ, for total integrated luminosities of 300fb-1 and 1000fb-1, respectively.

  11. The development of PubMed search strategies for patient preferences for treatment outcomes

    Ralph van Hoorn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of respecting patients’ preferences when making treatment decisions is increasingly recognized. Efficiently retrieving papers from the scientific literature reporting on the presence and nature of such preferences can help to achieve this goal. The objective of this study was to create a search filter for PubMed to help retrieve evidence on patient preferences for treatment outcomes. Methods A total of 27 journals were hand-searched for articles on patient preferences for treatment outcomes published in 2011. Selected articles served as a reference set. To develop optimal search strategies to retrieve this set, all articles in the reference set were randomly split into a development and a validation set. MeSH-terms and keywords retrieved using PubReMiner were tested individually and as combinations in PubMed and evaluated for retrieval performance (e.g. sensitivity (Se and specificity (Sp. Results Of 8238 articles, 22 were considered to report empirical evidence on patient preferences for specific treatment outcomes. The best search filters reached Se of 100 % [95 % CI 100-100] with Sp of 95 % [94–95 %] and Sp of 97 % [97–98 %] with 75 % Se [74–76 %]. In the validation set these queries reached values of Se of 90 % [89–91 %] with Sp 94 % [93–95 %] and Se of 80 % [79–81 %] with Sp of 97 % [96–96 %], respectively. Conclusions Narrow and broad search queries were developed which can help in retrieving literature on patient preferences for treatment outcomes. Identifying such evidence may in turn enhance the incorporation of patient preferences in clinical decision making and health technology assessment.

  12. The development of PubMed search strategies for patient preferences for treatment outcomes.

    van Hoorn, Ralph; Kievit, Wietske; Booth, Andrew; Mozygemba, Kati; Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Refolo, Pietro; Sacchini, Dario; Gerhardus, Ansgar; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tummers, Marcia

    2016-07-29

    The importance of respecting patients' preferences when making treatment decisions is increasingly recognized. Efficiently retrieving papers from the scientific literature reporting on the presence and nature of such preferences can help to achieve this goal. The objective of this study was to create a search filter for PubMed to help retrieve evidence on patient preferences for treatment outcomes. A total of 27 journals were hand-searched for articles on patient preferences for treatment outcomes published in 2011. Selected articles served as a reference set. To develop optimal search strategies to retrieve this set, all articles in the reference set were randomly split into a development and a validation set. MeSH-terms and keywords retrieved using PubReMiner were tested individually and as combinations in PubMed and evaluated for retrieval performance (e.g. sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp)). Of 8238 articles, 22 were considered to report empirical evidence on patient preferences for specific treatment outcomes. The best search filters reached Se of 100 % [95 % CI 100-100] with Sp of 95 % [94-95 %] and Sp of 97 % [97-98 %] with 75 % Se [74-76 %]. In the validation set these queries reached values of Se of 90 % [89-91 %] with Sp 94 % [93-95 %] and Se of 80 % [79-81 %] with Sp of 97 % [96-96 %], respectively. Narrow and broad search queries were developed which can help in retrieving literature on patient preferences for treatment outcomes. Identifying such evidence may in turn enhance the incorporation of patient preferences in clinical decision making and health technology assessment.

  13. The Number Density Evolution of Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in 3D-HST: Results from a Novel Automated Line Search Technique for Slitless Spectroscopy

    Maseda, Michael V.; van der Wel, Arjen; Rix, Hans-Walter; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Franx, Marijn; Lundgren, Britt F.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2018-02-01

    The multiplexing capability of slitless spectroscopy is a powerful asset in creating large spectroscopic data sets, but issues such as spectral confusion make the interpretation of the data challenging. Here we present a new method to search for emission lines in the slitless spectroscopic data from the 3D-HST survey utilizing the Wide-Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a novel statistical technique, we can detect compact (extended) emission lines at 90% completeness down to fluxes of 1.5(3.0)× {10}-17 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2, close to the noise level of the grism exposures, for objects detected in the deep ancillary photometric data. Unlike previous methods, the Bayesian nature allows for probabilistic line identifications, namely redshift estimates, based on secondary emission line detections and/or photometric redshift priors. As a first application, we measure the comoving number density of Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (restframe [O III] λ5007 equivalent widths in excess of 500 Å). We find that these galaxies are nearly 10× more common above z ∼ 1.5 than at z ≲ 0.5. With upcoming large grism surveys such as Euclid and WFIRST, as well as grisms featured prominently on the NIRISS and NIRCam instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope, methods like the one presented here will be crucial for constructing emission line redshift catalogs in an automated and well-understood manner. This work is based on observations taken by the 3D-HST Treasury Program and the CANDELS Multi-Cycle Treasury Program with the NASA/ESA HST, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  14. Literature search strategies for interdisciplinary research a sourcebook for scientists and engineers

    Ackerson, Linda G

    2006-01-01

    The amount of published literature can be overwhelming for scientists and researchers moving from a broad disciplinary research area to a more specialized one, particularly in fields that use information from more than one discipline. Without a focused inquiry, the researcher may find too little information or may be overcome by too much. Striking the correct balance of information is the focus of Literature Search Strategies for Interdisciplinary Research. This useful reference tool studies diverse interdisciplinary areas revealing the general and individual qualities that dictate the strateg

  15. Making sense of the future: The information search strategies of construction practitioners in exploring the risk landscape

    Stingl, Verena; Maytorena-Sanchez, Eunice

    This paper explores the cognitive strategies that construction practitioners rely on when searching to identify risks in a simulated project. By using the active information search methodology in interviews with 45 industry practitioners, we were able to distinguish three stereotypical information...

  16. Web-Based Undergraduate Chemistry Problem-Solving: The Interplay of Task Performance, Domain Knowledge and Web-Searching Strategies

    She, Hsiao-Ching; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Li, Ta-Wei; Wang, Chia-Yu; Chiu, Hsin-Tien; Lee, Pei-Zon; Chou, Wen-Chi; Chuang, Ming-Hua

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of Web-based Chemistry Problem-Solving, with the attributes of Web-searching and problem-solving scaffolds, on undergraduate students' problem-solving task performance. In addition, the nature and extent of Web-searching strategies students used and its correlation with task performance and domain knowledge also…

  17. Locating qualitative studies in dementia on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO: A comparison of search strategies.

    Rogers, Morwenna; Bethel, Alison; Abbott, Rebecca

    2017-10-28

    Qualitative research in dementia improves understanding of the experience of people affected by dementia. Searching databases for qualitative studies is problematic. Qualitative-specific search strategies might help with locating studies. To examine the effectiveness (sensitivity and precision) of 5 qualitative strategies on locating qualitative research studies in dementia in 4 major databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL). Qualitative dementia studies were checked for inclusion on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. Five qualitative search strategies (subject headings, simple free-text terms, complex free-text terms, and 2 broad-based strategies) were tested for study retrieval. Specificity, precision and number needed to read were calculated. Two hundred fourteen qualitative studies in dementia were included. PsycINFO and CINAHL held the most qualitative studies out the 4 databases studied (N = 171 and 166, respectively) and both held unique records (N = 14 and 7, respectively). The controlled vocabulary strategy in CINAHL returned 96% (N = 192) of studies held; by contrast, controlled vocabulary in PsycINFO returned 7% (N = 13) of studies held. The broad-based strategies returned more studies (93-99%) than the other free-text strategies (22-82%). Precision ranged from 0.061 to 0.004 resulting in a number needed to read to obtain 1 relevant study ranging from 16 (simple free-text search in CINAHL) to 239 (broad-based search in EMBASE). Qualitative search strategies using 3 broad terms were more sensitive than long complex searches. The controlled vocabulary for qualitative research in CINAHL was particularly effective. Furthermore, results indicate that MEDLINE and EMBASE offer little benefit for locating qualitative dementia research if CINAHL and PSYCINFO are also searched. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Blind Channel Equalization Using Constrained Generalized Pattern Search Optimization and Reinitialization Strategy

    Charles Tatkeu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a global convergence baud-spaced blind equalization method in this paper. This method is based on the application of both generalized pattern optimization and channel surfing reinitialization. The potentially used unimodal cost function relies on higher- order statistics, and its optimization is achieved using a pattern search algorithm. Since the convergence to the global minimum is not unconditionally warranted, we make use of channel surfing reinitialization (CSR strategy to find the right global minimum. The proposed algorithm is analyzed, and simulation results using a severe frequency selective propagation channel are given. Detailed comparisons with constant modulus algorithm (CMA are highlighted. The proposed algorithm performances are evaluated in terms of intersymbol interference, normalized received signal constellations, and root mean square error vector magnitude. In case of nonconstant modulus input signals, our algorithm outperforms significantly CMA algorithm with full channel surfing reinitialization strategy. However, comparable performances are obtained for constant modulus signals.

  19. Blind Channel Equalization Using Constrained Generalized Pattern Search Optimization and Reinitialization Strategy

    Zaouche, Abdelouahib; Dayoub, Iyad; Rouvaen, Jean Michel; Tatkeu, Charles

    2008-12-01

    We propose a global convergence baud-spaced blind equalization method in this paper. This method is based on the application of both generalized pattern optimization and channel surfing reinitialization. The potentially used unimodal cost function relies on higher- order statistics, and its optimization is achieved using a pattern search algorithm. Since the convergence to the global minimum is not unconditionally warranted, we make use of channel surfing reinitialization (CSR) strategy to find the right global minimum. The proposed algorithm is analyzed, and simulation results using a severe frequency selective propagation channel are given. Detailed comparisons with constant modulus algorithm (CMA) are highlighted. The proposed algorithm performances are evaluated in terms of intersymbol interference, normalized received signal constellations, and root mean square error vector magnitude. In case of nonconstant modulus input signals, our algorithm outperforms significantly CMA algorithm with full channel surfing reinitialization strategy. However, comparable performances are obtained for constant modulus signals.

  20. On-line biomedical databases-the best source for quick search of the scientific information in the biomedicine.

    Masic, Izet; Milinovic, Katarina

    2012-06-01

    Most of medical journals now has it's electronic version, available over public networks. Although there are parallel printed and electronic versions, and one other form need not to be simultaneously published. Electronic version of a journal can be published a few weeks before the printed form and must not has identical content. Electronic form of a journals may have an extension that does not contain a printed form, such as animation, 3D display, etc., or may have available fulltext, mostly in PDF or XML format, or just the contents or a summary. Access to a full text is usually not free and can be achieved only if the institution (library or host) enters into an agreement on access. Many medical journals, however, provide free access for some articles, or after a certain time (after 6 months or a year) to complete content. The search for such journals provide the network archive as High Wire Press, Free Medical Journals.com. It is necessary to allocate PubMed and PubMed Central, the first public digital archives unlimited collect journals of available medical literature, which operates in the system of the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda (USA). There are so called on- line medical journals published only in electronic form. It could be searched over on-line databases. In this paper authors shortly described about 30 data bases and short instructions how to make access and search the published papers in indexed medical journals.

  1. Metagenomic Taxonomy-Guided Database-Searching Strategy for Improving Metaproteomic Analysis.

    Xiao, Jinqiu; Tanca, Alessandro; Jia, Ben; Yang, Runqing; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jing

    2018-04-06

    Metaproteomics provides a direct measure of the functional information by investigating all proteins expressed by a microbiota. However, due to the complexity and heterogeneity of microbial communities, it is very hard to construct a sequence database suitable for a metaproteomic study. Using a public database, researchers might not be able to identify proteins from poorly characterized microbial species, while a sequencing-based metagenomic database may not provide adequate coverage for all potentially expressed protein sequences. To address this challenge, we propose a metagenomic taxonomy-guided database-search strategy (MT), in which a merged database is employed, consisting of both taxonomy-guided reference protein sequences from public databases and proteins from metagenome assembly. By applying our MT strategy to a mock microbial mixture, about two times as many peptides were detected as with the metagenomic database only. According to the evaluation of the reliability of taxonomic attribution, the rate of misassignments was comparable to that obtained using an a priori matched database. We also evaluated the MT strategy with a human gut microbial sample, and we found 1.7 times as many peptides as using a standard metagenomic database. In conclusion, our MT strategy allows the construction of databases able to provide high sensitivity and precision in peptide identification in metaproteomic studies, enabling the detection of proteins from poorly characterized species within the microbiota.

  2. Family Health Strategy: assessment and reasons for searching of health service by users

    Loeste de Arruda-Barbosa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evaluation of the users regarding the family health services and identify the main reasons that led them to seek such services. Methods: A descriptive study with qualitative approach, carried out in 5 Family Health Units with 25 users of theFamily Health Strategy (FHS of the city of Crato-CE, Brazil. The study took place from March to April 2009. Semi-structured interview was applied and recorded. We used thetechnique of thematic content analysis. Results: We found that the users of the FHS have great dissatisfaction, especially on the organization and access to health services, evaluating the family health as inefficient, although bringing care closer to the population, primarily through home visits. It was clear also that there is a search to the service mainly supported by curative vision and the acquisition of medicines. Conclusions: The subjects evaluate the organization and access to healthcare services as unsatisfactory, but value the actions, when there is a bond with the health team. However, there is still demand for health services, based on the search for medicines and medical consultation. Thus, it is necessary to improve services of the Family Health Strategy in Crato, with a view to ensure quality, accessibilityand greater resolution of health services.

  3. Searching for the 3.5 keV Line in the Stacked Suzaku Observations of Galaxy Clusters

    Bulbul, Esra; Markevitch, Maxim; Foster, Adam; Miller, Eric; Bautz, Mark; Lowenstein, Mike; Randall, Scott W.; Smith, Randall K.

    2016-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the stacked Suzaku observations of 47 galaxy clusters, spanning a redshift range of 0.01-0.45, to search for the unidentified 3.5 keV line. This sample provides an independent test for the previously detected line. We detect a 2sigma-significant spectral feature at 3.5 keV in the spectrum of the full sample. When the sample is divided into two subsamples (cool-core and non-cool core clusters), the cool-core subsample shows no statistically significant positive residuals at the line energy. A very weak (approx. 2sigma confidence) spectral feature at 3.5 keV is permitted by the data from the non-cool-core clusters sample. The upper limit on a neutrino decay mixing angle of sin(sup 2)(2theta) = 6.1 x 10(exp -11) from the full Suzaku sample is consistent with the previous detections in the stacked XMM-Newton sample of galaxy clusters (which had a higher statistical sensitivity to faint lines), M31, and Galactic center, at a 90% confidence level. However, the constraint from the present sample, which does not include the Perseus cluster, is in tension with previously reported line flux observed in the core of the Perseus cluster with XMM-Newton and Suzaku.

  4. Searching for the 3.5 keV Line in the Deep Fields with Chandra: The 10 Ms Observations

    Cappelluti, Nico; Bulbul, Esra; Foster, Adam; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Urry, Megan C.; Bautz, Mark W.; Civano, Francesca; Miller, Eric; Smith, Randall K.

    2018-02-01

    We report a systematic search for an emission line around 3.5 keV in the spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background using a total of ∼10 Ms Chandra observations toward the COSMOS Legacy and Extended Chandra Deep Field South survey fields. We find marginal evidence of a feature at an energy of ∼3.51 keV with a significance of 2.5–3σ, depending on the choice of statistical treatment. The line intensity is best fit at (8.8 ± 2.9) × 10‑7 ph cm‑2 s‑1 when using a simple Δχ 2 or {10.2}-0.4+0.2× {10}-7 ph cm‑2 s‑1 when Markov chain Monte Carlo is used. Based on our knowledge of Chandra and the reported detection of the line by other instruments, an instrumental origin for the line remains unlikely. We cannot, however, rule out a statistical fluctuation, and in that case our results provide a 3σ upper limit at 1.85 × 10‑6 ph cm‑2 s‑1. We discuss the interpretation of this observed line in terms of the iron line background, S XVI charge exchange, as well as potentially being from sterile neutrino decay. We note that our detection is consistent with previous measurements of this line toward the Galactic center and can be modeled as the result of sterile neutrino decay from the Milky Way for the dark matter distribution modeled as a Navarro–Frenk–White profile. For this case, we estimate a mass m ν ∼ 7.01 keV and a mixing angle sin2(2θ) = (0.83–2.75) × 10‑10. These derived values are in agreement with independent estimates from galaxy clusters, the Galactic center, and M31.

  5. Fermi LAT Search for Dark Matter in Gamma-Ray Lines and the Inclusive Photon Spectrum

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter particle annihilation or decay can produce monochromatic gamma-ray lines and contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray background. Flux upper limits are presented for gamma-ray spectral lines from 7 to 200 GeV and for the diffuse gamma-ray background from 4.8 GeV to 264 GeV obtained from two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data integrated over most of the sky. We give cross section upper limits and decay lifetime lower limits for dark matter models that produce gamma-ray lines or contribute to the diffuse spectrum, including models proposed as explanations of the PAMELA and Fermi cosmic-ray data.

  6. Low cost PEMFC generator manufacturing line. The competitiveness and trustability strategy

    Ferreira, Valdemar Stelita; Souza, Adler de; Ferreira, Mauricio S. [NovoCell Energy Systems S.A., Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil)], Email: valdemar.stelita@novocell.ind.br; Muschellack, Erich [Idee Technologies Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Concepts of Lean Manufacturing Lines for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) have been searched for the last twenty years, with no fully success so far. As this is considered around the world the last barrier to spread the hydrogen economy for universities and science institutions to the normal life of people, we at NovoCell decided six years ago to develop and test all key aspects that can help making it by a 'Low Cost, Feasible and Reliable Production Process'. The present work is a demonstration of the results we achieved, the main characteristics of the prototypes produced from the lines and that will be the base for our commercial operation starting next year. (author)

  7. Low cost PEMFC generator manufacturing line. The competitiveness and trustability strategy

    Ferreira, Valdemar Stelita; Souza, Adler de; Ferreira, Mauricio S. [NovoCell Energy Systems S.A., Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil)], Email: valdemar.stelita@novocell.ind.br; Muschellack, Erich [Idee Technologies Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Concepts of Lean Manufacturing Lines for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) have been searched for the last twenty years, with no fully success so far. As this is considered around the world the last barrier to spread the hydrogen economy for universities and science institutions to the normal life of people, we at NovoCell decided six years ago to develop and test all key aspects that can help making it by a 'Low Cost, Feasible and Reliable Production Process'. The present work is a demonstration of the results we achieved, the main characteristics of the prototypes produced from the lines and that will be the base for our commercial operation starting next year. (author)

  8. Evidence for methane in orion KL: A search for the 4.6 Gigahertz line

    Wilson, T.L.; Snyder, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive search for the J = 11 E(2)-E(1) transition of interstellar methane (CH 4 ) has resulted in a peak upper limit which is much less than the value reported by Fox and Jennings in 1978. When combined with the negative results reported by Ellder et al. in 1980, these data rule out the detection of CH 4 in Orion KL previously claimed by Fox and Jennings

  9. Evidence for methane in Orion KL - a search for the 4.6 gigahertz line

    Wilson, T.L.; Snyder, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive search for J = 11 E(2)-E(1) transition of interstellar methane (CH4) has resulted in a peak upper limit which is much less than the value reported by Fox and Jennings (1978). When combined with the negative results reported by Ellder et al. (1980), these data rule out the detection of CH4 in Orion KL previously claimed by Fox and Jennings. 7 references

  10. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.

    Abel Barrios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7  populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL, ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines, was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08 and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions, winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m. Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall.

  11. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    Barrios, A.; Aparicio, T.; Rodríguez, M.J.; Pérez de la Vega, M.; Caminero, C.

    2016-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris) is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing) on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta) was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7 populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL), ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines) and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines), was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08) and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions), winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m). Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall. (Author)

  12. Intelligent energy allocation strategy for PHEV charging station using gravitational search algorithm

    Rahman, Imran; Vasant, Pandian M.; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M.

    2014-10-01

    Recent researches towards the use of green technologies to reduce pollution and increase penetration of renewable energy sources in the transportation sector are gaining popularity. The development of the smart grid environment focusing on PHEVs may also heal some of the prevailing grid problems by enabling the implementation of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) concept. Intelligent energy management is an important issue which has already drawn much attention to researchers. Most of these works require formulation of mathematical models which extensively use computational intelligence-based optimization techniques to solve many technical problems. Higher penetration of PHEVs require adequate charging infrastructure as well as smart charging strategies. We used Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) to intelligently allocate energy to the PHEVs considering constraints such as energy price, remaining battery capacity, and remaining charging time.

  13. An High Resolution Near-Earth Objects Population Enabling Next-Generation Search Strategies

    Tricaico, Pasquale; Beshore, E. C.; Larson, S. M.; Boattini, A.; Williams, G. V.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the dedicated search for kilometer-size near-Earth objects (NEOs), potentially hazardous objects (PHOs), and potential Earth impactors has led to a boost in the rate of discoveries of these objects. The catalog of known NEOs is the fundamental ingredient used to develop a model for the NEOs population, either by assessing and correcting for the observational bias (Jedicke et al., 2002), or by evaluating the migration rates from the NEOs source regions (Bottke et al., 2002). The modeled NEOs population is a necessary tool used to track the progress in the search of large NEOs (Jedicke et al., 2003) and to try to predict the distribution of the ones still undiscovered, as well as to study the sky distribution of potential Earth impactors (Chesley & Spahr, 2004). We present a method to model the NEOs population in all six orbital elements, on a finely grained grid, allowing us the design and test of targeted and optimized search strategies. This method relies on the observational data routinely reported to the Minor Planet Center (MPC) by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and by other active NEO surveys over the past decade, to determine on a nightly basis the efficiency in detecting moving objects as a function of observable quantities including apparent magnitude, rate of motion, airmass, and galactic latitude. The cumulative detection probability is then be computed for objects within a small range in orbital elements and absolute magnitude, and the comparison with the number of know NEOs within the same range allows us to model the population. When propagated to the present epoch and projected on the sky plane, this provides the distribution of the missing large NEOs, PHOs, and potential impactors.

  14. Reduction rules-based search algorithm for opportunistic replacement strategy of multiple life-limited parts

    Xuyun FU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic replacement of multiple Life-Limited Parts (LLPs is a problem widely existing in industry. The replacement strategy of LLPs has a great impact on the total maintenance cost to a lot of equipment. This article focuses on finding a quick and effective algorithm for this problem. To improve the algorithm efficiency, six reduction rules are suggested from the perspectives of solution feasibility, determination of the replacement of LLPs, determination of the maintenance occasion and solution optimality. Based on these six reduction rules, a search algorithm is proposed. This search algorithm can identify one or several optimal solutions. A numerical experiment shows that these six reduction rules are effective, and the time consumed by the algorithm is less than 38 s if the total life of equipment is shorter than 55000 and the number of LLPs is less than 11. A specific case shows that the algorithm can obtain optimal solutions which are much better than the result of the traditional method in 10 s, and it can provide support for determining to-be-replaced LLPs when determining the maintenance workscope of an aircraft engine. Therefore, the algorithm is applicable to engineering applications concerning opportunistic replacement of multiple LLPs in aircraft engines.

  15. Group search optimiser-based optimal bidding strategies with no Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions

    Yadav, Naresh Kumar; Kumar, Mukesh; Gupta, S. K.

    2017-03-01

    General strategic bidding procedure has been formulated in the literature as a bi-level searching problem, in which the offer curve tends to minimise the market clearing function and to maximise the profit. Computationally, this is complex and hence, the researchers have adopted Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) optimality conditions to transform the model into a single-level maximisation problem. However, the profit maximisation problem with KKT optimality conditions poses great challenge to the classical optimisation algorithms. The problem has become more complex after the inclusion of transmission constraints. This paper simplifies the profit maximisation problem as a minimisation function, in which the transmission constraints, the operating limits and the ISO market clearing functions are considered with no KKT optimality conditions. The derived function is solved using group search optimiser (GSO), a robust population-based optimisation algorithm. Experimental investigation is carried out on IEEE 14 as well as IEEE 30 bus systems and the performance is compared against differential evolution-based strategic bidding, genetic algorithm-based strategic bidding and particle swarm optimisation-based strategic bidding methods. The simulation results demonstrate that the obtained profit maximisation through GSO-based bidding strategies is higher than the other three methods.

  16. Optimization of refueling-shuffling scheme in PWR core by random search strategy

    Wu Yuan

    1991-11-01

    A random method for simulating optimization of refueling management in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) core is described. The main purpose of the optimization was to select the 'best' refueling arrangement scheme which would produce maximum economic benefits under certain imposed conditions. To fulfill this goal, an effective optimization strategy, two-stage random search method was developed. First, the search was made in a manner similar to the stratified sampling technique. A local optimum can be reached by comparison of the successive results. Then the other random experiences would be carried on between different strata to try to find the global optimum. In general, it can be used as a practical tool for conventional fuel management scheme. However, it can also be used in studies on optimization of Low-Leakage fuel management. Some calculations were done for a typical PWR core on a CYBER-180/830 computer. The results show that the method proposed can obtain satisfactory approach at reasonable low computational cost

  17. Climate change on the Colorado River: a method to search for robust management strategies

    Keefe, R.; Fischbach, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Colorado River is a principal source of water for the seven Basin States, providing approximately 16.5 maf per year to users in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Though the dynamics of the river ensure Upper Basin users a reliable supply of water, the three Lower Basin states (California, Nevada, and Arizona) are in danger of delivery interruptions as Upper Basin demand increases and climate change threatens to reduce future streamflows. In light of the recent drought and uncertain effects of climate change on Colorado River flows, we evaluate the performance of a suite of policies modeled after the shortage sharing agreement adopted in December 2007 by the Department of the Interior. We build on the current literature by using a simplified model of the Lower Colorado River to consider future streamflow scenarios given climate change uncertainty. We also generate different scenarios of parametric consumptive use growth in the Upper Basin and evaluate alternate management strategies in light of these uncertainties. Uncertainty associated with climate change is represented with a multi-model ensemble from the literature, using a nearest neighbor perturbation to increase the size of the ensemble. We use Robust Decision Making to compare near-term or long-term management strategies across an ensemble of plausible future scenarios with the goal of identifying one or more approaches that are robust to alternate assumptions about the future. This method entails using search algorithms to quantitatively identify vulnerabilities that may threaten a given strategy (including the current operating policy) and characterize key tradeoffs between strategies under different scenarios.

  18. Mate choice and the evolutionary stability of a fixed threshold in a sequential search strategy

    Raymond Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sequential search strategy is a prominent model of searcher behavior, derived as a rule by which females might sample and choose a mate from a distribution of prospective partners. The strategy involves a threshold criterion against which prospective mates are evaluated. The optimal threshold depends on the attributes of prospective mates, which are likely to vary across generations or within the lifetime of searchers due to stochastic environmental events. The extent of this variability and the cost to acquire information on the distribution of the quality of prospective mates determine whether a learned or environmentally canalized threshold is likely to be favored. In this paper, we determine conditions on cross-generational perturbations of the distribution of male phenotypes that allow for the evolutionary stability of an environmentally canalized threshold. In particular, we derive conditions under which there is a genetically determined threshold that is optimal over an evolutionary time scale in comparison to any other unlearned threshold. These considerations also reveal a simple algorithm by which the threshold could be learned.

  19. Lévy-taxis: a novel search strategy for finding odor plumes in turbulent flow-dominated environments

    Pasternak, Zohar; Bartumeus, Frederic; Grasso, Frank W.

    2009-10-01

    Locating chemical plumes in aquatic or terrestrial environments is important for many economic, conservation, security and health related human activities. The localization process is composed mainly of two phases: finding the chemical plume and then tracking it to its source. Plume tracking has been the subject of considerable study whereas plume finding has received little attention. We address here the latter issue, where the searching agent must find the plume in a region often many times larger than the plume and devoid of the relevant chemical cues. The probability of detecting the plume not only depends on the movements of the searching agent but also on the fluid mechanical regime, shaping plume intermittency in space and time; this is a basic, general problem when exploring for ephemeral resources (e.g. moving and/or concealing targets). Here we present a bio-inspired search strategy named Lévy-taxis that, under certain conditions, located odor plumes significantly faster and with a better success rate than other search strategies such as Lévy walks (LW), correlated random walks (CRW) and systematic zig-zag. These results are based on computer simulations which contain, for the first time ever, digitalized real-world water flow and chemical plume instead of their theoretical model approximations. Combining elements of LW and CRW, Lévy-taxis is particularly efficient for searching in flow-dominated environments: it adaptively controls the stochastic search pattern using environmental information (i.e. flow) that is available throughout the course of the search and shows correlation with the source providing the cues. This strategy finds natural application in real-world search missions, both by humans and autonomous robots, since it accomodates the stochastic nature of chemical mixing in turbulent flows. In addition, it may prove useful in the field of behavioral ecology, explaining and predicting the movement patterns of various animals searching for

  20. Levy-taxis: a novel search strategy for finding odor plumes in turbulent flow-dominated environments

    Pasternak, Zohar; Grasso, Frank W; Bartumeus, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Locating chemical plumes in aquatic or terrestrial environments is important for many economic, conservation, security and health related human activities. The localization process is composed mainly of two phases: finding the chemical plume and then tracking it to its source. Plume tracking has been the subject of considerable study whereas plume finding has received little attention. We address here the latter issue, where the searching agent must find the plume in a region often many times larger than the plume and devoid of the relevant chemical cues. The probability of detecting the plume not only depends on the movements of the searching agent but also on the fluid mechanical regime, shaping plume intermittency in space and time; this is a basic, general problem when exploring for ephemeral resources (e.g. moving and/or concealing targets). Here we present a bio-inspired search strategy named Levy-taxis that, under certain conditions, located odor plumes significantly faster and with a better success rate than other search strategies such as Levy walks (LW), correlated random walks (CRW) and systematic zig-zag. These results are based on computer simulations which contain, for the first time ever, digitalized real-world water flow and chemical plume instead of their theoretical model approximations. Combining elements of LW and CRW, Levy-taxis is particularly efficient for searching in flow-dominated environments: it adaptively controls the stochastic search pattern using environmental information (i.e. flow) that is available throughout the course of the search and shows correlation with the source providing the cues. This strategy finds natural application in real-world search missions, both by humans and autonomous robots, since it accommodates the stochastic nature of chemical mixing in turbulent flows. In addition, it may prove useful in the field of behavioral ecology, explaining and predicting the movement patterns of various animals searching for food

  1. Levy-taxis: a novel search strategy for finding odor plumes in turbulent flow-dominated environments

    Pasternak, Zohar; Grasso, Frank W [BioMimetic and Cognitive Robotics Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College, The City University of New York, 2900 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn 11210, NY (United States); Bartumeus, Frederic [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Princeton Environmental Institute, 106 Guyot Hall, Princeton University, Princeton 08544, NJ (United States)], E-mail: zpast@yahoo.com

    2009-10-30

    Locating chemical plumes in aquatic or terrestrial environments is important for many economic, conservation, security and health related human activities. The localization process is composed mainly of two phases: finding the chemical plume and then tracking it to its source. Plume tracking has been the subject of considerable study whereas plume finding has received little attention. We address here the latter issue, where the searching agent must find the plume in a region often many times larger than the plume and devoid of the relevant chemical cues. The probability of detecting the plume not only depends on the movements of the searching agent but also on the fluid mechanical regime, shaping plume intermittency in space and time; this is a basic, general problem when exploring for ephemeral resources (e.g. moving and/or concealing targets). Here we present a bio-inspired search strategy named Levy-taxis that, under certain conditions, located odor plumes significantly faster and with a better success rate than other search strategies such as Levy walks (LW), correlated random walks (CRW) and systematic zig-zag. These results are based on computer simulations which contain, for the first time ever, digitalized real-world water flow and chemical plume instead of their theoretical model approximations. Combining elements of LW and CRW, Levy-taxis is particularly efficient for searching in flow-dominated environments: it adaptively controls the stochastic search pattern using environmental information (i.e. flow) that is available throughout the course of the search and shows correlation with the source providing the cues. This strategy finds natural application in real-world search missions, both by humans and autonomous robots, since it accommodates the stochastic nature of chemical mixing in turbulent flows. In addition, it may prove useful in the field of behavioral ecology, explaining and predicting the movement patterns of various animals searching for food

  2. Identifying nurse staffing research in Medline: development and testing of empirically derived search strategies with the PubMed interface.

    Simon, Michael; Hausner, Elke; Klaus, Susan F; Dunton, Nancy E

    2010-08-23

    The identification of health services research in databases such as PubMed/Medline is a cumbersome task. This task becomes even more difficult if the field of interest involves the use of diverse methods and data sources, as is the case with nurse staffing research. This type of research investigates the association between nurse staffing parameters and nursing and patient outcomes. A comprehensively developed search strategy may help identify nurse staffing research in PubMed/Medline. A set of relevant references in PubMed/Medline was identified by means of three systematic reviews. This development set was used to detect candidate free-text and MeSH terms. The frequency of these terms was compared to a random sample from PubMed/Medline in order to identify terms specific to nurse staffing research, which were then used to develop a sensitive, precise and balanced search strategy. To determine their precision, the newly developed search strategies were tested against a) the pool of relevant references extracted from the systematic reviews, b) a reference set identified from an electronic journal screening, and c) a sample from PubMed/Medline. Finally, all newly developed strategies were compared to PubMed's Health Services Research Queries (PubMed's HSR Queries). The sensitivities of the newly developed search strategies were almost 100% in all of the three test sets applied; precision ranged from 6.1% to 32.0%. PubMed's HSR queries were less sensitive (83.3% to 88.2%) than the new search strategies. Only minor differences in precision were found (5.0% to 32.0%). As with other literature on health services research, nurse staffing studies are difficult to identify in PubMed/Medline. Depending on the purpose of the search, researchers can choose between high sensitivity and retrieval of a large number of references or high precision, i.e. and an increased risk of missing relevant references, respectively. More standardized terminology (e.g. by consistent use of the

  3. EUV mask defect inspection and defect review strategies for EUV pilot line and high volume manufacturing

    Chan, Y. David; Rastegar, Abbas; Yun, Henry; Putna, E. Steve; Wurm, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    Reducing mask blank and patterned mask defects is the number one challenge for extreme ultraviolet lithography. If the industry succeeds in reducing mask blank defects at the required rate of 10X every year for the next 2-3 years to meet high volume manufacturing defect requirements, new inspection and review tool capabilities will soon be needed to support this goal. This paper outlines the defect inspection and review tool technical requirements and suggests development plans to achieve pilot line readiness in 2011/12 and high volume manufacturing readiness in 2013. The technical specifications, tooling scenarios, and development plans were produced by a SEMATECH-led technical working group with broad industry participation from material suppliers, tool suppliers, mask houses, integrated device manufacturers, and consortia. The paper summarizes this technical working group's assessment of existing blank and mask inspection/review infrastructure capabilities to support pilot line introduction and outlines infrastructure development requirements and tooling strategies to support high volume manufacturing.

  4. BATSE gamma-ray burst line search. 2: Bayesian consistency methodology

    Band, D. L.; Ford, L. A.; Matteson, J. L.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.; Preece, R.; Palmer, D.; Teegarden, B.; Schaefer, B.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian methodology to evaluate the consistency between the reported Ginga and Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detections of absorption features in gamma-ray burst spectra. Currently no features have been detected by BATSE, but this methodology will still be applicable if and when such features are discovered. The Bayesian methodology permits the comparison of hypotheses regarding the two detectors' observations and makes explicit the subjective aspects of our analysis (e.g., the quantification of our confidence in detector performance). We also present non-Bayesian consistency statistics. Based on preliminary calculations of line detectability, we find that both the Bayesian and non-Bayesian techniques show that the BATSE and Ginga observations are consistent given our understanding of these detectors.

  5. Mobilizing First-Line Managers as Organizational Strategy Makers: The Case of Environmentally Sustainable Operations

    Gjøsæter, Åge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate how first-line managers are mobilized as organizational strategy makers. The research case is a campaign launched by a Norwegian shipping company servicing the petroleum industry. The strategic idea on which the campaign was based was to operate the company`s fleet of offshore service vessels in an environmentally sustainable way, to be realized by carrying out fuel-saving operations on board the vessels. A strategic idea is supposed to set out a vie...

  6. Search strategies for Higgs Bosons at high energy e+e/sup /minus// colliders

    Alexander, J.; Burke, D.L.; Jung, C.K.; Komamiya, S.; Burchat, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    We have used detailed Monte Carlo simulations to study search strategies for Higgs bosons at high energy e + e/sup /minus// colliders. We extend an earlier study of the minimal single-Higgs-doublet model at a center-of-mass energy of 1 TeV to examine the effects of b-quark tagging and jet counting. It is found that these techniques can increase the signal-to-noise ratio substantially in the mass range around the W mass. In addition, we have studied this model at a center-of-mass energy of 400 GeV and found that an e + e/sup /minus// collider in this region would be sensitive to a Higgs boson with mass up to twice the Z/degree/ mass. We have also considered a nonminimal two-doublet model for the Higgs sector by extending a study of charged Higgs boson searches to include a mass very close to the mass of the W/sup +-/. We demonstrate that techniques which include b-quark tagging can be utilized to extract a significant signal. In addition, we have examined the prospects for detecting nonminimal neutral Higgs bosons at 1 TeV. We conclude that it would be possible to detect the CP-even and CP-odd neutral Higgs bosons when they are pair-produced in e + e/sup /minus// annihilation over a limited mass range. However, in some scenarios of supersymmetry, the charged Higgs boson constitutes a significant background to the CP-odd and the more massive CP-even neutral Higgs boson. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Similarity Digest Search: A Survey and Comparative Analysis of Strategies to Perform Known File Filtering Using Approximate Matching

    Vitor Hugo Galhardo Moia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital forensics is a branch of Computer Science aiming at investigating and analyzing electronic devices in the search for crime evidence. There are several ways to perform this search. Known File Filter (KFF is one of them, where a list of interest objects is used to reduce/separate data for analysis. Holding a database of hashes of such objects, the examiner performs lookups for matches against the target device. However, due to limitations over hash functions (inability to detect similar objects, new methods have been designed, called approximate matching. This sort of function has interesting characteristics for KFF investigations but suffers mainly from high costs when dealing with huge data sets, as the search is usually done by brute force. To mitigate this problem, strategies have been developed to better perform lookups. In this paper, we present the state of the art of similarity digest search strategies, along with a detailed comparison involving several aspects, as time complexity, memory requirement, and search precision. Our results show that none of the approaches address at least these main aspects. Finally, we discuss future directions and present requirements for a new strategy aiming to fulfill current limitations.

  8. Pricing methods and strategies in the cruise line industry : A case study on Carnival Corporation's premium and luxury brands

    Bengtsson, Ruby

    2014-01-01

    This research paper investigates the factors affecting pricing strategies and models within the cruise line industry. The kind of pricing models that can contribute to the development of pricing strategies and processes within the industry is also being investigated. The first and the latter are both this research’ purposes and are important topic for both academic and managerial perspective. The paper uses Carnival Corporation’s two distinct brands, the premium Holland America Line and the u...

  9. Hiding and Searching Strategies of Adult Humans in a Virtual and a Real-Space Room

    Talbot, Katherine J.; Legge, Eric L. G.; Bulitko, Vadim; Spetch, Marcia L.

    2009-01-01

    Adults searched for or cached three objects in nine hiding locations in a virtual room or a real-space room. In both rooms, the locations selected by participants differed systematically between searching and hiding. Specifically, participants moved farther from origin and dispersed their choices more when hiding objects than when searching for…

  10. A Content Analysis of Strategies and Tactics Observed among MLIS Students in an Online Searching Course

    Ondrusek, Anita L.; Ren, Xiaoai; Yang, Changwoo

    2017-01-01

    Online searching is a skill that all professional programs educating librarians consider an essential part of their curricula. However, investigations of online searching behavior have centered almost exclusively on end users, and there have been no recent formal studies that explore the online searching behaviors of MLIS students. In this study,…

  11. Use of Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies in Online Search: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Zhou, Mingming; Ren, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking technology to track students' eye movements while searching information on the web. The research question guiding this study was "Do students with different search performance levels have different visual attention distributions while searching information online? If yes, what are the patterns for high and low…

  12. Preservation of biological information in thermal spring deposits - Developing a strategy for the search for fossil life on Mars

    Walter, M. R.; Des Marais, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Paleobiological experience on earth is used here to develop a search strategy for fossil life on Mars. In particular, the exploration of thermal spring deposits is proposed as a way to maximize the chance of finding fossil life on Mars. As a basis for this suggestion, the characteristics of thermal springs are discussed in some detail.

  13. Integration of first-principles methods and crystallographic database searches for new ferroelectrics: Strategies and explorations

    Bennett, Joseph W.; Rabe, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    In this concept paper, the development of strategies for the integration of first-principles methods with crystallographic database mining for the discovery and design of novel ferroelectric materials is discussed, drawing on the results and experience derived from exploratory investigations on three different systems: (1) the double perovskite Sr(Sb 1/2 Mn 1/2 )O 3 as a candidate semiconducting ferroelectric; (2) polar derivatives of schafarzikite MSb 2 O 4 ; and (3) ferroelectric semiconductors with formula M 2 P 2 (S,Se) 6 . A variety of avenues for further research and investigation are suggested, including automated structure type classification, low-symmetry improper ferroelectrics, and high-throughput first-principles searches for additional representatives of structural families with desirable functional properties. - Graphical abstract: Integration of first-principles methods with crystallographic database mining, for the discovery and design of novel ferroelectric materials, could potentially lead to new classes of multifunctional materials. Highlights: ► Integration of first-principles methods and database mining. ► Minor structural families with desirable functional properties. ► Survey of polar entries in the Inorganic Crystal Structural Database.

  14. Closing the Wedge: Search Strategies for Extended Higgs Sectors with Heavy Flavor Final States

    Gori, Stefania; Shah, Nausheen R.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2016-01-01

    We consider search strategies for an extended Higgs sector at the high-luminosity LHC14 utilizing multi-top final states. In the framework of a Two Higgs Doublet Model, the purely top final states ($t\\bar t, \\, 4t$) are important channels for heavy Higgs bosons with masses in the wedge above $2\\,m_t$ and at low values of $\\tan\\beta$, while a $2 b 2t$ final state is most relevant at moderate values of $\\tan \\beta$. We find, in the $t\\bar t H$ channel, with $H \\rightarrow t \\bar t$, that both single and 3 lepton final states can provide statistically significant constraints at low values of $\\tan \\beta$ for $m_A$ as high as $\\sim 750$ GeV. When systematics on the $t \\bar t$ background are taken into account, however, the 3 lepton final state is more powerful, though the precise constraint depends fairly sensitively on lepton fake rates. We also find that neither $2b2t$ nor $t \\bar t$ final states provide constraints on additional heavy Higgs bosons with couplings to tops smaller than the top Yukawa due to expec...

  15. Prediction of shot success for basketball free throws: visual search strategy.

    Uchida, Yusuke; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Honda, Masaaki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    In ball games, players have to pay close attention to visual information in order to predict the movements of both the opponents and the ball. Previous studies have indicated that players primarily utilise cues concerning the ball and opponents' body motion. The information acquired must be effective for observing players to select the subsequent action. The present study evaluated the effects of changes in the video replay speed on the spatial visual search strategy and ability to predict free throw success. We compared eye movements made while observing a basketball free throw by novices and experienced basketball players. Correct response rates were close to chance (50%) at all video speeds for the novices. The correct response rate of experienced players was significantly above chance (and significantly above that of the novices) at the normal speed, but was not different from chance at both slow and fast speeds. Experienced players gazed more on the lower part of the player's body when viewing a normal speed video than the novices. The players likely detected critical visual information to predict shot success by properly moving their gaze according to the shooter's movements. This pattern did not change when the video speed was decreased, but changed when it was increased. These findings suggest that temporal information is important for predicting action outcomes and that such outcomes are sensitive to video speed.

  16. Response Time, Visual Search Strategy, and Anticipatory Skills in Volleyball Players

    Alessandro Piras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed at comparing expert and novice volleyball players in a visuomotor task using realistic stimuli. Videos of a volleyball setter performing offensive action were presented to participants, while their eye movements were recorded by a head-mounted video based eye tracker. Participants were asked to foresee the direction (forward or backward of the setter’s toss by pressing one of two keys. Key-press response time, response accuracy, and gaze behaviour were measured from the first frame showing the setter’s hand-ball contact to the button pressed by the participants. Experts were faster and more accurate in predicting the direction of the setting than novices, showing accurate predictions when they used a search strategy involving fewer fixations of longer duration, as well as spending less time in fixating all display areas from which they extract critical information for the judgment. These results are consistent with the view that superior performance in experts is due to their ability to efficiently encode domain-specific information that is relevant to the task.

  17. LINES

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  18. Operation management of daily economic dispatch using novel hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm with hybrid mutation strategy

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Song; Ji, Zhicheng

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm based on hybrid mutation strategy (HGSAPSO-M) to optimize economic dispatch (ED) including distributed generations (DGs) considering market-based energy pricing. A daily ED model was formulated and a hybrid mutation strategy was adopted in HGSAPSO-M. The hybrid mutation strategy includes two mutation operators, chaotic mutation, Gaussian mutation. The proposed algorithm was tested on IEEE-33 bus and results show that the approach is effective for this problem.

  19. The Search for Suitable Strategy: Threat-Based and Capabilities-Based Strategies in a Complex World

    2016-05-26

    the 1973 Arab-Israeli War show that the true path to suitable strategy is a measure of forethought and theoretical planning exercises to shape habits ...is a measure of forethought and theoretical planning exercises to shape habits of thought and identify risks or shortcomings inherent in a chosen...political direction to the military instrument of power , while military strategy links military means to those 22 Oxford Dictionaries, s.v. “Strategy

  20. Three-dimensional high-precision indoor positioning strategy using Tabu search based on visible light communication

    Peng, Qi; Guan, Weipeng; Wu, Yuxiang; Cai, Ye; Xie, Canyu; Wang, Pengfei

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3-D) high-precision indoor positioning strategy using Tabu search based on visible light communication. Tabu search is a powerful global optimization algorithm, and the 3-D indoor positioning can be transformed into an optimal solution problem. Therefore, in the 3-D indoor positioning, the optimal receiver coordinate can be obtained by the Tabu search algorithm. For all we know, this is the first time the Tabu search algorithm is applied to visible light positioning. Each light-emitting diode (LED) in the system broadcasts a unique identity (ID) and transmits the ID information. When the receiver detects optical signals with ID information from different LEDs, using the global optimization of the Tabu search algorithm, the 3-D high-precision indoor positioning can be realized when the fitness value meets certain conditions. Simulation results show that the average positioning error is 0.79 cm, and the maximum error is 5.88 cm. The extended experiment of trajectory tracking also shows that 95.05% positioning errors are below 1.428 cm. It can be concluded from the data that the 3-D indoor positioning based on the Tabu search algorithm achieves the requirements of centimeter level indoor positioning. The algorithm used in indoor positioning is very effective and practical and is superior to other existing methods for visible light indoor positioning.

  1. Random searching

    Shlesinger, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    There are a wide variety of searching problems from molecules seeking receptor sites to predators seeking prey. The optimal search strategy can depend on constraints on time, energy, supplies or other variables. We discuss a number of cases and especially remark on the usefulness of Levy walk search patterns when the targets of the search are scarce.

  2. Two-objective on-line optimization of supervisory control strategy

    Nassif, N.; Kajl, S.; Sabourin, R. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    The set points of supervisory control strategy are optimized with respect to energy use and thermal comfort for existing HVAC systems. The set point values of zone temperatures, supply duct static pressure, and supply air temperature are the problem variables, while energy use and thermal comfort are the objective functions. The HVAC system model includes all the individual component models developed and validated against the monitored data of an existing VAV system. It serves to calculate energy use during the optimization process, whereas the actual energy use is determined by using monitoring data and the appropriate validated component models. A comparison, done for one summer week, of actual and optimal energy use shows that the on-line implementation of a genetic algorithm optimization program to determine the optimal set points of supervisory control strategy could save energy by 19.5%, while satisfying the minimum zone airflow rates and the thermal comfort. The results also indicate that the application of the two-objective optimization problem can help control daily energy use or daily building thermal comfort, thus saving more energy than the application of the one-objective optimization problem. (Author)

  3. Search strategies to identify diagnostic accuracy studies in MEDLINE and EMBASE

    Beynon, Rebecca; Leeflang, Mariska M. G.; McDonald, Steve; Eisinga, Anne; Mitchell, Ruth L.; Whiting, Penny; Glanville, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic and extensive search for as many eligible studies as possible is essential in any systematic review. When searching for diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) studies in bibliographic databases, it is recommended that terms for disease (target condition) are combined with terms for the

  4. More than Just Finding Color: Strategy in Global Visual Search Is Shaped by Learned Target Probabilities

    Williams, Carrick C.; Pollatsek, Alexander; Cave, Kyle R.; Stroud, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    In 2 experiments, eye movements were examined during searches in which elements were grouped into four 9-item clusters. The target (a red or blue "T") was known in advance, and each cluster contained different numbers of target-color elements. Rather than color composition of a cluster invariantly guiding the order of search though…

  5. Search Strategy Development in a Flipped Library Classroom: A Student-Focused Assessment

    Goates, Michael C.; Nelson, Gregory M.; Frost, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Librarians at Brigham Young University compared search statement development between traditional lecture and flipped instruction sessions. Students in lecture sessions scored significantly higher on developing search statements than those in flipped sessions. However, student evaluations show a strong preference for pedagogies that incorporate…

  6. Managing search strategies for open innovation : the role of environmental munificence as well as internal and external R&D

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Firms compete increasingly in an open innovation environment. Search strategies for external knowledge become therefore crucial for firm success. Existing research differentiates between the breadth (diversity) and depth (intensity) with which firms pursue external knowledge source. A consensus exists that resource constrains force firms to balance both dimensions. However, relatively little is known on how managers can selectively strengthen one of these dimensions. We argue conceptually tha...

  7. A highly sensitive search strategy for clinical trials in Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) was developed.

    Manríquez, Juan J

    2008-04-01

    Systematic reviews should include as many articles as possible. However, many systematic reviews use only databases with high English language content as sources of trials. Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) is an underused source of trials, and there is not a validated strategy for searching clinical trials to be used in this database. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive search strategy for clinical trials in LILACS. An analytical survey was performed. Several single and multiple-term search strategies were tested for their ability to retrieve clinical trials in LILACS. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each single and multiple-term strategy were calculated using the results of a hand-search of 44 Chilean journals as gold standard. After combining the most sensitive, specific, and accurate single and multiple-term search strategy, a strategy with a sensitivity of 97.75% (95% confidence interval [CI]=95.98-99.53) and a specificity of 61.85 (95% CI=61.19-62.51) was obtained. LILACS is a source of trials that could improve systematic reviews. A new highly sensitive search strategy for clinical trials in LILACS has been developed. It is hoped this search strategy will improve and increase the utilization of LILACS in future systematic reviews.

  8. the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. II. Framework, strategy, and first result

    Wright, J. T.; Griffith, R. L.; Sigurdsson, S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Povich, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768 (United States); Mullan, B. [Blue Marble Space Institution of Science, P.O. Box 85561, Seattle, WA 98145-1561 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We describe the framework and strategy of the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies, which will use the wide-field infrared surveys of WISE and Spitzer to search for these civilizations' waste heat. We develop a formalism for translating mid-infrared photometry into quantitative upper limits on extraterrestrial energy supplies. We discuss the likely sources of false positives, how dust can and will contaminate our search, and prospects for distinguishing dust from alien waste heat. We argue that galaxy-spanning civilizations may be easier to distinguish from natural sources than circumstellar civilizations (i.e., Dyson spheres), although GAIA will significantly improve our capability to identify the latter. We present a zeroth order null result of our search based on the WISE all-sky catalog: we show, for the first time, that Kardashev Type III civilizations (as Kardashev originally defined them) are very rare in the local universe. More sophisticated searches can extend our methodology to smaller waste heat luminosities, and potentially entirely rule out (or detect) both Kardashev Type III civilizations and new physics that allows for unlimited 'free' energy generation.

  9. the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. II. Framework, strategy, and first result

    Wright, J. T.; Griffith, R. L.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.; Mullan, B.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the framework and strategy of the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies, which will use the wide-field infrared surveys of WISE and Spitzer to search for these civilizations' waste heat. We develop a formalism for translating mid-infrared photometry into quantitative upper limits on extraterrestrial energy supplies. We discuss the likely sources of false positives, how dust can and will contaminate our search, and prospects for distinguishing dust from alien waste heat. We argue that galaxy-spanning civilizations may be easier to distinguish from natural sources than circumstellar civilizations (i.e., Dyson spheres), although GAIA will significantly improve our capability to identify the latter. We present a zeroth order null result of our search based on the WISE all-sky catalog: we show, for the first time, that Kardashev Type III civilizations (as Kardashev originally defined them) are very rare in the local universe. More sophisticated searches can extend our methodology to smaller waste heat luminosities, and potentially entirely rule out (or detect) both Kardashev Type III civilizations and new physics that allows for unlimited 'free' energy generation.

  10. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies. II. Framework, Strategy, and First Result

    Wright, J. T.; Griffith, R. L.; Sigurdsson, S.; Povich, M. S.; Mullan, B.

    2014-09-01

    We describe the framework and strategy of the Ĝ infrared search for extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies, which will use the wide-field infrared surveys of WISE and Spitzer to search for these civilizations' waste heat. We develop a formalism for translating mid-infrared photometry into quantitative upper limits on extraterrestrial energy supplies. We discuss the likely sources of false positives, how dust can and will contaminate our search, and prospects for distinguishing dust from alien waste heat. We argue that galaxy-spanning civilizations may be easier to distinguish from natural sources than circumstellar civilizations (i.e., Dyson spheres), although GAIA will significantly improve our capability to identify the latter. We present a zeroth order null result of our search based on the WISE all-sky catalog: we show, for the first time, that Kardashev Type III civilizations (as Kardashev originally defined them) are very rare in the local universe. More sophisticated searches can extend our methodology to smaller waste heat luminosities, and potentially entirely rule out (or detect) both Kardashev Type III civilizations and new physics that allows for unlimited "free" energy generation.

  11. Protocol: a systematic review of studies developing and/or evaluating search strategies to identify prognosis studies.

    Corp, Nadia; Jordan, Joanne L; Hayden, Jill A; Irvin, Emma; Parker, Robin; Smith, Andrea; van der Windt, Danielle A

    2017-04-20

    Prognosis research is on the rise, its importance recognised because chronic health conditions and diseases are increasingly common and costly. Prognosis systematic reviews are needed to collate and synthesise these research findings, especially to help inform effective clinical decision-making and healthcare policy. A detailed, comprehensive search strategy is central to any systematic review. However, within prognosis research, this is challenging due to poor reporting and inconsistent use of available indexing terms in electronic databases. Whilst many published search filters exist for finding clinical trials, this is not the case for prognosis studies. This systematic review aims to identify and compare existing methodological filters developed and evaluated to identify prognosis studies of any of the three main types: overall prognosis, prognostic factors, and prognostic [risk prediction] models. Primary studies reporting the development and/or evaluation of methodological search filters to retrieve any type of prognosis study will be included in this systematic review. Multiple electronic bibliographic databases will be searched, grey literature will be sought from relevant organisations and websites, experts will be contacted, and citation tracking of key papers and reference list checking of all included papers will be undertaken. Titles will be screened by one person, and abstracts and full articles will be reviewed for inclusion independently by two reviewers. Data extraction and quality assessment will also be undertaken independently by two reviewers with disagreements resolved by discussion or by a third reviewer if necessary. Filters' characteristics and performance metrics reported in the included studies will be extracted and tabulated. To enable comparisons, filters will be grouped according to database, platform, type of prognosis study, and type of filter for which it was intended. This systematic review will identify all existing validated

  12. Honeybees (Apis mellifera exhibit flexible visual search strategies for vertical targets presented at various heights [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/51p

    Linde Morawetz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When honeybees are presented with a colour discrimination task, they tend to choose swiftly and accurately when objects are presented in the ventral part of their frontal visual field. In contrast, poor performance is observed when objects appear in the dorsal part. Here we investigate if this asymmetry is caused by fixed search patterns or if bees can increase their detection ability of objects in search scenarios when targets appear frequently or exclusively in the dorsal area of the visual field. We trained individual honeybees to choose an orange rewarded target among blue distractors. Target and distractors were presented in the ventral visual field, the dorsal field or both. Bees presented with targets in the ventral visual field consistently had the highest search efficiency, with rapid decisions, high accuracy and direct flight paths. In contrast, search performance for dorsally located targets was inaccurate and slow at the beginning of the experimental phase, but bees increased their search performance significantly after a few foraging bouts: they found the target faster, made fewer errors and flew in a straight line towards the target. However, bees needed thrice as long to improve the search for a dorsally located target when the target’s position changed randomly between the ventral and the dorsal visual field. We propose that honeybees form expectations of the location of the target’s appearance and adapt their search strategy accordingly. A variety of possible mechanisms underlying this behavioural adaptation, for example spatial attention, are discussed.

  13. International strategies for growth : monetizing gas reserves to add value to the bottom line

    Mihaichuk, G.

    1998-01-01

    The direction taken by oil and gas companies, including TransCanada International, in their strategy for growth in global energy markets was discussed. The role that gas plays in meeting the objectives was examined and the different ways in which gas reserves and investments in the gas sector are being turned into high-performing vehicles for adding value to the bottom line were described. Deregulation of, and competition within, the gas and electric power industries are the driving factors for changes within the energy industries. Natural gas will be a winner because it is the first choice for new power generation. Many companies have entered the international playing field to take advantage of the opportunities in international markets. The problems and solutions to monetizing natural gas reserves, some of the international political issues such as regulatory uncertainty, cross-border disputes, lack of regional integration, and sanctions, and how these adverse effects may be mitigated through mergers, acquisitions, or joint ventures, are explored. 14 figs

  14. Inability to acquire spatial information and deploy spatial search strategies in mice with lesions in dorsomedial striatum.

    Pooters, Tine; Gantois, Ilse; Vermaercke, Ben; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2016-02-01

    Dorsal striatum has been shown to contribute to spatial learning and memory, but the role of striatal subregions in this important aspect of cognitive functioning remains unclear. Moreover, the spatial-cognitive mechanisms that underlie the involvement of these regions in spatial navigation have scarcely been studied. We therefore compared spatial learning and memory performance in mice with lesions in dorsomedial (DMS) and dorsolateral striatum (DLS) using the hidden-platform version of the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Compared to sham-operated controls, animals with DMS damage were impaired during MWM acquisition training. These mice displayed delayed spatial learning, increased thigmotaxis, and increased search distance to the platform, in the absence of major motor dysfunction, working memory defects or changes in anxiety or exploration. They failed to show a preference for the target quadrant during probe trials, which further indicates that spatial reference memory was impaired in these animals. Search strategy analysis moreover demonstrated that DMS-lesioned mice were unable to deploy cognitively advanced spatial search strategies. Conversely, MWM performance was barely affected in animals with lesions in DLS. In conclusion, our results indicate that DMS and DLS display differential functional involvement in spatial learning and memory. Our results show that DMS, but not DLS, is crucial for the ability of mice to acquire spatial information and their subsequent deployment of spatial search strategies. These data clearly identify DMS as a crucial brain structure for spatial learning and memory, which could explain the occurrence of neurocognitive impairments in brain disorders that affect the dorsal striatum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. SMM observations of gamma-ray transients. 2: A search for gamma-ray lines between 400 and 600 keV from the Crab Nebula

    Harris, Michael J.; Share, Gerald H.; Leising, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    We have search spectra obtained by the Solar Maximum Mission Gamma-Ray Spectrometer during 1981-1988 for evidence of transient gamma-ray lines from the Crab Nebula which have been reported by previous experiments at energies 400-460 keV and 539 keV. We find no evidence for significant emission in any of these lines on time scales between aproximately 1 day and approximately 1 yr. Our 3 sigma upper limits on the transient flux during 1 d intervals are approximately equal to 2.2 x 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s for narrow lines at any energy, and approximately equal to 2.9 x 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s for the 539 keV line if it is as broad as 42 keV Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). We also searched our data during the approximately 5 hr period on 1981 June 6 during which Owens, Myers, & Thompson (1985) reported a strong line at 405 keV. We detected no line down to a 3 upper sigma limit of 3.3 x 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s in disagreement with the flux 7.2 +/- 2.1 x 10(exp -3) photos/sq cm/s measured by Owens et al.

  16. Looking for trouble: a description of oculomotor search strategies during live CCTV operation

    Stainer, Matthew J.; Scott-Brown, Kenneth C.; Tatler, Benjamin W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has begun to address how CCTV operators in the modern control room attempt to search for crime (e.g., Howard et al., 2011). However, an often-neglected element of the CCTV task is that the operators have at their disposal a multiplexed wall of scenes, and a single spot-monitor on which they can select any of these feeds for inspection. Here we examined how 2 trained CCTV operators used these sources of information to search from crime during a morning, afternoon, and night-tim...

  17. Neural Activity Associated with Visual Search for Line Drawings on AAC Displays: An Exploration of the Use of fMRI.

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Dennis, Nancy A; Webb, Christina E; Therrien, Mari; Stradtman, Megan; Farmer, Jacquelyn; Leach, Raevynn; Warrenfeltz, Megan; Zeuner, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Visual aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) consists of books or technologies that contain visual symbols to supplement spoken language. A common observation concerning some forms of aided AAC is that message preparation can be frustratingly slow. We explored the uses of fMRI to examine the neural correlates of visual search for line drawings on AAC displays in 18 college students under two experimental conditions. Under one condition, the location of the icons remained stable and participants were able to learn the spatial layout of the display. Under the other condition, constant shuffling of the locations of the icons prevented participants from learning the layout, impeding rapid search. Brain activation was contrasted under these conditions. Rapid search in the stable display was associated with greater activation of cortical and subcortical regions associated with memory, motor learning, and dorsal visual pathways compared to the search in the unpredictable display. Rapid search for line drawings on stable AAC displays involves not just the conceptual knowledge of the symbol meaning but also the integration of motor, memory, and visual-spatial knowledge about the display layout. Further research must study individuals who use AAC, as well as the functional effect of interventions that promote knowledge about array layout.

  18. Identification of risk conditions for the development of adrenal disorders: how optimized PubMed search strategies makes the difference.

    Guaraldi, Federica; Parasiliti-Caprino, Mirko; Goggi, Riccardo; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Grottoli, Silvia; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghizzoni, Lucia; Ghigo, Ezio; Giordano, Roberta; Gori, Davide

    2014-12-01

    The exponential growth of scientific literature available through electronic databases (namely PubMed) has increased the chance of finding interesting articles. At the same time, search has become more complicated, time consuming, and at risk of missing important information. Therefore, optimized strategies have to be adopted to maximize searching impact. The aim of this study was to formulate efficient strings to search PubMed for etiologic associations between adrenal disorders (ADs) and other conditions. A comprehensive list of terms identifying endogenous conditions primarily affecting adrenals was compiled. An ad hoc analysis was performed to find the best way to express each term in order to find the highest number of potentially pertinent articles in PubMed. A predefined number of retrieved abstracts were read to assess their association with ADs' etiology. A more sensitive (providing the largest literature coverage) and a more specific (including only those terms retrieving >40 % of potentially pertinent articles) string were formulated. Various researches were performed to assess strings' ability to identify articles of interest in comparison with non-optimized literature searches. We formulated optimized, ready applicable tools for the identification of the literature assessing etiologic associations in the field of ADs using PubMed, and demonstrated the advantages deriving from their application. Detailed description of the methodological process is also provided, so that this work can easily be translated to other fields of practice.

  19. Information Retrieval Strategies of Millennial Undergraduate Students in Web and Library Database Searches

    Porter, Brandi

    2009-01-01

    Millennial students make up a large portion of undergraduate students attending colleges and universities, and they have a variety of online resources available to them to complete academically related information searches, primarily Web based and library-based online information retrieval systems. The content, ease of use, and required search…

  20. Children’s information retrieval: beyond examining search strategies and interfaces

    Jochmann-Mannak, Hanna; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Sanders, T.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The study of children’s information retrieval is still for the greater part untouched territory. Meanwhile, children can become lost in the digital information world, because they are confronted with search interfaces, both designed by and for adults. Most current research on children’s information

  1. Hybrid Multiple Soft-Sensor Models of Grinding Granularity Based on Cuckoo Searching Algorithm and Hysteresis Switching Strategy

    Jie-Sheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of grinding process and accuracy requirements of technical indicators, a hybrid multiple soft-sensor modeling method of grinding granularity is proposed based on cuckoo searching (CS algorithm and hysteresis switching (HS strategy. Firstly, a mechanism soft-sensor model of grinding granularity is deduced based on the technique characteristics and a lot of experimental data of grinding process. Meanwhile, the BP neural network soft-sensor model and wavelet neural network (WNN soft-sensor model are set up. Then, the hybrid multiple soft-sensor model based on the hysteresis switching strategy is realized. That is to say, the optimum model is selected as the current predictive model according to the switching performance index at each sampling instant. Finally the cuckoo searching algorithm is adopted to optimize the performance parameters of hysteresis switching strategy. Simulation results show that the proposed model has better generalization results and prediction precision, which can satisfy the real-time control requirements of grinding classification process.

  2. Radiotherapy Planning Using an Improved Search Strategy in Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Modiri, Arezoo; Gu, Xuejun; Hagan, Aaron M; Sawant, Amit

    2017-05-01

    Evolutionary stochastic global optimization algorithms are widely used in large-scale, nonconvex problems. However, enhancing the search efficiency and repeatability of these techniques often requires well-customized approaches. This study investigates one such approach. We use particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to solve a 4D radiation therapy (RT) inverse planning problem, where the key idea is to use respiratory motion as an additional degree of freedom in lung cancer RT. The primary goal is to administer a lethal dose to the tumor target while sparing surrounding healthy tissue. Our optimization iteratively adjusts radiation fluence-weights for all beam apertures across all respiratory phases. We implement three PSO-based approaches: conventionally used unconstrained, hard-constrained, and our proposed virtual search. As proof of concept, five lung cancer patient cases are optimized over ten runs using each PSO approach. For comparison, a dynamically penalized likelihood (DPL) algorithm-a popular RT optimization technique is also implemented and used. The proposed technique significantly improves the robustness to random initialization while requiring fewer iteration cycles to converge across all cases. DPL manages to find the global optimum in 2 out of 5 RT cases over significantly more iterations. The proposed virtual search approach boosts the swarm search efficiency, and consequently, improves the optimization convergence rate and robustness for PSO. RT planning is a large-scale, nonconvex optimization problem, where finding optimal solutions in a clinically practical time is critical. Our proposed approach can potentially improve the optimization efficiency in similar time-sensitive problems.

  3. Intermittent random walks for an optimal search strategy: one-dimensional case

    Oshanin, G; Wio, H S; Lindenberg, K; Burlatsky, S F

    2007-01-01

    We study the search kinetics of an immobile target by a concentration of randomly moving searchers. The object of the study is to optimize the probability of detection within the constraints of our model. The target is hidden on a one-dimensional lattice in the sense that searchers have no a priori information about where it is, and may detect it only upon encounter. The searchers perform random walks in discrete time n = 0,1,2,...,N, where N is the maximal time the search process is allowed to run. With probability α the searchers step on a nearest-neighbour, and with probability (1-α) they leave the lattice and stay off until they land back on the lattice at a fixed distance L away from the departure point. The random walk is thus intermittent. We calculate the probability P N that the target remains undetected up to the maximal search time N, and seek to minimize this probability. We find that P N is a non-monotonic function of α, and show that there is an optimal choice α opt (N) of α well within the intermittent regime, 0 opt (N) N can be orders of magnitude smaller compared to the 'pure' random walk cases α = 0 and α = 1

  4. Millennial Students’ Online Search Strategies are Associated With Their Mental Models of Search. A Review of: Holman, L. (2011. Millennial students’ mental models of search: Implications for academic librarians and database developers. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 37(1, 19-27. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2010.10.003

    Leslie Bussert

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To examine first-year college students’ information seeking behaviours and determine whether their mental models of the search process influence their ability to effectively search for and find scholarly materials.Design – Mixed methods including contextual inquiry, concept mapping, observation, and interviews.Setting – University of Baltimore, a public institution in Maryland, United States of America, offering undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees.Subjects – A total of 21 first-year undergraduate students, ages 16 to 19 years, undertaking research assignments for which they chose to use online resources.Methods – First-year students were recruited in the fall of 2008 and met with the researcher in a university usability lab for about one hour over a three week period. The researcher observed and videotaped the students as they conducted research in their chosen search engines or article databases. The searches were captured using software, and students were encouraged to think aloud about their research process, search strategies, and anticipated search results. Observation sessions concluded with a 10-question interview incorporating a review of the keywords the student used, the student’s reflection on the success of his or her searches, and possible alternate keywords. The interview also offered prompts to help the researcher learn about students’ conceptualizations of search tools’ utilization of keywords to generate results. The researcher then asked the students to provide a visual diagram of the relationship between their search terms and the items retrieved in the search tool.Data were analyzed by identifying the 21 different search tools used by the students and categorizing all 210 searches and student diagrams for further analysis. A scheme similar to Guinee, Eagleton, and Hall’s (2003 characterized the student searches into four categories: simple single-term searches, topic plus focus

  5. Commissioning of the CMS muon detector and development of generic search strategies for new physics

    Biallass, Philipp Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The detection and reconstruction of cosmic muon rays is important for the commissioning phase and alignment of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS), in particular during the early phases of operation with physics collisions. In this context the Magnet Test/Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) with its comprehensive cosmic data taking periods including the presence of the magnetic field has been like a dress rehearsal of detector hardware and software for the upcoming start-up of the CMS detector. In addition to data taking also the comparison with simulated events is a crucial part of physics analyses. The first part of this thesis introduces a new cosmic muon generator, CMSCGEN, and it presents its validation by comparing its predictions with data from MTCC. As an example, results from a reconstruction study using the barrel muon system are shown, comparing data and Monte Carlo prediction at the level of single chambers up to reconstructed tracks including momentum measurements. Since leptons (electrons, muons) constitute very clean signatures for signals of new physics these commissioning and alignment procedures are also vital to most physics analyses. In the second part of this thesis a model independent search approach for new physics within CMS is presented, utilizing events with leptons and relying only on the knowledge of the Standard Model simulation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the detector and the tuning of the event generators. Due to the absence of a theoretical bias this approach is sensitive to a variety of models, including those not yet thought of. Within this feasibility study events are classified according to their particle content (muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing energy) into so called event classes. A broad scan of various distributions is performed, identifying significant deviations from the SM Monte Carlo simulation. The importance of systematic uncertainties is outlined, which are taken into account rigorously

  6. Commissioning of the CMS muon detector and development of generic search strategies for new physics

    Biallass, Philipp Alexander

    2009-03-27

    The detection and reconstruction of cosmic muon rays is important for the commissioning phase and alignment of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS), in particular during the early phases of operation with physics collisions. In this context the Magnet Test/Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) with its comprehensive cosmic data taking periods including the presence of the magnetic field has been like a dress rehearsal of detector hardware and software for the upcoming start-up of the CMS detector. In addition to data taking also the comparison with simulated events is a crucial part of physics analyses. The first part of this thesis introduces a new cosmic muon generator, CMSCGEN, and it presents its validation by comparing its predictions with data from MTCC. As an example, results from a reconstruction study using the barrel muon system are shown, comparing data and Monte Carlo prediction at the level of single chambers up to reconstructed tracks including momentum measurements. Since leptons (electrons, muons) constitute very clean signatures for signals of new physics these commissioning and alignment procedures are also vital to most physics analyses. In the second part of this thesis a model independent search approach for new physics within CMS is presented, utilizing events with leptons and relying only on the knowledge of the Standard Model simulation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the detector and the tuning of the event generators. Due to the absence of a theoretical bias this approach is sensitive to a variety of models, including those not yet thought of. Within this feasibility study events are classified according to their particle content (muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing energy) into so called event classes. A broad scan of various distributions is performed, identifying significant deviations from the SM Monte Carlo simulation. The importance of systematic uncertainties is outlined, which are taken into account rigorously

  7. Towards a new strategy of searching for QCD phase transition in heavy ion collisions

    Ploszajczak, M.; Shanenko, A.A.; Toneev, V.D.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    1995-01-01

    The Hung and Shuryak arguments are reconsidered in favour of searching for the deconfinement phase transition in heavy ion collisions downward from the nominal SPS energy, at E lab ∼ 30 GeV/A where the fireball lifetime is the longest one. Using the recent lattice QCD data and the mixed phase model, it is shown that the deconfinement transition might occur at the bombarding energies as low as E lab = 3-5 GeV/A. Attention is drawn to the study of the mixed phase of nuclear matter in the collision energy range E lab = 2-10 GeV/A. (author)

  8. The use of a genetic algorithm-based search strategy in geostatistics: application to a set of anisotropic piezometric head data

    Abedini, M. J.; Nasseri, M.; Burn, D. H.

    2012-04-01

    In any geostatistical study, an important consideration is the choice of an appropriate, repeatable, and objective search strategy that controls the nearby samples to be included in the location-specific estimation procedure. Almost all geostatistical software available in the market puts the onus on the user to supply search strategy parameters in a heuristic manner. These parameters are solely controlled by geographical coordinates that are defined for the entire area under study, and the user has no guidance as to how to choose these parameters. The main thesis of the current study is that the selection of search strategy parameters has to be driven by data—both the spatial coordinates and the sample values—and cannot be chosen beforehand. For this purpose, a genetic-algorithm-based ordinary kriging with moving neighborhood technique is proposed. The search capability of a genetic algorithm is exploited to search the feature space for appropriate, either local or global, search strategy parameters. Radius of circle/sphere and/or radii of standard or rotated ellipse/ellipsoid are considered as the decision variables to be optimized by GA. The superiority of GA-based ordinary kriging is demonstrated through application to the Wolfcamp Aquifer piezometric head data. Assessment of numerical results showed that definition of search strategy parameters based on both geographical coordinates and sample values improves cross-validation statistics when compared with that based on geographical coordinates alone. In the case of a variable search neighborhood for each estimation point, optimization of local search strategy parameters for an elliptical support domain—the orientation of which is dictated by anisotropic axes—via GA was able to capture the dynamics of piezometric head in west Texas/New Mexico in an efficient way.

  9. Building with Nature: in search of resilient storm surge protection strategies

    Slobbe, van E.J.J.; Vriend, de H.J.; Aarninkhof, S.G.J.; Lulofs, K.; Vries, de M.; Dircke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Low-lying, densely populated coastal areas worldwide are under threat, requiring coastal managers to develop new strategies to cope with land subsidence, sea-level rise and the increasing risk of storm-surge-induced floods. Traditional engineering approaches optimizing for safety are often

  10. Intermittent search strategies revisited: effect of the jump length and biased motion

    Rojo, F; Budde, C E [Fa.M.A.F., Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA Cordoba (Argentina); Revelli, J; Wio, H S [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Universidad de Cantabria and CSIC, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Oshanin, G [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Lindenberg, Katja [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and BioCircuits Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0340 (United States)

    2010-08-27

    We study the kinetics of a search of a single fixed target by a large number of searchers performing an intermittent biased random walk in a homogeneous medium. Our searchers carry out their walks in one of two states between which they switch randomly. One of these states (search phase) is a nearest-neighbor walk characterized by the probability of stepping in a given direction (i.e. the walks in this state are not necessarily isotropic). The other (relocation phase) is characterized by the length of the jumps (i.e. when in this state a walker does not perform a nearest-neighbor walk). Within such a framework, we propose a model to describe the searchers' dynamics, generalizing results of our previous work. We have obtained, and numerically evaluated, analytic results for the mean number of distinct sites visited up to a maximum evolution time. We have studied the dependence of this quantity on both the transition probability between the states and the parameters that characterize each state. In addition to our theoretical approach, we have implemented Monte Carlo simulations, finding excellent agreement between the theoretical-numerical and simulations results.

  11. Intermittent search strategies revisited: effect of the jump length and biased motion

    Rojo, F; Budde, C E; Revelli, J; Wio, H S; Oshanin, G; Lindenberg, Katja

    2010-01-01

    We study the kinetics of a search of a single fixed target by a large number of searchers performing an intermittent biased random walk in a homogeneous medium. Our searchers carry out their walks in one of two states between which they switch randomly. One of these states (search phase) is a nearest-neighbor walk characterized by the probability of stepping in a given direction (i.e. the walks in this state are not necessarily isotropic). The other (relocation phase) is characterized by the length of the jumps (i.e. when in this state a walker does not perform a nearest-neighbor walk). Within such a framework, we propose a model to describe the searchers' dynamics, generalizing results of our previous work. We have obtained, and numerically evaluated, analytic results for the mean number of distinct sites visited up to a maximum evolution time. We have studied the dependence of this quantity on both the transition probability between the states and the parameters that characterize each state. In addition to our theoretical approach, we have implemented Monte Carlo simulations, finding excellent agreement between the theoretical-numerical and simulations results.

  12. An adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for the pickup and delivery problem with time Windows and scheduled lines

    Ghilas, V.; Demir, E.; van Woensel, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows and Scheduled Lines (PDPTW-SL) concerns scheduling a set of vehicles to serve freight requests such that a part of the journey can be carried out on a scheduled public transportation line. Due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we

  13. PubMed search strategies for the identification of etiologic associations between hypothalamic-pituitary disorders and other medical conditions.

    Guaraldi, Federica; Grottoli, Silvia; Arvat, Emanuela; Mattioli, Stefano; Ghigo, Ezio; Gori, Davide

    2013-12-01

    Biomedical literature has enormously grown in the last decades and become broadly available through online databases. Ad-hoc search methods, created on the basis of research field and goals, are required to enhance the quality of searching. Aim of this study was to formulate efficient, evidence-based PubMed search strategies to retrieve articles assessing etiologic associations between a condition of interest and hypothalamic-pituitary disorders (HPD). Based on expert knowledge, 17 MeSH (Medical Subjects Headings) and 79 free terms related to HPD were identified to search PubMed. Using random samples of abstracts retrieved by each term, we estimated the proportion of articles containing pertinent information and formulated two strings (one more specific, one more sensitive) for the detection of articles focusing on the etiology of HPD, that were then applied to retrieve articles identifying possible etiologic associations between HPD and three diseases (malaria, LHON and celiac disease) considered not associated to HPD, and define the number of abstracts needed to read (NNR) to find one potentially pertinent article. We propose two strings: one sensitive string derived from the combination of articles providing the largest literature coverage in the field and one specific including combined terms retrieving ≥40% of potentially pertinent articles. NNR were 2.1 and 1.6 for malaria, 3.36 and 2.29 for celiac disease, 2.8 and 2.2 for LHON, respectively. For the first time, two reliable, readily applicable strings are proposed for the retrieval of medical literature assessing putative etiologic associations between HPD and other medical conditions of interest.

  14. Lessons Learned by Comparing On-line Education Strategies Across Disciplines

    Stephen H. Edwards

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When choosing how best to employ educational technologies for on-line learning, there is much to be gained by examining the experience of educators in other disciplines. This paper presents four brief case studies in the disciplines of computer science and social work. Lessons learned by comparing these diverse experiences are discussed, including creating a community of learners, supporting asynchronous student communication, using synchronous on-line meetings, and providing social support. In addition, the experiences presented indicate that stereotypes of student capabilities and expectations may often be inaccurate, and revising one's views may be helpful in achieving better results in on-line education.

  15. Distinguishing transient signals and instrumental disturbances in semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves with line-robust statistics

    Keitel, David

    2016-01-01

    Non-axisymmetries in rotating neutron stars emit quasi-monochromatic gravitational waves. These long-duration ‘continuous wave’ signals are among the main search targets of ground-based interferometric detectors. However, standard detection methods are susceptible to false alarms from instrumental artefacts that resemble a continuous-wave signal. Past work [Keitel, Prix, Papa, Leaci and Siddiqi 2014, Phys. Rev. D 89 064023] showed that a Bayesian approach, based on an explicit model of persistent single-detector disturbances, improves robustness against such artefacts. Since many strong outliers in semi-coherent searches of LIGO data are caused by transient disturbances that last only a few hours or days, I describe in a recent paper [Keitel D 2015, LIGO-P1500159] how to extend this approach to cover transient disturbances, and demonstrate increased sensitivity in realistic simulated data. Additionally, neutron stars could emit transient signals which, for a limited time, also follow the continuous-wave signal model. As a pragmatic alternative to specialized transient searches, I demonstrate how to make standard semi-coherent continuous-wave searches more sensitive to transient signals. Focusing on the time-scale of a single segment in the semi-coherent search, Bayesian model selection yields a simple detection statistic without a significant increase in computational cost. This proceedings contribution gives a brief overview of both works. (paper)

  16. Towards a new strategy of searching for QCD phase transition in heavy ion collisions

    Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Shanenko, A.A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Toneev, V.D. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)]|[Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    1995-12-31

    The Hung and Shuryak arguments are reconsidered in favour of searching for the deconfinement phase transition in heavy ion collisions downward from the nominal SPS energy, at E{sub lab} {approx} 30 GeV/A where the fireball lifetime is the longest one. Using the recent lattice QCD data and the mixed phase model, it is shown that the deconfinement transition might occur at the bombarding energies as low as E{sub lab} = 3-5 GeV/A. Attention is drawn to the study of the mixed phase of nuclear matter in the collision energy range E{sub lab} = 2-10 GeV/A. (author). 18 refs.

  17. Search for the best timing strategy in high-precision drift chambers

    Va'vra, J.

    1983-06-01

    Computer simulated drift chamber pulses are used to investigate various possible timing strategies in the drift chambers. In particular, the leading edge, the multiple threshold and the flash ADC timing methods are compared. Although the presented method is general for any drift geometry, we concentrate our discussion on the jet chambers where the drift velocity is about 3 to 5 cm/μsec and the individual ionization clusters are not resolved due to a finite speed of our electronics

  18. Turkey in Search of Relevant Foreign Policy Strategy (2002-2016

    Urmanov Dayan R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this article is to describe the process of Turkish foreign policy evolvement during the rule of Justice and Development party (JDP. From weak economy and unstable political situation in 2001, JDP quickly formulated a new strategy of foreign policy and stabilized economy. In the article the Turkish foreign policy in the 21st century is divided into several stages which respond to different international threats and circumstances. The first stage was a peacekeeping stage when Turkey tried to stabilize the situation near its borders and implement peace initiatives for the purpose to find new markets and allies. As a result, Turkey formulated a new strategy of foreign policy, called “Zero Problems Policy” which aimed to create a ring of friendly countries on the borders. On the second stage, Turkish foreign policy was more active – Turkey tried to balance among regional power centers and confront with one of the most powerful actors – Israel. Confrontation with Tel Aviv was a preface to the third stage, and today under the influence of “Arab Spring” and desire to change its role in international relations, Turkey refused “Zero Problems Policy” strategy and turned to a new aggressive and revanchist idea – neo- Ottomanism. Ankara tries to build a new regional set of rules where Turkey will play a leading role.

  19. Describing the on-line graduate science student: An examination of learning style, learning strategy, and motivation

    Spevak, Arlene J.

    Research in science education has presented investigations and findings related to the significance of particular learning variables. For example, the factors of learning style, learning strategy and motivational orientation have been shown to have considerable impact upon learning in a traditional classroom setting. Although these data have been somewhat generous for the face-to-face learning situation, this does not appear to be the case for distance education, particularly the Internet-based environment. The purpose of this study was to describe the on-line graduate science student, regarding the variables of learning style, learning strategy and motivational orientation. It was believed that by understanding the characteristics of adult science learners and by identifying their learning needs, Web course designers and science educators could create on-line learning programs that best utilized students' strengths in learning science. A case study method using a questionnaire, inventories, telephone interviews and documents was applied to nine graduate science students who participated for ten weeks in an asynchronous, exclusively Internet mediated graduate science course at a large, Northeastern university. Within-case and cross-case analysis indicated that these learners displayed several categories of learning styles as well as learning strategies. The students also demonstrated high levels of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and this, together with varying strategy use, may have compensated for any mismatch between their preferred learning styles and their learning environment. Recommendations include replicating this study in other online graduate science courses, administration of learning style and learning strategy inventories to perspective online graduate science students, incorporation of synchronous communication into on-line science courses, and implementation of appropriate technology that supports visual and kinesthetic learners. Although

  20. Sexual Orientation-Related Differences in Virtual Spatial Navigation and Spatial Search Strategies.

    Rahman, Qazi; Sharp, Jonathan; McVeigh, Meadhbh; Ho, Man-Ling

    2017-07-01

    Spatial abilities are generally hypothesized to differ between men and women, and people with different sexual orientations. According to the cross-sex shift hypothesis, gay men are hypothesized to perform in the direction of heterosexual women and lesbian women in the direction of heterosexual men on cognitive tests. This study investigated sexual orientation differences in spatial navigation and strategy during a virtual Morris water maze task (VMWM). Forty-four heterosexual men, 43 heterosexual women, 39 gay men, and 34 lesbian/bisexual women (aged 18-54 years) navigated a desktop VMWM and completed measures of intelligence, handedness, and childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). We quantified spatial learning (hidden platform trials), probe trial performance, and cued navigation (visible platform trials). Spatial strategies during hidden and probe trials were classified into visual scanning, landmark use, thigmotaxis/circling, and enfilading. In general, heterosexual men scored better than women and gay men on some spatial learning and probe trial measures and used more visual scan strategies. However, some differences disappeared after controlling for age and estimated IQ (e.g., in visual scanning heterosexual men differed from women but not gay men). Heterosexual women did not differ from lesbian/bisexual women. For both sexes, visual scanning predicted probe trial performance. More feminine CGN scores were associated with lower performance among men and greater performance among women on specific spatial learning or probe trial measures. These results provide mixed evidence for the cross-sex shift hypothesis of sexual orientation-related differences in spatial cognition.

  1. Integrated Optimization of Bus Line Fare and Operational Strategies Using Elastic Demand

    Chunyan Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization approach for designing a transit service system is proposed. Its objective would be the maximization of total social welfare, by providing a profitable fare structure and tailoring operational strategies to passenger demand. These operational strategies include full route operation (FRO, limited stop, short turn, and a mix of the latter two strategies. The demand function is formulated to reflect the attributes of these strategies, in-vehicle crowding, and fare effects on demand variation. The fare is either a flat fare or a differential fare structure; the latter is based on trip distance and achieved service levels. This proposed methodology is applied to a case study of Dalian, China. The optimal results indicate that an optimal combination of operational strategies integrated with a differential fare structure results in the highest potential for increasing total social welfare, if the value of parameter ε related to additional service fee is low. When this value increases up to more than a threshold, strategies with a flat fare show greater benefits. If this value increases beyond yet another threshold, the use of skipped stop strategies is not recommended.

  2. Rigorous Line-Based Transformation Model Using the Generalized Point Strategy for the Rectification of High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Kun Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High precision geometric rectification of High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI is the basis of digital mapping and Three-Dimensional (3D modeling. Taking advantage of line features as basic geometric control conditions instead of control points, the Line-Based Transformation Model (LBTM provides a practical and efficient way of image rectification. It is competent to build the mathematical relationship between image space and the corresponding object space accurately, while it reduces the workloads of ground control and feature recognition dramatically. Based on generalization and the analysis of existing LBTMs, a novel rigorous LBTM is proposed in this paper, which can further eliminate the geometric deformation caused by sensor inclination and terrain variation. This improved nonlinear LBTM is constructed based on a generalized point strategy and resolved by least squares overall adjustment. Geo-positioning accuracy experiments with IKONOS, GeoEye-1 and ZiYuan-3 satellite imagery are performed to compare rigorous LBTM with other relevant line-based and point-based transformation models. Both theoretic analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the rigorous LBTM is more accurate and reliable without adding extra ground control. The geo-positioning accuracy of satellite imagery rectified by rigorous LBTM can reach about one pixel with eight control lines and can be further improved by optimizing the horizontal and vertical distribution of control lines.

  3. Multiplicity of Mathematical Modeling Strategies to Search for Molecular and Cellular Insights into Bacteria Lung Infection.

    Cantone, Martina; Santos, Guido; Wentker, Pia; Lai, Xin; Vera, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Even today two bacterial lung infections, namely pneumonia and tuberculosis, are among the 10 most frequent causes of death worldwide. These infections still lack effective treatments in many developing countries and in immunocompromised populations like infants, elderly people and transplanted patients. The interaction between bacteria and the host is a complex system of interlinked intercellular and the intracellular processes, enriched in regulatory structures like positive and negative feedback loops. Severe pathological condition can emerge when the immune system of the host fails to neutralize the infection. This failure can result in systemic spreading of pathogens or overwhelming immune response followed by a systemic inflammatory response. Mathematical modeling is a promising tool to dissect the complexity underlying pathogenesis of bacterial lung infection at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels, and also at the interfaces among levels. In this article, we introduce mathematical and computational modeling frameworks that can be used for investigating molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying bacterial lung infection. Then, we compile and discuss published results on the modeling of regulatory pathways and cell populations relevant for lung infection and inflammation. Finally, we discuss how to make use of this multiplicity of modeling approaches to open new avenues in the search of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying bacterial infection in the lung.

  4. Multiphasic on/off pheromone signalling in moths as neural correlates of a search strategy.

    Dominique Martinez

    Full Text Available Insects and robots searching for odour sources in turbulent plumes face the same problem: the random nature of mixing causes fluctuations and intermittency in perception. Pheromone-tracking male moths appear to deal with discontinuous flows of information by surging upwind, upon sensing a pheromone patch, and casting crosswind, upon losing the plume. Using a combination of neurophysiological recordings, computational modelling and experiments with a cyborg, we propose a neuronal mechanism that promotes a behavioural switch between surge and casting. We show how multiphasic On/Off pheromone-sensitive neurons may guide action selection based on signalling presence or loss of the pheromone. A Hodgkin-Huxley-type neuron model with a small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK channel reproduces physiological On/Off responses. Using this model as a command neuron and the antennae of tethered moths as pheromone sensors, we demonstrate the efficiency of multiphasic patterning in driving a robotic searcher toward the source. Taken together, our results suggest that multiphasic On/Off responses may mediate olfactory navigation and that SK channels may account for these responses.

  5. Multiphasic on/off pheromone signalling in moths as neural correlates of a search strategy.

    Martinez, Dominique; Chaffiol, Antoine; Voges, Nicole; Gu, Yuqiao; Anton, Sylvia; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Lucas, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Insects and robots searching for odour sources in turbulent plumes face the same problem: the random nature of mixing causes fluctuations and intermittency in perception. Pheromone-tracking male moths appear to deal with discontinuous flows of information by surging upwind, upon sensing a pheromone patch, and casting crosswind, upon losing the plume. Using a combination of neurophysiological recordings, computational modelling and experiments with a cyborg, we propose a neuronal mechanism that promotes a behavioural switch between surge and casting. We show how multiphasic On/Off pheromone-sensitive neurons may guide action selection based on signalling presence or loss of the pheromone. A Hodgkin-Huxley-type neuron model with a small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel reproduces physiological On/Off responses. Using this model as a command neuron and the antennae of tethered moths as pheromone sensors, we demonstrate the efficiency of multiphasic patterning in driving a robotic searcher toward the source. Taken together, our results suggest that multiphasic On/Off responses may mediate olfactory navigation and that SK channels may account for these responses.

  6. A Critical Review of Search Strategies Used in Recent Systematic Reviews Published in Selected Prosthodontic and Implant-Related Journals: Are Systematic Reviews Actually Systematic?

    Layton, Danielle

    The aim of this study was to outline how search strategies can be systematic, to examine how the searches in recent systematic reviews in prosthodontic and implant-related journals were structured, and to determine whether the search strategies used in those articles were systematic. A total of 103 articles published as systematic reviews and indexed in Medline between January 2013 and May 2016 were identified from eight prosthodontic and implant journals and reviewed. The search strategies were considered systematic when they met the following criteria: (1) more than one electronic database was searched, (2) more than one searcher was clearly involved, (3) both text words and indexing terms were clearly included in the search strategy, (4) a hand search of selected journals or reference lists was undertaken, (5) gray research was specifically sought, and (6) the articles were published in English and at least one other language. The data were tallied and qualitatively assessed. The majority of articles reported on implants (54%), followed by tooth-supported fixed prosthodontics (13%). A total of 23 different electronic resources were consulted, including Medline (by 100% of articles), the Cochrane Library (52%), and Embase (37%). The majority consulted more than one electronic resource (71%), clearly included more than one searcher (73%), and employed a hand search of either selected journals or reference lists (86%). Less than half used both text words and indexing terms to identify articles (42%), while 15% actively sought gray research. Articles published in languages other than English were considered in 63 reviews, but only 14 had no language restrictions. Of the 103 articles, 5 completed search strategies that met all 6 criteria, and a further 12 met 5 criteria. Two articles did not fulfill any of the criteria. More than 95% of recent prosthodontic and implant review articles published in the selected journals failed to use search strategies that were

  7. Patterns of HIV-1 drug resistance after first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure in 6 sub-Saharan African countries: implications for second-line ART strategies.

    Hamers, Raph L; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Wensing, Annemarie M; Wallis, Carole L; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Stevens, Wendy S; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Schuurman, Rob

    2012-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance may limit the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cohort study examined patterns of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in individuals with virological failure on first-line ART at 13 clinical sites in 6 African countries and predicted their impact on second-line drug susceptibility. A total of 2588 antiretroviral-naive individuals initiated ART consisting of different nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbones (zidovudine, stavudine, tenofovir, or abacavir, plus lamivudine or emtricitabine) with either efavirenz or nevirapine. Population sequencing after 12 months of ART was retrospectively performed if HIV RNA was >1000 copies/mL. The 2010 International Antiviral Society-USA list was used to score major DRMs. The Stanford algorithm was used to predict drug susceptibility. HIV-1 sequences were generated for 142 participants who virologically failed ART, of whom 70% carried ≥1 DRM and 49% had dual-class resistance, with an average of 2.4 DRMs per sequence (range, 1-8). The most common DRMs were M184V (53.5%), K103N (28.9%), Y181C (15.5%), and G190A (14.1%). Thymidine analogue mutations were present in 8.5%. K65R was frequently selected by stavudine (15.0%) or tenofovir (27.7%). Among participants with ≥1 DRM, HIV-1 susceptibility was reduced in 93% for efavirenz/nevirapine, in 81% for lamivudine/emtricitabine, in 59% for etravirine/rilpivirine, in 27% for tenofovir, in 18% for stavudine, and in 10% for zidovudine. Early failure detection limited the accumulation of resistance. After stavudine failure in African populations, zidovudine rather than tenofovir may be preferred in second-line ART. Strategies to prevent HIV-1 resistance are a global priority.

  8. Cognitive biases and heuristics in medical decision making: a critical review using a systematic search strategy.

    Blumenthal-Barby, J S; Krieger, Heather

    2015-05-01

    The role of cognitive biases and heuristics in medical decision making is of growing interest. The purpose of this study was to determine whether studies on cognitive biases and heuristics in medical decision making are based on actual or hypothetical decisions and are conducted with populations that are representative of those who typically make the medical decision; to categorize the types of cognitive biases and heuristics found and whether they are found in patients or in medical personnel; and to critically review the studies based on standard methodological quality criteria. Data sources were original, peer-reviewed, empirical studies on cognitive biases and heuristics in medical decision making found in Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, and the CINAHL databases published in 1980-2013. Predefined exclusion criteria were used to identify 213 studies. During data extraction, information was collected on type of bias or heuristic studied, respondent population, decision type, study type (actual or hypothetical), study method, and study conclusion. Of the 213 studies analyzed, 164 (77%) were based on hypothetical vignettes, and 175 (82%) were conducted with representative populations. Nineteen types of cognitive biases and heuristics were found. Only 34% of studies (n = 73) investigated medical personnel, and 68% (n = 145) confirmed the presence of a bias or heuristic. Each methodological quality criterion was satisfied by more than 50% of the studies, except for sample size and validated instruments/questions. Limitations are that existing terms were used to inform search terms, and study inclusion criteria focused strictly on decision making. Most of the studies on biases and heuristics in medical decision making are based on hypothetical vignettes, raising concerns about applicability of these findings to actual decision making. Biases and heuristics have been underinvestigated in medical personnel compared with patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Enhancing Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Self-Adaptive Searching Strategy and Artificial Immune Network Operators for Global Optimization

    Tinggui Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm, inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, was proposed by Karaboga. It has been shown to be superior to some conventional intelligent algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA, artificial colony optimization (ACO, and particle swarm optimization (PSO. However, the ABC still has some limitations. For example, ABC can easily get trapped in the local optimum when handing in functions that have a narrow curving valley, a high eccentric ellipse, or complex multimodal functions. As a result, we proposed an enhanced ABC algorithm called EABC by introducing self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators to improve the exploitation and exploration. The simulation results tested on a suite of unimodal or multimodal benchmark functions illustrate that the EABC algorithm outperforms ACO, PSO, and the basic ABC in most of the experiments.

  10. Search Strategy of Detector Position For Neutron Source Multiplication Method by Using Detected-Neutron Multiplication Factor

    Endo, Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative definition of a neutron multiplication factor, detected-neutron multiplication factor kdet, is produced for the neutron source multiplication method..(NSM). By using kdet, a search strategy of appropriate detector position for NSM is also proposed. The NSM is one of the practical subcritical measurement techniques, i.e., the NSM does not require any special equipment other than a stationary external neutron source and an ordinary neutron detector. Additionally, the NSM method is based on steady-state analysis, so that this technique is very suitable for quasi real-time measurement. It is noted that the correction factors play important roles in order to accurately estimate subcriticality from the measured neutron count rates. The present paper aims to clarify how to correct the subcriticality measured by the NSM method, the physical meaning of the correction factors, and how to reduce the impact of correction factors by setting a neutron detector at an appropriate detector position

  11. Drawing a Line - Ethical and Political Strategies in Complex Emergency Assistance

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    1999-01-01

    markdownabstractABSTRACT Faced with massive crises in the 1990s, such as in Rwanda-Zaire, aid agencies have had to make ethical and strategic choices of great magnitude. One approach seeks to compare goods and bads from agencies’ involvement, and to specify a 'bottom line' beneath which bads

  12. Search strategy using LHC pileup interactions as a zero bias sample

    Nachman, Benjamin; Rubbo, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    Due to a limited bandwidth and a large proton-proton interaction cross section relative to the rate of interesting physics processes, most events produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are discarded in real time. A sophisticated trigger system must quickly decide which events should be kept and is very efficient for a broad range of processes. However, there are many processes that cannot be accommodated by this trigger system. Furthermore, there may be models of physics beyond the standard model (BSM) constructed after data taking that could have been triggered, but no trigger was implemented at run time. Both of these cases can be covered by exploiting pileup interactions as an effective zero bias sample. At the end of high-luminosity LHC operations, this zero bias dataset will have accumulated about 1 fb-1 of data from which a bottom line cross section limit of O (1 ) fb can be set for BSM models already in the literature and those yet to come.

  13. The Use of Copper Pesticides in Germany and the Search for Minimization and Replacement Strategies

    Stefan Kuehne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper pesticides used to control fungal and bacterial diseases such as grapes downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola, downy mildew of hops (Pseudoperonospora humili, apple scab (Venturia spp., fireblight (Erwinia amylovora and potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans, play an important role in plant protection. In a 2013 survey of copper application in Germany we found, that while the amounts of copper used per hectare in conventional grape (0.8 kg ha−1, hop (1.7 kg ha−1 and potato-farming (0.8 kg ha−1 were well below those used in organic farming (2.3, 2.6 and 1.4 kg ha−1, respectively, they were nearly identical to those used in apple growing (1.4 kg ha−1. Due to the smaller farming area, only 24% (26.5 tonnes of the total amount of copper was applied in organic farming compared to 76% (84.8 tonnes in conventional farming. Since 2001, the Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food (BLE promoted a copper research and minimization strategy which was funded with a total of C10.2 million. Our status quo analysis of research in this field shows that some progress is being made concerning alternative compounds, resistant varieties and decision support systems. However, it also shows that new approaches are not yet able to replace copper pesticides completely, especially in organic farming. In integrated pest management, copper preparations are important for the necessary active substance rotation and successful resistance management. The availability of such products is often essential for organic grapes, hops and fruit production and for extending the organic farming of these crops. We conclude that the complete elimination of copper pesticides is not yet practicable in organic farming as the production of several organic crops would become unprofitable and may lead to organic farmers reverting to conventional production. Several existing copper reduction strategies were, however, identified, and some, like modified forecast models adapted to

  14. A Flexible Load Control Strategy for Distribution Network to Reduce the Line Losses and to Eliminate the Transmission Congestion

    Beibei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many uncertain factors in the modern distribution network, including the access of renewable energy sources and the heavy load level. The existence of these factors has brought challenges to the stability of the power distribution network, as well as increasing the risk of exceeding transmission capacity of distribution lines. The appearance of flexible load control technology provides a new idea to solve the above problems. Air conditioners (ACs account for a great proportion of all loads. In this paper, the model of dispatching AC loads in the regional power grid is constructed, and the direct load control (DLC method is adopted to reduce the load of ACs. An improved tabu search technique is proposed to solve the problem of network dispatch in distribution systems in order to reduce the resistive line losses and to eliminate the transmission congestion in lines under normal operating conditions. The optimal node solution is obtained to find the best location and reduction capacity of ACs for load control. To demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method, a test system is studied. The numerical results are also given in this article, which reveal that the proposed method is promising.

  15. In vitro toxicity test and searching the possibility of cancer cell line extermination by magnetic heating with using Fe3O4 magnetic fluid

    Pham Hoai Linh; Nguyen Chi Thuan; Nguyen Anh Tuan; Pham Van Thach; Nguyen Xuan Phuc; Le Van Hong; Tran Cong Yen; Nguyen Thi Quy; Hoang Thi My Nhung; Phi Thi Xuyen

    2009-01-01

    A Fe 3 O 4 based magnetic fluid with different concentrations ranged between 0.15 ng/cell to 10 ng/cell (nano gram/cell) was used in the in vitro toxicity test on several cancer cell lines, Sarcoma 180, HeLa and H358. It shows that the fluid with a concentration of Fe 3 O 4 below 1.2 ng/cell is completely non-toxic for these cell lines. Even through in the presence of the highest concentration of 10 ng/cell, the cell viability still reaches more than 60%. The magnetic fluid with Fe 3 O 4 concentration of about 0.1 ng/cell was also used to search ex-vivo the possibility of Sarcoma 180 extermination by magnetic heating with an AC field of 120Oe and 184 KHz. The result shows that after a heat treatment for 30 min., 40% of Sarcoma 180 cells was killed.

  16. A Search Strategy of Level-Based Flooding for the Internet of Things

    Qiu, Tie; Ding, Yanhong; Xia, Feng; Ma, Honglian

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the query problem in the Internet of Things (IoT). Flooding is an important query strategy. However, original flooding is prone to cause heavy network loads. To address this problem, we propose a variant of flooding, called Level-Based Flooding (LBF). With LBF, the whole network is divided into several levels according to the distances (i.e., hops) between the sensor nodes and the sink node. The sink node knows the level information of each node. Query packets are broadcast in the network according to the levels of nodes. Upon receiving a query packet, sensor nodes decide how to process it according to the percentage of neighbors that have processed it. When the target node receives the query packet, it sends its data back to the sink node via random walk. We show by extensive simulations that the performance of LBF in terms of cost and latency is much better than that of original flooding, and LBF can be used in IoT of different scales. PMID:23112594

  17. Towards Improved Airborne Fire Detection Systems Using Beetle Inspired Infrared Detection and Fire Searching Strategies

    Herbert Bousack

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year forest fires cause severe financial losses in many countries of the world. Additionally, lives of humans as well as of countless animals are often lost. Due to global warming, the problem of wildfires is getting out of control; hence, the burning of thousands of hectares is obviously increasing. Most important, therefore, is the early detection of an emerging fire before its intensity becomes too high. More than ever, a need for early warning systems capable of detecting small fires from distances as large as possible exists. A look to nature shows that pyrophilous “fire beetles” of the genus Melanophila can be regarded as natural airborne fire detection systems because their larvae can only develop in the wood of fire-killed trees. There is evidence that Melanophila beetles can detect large fires from distances of more than 100 km by visual and infrared cues. In a biomimetic approach, a concept has been developed to use the surveying strategy of the “fire beetles” for the reliable detection of a smoke plume of a fire from large distances by means of a basal infrared emission zone. Future infrared sensors necessary for this ability are also inspired by the natural infrared receptors of Melanophila beetles.

  18. From Marx to Marcos - Search of the Subject and the Strategy of Revolution

    Ilya L. Morozov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the evolution of theories of social revolution from the mid-nineteenth to the late twentieth centuries. The author analyzes the basic concepts of theorists and practitioners of the armed revolutionary struggle – from the founder of the classical Communist theory of Karl Marx to the Mexican guerrilla leader Subcomandante Marcos. The author focuses on the analysis of changes in the understanding of the subject (“driving forces” of the left political revolution, as well as the strategy of armed revolutionary struggle. The author comes to the conclusion about the historical evolution of the subject of the revolutionary struggle from major sustainable macro-groups (“classes”, targeted at the armed struggle, to self-born (by the network principle unstructured protest groups, situational leaders, mild forms of the revolutionary struggle, which minimize the armed violence, though do not eliminate it completely. The author substantiates the conclusion about the absence in the modern protest movement of social forces, able to become the subject of revolution socialist orientation. This increases the danger of dominance of the social protest of extremist nationalist and religious political spectra. The author offers two models of response to this threat: the growing influence of the reigning centre-right conservative parties of Russia; return to center-left positions of the social democratic movement of the countries of the European Union.

  19. Searching out the hydrogen absorption/desorption limiting reaction factors: Strategies allowing to increase kinetics

    Zeaiter, Ali, E-mail: ali.zeaiter@femto-st.fr; Chapelle, David; Nardin, Philippe

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • A macro scale thermodynamic model that simulates the response of a FeTi-X hydride tank is performed, and validated experimentally. • A sensibility study to identify the most influent input variables that can changes very largely the reaction rate. - Abstract: Hydrogen gas has become one of the most promising energy carriers. Main breakthrough concerns hydrogen solid storage, specially based on intermetallic material use. Regarding the raw material abundance and cost, the AB type alloy FeTi is an auspicious candidate to store hydrogen. Its absorption/desorption kinetics is a basic hindrance to common use, compared with more usual hydrides. First, discussions based on literature help us identifying the successive steps leading to metal hydriding, and allow to introduce the physical parameters which drive or limit the reaction. This analysis leads us to suggest strategies in order to increase absorption/desorption kinetics. Attention is then paid to a thermofluidodynamic model, allowing to describe a macroscopic solid storage reactor. Thus, we can achieve a simulation which describes the overall reaction inside the hydrogen reactor and, by varying the sub-mentioned parameters (thermal conductivity, the powder granularity, environment heat exchange…), we attempt to hierarchy the reaction limiting factors. These simulations are correlated to absorption/desorption experiments for which pressure, temperature and hydrogen flow are recorded.

  20. STRATEGIES IN SEARCHING HOMOGENEITY IN A FACULTY OF A POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM.

    Cecatti, José G; Fernandes, Karayna G; Souza, Renato T; Silveira, Carla; Surita, Fernanda G

    2015-01-01

    The professor plays a fundamental role in a graduate program, considering he/she is who plans and performs a great part of the tasks, and he/she is also responsible for spreading knowledge among students. The professor should use didactical resources for his/her continuous qualification, being responsible for situations favoring the development of students who should learn according to the best and easier way. The homogeneity in the postgraduate program consists of having subgroups of research corresponding to the Areas of Concentration, where each subgroup works with some distinct topics of research. It is desirable that the staff of postgraduate program has a significant and high quality scientific production, homogeneously distributed among them. The professors must systematically search for resources for research in agencies supporting research, not only for sponsoring the studies, but also for adding value to the researchers involved in the whole activities. The postgraduate programs need to support the professional qualification of their staff who should improve their knowledge on epidemiology for clinical studies, ethics in research and teaching skills. Two characteristics of the postgraduate system in Brazil are the nucleation and solidarity, based on the capacity and/or interest of those more structured programs to help those beginners, cooperating with their activities. The Capes (the national governmental agency responsible for coordinating and evaluating all postgraduate programs in Brazil) valorizes the social insertion in the context of postgraduate programs´ activities. It includes the recognition of activities with technological, cultural, educational and social impact as criteria for evaluation of the programs. Does exist an ideal model of postgraduate program? We think that there is no a mathematical formulae nor an ideal model for a postgraduate program. Each institution should make adaptations and search for improvements of their faculty and

  1. In Search for Anti-Aging Strategy: Can We Rejuvenate Our Aging Stem Cells?

    Anna Meiliana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggested that we grow old partly because of our stem cells grow old as a result of mechanisms that suppress the development of cancer over a lifetime. We believe that a further, more precise mechanistic understanding of this process will be required before this knowledge can be translated into human anti-aging therapies. CONTENT: A diminished capacity to maintain tissue homeostasis is a central physiological characteristic of aging. As stem cells regulate tissue homeostasis, depletion of stem cell reserves and/or diminished stem cell function have been postulated to contribute to aging. It has further been suggested that accumulated DNA damage could be a principal mechanism underlying age-dependent stem cell decline. It is interesting that many of the rejuvenating interventions act on the stem cell compartments, perhaps reflecting shared genetic and biochemical pathways controlling stem cell function and longevity. Strategy to slow down the aging processes is based on caloric restriction refers to a dietary regimen low in calories but without undernutrition. Sirtuin (SIRT1 and 3, increases longevity by mimicking the beneficial effects of caloric restriction. SIRT3 regulates stress-responsive mitochondrial homeostasis, and more importantly, SIRT3 upregulation rejuvenates aged stem cells in tissues. Resveratrol (3,5,4’-trihydroxystilbene, a natural polyphenol found in grapes and wine, was the most powerful natural activator of SIRT1. In fact, resveratrol treatment has been demonstrated to rescue adult stem cell decline, slow down bodyweight loss, improve trabecular bone structure and mineral density, and significantly extend lifespan. SUMMARY: Tissue-specific stem cells persist throughout the entire lifespan to repair and maintain tissues, but their self-renewal and differentiation potential become dysregulated with aging. Given that adult stem cells are thought to be central to tissue maintenance and organismal

  2. Optimal Power Flow Using Gbest-Guided Cuckoo Search Algorithm with Feedback Control Strategy and Constraint Domination Rule

    Gonggui Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal power flow (OPF is well-known as a significant optimization tool for the security and economic operation of power system, and OPF problem is a complex nonlinear, nondifferentiable programming problem. Thus this paper proposes a Gbest-guided cuckoo search algorithm with the feedback control strategy and constraint domination rule which is named as FCGCS algorithm for solving OPF problem and getting optimal solution. This FCGCS algorithm is guided by the global best solution for strengthening exploitation ability. Feedback control strategy is devised to dynamically regulate the control parameters according to actual and specific feedback value in the simulation process. And the constraint domination rule can efficiently handle inequality constraints on state variables, which is superior to traditional penalty function method. The performance of FCGCS algorithm is tested and validated on the IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 57-bus example systems, and simulation results are compared with different methods obtained from other literatures recently. The comparison results indicate that FCGCS algorithm can provide high-quality feasible solutions for different OPF problems.

  3. Modelling sensory limitation: the role of tree selection, memory and information transfer in bats' roost searching strategies.

    Ruczyński, Ireneusz; Bartoń, Kamil A

    2012-01-01

    Sensory limitation plays an important role in the evolution of animal behaviour. Animals have to find objects of interest (e.g. food, shelters, predators). When sensory abilities are strongly limited, animals adjust their behaviour to maximize chances for success. Bats are nocturnal, live in complex environments, are capable of flight and must confront numerous perceptual challenges (e.g. limited sensory range, interfering clutter echoes). This makes them an excellent model for studying the role of compensating behaviours to decrease costs of finding resources. Cavity roosting bats are especially interesting because the availability of tree cavities is often limited, and their quality is vital for bats during the breeding season. From a bat's sensory point of view, cavities are difficult to detect and finding them requires time and energy. However, tree cavities are also long lasting, allowing information transfer among conspecifics. Here, we use a simple simulation model to explore the benefits of tree selection, memory and eavesdropping (compensation behaviours) to searches for tree cavities by bats with short and long perception range. Our model suggests that memory and correct discrimination of tree suitability are the basic strategies decreasing the cost of roost finding, whereas perceptual range plays a minor role in this process. Additionally, eavesdropping constitutes a buffer that reduces the costs of finding new resources (such as roosts), especially when they occur in low density. We conclude that natural selection may promote different strategies of roost finding in relation to habitat conditions and cognitive skills of animals.

  4. Modelling sensory limitation: the role of tree selection, memory and information transfer in bats' roost searching strategies.

    Ireneusz Ruczyński

    Full Text Available Sensory limitation plays an important role in the evolution of animal behaviour. Animals have to find objects of interest (e.g. food, shelters, predators. When sensory abilities are strongly limited, animals adjust their behaviour to maximize chances for success. Bats are nocturnal, live in complex environments, are capable of flight and must confront numerous perceptual challenges (e.g. limited sensory range, interfering clutter echoes. This makes them an excellent model for studying the role of compensating behaviours to decrease costs of finding resources. Cavity roosting bats are especially interesting because the availability of tree cavities is often limited, and their quality is vital for bats during the breeding season. From a bat's sensory point of view, cavities are difficult to detect and finding them requires time and energy. However, tree cavities are also long lasting, allowing information transfer among conspecifics. Here, we use a simple simulation model to explore the benefits of tree selection, memory and eavesdropping (compensation behaviours to searches for tree cavities by bats with short and long perception range. Our model suggests that memory and correct discrimination of tree suitability are the basic strategies decreasing the cost of roost finding, whereas perceptual range plays a minor role in this process. Additionally, eavesdropping constitutes a buffer that reduces the costs of finding new resources (such as roosts, especially when they occur in low density. We conclude that natural selection may promote different strategies of roost finding in relation to habitat conditions and cognitive skills of animals.

  5. SMM observations of gamma-ray transients. 3: A search for a broadened, redshifted positron annihilation line from the direction of the Galactic center

    Harris, Michael J.; Share, Gerald H.; Leising, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    We have searched for 1980-1988 Solar Maximum Mission gamma-ray spectrometer data for transient emission on timescales from hours to approximately 12 days of broad gamma-ray lines at energies approximately 400 keV, which were reported by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) 1 and SIGMA experiments from two sources lying toward the Galactic center. The lines have been interpreted as the product of the annihilation of positrons in pair plasmas surrounding the black hole candidate 1E 1740.7-2942 and the X-ray binary 1H 1822-371. Our results from a combined exposure of approximately 1.5 x 10(exp 7)s provide no convincing evidence for transient emission of this line on any timescale between approximately 9 hr and approximately 1 yr. Our 3 sigma upper limits on the line flux during approximately 12 day intervals are characteristically 4.8 x 10(exp -3) photon/sq cm/s, while for approximately 1 day intervals our 3 sigma upper limits are characteristically 4.9 x 10(exp -3) photon/sq cm/s. These results imply a duty cycle of less than 1.3% for the transient line measured from 1H 1822-371 during a approximately 3 week interval in 1977 by HEAO 1, and a duty cycle of less than or = 0.8% for the transient line detected in 1990 and 1992 from 1E 1740.7-2942 on approximately 1 day timescales by SIGMA.

  6. Autonomous Control Strategy of DC Microgrid for Islanding Mode Using Power Line Communication

    Dong-Keun Jeong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a DC-bus signaling (DBS method for autonomous power management in a DC microgrid, used to improve its reliability. Centralized power management systems require communication between the power sources and loads. However, the DBS method operates based on the common DC-bus voltage and does not require communication. Based on the DC-bus voltage band, the DC-bus voltage can be used to inform the status of the DC-bus in various scenarios. The DC microgrid operates independently to maintain the system stably in the DC-bus voltage band. The DC microgrid can be divided into a grid-connected mode and an islanding mode. This paper proposes a control strategy based on power management of various independent components in islanding mode. In addition, the autonomous control method for switching the converter’s operation between grid-connected mode and islanding mode is proposed. A DC microgrid test bed consisting of a grid-connected AC/DC converter, a bidirectional DC/DC converter, a renewable energy simulator, DC home appliances and a DC-bus protector is used to test the proposed control strategy. The proposed autonomous control strategy is experimentally verified using the DC microgrid test bed.

  7. Is the 130 GeV line real? A search for systematics in the Fermi-LAT data

    Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Su, Meng [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Weniger, Christoph, E-mail: dfinkbeiner@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mengsu@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: weniger@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2013-01-01

    Our recent claims of a Galactic center feature in Fermi-LAT data at approximately 130 GeV have motivated a large number of papers proposing explanations ranging from dark matter annihilation to monoenergetic pulsar winds. Because of the importance of such interpretations for physics and astrophysics, a discovery will require not only additional data, but a thorough investigation of possible LAT systematics. While we do not have access to the details of each event reconstruction, we do have information about each event from the public event lists and spacecraft parameter files. These data allow us to search for suspicious trends that could indicate a spurious signal. We consider several hypotheses that might make an instrumental artifact more apparent at the Galactic center, and find them implausible. We also search for an instrumental signature in the Earth limb photons, which provide a smooth reference spectrum for null tests. We find no significant 130 GeV feature in the Earth limb sample. However, we do find a marginally significant 130 GeV feature in Earth limb photons with a limited range of detector incidence angles. This raises concerns about the 130 GeV Galactic center feature, even though we can think of no plausible model of instrumental behavior that connects the two. A modest amount of additional limb data would tell us if the limb feature is a statistical fluke. If the limb feature persists, it would raise doubts about the Pass 7 processing of E > 100 GeV events. At present we find no instrumental systematics that could plausibly explain the excess Galactic center emission at 130 GeV.

  8. Search for γ -Ray Line Signals from Dark Matter Annihilations in the Inner Galactic Halo from 10 Years of Observations with H.E.S.S.

    Abdallah, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Caroff, S.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; deWilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Emery, G.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gaté, F.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glawion, D.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holch, T. L.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Liu, R.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Malyshev, D.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; de Naurois, M.; Ndiyavala, H.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poireau, V.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Rauth, R.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rinchiuso, L.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, S.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schandri, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Shiningayamwe, K.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spir-Jacob, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steppa, C.; Sushch, I.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsirou, M.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Zorn, J.; Żywucka, N.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    Spectral lines are among the most powerful signatures for dark matter (DM) annihilation searches in very-high-energy γ rays. The central region of the Milky Way halo is one of the most promising targets given its large amount of DM and proximity to Earth. We report on a search for a monoenergetic spectral line from self-annihilations of DM particles in the energy range from 300 GeV to 70 TeV using a two-dimensional maximum likelihood method taking advantage of both the spectral and spatial features of the signal versus background. The analysis makes use of Galactic center observations accumulated over ten years (2004-2014) with the H.E.S.S. array of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. No significant γ -ray excess above the background is found. We derive upper limits on the annihilation cross section ⟨σ v ⟩ for monoenergetic DM lines at the level of 4 ×10-28 cm3 s-1 at 1 TeV, assuming an Einasto DM profile for the Milky Way halo. For a DM mass of 1 TeV, they improve over the previous ones by a factor of 6. The present constraints are the strongest obtained so far for DM particles in the mass range 300 GeV-70 TeV. Ground-based γ -ray observations have reached sufficient sensitivity to explore relevant velocity-averaged cross sections for DM annihilation into two γ -ray photons at the level expected from the thermal relic density for TeV DM particles.

  9. Internet Job Search and Unemployment Durations

    Kuhn, Peter; Skuterud, Mikal Skuterud

    2002-01-01

    After decades of stability, the technologies used by workers to locate new jobs began to change rapidly with the diffusion of internet access in the late 1990’s. Which types of persons incorporated the internet into their job search strategy, and did searching for work on line help these workers find new jobs faster? We address these questions using measures of internet job search derived from the December 1998 and August 2000 CPS Computer and Internet Supplements, matched with job search o...

  10. Product-line extensions and pricing strategies of brand-name drugs facing patent expiration.

    Hong, Song Hee; Shepherd, Marvin D; Scoones, David; Wan, Thomas T H

    2005-01-01

    This study proposed an alternative to brand loyalty as the explanation for the continued price rigidity of patent-expired brand-name prescription drugs despite the increase in market entry of generic drugs facilitated by the 1984 Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act. Study hypotheses were to test (1) whether market entries of new-product extensions are associated with market success of original brand-name drugs before generic drug entry, and (2) whether original brand-name drugs exhibit price rigidity to generic entry only when they are extended. The design is a retrospective follow-up study for the prescription drug brands that lost their patents between 1987 and 1992. The drug brands were limited to nonantibiotic, orally administered drugs containing only 1 active pharmaceutical ingredient. Information on patent expiration, entry of a product extension, and market success were determined from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.s Orange Book, First DataBank, and American Druggist, respectively. Market success was defined as whether an original drug brand was listed in the top 100 prescriptions most frequently dispensed before facing generic entry. Product-line extension was defined as the appearance of another product that a company introduces within the same market after its existing product. Drug prices were average wholesale prices from the Drug Topics Red Book. The relationship between product-line extension and market success was examined using a logistic regression analysis. The price rigidity to entry was tested using a panel regression analysis. A total of 27 drug brands lost their patents between 1987 and 1992. Drug brands that achieved market success were 16 times more likely to be extended than were those that did not (OR=16, 95% confidence interval, 2.12-120.65). The price rigidity to entry existed in drug brands with extensions (beta=2.65%, P new product-line extension introduced for an original brand helps the original price be

  11. A self-organized learning strategy for object recognition by an embedded line of attraction

    Seow, Ming-Jung; Alex, Ann T.; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-04-01

    on this observation we developed a self- organizing line attractor, which is capable of generating new lines in the feature space to learn unrecognized patterns. Experiments performed on UMIST pose database and CMU face expression variant database for face recognition have shown that the proposed nonlinear line attractor is able to successfully identify the individuals and it provided better recognition rate when compared to the state of the art face recognition techniques. Experiments on FRGC version 2 database has also provided excellent recognition rate in images captured in complex lighting environments. Experiments performed on the Japanese female face expression database and Essex Grimace database using the self organizing line attractor have also shown successful expression invariant face recognition. These results show that the proposed model is able to create nonlinear manifolds in a multidimensional feature space to distinguish complex patterns.

  12. Academic health centers on the front lines: survival strategies in highly competitive markets.

    Blumenthal, D; Weissman, J S; Griner, P F

    1999-09-01

    The authors describe approaches that five academic health centers (AHCs) have taken to reduce costs, enhance quality, or improve their market positions since the onset of price competition and managed care. The five AHCs, all on the West Coast, were selected for study because they (1) are located in markets that had been highly competitive for the longest time; (2) are committed to all the major missions of AHCs; and (3) own or substantially control their major clinical teaching facilities. The study findings reflect the status of the five AHCs during the fall of 1998. Although some findings may no longer be current (especially in light of ongoing implementation of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997), they still provide insights into the options and opportunities available to many AHCs in highly competitive markets. The authors report on the institutions' financial viability (positive), levels of government support (advantageous), and competition from other AHCs (modest). They outline the study AHCs' survival strategies in three broad areas: increasing revenues via exploiting market niches, reducing costs, and reorganizing to improve internal governance and decision making. They also report how marketplace competition and the strategies the AHCs used to confront it have affected the AHCs' missions. The authors summarize the outstanding lessons that all AHCs can learn from the experiences of the AHCs studied, although adding that AHCs in other parts of the country should use caution in looking to the West Coast AHCs for answers.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF LINE EXTENSION STRATEGIES BY PREMIUM BRANDS ON BRAND EQUITY: CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GERMANY AND THAILAND

    Florian Lukas SEIZER

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Premium markets are expected to outperform other markets throughout the near future. Thus these markets are of high importance for marketers, who already face challenges to manage premium brands due to the hazard of a possible dilution of user’s sense of exclusivity and pride. Premium brand managers must know when it is best to take a pass on short-term growth opportunities that could tarnish the brand's long-term health. Line extensions embody one of the most frequently used vehicles for growth to meet global consumer needs. Though they have advantages, also risks are associated with them. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to identify the influence of line extensions on brand equity in culturally different spheres. The study focuses on premium brands from the automotive industry and asks if and in how far different – vertical (different price & quality level and horizontal (same price & quality level – line extension strategies influence brand equity differently among cultures. A one group pre-test post-test research design is used to measure brand equity before and after an existing brand’s (hypothetical extension. A structured online survey with page logic collected primary data from four hundred students in Germany and Thailand recruited by a matched sampling technique. Culture has to be added to brand equity models as results show distinctive changes of brand equity for both Germany and Thailand. While after vertical downscale extensions, brand equity increases in Germany, it decreases in Thailand. Hence, the research results in managerial recommendations which assess if product policy strategies should be thought ‘regionally’ or ‘globally’.

  14. Using titer and titer normalized to confluence are complementary strategies for obtaining Chinese hamster ovary cell lines with high volumetric productivity of etanercept

    Pristovšek, Nuša; Hansen, Henning Gram; Sergeeva, Daria

    2018-01-01

    The selection of clonally-derived Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines with the highest production rate of recombinant glycoproteins remains a big challenge during early stages of cell line development. Different strategies using either product titer or product titer normalized to cell number...

  15. Task instructions influence the cognitive strategies involved in line bisection judgements: evidence from modulated neural mechanisms revealed by fMRI

    Fink, G.R.; Marshall, J.C.; Weiss, P.H.; Toni, I.; Zilles, K.

    2002-01-01

    Manual line bisection and a perceptual variant thereof (the Landmark test) are widely used to assess visuospatial neglect in neurological patients, but little is known about the cognitive strategies involved. In the Landmark test, one could explicitly compare the lengths of the left and right line

  16. Evaluation of a new method for librarian-mediated literature searches for systematic reviews

    W.M. Bramer (Wichor); Rethlefsen, M.L. (Melissa L.); F. Mast (Frans); J. Kleijnen (Jos)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To evaluate and validate the time of completion and results of a new method of searching for systematic reviews, the exhaustive search method (ESM), using a pragmatic comparison. Methods: Single-line search strategies were prepared in a text document. Term completeness was

  17. Searching PubMed for molecular epidemiology studies: the case of chromosome aberrations

    Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2006-01-01

    to environmental pollutants. The search, done on the PubMed/MedLine database, was based on a strategy combining descriptors listed in the PubMed Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus and other available tools (free text or phrase search tools). 178 articles were retrieved by searching the period from January 1...

  18. USING DEMATEL-ANP INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR DECIDING PRODUCTION STRATEGY FOR A PRODUCTION LINE

    Sinan APAK

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Production planning includes push, pull and hybrid production systems that production firms determine their production strategies according to many variables before starting production. The administration of this process requires experience and time. The intensity of rivalry makes this kind of decision processes important, because no firm has the luxury to waste time and to make a wrong decision. In order to solve this problem, research proposes to use integrated decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL and analytic network process (ANP together which are methods of multi-criteria decision-making models. The process being used to establish which options are found to be most acceptable for operations managers has been demonstrated how applicable it is by using the generated model in automotive industry.

  19. Developing RCM Strategy for Hydrogen Fuel Cells Utilizing On Line E-Condition Monitoring

    Baglee, D; Knowles, M J

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are considered to be a viable solution to problems such as carbon emissions and fuel shortages for road transport. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are mainly used in this purpose because they can run at low temperatures and have a simple structure. Yet high maintenance costs and the inherent dangers of maintaining equipment using hydrogen are two main issues which need to be addressed. The development of appropriate and efficient strategies is currently lacking with regard to fuel cell maintenance. A Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) approach offers considerable benefit to the management of fuel cell maintenance since it includes an identification and consideration of the impact of critical components. Technological developments in e-maintenance systems, radio-frequency identification (RFID) and personal digital assistants (PDAs) have proven to satisfy the increasing demand for improved reliability, efficiency and safety. RFID technology is used to store and remotely retrieve electronic maintenance data in order to provide instant access to up-to-date, accurate and detailed information. The aim is to support fuel cell maintenance decisions by developing and applying a blend of leading-edge communications and sensor technology including RFID. The purpose of this paper is to review and present the state of the art in fuel cell condition monitoring and maintenance utilizing RCM and RFID technologies. Using an RCM analysis critical components and fault modes are identified. RFID tags are used to store the critical information, possible faults and their cause and effect. The relationship between causes, faults, symptoms and long term implications of fault conditions are summarized. Finally conclusions are drawn regarding suggested maintenance strategies and the optimal structure for an integrated, cost effective condition monitoring and maintenance management system.

  20. Developing RCM Strategy for Hydrogen Fuel Cells Utilizing On Line E-Condition Monitoring

    Baglee, D.; Knowles, M. J.

    2012-05-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are considered to be a viable solution to problems such as carbon emissions and fuel shortages for road transport. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are mainly used in this purpose because they can run at low temperatures and have a simple structure. Yet high maintenance costs and the inherent dangers of maintaining equipment using hydrogen are two main issues which need to be addressed. The development of appropriate and efficient strategies is currently lacking with regard to fuel cell maintenance. A Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) approach offers considerable benefit to the management of fuel cell maintenance since it includes an identification and consideration of the impact of critical components. Technological developments in e-maintenance systems, radio-frequency identification (RFID) and personal digital assistants (PDAs) have proven to satisfy the increasing demand for improved reliability, efficiency and safety. RFID technology is used to store and remotely retrieve electronic maintenance data in order to provide instant access to up-to-date, accurate and detailed information. The aim is to support fuel cell maintenance decisions by developing and applying a blend of leading-edge communications and sensor technology including RFID. The purpose of this paper is to review and present the state of the art in fuel cell condition monitoring and maintenance utilizing RCM and RFID technologies. Using an RCM analysis critical components and fault modes are identified. RFID tags are used to store the critical information, possible faults and their cause and effect. The relationship between causes, faults, symptoms and long term implications of fault conditions are summarized. Finally conclusions are drawn regarding suggested maintenance strategies and the optimal structure for an integrated, cost effective condition monitoring and maintenance management system.

  1. A Study on Information Search and Commitment Strategies on Web Environment and Internet Usage Self-Efficacy Beliefs of University Students'

    Geçer, Aynur Kolburan

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses university students' information search and commitment strategies on web environment and internet usage self-efficacy beliefs in terms of such variables as gender, department, grade level and frequency of internet use; and whether there is a significant relation between these beliefs. Descriptive method was used in the study.…

  2. Students' Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, Online Evaluative Standards, and Online Searching Strategies for Science Information: The Moderating Role of Cognitive Load Experience

    Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of cognitive load experience between students' scientific epistemic beliefs and information commitments, which refer to online evaluative standards and online searching strategies. A total of 344 science-related major students participated in this study. Three questionnaires were…

  3. Analysis of Students' Online Information Searching Strategies, Exposure to Internet Information Pollution and Cognitive Absorption Levels Based on Various Variables

    Kurt, Adile Askim; Emiroglu, Bülent Gürsel

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine students' online information searching strategies, their cognitive absorption levels and the information pollution levels on the Internet based on different variables and to determine the correlation between these variables. The study was designed with the survey model, the study group included 198…

  4. Face Recognition and Visual Search Strategies in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Amending and Extending a Recent Review by Weigelt et al.

    Julia Tang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to build upon a recent review by Weigelt et al. which examined visual search strategies and face identification between individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and typically developing peers. Seven databases, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, Proquest, PsychInfo and PubMed were used to locate published scientific studies matching our inclusion criteria. A total of 28 articles not included in Weigelt et al. met criteria for inclusion into this systematic review. Of these 28 studies, 16 were available and met criteria at the time of the previous review, but were mistakenly excluded; and twelve were recently published. Weigelt et al. found quantitative, but not qualitative, differences in face identification in individuals with ASD. In contrast, the current systematic review found both qualitative and quantitative differences in face identification between individuals with and without ASD. There is a large inconsistency in findings across the eye tracking and neurobiological studies reviewed. Recommendations for future research in face recognition in ASD were discussed.

  5. Using Direct Policy Search to Identify Robust Strategies in Adapting to Uncertain Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge

    Garner, G. G.; Keller, K.

    2017-12-01

    Sea-level rise poses considerable risks to coastal communities, ecosystems, and infrastructure. Decision makers are faced with deeply uncertain sea-level projections when designing a strategy for coastal adaptation. The traditional methods have provided tremendous insight into this decision problem, but are often silent on tradeoffs as well as the effects of tail-area events and of potential future learning. Here we reformulate a simple sea-level rise adaptation model to address these concerns. We show that Direct Policy Search yields improved solution quality, with respect to Pareto-dominance in the objectives, over the traditional approach under uncertain sea-level rise projections and storm surge. Additionally, the new formulation produces high quality solutions with less computational demands than the traditional approach. Our results illustrate the utility of multi-objective adaptive formulations for the example of coastal adaptation, the value of information provided by observations, and point to wider-ranging application in climate change adaptation decision problems.

  6. Experimental Research and Control Strategy of Pumped Storage Units Dispatching in the Taiwan Power System Considering Transmission Line Limits

    Ming-Tse Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s power system is isolated and not supported by other interconnected systems. Consequently, the system frequency immediately reflects changes in the system loads. Pumped storage units are crucial for controlling power frequency. These units provide main or auxiliary capacities, reducing the allocation of frequency-regulating reserve (FRR and further reducing generation costs in system operations. Taiwan’s Longmen Nuclear Power Plant is set to be converted for commercial operations, which will significantly alter the spinning reserves in the power system. Thus, this study proposes a safe and economic pumped storage unit dispatch strategy. This strategy is used to determine the optimal FRR capacity and 1-min recovery frequency in a generator failure occurrence at the Longmen Power Plant. In addition, this study considered transmission capacity constraints and conducted power flow analysis of the power systems in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The results indicated that, in the event of a failure at Longmen Power Plant, the proposed strategy can not only recover the system frequency to an acceptable range to prevent underfrequency load-shedding, but can also mitigate transmission line overloading.

  7. Use of recommended search strategies in systematic reviews and the impact of librarian involvement: a cross-sectional survey of recent authors.

    Koffel, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    Previous research looking at published systematic reviews has shown that their search strategies are often suboptimal and that librarian involvement, though recommended, is low. Confidence in the results, however, is limited due to poor reporting of search strategies the published articles. To more accurately measure the use of recommended search methods in systematic reviews, the levels of librarian involvement, and whether librarian involvement predicts the use of recommended methods. A survey was sent to all authors of English-language systematic reviews indexed in the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) from January 2012 through January 2014. The survey asked about their use of search methods recommended by the Institute of Medicine, Cochrane Collaboration, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and if and how a librarian was involved in the systematic review. Rates of use of recommended methods and librarian involvement were summarized. The impact of librarian involvement on use of recommended methods was examined using a multivariate logistic regression. 1560 authors completed the survey. Use of recommended search methods ranged widely from 98% for use of keywords to 9% for registration in PROSPERO and were generally higher than in previous studies. 51% of studies involved a librarian, but only 64% acknowledge their assistance. Librarian involvement was significantly associated with the use of 65% of recommended search methods after controlling for other potential predictors. Odds ratios ranged from 1.36 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.75) for including multiple languages to 3.07 (95% CI 2.06 to 4.58) for using controlled vocabulary. Use of recommended search strategies is higher than previously reported, but many methods are still under-utilized. Librarian involvement predicts the use of most methods, but their involvement is under-reported within the published article.

  8. MHOs toward HMOs: A Search for Molecular Hydrogen Emission-Line Objects toward High-mass Outflows

    Wolf-Chase, Grace [Astronomy Department Adler Planetarium 1300 S. Lake Shore Drive Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Arvidsson, Kim [Trull School of Sciences and Mathematics Schreiner University 2100 Memorial Blvd. Kerrville, TX 78028 (United States); Smutko, Michael, E-mail: gwolfchase@adlerplanetarium.org [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), and Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    We present the results of a narrow-band near-infrared imaging survey for Molecular Hydrogen emission-line Objects (MHOs) toward 26 regions containing high-mass protostellar candidates and massive molecular outflows. We have detected a total of 236 MHOs, 156 of which are new detections, in 22 out of the 26 regions. We use H{sub 2} 2.12 μ m/H{sub 2} 2.25 μ m flux ratios, together with morphology, to separate the signatures of fluorescence associated with photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) from shocks associated with outflows in order to identify the MHOs. PDRs have typical low flux ratios of ∼1.5–3, while the vast majority of MHOs display flux ratios typical of C-type shocks (∼6–20). A few MHOs exhibit flux ratios consistent with expected values for J-type shocks (∼3–4), but these are located in regions that may be contaminated with fluorescent emission. Some previously reported MHOs have low flux ratios, and are likely parts of PDRs rather than shocks indicative of outflows. We identify a total of 36 outflows across the 22 target regions where MHOs were detected. In over half these regions, MHO arrangements and fluorescent structures trace features present in CO outflow maps, suggesting that the CO emission traces a combination of dynamical effects, which may include gas entrained in expanding PDRs as well as bipolar outflows. Where possible, we link MHO complexes to distinct outflows and identify candidate driving sources.

  9. A Distributed Control Strategy for Coordination of an Autonomous LVDC Microgrid Based on Power-Line Signalling

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In a MG, an energy management control is essential in order to handle the variety of prime movers which may include different types of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy storage systems (ESS). Specifically, the recharging process of secondary battery, the most prominent ESS, should be done...... of sources using power-line signaling (PLS), a distributed control strategy in which the units inject sinusoidal signals of specific frequency into the common bus in order to communicate with each other. The control structure that allows the application of this method is revealed and the optimal range...... of operating PLS frequencies is specified. In order to achieve a zero steady-state error of injected signals in the common bus, primary control of batteries has been extended with dedicated proportional-resonant (PR) controllers that are switched on only during injection period. Finally, a method...

  10. Beyond MEDLINE for literature searches.

    Conn, Vicki S; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Rath, Sabyasachi; Jantarakupt, Peeranuch; Wadhawan, Rohini; Dash, Yashodhara

    2003-01-01

    To describe strategies for a comprehensive literature search. MEDLINE searches result in limited numbers of studies that are often biased toward statistically significant findings. Diversified search strategies are needed. Empirical evidence about the recall and precision of diverse search strategies is presented. Challenges and strengths of each search strategy are identified. Search strategies vary in recall and precision. Often sensitivity and specificity are inversely related. Valuable search strategies include examination of multiple diverse computerized databases, ancestry searches, citation index searches, examination of research registries, journal hand searching, contact with the "invisible college," examination of abstracts, Internet searches, and contact with sources of synthesized information. Extending searches beyond MEDLINE enables researchers to conduct more systematic comprehensive searches.

  11. Students' Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, Online Evaluative Standards, and Online Searching Strategies for Science Information: The Moderating Role of Cognitive Load Experience

    Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of cognitive load experience between students' scientific epistemic beliefs and information commitments, which refer to online evaluative standards and online searching strategies. A total of 344 science-related major students participated in this study. Three questionnaires were used to ascertain the students' scientific epistemic beliefs, information commitments, and cognitive load experience. Structural equation modeling was then used to analyze the moderating effect of cognitive load, with the results revealing its significant moderating effect. The relationships between sophisticated scientific epistemic beliefs and the advanced evaluative standards used by the students were significantly stronger for low than for high cognitive load students. Moreover, considering the searching strategies that the students used, the relationships between sophisticated scientific epistemic beliefs and advanced searching strategies were also stronger for low than for high cognitive load students. However, for the high cognitive load students, only one of the sophisticated scientific epistemic belief dimensions was found to positively associate with advanced evaluative standard dimensions.

  12. Use of Six Sigma strategies to pull the line on central line-associated bloodstream infections in a neurotrauma intensive care unit.

    Loftus, Kelli; Tilley, Terry; Hoffman, Jason; Bradburn, Eric; Harvey, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The creation of a consistent culture of safety and quality in an intensive care unit is challenging. We applied the Six Sigma Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC) model for quality improvement (QI) to develop a long-term solution to improve outcomes in a high-risk neurotrauma intensive care unit. We sought to reduce central line utilization as a cornerstone in preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). This study describes the successful application of the DMAIC model in the creation and implementation of evidence-based quality improvement designed to reduce CLABSIs to below national benchmarks.

  13. Patterns of HIV-1 Drug Resistance After First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Failure in 6 Sub-Saharan African Countries: Implications for Second-Line ART Strategies

    Hamers, Raph L.; Sigaloff, Kim C. E.; Wensing, Annemarie M.; Wallis, Carole L.; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E.; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Stevens, Wendy S.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Schuurman, Rob; Siwale, M.; Njovu, C.; Labib, M.; Menke, J.; Botes, M. E.; Conradie, F.; Ive, P.; Sanne, I.; Wallis, C. L.; Letsoalo, E.; Stevens, W. S.; Hardman, M.; Wellington, M.; Luthy, R.; Mandaliya, K.; Abdallah, S.; Jao, I.; Dolan, M.; Namayanja, G.; Nakatudde, L.; Nankya, I.; Kiconco, M.; Abwola, M.; Mugyenyi, P.; Osibogun, A.; Akanmu, S.; Schuurman, R.; Wensing, A. M.; Straatsma, E.; Wit, F. W.; Dekker, J.; van Vugt, M.; Lange, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance may limit the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cohort study examined patterns of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in individuals with virological failure on first-line ART at 13 clinical sites in 6 African

  14. A supersymmetry search strategy with single-lepton events at 13 TeV by the CMS experiment

    Lobanov, Artur; Seitz, Claudia; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell; Singh, Akshansh [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We present an inclusive search for supersymmetry in the single-lepton channel with 13 TeV. To optimise the sensitivity to various new-physics topologies, we search in several exclusive categories which differ in the number of jets and b-tagged jets. We determine the background from data, exploiting the fact that the main background is located at small values of the azimuthal angle between the W-boson candidate and the charged lepton. To be less dependent on the new-physics scale, we also introduce separate search categories based on the scalar sum of the jet transverse momenta and on the scalar sum of the transverse missing momentum and the transverse momentum of the lepton. Depending on the signal model, the signals regions have varying sensitivity. Here we concentrate on gluino-gluino production, where the pair-produced gluinos decay to a top-antitop pair and the lightest neutralino.

  15. Did online publishers "get it right"? Using a naturalistic search strategy to review cognitive health promotion content on internet webpages.

    Hunter, P V; Delbaere, M; O'Connell, M E; Cammer, A; Seaton, J X; Friedrich, T; Fick, F

    2017-06-15

    One of the most common uses of the Internet is to search for health-related information. Although scientific evidence pertaining to cognitive health promotion has expanded rapidly in recent years, it is unclear how much of this information has been made available to Internet users. Thus, the purpose of our study was to assess the reliability and quality of information about cognitive health promotion encountered by typical Internet users. To generate a list of relevant search terms employed by Internet users, we entered seed search terms in Google Trends and recorded any terms consistently used in the prior 2 years. To further approximate the behaviour of typical Internet users, we entered each term in Google and sampled the first two relevant results. This search, completed in October 2014, resulted in a sample of 86 webpages, 48 of which had content related to cognitive health promotion. An interdisciplinary team rated the information reliability and quality of these webpages using a standardized measure. We found that information reliability and quality were moderate, on average. Just one retrieved page mentioned best practice, national recommendations, or consensus guidelines by name. Commercial content (i.e., product promotion, advertising content, or non-commercial) was associated with differences in reliability and quality, with product promoter webpages having the lowest mean reliability and quality ratings. As efforts to communicate the association between lifestyle and cognitive health continue to expand, we offer these results as a baseline assessment of the reliability and quality of cognitive health promotion on the Internet.

  16. Hybrid and Cooperative Strategies Using Harmony Search and Artificial Immune Systems for Solving the Nurse Rostering Problem

    Suk Ho Jin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The nurse rostering problem is an important search problem that features many constraints. In a nurse rostering problem, these constraints are defined by processes such as maintaining work regulations, assigning nurse shifts, and considering nurse preferences. A number of approaches to address these constraints, such as penalty function methods, have been investigated in the literature. We propose two types of hybrid metaheuristic approaches for solving the nurse rostering problem, which are based on combining harmony search techniques and artificial immune systems to balance local and global searches and prevent slow convergence speeds and prematurity. The proposed algorithms are evaluated against a benchmarking dataset of nurse rostering problems; the results show that they identify better or best known solutions compared to those identified in other studies for most instances. The results also show that the combination of harmony search and artificial immune systems is better suited than using single metaheuristic or other hybridization methods for finding upper-bound solutions for nurse rostering problems and discrete optimization problems.

  17. MARVELS-1: A FACE-ON DOUBLE-LINED BINARY STAR MASQUERADING AS A RESONANT PLANETARY SYSTEM AND CONSIDERATION OF RARE FALSE POSITIVES IN RADIAL VELOCITY PLANET SEARCHES

    Wright, Jason T.; Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wang, Sharon X.; Fleming, Scott W.; Ford, Eric B.; Payne, Matt; Lee, Brian L.; Ge, Jian; Wang, Ji; Crepp, Justin R.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Eastman, Jason; Pepper, Joshua; Cargile, Phillip; Stassun, Keivan G.; Ghezzi, Luan; González-Hernández, Jonay I.; Wisniewski, John; Dutra-Ferreira, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed new and previously published radial velocity (RV) observations of MARVELS-1, known to have an ostensibly substellar companion in a ∼6 day orbit. We find significant (∼100 m s –1 ) residuals to the best-fit model for the companion, and these residuals are naïvely consistent with an interior giant planet with a P = 1.965 days in a nearly perfect 3:1 period commensurability (|P b /P c – 3| –4 ). We have performed several tests for the reality of such a companion, including a dynamical analysis, a search for photometric variability, and a hunt for contaminating stellar spectra. We find many reasons to be critical of a planetary interpretation, including the fact that most of the three-body dynamical solutions are unstable. We find no evidence for transits, and no evidence of stellar photometric variability. We have discovered two apparent companions to MARVELS-1 with adaptive optics imaging at Keck; both are M dwarfs, one is likely bound, and the other is likely a foreground object. We explore false-alarm scenarios inspired by various curiosities in the data. Ultimately, a line profile and bisector analysis lead us to conclude that the ∼100 m s –1 residuals are an artifact of spectral contamination from a stellar companion contributing ∼15%-30% of the optical light in the system. We conclude that origin of this contamination is the previously detected RV companion to MARVELS-1, which is not, as previously reported, a brown dwarf, but in fact a G dwarf in a face-on orbit.

  18. NSGA-II Algorithm with a Local Search Strategy for Multiobjective Optimal Design of Dry-Type Air-Core Reactor

    Chengfen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry-type air-core reactor is now widely applied in electrical power distribution systems, for which the optimization design is a crucial issue. In the optimization design problem of dry-type air-core reactor, the objectives of minimizing the production cost and minimizing the operation cost are both important. In this paper, a multiobjective optimal model is established considering simultaneously the two objectives of minimizing the production cost and minimizing the operation cost. To solve the multi-objective optimization problem, a memetic evolutionary algorithm is proposed, which combines elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm version II (NSGA-II with a local search strategy based on the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES. NSGA-II can provide decision maker with flexible choices among the different trade-off solutions, while the local-search strategy, which is applied to nondominated individuals randomly selected from the current population in a given generation and quantity, can accelerate the convergence speed. Furthermore, another modification is that an external archive is set in the proposed algorithm for increasing the evolutionary efficiency. The proposed algorithm is tested on a dry-type air-core reactor made of rectangular cross-section litz-wire. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has high efficiency and it converges to a better Pareto front.

  19. Manipulating Google's Knowledge Graph Box to Counter Biased Information Processing During an Online Search on Vaccination: Application of a Technological Debiasing Strategy.

    Ludolph, Ramona; Allam, Ahmed; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-06-02

    One of people's major motives for going online is the search for health-related information. Most consumers start their search with a general search engine but are unaware of the fact that its sorting and ranking criteria do not mirror information quality. This misconception can lead to distorted search outcomes, especially when the information processing is characterized by heuristic principles and resulting cognitive biases instead of a systematic elaboration. As vaccination opponents are vocal on the Web, the chance of encountering their non‒evidence-based views on immunization is high. Therefore, biased information processing in this context can cause subsequent impaired judgment and decision making. A technological debiasing strategy could counter this by changing people's search environment. This study aims at testing a technological debiasing strategy to reduce the negative effects of biased information processing when using a general search engine on people's vaccination-related knowledge and attitudes. This strategy is to manipulate the content of Google's knowledge graph box, which is integrated in the search interface and provides basic information about the search topic. A full 3x2 factorial, posttest-only design was employed with availability of basic factual information (comprehensible vs hardly comprehensible vs not present) as the first factor and a warning message as the second factor of experimental manipulation. Outcome variables were the evaluation of the knowledge graph box, vaccination-related knowledge, as well as beliefs and attitudes toward vaccination, as represented by three latent variables emerged from an exploratory factor analysis. Two-way analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect of availability of basic information in the knowledge graph box on participants' vaccination knowledge scores (F2,273=4.86, P=.01), skepticism/fear of vaccination side effects (F2,273=3.5, P=.03), and perceived information quality (F2

  20. Manipulating Google’s Knowledge Graph Box to Counter Biased Information Processing During an Online Search on Vaccination: Application of a Technological Debiasing Strategy

    Allam, Ahmed; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Background One of people’s major motives for going online is the search for health-related information. Most consumers start their search with a general search engine but are unaware of the fact that its sorting and ranking criteria do not mirror information quality. This misconception can lead to distorted search outcomes, especially when the information processing is characterized by heuristic principles and resulting cognitive biases instead of a systematic elaboration. As vaccination opponents are vocal on the Web, the chance of encountering their non‒evidence-based views on immunization is high. Therefore, biased information processing in this context can cause subsequent impaired judgment and decision making. A technological debiasing strategy could counter this by changing people’s search environment. Objective This study aims at testing a technological debiasing strategy to reduce the negative effects of biased information processing when using a general search engine on people’s vaccination-related knowledge and attitudes. This strategy is to manipulate the content of Google’s knowledge graph box, which is integrated in the search interface and provides basic information about the search topic. Methods A full 3x2 factorial, posttest-only design was employed with availability of basic factual information (comprehensible vs hardly comprehensible vs not present) as the first factor and a warning message as the second factor of experimental manipulation. Outcome variables were the evaluation of the knowledge graph box, vaccination-related knowledge, as well as beliefs and attitudes toward vaccination, as represented by three latent variables emerged from an exploratory factor analysis. Results Two-way analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect of availability of basic information in the knowledge graph box on participants’ vaccination knowledge scores (F2,273=4.86, P=.01), skepticism/fear of vaccination side effects (F2,273=3.5, P=.03

  1. APPLICATION OF A PRIMAL-DUAL INTERIOR POINT ALGORITHM USING EXACT SECOND ORDER INFORMATION WITH A NOVEL NON-MONOTONE LINE SEARCH METHOD TO GENERALLY CONSTRAINED MINIMAX OPTIMISATION PROBLEMS

    INTAN S. AHMAD

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the application of a primal-dual interior point method to minimax optimisation problems. The algorithm differs significantly from previous approaches as it involves a novel non-monotone line search procedure, which is based on the use of standard penalty methods as the merit function used for line search. The crucial novel concept is the discretisation of the penalty parameter used over a finite range of orders of magnitude and the provision of a memory list for each such order. An implementation within a logarithmic barrier algorithm for bounds handling is presented with capabilities for large scale application. Case studies presented demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed methodology, which relies on the reformulation of minimax models into standard nonlinear optimisation models. Some previously reported case studies from the open literature have been solved, and with significantly better optimal solutions identified. We believe that the nature of the non-monotone line search scheme allows the search procedure to escape from local minima, hence the encouraging results obtained.

  2. Searching for the most cost-effective strategy for controlling epidemics spreading on regular and small-world networks.

    Kleczkowski, Adam; Oleś, Katarzyna; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2012-01-07

    We present a combined epidemiological and economic model for control of diseases spreading on local and small-world networks. The disease is characterized by a pre-symptomatic infectious stage that makes detection and control of cases more difficult. The effectiveness of local (ring-vaccination or culling) and global control strategies is analysed by comparing the net present values of the combined cost of preventive treatment and illness. The optimal strategy is then selected by minimizing the total cost of the epidemic. We show that three main strategies emerge, with treating a large number of individuals (global strategy, GS), treating a small number of individuals in a well-defined neighbourhood of a detected case (local strategy) and allowing the disease to spread unchecked (null strategy, NS). The choice of the optimal strategy is governed mainly by a relative cost of palliative and preventive treatments. If the disease spreads within the well-defined neighbourhood, the local strategy is optimal unless the cost of a single vaccine is much higher than the cost associated with hospitalization. In the latter case, it is most cost-effective to refrain from prevention. Destruction of local correlations, either by long-range (small-world) links or by inclusion of many initial foci, expands the range of costs for which the NS is most cost-effective. The GS emerges for the case when the cost of prevention is much lower than the cost of treatment and there is a substantial non-local component in the disease spread. We also show that local treatment is only desirable if the disease spreads on a small-world network with sufficiently few long-range links; otherwise it is optimal to treat globally. In the mean-field case, there are only two optimal solutions, to treat all if the cost of the vaccine is low and to treat nobody if it is high. The basic reproduction ratio, R(0), does not depend on the rate of responsive treatment in this case and the disease always invades

  3. Silver linings and candles in the dark: differences among positive coping strategies in predicting subjective well-being.

    Shiota, Michelle N

    2006-05-01

    Ideal coping strategies enhance positive aspects of well-being as well as reduce distress. Although researchers have identified several "positive coping" strategies, it is unclear which are most strongly associated with well-being or whether all strategies are equally appropriate for all kinds of stressors. Participants completed well-being measures, and described the most negative event of the day and their emotion regulation strategies for the next 7 days. Dispositional use of positive emotion-inducing coping strategies was most strongly associated with positive aspects of well-being. Use of positive coping did not decrease with increased objective stress during the week, and use of particular strategies was partly predicted by the types of stressors that were reported. Implications for theories of positive coping are discussed. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Search Improvement Process-Chaotic Optimization-Particle Swarm Optimization-Elite Retention Strategy and Improved Combined Cooling-Heating-Power Strategy Based Two-Time Scale Multi-Objective Optimization Model for Stand-Alone Microgrid Operation

    Fei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal dispatching model for a stand-alone microgrid (MG is of great importance to its operation reliability and economy. This paper aims at addressing the difficulties in improving the operational economy and maintaining the power balance under uncertain load demand and renewable generation, which could be even worse in such abnormal conditions as storms or abnormally low or high temperatures. A new two-time scale multi-objective optimization model, including day-ahead cursory scheduling and real-time scheduling for finer adjustments, is proposed to optimize the operational cost, load shedding compensation and environmental benefit of stand-alone MG through controllable load (CL and multi-distributed generations (DGs. The main novelty of the proposed model is that the synergetic response of CL and energy storage system (ESS in real-time scheduling offset the operation uncertainty quickly. And the improved dispatch strategy for combined cooling-heating-power (CCHP enhanced the system economy while the comfort is guaranteed. An improved algorithm, Search Improvement Process-Chaotic Optimization-Particle Swarm Optimization-Elite Retention Strategy (SIP-CO-PSO-ERS algorithm with strong searching capability and fast convergence speed, was presented to deal with the problem brought by the increased errors between actual renewable generation and load and prior predictions. Four typical scenarios are designed according to the combinations of day types (work day or weekend and weather categories (sunny or rainy to verify the performance of the presented dispatch strategy. The simulation results show that the proposed two-time scale model and SIP-CO-PSO-ERS algorithm exhibit better performance in adaptability, convergence speed and search ability than conventional methods for the stand-alone MG’s operation.

  5. Innovative products and services with environmental benefits: design of search strategies for external knowledge and absorptive capacity

    Mothe, Caroline; NGuyen-Thi, Uyen; Triguero-Cano, Angela

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Although the antecedents of environmental innovation and open innovation strategies have been well studied separately, the relationship between a firm's openness and environmental technological innovation still remains an interesting topic to research, especially in terms of the various modes of openness on the one hand and the product–process distinction on the other. This study relies on data from the French Community Innovation Survey to differentiate the associatio...

  6. A.C.T.A. and the effects of the agreement on the on-line marketing strategies

    Boitor, A.–B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the most controversial and discussed treaty over the last period and its consequences on the marketing strategies of different companies in fields such as the movie industry, the music industry and the publishing domain. The A.C.T.A. treaty was signed by over 27 countries, and brings up positive effects upon the strategies of those companies which suffer losses from piracy and counterfeiting of intellectual property rights. The paper reflects the changes that the treaty can bring especially to the online marketing strategies of the biggest movie studios and music production labels.

  7. Central line-associated blood stream infections in pediatric ICUs: Longitudinal trends and compliance with bundle strategies

    Edwards, Jeffrey D; Herzig, Carolyn TA; Liu, Hangsheng; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Zachariah, Philip; Dick, Andrew W; Saiman, Lisa; Stone, Patricia W; Furuya, E Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Background Knowing the temporal trend central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates among U.S. pediatric intensive care units (PICU), the current extent of CL bundle compliance, and the impact of compliance on rates is necessary to understand what has been accomplished and can be improved in CLABSI prevention. Methods Longitudinal study of PICUs in National Healthcare Safety Network hospitals and a cross-sectional survey of directors/managers of infection prevention & control departments regarding PICU CLABSI prevention practices, including self-reported compliance with elements of central line bundles. Associations between 2011/12 PICU CLABSI rates and infection prevention practices were examined. Results Reported CLABSI rates decreased during the study period, from 5.8 per 1000 line days in 2006 to 1.4 in 2011/12 (Pprevention practices, only 35% of those with policies reported ≥95% compliance. PICUs with ≥95% compliance with central line infection prevention policies had lower reported CLABSI rates, but this association was statistically insignificant. Conclusions There was a non-significant trend in decreasing CLABSI rates as PICUs improved bundle policy compliance. Given that few PICUs reported full compliance with these policies, PICUs increasing their efforts to comply with these policies may help reduce CLABSI rates. PMID:25952048

  8. High Line

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  9. The Success Rate in a Complicated Spatial Memory Test Is Determined by Age, Sex, Life History and Search Strategies in Cynomolgus Monkeys

    Darusman, Huda S; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sajuthi, Dondin

    2014-01-01

    to failure and chronological memory recall. These strategies appeared to be shared by most subjects, however, the overall success rate appeared to also depend on individual characteristics including age, gender and whether the subject had been born in caged captivity or not. By elucidating some...... of six identical opaque cups. Although the task was challenging for all subjects, generating a high level of guesswork, evidence of common behaviors when approaching the spatial memory test were found. The search patterns employed by the monkeys suggest the use of landmark cues, adaption in response...... of the underlying cognitive mechanisms, these findings may serve to refine interpretation of future studies using similar delayed response tasks in non-human primates....

  10. Mastering Search Analytics Measuring SEO, SEM and Site Search

    Chaters, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Many companies still approach Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and paid search as separate initiatives. This in-depth guide shows you how to use these programs as part of a comprehensive strategy-not just to improve your site's search rankings, but to attract the right people and increase your conversion rate. Learn how to measure, test, analyze, and interpret all of your search data with a wide array of analytic tools. Gain the knowledge you need to determine the strategy's return on investment. Ideal for search specialists, webmasters, and search marketing managers, Mastering Search Analyt

  11. "Cybermarketing" Alternative Marketing Strategy and Competitive Case Study in. Dyviatech Mediatama "Sanur Book Store On-line"

    Zakaria Zakaria; Susi Wagiyati, SKom, MM Susi Wagiyati, SKom, MM

    2000-01-01

    Success in business is often synonymous with success in doing selling, so businesspeople often try new breakthroughs to market its products. One of the new marketingalternative is to use telecommunications technology which is currently growingrapidly, by conducting marketing activities on-line on the internet network calledCybermarketing.Internet now has become quite warm conversation burden, both in the mass media orsociety. This is due to the technological advances in telecommunications com...

  12. A Novel Sensorless Control Strategy for Brushless Direct Current Motor Based on the Estimation of Line Back Electro-Motive Force

    Chengde Tong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel sensorless control strategy based on the estimation of line back electro-motive force (BEMF is proposed. According to the phase relationship between the ideal commutation points of the brushless direct current motor (BLDCM and the zero-crossing points (ZCPs of the line BEMF, the calculation formula of line BEMF is simplified properly and the commutation rule for different positions of the rotor is presented. The estimation error of line BEMF caused by the freewheeling current of silent phase is analyzed, and the solution is given. With the phase shift of the low-pass filter considered, a compensation method using “60°-α” and “120°-α” is studied in this paper to eliminate the error. Finally, the simulation and experimental results show that the rotor-position-detection error is reduced effectively and the motor driven by the accurate commutation signal can work well at low and high speed.

  13. SEO strategies in booksellers sector

    Ferran Sabate

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has consolidated as a new commercial and marketing channel due to the advance of Information and Communication Technologies and the saturation of conventional media channels. In this context, firms are doing specific (for the Internet channel promotion strategies to improve its placement on search engines results pages and to increase its website traffic. The objectives of this article are: 1 to provide a context for the Search Engine Marketing (SEM, putting special attention on those actions to optimize the placement in search engines (SEO; 2 to identify and classify what SEO actions firms adopt or could adopt to improve its placement on search engines; and 3 to make an empirical study (centered on Spanish book trades to quantify how much firms are adopting SEO actions and its effectiveness according to the placement observed in search engines result pages. The results are analyzed, the limitations are discussed and new lines for research are commented.

  14. Search Strategy of Focused Crawler Based on Adaptive Immune Evolutionary Algorithm%基于自适应免疫进化算法的聚焦爬虫搜索策略

    刘丽杰; 许楠; 李盼池

    2012-01-01

    聚焦爬虫是主题搜索引擎的核心部件。针对目前聚焦爬虫搜索策略的不足,提出基于主题相关度和页面重要性相结合的综合相关度来判别页面主题相关性,并采用自适应免疫进化算法这种搜索策略指导聚焦爬虫的爬行,实验结果证明,该算法下载的主题相关网页数所占比例明显高于最佳搜索和广度优先搜索算法的比例,具有更高的搜索效率。%Focused crawler was a core component of the topic search engine.To overcome the deficiency of focused crawler search strategy,a comprehensive value based on theme relevance and importance of page was proposed to determine the topic relevant of the page,and the adaptive immune evolutionary algorithm of this search strategy was used to guide the crawling strategy of focused crawler.The experiment results showed that the algorithm download the proportion to the number of webpage related to the themes was higher significantly than the best search and breadth first search algorithm and had higher searching efficiency.

  15. STRATEGIES OF MARKETING OF A COMPANY SUPPLIER OF GRATUITOUS SERVICES ON-LINE ANALYSIS OF THEIMPORTÂNCIA-DESEMPENHO MATRIX

    PAULA CASTRO PIRES DE SOUZA CHIMENTI

    2001-01-01

    O trabalho busca analisar uma empresa provedora de serviços gratuitos on-line, Elefante Internet, à luz da matriz Importância-Desempenho. Através de revisão bibliográfica e pesquisa com grupo de foco, chegou-se a um conjunto preliminar de 44 atributos. Uma pesquisa com 700 respostas posicionou estes atributos na matriz, gerando 4 conjuntos de atributos, baseados em desempenho e importância. Com base na matriz, foi possível tecer análises sobre o posicionamento e...

  16. Trends and Inequalities in Use of Maternal Health Care Services in Nepal: Strategy in the Search for Improvements

    Suresh Mehata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nepal has made significant progress against the Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health over the past two decades. However, disparities in use of maternal health services persist along geographic, economic, and sociocultural lines. Methods. Trends and inequalities in the use of maternal health services in Nepal between 1994 and 2011 were examined using four Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS, nationally representative cross-sectional surveys conducted by interviewing women who gave birth 3–5 years prior to the survey. Sociodemographic disparities in maternal health service utilization were measured. Rate difference, rate ratios, and concentration index were calculated to measure income inequalities. Findings. The percentage of mothers that received four antenatal care (ANC consultations increased from 9% to 54%, the institutional delivery rate increased from 6% to 47%, and the cesarean section (C-section rate increased from 1% in 1994 to 6% in 2011. The ratio of the richest and the poorest quintile mothers for use of four ANC, institutional delivery, and C-section delivery were 5.08 (95% CI: 3.82–6.76, 9.00 (95% CI: 6.55–12.37, and 9.37 (95% CI: 4.22–20.83, respectively. However, inequality is reducing over time; for the use of four ANC services, the concentration index fell from 0.60 (95% CI: 0.56–0.64 in 1994–1996 to 0.31 (95% CI: 0.29–0.33 in 2009–2011. For institutional delivery, the concentration index fell from 0.65 (95% CI: 0.62–0.70 to 0.40 (95% CI: 0.38–0.40 between 1994–1996 and 2009–2011. For C-section deliveries, an increase in concentration index was observed, 0.64 (95% CI: 0.51–0.77; 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64–0.88; 0.77 (95% CI: 0.71–0.84; and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.60–0.72 in the periods 1994–1996, 1999–2001, 2004–2006, and 2009–2011, respectively. All sociodemographic variables were significant predictors of use of maternal health services, out of which maternal

  17. Self-assembled amphiphilic core-shell nanocarriers in line with the modern strategies for brain delivery.

    Elezaby, Reham S; Gad, Heba A; Metwally, Abdelkader A; Geneidi, Ahmed S; Awad, Gehanne A

    2017-09-10

    Disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) represent increasing social and economic problems all over the world which makes the effective transport of drugs to the brain a crucial need. In the last decade, many strategies were introduced to deliver drugs to the brain trying to overcome the challenge of the blood brain barrier (BBB) using both invasive and non-invasive methods. Non-invasive strategy represented in the application of nanocarriers became very common. One of the most hopeful nanoscopic carriers for brain delivery is core-shell nanocarriers or polymeric micelles (PMs). They are more advantageous than other nanocarriers. They offer small size, ease of preparation, ease of sterilization and the possibility of surface modification with various ligands. Hence, the aim of this review is to discuss modern strategies for brain delivery, micelles as a successful delivery system for the brain and how micelles could be modified to act as "magic bullets" for brain delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prices and heterogeneous search costs

    Luis Moraga-Gonzalez, Jose; Sandor, Zsolt; Wildenbeest, Matthijs R.

    2017-01-01

    We study price formation in a model of consumer search for differentiated products in which consumers have heterogeneous search costs. We provide conditions under which a pure-strategy symmetric Nash equilibrium exists and is unique. Search costs affect two margins-the intensive search margin (or

  19. Evaluation of Activity and Combination Strategies with the Microtubule-Targeting Drug Sagopilone in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Eschenbrenner, Julia; Winsel, Sebastian; Hammer, Stefanie; Sommer, Anette; Mittelstaedt, Kevin; Drosch, Michael; Klar, Ulrich; Sachse, Christoph; Hannus, Michael; Seidel, Monika; Weiss, Bertram; Merz, Claudia; Siemeister, Gerhard; Hoffmann, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Sagopilone, a fully synthetic epothilone, is a microtubule-stabilizing agent optimized for high in vitro and in vivo activity against a broad range of tumor models, including those resistant to paclitaxel and other systemic treatments. Sagopilone development is accompanied by translational research studies to evaluate the molecular mode of action, to recognize mechanisms leading to resistance, to identify predictive response biomarkers, and to establish a rationale for combination with different therapies. Here, we profiled sagopilone activity in breast cancer cell lines. To analyze the mechanisms of mitotic arrest and apoptosis and to identify additional targets and biomarkers, an siRNA-based RNAi drug modifier screen interrogating 300 genes was performed in four cancer cell lines. Defects of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) were identified to cause resistance against sagopilone-induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Potential biomarkers for resistance could therefore be functional defects like polymorphisms or mutations in the SAC, particularly in the central SAC kinase BUB1B. Moreover, chromosomal heterogeneity and polyploidy are also potential biomarkers of sagopilone resistance since they imply an increased tolerance for aberrant mitosis. RNAi screening further demonstrated that the sagopilone-induced mitotic arrest can be enhanced by concomitant inhibition of mitotic kinesins, thus suggesting a potential combination therapy of sagopilone with a KIF2C (MCAK) kinesin inhibitor. However, the combination of sagopilone and inhibition of the prophase kinesin KIF11 (EG5) is antagonistic, indicating that the kinesin inhibitor has to be highly specific to bring about the required therapeutic benefit.

  20. Evaluation of Activity and Combination Strategies with the Microtubule-Targeting Drug Sagopilone in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Eschenbrenner, Julia [Global Drug Discovery, Therapeutic Research Group Oncology, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin (Germany); Institute for Biotechnology, Technical University Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Winsel, Sebastian [Global Drug Discovery, Therapeutic Research Group Oncology, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin (Germany); Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Free University Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Medical Biotechnology, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Turku (Finland); Hammer, Stefanie [Global Drug Discovery, Therapeutic Research Group Oncology, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin (Germany); Sommer, Anette [Global Drug Discovery, Target Discovery, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin (Germany); Mittelstaedt, Kevin [Global Drug Discovery, Therapeutic Research Group Oncology, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin (Germany); Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Free University Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Drosch, Michael [Global Drug Discovery, Therapeutic Research Group Oncology, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin (Germany); Center of Human Genetics, University of Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Klar, Ulrich [Global Drug Discovery, Therapeutic Research Group Oncology, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin (Germany); Sachse, Christoph; Hannus, Michael; Seidel, Monika [Cenix BioScience GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Weiss, Bertram; Merz, Claudia [Global Drug Discovery, Target Discovery, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin (Germany); Siemeister, Gerhard [Global Drug Discovery, Therapeutic Research Group Oncology, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, Jens, E-mail: jens.hoffmann@epo-berlin.com [Global Drug Discovery, Therapeutic Research Group Oncology, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin (Germany); Experimentelle Pharmakologie und Onkologie Berlin-Buch GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-11-16

    Sagopilone, a fully synthetic epothilone, is a microtubule-stabilizing agent optimized for high in vitro and in vivo activity against a broad range of tumor models, including those resistant to paclitaxel and other systemic treatments. Sagopilone development is accompanied by translational research studies to evaluate the molecular mode of action, to recognize mechanisms leading to resistance, to identify predictive response biomarkers, and to establish a rationale for combination with different therapies. Here, we profiled sagopilone activity in breast cancer cell lines. To analyze the mechanisms of mitotic arrest and apoptosis and to identify additional targets and biomarkers, an siRNA-based RNAi drug modifier screen interrogating 300 genes was performed in four cancer cell lines. Defects of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) were identified to cause resistance against sagopilone-induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Potential biomarkers for resistance could therefore be functional defects like polymorphisms or mutations in the SAC, particularly in the central SAC kinase BUB1B. Moreover, chromosomal heterogeneity and polyploidy are also potential biomarkers of sagopilone resistance since they imply an increased tolerance for aberrant mitosis. RNAi screening further demonstrated that the sagopilone-induced mitotic arrest can be enhanced by concomitant inhibition of mitotic kinesins, thus suggesting a potential combination therapy of sagopilone with a KIF2C (MCAK) kinesin inhibitor. However, the combination of sagopilone and inhibition of the prophase kinesin KIF11 (EG5) is antagonistic, indicating that the kinesin inhibitor has to be highly specific to bring about the required therapeutic benefit.

  1. Search Help

    Guidance and search help resource listing examples of common queries that can be used in the Google Search Appliance search request, including examples of special characters, or query term seperators that Google Search Appliance recognizes.

  2. Searching for Effective Training Solutions for Firefighting: The Analysis of Emergency Responses and Line of Duty Death Reports for Low Frequency, High Risk Events

    2017-09-01

    From the more common problems of pre-existing hazardous structures to the rare events of temperature inversion creating a dangerous environment...the Academy’s burn building. These training scenarios allow firefighters to practice search methods while simultaneously dealing with the heat, smoke...fire behavior (RFB), 32 • secondary collapse (SC), • standard op procedures training (SOP), • temperature inversion (TI), • unrestricted flow

  3. Analysis of Patterns of Interaction and Knowledge Construction in On-Line Learning Environments: A Methodological Strategy

    Benilde García Cabrero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A model of analysis of interaction and construction of knowledge in educational environments based on computer-mediated communication (CMC is proposed. This proposal considers: 1 the contextual factors that constitute the input and the scenario of interaction, 2 the interaction processes: types of interaction and its contents (Garrison, Anderson and Archer, 2000 as well as the discursive strategies (Lemke, 1997, and 3 learning results that involve the quality of the knowledge constructed by the participants (Gunawardena, Lowe and Anderson, 1997. This model was applied to the analysis of the interaction among a group of participants in two web forums (with or without the presence of a teacher, during the teaching of a PhD in Psychology program. The results show evidence of the model’s viability to describe the patterns of interaction and the levels of construction of knowledge in web forums.

  4. Ice Cover Prediction of a Power Grid Transmission Line Based on Two-Stage Data Processing and Adaptive Support Vector Machine Optimized by Genetic Tabu Search

    Xiaomin Xu; Dongxiao Niu; Lihui Zhang; Yongli Wang; Keke Wang

    2017-01-01

    With the increase in energy demand, extreme climates have gained increasing attention. Ice disasters on transmission lines can cause gap discharge and icing flashover electrical failures, which can lead to mechanical failure of the tower, conductor, and insulators, causing significant harm to people’s daily life and work. To address this challenge, an intelligent combinational model is proposed based on improved empirical mode decomposition and support vector machine for short-term forecastin...

  5. The Strategies of Systematization of the Theories of Education. The Main Meaning and Features of the Theories of Education of Plato’s and Isocrates’ Lines

    Oleg Bazaluk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the historical and philosophical analysis of scientific and philosophical ideas, which have influenced the development of the theories of The article deals with the historical and philosophical analysis of scientific and philosophical ideas, which have influenced the development of the theories of education and needed a certain systematisation. The chosen strategy helps the researcher not only to structure in a certain way gained by the empirical and theoretical way knowledge in the sphere of education but also to use the obtained results to create a new theory. The feature of systematisation and classification of the accumulated information determines the direction and scale of use formulated on its basis theory. Due to received generalisations, the author systematised the diversity of the theories of education in histories of culture according to the two lines of development: Plato and Isocrates. The author concludes that the competition and complementarity that exist between the theories of education of Plato’s and Isocrates’ lines represent education as a matrix that forms a certain direction of self-realization of human generations in ontogenesis in the history of culture. The theories of education of Plato’s line set the ideal of form building, answering the question: “Who should be educated in the younger generations?” The theories of education of Isocrates’ line by daily educational practices ensure the achievement of the designated ideal, i.e. focus more on finding answers to the question “How to educate the younger generation?”

  6. New Search Strategies Successfully Optimize Retrieval of Clinically Sound Treatment Studies in EMBASE. A review of: Wong, Sharon S‐L, Nancy L. Wilczynski, and R. Brian Haynes. “Developing Optimal Search Strategies for Detecting Clinically Sound Treatment Studies in EMBASE.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 94.1 (Jan. 2006: 41‐47. 14 May 2007 http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1324770.

    John Loy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To develop and test the sensitivity and specificity, precision andaccuracy of search strategies to retrieve clinically sound treatment studies in the EMBASE database.Design – Analytical study.Setting – Methodologically sound studies of treatment from 55 journals indexed in EMBASE for the year 2000.Subjects – EMBASE and hand searches performed at the Health Information Research Unit of McMaster University, Ontario, Canada.Methods – The authors compare the results of EMBASE searches using their search strategies with the “gold standard” of articles retrieved by hand search. Research assistants initially hand searched each issue of 55 selected journals published in 2000 to identify articles detailing studies on healthcare treatment of humans. Subject coverage of the journals was wide ranging and included obstetrics and gynaecology, psychiatry, oncology, neurology, surgery and general practice. Studies were then assessed to ensure they met the qualifying criteria: random allocation of participants to groups, outcome assessment of at least 80% of participants who began the study, and analysis consistent with study design. Initially, 3850 articles on treatment were identified, of which 1256 (32.6% were methodologically sound. To construct a comprehensive set of search terms, input was sought from librarians and researchers in the US and Canada. This initially produced a list of 5385 terms, of which 4843 were unique and 3524 produced hits. Individual search terms with sensitivity greater then 25% and specificity greater then 75% were incorporated into search strategies for use within the OVID interface for the EMBASE database to retrieve articles meeting the same criteria. These strategies were developed using all 27,769 articles published in the 55 journals in 2000. This all inclusive approach was used to test the search strategies’ ability to identify high quality treatment articles from a larger pool of material

  7. Heavy charged scalars from c\\overline{s} fusion: a generic search strategy applied to a 3HDM with U(1) × U(1) family symmetry

    Camargo-Molina, José Eliel; Mandal, Tanumoy; Pasechnik, Roman; Wessén, Jonas

    2018-03-01

    We describe a class of three Higgs doublet models (3HDMs) with a softly broken U(1) × U(1) family symmetry that enforces a Cabibbo-like quark mixing while forbidding tree-level flavour changing neutral currents. The hierarchy in the observed quark masses is partly explained by a softer hierarchy in the vacuum expectation values of the three Higgs doublets. As a consequence, the physical scalar spectrum contains a Standard Model (SM) like Higgs boson h 125 while exotic scalars couple the strongest to the second quark family, leading to rather unconventional discovery channels that could be probed at the Large Hadron Collider. In particular, we describe a search strategy for the lightest charged Higgs boson H ±, through the process c\\overline{s}\\to {H}+\\to {W}+{h}_{125} , using a multivariate analysis that leads to an excellent discriminatory power against the SM background. Although the analysis is applied to the proposed class of 3HDMs, we employ a model-independent formulation such that it can be applied to any other model with the same discovery channel.

  8. Searching low and high

    Laursen, Keld; Salter, Ammon

    2003-01-01

    AbstractThis paper examines the factors that influence whether firms draw from universities in theirinnovative activities. The link between the universities and industrial innovation, and the role ofdifferent search strategies in influencing the propensity of firms to use universities is explored.......The results suggest that firms who adopt `open' search strategies and invest in R&D are morelikely than other firms to draw from universities, indicating that managerial choice matters inshaping the propensity of firms to draw from universities.Key words: University-industry links, innovation, external search...

  9. Genome-Wide Association Studies and Comparison of Models and Cross-Validation Strategies for Genomic Prediction of Quality Traits in Advanced Winter Wheat Breeding Lines

    Peter S. Kristensen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the this study was to identify SNP markers associated with five important wheat quality traits (grain protein content, Zeleny sedimentation, test weight, thousand-kernel weight, and falling number, and to investigate the predictive abilities of GBLUP and Bayesian Power Lasso models for genomic prediction of these traits. In total, 635 winter wheat lines from two breeding cycles in the Danish plant breeding company Nordic Seed A/S were phenotyped for the quality traits and genotyped for 10,802 SNPs. GWAS were performed using single marker regression and Bayesian Power Lasso models. SNPs with large effects on Zeleny sedimentation were found on chromosome 1B, 1D, and 5D. However, GWAS failed to identify single SNPs with significant effects on the other traits, indicating that these traits were controlled by many QTL with small effects. The predictive abilities of the models for genomic prediction were studied using different cross-validation strategies. Leave-One-Out cross-validations resulted in correlations between observed phenotypes corrected for fixed effects and genomic estimated breeding values of 0.50 for grain protein content, 0.66 for thousand-kernel weight, 0.70 for falling number, 0.71 for test weight, and 0.79 for Zeleny sedimentation. Alternative cross-validations showed that the genetic relationship between lines in training and validation sets had a bigger impact on predictive abilities than the number of lines included in the training set. Using Bayesian Power Lasso instead of GBLUP models, gave similar or slightly higher predictive abilities. Genomic prediction based on all SNPs was more effective than prediction based on few associated SNPs.

  10. Reading between the lines. Czesław Miłosz’s Native Realm. A Search for Self-Definition and its English/American translation

    Bartłomiej Biegajło

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to discuss the problem of translating Polish prose, based on an analysis of a selection of samples taken from Czesław Miłosz’s Native Realm. A Search for Self-Definition translated by Catherine S. Leach. The book documents specific relations between the Western and the Eastern Europe determined by historical provenance of the realms in question. The dichotomy of the collective European history has a profound influence on the reception of Polish literature among the Western audience. Native Realm showcases the issue perfectly – it is interesting in terms of its careful account of the historical and social development of the Continent. The perception of reality is conditioned by an inherent dissimilarity of experiences between the West and the East. The intention of Miłosz was to provide an analysis of them and produce an insightful book addressed specifically to the Western readership. My discussion is an attempt to prove that the endeavour is doomed to failure due to the intrinsic differences between the cultures involved, as cultural inheritance determines the interpretation of historical facts and prompts dissimilar connotations. In the case of Native Realm, on the one hand, we encounter Miłosz’s vision/imagination that is irreversibly rooted in the Slavic way of looking at things and, on the other, the distinctively dissimilar Western vantage point. Translating these differences appears to be a major challenge for any translator.

  11. Search features of digital libraries

    Alastair G. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional on-line search services such as Dialog, DataStar and Lexis provide a wide range of search features (boolean and proximity operators, truncation, etc. This paper discusses the use of these features for effective searching, and argues that these features are required, regardless of advances in search engine technology. The literature on on-line searching is reviewed, identifying features that searchers find desirable for effective searching. A selective survey of current digital libraries available on the Web was undertaken, identifying which search features are present. The survey indicates that current digital libraries do not implement a wide range of search features. For instance: under half of the examples included controlled vocabulary, under half had proximity searching, only one enabled browsing of term indexes, and none of the digital libraries enable searchers to refine an initial search. Suggestions are made for enhancing the search effectiveness of digital libraries, for instance by: providing a full range of search operators, enabling browsing of search terms, enhancement of records with controlled vocabulary, enabling the refining of initial searches, etc.

  12. Search Patterns

    Morville, Peter

    2010-01-01

    What people are saying about Search Patterns "Search Patterns is a delight to read -- very thoughtful and thought provoking. It's the most comprehensive survey of designing effective search experiences I've seen." --Irene Au, Director of User Experience, Google "I love this book! Thanks to Peter and Jeffery, I now know that search (yes, boring old yucky who cares search) is one of the coolest ways around of looking at the world." --Dan Roam, author, The Back of the Napkin (Portfolio Hardcover) "Search Patterns is a playful guide to the practical concerns of search interface design. It cont

  13. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Different Management Strategies between Best Supportive Care and Second-line Chemotherapy for Platinum-resistant or Refractory Ovarian Cancer.

    Luealon, Phanida; Khempech, Nipon; Vasuratna, Apichai; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Havanond, Piyalamporn

    2016-01-01

    four alternative treatments increased life expectancy. Life expectancy of gemcitabine followed by BSC, PLD followed by BSC, gemcitabine followed by topotecan and PLD followed by topotecan was 0.510, 0.513, 0.566, and 0.570 years, respectively. The total cost of gemcitabine followed by BSC, PLD followed by BSC, gemcitabine followed by topotecan and PLD followed by topotecan was 113,000, 124,302, 139,788 and 151,135 Baht, respectively. PLD followed by topotecan had the highest expected quality-adjusted life-years but was the most expensive of all the above strategies. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of gemcitabine followed by BSC, PLD followed by BSC, gemcitabine followed by topotecan and PLD followed by topotecan was 344,643, 385,322, 385,856, and 420,299 Baht, respectively. All of the second-line chemotherapy strategies showed certain benefits due to an increased life- year gained compared with best supportive care. Moreover, gemcitabine as second-line chemotherapy followed by best supportive care in progressive disease case was likely to be more effective strategy with less cost from health care provider perspective. Gemcitabine was the most cost-effective treatment among all four alternative treatments. ICER is only an economic factor. Treatment decisions should be based on the patient benefit.

  14. 'Doctor Google' ending the diagnostic odyssey in lysosomal storage disorders: parents using internet search engines as an efficient diagnostic strategy in rare diseases.

    Bouwman, Machtelt G; Teunissen, Quirine G A; Wijburg, Frits A; Linthorst, Gabor E

    2010-08-01

    The expansion of the internet has resulted in widespread availability of medical information for both patients and physicians. People increasingly spend time on the internet searching for an explanation, diagnosis or treatment for their symptoms. Regarding rare diseases, the use of the internet may be an important tool in the diagnostic process. The authors present two cases in which concerned parents made a correct diagnosis of a lysosomal storage disorder in their child by searching the internet after a long doctor's delay. These cases illustrate the utility of publicly available internet search engines in diagnosing rare disorders and in addition illustrate the lengthy diagnostic odyssey which is common in these disorders.

  15. Guidelines and Criteria for the Search Strategy, Evaluation, Selection, and Documentation of Key Data and Supporting Data Used for the Derivation of AEGL Values

    This is Section 2.3 of the Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Hazardous Chemicals. It discusses methodologies used to search for and select data for development of AEGL values.

  16. Personalized Search

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)749939

    2015-01-01

    As the volume of electronically available information grows, relevant items become harder to find. This work presents an approach to personalizing search results in scientific publication databases. This work focuses on re-ranking search results from existing search engines like Solr or ElasticSearch. This work also includes the development of Obelix, a new recommendation system used to re-rank search results. The project was proposed and performed at CERN, using the scientific publications available on the CERN Document Server (CDS). This work experiments with re-ranking using offline and online evaluation of users and documents in CDS. The experiments conclude that the personalized search result outperform both latest first and word similarity in terms of click position in the search result for global search in CDS.

  17. Selecting physician leaders for clinical service lines: critical success factors.

    Epstein, Andrew L; Bard, Marc A

    2008-03-01

    Clinical service lines and interdisciplinary centers have emerged as important strategic programs within academic health centers (AHCs). Effective physician leadership is significant to their success, but how these leaders are chosen has not been well studied. The authors conducted a study to identify current models for selecting the physician leaders of clinical service lines, determine critical success factors, and learn how the search process affected service line performance. In 2003 and 2004, the authors interviewed clinical and executive personnel involved in 14 programs to establish, or consider establishing, heart or cancer service lines, at 13 AHCs. The responses were coded to identify and analyze trends and themes. The key findings of the survey were (1) the goals and expectations that AHCs set for their service line leaders vary greatly, depending on both the strategic purpose of the service line in the AHC and the service line's stage of development, (2) the matrix organizational structure employed by most AHCs limits the leader's authority over necessary resources, and calls forth a variety of compensating strategies if the service line is to succeed, (3) the AHCs studied used relatively informal processes to identify, evaluate, and select service line leaders, and (4) the leader's job is vitally shaped by the AHC's strategic, structural, and political context, and selection criteria should be determined accordingly. Institutions should be explicit about the strategic purpose and stage of development of their clinical service lines and be clear about their expectations and requirements in hiring service line leaders.

  18. Radial line-scans as representative sampling strategy in dried-droplet laser ablation of liquid samples deposited on pre-cut filter paper disks

    Nischkauer, Winfried; Vanhaecke, Frank; Bernacchi, Sébastien; Herwig, Christoph; Limbeck, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Nebulising liquid samples and using the aerosol thus obtained for further analysis is the standard method in many current analytical techniques, also with inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-based devices. With such a set-up, quantification via external calibration is usually straightforward for samples with aqueous or close-to-aqueous matrix composition. However, there is a variety of more complex samples. Such samples can be found in medical, biological, technological and industrial contexts and can range from body fluids, like blood or urine, to fuel additives or fermentation broths. Specialized nebulizer systems or careful digestion and dilution are required to tackle such demanding sample matrices. One alternative approach is to convert the liquid into a dried solid and to use laser ablation for sample introduction. Up to now, this approach required the application of internal standards or matrix-adjusted calibration due to matrix effects. In this contribution, we show a way to circumvent these matrix effects while using simple external calibration for quantification. The principle of representative sampling that we propose uses radial line-scans across the dried residue. This compensates for centro-symmetric inhomogeneities typically observed in dried spots. The effectiveness of the proposed sampling strategy is exemplified via the determination of phosphorus in biochemical fermentation media. However, the universal viability of the presented measurement protocol is postulated. Detection limits using laser ablation-ICP-optical emission spectrometry were in the order of 40 μg mL- 1 with a reproducibility of 10 % relative standard deviation (n = 4, concentration = 10 times the quantification limit). The reported sensitivity is fit-for-purpose in the biochemical context described here, but could be improved using ICP-mass spectrometry, if future analytical tasks would require it. Trueness of the proposed method was investigated by cross-validation with

  19. 'Doctor Google' ending the diagnostic odyssey in lysosomal storage disorders: parents using internet search engines as an efficient diagnostic strategy in rare diseases

    Bouwman, M.G.; Teunissen, Q.G.A.; Wijburg, F.A.; Linthorst, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of the internet has resulted in widespread availability of medical information for both patients and physicians. People increasingly spend time on the internet searching for an explanation, diagnosis or treatment for their symptoms. Regarding rare diseases, the use of the internet may

  20. Search Advertising

    Cornière (de), Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Search engines enable advertisers to target consumers based on the query they have entered. In a framework with horizontal product differentiation, imperfect product information and in which consumers incur search costs, I study a game in which advertisers have to choose a price and a set of relevant keywords. The targeting mechanism brings about three kinds of efficiency gains, namely lower search costs, better matching, and more intense product market price-competition. A monopolistic searc...

  1. Faceted Search

    Tunkelang, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We live in an information age that requires us, more than ever, to represent, access, and use information. Over the last several decades, we have developed a modern science and technology for information retrieval, relentlessly pursuing the vision of a "memex" that Vannevar Bush proposed in his seminal article, "As We May Think." Faceted search plays a key role in this program. Faceted search addresses weaknesses of conventional search approaches and has emerged as a foundation for interactive information retrieval. User studies demonstrate that faceted search provides more

  2. DOT strategies versus orbiter strategies

    Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope is a high-resolution solar imager coming on-line at La Palma. The definition of the DOT science niche, strategies, and requirements resemble Solar Orbiter considerations and deliberations. I discuss the latter in the light of the former, and claim that multi-line observation

  3. Radial line-scans as representative sampling strategy in dried-droplet laser ablation of liquid samples deposited on pre-cut filter paper disks.

    Nischkauer, Winfried; Vanhaecke, Frank; Bernacchi, Sébastien; Herwig, Christoph; Limbeck, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Nebulising liquid samples and using the aerosol thus obtained for further analysis is the standard method in many current analytical techniques, also with inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-based devices. With such a set-up, quantification via external calibration is usually straightforward for samples with aqueous or close-to-aqueous matrix composition. However, there is a variety of more complex samples. Such samples can be found in medical, biological, technological and industrial contexts and can range from body fluids, like blood or urine, to fuel additives or fermentation broths. Specialized nebulizer systems or careful digestion and dilution are required to tackle such demanding sample matrices. One alternative approach is to convert the liquid into a dried solid and to use laser ablation for sample introduction. Up to now, this approach required the application of internal standards or matrix-adjusted calibration due to matrix effects. In this contribution, we show a way to circumvent these matrix effects while using simple external calibration for quantification. The principle of representative sampling that we propose uses radial line-scans across the dried residue. This compensates for centro-symmetric inhomogeneities typically observed in dried spots. The effectiveness of the proposed sampling strategy is exemplified via the determination of phosphorus in biochemical fermentation media. However, the universal viability of the presented measurement protocol is postulated. Detection limits using laser ablation-ICP-optical emission spectrometry were in the order of 40 μg mL - 1 with a reproducibility of 10 % relative standard deviation (n = 4, concentration = 10 times the quantification limit). The reported sensitivity is fit-for-purpose in the biochemical context described here, but could be improved using ICP-mass spectrometry, if future analytical tasks would require it. Trueness of the proposed method was investigated by cross-validation with

  4. Radial line-scans as representative sampling strategy in dried-droplet laser ablation of liquid samples deposited on pre-cut filter paper disks

    Nischkauer, Winfried [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vanhaecke, Frank [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Bernacchi, Sébastien; Herwig, Christoph [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Limbeck, Andreas, E-mail: Andreas.Limbeck@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-11-01

    Nebulising liquid samples and using the aerosol thus obtained for further analysis is the standard method in many current analytical techniques, also with inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-based devices. With such a set-up, quantification via external calibration is usually straightforward for samples with aqueous or close-to-aqueous matrix composition. However, there is a variety of more complex samples. Such samples can be found in medical, biological, technological and industrial contexts and can range from body fluids, like blood or urine, to fuel additives or fermentation broths. Specialized nebulizer systems or careful digestion and dilution are required to tackle such demanding sample matrices. One alternative approach is to convert the liquid into a dried solid and to use laser ablation for sample introduction. Up to now, this approach required the application of internal standards or matrix-adjusted calibration due to matrix effects. In this contribution, we show a way to circumvent these matrix effects while using simple external calibration for quantification. The principle of representative sampling that we propose uses radial line-scans across the dried residue. This compensates for centro-symmetric inhomogeneities typically observed in dried spots. The effectiveness of the proposed sampling strategy is exemplified via the determination of phosphorus in biochemical fermentation media. However, the universal viability of the presented measurement protocol is postulated. Detection limits using laser ablation-ICP-optical emission spectrometry were in the order of 40 μg mL{sup −1} with a reproducibility of 10 % relative standard deviation (n = 4, concentration = 10 times the quantification limit). The reported sensitivity is fit-for-purpose in the biochemical context described here, but could be improved using ICP-mass spectrometry, if future analytical tasks would require it. Trueness of the proposed method was investigated by cross-validation with

  5. Advanced Search

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  6. A comparison of individualized treatment guided by VeriStrat with standard of care treatment strategies in patients receiving second-line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: A cost-utility analysis.

    Nelson, Richard E; Stenehjem, David; Akerley, Wallace

    2013-12-01

    Two therapies are appropriate as 2nd-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients: chemotherapy and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy. VeriStrat, a serum proteomic test, can be used to guide treatment decisions for NSCLC patients. The test classifies patients as likely to benefit from either of these two treatment options. The objective of this research was to model the anticipated survival and cost-effectiveness of four different treatment strategies: chemotherapy for all patients (C-all), EGFR inhibitor for all (E-all), a performance status guided selection strategy (PS-guided), and a strategy guided by VeriStrat test results (V-guided). We developed a Markov model with the perspective of the U.S. health care system. Model inputs were taken from published literature for the base-case analysis. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. The C-all treatment strategy showed the best overall survival outcome (10.1 months), followed by V-guided (9.6 months), PS-guided (9.2 months), and E-all (8.2 months) strategies. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of a V-guided treatment strategy was $91,111 (vs. E-all) and $8462 (vs. PS-guided) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). The ICER for C-all compared to V-guided was $105,616. This cost-utility analysis indicates that a treatment strategy guided by the VeriStrat test in patients receiving second-line therapy for NSCLC may experience an overall survival benefit at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio that is reasonable when compared with other practices, including cancer treatments, generally covered in the U.S. health care system. However, treating all patients with chemotherapy yielded the greatest expected survival. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Working Memory Capacity and Recall from Long-Term Memory: Examining the Influences of Encoding Strategies, Study Time Allocation, Search Efficiency, and Monitoring Abilities

    Unsworth, Nash

    2016-01-01

    The relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and recall from long-term memory (LTM) was examined in the current study. Participants performed multiple measures of delayed free recall varying in presentation duration and self-reported their strategy usage after each task. Participants also performed multiple measures of WMC. The results…

  8. A hybrid search algorithm for swarm robots searching in an unknown environment.

    Li, Shoutao; Li, Lina; Lee, Gordon; Zhang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to improve the efficiency of a swarm of robots searching in an unknown environment. The approach focuses on the process of feeding and individual coordination characteristics inspired by the foraging behavior in nature. A predatory strategy was used for searching; hence, this hybrid approach integrated a random search technique with a dynamic particle swarm optimization (DPSO) search algorithm. If a search robot could not find any target information, it used a random search algorithm for a global search. If the robot found any target information in a region, the DPSO search algorithm was used for a local search. This particle swarm optimization search algorithm is dynamic as all the parameters in the algorithm are refreshed synchronously through a communication mechanism until the robots find the target position, after which, the robots fall back to a random searching mode. Thus, in this searching strategy, the robots alternated between two searching algorithms until the whole area was covered. During the searching process, the robots used a local communication mechanism to share map information and DPSO parameters to reduce the communication burden and overcome hardware limitations. If the search area is very large, search efficiency may be greatly reduced if only one robot searches an entire region given the limited resources available and time constraints. In this research we divided the entire search area into several subregions, selected a target utility function to determine which subregion should be initially searched and thereby reduced the residence time of the target to improve search efficiency.

  9. Searching for supersymmetry scalelessly

    Schlaffer, M. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Spannowsky, M. [Durham University, Department of Physics, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Weiler, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department T75, Garching (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper we propose a scale invariant search strategy for hadronic top or bottom plus missing energy final states. We present a method which shows flat efficiencies and background rejection factors over broad ranges of parameters and masses. The resulting search can easily be recast into a limit on alternative models. We show the strength of the method in a natural SUSY setup where stop and sbottom squarks are pair produced and decay into hadronically decaying top quarks or bottom quarks and higgsinos. (orig.)

  10. Autonomous search

    Hamadi, Youssef; Saubion, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous combinatorial search (AS) represents a new field in combinatorial problem solving. Its major standpoint and originality is that it considers that problem solvers must be capable of self-improvement operations. This is the first book dedicated to AS.

  11. Subject search study. Final report

    Todeschini, C.

    1995-01-01

    The study gathered information on how users search the database of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), using indicators such as Subject categories, Controlled terms, Subject headings, Free-text words, combinations of the above. Users participated from the Australian, French, Russian and Spanish INIS Centres, that have different national languages. Participants, both intermediaries and end users, replied to a questionnaire and executed search queries. The INIS Secretariat at the IAEA also participated. A protocol of all search strategies used in actual searches in the database was kept. The thought process for Russian and Spanish users is predominantly non-English and also the actual initial search formulation is predominantly non-English among Russian and Spanish users while it tends to be more in English among French users. A total of 1002 searches were executed by the five INIS centres including the IAEA. The search protocols indicate the following search behaviour: 1) free text words represent about 40% of search points on an average query; 2) descriptors used as search keys have the widest range as percentage of search points, from a low of 25% to a high of 48%; 3) search keys consisting of free text that coincides with a descriptor account for about 15% of search points; 4) Subject Categories are not used in many searches; 5) free text words are present as search points in about 80% of all searches; 6) controlled terms (descriptors) are used very extensively and appear in about 90% of all searches; 7) Subject Headings were used in only a few percent of searches. From the results of the study one can conclude that there is a greater reluctance on the part of non-native English speakers in initiating their searches by using free text word searches. Also: Subject Categories are little used in searching the database; both free text terms and controlled terms are the predominant types of search keys used, whereby the controlled terms are used more

  12. One visual search, many memory searches: An eye-tracking investigation of hybrid search.

    Drew, Trafton; Boettcher, Sage E P; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2017-09-01

    Suppose you go to the supermarket with a shopping list of 10 items held in memory. Your shopping expedition can be seen as a combination of visual search and memory search. This is known as "hybrid search." There is a growing interest in understanding how hybrid search tasks are accomplished. We used eye tracking to examine how manipulating the number of possible targets (the memory set size [MSS]) changes how observers (Os) search. We found that dwell time on each distractor increased with MSS, suggesting a memory search was being executed each time a new distractor was fixated. Meanwhile, although the rate of refixation increased with MSS, it was not nearly enough to suggest a strategy that involves repeatedly searching visual space for subgroups of the target set. These data provide a clear demonstration that hybrid search tasks are carried out via a "one visual search, many memory searches" heuristic in which Os examine items in the visual array once with a very low rate of refixations. For each item selected, Os activate a memory search that produces logarithmic response time increases with increased MSS. Furthermore, the percentage of distractors fixated was strongly modulated by the MSS: More items in the MSS led to a higher percentage of fixated distractors. Searching for more potential targets appears to significantly alter how Os approach the task, ultimately resulting in more eye movements and longer response times.

  13. Retrievals of ethane from ground-based high-resolution FTIR solar observations with updated line parameters: determination of the optimum strategy for the Jungfraujoch station.

    Bader, W.; Perrin, A.; Jacquemart, D.; Sudo, K.; Yashiro, H.; Gauss, M.; Demoulin, P.; Servais, C.; Mahieu, E.

    2012-04-01

    Ethane (C2H6) is the most abundant Non-Methane HydroCarbon (NMHC) in the Earth's atmosphere, with a lifetime of approximately 2 months. C2H6 has both anthropogenic and natural emission sources such as biomass burning, natural gas loss and biofuel consumption. Oxidation by the hydroxyl radical is by far the major C2H6 sink as the seasonally changing OH concentration controls the strong modulation of the ethane abundance throughout the year. Ethane lowers Cl atom concentrations in the lower stratosphere and is a major source of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and carbon monoxide (by reaction with OH). Involved in the formation of tropospheric ozone and in the destruction of atmospheric methane through changes in OH, C2H6 is a non-direct greenhouse gas with a net-global warming potential (100-yr horizon) of 5.5. The retrieval of ethane from ground-based infrared (IR) spectra is challenging. Indeed, the fitting of the ethane features is complicated by numerous interferences by strong water vapor, ozone and methane absorptions. Moreover, ethane has a complicated spectrum with many interacting vibrational modes and the current state of ethane parameters in HITRAN (e.g. : Rothman et al., 2009, see http://www.hitran.com) was rather unsatisfactory in the 3 μm region. In fact, PQ branches outside the 2973-3001 cm-1 range are not included in HITRAN, and most P and R structures are missing. New ethane absorption cross sections recorded at the Molecular Spectroscopy Facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Harrison et al., 2010) are used in our retrievals. They were calibrated in intensity by using reference low-resolution spectra from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database. Pseudoline parameters fitted to these ethane spectra have been combined with HITRAN 2004 line parameters (including all the 2006 updates) for all other species encompassed in the selected microwindows. Also, the improvement brought by the update of the line positions and intensities

  14. Searching for Cost-Optimized Interstellar Beacons

    Benford, Gregory; Benford, James; Benford, Dominic

    2010-06-01

    What would SETI beacon transmitters be like if built by civilizations that had a variety of motives but cared about cost? In a companion paper, we presented how, for fixed power density in the far field, a cost-optimum interstellar beacon system could be built. Here, we consider how we should search for a beacon if it were produced by a civilization similar to ours. High-power transmitters could be built for a wide variety of motives other than the need for two-way communication; this would include beacons built to be seen over thousands of light-years. Extraterrestrial beacon builders would likely have to contend with economic pressures just as their terrestrial counterparts do. Cost, spectral lines near 1 GHz, and interstellar scintillation favor radiating frequencies substantially above the classic "water hole." Therefore, the transmission strategy for a distant, cost-conscious beacon would be a rapid scan of the galactic plane with the intent to cover the angular space. Such pulses would be infrequent events for the receiver. Such beacons built by distant, advanced, wealthy societies would have very different characteristics from what SETI researchers seek. Future searches should pay special attention to areas along the galactic disk where SETI searches have seen coherent signals that have not recurred on the limited listening time intervals we have used. We will need to wait for recurring events that may arriarrive in intermittent bursts. Several new SETI search strategies have emerged from these ideas. We propose a new test for beacons that is based on the Life Plane hypotheses.

  15. How Adolescents Search for and Appraise Online Health Information: A Systematic Review.

    Freeman, Jaimie L; Caldwell, Patrina H Y; Bennett, Patricia A; Scott, Karen M

    2018-04-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the evidence concerning whether and how adolescents search for online health information and the extent to which they appraise the credibility of information they retrieve. A systematic search of online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC) was performed. Reference lists of included papers were searched manually for additional articles. Included were studies on whether and how adolescents searched for and appraised online health information, where adolescent participants were aged 13-18 years. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the findings. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. In line with the research questions, 2 key concepts were identified within the papers: whether and how adolescents search for online health information, and the extent to which adolescents appraise online health information. Four themes were identified regarding whether and how adolescents search for online health information: use of search engines, difficulties in selecting appropriate search strings, barriers to searching, and absence of searching. Four themes emerged concerning the extent to which adolescents appraise the credibility of online health information: evaluation based on Web site name and reputation, evaluation based on first impression of Web site, evaluation of Web site content, and absence of a sophisticated appraisal strategy. Adolescents are aware of the varying quality of online health information. Strategies used by individuals for searching and appraising online health information differ in their sophistication. It is important to develop resources to enhance search and appraisal skills and to collaborate with adolescents to ensure that such resources are appropriate for them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Comparison Between House Mouse Lines Selected for Attack Latency or Nest-Building : Evidence for a Genetic Basis of Alternative Behavioral Strategies

    Sluyter, Frans; Bult, Abel; Lynch, Carol B.; Oortmerssen, Geert A. van; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    House mouse lines bidirectionally selected for either nest-building behavior or attack latency were tested for both attack latency and nest-building behavior under identical conditions. Male mice selected for high nest-building behavior had shorter attack latencies, i.e., were more aggressive, than

  17. Improvement of specific growth rate of Pichia pastoris for effective porcine interferon-α production with an on-line model-based glycerol feeding strategy.

    Gao, Min-Jie; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Jian-Rong; Dong, Shi-Juan; Li, Zhen; Jin, Hu; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2012-02-01

    Effective expression of porcine interferon-α (pIFN-α) with recombinant Pichia pastoris was conducted in a bench-scale fermentor. The influence of the glycerol feeding strategy on the specific growth rate and protein production was investigated. The traditional DO-stat feeding strategy led to very low cell growth rate resulting in low dry cell weight (DCW) of about 90 g/L during the subsequent induction phase. The previously reported Artificial Neural Network Pattern Recognition (ANNPR) model-based glycerol feeding strategy improved the cell density to 120 g DCW/L, while the specific growth rate decreased from 0.15 to 0.18 to 0.03-0.08 h(-1) during the last 10 h of the glycerol feeding stage leading to a variation of the porcine interferon-α production, as the glycerol feeding scheme had a significant effect on the induction phase. This problem was resolved by an improved ANNPR model-based feeding strategy to maintain the specific growth rate above 0.11 h(-1). With this feeding strategy, the pIFN-α concentration reached a level of 1.43 g/L, more than 1.5-fold higher than that obtained with the previously adopted feeding strategy. Our results showed that increasing the specific growth rate favored the target protein production and the glycerol feeding methods directly influenced the induction stage. Consequently, higher cell density and specific growth rate as well as effective porcine interferon-α production have been achieved by our novel glycerol feeding strategy.

  18. A distributed computational search strategy for the identification of diagnostics targets: application to finding aptamer targets for methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

    Flanagan, Keith; Cockell, Simon; Harwood, Colin; Hallinan, Jennifer; Nakjang, Sirintra; Lawry, Beth; Wipat, Anil

    2014-06-30

    The rapid and cost-effective identification of bacterial species is crucial, especially for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Peptide aptamers have been shown to be valuable for use as a component of novel, direct detection methods. These small peptides have a number of advantages over antibodies, including greater specificity and longer shelf life. These properties facilitate their use as the detector components of biosensor devices. However, the identification of suitable aptamer targets for particular groups of organisms is challenging. We present a semi-automated processing pipeline for the identification of candidate aptamer targets from whole bacterial genome sequences. The pipeline can be configured to search for protein sequence fragments that uniquely identify a set of strains of interest. The system is also capable of identifying additional organisms that may be of interest due to their possession of protein fragments in common with the initial set. Through the use of Cloud computing technology and distributed databases, our system is capable of scaling with the rapidly growing genome repositories, and consequently of keeping the resulting data sets up-to-date. The system described is also more generically applicable to the discovery of specific targets for other diagnostic approaches such as DNA probes, PCR primers and antibodies.

  19. A distributed computational search strategy for the identification of diagnostics targets: Application to finding aptamer targets for methicillin-resistant staphylococci

    Flanagan Keith

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid and cost-effective identification of bacterial species is crucial, especially for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Peptide aptamers have been shown to be valuable for use as a component of novel, direct detection methods. These small peptides have a number of advantages over antibodies, including greater specificity and longer shelf life. These properties facilitate their use as the detector components of biosensor devices. However, the identification of suitable aptamer targets for particular groups of organisms is challenging. We present a semi-automated processing pipeline for the identification of candidate aptamer targets from whole bacterial genome sequences. The pipeline can be configured to search for protein sequence fragments that uniquely identify a set of strains of interest. The system is also capable of identifying additional organisms that may be of interest due to their possession of protein fragments in common with the initial set. Through the use of Cloud computing technology and distributed databases, our system is capable of scaling with the rapidly growing genome repositories, and consequently of keeping the resulting data sets up-to-date. The system described is also more generically applicable to the discovery of specific targets for other diagnostic approaches such as DNA probes, PCR primers and antibodies.

  20. FCJ-157 Still ‘Searching for Safety Online’: collective strategies and discursive resistance to trolling and harassment in a feminist network

    Frances Shaw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discursive responses that participants in a network of feminist blogs developed to handle trolling in their community. Internet communities develop strategies to deal with trolls in their networks. In particular, participants provide instructions and guidance to support each other to deal with trolls and harassment, and engage in intra-community discussion about the significance or insignificance of trolls. My paper explores the practices that feminist bloggers engage in to resist silencing practices, and the ways in which the silencing of female voices does not work in these contexts. I argue that trolling and discursive responses to trolls are collectively developed and enforced. Using a case study from my research into Australian feminist blogging networks, I argue that these networks have developed particular collective responses to trolls.

  1. Neural Network and Evidence Theory Based Improvements on Submarine Search Strategy of CGF%基于神经网络及证据理论的 CGF 搜潜策略改进

    宦婧; 滕克难; 唐金国

    2013-01-01

    Since the Computer Generated Force ( CGF) can not take full advantage of battlefield information to optimize CGF submarine search strategy in the cooperative anti -submarine combat,the information fusion technology was introduced into the anti-submarine warfare simulation based on the effective interaction of the information between CGF .The basic confidence assignment of the evidence information was obtained using Back Propagation (BP) artificial neural network,and the information from antisubmarine CGF was synthesized by using the improved DS evidence theory .And thus the anti-submarine CGF mobile strategy was improved . Simulation results show that the introduction of artificial neural network and information fusion technology in antisubmarine CGF submarine search process can improve the anti -submarine efficiency .%针对目前多计算机生成兵力( Computer Generated Force ,CGF)协同反潜中无法充分利用战场信息实现CGF搜潜策略优化的问题,在CGF间可有效实现信息交互的前提下,将信息融合技术引入到反潜作战仿真中;利用BP (Back Propagation)人工神经网络获取证据信息的基本置信分配,通过改进的D-S(Dempster-Shafer)证据理论对反潜CGF获取的信息进行综合,以此改进反潜CGF的移动策略。仿真实验表明,在反潜CGF搜潜过程中引入人工神经网络和信息融合技术,可有效提高CGF搜潜的成功率。

  2. Carbon Emissions Trading and Combined Heat and Power Strategies: Unintended Consequences

    Tysseling, John C.; Vosevich, Mary; Boersma, Benjamin R.; Zumwalt, Jefferey A.

    2009-01-01

    Facility professionals continuously search for projects that reduce energy consumption and operating costs so as to directly benefit their bottom line. Many institutions nationwide have contemplated or made investments in combined heat and power (CHP) projects as a life-cycle strategy to minimize operating costs. However, recent sustainability and…

  3. Global searches for microalgae and aquatic plants that can eliminate radioactive cesium, iodine and strontium from the radio-polluted aquatic environment: a bioremediation strategy.

    Fukuda, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Koji; Atsumi, Mika; Yokoyama, Akiko; Nakayama, Takeshi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Inouye, Isao; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 released an enormously high level of radionuclides into the environment, a total estimation of 6.3 × 10¹⁷ Bq represented by mainly radioactive Cs, Sr, and I. Because these radionuclides are biophilic, an urgent risk has arisen due to biological intake and subsequent food web contamination in the ecosystem. Thus, urgent elimination of radionuclides from the environment is necessary to prevent substantial radiopollution of organisms. In this study, we selected microalgae and aquatic plants that can efficiently eliminate these radionuclides from the environment. The ability of aquatic plants and algae was assessed by determining the elimination rate of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from culture medium and the accumulation capacity of radionuclides into single cells or whole bodies. Among 188 strains examined from microalgae, aquatic plants and unidentified algal species, we identified six, three and eight strains that can accumulate high levels of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from the medium, respectively. Notably, a novel eustigmatophycean unicellular algal strain, nak 9, showed the highest ability to eliminate radioactive Cs from the medium by cellular accumulation. Our results provide an important strategy for decreasing radiopollution in Fukushima area.

  4. Searching for new strategies against biofilm infections: Colistin-AMP combinations against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus single- and double-species biofilms.

    Paula Jorge

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial research is being pressured to look for more effective therapeutics for the ever-growing antibiotic-resistant infections, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP and antimicrobial combinations are promising solutions. This work evaluates colistin-AMP combinations against two major pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, encompassing non- and resistant strains. Colistin (CST combined with the AMP temporin A (TEMP-A, citropin 1.1 (CIT-1.1 and tachyplesin I linear analogue (TP-I-L was tested against planktonic, single- and double-species biofilm cultures. Overall synergy for planktonic P. aeruginosa and synergy/additiveness for planktonic S. aureus were observed. Biofilm growth prevention was achieved with synergy and additiveness. Pre-established 24 h-old biofilms were harder to eradicate, especially for S. aureus and double-species biofilms; still, some synergy and addictiveness was observed for higher concentrations, including for the biofilms of resistant strains. Different treatment times and growth media did not greatly influence AMP activity. CST revealed low toxicity compared with the other AMP but its combinations were toxic for high concentrations. Overall, combinations reduced effective AMP concentrations, mainly in prevention scenarios. Improvement of effectiveness and toxicity of therapeutic strategies will be further investigated.

  5. Internet Search Engines

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-01-01

    A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  6. Hydrological information system based on on-line monitoring--from strategy to implementation in the Brantas River Basin, East Java, Indonesia.

    Marini, G W; Wellguni, H

    2003-01-01

    The worsening environmental situation of the Brantas River, East Java, is addressed by a comprehensive basin management strategy which relies on accurate water quantity and quality data retrieved from a newly installed online monitoring network. Integrated into a Hydrological Information System, the continuously measured indicative parameters allow early warning, control and polluter identification. Additionally, long-term analyses have been initiated for improving modelling applications like flood forecasting, water resource management and pollutant propagation. Preliminary results illustrate the efficiency of the installed system.

  7. Machine learning for evolution strategies

    Kramer, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces numerous algorithmic hybridizations between both worlds that show how machine learning can improve and support evolution strategies. The set of methods comprises covariance matrix estimation, meta-modeling of fitness and constraint functions, dimensionality reduction for search and visualization of high-dimensional optimization processes, and clustering-based niching. After giving an introduction to evolution strategies and machine learning, the book builds the bridge between both worlds with an algorithmic and experimental perspective. Experiments mostly employ a (1+1)-ES and are implemented in Python using the machine learning library scikit-learn. The examples are conducted on typical benchmark problems illustrating algorithmic concepts and their experimental behavior. The book closes with a discussion of related lines of research.

  8. Safety strategy

    Schultheiss, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    The basis for safety strategy in nuclear industry and especially nuclear power plants is the prevention of radioactivity release inside or outside of the technical installation. Therefore either technical or administrative measures are combined to a general strategy concept. This introduction will explain in more detail the following topics: - basic principles of safety - lines of assurance (LOA) - defense in depth - deterministic and probabilistic methods. This presentation is seen as an introduction to the more detailed discussion following in this course, nevertheless some selected examples will be used to illustrate the aspects of safety strategy development although they might be repeated later on. (orig.)

  9. Impact of Euro-Canadian agrarian practices: in search of sustainable import-substitution strategies to enhance food security in subarctic Ontario, Canada.

    Spiegelaar, Nicole F; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2013-01-01

    In Canada, food insecurity exists among Aboriginal (Inuit, Metis and First Nations) people living in remote northern communities, in part, because of their reliance on the industrialized, import-based food system. Local food production as a substitute to imports would be an adaptive response, but enhancement of food security via food localization requires reflection on previous failings of conventional agricultural strategies so that informed decisions can be made. In light of potential reintroduction of local food production in remote First Nations communities, we investigated the cultural, social and ecological effects of a 20th century, Euro-Canadian agrarian settlement on the food system of a subarctic First Nation; this will act as the first step in developing a more sustainable local food program and enhancing food security in this community. To investigate the socio-cultural impacts of the Euro-Canadian agrarian initiative on the food system of Fort Albany First Nation, purposive, semi-directive interviews were conducted with elders and other knowledgeable community members. Interview data were placed into themes using inductive analyses. To determine the biophysical impact of the agrarian initiative, soil samples were taken from one site within the cultivated area and from one site in an undisturbed forest area. Soil properties associated with agricultural use and productivity were assessed. To compare the means of a given soil property between the sites, one-tailed t-tests were employed. Vegetative analysis was conducted in both sites to assess disturbance. According to the interviewees, prior to the agrarian initiative, First Nation families harvested wild game and fish, and gathered berries as well as other forms of vegetation for sustenance. With the introduction of the residential school and agrarian initiative, traditional food practices were deemed inadequate, families were forced to work and live in the settlement (becoming less reliant on

  10. Efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Tanzania after two years as first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria: assessment protocol and implication for treatment policy strategies

    Felger Ingrid

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic surveillance for resistant malaria shows high level of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP across eastern and southern parts of Africa. This study assessed in vivo SP efficacy after two years of use as an interim first-line drug in Tanzania, and determined the rates of treatment failures obtained after 14 and 28 days of follow-up. Methods The study was conducted in the Ipinda, Mlimba and Mkuranga health facilities in Tanzania. Children aged 6–59 months presenting with raised temperature associated exclusively with P. falciparum (1,000–100,000 parasites per μl were treated with standard dose of SP. Treatment responses were classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO definition as Adequate Clinical and Parasitological Response (ACPR, Early Treatment Failure (ETF, Late Clinical Failure (LCF and Late Parasitological Failure (LPF on day 14 and day 28. Results Overall 196 (85.2% of 230 patients had ACPR on day 14 but only 116 (50.9% on day 28 (57.7% after excluding new infections by parasite genotyping. Altogether 21 (9.1% and 13 (5.7% of the 230 patients assessed up to day 14 and 39 (17.1% and 55 (24.1% of the 228 followed up to day 28 had clinical and parasitological failure, respectively. Conclusion These findings indicate that SP has low therapeutic value in Tanzania. The recommendation of changing first line treatment to artemether + lumefantrine combination therapy from early next year is, therefore, highly justified. These findings further stress that, for long half-life drugs such as SP, establishment of cut-off points for policy change in high transmission areas should consider both clinical and parasitological responses beyond day 14.

  11. SBA - Dynamic Small Business Search

    Mobile View Print Exit Help DSBS Quick Market Search TM OnLine DSBS Welcome to the Dynamic Small Business relating to 8(a) Business Development, HUBZone or Small Disadvantaged Business status. The SBA strongly recommends that contracting officers diligently review a bidder's small business self-certification before

  12. The historical power lines. The climate political positions and strategies towards emission intensive industry in five Norwegian industrial counties; Historiens kraftlinjer. Klimapolitiske posisjoner og strategier overfor utslippsintensiv industri i fem norske industrikommuner

    Kasa, Sjur

    2003-07-01

    What is the position of the industrial communities in Norway in the political process behind the regulation of greenhouse gases from industrial sources and what strategies do they use to achieve their objectives. Interviews conducted with local governmental leaders in five industrial communities in Norway revealed that concerns about industrial closure, both within their own and neighbouring municipalities and well established industrial traditions had a clear influence on their climate policy perspectives regardless of their party affiliation. Strategies employed by industrial communities to promote their interests and communicate their positions to central authorities include not only traditional lobbying at the state level but also co-operation through horizontal networks of both private and public actors at the inter-municipal and inter-regional level. These horizontal networks are particularly important in connection with the proposed construction of gas fired power plants and increasing the industrial application of natural gas. (Author)

  13. Proof of the concept to use a malignant B cell line drug screen strategy for identification and weight of melphalan resistance genes in multiple myeloma.

    Martin Bøgsted

    Full Text Available In a conceptual study of drug resistance we have used a preclinical model of malignant B-cell lines by combining drug induced growth inhibition and gene expression profiling. In the current report a melphalan resistance profile of 19 genes were weighted by microarray data from the MRC Myeloma IX trial and time to progression following high dose melphalan, to generate an individual melphalan resistance index. The resistance index was subsequently validated in the HOVON65/GMMG-HD4 trial data set to prove the concept. Biologically, the assigned resistance indices were differentially distributed among translocations and cyclin D expression classes. Clinically, the 25% most melphalan resistant, the intermediate 50% and the 25% most sensitive patients had a median progression free survival of 18, 32 and 28 months, respectively (log-rank P-value  = 0.05. Furthermore, the median overall survival was 45 months for the resistant group and not reached for the intermediate and sensitive groups (log-rank P-value  = 0.003 following 38 months median observation. In a multivariate analysis, correcting for age, sex and ISS-staging, we found a high resistance index to be an independent variable associated with inferior progression free survival and overall survival. This study provides clinical proof of concept to use in vitro drug screen for identification of melphalan resistance gene signatures for future functional analysis.

  14. Learning about Job Search

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Jäger, Simon

    strategies and the consequences of unemployment, and motivated them to actively look for new employment. We study the causal impact of the brochure by comparing labor market outcomes of treated and untreated job seekers in administrative data containing comprehensive information on individuals’ employment...... findings indicate that targeted information provision can be a highly effective policy tool in the labor market.......We conduct a large-scale field experiment in the German labor market to investigate how information provision affects job seekers’ employment prospects and labor market outcomes. Individuals assigned to the treatment group of our experiment received a brochure that informed them about job search...

  15. Clinician search behaviors may be influenced by search engine design.

    Lau, Annie Y S; Coiera, Enrico; Zrimec, Tatjana; Compton, Paul

    2010-06-30

    Searching the Web for documents using information retrieval systems plays an important part in clinicians' practice of evidence-based medicine. While much research focuses on the design of methods to retrieve documents, there has been little examination of the way different search engine capabilities influence clinician search behaviors. Previous studies have shown that use of task-based search engines allows for faster searches with no loss of decision accuracy compared with resource-based engines. We hypothesized that changes in search behaviors may explain these differences. In all, 75 clinicians (44 doctors and 31 clinical nurse consultants) were randomized to use either a resource-based or a task-based version of a clinical information retrieval system to answer questions about 8 clinical scenarios in a controlled setting in a university computer laboratory. Clinicians using the resource-based system could select 1 of 6 resources, such as PubMed; clinicians using the task-based system could select 1 of 6 clinical tasks, such as diagnosis. Clinicians in both systems could reformulate search queries. System logs unobtrusively capturing clinicians' interactions with the systems were coded and analyzed for clinicians' search actions and query reformulation strategies. The most frequent search action of clinicians using the resource-based system was to explore a new resource with the same query, that is, these clinicians exhibited a "breadth-first" search behaviour. Of 1398 search actions, clinicians using the resource-based system conducted 401 (28.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 26.37-31.11) in this way. In contrast, the majority of clinicians using the task-based system exhibited a "depth-first" search behavior in which they reformulated query keywords while keeping to the same task profiles. Of 585 search actions conducted by clinicians using the task-based system, 379 (64.8%, 95% CI 60.83-68.55) were conducted in this way. This study provides evidence that

  16. A beginner's guide to the literature search in medical education.

    Martin, S; Hussain, Z; Boyle, J G

    2017-05-01

    Conducting a literature search can be a daunting prospect if you have not done it before. This article aims to provide a beginner's guide to searching the medical education literature, by describing how to construct an effective search strategy, the resources that are available and the basics of how searching works.

  17. Cover times of random searches

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    How long must one undertake a random search to visit all sites of a given domain? This time, known as the cover time, is a key observable to quantify the efficiency of exhaustive searches, which require a complete exploration of an area and not only the discovery of a single target. Examples range from immune-system cells chasing pathogens to animals harvesting resources, from robotic exploration for cleaning or demining to the task of improving search algorithms. Despite its broad relevance, the cover time has remained elusive and so far explicit results have been scarce and mostly limited to regular random walks. Here we determine the full distribution of the cover time for a broad range of random search processes, including Lévy strategies, intermittent strategies, persistent random walks and random walks on complex networks, and reveal its universal features. We show that for all these examples the mean cover time can be minimized, and that the corresponding optimal strategies also minimize the mean search time for a single target, unambiguously pointing towards their robustness.

  18. Optimal search strategies on complex networks

    Di Patti, Francesca; Fanelli, Duccio; Piazza, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Complex networks are ubiquitous in nature and play a role of paramount importance in many contexts. Internet and the cyberworld, which permeate our everyday life, are self-organized hierarchical graphs. Urban traffic flows on intricate road networks, which impact both transportation design and epidemic control. In the brain, neurons are cabled through heterogeneous connections, which support the propagation of electric signals. In all these cases, the true challenge is to unveil the mechanism...

  19. Search strategies along the academic lifecycle

    Horlings, E.; Gurney, T.

    Understanding how individual scientists build a personal portfolio of research is key to understanding outcomes on the level of scientific fields, institutions, and systems. We lack the scientometric and statistical instruments to examine the development over time of the involvement of researchers

  20. Renewable energies: search for a community strategy

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    During the Energy Council of December 8, 1997, the European Commission has presented a white book entitled 'Energy for the future: renewable energy sources'. This white book aims to increase from 6 to 12% the share of renewable energies in the European energy consumption thanks to a global action plan of rational use of energy in association with renewable energies and to a campaign of four key-actions: 1000000 of photovoltaic systems (50% in the European Union, 50% exported); 10000 MW of wind energy; 10000 MWth of biomass energy and the integration of renewable energies in 100 communities. Short paper. (J.S.)

  1. Meta Search Engines.

    Garman, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Describes common options and features to consider in evaluating which meta search engine will best meet a searcher's needs. Discusses number and names of engines searched; other sources and specialty engines; search queries; other search options; and results options. (AEF)

  2. Learning Search Algorithms: An Educational View

    Ales Janota

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence methods find their practical usage in many applications including maritime industry. The paper concentrates on the methods of uninformed and informed search, potentially usable in solving of complex problems based on the state space representation. The problem of introducing the search algorithms to newcomers has its technical and psychological dimensions. The authors show how it is possible to cope with both of them through design and use of specialized authoring systems. A typical example of searching a path through the maze is used to demonstrate how to test, observe and compare properties of various search strategies. Performance of search methods is evaluated based on the common criteria.

  3. Search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI)

    Morrison, P.; Billingham, J.; Wolfe, J.

    1977-01-01

    Findings are presented of a series of workshops on the existence of extraterrestrial intelligent life and ways in which extraterrestrial intelligence might be detected. The coverage includes the cosmic and cultural evolutions, search strategies, detection of other planetary systems, alternate methods of communication, and radio frequency interference. 17 references

  4. Organizational search and market orientation

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Stieglitz, Nils

    2008-01-01

      Market orientation has evolved into a key construct in the marketing and strategy literature. While much progress has been made in empirical research, the concept lacks a coherent theoretical foundation. Essentially, much prior research has pointed to the role of market-sensing capabilities...... to explain performance differentials among firms (Day, 1994). We open up the black box of market-sensing capabilities by treating the issue of choosing marketing attributes of products as a problem of organizational search. Despite much robust research on organizational search in the strategy......, with their effectiveness depending on organizational and environmental factors. We provide an elaborate outline of the multidimensional aspect of firms' responsive and proactive search processes. First, we highlight the role of organizational aspiration-levels for market orientation. We then investigate the mechanisms...

  5. Refining search terms for nanotechnology

    Porter, Alan L.; Youtie, Jan; Shapira, Philip; Schoeneck, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology's research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as 'nano') given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting databases. We explain our approach to downloading and cleaning data, and report initial results. Comparisons of this approach with other nanotechnology search formulations are presented. Implications for search strategy development and profiling of the nanotechnology field are discussed

  6. Refining search terms for nanotechnology

    Porter, Alan L. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Youtie, Jan [Georgia Institute of Technology, Enterprise Innovation Institute (United States)], E-mail: jan.youtie@innovate.gatech.edu; Shapira, Philip [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Schoeneck, David J. [Search Technology, Inc. (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology's research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as 'nano') given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting databases. We explain our approach to downloading and cleaning data, and report initial results. Comparisons of this approach with other nanotechnology search formulations are presented. Implications for search strategy development and profiling of the nanotechnology field are discussed.

  7. World lines.

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  8. Search along persistent random walks

    Friedrich, Benjamin M

    2008-01-01

    Optimal search strategies and their implementations in biological systems are a subject of active research. Here we study a search problem which is motivated by the hunt of sperm cells for the egg. We ask for the probability for an active swimmer to find a target under the condition that the swimmer starts at a certain distance from the target. We find that success probability is maximal for a certain level of fluctuations characterized by the persistence length of the swimming path of the swimmer. We derive a scaling law for the optimal persistence length as a function of the initial target distance and search time by mapping the search on a polymer physics problem

  9. An adaptive random search for short term generation scheduling with network constraints.

    J A Marmolejo

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive random search approach to address a short term generation scheduling with network constraints, which determines the startup and shutdown schedules of thermal units over a given planning horizon. In this model, we consider the transmission network through capacity limits and line losses. The mathematical model is stated in the form of a Mixed Integer Non Linear Problem with binary variables. The proposed heuristic is a population-based method that generates a set of new potential solutions via a random search strategy. The random search is based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The main key of the proposed method is that the noise level of the random search is adaptively controlled in order to exploring and exploiting the entire search space. In order to improve the solutions, we consider coupling a local search into random search process. Several test systems are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed heuristic. We use a commercial optimizer to compare the quality of the solutions provided by the proposed method. The solution of the proposed algorithm showed a significant reduction in computational effort with respect to the full-scale outer approximation commercial solver. Numerical results show the potential and robustness of our approach.

  10. A method of searching LDAP directories using XQuery

    Hesselroth, Ted

    2011-01-01

    A method by which an LDAP directory can be searched using XQuery is described. The strategy behind the tool consists of four steps. First the XQuery script is examined and relevant XPath expressions are extracted, determined to be sufficient to define all information needed to perform the query. Then the XPath expressions are converted into their equivalent LDAP search filters by use of the published LDAP schema of the service, and search requests are made to the LDAP host. The search results are then merged and converted to an XML document that conforms to the hierarchy of the LDAP schema. Finally, the XQuery script is executed on the working XML document by conventional means. Examples are given of application of the tool in the Open Science Grid, which for discovery purposes operates an LDAP server that contains Glue schema-based information on site configuration and authorization policies. The XQuery scripts compactly replace hundreds of lines of custom python code that relied on the unix ldapsearch utility. Installation of the tool is available through the Virtual Data Toolkit.

  11. NASA Indexing Benchmarks: Evaluating Text Search Engines

    Esler, Sandra L.; Nelson, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The current proliferation of on-line information resources underscores the requirement for the ability to index collections of information and search and retrieve them in a convenient manner. This study develops criteria for analytically comparing the index and search engines and presents results for a number of freely available search engines. A product of this research is a toolkit capable of automatically indexing, searching, and extracting performance statistics from each of the focused search engines. This toolkit is highly configurable and has the ability to run these benchmark tests against other engines as well. Results demonstrate that the tested search engines can be grouped into two levels. Level one engines are efficient on small to medium sized data collections, but show weaknesses when used for collections 100MB or larger. Level two search engines are recommended for data collections up to and beyond 100MB.

  12. Transmission line capital costs

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  13. Response probability and response time: a straight line, the Tagging/Retagging interpretation of short term memory, an operational definition of meaningfulness and short term memory time decay and search time.

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2008-12-01

    The functional relationship between correct response probability and response time is investigated in data sets from Rubin, Hinton and Wenzel, J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 25:1161-1176, 1999 and Anderson, J Exp Psychol [Hum Learn] 7:326-343, 1981. The two measures are linearly related through stimulus presentation lags from 0 to 594 s in the former experiment and for repeated learning of words in the latter. The Tagging/Retagging interpretation of short term memory is introduced to explain this linear relationship. At stimulus presentation the words are tagged. This tagging level drops slowly with time. When a probe word is reintroduced the tagging level has to increase for the word to be properly identified leading to a delay in response time. The tagging time is related to the meaningfulness of the words used-the more meaningful the word the longer the tagging time. After stimulus presentation the tagging level drops in a logarithmic fashion to 50% after 10 s and to 20% after 240 s. The incorrect recall and recognition times saturate in the Rubin et al. data set (they are not linear for large time lags), suggesting a limited time to search the short term memory structure: the search time for recall of unusual words is 1.7 s. For recognition of nonsense words the corresponding time is about 0.4 s, similar to the 0.243 s found in Cavanagh (1972).

  14. Nurse Discontent: The Search for Realistic Solutions.

    Ginzberg, Eli; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Following a report on the findings of a survey of North Florida nurses, the authors present several approaches for nursing administrators to consider when searching for more productive strategies to improve retention of hospital nurses. (CT)

  15. Keep Searching and You’ll Find

    Laursen, Keld

    2012-01-01

    This article critically reviews and synthesizes the contributions found in theoretical and empirical studies of firm-level innovation search processes. It explores the advantages and disadvantages of local and non-local search, discusses organizational responses, and identifies potential exogenous...... different search strategies, but end up with very similar technological profiles in fast-growing technologies. The article concludes by highlighting what we have learnt from the literature and suggesting some new avenues for research....

  16. Optimization of line configuration and balancing for flexible machining lines

    Liu, Xuemei; Li, Aiping; Chen, Zurui

    2016-05-01

    Line configuration and balancing is to select the type of line and allot a given set of operations as well as machines to a sequence of workstations to realize high-efficiency production. Most of the current researches for machining line configuration and balancing problems are related to dedicated transfer lines with dedicated machine workstations. With growing trends towards great product variety and fluctuations in market demand, dedicated transfer lines are being replaced with flexible machining line composed of identical CNC machines. This paper deals with the line configuration and balancing problem for flexible machining lines. The objective is to assign operations to workstations and find the sequence of execution, specify the number of machines in each workstation while minimizing the line cycle time and total number of machines. This problem is subject to precedence, clustering, accessibility and capacity constraints among the features, operations, setups and workstations. The mathematical model and heuristic algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are presented to find an optimal solution. The feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are used to establish constraint model. A heuristic operations sequencing and assignment algorithm is given. An industrial case study is carried out, and multiple optimal solutions in different line configurations are obtained. The case studying results show that the solutions with shorter cycle time and higher line balancing rate demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. This research proposes a heuristic line configuration and balancing algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory which is able to provide better solutions while achieving an improvement in computing time.

  17. Silver linings.

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantum walks and search algorithms

    Portugal, Renato

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses an interesting area of quantum computation called quantum walks, which play an important role in building quantum algorithms, in particular search algorithms. Quantum walks are the quantum analogue of classical random walks. It is known that quantum computers have great power for searching unsorted databases. This power extends to many kinds of searches, particularly to the problem of finding a specific location in a spatial layout, which can be modeled by a graph. The goal is to find a specific node knowing that the particle uses the edges to jump from one node to the next. This book is self-contained with main topics that include: Grover's algorithm, describing its geometrical interpretation and evolution by means of the spectral decomposition of the evolution operater Analytical solutions of quantum walks on important graphs like line, cycles, two-dimensional lattices, and hypercubes using Fourier transforms Quantum walks on generic graphs, describing methods to calculate the limiting d...

  19. Marketing Strategy: Luonnotar Organic Home Line

    Soukhotski, Dmitri

    2010-01-01

    It is mainly due to innovation which creates new possibilities that progress and development becomes achievable. Organic textiles are one such remarkable concept worthy of being classified as a novelty trend not only from the marketing perspective but also from the perspective of novelty in the sustainable natural resources management. It can be theorized that the added value of health benefits from utilization of the organic concept in the economy is something that should be highly desirable...

  20. Strategies for achieving orthopedic service line success.

    Lang, Stacey; Powers, Kristi

    2013-12-01

    Healthcare finance leaders can work with orthopedic surgeons to support better outcomes, clinically and financially, by: Establishing innovative partnerships among hospital leaders, orthopedic surgeons, and implant vendors. Developing and enforcing expectations around contracting and vendor behavior. Establishing a forum for open communication. Building a bundled payment structure. Finding ways to differentiate from the competition.

  1. Library Catalogue Users Are Influenced by Trends in Web Searching Search Strategies. A review of: Novotny, Eric. “I Don’t Think I Click: A Protocol Analysis Study of Use of a Library Online Catalog in the Internet Age.” College & Research Libraries, 65.6 (Nov. 2004: 525-37.

    Susan Haigh

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To explore how Web-savvy users think about and search an online catalogue. Design – Protocol analysis study. Setting – Academic library (Pennsylvania State University Libraries. Subjects – Eighteen users (17 students, 1 faculty member of an online public access catalog, divided into two groups of nine first-time and nine experienced users. Method – The study team developed five tasks that represented a range of activities commonly performed by library users, such as searching for a specific item, identifying a library location, and requesting a copy. Seventeen students and one faculty member, divided evenly between novice and experienced searchers, were recruited to “think aloud” through the performance of the tasks. Data were gathered through audio recordings, screen capture software, and investigator notes. The time taken for each task was recorded, and investigators rated task completion as “successful,” “partially successful,” “fail,” or “search aborted.” After the searching session, participants were interviewed to clarify their actions and provide further commentary on the catalogue search. Main results – Participants in both test groups were relatively unsophisticated subject searchers. They made minimal use of Boolean operators, and tended not to repair failed searches by rethinking the search vocabulary and using synonyms. Participants did not have a strong understanding of library catalogue contents or structure and showed little curiosity in developing an understanding of how to utilize the catalogue. Novice users were impatient both in choosing search options and in evaluating their search results. They assumed search results were sorted by relevance, and thus would not typically browse past the initial screen. They quickly followed links, fearlessly tried different searches and options, and rapidly abandoned false trails. Experienced users were more effective and efficient searchers than

  2. Evolution of Industry Knowledge in the Public Domain: Prior Art Searching for Software Patents

    Jinseok Park

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Searching prior art is a key part of the patent application and examination processes. A comprehensive prior art search gives the inventor ideas as to how he can improve or circumvent existing technology by providing up to date knowledge on the state of the art. It also enables the patent applicant to minimise the likelihood of an objection from the patent office. This article explores the characteristics of prior art associated with software patents, dealing with difficulties in searching prior art due to the lack of resources, and considers public contribution to the formation of prior art databases. It addresses the evolution of electronic prior art in line with technological development, and discusses laws and practices in the EPO, USPTO, and the JPO in relation to the validity of prior art resources on the Internet. This article also investigates the main features of searching sources and tools in the three patent offices as well as non-patent literature databases. Based on the analysis of various searching databases, it provides some strategies of efficient prior art searching that should be considered for software-related inventions.

  3. Children's sequential information search is sensitive to environmental probabilities.

    Nelson, Jonathan D; Divjak, Bojana; Gudmundsdottir, Gudny; Martignon, Laura F; Meder, Björn

    2014-01-01

    We investigated 4th-grade children's search strategies on sequential search tasks in which the goal is to identify an unknown target object by asking yes-no questions about its features. We used exhaustive search to identify the most efficient question strategies and evaluated the usefulness of children's questions accordingly. Results show that children have good intuitions regarding questions' usefulness and search adaptively, relative to the statistical structure of the task environment. Search was especially efficient in a task environment that was representative of real-world experiences. This suggests that children may use their knowledge of real-world environmental statistics to guide their search behavior. We also compared different related search tasks. We found positive transfer effects from first doing a number search task on a later person search task. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Person perception informs understanding of cognition during visual search.

    Brennan, Allison A; Watson, Marcus R; Kingstone, Alan; Enns, James T

    2011-08-01

    Does person perception--the impressions we form from watching others--hold clues to the mental states of people engaged in cognitive tasks? We investigated this with a two-phase method: In Phase 1, participants searched on a computer screen (Experiment 1) or in an office (Experiment 2); in Phase 2, other participants rated the searchers' video-recorded behavior. The results showed that blind raters are sensitive to individual differences in search proficiency and search strategy, as well as to environmental factors affecting search difficulty. Also, different behaviors were linked to search success in each setting: Eye movement frequency predicted successful search on a computer screen; head movement frequency predicted search success in an office. In both settings, an active search strategy and positive emotional expressions were linked to search success. These data indicate that person perception informs cognition beyond the scope of performance measures, offering the potential for new measurements of cognition that are both rich and unobtrusive.

  5. production lines

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  6. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)

    Tarter, Jill

    The search for evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence is placed in the broader astronomical context of the search for extrasolar planets and biomarkers of primitive life elsewhere in the universe. A decision tree of possible search strategies is presented as well as a brief history of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) projects since 1960. The characteristics of 14 SETI projects currently operating on telescopes are discussed and compared using one of many possible figures of merit. Plans for SETI searches in the immediate and more distant future are outlined. Plans for success, the significance of null results, and some opinions on deliberate transmission of signals (as well as listening) are also included. SETI results to date are negative, but in reality, not much searching has yet been done.

  7. The Heavy Photon Search beamline and its performance

    Baltzell, N.; Egiyan, H.; Ehrhart, M.; Field, C.; Freyberger, A.; Girod, F.-X.; Holtrop, M.; Jaros, J.; Kalicy, G.; Maruyama, T.; McKinnon, B.; Moffeit, K.; Nelson, T.; Odian, A.; Oriunno, M.; Paremuzyan, R.; Stepanyan, S.; Tiefenback, M.; Uemura, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vance, H.

    2017-04-04

    The Heavy Photon Search (HPS) is an experiment to search for a hidden sector photon, aka a heavy photon or dark photon, in fixed target electroproduction at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). The HPS experiment searches for the e+e- decay of the heavy photon with bump hunt and detached vertex strategies using a compact, large acceptance forward spectrometer, consisting of a silicon microstrip detector (SVT) for tracking and vertexing, and a PbWO4 electromagnetic calorimeter for energy measurement and fast triggering. To achieve large acceptance and good vertexing resolution, the first layer of silicon detectors is placed just 10 cm downstream of the target with the sensor edges only 500 μm above and below the beam. Placing the SVT in such close proximity to the beam puts stringent requirements on the beam profile and beam position stability. As part of an approved engineering run, HPS took data in 2015 and 2016 at 1.05 GeV and 2.3 GeV beam energies, respectively. This paper describes the beam line and its performance during that data taking.

  8. Search predicts and changes patience in intertemporal choice

    Johnson, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Intertemporal choice impacts many important outcomes, such as decisions about health, education, wealth, and the environment. However, the psychological processes underlying decisions involving outcomes at different points in time remain unclear, limiting opportunities to intervene and improve people’s patience. This research examines information-search strategies used during intertemporal choice and their impact on decisions. In experiment 1, we demonstrate that search strategies vary substantially across individuals. We subsequently identify two distinct search strategies across individuals. Comparative searchers, who compare features across options, discount future options less and are more susceptible to acceleration versus delay framing than integrative searchers, who integrate the features of an option. Experiment 2 manipulates search using an unobtrusive method to establish a causal relationship between strategy and choice, randomly assigning participants to conditions promoting either comparative or integrative search. Again, comparative search promotes greater patience than integrative search. Additionally, when participants adopt a comparative search strategy, they also exhibit greater effects of acceleration versus delay framing. Although most participants reported that the manipulation did not change their behavior, promoting comparative search decreased discounting of future rewards substantially and speeded patient choices. These findings highlight the central role that heterogeneity in psychological processes plays in shaping intertemporal choice. Importantly, these results indicate that theories that ignore variability in search strategies may be inadvertently aggregating over different subpopulations that use very different processes. The findings also inform interventions in choice architecture to increase patience and improve consumer welfare. PMID:29078303

  9. Search predicts and changes patience in intertemporal choice.

    Reeck, Crystal; Wall, Daniel; Johnson, Eric J

    2017-11-07

    Intertemporal choice impacts many important outcomes, such as decisions about health, education, wealth, and the environment. However, the psychological processes underlying decisions involving outcomes at different points in time remain unclear, limiting opportunities to intervene and improve people's patience. This research examines information-search strategies used during intertemporal choice and their impact on decisions. In experiment 1, we demonstrate that search strategies vary substantially across individuals. We subsequently identify two distinct search strategies across individuals. Comparative searchers, who compare features across options, discount future options less and are more susceptible to acceleration versus delay framing than integrative searchers, who integrate the features of an option. Experiment 2 manipulates search using an unobtrusive method to establish a causal relationship between strategy and choice, randomly assigning participants to conditions promoting either comparative or integrative search. Again, comparative search promotes greater patience than integrative search. Additionally, when participants adopt a comparative search strategy, they also exhibit greater effects of acceleration versus delay framing. Although most participants reported that the manipulation did not change their behavior, promoting comparative search decreased discounting of future rewards substantially and speeded patient choices. These findings highlight the central role that heterogeneity in psychological processes plays in shaping intertemporal choice. Importantly, these results indicate that theories that ignore variability in search strategies may be inadvertently aggregating over different subpopulations that use very different processes. The findings also inform interventions in choice architecture to increase patience and improve consumer welfare. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Line facilities outline

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  11. How doctors search

    Lykke, Marianne; Price, Susan; Delcambre, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Professional, workplace searching is different from general searching, because it is typically limited to specific facets and targeted to a single answer. We have developed the semantic component (SC) model, which is a search feature that allows searchers to structure and specify the search to co...

  12. Sound Search Engine Concept

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  13. Web Search Engines

    Rajashekar, TB

    1998-01-01

    The World Wide Web is emerging as an all-in-one information source. Tools for searching Web-based information include search engines, subject directories and meta search tools. We take a look at key features of these tools and suggest practical hints for effective Web searching.

  14. submitter Searches at LEP

    Kawagoe, Kiyotomo

    2001-01-01

    Searches for new particles and new physics were extensively performed at LEP. Although no evidence for new particle/physics was discovered, the null results set very stringent limits to theories beyond the standard model. In this paper, searches at LEP and anomalies observed in the searches are presented. Future prospect of searches at the new energy frontier machines is also discussed.

  15. CITE NLM: Natural-Language Searching in an Online Catalog.

    Doszkocs, Tamas E.

    1983-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine's Current Information Transfer in English public access online catalog offers unique subject search capabilities--natural-language query input, automatic medical subject headings display, closest match search strategy, ranked document output, dynamic end user feedback for search refinement. References, description…

  16. Optimal Fungal Space Searching Algorithms.

    Asenova, Elitsa; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Fu, Eileen; Nicolau, Dan V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2016-10-01

    Previous experiments have shown that fungi use an efficient natural algorithm for searching the space available for their growth in micro-confined networks, e.g., mazes. This natural "master" algorithm, which comprises two "slave" sub-algorithms, i.e., collision-induced branching and directional memory, has been shown to be more efficient than alternatives, with one, or the other, or both sub-algorithms turned off. In contrast, the present contribution compares the performance of the fungal natural algorithm against several standard artificial homologues. It was found that the space-searching fungal algorithm consistently outperforms uninformed algorithms, such as Depth-First-Search (DFS). Furthermore, while the natural algorithm is inferior to informed ones, such as A*, this under-performance does not importantly increase with the increase of the size of the maze. These findings suggest that a systematic effort of harvesting the natural space searching algorithms used by microorganisms is warranted and possibly overdue. These natural algorithms, if efficient, can be reverse-engineered for graph and tree search strategies.

  17. Myanmar Language Search Engine

    Pann Yu Mon; Yoshiki Mikami

    2011-01-01

    With the enormous growth of the World Wide Web, search engines play a critical role in retrieving information from the borderless Web. Although many search engines are available for the major languages, but they are not much proficient for the less computerized languages including Myanmar. The main reason is that those search engines are not considering the specific features of those languages. A search engine which capable of searching the Web documents written in those languages is highly n...

  18. Ordered Consumer Search

    Armstrong, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses situations in which consumers search through their options in a deliberate order, in contrast to more familiar models with random search. Topics include: network effects (consumers may be better off following the same search order as other consumers); the use of price and non-price advertising to direct search; the impact of consumers starting a new search with their previous supplier; the incentive sellers have to merge or co-locate with other sellers; and the incentive a...

  19. Effects of Serial Rehearsal Training on Memory Search

    McCauley, Charley; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Half the subjects were trained to use a serial rehearsal strategy during target set storage and half were given no strategy training. The results indicate that the rate of memory search is IQ-related, and that serial rehearsal training facilitates memory search when rehearsal is covert. (Author/BW)

  20. An Expert System Approach to Online Catalog Subject Searching.

    Khoo, Christopher S. G.; Poo, Danny C. C.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews methods to improve online catalogs for subject searching and describes the design of an expert system front-end to improve subject access in online public access catalogs that focuses on search strategies. Implementation of a prototype system at the National University of Singapore is described, and reformulation strategies are discussed.…

  1. Parallel Lines

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  2. Can electronic search engines optimize screening of search results in systematic reviews: an empirical study.

    Sampson, Margaret; Barrowman, Nicholas J; Moher, David; Clifford, Tammy J; Platt, Robert W; Morrison, Andra; Klassen, Terry P; Zhang, Li

    2006-02-24

    Most electronic search efforts directed at identifying primary studies for inclusion in systematic reviews rely on the optimal Boolean search features of search interfaces such as DIALOG and Ovid. Our objective is to test the ability of an Ultraseek search engine to rank MEDLINE records of the included studies of Cochrane reviews within the top half of all the records retrieved by the Boolean MEDLINE search used by the reviewers. Collections were created using the MEDLINE bibliographic records of included and excluded studies listed in the review and all records retrieved by the MEDLINE search. Records were converted to individual HTML files. Collections of records were indexed and searched through a statistical search engine, Ultraseek, using review-specific search terms. Our data sources, systematic reviews published in the Cochrane library, were included if they reported using at least one phase of the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy (HSSS), provided citations for both included and excluded studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a binary outcome measure. Reviews were selected if they yielded between 1000-6000 records when the MEDLINE search strategy was replicated. Nine Cochrane reviews were included. Included studies within the Cochrane reviews were found within the first 500 retrieved studies more often than would be expected by chance. Across all reviews, recall of included studies into the top 500 was 0.70. There was no statistically significant difference in ranking when comparing included studies with just the subset of excluded studies listed as excluded in the published review. The relevance ranking provided by the search engine was better than expected by chance and shows promise for the preliminary evaluation of large results from Boolean searches. A statistical search engine does not appear to be able to make fine discriminations concerning the relevance of bibliographic records that have been pre-screened by systematic reviewers.

  3. Identification of a novel rhabdovirus in Spodoptera frugiperda cell lines.

    Ma, Hailun; Galvin, Teresa A; Glasner, Dustin R; Shaheduzzaman, Syed; Khan, Arifa S

    2014-06-01

    The Sf9 cell line, derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, is used as a cell substrate for biological products, and no viruses have been reported in this cell line after extensive testing. We used degenerate PCR assays and massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to identify a novel RNA virus belonging to the order Mononegavirales in Sf9 cells. Sequence analysis of the assembled virus genome showed the presence of five open reading frames (ORFs) corresponding to the genes for the N, P, M, G, and L proteins in other rhabdoviruses and an unknown ORF of 111 amino acids located between the G- and L-protein genes. BLAST searches indicated that the S. frugiperda rhabdovirus (Sf-rhabdovirus) was related in a limited region of the L-protein gene to Taastrup virus, a newly discovered member of the Mononegavirales from a leafhopper (Hemiptera), and also to plant rhabdoviruses, particularly in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences in the L-protein gene indicated that Sf-rhabdovirus is a novel virus that branched with Taastrup virus. Rhabdovirus morphology was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of filtered supernatant samples from Sf9 cells. Infectivity studies indicated potential transient infection by Sf-rhabdovirus in other insect cell lines, but there was no evidence of entry or virus replication in human cell lines. Sf-rhabdovirus sequences were also found in the Sf21 parental cell line of Sf9 cells but not in other insect cell lines, such as BT1-TN-5B1-4 (Tn5; High Five) cells and Schneider's Drosophila line 2 [D.Mel.(2); SL2] cells, indicating a species-specific infection. The results indicate that conventional methods may be complemented by state-of-the-art technologies with extensive bioinformatics analysis for identification of novel viruses. The Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cell line is used as a cell substrate for the development and manufacture of biological products. Extensive testing has not previously identified any viruses in this cell

  4. The Search Performance Evaluation and Prediction in Exploratory Search

    LIU, FEI

    2016-01-01

    The exploratory search for complex search tasks requires an effective search behavior model to evaluate and predict user search performance. Few studies have investigated the relationship between user search behavior and search performance in exploratory search. This research adopts a mixed approach combining search system development, user search experiment, search query log analysis, and multivariate regression analysis to resolve the knowledge gap. Through this study, it is shown that expl...

  5. Large Neighborhood Search

    Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Heuristics based on large neighborhood search have recently shown outstanding results in solving various transportation and scheduling problems. Large neighborhood search methods explore a complex neighborhood by use of heuristics. Using large neighborhoods makes it possible to find better...... candidate solutions in each iteration and hence traverse a more promising search path. Starting from the large neighborhood search method,we give an overview of very large scale neighborhood search methods and discuss recent variants and extensions like variable depth search and adaptive large neighborhood...

  6. Search for neutral leptons

    Perl, M.L.

    1984-12-01

    At present we know of three kinds of neutral leptons: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino. This paper reviews the search for additional neutral leptons. The method and significance of a search depends upon the model used for the neutral lepton being sought. Some models for the properties and decay modes of proposed neutral leptons are described. Past and present searches are reviewed. The limits obtained by some completed searches are given, and the methods of searches in progress are described. Future searches are discussed. 41 references

  7. Search for interstellar methane

    Knacke, R.F.; Kim, Y.H.; Noll, K.S.; Geballe, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers searched for interstellar methane in the spectra of infrared sources embedded in molecular clouds. New observations of several lines of the P and R branches of the nu 3 band of CH4 near 3.3 microns give column densities in the range N less than 1(-2) times 10 to the minus 16th power cm(-2). Resulting abundance ratios are (CH4)/(CO) less than 3.3 times 10 to the minus 2nd power toward GL961 in NGC 2244 and less than 2.4 times 10 to the minus 3rd power toward GL989 in the NGC 2264 molecular cloud. The limits, and those determined in earlier observations of BN in Orion and GL490, suggest that there is little methane in molecular clouds. The result agrees with predictions of chemical models. Exceptions could occur in clouds where oxygen may be depleted, for example by H2O freezing on grains. The present observations probably did not sample such regions

  8. Cube search, revisited

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with “equivalent” 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target. PMID:25780063

  9. Literature searches on Ayurveda: An update.

    Aggithaya, Madhur G; Narahari, Saravu R

    2015-01-01

    The journals that publish on Ayurveda are increasingly indexed by popular medical databases in recent years. However, many Eastern journals are not indexed biomedical journal databases such as PubMed. Literature searches for Ayurveda continue to be challenging due to the nonavailability of active, unbiased dedicated databases for Ayurvedic literature. In 2010, authors identified 46 databases that can be used for systematic search of Ayurvedic papers and theses. This update reviewed our previous recommendation and identified current and relevant databases. To update on Ayurveda literature search and strategy to retrieve maximum publications. Author used psoriasis as an example to search previously listed databases and identify new. The population, intervention, control, and outcome table included keywords related to psoriasis and Ayurvedic terminologies for skin diseases. Current citation update status, search results, and search options of previous databases were assessed. Eight search strategies were developed. Hundred and five journals, both biomedical and Ayurveda, which publish on Ayurveda, were identified. Variability in databases was explored to identify bias in journal citation. Five among 46 databases are now relevant - AYUSH research portal, Annotated Bibliography of Indian Medicine, Digital Helpline for Ayurveda Research Articles (DHARA), PubMed, and Directory of Open Access Journals. Search options in these databases are not uniform, and only PubMed allows complex search strategy. "The Researches in Ayurveda" and "Ayurvedic Research Database" (ARD) are important grey resources for hand searching. About 44/105 (41.5%) journals publishing Ayurvedic studies are not indexed in any database. Only 11/105 (10.4%) exclusive Ayurveda journals are indexed in PubMed. AYUSH research portal and DHARA are two major portals after 2010. It is mandatory to search PubMed and four other databases because all five carry citations from different groups of journals. The hand

  10. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  11. Professional and Regulatory Search

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  12. Citation searches are more sensitive than keyword searches to identify studies using specific measurement instruments.

    Linder, Suzanne K; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Pratt, Gregory F; Saraykar, Smita S; Volk, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two search methods in identifying studies that used the Control Preferences Scale (CPS), a health care decision-making instrument commonly used in clinical settings. We searched the literature using two methods: (1) keyword searching using variations of "Control Preferences Scale" and (2) cited reference searching using two seminal CPS publications. We searched three bibliographic databases [PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS)] and one full-text database (Google Scholar). We report precision and sensitivity as measures of effectiveness. Keyword searches in bibliographic databases yielded high average precision (90%) but low average sensitivity (16%). PubMed was the most precise, followed closely by Scopus and WOS. The Google Scholar keyword search had low precision (54%) but provided the highest sensitivity (70%). Cited reference searches in all databases yielded moderate sensitivity (45-54%), but precision ranged from 35% to 75% with Scopus being the most precise. Cited reference searches were more sensitive than keyword searches, making it a more comprehensive strategy to identify all studies that use a particular instrument. Keyword searches provide a quick way of finding some but not all relevant articles. Goals, time, and resources should dictate the combination of which methods and databases are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Google Search Appliance (GSA) to search digital library collections: A Case Study of the INIS Collection Search

    Savic, Dobrica

    2014-01-01

    Google Search has established a new standard for information retrieval which did not exist with previous generations of library search facilities. The INIS hosts one of the world’s largest collections of published information on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. It offers on-line access to a unique collection of 3.6 million bibliographic records and 483,000 full texts of non-conventional (grey) literature. This large digital library collection suffered from most of the well-known shortcomings of the classic library catalogue. Searching was complex and complicated, it required training in Boolean logic, full-text searching was not an option, and response time was slow. An opportune moment to improve the system came with the retirement of the previous catalogue software and the adoption of GSA as an organization-wide search engine standard. INIS was quick to realize the potential of using such a well-known application to replace its on-line catalogue. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages encountered during three years of GSA use. Based on specific INIS-based practice and experience, this paper also offers some guidelines on ways to improve classic collections of millions of bibliographic and full-text documents, while reaping multiple benefits, such as increased use, accessibility, usability, expandability and improving user search and retrieval experiences. (author)

  14. Efficient search by optimized intermittent random walks

    Oshanin, Gleb; Lindenberg, Katja; Wio, Horacio S; Burlatsky, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    We study the kinetics for the search of an immobile target by randomly moving searchers that detect it only upon encounter. The searchers perform intermittent random walks on a one-dimensional lattice. Each searcher can step on a nearest neighbor site with probability α or go off lattice with probability 1 - α to move in a random direction until it lands back on the lattice at a fixed distance L away from the departure point. Considering α and L as optimization parameters, we seek to enhance the chances of successful detection by minimizing the probability P N that the target remains undetected up to the maximal search time N. We show that even in this simple model, a number of very efficient search strategies can lead to a decrease of P N by orders of magnitude upon appropriate choices of α and L. We demonstrate that, in general, such optimal intermittent strategies are much more efficient than Brownian searches and are as efficient as search algorithms based on random walks with heavy-tailed Cauchy jump-length distributions. In addition, such intermittent strategies appear to be more advantageous than Levy-based ones in that they lead to more thorough exploration of visited regions in space and thus lend themselves to parallelization of the search processes.

  15. Search on Rugged Landscapes

    Billinger, Stephan; Stieglitz, Nils; Schumacher, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a laboratory experiment on human decision-making in a complex combinatorial task. We find strong evidence for a behavioral model of adaptive search. Success narrows down search to the neighborhood of the status quo, while failure promotes gradually more explorative...... for local improvements too early. We derive stylized decision rules that generate the search behavior observed in the experiment and discuss the implications of our findings for individual decision-making and organizational search....

  16. Integrated vs. Federated Search

    Løvschall, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009.......Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009....

  17. Google Scholar Out-Performs Many Subscription Databases when Keyword Searching. A Review of: Walters, W. H. (2009. Google Scholar search performance: Comparative recall and precision. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 9(1, 5-24.

    Giovanna Badia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To compare the search performance (i.e., recall and precision of Google Scholar with that of 11 other bibliographic databases when using a keyword search to find references on later-life migration. Design – Comparative database evaluation. Setting – Not stated in the article. It appears from the author’s affiliation that this research took place in an academic institution of higher learning. Subjects – Twelve databases were compared: Google Scholar, Academic Search Elite, AgeLine, ArticleFirst, EconLit, Geobase, Medline, PAIS International, Popline, Social Sciences Abstracts, Social Sciences Citation Index, and SocIndex. Methods – The relevant literature on later-life migration was pre-identified as a set of 155 journal articles published from 1990 to 2000. The author selected these articles from database searches, citation tracking, journal scans, and consultations with social sciences colleagues. Each database was evaluated with regards to its performance in finding references to these 155 papers.Elderly and migration were the keywords used to conduct the searches in each of the 12 databases, since these were the words that were the most frequently used in the titles of the 155 relevant articles. The search was performed in the most basic search interface of each database that allowed limiting results by the needed publication dates (1990-2000. Search results were sorted by relevance when possible (for 9 out of the 12 databases, and by date when the relevance sorting option was not available. Recall and precision statistics were then calculated from the search results. Recall is the number of relevant results obtained in the database for a search topic, divided by all the potential results which can be obtained on that topic (in this case, 155 references. Precision is the number of relevant results obtained in the database for a search topic, divided by the total number of results that were obtained in the database on

  18. How to perform a systematic search

    Bartels, Else Marie

    2013-01-01

    All medical practice and research must be evidence-based, as far as this is possible. With medical knowledge constantly growing, it has become necessary to possess a high level of information literacy to stay competent and professional. Furthermore, as patients can now search information...... on the Internet, clinicians must be able to respond to this type of information in a professional way, when needed. Here, the development of viable systematic search strategies for journal articles, books, book chapters and other sources, selection of appropriate databases, search tools and selection methods...

  19. SUSY Searches at ATLAS and CMS

    Urquijo, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    We review the current strategies to search for Supersymmetry (SUSY) with the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the LHC. The early data discovery potential will be presented for search channels based on missing transverse momentum from undetected neutralinos and multiple high transverse momentum jets. We describe the search for models of gauge-mediated SUSY breaking for which the next to lightest SUSY particle is a neutralino that decays into a photon and gravitino. Examples of measurement techniques that probe the SUSY mass scale in the first data, through reconstruction of kinematic endpoints, are also shown.

  20. Event Index - a LHCb Event Search System

    INSPIRE-00392208; Kazeev, Nikita; Redkin, Artem

    2015-12-23

    LHC experiments generate up to $10^{12}$ events per year. This paper describes Event Index - an event search system. Event Index's primary function is quickly selecting subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or stripping lines output. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  1. Mapping online consumer search

    Bronnenberg, B.J.; Kim, J.; Albuquerque, P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose a new method to visualize browsing behavior in so-called product search maps. Manufacturers can use these maps to understand how consumers search for competing products before choice, including how information acquisition and product search are organized along brands, product

  2. The Information Search

    Doraiswamy, Uma

    2011-01-01

    This paper in the form of story discusses a college student's information search process. In this story we see Kuhlthau's information search process: initiation, selection, exploration, formulation, collection, and presentation. Katie is a student who goes in search of information for her class research paper. Katie's class readings, her interest…

  3. Strategies for healthcare information systems

    Stegwee, R.A.; Spil, Antonius A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Information technologies of the past two decades have created significant fundamental changes in the delivery of healthcare services by healthcare provider organizations. Many healthcare organizations have been in search of ways and strategies to keep up with continuously emerging information

  4. The U-line line balancing problem

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  5. Parallel Monte Carlo Search for Hough Transform

    Lopes, Raul H. C.; Franqueira, Virginia N. L.; Reid, Ivan D.; Hobson, Peter R.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the problem of line detection in digital image processing and in special how state of the art algorithms behave in the presence of noise and whether CPU efficiency can be improved by the combination of a Monte Carlo Tree Search, hierarchical space decomposition, and parallel computing. The starting point of the investigation is the method introduced in 1962 by Paul Hough for detecting lines in binary images. Extended in the 1970s to the detection of space forms, what came to be known as Hough Transform (HT) has been proposed, for example, in the context of track fitting in the LHC ATLAS and CMS projects. The Hough Transform transfers the problem of line detection, for example, into one of optimization of the peak in a vote counting process for cells which contain the possible points of candidate lines. The detection algorithm can be computationally expensive both in the demands made upon the processor and on memory. Additionally, it can have a reduced effectiveness in detection in the presence of noise. Our first contribution consists in an evaluation of the use of a variation of the Radon Transform as a form of improving theeffectiveness of line detection in the presence of noise. Then, parallel algorithms for variations of the Hough Transform and the Radon Transform for line detection are introduced. An algorithm for Parallel Monte Carlo Search applied to line detection is also introduced. Their algorithmic complexities are discussed. Finally, implementations on multi-GPU and multicore architectures are discussed.

  6. The search conference as a method in planning community health promotion actions

    Eva Magnus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how the search conference can be used as a method for planning health promotion actions in local communities. Design and methods: The article draws on experiences with using the method for an innovative project in health promotion in three Norwegian municipalities. The method is described both in general and how it was specifically adopted for the project. Results and conclusions: The search conference as a method was used to develop evidence-based health promotion action plans. With its use of both bottom-up and top-down approaches, this method is a relevant strategy for involving a community in the planning stages of health promotion actions in line with political expectations of participation, ownership, and evidence-based initiatives.

  7. Keyword Search in Databases

    Yu, Jeffrey Xu; Chang, Lijun

    2009-01-01

    It has become highly desirable to provide users with flexible ways to query/search information over databases as simple as keyword search like Google search. This book surveys the recent developments on keyword search over databases, and focuses on finding structural information among objects in a database using a set of keywords. Such structural information to be returned can be either trees or subgraphs representing how the objects, that contain the required keywords, are interconnected in a relational database or in an XML database. The structural keyword search is completely different from

  8. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for Alaska DEW Line Stations

    1982-06-01

    Chlorinate hydrocarbons Radar components Calgon corrosion inhibitor 55 gallon drums (empty) Lye Lime Corrosives Antifreeze Paper Wood Plastics AVGAS...Factor Subsoare A I Persistence Vcor * Subaccro a C. Appl~y "yicaJ. state =iLtipiisr Sub•coce 3 X Physical State Mltipler - Waste Caracteristics

  9. When Gravity Fails: Local Search Topology

    Frank, Jeremy; Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Local search algorithms for combinatorial search problems frequently encounter a sequence of states in which it is impossible to improve the value of the objective function; moves through these regions, called {\\em plateau moves), dominate the time spent in local search. We analyze and characterize {\\em plateaus) for three different classes of randomly generated Boolean Satisfiability problems. We identify several interesting features of plateaus that impact the performance of local search algorithms. We show that local minima tend to be small but occasionally may be very large. We also show that local minima can be escaped without unsatisfying a large number of clauses, but that systematically searching for an escape route may be computationally expensive if the local minimum is large. We show that plateaus with exits, called benches, tend to be much larger than minima, and that some benches have very few exit states which local search can use to escape. We show that the solutions (i.e. global minima) of randomly generated problem instances form clusters, which behave similarly to local minima. We revisit several enhancements of local search algorithms and explain their performance in light of our results. Finally we discuss strategies for creating the next generation of local search algorithms.

  10. Culture Moderates Biases in Search Decisions.

    Pattaratanakun, Jake A; Mak, Vincent

    2015-08-01

    Prior studies suggest that people often search insufficiently in sequential-search tasks compared with the predictions of benchmark optimal strategies that maximize expected payoff. However, those studies were mostly conducted in individualist Western cultures; Easterners from collectivist cultures, with their higher susceptibility to escalation of commitment induced by sunk search costs, could exhibit a reversal of this undersearch bias by searching more than optimally, but only when search costs are high. We tested our theory in four experiments. In our pilot experiment, participants generally undersearched when search cost was low, but only Eastern participants oversearched when search cost was high. In Experiments 1 and 2, we obtained evidence for our hypothesized effects via a cultural-priming manipulation on bicultural participants in which we manipulated the language used in the program interface. We obtained further process evidence for our theory in Experiment 3, in which we made sunk costs nonsalient in the search task-as expected, cross-cultural effects were largely mitigated. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Searches for SUSY at LHC

    Kharchilava, A.

    1997-01-01

    One of the main motivations of experiments at the LHC is to search for SUSY particles. The talk is based on recent analyses, performed by CMS Collaboration, within the framework of the Supergravity motivated minimal SUSY extension of the Standard Model. The emphasis is put on leptonic channels. The strategies for obtaining experimental signatures for strongly and weakly interacting sparticles productions, as well as examples of determination of SUSY masses and model parameters are discussed. The domain of parameter space where SUSY can be discovered is investigated. Results show, that if SUSY is of relevance at Electro-Weak scale it could hardly escape detection at LHC. (author)

  12. Semantic search during divergent thinking.

    Hass, Richard W

    2017-09-01

    Divergent thinking, as a method of examining creative cognition, has not been adequately analyzed in the context of modern cognitive theories. This article casts divergent thinking responding in the context of theories of memory search. First, it was argued that divergent thinking tasks are similar to semantic fluency tasks, but are more constrained, and less well structured. Next, response time distributions from 54 participants were analyzed for temporal and semantic clustering. Participants responded to two prompts from the alternative uses test: uses for a brick and uses for a bottle, for two minutes each. Participants' cumulative response curves were negatively accelerating, in line with theories of search of associative memory. However, results of analyses of semantic and temporal clustering suggested that clustering is less evident in alternative uses responding compared to semantic fluency tasks. This suggests either that divergent thinking responding does not involve an exhaustive search through a clustered memory trace, but rather that the process is more exploratory, yielding fewer overall responses that tend to drift away from close associates of the divergent thinking prompt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Straight line foraging in yellow-eyed penguins: new insights into cascading fisheries effects and orientation capabilities of marine predators.

    Mattern, Thomas; Ellenberg, Ursula; Houston, David M; Lamare, Miles; Davis, Lloyd S; van Heezik, Yolanda; Seddon, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging marine predators rarely search for prey along straight lines because dynamic ocean processes usually require complex search strategies. If linear movement patterns occur they are usually associated with travelling events or migratory behaviour. However, recent fine scale tracking of flying seabirds has revealed straight-line movements while birds followed fishing vessels. Unlike flying seabirds, penguins are not known to target and follow fishing vessels. Yet yellow-eyed penguins from New Zealand often exhibit directed movement patterns while searching for prey at the seafloor, a behaviour that seems to contradict common movement ecology theories. While deploying GPS dive loggers on yellow-eyed penguins from the Otago Peninsula we found that the birds frequently followed straight lines for several kilometres with little horizontal deviation. In several cases individuals swam up and down the same line, while some of the lines were followed by more than one individual. Using a remote operated vehicle (ROV) we found a highly visible furrow on the seafloor most likely caused by an otter board of a demersal fish trawl, which ran in a straight line exactly matching the trajectory of a recent line identified from penguin tracks. We noted high abundances of benthic scavengers associated with fisheries-related bottom disturbance. While our data demonstrate the acute way-finding capabilities of benthic foraging yellow-eyed penguins, they also highlight how hidden cascading effects of coastal fisheries may alter behaviour and potentially even population dynamics of marine predators, an often overlooked fact in the examination of fisheries' impacts.

  14. Straight line foraging in yellow-eyed penguins: new insights into cascading fisheries effects and orientation capabilities of marine predators.

    Thomas Mattern

    Full Text Available Free-ranging marine predators rarely search for prey along straight lines because dynamic ocean processes usually require complex search strategies. If linear movement patterns occur they are usually associated with travelling events or migratory behaviour. However, recent fine scale tracking of flying seabirds has revealed straight-line movements while birds followed fishing vessels. Unlike flying seabirds, penguins are not known to target and follow fishing vessels. Yet yellow-eyed penguins from New Zealand often exhibit directed movement patterns while searching for prey at the seafloor, a behaviour that seems to contradict common movement ecology theories. While deploying GPS dive loggers on yellow-eyed penguins from the Otago Peninsula we found that the birds frequently followed straight lines for several kilometres with little horizontal deviation. In several cases individuals swam up and down the same line, while some of the lines were followed by more than one individual. Using a remote operated vehicle (ROV we found a highly visible furrow on the seafloor most likely caused by an otter board of a demersal fish trawl, which ran in a straight line exactly matching the trajectory of a recent line identified from penguin tracks. We noted high abundances of benthic scavengers associated with fisheries-related bottom disturbance. While our data demonstrate the acute way-finding capabilities of benthic foraging yellow-eyed penguins, they also highlight how hidden cascading effects of coastal fisheries may alter behaviour and potentially even population dynamics of marine predators, an often overlooked fact in the examination of fisheries' impacts.

  15. The Concept of the "Imploded Boolean Search": A Case Study with Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    Tomaszewski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking and analytical problem-solving skills in research involves using different search strategies. A proposed concept for an "Imploded Boolean Search" combines three unique identifiable field types to perform a search: keyword(s), numerical value(s), and a chemical structure or reaction. The object of this type of search is…

  16. [Advanced online search techniques and dedicated search engines for physicians].

    Nahum, Yoav

    2008-02-01

    In recent years search engines have become an essential tool in the work of physicians. This article will review advanced search techniques from the world of information specialists, as well as some advanced search engine operators that may help physicians improve their online search capabilities, and maximize the yield of their searches. This article also reviews popular dedicated scientific and biomedical literature search engines.

  17. Enhancing the Search in MOLAP Sparse Data 

    Joseph Zalaket

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Multidimensional on-line analytical processing (MOLAP systems deal well with dense data than relational ones (ROLAP. In the existence of sparse data, MOLAP systems become memory consuming, which may limit and slow down data processing tasks. Many compression techniques have been proposed to deal with the sparsity of data in MOLAP systems. One of these techniques is the bitmap compression, which allows a significant reduction of the memory space used for data processing. In this article, we propose an extension to the bitmap compression technique by storing the compressed data as bits into multiple efficient data structures based on a new indexing strategy instead of the linear structure. Compared with the classical bitmap, the proposed enhancement not only allows space reduction but also reduces the search time through the compressed data. We present some algorithms that allow maintaining and searching within the compressed structure without the need for decompression. We demonstrate that the complexity of the proposed algorithms varies from logarithmic to constant, compared with the linear complexity of the classical bitmap technique. 

  18. Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search

    Røpke, Stefan

    Large neighborhood search is a metaheuristic that has gained popularity in recent years. The heuristic repeatedly moves from solution to solution by first partially destroying the solution and then repairing it. The best solution observed during this search is presented as the final solution....... This tutorial introduces the large neighborhood search metaheuristic and the variant adaptive large neighborhood search that dynamically tunes parameters of the heuristic while it is running. Both heuristics belong to a broader class of heuristics that are searching a solution space using very large...... neighborhoods. The tutorial also present applications of the adaptive large neighborhood search, mostly related to vehicle routing problems for which the heuristic has been extremely successful. We discuss how the heuristic can be parallelized and thereby take advantage of modern desktop computers...

  19. Supporting Book Search

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2017-01-01

    of information needs. In this paper, we present a large-scale empirical comparison of the effectiveness of book metadata elements for searching complex information needs. Using a test collection of over 2 million book records and over 330 real-world book search requests, we perform a highly controlled and in......-depth analysis of topical metadata, comparing controlled vocabularies with social tags. Tags perform better overall in this setting, but controlled vocabulary terms provide complementary information, which will improve a search. We analyze potential underlying factors that contribute to search performance......, such as the relevance aspect(s) mentioned in a request or the type of book. In addition, we investigate the possible causes of search failure. We conclude that neither tags nor controlled vocabularies are wholly suited to handling the complex information needs in book search, which means that different approaches...

  20. Optimal search behavior and classic foraging theory

    Bartumeus, F; Catalan, J

    2009-01-01

    Random walk methods and diffusion theory pervaded ecological sciences as methods to analyze and describe animal movement. Consequently, statistical physics was mostly seen as a toolbox rather than as a conceptual framework that could contribute to theory on evolutionary biology and ecology. However, the existence of mechanistic relationships and feedbacks between behavioral processes and statistical patterns of movement suggests that, beyond movement quantification, statistical physics may prove to be an adequate framework to understand animal behavior across scales from an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Recently developed random search theory has served to critically re-evaluate classic ecological questions on animal foraging. For instance, during the last few years, there has been a growing debate on whether search behavior can include traits that improve success by optimizing random (stochastic) searches. Here, we stress the need to bring together the general encounter problem within foraging theory, as a mean for making progress in the biological understanding of random searching. By sketching the assumptions of optimal foraging theory (OFT) and by summarizing recent results on random search strategies, we pinpoint ways to extend classic OFT, and integrate the study of search strategies and its main results into the more general theory of optimal foraging.

  1. Combining Search Engines for Comparative Proteomics

    Tabb, David

    2012-01-01

    Many proteomics laboratories have found spectral counting to be an ideal way to recognize biomarkers that differentiate cohorts of samples. This approach assumes that proteins that differ in quantity between samples will generate different numbers of identifiable tandem mass spectra. Increasingly, researchers are employing multiple search engines to maximize the identifications generated from data collections. This talk evaluates four strategies to combine information from multiple search engines in comparative proteomics. The “Count Sum” model pools the spectra across search engines. The “Vote Counting” model combines the judgments from each search engine by protein. Two other models employ parametric and non-parametric analyses of protein-specific p-values from different search engines. We evaluated the four strategies in two different data sets. The ABRF iPRG 2009 study generated five LC-MS/MS analyses of “red” E. coli and five analyses of “yellow” E. coli. NCI CPTAC Study 6 generated five concentrations of Sigma UPS1 spiked into a yeast background. All data were identified with X!Tandem, Sequest, MyriMatch, and TagRecon. For both sample types, “Vote Counting” appeared to manage the diverse identification sets most effectively, yielding heightened discrimination as more search engines were added.

  2. Searching Trajectories by Regions of Interest

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-03-22

    With the increasing availability of moving-object tracking data, trajectory search is increasingly important. We propose and investigate a novel query type named trajectory search by regions of interest (TSR query). Given an argument set of trajectories, a TSR query takes a set of regions of interest as a parameter and returns the trajectory in the argument set with the highest spatial-density correlation to the query regions. This type of query is useful in many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation, and location based services in general. TSR query processing faces three challenges: how to model the spatial-density correlation between query regions and data trajectories, how to effectively prune the search space, and how to effectively schedule multiple so-called query sources. To tackle these challenges, a series of new metrics are defined to model spatial-density correlations. An efficient trajectory search algorithm is developed that exploits upper and lower bounds to prune the search space and that adopts a query-source selection strategy, as well as integrates a heuristic search strategy based on priority ranking to schedule multiple query sources. The performance of TSR query processing is studied in extensive experiments based on real and synthetic spatial data.

  3. Searching Trajectories by Regions of Interest

    Shang, Shuo; chen, Lisi; Jensen, Christian S.; Wen, Ji-Rong; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing availability of moving-object tracking data, trajectory search is increasingly important. We propose and investigate a novel query type named trajectory search by regions of interest (TSR query). Given an argument set of trajectories, a TSR query takes a set of regions of interest as a parameter and returns the trajectory in the argument set with the highest spatial-density correlation to the query regions. This type of query is useful in many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation, and location based services in general. TSR query processing faces three challenges: how to model the spatial-density correlation between query regions and data trajectories, how to effectively prune the search space, and how to effectively schedule multiple so-called query sources. To tackle these challenges, a series of new metrics are defined to model spatial-density correlations. An efficient trajectory search algorithm is developed that exploits upper and lower bounds to prune the search space and that adopts a query-source selection strategy, as well as integrates a heuristic search strategy based on priority ranking to schedule multiple query sources. The performance of TSR query processing is studied in extensive experiments based on real and synthetic spatial data.

  4. Introduction to Search with Sphinx From installation to relevance tuning

    Aksyonoff, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This concise introduction to Sphinx shows you how to use this free software to index an enormous number of documents and provide fast results to both simple and complex searches. Written by the creator of Sphinx, this authoritative book is short and to the point. Understand the particular way Sphinx conducts searchesInstall and configure Sphinx, and run a few basic testsIssue basic queries to Sphinx at the application levelLearn the syntax of search text and the effects of various search optionsGet strategies for dealing with large data sets, such as multi-index searchingApply relevance and r

  5. ElasticSearch cookbook

    Paro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Written in an engaging, easy-to-follow style, the recipes will help you to extend the capabilities of ElasticSearch to manage your data effectively.If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications, manage data, or have decided to start using ElasticSearch, this book is ideal for you. This book assumes that you've got working knowledge of JSON and Java

  6. Mastering ElasticSearch

    Kuc, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    A practical tutorial that covers the difficult design, implementation, and management of search solutions.Mastering ElasticSearch is aimed at to intermediate users who want to extend their knowledge about ElasticSearch. The topics that are described in the book are detailed, but we assume that you already know the basics, like the query DSL or data indexing. Advanced users will also find this book useful, as the examples are getting deep into the internals where it is needed.

  7. Search engine optimization

    Marolt, Klemen

    2013-01-01

    Search engine optimization techniques, often shortened to “SEO,” should lead to first positions in organic search results. Some optimization techniques do not change over time, yet still form the basis for SEO. However, as the Internet and web design evolves dynamically, new optimization techniques flourish and flop. Thus, we looked at the most important factors that can help to improve positioning in search results. It is important to emphasize that none of the techniques can guarantee high ...

  8. Mobile Search and Advertising

    Lovitskii, Vladimir; McCaffery, Colin; Thrasher, Michael; Traynor, David; Wright, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Mobile advertising is a rapidly growing sector providing brands and marketing agencies the opportunity to connect with consumers beyond traditional and digital media and instead communicate directly on their mobile phones. Mobile advertising will be intrinsically linked with mobile search, which has transported from the internet to the mobile and is identified as an area of potential growth. The result of mobile searching show that as a general rule such search result exceed 1...

  9. Search and Disrupt

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    . However, incumbent sources engaged in capability reconfiguration to accommodate disruption improve search efforts in disruptive technologies. The paper concludes that the value of external sources is contingent on more than their knowledge. Specifically, interdependence of sources in search gives rise...... to influence from individual strategic interests on the outcomes. More generally, this points to the need for understanding the two-way influence of sources, rather than viewing external search as one-way knowledge accessing....

  10. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer's prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The hybrid

  11. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  12. Delaying information search

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  13. Google Power Search

    Spencer, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Behind Google's deceptively simple interface is immense power for both market and competitive research-if you know how to use it well. Sure, basic searches are easy, but complex searches require specialized skills. This concise book takes you through the full range of Google's powerful search-refinement features, so you can quickly find the specific information you need. Learn techniques ranging from simple Boolean logic to URL parameters and other advanced tools, and see how they're applied to real-world market research examples. Incorporate advanced search operators such as filetype:, intit

  14. Optimization of partial search

    Korepin, Vladimir E

    2005-01-01

    A quantum Grover search algorithm can find a target item in a database faster than any classical algorithm. One can trade accuracy for speed and find a part of the database (a block) containing the target item even faster; this is partial search. A partial search algorithm was recently suggested by Grover and Radhakrishnan. Here we optimize it. Efficiency of the search algorithm is measured by the number of queries to the oracle. The author suggests a new version of the Grover-Radhakrishnan algorithm which uses a minimal number of such queries. The algorithm can run on the same hardware that is used for the usual Grover algorithm. (letter to the editor)

  15. Face Alignment Using Boosting and Evolutionary Search

    Zhang, Hua; Liu, Duanduan; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Zha, H.; Taniguchi, R.-I.; Maybank, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a face alignment approach using granular features, boosting, and an evolutionary search algorithm. Active Appearance Models (AAM) integrate a shape-texture-combined morphable face model into an efficient fitting strategy, then Boosting Appearance Models (BAM) consider the

  16. Automated search method for AFM and profilers

    Ray, Michael; Martin, Yves C.

    2001-08-01

    A new automation software creates a search model as an initial setup and searches for a user-defined target in atomic force microscopes or stylus profilometers used in semiconductor manufacturing. The need for such automation has become critical in manufacturing lines. The new method starts with a survey map of a small area of a chip obtained from a chip-design database or an image of the area. The user interface requires a user to point to and define a precise location to be measured, and to select a macro function for an application such as line width or contact hole. The search algorithm automatically constructs a range of possible scan sequences within the survey, and provides increased speed and functionality compared to the methods used in instruments to date. Each sequence consists in a starting point relative to the target, a scan direction, and a scan length. The search algorithm stops when the location of a target is found and criteria for certainty in positioning is met. With today's capability in high speed processing and signal control, the tool can simultaneously scan and search for a target in a robotic and continuous manner. Examples are given that illustrate the key concepts.

  17. Citation Searching: Search Smarter & Find More

    Hammond, Chelsea C.; Brown, Stephanie Willen

    2008-01-01

    The staff at University of Connecticut are participating in Elsevier's Student Ambassador Program (SAmP) in which graduate students train their peers on "citation searching" research using Scopus and Web of Science, two tremendous citation databases. They are in the fourth semester of these training programs, and they are wildly successful: They…

  18. Hybrid Projected Gradient-Evolutionary Search Algorithm for Mixed Integer Nonlinear Optimization Problems

    Homaifar, Abdollah; Esterline, Albert; Kimiaghalam, Bahram

    2005-01-01

    The Hybrid Projected Gradient-Evolutionary Search Algorithm (HPGES) algorithm uses a specially designed evolutionary-based global search strategy to efficiently create candidate solutions in the solution space...

  19. Estratégias multidimensionais para a avaliação da aprendizagem em cursos on-line Estrategias multidimensionales para la evaluación de aprendizaje en cursos en línea Multidimensional strategies for learning evaluation in on-line courses

    Gerson Pastre de Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    por encima de las tecnologías, y de la colaboración entre las personas a una evaluación de todos los momentos, incluso teniendo en cuenta las trayectorias de cada participante, como sujeto que tiene una historia personal y conocimientos derivados de múltiples fuentes, en permanente estado de desarrollo.This work presents the results of a qualitative investigation supported by descriptions from an on-line collaborative specialization course with emphasis on the evaluation process of students' learning. The investigation showed that, as a result of the possibilities both information technology and communication technology create to people, the evaluation process can not be limited to the logic of a post-procedural and definitive examination, it should rather be applied all time long, in all ways and for all activities and practices in a course environment. This approach has a multidimensional nature and is able to handle with the complexity of the related knowledge, taking into account many possibilities of interaction, different timing and spaces to learn and teach, the related interfaces as well as interdisciplinary approaches in the analyzed collaborative environment. The theoretical references have explored the evaluation concepts and its predominant practice, and examine several aspects of information and communication technology which apply to the education. Based on these two main fronts, other concepts have been considered in the theoretical field such as complexity, collaboration, time, space, interdisciplinary aspects, among others, which have allowed the research to have its basis on a framework of ideas from which the analysis have been brought to light in order to show the broad scope of the multidimensional learning evaluation in on-line collaborative environment, considering that such evaluation allows to set individual goals of students and teachers according to a pedagogical strategy that dialectically focuses the autonomy and the collective

  20. Factors contributing to managerial competence of first-line nurse managers: A systematic review.

    Gunawan, Joko; Aungsuroch, Yupin; Fisher, Mary L

    2018-02-01

    To determine the factors contributing to managerial competence of first-line nurse managers. Understanding factors affecting managerial competence of nurse managers remains important to increase the performance of organizations; however, there is sparse research examining factors that influence managerial competence of first-line nurse managers. Systematic review. The search strategy was conducted from April to July 2017 that included 6 electronic databases: Science Direct, PROQUEST Dissertations and Theses, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Google Scholar for the years 2000 to 2017 with full text in English. Quantitative and qualitative research papers that examined relationships among managerial competence and antecedent factors were included. Quality assessment, data extractions, and analysis were completed on all included studies. Content analysis was used to categorize factors into themes. Eighteen influencing factors were examined and categorized into 3 themes-organizational factors, characteristics and personality traits of individual managers, and role factors. Findings suggest that managerial competence of first-line nurse managers is multifactorial. Further research is needed to develop strategies to develop managerial competence of first-line nurse managers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.