The LMF triaxial MITL voltage adder system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Bennett, L.F.; Lockner, T.R.; Olson, R.E.; Poukey, J.W.
1992-01-01
The light-ion microfusion driver design consists of multiple accelerating modules fired in coincidence and sequentially in order to provide the desired ion energy, power pulse shape and energy deposition uniformity on an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target. The basic energy source is a number of Marx generators which, through the appropriate pulse power conditioning, provide the necessary voltage pulse wave form to the accelerating gaps or feeds of each module. The cavity gaps are inductively isolated, and the voltage addition occurs in the center conductor of the voltage adder which is the positive electrode while the electrons of the sheath flow closer to the outer cylinder which is the magnetically insulated cathode electrode. Each module powers a separate two-stage extraction diode which provides a low divergence ion beam. In order to provide the two separate voltage pulses required by the diode, a triaxial adder system is designed for each module. The voltage addition occurs in two separate MITLs. The center hollow cylinder (anode) of the second MITL also serves as the outer cathode electrode for the extension of the first voltage adder MITL. The voltage of the second stage is about twice that of the first stage. The cavities are connected in series to form the outer cylinder of each module. The accelerating modules are positioned radially in a symmetrical way around the fusion chamber. A preliminary conceptual design of the LMF modules with emphasis on the voltage adders and extension MITLs will be presented and discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Yong; Zou Wen-Kang; Song Sheng-Yi
2011-01-01
In modern pulsed power systems, magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) are used to couple power between the driver and the load. The circuit parameters of MITLs are well understood by employing the concept of flow impedance derived from Maxwell's equations and pressure balance across the flow. However, the electron density in an MITL is always taken as constant in the application of flow impedance. Thus effects of electron flow current density (product of electron density and drift velocity) in an MITL are neglected. We calculate the flow impedances of an MITL and compare them under three classical MITL theories, in which the electron density profile and electron flow current density are different from each other. It is found that the assumption of constant electron density profile in the calculation of the flow impedance is not always valid. The electron density profile and the electron flow current density have significant effects on flow impedance of the MITL. The details of the electron flow current density and its effects on the operation impedance of the MITL should be addressed more explicitly by experiments and theories in the future. (nuclear physics)
Observation of reflected waves on the SABRE positive polarity inductive adder MITL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuneo, M.E.; Poukey, J.W.; Mendel, C.W.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Hanson, D.L.; Smith, J.R.; Maenchen, J.E.; Wenger, D.F.; Bernard, M.A.
1993-01-01
We are studying the coupling of extraction applied-B ion diodes to Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line (MITLs) on the SABRE (Sandia Accelerator and Beam Research Experiment, 6 MV, 300 kA) positive polarity inductive voltage adder. Our goal is to determine conditions under which efficient coupling occurs. The best total power efficiency for an ideal ion diode load (i.e., without parasitic losses) is obtained by maximizing the product of cathode current and gap voltage. MITLs require that the load impedance be undermatched to the self-limited line operating impedance for efficient transfer of power to ion diodes, independent of transit time isolation, and even in the case of multiple cathode system with significant vacuum electron flow. We observe that this undermatched condition results in a reflected wave which decreases the line voltage and gap electron sheath current, and increases the anode and cathode current in a time-dependent way. The MITL diode coupling is determined by the flow impedance at the adder exit. We also show that the flow impedance increases along the extension MITL on SABRE. Experimental measurements of current and peak voltage are compared to analytical models and TWOQUICK 2.5-D PIC code simulations
Design and test of a new MITL for the Yang accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song Shengyi; Gu Yuanchao; Zhou Rongguo; Wei Bing; Han Wenhui; Yang Liang; Wang Xiong; Xie Weiping
2005-01-01
In this paper the physical design and test of a new MITL for the Yang accelerator have been introduced. With reducing the total length of the MITL and width of the insulator, the common-vertex-coaxial-circular-cones-like MITL has been employed to displace the old one, resulting in the decrease of structural inductance from 70.9 nH of the old to 31.7 nH of the new, and electrical stress criterion for some special locations has also been satisfied by reiteration and modification, and minimum magnetic current has been kept below that of the old. The tests both with short load and wire array load have shown that the performance of the new MITL was improved. (authors)
On multiscale moving contact line theory.
Li, Shaofan; Fan, Houfu
2015-07-08
In this paper, a multiscale moving contact line (MMCL) theory is presented and employed to simulate liquid droplet spreading and capillary motion. The proposed MMCL theory combines a coarse-grained adhesive contact model with a fluid interface membrane theory, so that it can couple molecular scale adhesive interaction and surface tension with hydrodynamics of microscale flow. By doing so, the intermolecular force, the van der Waals or double layer force, separates and levitates the liquid droplet from the supporting solid substrate, which avoids the shear stress singularity caused by the no-slip condition in conventional hydrodynamics theory of moving contact line. Thus, the MMCL allows the difference of the surface energies and surface stresses to drive droplet spreading naturally. To validate the proposed MMCL theory, we have employed it to simulate droplet spreading over various elastic substrates. The numerical simulation results obtained by using MMCL are in good agreement with the molecular dynamics results reported in the literature.
New Stokes' line in WKB theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Nevins, W.M.; Roberts, K.V.
1982-01-01
The WKB theory for differential equations of arbitrary order or integral equations in one dimension is investigated. The rules previously stated for the construction of Stokes' lines for Nth-order differential equations, N> or =3, or integral equations are found to be incomplete because these rules lead to asymptotic forms of the solutions that depend on path. This paradox is resolved by the demonstration that new Stokes' lines can arise when previously defined Stokes' lines cross. A new formulation of the WKB problem is given to justify the new Stokes' lines. With the new Stokes' lines, the asymptotic forms can be shown to be independent of path. In addition, the WKB eigenvalue problem is formulated, and the global dispersion relation is shown to be a functional of loop integrals of the action
Wilson lines in quantum field theory
Cherednikov, Igor O; Veken, Frederik F van der
2014-01-01
The objective of this book is to get the reader acquainted with theoretical and mathematical foundations of the concept of Wilson loops in the context of modern quantum field theory. It teaches how to perform independently with some elementary calculations on Wilson lines, and shows the recent development of the subject in different important areas of research.
Wilson lines in quantum field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cherednikov, Igor Olegovich [Antwerpen Univ., Antwerp (Belgium). Fysica Dept.; Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Mertens, Tom; Veken, Frederik F. van der [Antwerpen Univ., Antwerp (Belgium). Fysica Dept.
2014-07-01
Wilson lines (also known as gauge links or eikonal lines) can be introduced in any gauge field theory. Although the concept of the Wilson exponentials finds an enormously wide range of applications in a variety of branches of modern quantum field theory, from condensed matter and lattice simulations to quantum chromodynamics, high-energy effective theories and gravity, there are surprisingly few books or textbooks on the market which contain comprehensive pedagogical introduction and consecutive exposition of the subject. The objective of this book is to get the potential reader acquainted with theoretical and mathematical foundations of the concept of the Wilson loops in the context of modern quantum field theory, to teach him/her to perform independently some elementary calculations with Wilson lines, and to familiarize him/her with the recent development of the subject in different important areas of research. The target audience of the book consists of graduate and postgraduate students working in various areas of quantum field theory, as well as researchers from other fields.
Wilson lines in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cherednikov, Igor Olegovich; Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Moscow; Mertens, Tom; Veken, Frederik F. van der
2014-01-01
Wilson lines (also known as gauge links or eikonal lines) can be introduced in any gauge field theory. Although the concept of the Wilson exponentials finds an enormously wide range of applications in a variety of branches of modern quantum field theory, from condensed matter and lattice simulations to quantum chromodynamics, high-energy effective theories and gravity, there are surprisingly few books or textbooks on the market which contain comprehensive pedagogical introduction and consecutive exposition of the subject. The objective of this book is to get the potential reader acquainted with theoretical and mathematical foundations of the concept of the Wilson loops in the context of modern quantum field theory, to teach him/her to perform independently some elementary calculations with Wilson lines, and to familiarize him/her with the recent development of the subject in different important areas of research. The target audience of the book consists of graduate and postgraduate students working in various areas of quantum field theory, as well as researchers from other fields.
Equivalent circuit modeling of space charge dominated magnetically insulated transmission lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiraoka, Kazuki; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko
1997-12-31
A new equivalent circuit model for space charge dominated MITLs (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines) was developed. MITLs under high power operation are dominated with space charge current flowing between anode and cathode. Conventional equivalent circuit model does not account for space charge effects on power flow. The model was modified to discuss the power transportation through the high power MITLs. With this model, it is possible to estimate the effects of space charge current on the power flow efficiency, without using complicated particle code simulations. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs.
55-TW magnetically insulated transmission-line system: Design, simulations, and performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. A. Stygar
2009-12-01
Full Text Available We describe herein a system of self-magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs that operated successfully at 20 MA, 3 MV, and 55 TW. The system delivered the electromagnetic-power pulse generated by the Z accelerator to a physics-package load on over 1700 Z shots. The system included four levels that were electrically in parallel. Each level consisted of a water flare, vacuum-insulator stack, vacuum flare, and 1.3-m-radius conical outer MITL. The outputs of the four outer MITLs were connected in parallel by a 7.6-cm-radius 12-post double-post-hole vacuum convolute. The convolute added the currents of the four outer MITLs, and delivered the combined current to a single 6-cm-long inner MITL. The inner MITL delivered the current to the load. The total initial inductance of the stack-MITL system was 11 nH. A 300-element transmission-line-circuit model of the system has been developed using the tl code. The model accounts for the following: (i impedance and electrical length of each of the 300 circuit elements, (ii electron emission from MITL-cathode surfaces wherever the electric field has previously exceeded a constant threshold value, (iii Child-Langmuir electron loss in the MITLs before magnetic insulation is established, (iv MITL-flow-electron loss after insulation, assuming either collisionless or collisional electron flow, (v MITL-gap closure, (vi energy loss to MITL conductors operated at high lineal current densities, (vii time-dependent self-consistent inductance of an imploding z-pinch load, and (viii load resistance, which is assumed to be constant. Simulations performed with the tl model demonstrate that the nominal geometric outer-MITL-system impedance that optimizes overall performance is a factor of ∼3 greater than the convolute-load impedance, which is consistent with an analytic model of an idealized MITL-load system. Power-flow measurements demonstrate that, until peak current, the Z stack-MITL system
Design of the Yang magnetically-insulated transmission line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu Yuanchao; Song Shenyi
2002-01-01
The authors have designed a new magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) for the Yang accelerator. The differences between the existing line and the designing one are given. The electric strength of some special regions on the lines and the inductance of the lines have been calculated. The authors have checked the states of magnetic insulation on the designing line
An analytical theory of transmission line shielding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pettersson, Per
1993-01-01
The classical electrogeometric model of shielding failure flashovers on transmission lines is investigated by analytical methods. Most of the basic elements that has appeared in the literature on the subject have been incorporated and put into a comprehensive model. These elements are: tower top geometry, structure height above ground, line insulation, lateral slope of ground, probability distribution of lightning currents, ratio of striking distances to ground wire and earth relative to conductor, and probability distribution of lightning leader approach angle to ground. Departing from a basic idealistic case, the sensitivity of the model to variations in these parameters is studied. Numerical examples are given. 8 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab
Modeling of hydrogen Stark line shapes with kinetic theory methods
Rosato, J.; Capes, H.; Stamm, R.
2012-12-01
The unified formalism for Stark line shapes is revisited and extended to non-binary interactions between an emitter and the surrounding perturbers. The accuracy of this theory is examined through comparisons with ab initio numerical simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shope, S.L.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Frost, C.A.; Poukey, J.W.; Turman, B.N.
1993-01-01
Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines (MITL) adders have been used successfully in a number of Sandia accelerators such as HELIA, HERMES III, and SABRE. Most recently the authors used a MITL adder in the RADLAC/SMILE electron beam accelerator to produce high quality, small radius (r b < 2 cm), 11 to 15 MeV, 50 to 100-kA beams with a small transverse velocity v perpendicular/c = β perpendicular ≤ 0.1. In RADLAC/SMILE, a coaxial MITL passed through the eight, 2 MV vacuum envelopes. The MITL summed the voltages of all eight feeds to a single foilless diode. The experimental results are in good agreement with code simulations. The authors' success with the MITL technology led them to investigate the application to higher energy accelerator designs. They have a conceptual design for a cavity-fed MITL that sums the voltages from 100 identical, inductively-isolated cavities. Each cavity is a toroidal structure that is driven simultaneously by four 8-ohm pulse-forming lines, providing a 1-MV voltage pulse to each of the 100 cavities. The point design accelerator is 100 MV, 500 kA, with a 30-50-ns FWHM output pulse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shope, S.L.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Frost, C.A.; Poukey, J.W.; Turman, B.N.
1991-01-01
Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines (MITL) adders have been used successfully in a number of Sandia accelerators such as HELIA, HERMES III, and SABRE. Most recently we used at MITL adder in the RADLAC/SMILE electron beam accelerator to produce high quality, small radius (r ρ < 2 cm), 11 to 15 MeV, 50 to 100-kA beams with a small transverse velocity v perpendicular/c = β perpendicular ≤ 0.1. In RADLAC/SMILE, a coaxial MITL passed through the eight, 2 MV vacuum envelopes. The MITL summed the voltages of all eight feeds to a single foilless diode. The experimental results are in good agreement with code simulations. Our success with the MITL technology led us to investigate the application to higher energy accelerator designs. We have a conceptual design for a cavity-fed MITL that sums the voltages from 100 identical, inductively-isolated cavities. Each cavity is a toroidal structure that is driven simultaneously by four 8-ohm pulse-forming lines, providing a 1-MV voltage pulse to each of the 100 cavities. The point design accelerator is 100 MV, 500 kA, with a 30--50 ns FWHM output pulse. 10 refs
Shope, S. L.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Frost, C. A.; Poukey, J. W.; Turman, B. N.
Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines (MITL) adders were used successfully in a number of Sandia accelerators such as HELIA, HERMES III, and SABRE. Most recently we used at MITL adder in the RADLAC/SMILE electron beam accelerator to produce high quality, small radius (r(sub rho) less than 2 cm), 11 - 15 MeV, 50 - 100-kA beams with a small transverse velocity v(perpendicular)/c = beta(perpendicular) less than or equal to 0.1. In RADLAC/SMILE, a coaxial MITL passed through the eight, 2 MV vacuum envelopes. The MITL summed the voltages of all eight feeds to a single foilless diode. The experimental results are in good agreement with code simulations. Our success with the MITL technology led us to investigate the application to higher energy accelerator designs. We have a conceptual design for a cavity-fed MITL that sums the voltages from 100 identical, inductively-isolated cavities. Each cavity is a toroidal structure that is driven simultaneously by four 8-ohm pulse-forming lines, providing a 1-MV voltage pulse to each of the 100 cavities. The point design accelerator is 100 MV, 500 kA, with a 30 - 50 ns FWHM output pulse.
Modern quantum kinetic theory and spectral line shapes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monchick, L.
1991-01-01
The modern quantum kinetic theory of spectral line shapes is outlined and a typical calculation of a Raman scattered line shape described. The distinguishing feature of this calculation is that it was completely ab initio and therefore constituted a test of modern quantum kinetic theory, the state of the art in computing molecular-scattering cross sections, and novel methods of solving kinetic equations. The computation employed a large assortment of tools: group theory, finite-element methods, classic methods of solving coupled sets of ordinary differential equations, graph methods of combining angular momenta, and matrix methods of solving integral equations. Agreement with experimental results was excellent. 13 refs
Transmission-line-circuit model of an 85-TW, 25-MA pulsed-power accelerator
Hutsel, B. T.; Corcoran, P. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Gomez, M. R.; Hess, M. H.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Jennings, C. A.; Laity, G. R.; Lamppa, D. C.; McBride, R. D.; Moore, J. K.; Myers, A.; Rose, D. V.; Slutz, S. A.; Stygar, W. A.; Waisman, E. M.; Welch, D. R.; Whitney, B. A.
2018-03-01
We have developed a physics-based transmission-line-circuit model of the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The 33-m-diameter Z machine generates a peak electrical power as high as 85 TW, and delivers as much as 25 MA to a physics load. The circuit model is used to design and analyze experiments conducted on Z. The model consists of 36 networks of transmission-line-circuit elements and resistors that represent each of Zs 36 modules. The model of each module includes a Marx generator, intermediate-energy-storage capacitor, laser-triggered gas switch, pulse-forming line, self-break water switches, and tri-plate transmission lines. The circuit model also includes elements that represent Zs water convolute, vacuum insulator stack, four parallel outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs), double-post-hole vacuum convolute, inner vacuum MITL, and physics load. Within the vacuum-transmission-line system the model conducts analytic calculations of current loss. To calculate the loss, the model simulates the following processes: (i) electron emission from MITL cathode surfaces wherever an electric-field threshold has been exceeded; (ii) electron loss in the MITLs before magnetic insulation has been established; (iii) flow of electrons emitted by the outer-MITL cathodes after insulation has been established; (iv) closure of MITL anode-cathode (AK) gaps due to expansion of cathode plasma; (v) energy loss to MITL conductors operated at high lineal current densities; (vi) heating of MITL-anode surfaces due to conduction current and deposition of electron kinetic energy; (vii) negative-space-charge-enhanced ion emission from MITL anode surfaces wherever an anode-surface-temperature threshold has been exceeded; and (viii) closure of MITL AK gaps due to expansion of anode plasma. The circuit model is expected to be most accurate when the fractional current loss is small. We have performed circuit simulations of 52 Z experiments conducted with a variety of accelerator
Transmission-line-circuit model of an 85-TW, 25-MA pulsed-power accelerator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. T. Hutsel
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We have developed a physics-based transmission-line-circuit model of the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The 33-m-diameter Z machine generates a peak electrical power as high as 85 TW, and delivers as much as 25 MA to a physics load. The circuit model is used to design and analyze experiments conducted on Z. The model consists of 36 networks of transmission-line-circuit elements and resistors that represent each of Zs 36 modules. The model of each module includes a Marx generator, intermediate-energy-storage capacitor, laser-triggered gas switch, pulse-forming line, self-break water switches, and tri-plate transmission lines. The circuit model also includes elements that represent Zs water convolute, vacuum insulator stack, four parallel outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs, double-post-hole vacuum convolute, inner vacuum MITL, and physics load. Within the vacuum-transmission-line system the model conducts analytic calculations of current loss. To calculate the loss, the model simulates the following processes: (i electron emission from MITL cathode surfaces wherever an electric-field threshold has been exceeded; (ii electron loss in the MITLs before magnetic insulation has been established; (iii flow of electrons emitted by the outer-MITL cathodes after insulation has been established; (iv closure of MITL anode-cathode (AK gaps due to expansion of cathode plasma; (v energy loss to MITL conductors operated at high lineal current densities; (vi heating of MITL-anode surfaces due to conduction current and deposition of electron kinetic energy; (vii negative-space-charge-enhanced ion emission from MITL anode surfaces wherever an anode-surface-temperature threshold has been exceeded; and (viii closure of MITL AK gaps due to expansion of anode plasma. The circuit model is expected to be most accurate when the fractional current loss is small. We have performed circuit simulations of 52 Z experiments conducted with a
Interacting open Wilson lines from noncommutative field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiem, Youngjai; Lee, Sangmin; Rey, Soo-Jong; Sato, Haru-Tada
2002-01-01
In noncommutative field theories, it is known that the one-loop effective action describes the propagation of noninteracting open Wilson lines, obeying the flying dipole's relation. We show that the two-loop effective action describes the cubic interaction among 'closed string' states created by open Wilson line operators. Taking d-dimensional λ[Φ 3 ] * theory as the simplest setup, we compute the nonplanar contribution at a low-energy and large noncommutativity limit. We find that the contribution is expressible in a remarkably simple cubic interaction involving scalar open Wilson lines only and nothing else. We show that the interaction is purely geometrical and noncommutative in nature, depending only on the size of each open Wilson line
Kinetic theory of spectral line broadening in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussey, T.W.
1974-01-01
A formal kinetic theory is used to cast the line shape function into a form that, while similar to the ''unified'' theories of Smith, Cooper, and Vidal and of Voslamber, does not introduce some of the usual approximations. The resulting line shape function explicitly includes the initial correlations between the atom and perturbers, and also demonstrates the natural separation of plasma mean field and collisional effects. The classical path and no-quenching approximations are discussed and ultimately employed; however, they are not required in the formal development. The weak coupling limit is considered as a systematic approximation to the formal results. It is shown tha different ways of applying this limit lead to different expressions for the memory operator, some of which correspond to existing theories. One approximation is considered which systematically incorporates the effects of electron correlations within the framework of a unified theory. In addition, a practical approximation suitable for a strongly interacting plasma is discussed
Theory and Circuit Model for Lossy Coaxial Transmission Line
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Genoni, T. C.; Anderson, C. N.; Clark, R. E.; Gansz-Torres, J.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, Dale Robert
2017-04-01
The theory of signal propagation in lossy coaxial transmission lines is revisited and new approximate analytic formulas for the line impedance and attenuation are derived. The accuracy of these formulas from DC to 100 GHz is demonstrated by comparison to numerical solutions of the exact field equations. Based on this analysis, a new circuit model is described which accurately reproduces the line response over the entire frequency range. Circuit model calculations are in excellent agreement with the numerical and analytic results, and with finite-difference-time-domain simulations which resolve the skindepths of the conducting walls.
Requirements for self-magnetically insulated transmission lines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Pace VanDevender
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Self-magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs connect pulsed-power drivers with a load. Although the technology was originally developed in the 1970s and is widely used today in super power generators, failure of the technology is the principal limitation on the power that can be delivered to an experiment. We address issues that are often overlooked, rejected after inadequate simulations, or covered by overly conservative assumptions: (i electron retrapping in coupling MITLs to loads, (ii the applicability of collisionless versus collisional electron flow, (iii power transport efficiency as a function of the geometry at the beginning of the MITL, (iv gap closure and when gap closure can be neglected, and (v the role of negative ions in causing anode plasmas and enhancing current losses. We suggest a practical set of conservative design requirements for self-magnetically insulated electron flow based on the results discussed in this paper and on previously published results. The requirements are not necessarily severe constraints in all MITL applications; however, each of the 18 suggested requirements should be examined in the design of a MITL and in the investigation of excessive losses.
Correlations in the quantum theory of plasma line broadening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufty, J.W.; Boercker, D.B.
1976-01-01
A unified theory of plasma line broadening is obtained from a quantum kinetic equation, paralleling existing results for a classical plasma. The atom-electron interactions are shielded by equilibrium electron correlation functions and a frequency dependent dielectric function. A 'ring' approximation is used to replace the classical plasma parameter expansion, for typical laboratory conditions. Atom-electron correlations are included as well as electron-electron correlations. (author)
On the finite line source problem in diffusion theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikkelsen, T.; Troen, I.; Larsen, S.E.
1981-09-01
A simple formula for calculating dispersion from a continuous finite line source, placed at right angles to the mean wind direction, is derived on the basis of statistical theory. Comparison is made with the virtual source concept usually used and this is shown to be correct only in the limit where the virtual time lag Tsub(v) is small compared to the timescale of the turbulence tsub(l). (Auth.)
Hamiltonian theory of vacuum helical torus lines of magnetic force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gnudi, Giovanni; Hatori, Tadatsugu
1994-01-01
For making plasma into equilibrium state, the lines of magnetic force must have magnetic surfaces. However in a helical system, space is divided into the region having magnetic surface structure and the region that does not have it. Accordingly, it is an important basic research for the plasma confinement in a helical system to examine where is the boundary of both regions and how is the large area structure of the lines of magnetic force in the boundary region. The lines of magnetic force can be treated as a Hamilton mechanics system, and it has been proved that the Hamiltonian for the lines of magnetic force can be expressed by a set of canonical variables and the function of time. In this research, the Hamiltonian that describes the lines of magnetic force of helical system torus coordination in vacuum was successfully determined concretely. Next, the development of new linear symplectic integration method was carried out. The important supports for the theory of determining Hamiltonian are Lie transformation and paraxial expansion. The procedure is explained. In Appendix, Lie transformation, Hamiltonian for the lines of magnetic force, magnetic potential, Taylor expansion of the potential, cylindrical limit approximation, helical toroidal potential and integrable model are described. (K.I.)
Dehazed Image Quality Assessment by Haze-Line Theory
Song, Yingchao; Luo, Haibo; Lu, Rongrong; Ma, Junkai
2017-06-01
Images captured in bad weather suffer from low contrast and faint color. Recently, plenty of dehazing algorithms have been proposed to enhance visibility and restore color. However, there is a lack of evaluation metrics to assess the performance of these algorithms or rate them. In this paper, an indicator of contrast enhancement is proposed basing on the newly proposed haze-line theory. The theory assumes that colors of a haze-free image are well approximated by a few hundred distinct colors, which form tight clusters in RGB space. The presence of haze makes each color cluster forms a line, which is named haze-line. By using these haze-lines, we assess performance of dehazing algorithms designed to enhance the contrast by measuring the inter-cluster deviations between different colors of dehazed image. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed Color Contrast (CC) index correlates well with human judgments of image contrast taken in a subjective test on various scene of dehazed images and performs better than state-of-the-art metrics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Frost, C.A.; Shope, S.L.; Halbleib, J.A.; Turman, B.N.
1993-01-01
During the last ten years the authors have extensively studied the physics and operation of magnetically-immersed electron foilless diodes. Most of these sources were utilized as injectors to high current, high energy linear induction accelerators such as those of the RADLAC family. Recently they have experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that foilless diodes can be successfully coupled to self-magnetically insulated transmission line voltage adders to produce very small high brightness, high definition (no halo) electron beams. The RADLAC/SMILE experience opened the path to a new approach in high brightness, high energy induction accelerators. There is no beam drifting through the device. The voltage addition occurs in a center conductor, and the beam is created at the high voltage end in an applied magnetic field diode. This work was motivated by the remarkable success of the HERMES-III accelerator and the need to produce small radius, high energy, high current electron beams for air propagation studies and flash x-ray radiography. In this paper they present experimental results compared with analytical and numerical simulations in addition to design examples of devices that can produce multikiloamp electron beams of as high as 100 MV energies and radii as small as 1 mm
Multiloop world-line Green functions from string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roland, K.; Sato, H.T.
1996-01-01
We show how the multiloop bosonic Green function of closed string theory reduces to the world-line Green function as defined by Schmidt and Schubert in the limit where the string world-sheet degenerates into a Φ 3 particle diagram. To obtain this correspondence we have to make an appropriate choice of the local coordinates defined on the degenerate string world sheet. We also present a set of simple rules that specify, in the explicit setting of the Schottky parametrization, which is the corner of moduli space corresponding to a given multiloop Φ 3 diagram. (orig.)
How Theories of Perception Deploy the Line: Reconfiguring Students' Bodies through Topo-Philosophy
de Freitas, Elizabeth
2014-01-01
In this essay Elizabeth de Freitas follows Tim Ingold's groundbreaking anthropological work on lines and their cultural and material significance to argue that the line is the engine of theory, be it the drawn line of inscription or mathematical measure, the exclusionary line of delineation, or the undulating generative line of flight. De…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinshelwood, D. D.; Schumer, J. W.; Allen, R. J.; Commisso, R. J.; Jackson, S. L.; Murphy, D. P.; Phipps, D.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Weber, B. V.; Ottinger, P. F.; Apruzese, J. P.; Cooperstein, G.; Young, F. C.
2011-01-01
A pinch-reflex ion diode is fielded on the pulsed-power machine Mercury (R. J. Allen, et al., 15th IEEE Intl. Pulsed Power Conf., Monterey, CA, 2005, p. 339), which has an inductive voltage adder (IVA) architecture and a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL). Mercury is operated in positive polarity resulting in layered MITL flow as emitted electrons are born at a different potential in each of the adder cavities. The usual method for estimating the voltage by measuring the bound current in the cathode and anode of the MITL is not accurate with layered flow, and the interaction of the MITL flow with a pinched-beam ion diode load has not been studied previously. Other methods for determining the diode voltage are applied, ion diode performance is experimentally characterized and evaluated, and circuit and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are performed. Results indicate that the ion diode couples efficiently to the machine operating at a diode voltage of about 3.5 MV and a total current of about 325 kA, with an ion current of about 70 kA of which about 60 kA is proton current. It is also found that the layered flow impedance of the MITL is about half the vacuum impedance.
Bos-Nehles, Anna Christina; van Riemsdijk, Maarten; Looise, Jan C.
2013-01-01
Line managers are today seen as increasingly important in effectively implementing HRM practices. Based on the Ability-Motivation-Opportunity (AMO) theory, we predict that line managers' performance in this regard will depend on their ability to apply HRM practices, and that their motivation and the
Design and performance of the Z magnetically-insulated transmission lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stygar, W.A.; Spielman, R.B.; Allshouse, G.O.
1997-01-01
The 36-module Z accelerator was designed to drive z-pinch loads for weapon-physics and inertial-confinement-fusion experiments, and to serve as a testing facility for pulsed-power research required to develop higher-current drivers. The authors have designed and tested a 10-nH 1.5-m-radius vacuum section for the Z accelerator. The vacuum section consists of four vacuum flares, four conical 1.3-m-radius magnetically-insulated transmission lines, a 7.6-cm-radius 12-post double-post-hole convolute which connects the four outer MITLs in parallel, and a 5-cm-long inner MITL which connects the output of the convolute to a z-pinch load. IVORY and ELECTRO calculations were performed to minimize the inductance of the vacuum flares with the constraint that there be no significant electron emission from the insulator-stack grading rings. Iterative TLCODE calculations were performed to minimize the inductance of the outer MITLs with the constraint that the MITL electron-flow-current fraction be ≤ 7% at peak current. The TLCODE simulations assume a 2.5 cm/micros MITL-cathode-plasma expansion velocity. The design limits the electron dose to the outer-MITL anodes to 50 J/g to prevent the formation of an anode plasma. The TLCODE results were confirmed by SCREAMER, TRIFL, TWOQUICK, IVORY, and LASNEX simulations. For the TLCODE, SCREAMER, and TRIFL calculations, the authors assume that after magnetic insulation is established, the electron-flow current launched in the outer MITLs is lost at the convolute. This assumption has been validated by 3-D QUICKSILVER simulations for load impedances ≤ 0.36 ohms. LASNEX calculations suggest that ohmic resistance of the pinch and conduction-current-induced energy loss to the MITL electrodes can be neglected in Z power-flow modeling that is accurate to first order. To date, the Z vacuum section has been tested on 100 shots. They have demonstrated they can deliver a 100-ns rise-time 20-MA current pulse to the baseline z-pinch load
Poverty Lines Based on Fuzzy Sets Theory and Its Application to Malaysian Data
Abdullah, Lazim
2011-01-01
Defining the poverty line has been acknowledged as being highly variable by the majority of published literature. Despite long discussions and successes, poverty line has a number of problems due to its arbitrary nature. This paper proposes three measurements of poverty lines using membership functions based on fuzzy set theory. The three…
Ferreira, Hendrik C; Newbury, John; Swart, Theo G
2010-01-01
Power Line Communications (PLC) is a promising emerging technology, which has attracted much attention due to the wide availability of power distribution lines. This book provides a thorough introduction to the use of power lines for communication purposes, ranging from channel characterization, communications on the physical layer and electromagnetic interference, through to protocols, networks, standards and up to systems and implementations. With contributions from many of the most prominent international PLC experts from academia and industry, Power Line Communications brings togeth
Theory of Moessbauer line broadening due to diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, K.; Wolf, D.; Dederichs, P.H.
1981-12-01
We have calculated the line broadening of the Moessbauer line due to diffusion of Moessbauer atoms via single vacanices. We take into account the perturbation of vacancy jumps in the neighbourhood of an impurity Moessbauer atom (e.g. Fe in Al) using the 5-frequency model. The anisotropy of the line width is given by the Fourier transform of the final distribution of a Moessbauer atom after an encounter with a vacancy. This distribution is calculated by Monte Carlo computer simulation. 3 figures, 1 tables
Electric vortex lines from the Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, N.K.; Olesen, P.
1978-08-01
The dynamics of an unstable Yang-Mills field mode previously found by the authors is developed. It is argued that this unstable mode corresponds to the transition to a state where electric vortex lines are created. (Auth.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, PengFei; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulse Radiation of Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Hu, Yang; Yang, HaiLiang; Sun, Jiang; Wang, Liangping; Cong, Peitian [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulse Radiation of Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)
2016-03-15
The design of high-current density magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) is a difficult problem of current large-scale Z-pinch device. In particular, a thorough understanding of the MITL electrode surface evolution process under high current density is lacking. On the “QiangGuang-I” accelerator, the load area possesses a low inductance short-circuit structure with a diameter of 2.85 mm at the cathode, and three reflux columns with a diameter of 3 mm and uniformly distributed circumference at the anode. The length of the high density MITL area is 20 mm. A laser interferometer is used to assess and analyze the state of the MITL cathode and anode gap, and their evolution process under high current density. Experimental results indicate that evident current loss is not observed in the current density area at pulse leading edge, and peak when the surface current density reaches MA/cm. Analysis on electrode surface working conditions indicates that when the current leading edge is at 71.5% of the peak, the total evaporation of MITL cathode structure can be realized by energy deposition caused by ohmic heating. The electrode state changes, and diffusion conditions are reflected in the laser interferometer image. The MITL cathode area mainly exists in metal vapor form. The metal vapor density in the cathode central region is higher than the upper limit of laser penetration density (∼4 × 10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3}), with an expansion velocity of ∼0.96 km/s. The metal vapor density in the electrode outer area may lead to evident distortion of fringes, and its expansion velocity is faster than that in the center area (1.53 km/s).
Stochastic theory of relaxation and collisional broadening of spectral line shapes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faid, K.
1986-01-01
A complete stochastic theory of relaxation is developed in terms of a homogeneous equation for the averaged density matrix of a system immersed in a thermal bath. This theory is then used as the basis of a new stochastic approach to the phenomenon of collisional broadening of spectral line shapes. Single-photon and multiphoton processes are studied. The features of a line shape are linked by simple expressions to the statistical properties of a stochastic hermitian Hamiltonian. The ordinary line shape predicted by Kubo's approach is generalized. The present approach predicts broadening as well as asymmetry and shift. A representation of line shapes in multiphoton processes by diagrams is also developed
Poverty Lines in History, Theory, and Current International Practice
Robert Allen
2013-01-01
This paper compares historical poverty baskets to modern food security and poverty lines. Changes in the historical baskets and indexing methods are proposed to bring historical studies into better alignment with modern measures as well as with historically based estimates of energy requirements. In addition, it is argued that modern poverty measures could be improved by emulating the historical methods.
Energy expressions in density-functional theory using line integrals.
van Leeuwen, R.; Baerends, E.J.
1995-01-01
In this paper we will address the question of how to obtain energies from functionals when only the functional derivative is given. It is shown that one can obtain explicit expressions for the exchange-correlation energy from approximate exchange-correlation potentials using line integrals along
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coman, Ioana; Teschner, Joerg
2015-05-01
Non-perturbative aspects of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories of class S are deeply encoded in the algebra of functions on the moduli space M flat of at SL(N)-connections on Riemann surfaces. Expectation values of Wilson and 't Hooft line operators are related to holonomies of flat connections, and expectation values of line operators in the low-energy effective theory are related to Fock-Goncharov coordinates on M flat . Via the decomposition of UV line operators into IR line operators, we determine their noncommutative algebra from the quantization of Fock-Goncharov Laurent polynomials, and find that it coincides with the skein algebra studied in the context of Chern-Simons theory. Another realization of the skein algebra is generated by Verlinde network operators in Toda field theory. Comparing the spectra of these two realizations provides non-trivial support for their equivalence. Our results can be viewed as evidence for the generalization of the AGT correspondence to higher-rank class S theories.
Kesler, Steven R.
The lifting line theory was first developed by Prandtl and was used primarily on analysis of airplane wings. Though the theory is about one hundred years old, it is still used in the initial calculations to find the lift of a wing. The question that guided this thesis was, "How close does Prandtl's lifting line theory predict the thrust of a propeller?" In order to answer this question, an experiment was designed that measured the thrust of a propeller for different speeds. The measured thrust was compared to what the theory predicted. In order to do this experiment and analysis, a propeller needed to be used. A walnut wood ultralight propeller was chosen that had a 1.30 meter (51 inches) length from tip to tip. In this thesis, Prandtl's lifting line theory was modified to account for the different incoming velocity depending on the radial position of the airfoil. A modified equation was used to reflect these differences. A working code was developed based on this modified equation. A testing rig was built that allowed the propeller to be rotated at high speeds while measuring the thrust. During testing, the rotational speed of the propeller ranged from 13-43 rotations per second. The thrust from the propeller was measured at different speeds and ranged from 16-33 Newton's. The test data were then compared to the theoretical results obtained from the lifting line code. A plot in Chapter 5 (the results section) shows the theoretical vs. actual thrust for different rotational speeds. The theory over predicted the actual thrust of the propeller. Depending on the rotational speed, the error was: at low speeds 36%, at low to moderate speeds 84%, and at high speeds the error increased to 195%. Different reasons for these errors are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuneo, M.E.; Hanson, D.L.; Menge, P.R.; Poukey, J.W.; Savage, M.E.
1994-01-01
SABRE (Sandia Accelerator and Beam Research Experiment) is a ten-cavity linear induction magnetically insulated voltage adder (6 MV, 300 kA) operated in positive polarity to investigate issues relevant to ion beam production and propagation for inertial confinement fusion. The voltage adder section is coupled to an applied-B extraction ion diode via a long coaxial output transmission line. Observations indicate that the power propagates in a vacuum wave prior to electron emission. After the electron emission threshold is reached, power propagates in a magnetically insulated wave. The precursor is observed to have a dominant impact on he turn-on, impedance history, and beam characteristics of applied-B ion diodes since the precursor voltage is large enough to cause electron emission at the diode from both the cathode feed and cathode tips. The amplitude of the precursor at the load (3--4.5 MV) is a significant fraction of the maximum load voltage (5--6 MV) because (1) the transmission line gaps ( ∼ 9 cm at output) and therefore impedances are relatively large, and hence the electric field threshold for electron emission (200 to 300 kV/cm) is not reached until well into the power pulse rise time; and (2) the rapidly falling forward wave and diode impedance reduces the ratio of main pulse voltage to precursor voltage. Experimental voltage and current data from the transmission line and the ion diode will be presented and compared with TWOQUICK (2-D electromagnetic PIC code) simulations and analytic models
Millimeter-Gap Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line Power Flow Experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hutsel, Brian Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stoltzfus, Brian S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fowler, William E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LeChien, Keith R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mazarakis, Michael G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, James K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mulville, Thomas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Savage, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stygar, William A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McKenney, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Peter A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacRunnels, Diego J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Long, Finis W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Porter, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-09-01
An experiment platform has been designed to study vacuum power flow in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). The platform was driven by the 400-GW Mykonos-V accelerator. The experiments conducted quantify the current loss in a millimeter-gap MITL with respect to vacuum conditions in the MITL for two different gap distances, 1.0 and 1.3 mm. The current loss for each gap was measured for three different vacuum pump down times. As a ride along experiment, multiple shots were conducted with each set of hardware to determine if there was a conditioning effect to increase current delivery on subsequent shots. The experiment results revealed large differences in performance for the 1.0 and 1.3 mm gaps. The 1.0 mm gap resulted in current loss of 40%-60% of peak current. The 1.3 mm gap resulted in current losses of less than 5% of peak current. Classical MITL models that neglect plasma expansion predict that there should be zero current loss, after magnetic insulation is established, for both of these gaps. The experiments result s indicate that the vacuum pressure or pump down time did not have a significant effect on the measured current loss at vacuum pressures between 1e-4 and 1e-5 Torr. Additionally, there was not repeatable evidence of a conditioning effect that reduced current loss for subsequent full-energy shots on a given set of hardware. It should be noted that the experiments conducted likely did not have large loss contributions due to ion emission from the anode due to the relatively small current densi-ties (25-40 kA/cm) in the MITL that limited the anode temperature rise due to ohmic heating. The results and conclusions from these experiments may have limited applicability to MITLs of high current density (>400 kA/cm) used in the convolute and load region of the Z which experience temperature increases of >400° C and generate ion emission from anode surfaces.
Modal Transition Systems as the Basis for Interface Theories and Product Lines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nyman, Ulrik
and a subset of modal transition systems is proved. The developed interface theory, which can describe liveness properties, is also applied as a behavioral variability theory for product line development. The two last papers of the thesis concern themselves with modal and mixed transition systems. The first....... It also proves PSPACE-hardness for consistency of mixed specifications and establishes a number of reductions between the different decision problems. Keywords: Modeling, Software Product Lines, Embedded Software, Modal Refinement, Labeled Transition Systems, Modal Transition Systems, Mixed Transition......This thesis presents research taking its outset in component-based software development, interface theory and software product lines, as well as modeling formalisms for describing component based software systems and their interfaces. The main part of the thesis consists of five papers. The first...
Open Wilson lines and generalized star product in noncommutative scalar field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiem, Youngjai; Sato, Haru-Tada; Rey, Soo-Jong; Yee, Jung-Tay
2002-01-01
Open Wilson line operators and a generalized star product have been studied extensively in noncommutative gauge theories. We show that they also show up in noncommutative scalar field theories as universal structures. We first point out that the dipole picture of noncommutative geometry provides an intuitive argument for the robustness of the open Wilson lines and generalized star products therein. We calculate the one-loop effective action of noncommutative scalar field theory with a cubic self-interaction and show explicitly that the generalized star products arise in the nonplanar part. It is shown that, at the low-energy, large noncommutativity limit, the nonplanar part is expressible solely in terms of the scalar open Wilson line operator and descendants
Stochastic field-line wandering in magnetic turbulence with shear. I. Quasi-linear theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shalchi, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Negrea, M.; Petrisor, I. [Department of Physics, University of Craiova, Association Euratom-MEdC, 13A.I.Cuza Str, 200585 Craiova (Romania)
2016-07-15
We investigate the random walk of magnetic field lines in magnetic turbulence with shear. In the first part of the series, we develop a quasi-linear theory in order to compute the diffusion coefficient of magnetic field lines. We derive general formulas for the diffusion coefficients in the different directions of space. We like to emphasize that we expect that quasi-linear theory is only valid if the so-called Kubo number is small. We consider two turbulence models as examples, namely, a noisy slab model as well as a Gaussian decorrelation model. For both models we compute the field line diffusion coefficients and we show how they depend on the aforementioned Kubo number as well as a shear parameter. It is demonstrated that the shear effect reduces all field line diffusion coefficients.
Stochastic field-line wandering in magnetic turbulence with shear. I. Quasi-linear theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shalchi, A.; Negrea, M.; Petrisor, I.
2016-01-01
We investigate the random walk of magnetic field lines in magnetic turbulence with shear. In the first part of the series, we develop a quasi-linear theory in order to compute the diffusion coefficient of magnetic field lines. We derive general formulas for the diffusion coefficients in the different directions of space. We like to emphasize that we expect that quasi-linear theory is only valid if the so-called Kubo number is small. We consider two turbulence models as examples, namely, a noisy slab model as well as a Gaussian decorrelation model. For both models we compute the field line diffusion coefficients and we show how they depend on the aforementioned Kubo number as well as a shear parameter. It is demonstrated that the shear effect reduces all field line diffusion coefficients.
Numerically-based ducted propeller design using vortex lattice lifting line theory
Stubblefield, John M.
2008-01-01
CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document This thesis used vortex lattice lifting line theory to model an axisymmetrical-ducted propeller with no gap between the duct and the propeller. The theory required to model the duct and its interaction with the propeller were discussed and implemented in Open-source Propeller Design and Analysis Program (OpenProp). Two routines for determining the optimum circulation distribution were considered, and a method based on calculus of variation...
Berry, Dominic
2014-06-01
In the early twentieth century, Wilhelm Johannsen proposed his pure line theory and the genotype/phenotype distinction, work that is prized as one of the most important founding contributions to genetics and Mendelian plant breeding. Most historians have already concluded that pure line theory did not change breeding practices directly. Instead, breeding became more orderly as a consequence of pure line theory, which structured breeding programmes and eliminated external heritable influences. This incremental change then explains how and why the large multi-national seed companies that we know today were created; pure lines invited standardisation and economies of scale that the latter were designed to exploit. Rather than focus on breeding practice, this paper examines the plant varietal market itself. It focusses upon work conducted by the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) during the interwar years, and in doing so demonstrates that, on the contrary, the pure line was actually only partially accepted by the industry. Moreover, claims that contradicted the logic of the pure line were not merely tolerated by the agricultural geneticists affiliated with NIAB, but were acknowledged and legitimised by them. The history of how and why the plant breeding industry was transformed remains to be written. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Theory of direct-interband-transition line shapes based on Mori's method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sam Nyung Yi; Jai Yon Ryu; Ok Hee Chung; Joung Young Sug; Sang Don Choi; Yeon Choon Chung
1987-01-01
A theory of direct interband optical transition in the electron-phonon system is introduced on the basis of the Kubo formalism and by using Mori's method of calculation. The line shape functions are introduced in two different ways and are compared with those obtained by Choi and Chung based on Argyres and Sigel's projection technique
Unilateral microform cleft lip repair: application of muscle tension line group theory.
Yin, Ningbei; Song, Tao; Wu, Jiajun; Chen, Bo; Ma, Hengyuan; Zhao, Zhenmin; Wang, Yongqian; Li, Haidong; Wu, Di
2015-03-01
In microform cleft lip repair, reconstructing the elaborate structures is difficult. We describe a new technique of unilateral microform cleft lip repair that is based on the muscle tension line group theory. According to the shape of Cupid bow, a different small incision is used without creating an obvious cutaneous scar. First, the nasolabial muscle around the nasal floor (the first auxiliary tension line group) is reconstructed, and then the orbicularis oris muscle around the philtrum (the second auxiliary tension line group) is reconstructed based on the muscle tension line group theory. From June 2006 to June 2012, the technique was used in 263 unilateral microform cleft lip repairs. For 18 months, 212 patients were followed up. The appearance of the nasal alar, nasal sill, philtrum, and Cupid bow peak improved. Most patients had a satisfactory appearance. Based on the muscle tension line group theory, using this technique offers the ability to adduct the nasal alar effectively to form a good nasal sill and philtrum.
Entanglement entropy in integrable field theories with line defects II. Non-topological defect
Jiang, Yunfeng
2017-08-01
This is the second part of two papers where we study the effect of integrable line defects on bipartite entanglement entropy in integrable field theories. In this paper, we consider non-topological line defects in Ising field theory. We derive an infinite series expression for the entanglement entropy and show that both the UV and IR limits of the bulk entanglement entropy are modified by the line defect. In the UV limit, we give an infinite series expression for the coefficient in front of the logarithmic divergence and the exact defect g-function. By tuning the defect to be purely transmissive and reflective, we recover correctly the entanglement entropy of the bulk and with integrable boundary respectively.
A NON-ISOTHERMAL THEORY FOR INTERPRETING SODIUM LINES IN TRANSMISSION SPECTRA OF EXOPLANETS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heng, Kevin; Lavie, Baptiste [University of Bern, Physics Institute, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Wyttenbach, Aurélien; Ehrenreich, David; Lovis, Christophe [Observatoire de l’Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Sing, David K., E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch [Astrophysics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)
2015-04-10
We present a theory for interpreting the sodium lines detected in transmission spectra of exoplanetary atmospheres. Previous analyses employed the isothermal approximation and dealt only with the transit radius. By recognizing the absorption depth and the transit radius as being independent observables, we develop a theory for jointly interpreting both quantities, which allows us to infer the temperatures and number densities associated with the sodium lines. We are able to treat a non-isothermal situation with a constant temperature gradient. Our novel diagnostics take the form of simple-to-use algebraic formulae and require measurements of the transit radii (and their corresponding absorption depths) at line center and in the line wing for both sodium lines. We apply our diagnostics to the HARPS data of HD 189733b, confirm the upper atmospheric heating reported by Huitson et al., derive a temperature gradient of 0.4376 ± 0.0154 K km{sup −1}, and find densities ∼1–10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonaka, S.
1991-01-01
In order to seek for a radio frequency (RF) eigen-mode of waves in producing a plasma between a pair of long dielectric-covered parallel-plate RF electrodes, this paper analyzed all normal modes propagating along the electrodes by solving Maxwell's equations. The result showed that only an odd surface wave mode will produce the plasma in usual experimental conditions, which will become a basic transmission line theory when use of such long electrodes for on-line mass-production of amorphous silicon solar cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poukey, J.W.; Cuneo, M.E.; Lockner, T.R.
1993-01-01
This paper presents recent particle simulation studies of the pulsed-power machines PBFA and SABRE. The code used is the 2-D electromagnetic TWOQUICK. For SABRE we emphasize the single-stage case and compare with experiment. Here the voltage adder, magnetically-insulated-transmission-line (MITL), and proton applied-B extraction diode are all included in the fully time-dependent simulations. Results include vacuum wave precursor effects vs. cathode turn-on threshold, and the sheath-retrapping benefits of diode undermatching. For PBFA we emphasize the 2-stage case and compare with experiments using lithium ions. Here we include the transmission lines and MITLs feeding the 2-stage barrel diode. Results show that good operation is critically dependent on careful B-field shaping in the feeds and diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, S.; Li, Y.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Zhang, N.; Cui, W.; Neuber, A.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a statistical theory for the initial onset of multipactor breakdown in coaxial transmission lines, taking both the nonuniform electric field and random electron emission velocity into account. A general numerical method is first developed to construct the joint probability density function based on the approximate equation of the electron trajectory. The nonstationary dynamics of the multipactor process on both surfaces of coaxial lines are modelled based on the probability of various impacts and their corresponding secondary emission. The resonant assumption of the classical theory on the independent double-sided and single-sided impacts is replaced by the consideration of their interaction. As a result, the time evolutions of the electron population for exponential growth and absorption on both inner and outer conductor, in response to the applied voltage above and below the multipactor breakdown level, are obtained to investigate the exact mechanism of multipactor discharge in coaxial lines. Furthermore, the multipactor threshold predictions of the presented model are compared with experimental results using measured secondary emission yield of the tested samples which shows reasonable agreement. Finally, the detailed impact scenario reveals that single-surface multipactor is more likely to occur with a higher outer to inner conductor radius ratio
A quasi-one-dimensional theory of sound propagation in lined ducts with mean flow
Dokumaci, Erkan
2018-04-01
Sound propagation in ducts with locally-reacting liners has received the attention of many authors proposing two- and three-dimensional solutions of the convected wave equation and of the Pridmore-Brown equation. One-dimensional lined duct models appear to have received less attention. The present paper proposes a quasi-one-dimensional theory for lined uniform ducts with parallel sheared mean flow. The basic assumption of the theory is that the effects of refraction and wall compliance on the fundamental mode remain within ranges in which the acoustic fluctuations are essentially uniform over a duct section. This restricts the model to subsonic low Mach numbers and Helmholtz numbers of less than about unity. The axial propagation constants and the wave transfer matrix of the duct are given by simple explicit expressions and can be applied with no-slip, full-slip or partial slip boundary conditions. The limitations of the theory are discussed and its predictions are compared with the fundamental mode solutions of the convected wave equation, the Pridmore-Brown equation and measurements where available.
High-temperature expansion along the self-dual line of three-dimensional Z(2) spin-gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhanot, G.
1981-01-01
We exploit the self-duality of the three-dimensional Ising spin-gauge theory to develop an eighth-order high-temperature expansion for the partition function along the self-dual line. This generates a high-temperature series for the gauge-invariant, nearest-neighbor spin-spin correlation function. A Pade analysis of this series reveals a pole along the self-dual line. Recent Monte Carlo simulations indicate that this theory has a first-order self-dual line emerging from a triple point. We interpret the Pade pole as a theoretical estimate of the end point of this self-dual line
Sibley, David; Nold, Andreas; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2015-11-01
Density Functional Theory (DFT), a statistical mechanics of fluids approach, captures microscopic details of the fluid density structure in the vicinity of contact lines, as seen in computations in our recent study. Contact lines describe the location where interfaces between two fluids meet solid substrates, and have stimulated a wealth of research due to both their ubiquity in nature and technological applications and also due to their rich multiscale behaviour. Whilst progress can be made computationally to capture the microscopic to mesoscopic structure from DFT, complete analytical results to fully bridge to the macroscale are lacking. In this work, we describe our efforts to bring asymptotic methods to DFT to obtain results for contact angles and other macroscopic quantities in various parameter regimes. We acknowledge financial support from European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031.
A Quasi-Steady Lifting Line Theory for Insect-Like Hovering Flight.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mostafa R A Nabawy
Full Text Available A novel lifting line formulation is presented for the quasi-steady aerodynamic evaluation of insect-like wings in hovering flight. The approach allows accurate estimation of aerodynamic forces from geometry and kinematic information alone and provides for the first time quantitative information on the relative contribution of induced and profile drag associated with lift production for insect-like wings in hover. The main adaptation to the existing lifting line theory is the use of an equivalent angle of attack, which enables capture of the steady non-linear aerodynamics at high angles of attack. A simple methodology to include non-ideal induced effects due to wake periodicity and effective actuator disc area within the lifting line theory is included in the model. Low Reynolds number effects as well as the edge velocity correction required to account for different wing planform shapes are incorporated through appropriate modification of the wing section lift curve slope. The model has been successfully validated against measurements from revolving wing experiments and high order computational fluid dynamics simulations. Model predicted mean lift to weight ratio results have an average error of 4% compared to values from computational fluid dynamics for eight different insect cases. Application of an unmodified linear lifting line approach leads on average to a 60% overestimation in the mean lift force required for weight support, with most of the discrepancy due to use of linear aerodynamics. It is shown that on average for the eight insects considered, the induced drag contributes 22% of the total drag based on the mean cycle values and 29% of the total drag based on the mid half-stroke values.
Numerical simulation of cathode plasma dynamics in magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thoma, C.; Genoni, T. C.; Welch, D. R.; Rose, D. V.; Clark, R. E.; Miller, C. L.; Stygar, W. A.; Kiefer, M. L.
2015-01-01
A novel algorithm for the simulation of cathode plasmas in particle-in-cell codes is described and applied to investigate cathode plasma evolution in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). The MITL electron sheath is modeled by a fully kinetic electron species. Electron and ion macroparticles, both modeled as fluid species, form a dense plasma which is initially localized at the cathode surface. Energetic plasma electron particles can be converted to kinetic electrons to resupply the electron flux at the plasma edge (the “effective” cathode). Using this model, we compare results for the time evolution of the cathode plasma and MITL electron flow with a simplified (isothermal) diffusion model. Simulations in 1D show a slow diffusive expansion of the plasma from the cathode surface. But in multiple dimensions, the plasma can expand much more rapidly due to anomalous diffusion caused by an instability due to the strong coupling of a transverse magnetic mode in the electron sheath with the expanding resistive plasma layer
A simplified theory of ELF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere transmission line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Booker, H.G.
1980-01-01
An approximate theory of ELF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere transmission line is developed by combining the reflection theory of Booker and Lefeuvre with Greifinger and Greifinger's treatment of the effect of ionization below the level of reflection. The theory allows for the influence of the Earth's magnetic field, for reflection from the gradient on the under side of the D-region (or, at night, of a ledge below the E-region), for reflection from the gradient on the underside of the E-region and for reflection from the gradient on the topside of the E-region. The procedure is to compare local vertical gradient with local wavelength, thereby classifying altitude into intervals where the gradient is high and ones where it is low. Where the gradient is low, the phase-integral treatment is adequate. An interval where the gradient is high may, to a first approximation, be replaced by a discontinuity. The amount of the discontinuity is the difference between the refractive indices at the top and bottom of the interval of high gradient, judged in relation to local wavelength. It is then a matter of combining reflections from the several discontinuities. This requires calculation of the complex phase-changes between the discontinuities. But there are the intervals where the phase-integral treatment is available. To a better approximation, there is a non-zero phase change associated with an interval of high gradient. The method for incorporating this is described. (author)
Microparticle-initiated losses in magnetically insulated transmission lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gray, E.W.; Stinnett, R.W.
1986-01-01
The author's discuss the effects of high and hypervelocity microparticles in magnetically-insulated transmission lines (MITLs) and how they may be a possible source for ion production near the anode in early stages of the voltage pulse, and current carriers during and after the power pulse, resulting in power flow losses. Early losses in the voltage pulse, due to microparticles, are estimated to be approximately 0.3 mA/cm/sup 2/. Blistering of the electrode surface, thought to be due to H/sup -/ bombardment, was also observed and appears to be consistent with losses due to negative ions previously reported by one of the authors
Anderson, D. E., Jr.; Meier, R. R.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Tinsley, B. A.
1987-01-01
The H Balmer alpha nightglow is investigated by using Monte Carlo models of asymmetric geocoronal atomic hydrogen distributions as input to a radiative transfer model of solar Lyman-beta radiation in the thermosphere and atmosphere. It is shown that it is essential to include multiple scattering of Lyman-beta radiation in the interpretation of Balmer alpha airglow data. Observations of diurnal variation in the Balmer alpha airglow showing slightly greater intensities in the morning relative to evening are consistent with theory. No evidence is found for anything other than a single sinusoidal diurnal variation of exobase density. Dramatic changes in effective temperature derived from the observed Balmer alpha line profiles are expected on the basis of changing illumination conditions in the thermosphere and exosphere as different regions of the sky are scanned.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleg Bazaluk
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the historical and philosophical analysis of scientific and philosophical ideas, which have influenced the development of the theories of The article deals with the historical and philosophical analysis of scientific and philosophical ideas, which have influenced the development of the theories of education and needed a certain systematisation. The chosen strategy helps the researcher not only to structure in a certain way gained by the empirical and theoretical way knowledge in the sphere of education but also to use the obtained results to create a new theory. The feature of systematisation and classification of the accumulated information determines the direction and scale of use formulated on its basis theory. Due to received generalisations, the author systematised the diversity of the theories of education in histories of culture according to the two lines of development: Plato and Isocrates. The author concludes that the competition and complementarity that exist between the theories of education of Plato’s and Isocrates’ lines represent education as a matrix that forms a certain direction of self-realization of human generations in ontogenesis in the history of culture. The theories of education of Plato’s line set the ideal of form building, answering the question: “Who should be educated in the younger generations?” The theories of education of Isocrates’ line by daily educational practices ensure the achievement of the designated ideal, i.e. focus more on finding answers to the question “How to educate the younger generation?”
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minas Bakalchev
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maenchen, J.E.
1983-01-01
The coupling of energy from a high power pulsed accelerator through a long triplate magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) in vacuum to an annular applied magnetic field insulated extraction ion diode is examined. The narrow power transport window and the wave front erosion of the MITL set stringent impedance history conditions on the diode load. A new ion diode design developed to satisfy these criteria with marginal electron insulation is presented. The LION accelerator is used to provide a positive polarity 1.5 MV, 350 kA, 40 ns FWHM pulse with a 30 kA/ns current rate from a triplate MITL source. A transition converts the triplate into a cylindrical cross section which flares into the ion diode load. Extensive current and voltage measurements performed along this structure and on the extracted ion beam provide conclusive evidence that the self insulation condition of the MITL is maintained in the transition by current loss alone. The ion diode utilizes a radial magnetic field between a grounded cathode annular emission tip and a disk anode. A 50 cm 2 dielectric/metal anode area serves as the ion plasma source subject to direct electron bombardment from the opposing cathode tip under marginal magnetic insulation conditions. The ions extracted cross the radial magnetic field and exit the diode volume as an annular cross section beam of peak current about 100 kA. The diode current gradually converts from the initial electron flow to nearly 100% ion current after 30 ns, coupling 60% of the diode energy into ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scotto, M.; Jecko, B.
1987-01-01
The illumination of overhead lines by a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) in presence of a perfectly conducting ground gives rise to a scattering problem leading to phenomena both studied here in time and frequency domains. This problem is resolved with the help of an integral equation established in space-time domain and making possible (without approximation) the determination of the time dependence of the current induced on each point of the wire structure. Moreover, the passage in frequency domain allows to express a transfer function defined in one point of the excited line, pointing out its spectral characteristics. Results clearly show the insufficiency of the classic transmission line theory concealing some phenomena which are described here and for which an interpretation is proposed [fr
Hall, P.; Malik, M. R.
1984-01-01
The instability of a three dimensional attachment line boundary layer is considered in the nonlinear regime. Using weakly nonlinear theory, it is found that, apart from a small interval near the (linear) critical Reynolds number, finite amplitude solutions bifurcate subcritically from the upper branch of the neutral curve. The time dependent Navier-Stokes equations for the attachment line flow have been solved using a Fourier-Chebyshev spectral method and the subcritical instability is found at wavenumbers that correspond to the upper branch. Both the theory and the numerical calculations show the existence of supercritical finite amplitude (equilibrium) states near the lower branch which explains why the observed flow exhibits a preference for the lower branch modes. The effect of blowing and suction on nonlinear stability of the attachment line boundary layer is also investigated.
Hall, P.; Malik, M. R.
1986-01-01
The instability of a three-dimensional attachment-line boundary layer is considered in the nonlinear regime. Using weakly nonlinear theory, it is found that, apart from a small interval near the (linear) critical Reynolds number, finite-amplitude solutions bifurcate subcritically from the upper branch of the neutral curve. The time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for the attachment-line flow have been solved using a Fourier-Chebyshev spectral method and the subcritical instability is found at wavenumbers that correspond to the upper branch. Both the theory and the numerical calculations show the existence of supercritical finite-amplitude (equilibrium) states near the lower branch which explains why the observed flow exhibits a preference for the lower branch modes. The effect of blowing and suction on nonlinear stability of the attachment-line boundary layer is also investigated.
Elastoplastic analysis of surface cracks in pressure vessels using slip-line theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskinen, R.P.
1983-01-01
The paper considers the aspects of engineering application of SLF theory to long surface cracks in pressure vessels. Green's upper-bound SLF for a bend specimen with deep wedge-shaped notch of small flank angle is adopted to analyse the remaining ligament of the cracked section. The SLF involves only one unknown variable, i.e., the radius of a circular slip-line arc, which can be evaluated from the equilibrium condition across the ligament. The stress distribution across the ligament is easily computed by Hencky's theorem and the respective stress resultants produce the boundary conditions for the solution of the neighboring elastic material. The elastic solution readily yields the rotation of the crack edges, COA, and it in turn geometrically defines the applied CTOD. Comparison has proved their relation to the stress resultants identical with that following from the customary single plastic hinge model when Tresca's yield condition prevails and the tensile side plastic constraint factor of the hinge model is chosen as 1.7. The SLF approach is demonstrated for an internal circumferential surface crack subjected to thermal gradient and axial load representative of overpressurization and emergency cooling conditions of a pressure vessel. Analytical formulas relating COA and CTOD to applied loading are derived and CTOD-R curve based stable crack propagation is solved iteratively. Generic numerical results are presented for COA and CTOD under arbitrary loading combination. The risk of crack growth initiation appears to increase with the linear dimensions of the pressure vessel, but remains small for a chosen BWR application. For a long axial surface crack the approach agrees with a previous plastic hinge analysis by Ranta-Maunus et al. suggesting instability under certain combinations of thermal gradient and internal pressure. (orig./HP)
Liu, Laqun; Wang, Huihui; Guo, Fan; Zou, Wenkang; Liu, Dagang
2017-04-01
Based on the 3-dimensional Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code CHIPIC3D, with a new circuit boundary algorithm we developed, a conical magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) with a 1.0-MV linear transformer driver (LTD) is explored numerically. The values of switch jitter time of LTD are critical parameters for the system, which are difficult to be measured experimentally. In this paper, these values are obtained by comparing the PIC results with experimental data of large diode-gap MITL. By decreasing the diode gap, we find that all PIC results agree well with experimental data only if MITL works on self-limited flow no matter how large the diode gap is. However, when the diode gap decreases to a threshold, the self-limited flow would transfer to a load-limited flow. In this situation, PIC results no longer agree with experimental data anymore due to the anode plasma expansion in the diode load. This disagreement is used to estimate the plasma expansion speed.
Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.
1992-01-01
The far wing line shape theory developed previously and applied to the calculation of the continuum absorption of pure water vapor is extended to foreign-broadened continua. Explicit results are presented for H2O-N2 and H2O-CO2 in the frequency range from 0 to 10,000/cm. For H2O-N2 the positive and negative resonant frequency average line shape functions and absorption coefficients are computed for a number of temperatures between 296 and 430 K for comparison with available laboratory data. In general the agreement is very good.
A new Theory for frequencies computation of overhead lines with bundle conductors.
dubois, Hervé; Dal Maso, Filipo; Lilien, Jean-Louis
1991-01-01
Vertical, horizontal and torsional mechanical frequencies are studies for both single and bundle conductor lines. Models and tests are presented. These data are of particular impact on galloping phenomenon. Peer reviewed
Boundary value problems on the half line in the theory of colloids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ravi P. Agarwal
2002-01-01
Full Text Available We present existence results for some boundary value problems defined on infinite intervals. In particular our discussion includes a problem which arises in the theory of colloids.
Stark, Michael; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
My assertion is that not only are product lines a relevant research topic, but that the tools used by empirical software engineering researchers can address observed practical problems. Our experience at NASA has been there are often externally proposed solutions available, but that we have had difficulties applying them in our particular context. We have also focused on return on investment issues when evaluating product lines, and while these are important, one can not attain objective data on success or failure until several applications from a product family have been deployed. The use of the Quality Improvement Paradigm (QIP) can address these issues: (1) Planning an adoption path from an organization's current state to a product line approach; (2) Constructing a development process to fit the organization's adoption path; (3) Evaluation of product line development processes as the project is being developed. The QIP consists of the following six steps: (1) Characterize the project and its environment; (2) Set quantifiable goals for successful project performance; (3) Choose the appropriate process models, supporting methods, and tools for the project; (4) Execute the process, analyze interim results, and provide real-time feedback for corrective action; (5) Analyze the results of completed projects and recommend improvements; and (6) Package the lessons learned as updated and refined process models. A figure shows the QIP in detail. The iterative nature of the QIP supports an incremental development approach to product lines, and the project learning and feedback provide the necessary early evaluations.
The fermion content of the Standard Model from a simple world-line theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mansfield, Paul, E-mail: P.R.W.Mansfield@durham.ac.uk
2015-04-09
We describe a simple model that automatically generates the sum over gauge group representations and chiralities of a single generation of fermions in the Standard Model, augmented by a sterile neutrino. The model is a modification of the world-line approach to chiral fermions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galbraith, H.W.; Dubs, M.; Steinfeld, J.I.
1982-01-01
We calculate the steady-state probe absorption line-shape function for a strongly driven, Zeeman-degenerate molecular system. The probe laser is treated to lowest order while the pump laser is dealt with to all orders. We obtain the probe line shape for the cases of parallel and perpendicular linear polarization of the two lasers. As expected, the effects of M degeneracy, as well as differences due to the relative laser polarizations, are most pronounced when Doppler broadening is not important. However, even in the presence of large Doppler broadening we find a narrowing of the population hole by including the Zeeman degeneracy and a further narrowing if perpendicular laser polarizations are used
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, E.; Koshelets, V. P.; Monaco, Roberto
1982-01-01
The radiation emission from long and narrow Josephson tunnel junctions dc-current biased on zero-field steps has been ascribed to resonant motion of fluxons on the transmission line. Within this dynamic model a theoretical expression for the radiation linewidth is derived from a full statistical ...... treatment of thermal fluctuations in the fluxon velocity. The result appears to be very general and is corroborated by experimental determination of linewidth and frequency of radiation emitted from overlap Nb-I-Pb junctions....
Simulation of loss electron in vacuum magnetically insulated transmission lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Pengfei; Li Yongdong; Liu Chunliang; Wang Hongguang; Guo Fan; Yang Hailiang; Qiu Aici; Su Zhaofeng; Sun Jianfeng; Sun Jiang; Gao Yi
2011-01-01
In the beginning of magnetic insulated period, loss electron in coaxial vacuum magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) strikes anode and the bremsstrahlung photons are generated in the mean time. Based on the self-limited flow model, velocity in direction of energy transport, energy spectrum and angular distribution of loss electron are simulated by PIC code, energy spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons as well calculated though Monte Carlo method. Computational results show that the velocity of loss electron is less than 2.998 x 108 m/s, the angular excursion of electron is not much in a board extent of energy spectrum. These results show an indirect diagnosis of vacuum insulted transmission line working status based on loss electron bremsstrahlung. (authors)
Absorption line profiles in a moving atmosphere - A single scattering linear perturbation theory
Hays, P. B.; Abreu, V. J.
1989-01-01
An integral equation is derived which linearly relates Doppler perturbations in the spectrum of atmospheric absorption features to the wind system which creates them. The perturbation theory is developed using a single scattering model, which is validated against a multiple scattering calculation. The nature and basic properties of the kernels in the integral equation are examined. It is concluded that the kernels are well behaved and that wind velocity profiles can be recovered using standard inversion techniques.
An adaptive observer for on-line tool wear estimation in turning, Part I: Theory
Danai, Kourosh; Ulsoy, A. Galip
1987-04-01
On-line sensing of tool wear has been a long-standing goal of the manufacturing engineering community. In the absence of any reliable on-line tool wear sensors, a new model-based approach for tool wear estimation has been proposed. This approach is an adaptive observer, based on force measurement, which uses both parameter and state estimation techniques. The design of the adaptive observer is based upon a dynamic state model of tool wear in turning. This paper (Part I) presents the model, and explains its use as the basis for the adaptive observer design. This model uses flank wear and crater wear as state variables, feed as the input, and the cutting force as the output. The suitability of the model as the basis for adaptive observation is also verified. The implementation of the adaptive observer requires the design of a state observer and a parameter estimator. To obtain the model parameters for tuning the adaptive observer procedures for linearisation of the non-linear model are specified. The implementation of the adaptive observer in turning and experimental results are presented in a companion paper (Part II).
The Bottom Line: Cable Telegraphy and the Rise of Field Theory in the Victorian British Empire
Hunt, Bruce
The networks of telegraph wires and undersea cables that began to spread across the world in the 1840s and 1850s had far-reaching effects on commerce and the dissemination of news. They also had deep effects on electrical science. In this paper, I will argue that what might at first appear to be a prime example of pure science--the development of electromagnetic field theory in Britain in the middle decades of the 19th century--was in fact driven in important ways by developments in the telegraph industry, particularly British scientists' and engineers' encounters with puzzling new phenomenon of the `retardation' of signals that turned up on underground wires and undersea cables in the early 1850s.
Theories of Learning and Their Implications for On-Line Assesment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anthony Francis UNDERHILL,
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The pedagogy underlying online learning and teaching is being reconceptualised to incorporate the opportunities being offered by the development of online educational settings. The pedagogy of constructivism and in particular socio-constructivism is underpinning much of the online learning and teaching developments currently being developed. The developments in online learning and teaching however are not being matched by developments in computer based assessment. The scope of computers to offer varied, adaptive and unique assessment is still underdeveloped according to Brown, Race and Bull (1999. This paper briefly reviews the theories of learning and their relationship with traditional forms of assessment and seeks to argue for the need to further develop online assessment tools to further facilitate the growth in process based learning activities such as collaborative and cooperative group work consistent with a socio-constructivist pedagogy.
Line-of-sight effects in strong lensing: putting theory into practice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birrer, Simon; Welschen, Cyril; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre, E-mail: simon.birrer@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: cyril.welschen@student.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093, Zurich (Switzerland)
2017-04-01
We present a simple method to accurately infer line of sight (LOS) integrated lensing effects for galaxy scale strong lens systems through image reconstruction. Our approach enables us to separate weak lensing LOS effects from the main strong lens deflector. We test our method using mock data and show that strong lens systems can be accurate probes of cosmic shear with a precision on the shear terms of ± 0.003 (statistical error) for an HST-like dataset. We apply our formalism to reconstruct the lens COSMOS 0038+4133 and its LOS. In addition, we estimate the LOS properties with a halo-rendering estimate based on the COSMOS field galaxies and a galaxy-halo connection. The two approaches are independent and complementary in their information content. We find that when estimating the convergence at the strong lens system, performing a joint analysis improves the measure by a factor of two compared to a halo model only analysis. Furthermore the constraints of the strong lens reconstruction lead to tighter constraints on the halo masses of the LOS galaxies. Joint constraints of multiple strong lens systems may add valuable information to the galaxy-halo connection and may allow independent weak lensing shear measurement calibrations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanford, T.W.L.; Poukey, J.W.; Wright, T.P.; Bailey, J.; Heath, C.E.; Mock, R.; Spence, P.W.; Fockler, J.; Kishi, H.
1988-01-01
The impedance of a diode having an annular cathode and indented anode that terminates a coaxial MITL (magnetically insulated transmission line) is measured and compared with a semiempirical model developed from calculations made using the magIc code. The measurements were made on the 16-Ω electron accelerator HELIA (high-energy linear induction accelerator) operating at 3 MV. The model agrees with the measurements within the 10% measuring error and shows that the diode operates in either a load- or line-dominated regime depending on AK (anode-cathode) gap spacing. In the load-dominated regime, which corresponds to small AK gaps, the diode impedance is controlled by an effective anode-cathode gap, and the flow is approximately axial. In the line-dominated regime, which corresponds to large AK gaps, the impedance is independent of the AK gap and corresponds to the impedance associated with the minimum current solution of the MITL, with the flow becoming more radial as the AK gap is increased
Two-dimensional electron flow in pulsed power transmission lines and plasma opening switches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Church, B.W.; Longcope, D.W.; Ng, C.K.; Sudan, R.N.
1991-01-01
The operation of magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITL) and the interruption of current in a plasma opening switch (POS) are determined by the physics of the electrons emitted by the cathode surface. A mathematical model describes the self-consistent two-dimensional flow of an electron fluid. A finite element code, FERUS, has been developed to solve the two equations which describe Poisson's and Ampere's law in two dimensions. The solutions from this code are obtained for parameters where the electron orbits are considerably modified by the self-magnetic field of the current. Next, the self-insulated electron flow in a MITL with a step change in cross-section is studied using a conventional two-dimensional fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code, MASK. The equations governing two-dimensional quasi-static electron flow are solved numerically by a third technique which is suitable for predicting current interruption in a POS. The object of the study is to determine the critical load impedance, Z CL , required for current interruption for a given applied voltage, cathode voltage and plasma length. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ding Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of prospect theory based commuter’s residential location choice on the design problem of a rail transit line located in a monocentric city. A closed-form social welfare maximization model is proposed, with special consideration given to prospect theory based commuter’s residential location choice over years. Commuters are assumed to make residential location choice by a trade-off between daily housing rent and generalized travel cost to minimize their prospect values. The solutions properties of the proposed model are explored and compared analytically. It is found that overestimation exists for the optimal solutions of rail line length, headway, and fare based on traditional utility theory, compared with the optimal solutions of the proposed prospect theory based model. A numerical example is given to illustrate the properties of the proposed model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
FARIAS, Salomão Alencar de
2008-03-01
Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo investiga o comportamento do consumidor on-line com base no fluxo, definido como a sensação holística que as pessoas sentem quando agem com total envolvimento em uma atividade (CSIKSZENTMIHALYI, 1975. Emprega-se essa teoria para melhor compreender o comportamento de compra pela Internet, embora seja um conceito ainda confuso na literatura do comportamento do consumidor, pois que não existe um consenso a respeito de quais os fatores antecedem, caracterizam ou são conseqüências do estado de fluxo. Desse modo, esta pesquisa buscou identificar os construtos, relacionados ao estado de fluxo, que devem fazer parte de um esquema de comportamento de compra on-line, além de indicar qual a sua aplicabilidade para o alcance da satisfação do consumidor na compra pela rede. Para tanto, foi utilizada uma metodologia de caráter descritivo com aplicação de um survey junto a uma amostra de 237 consumidores do varejo eletrônico. Os dados coletados foram analisados por meio de técnicas estatísticas multivariadas. Os resultados indicaram que o ambiente on-line e a telepresença antecedem o fluxo que, por sua vez, está associado ao comportamento exploratório, efeito positivo do processo de navegação, compra e satisfação com o processo de compra.ABSTRACTThis article investigates the on-line consumer behavior based on the flow theory, defined as the holistic sensation that people feel when acting with total involvement in an activity (CSIKSZENTMIHALYI, 1975. This theory has been used for better understanding the purchase behavior through the Internet, although this concept is still not sufficiently clear in consumer behavior literature, since it does not exist a consensus regarding which factors that precede, characterize or are consequences of the flow state. Thus, the present research was aimed at identifying the constructs related to the flow state that must be part of an on-line purchase behavior framework, indicating which
End-to-end probability for an interacting center vortex world line in Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teixeira, Bruno F.I.; Lemos, Andre L.L. de; Oxman, Luis E.
2011-01-01
Full text: The understanding of quark confinement is a very important open problem in Yang-Mills theory. In this regard, nontrivial topological defects are expected to play a relevant role to achieve a solution. Here we are interested in how to deal with these structures, relying on the Cho-Faddeev-Niemi decomposition and the possibility it offers to describe defects in terms of a local color frame. In particular, the path integral for a single center vortex is a fundamental object to handle the ensemble integration. As is well-known, in three dimensions center vortices are string-like and the associated physics is closely related with that of polymers. Using recent techniques developed in the latter context, we present in this work a detailed derivation of the equation for the end-to-end probability for a center vortex world line, including the effects of interactions. Its solution can be associated with a Green function that depends on the position and orientation at the boundaries, where monopole-like instantons are placed. In the limit of semi flexible polymers, an expansion only keeping the lower angular momenta for the final orientation leads to a reduced Green function for a complex vortex field minimally coupled to the dual Yang-Mills fields. This constitutes a key ingredient to propose an effective model for correlated monopoles, center vortices and the dual fields. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-08-01
This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.
Hyland, Philip E.; McLaughlin, Christopher G.; Boduszek, Daniel; Prentice, Garry R.
2012-01-01
The study set out to examine intentions to engage in counselling among at-risk Irish government employees and the differential utility of two alternative theory of planned behaviour (TPB) models of behaviour to explain intentions to participate in counselling. Individuals (N = 259) employed in a front-line, at-risk occupation for the Irish…
1983-11-07
obtained with the lifting line theory is very sensitive to the type of radial distribution law of circulation. In the past, especially for theoretical...I. Bacquerizo Briones, "Utilidad de la educacion de Poincare para el proyecto y analisis de propulsores con valores finitos de la circulacion en el
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noriega-Crespo, A.; Bohm, K.H.; Raga, A.C.
1989-01-01
In this paper, it is shown that most of the spatial intensity distribution of 11 selected emission lines for Herbig-Haro 1 (including the forbidden S II emission lines at 6731 A and 4069 A, the forbidden O III line at 5007 A, and the forbidden O II line at 3727 A) can be explained by a bow shock with a shock velocity of about 150-200 km/sec at the stagnation point, and under the assumption that the gas entering the shock is fully preionized. The results are based on three spectrograms (with a total exposure time of 180 min) obtained consecutively. Specifically, the ratios of each of the forbidden lines to H-alpha were studied, which permitted a critical test of the model. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observations was found to be remarkable, considering the complex geometry that a bow shock could have. 38 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berman, V.G.; Mishurov, Yu.N.
1980-01-01
Gas flow and its density distribution in the Galaxy spiral arm gravitational potential is calculated by means of the nonlinear theory. Line profile of H I emission in 21 cm based on the Galaxy spiral structure models proposed by Lin and Marochnik are constructed for the galactic coordinates 30 deg < or approximately |l| < or approximately 60 deg. It is shown that the conclusion about the possibility of agreement of the Marochnik model with observations made by means of the linear theory is confirmed in the nonlinear theory. In the Marochnik model distributions with R H II regions, CO-clouds, γ-radiation, supernova remnants and so on may also be understood connecting them with variation of gas compression in galactic shock with H radius
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mabrouk Briki
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a fourth-order boundary value problem on the half-line is considered and existence of solutions is proved using a minimization principle and the mountain pass theorem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Sardiñas
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to determine changes in the proportions of types I and III collagen in hemorrhoids and to verify the sliding anal canal lining theory. Patients and method: The study is focused on a sample of 17 patients, 9 females and 8 males (age range: 30–70 years, with grade III and grade IV hemorrhoids. Tissue from 4 fetuses (age: 16 weeks of gestation was used as control sample. All the participants gave their informed consent. Samples were gathered in 2014. All patients underwent open hemorrhoidectomy by using the technique described by Milligan and Morgan, published in Lancet journal in 1937. The hemorrhoid samples were stained with hematoxylin–eosin for the histologic study to confirm the hemorrhoidal tissue diagnosis. The picrosirius red staining protocol was used after the histologic analysis. The method used for image processing is described in the text. Images were imported to the Image Tool for Windows software. The same process was used on the embryonic tissue. Data resulting from the analysis of images were processed using STATISTICA, a software for statistical analysis. Results: When compared, it was found that the two tissues presented very different values, with hemorrhoids containing the highest type III collagen values. Conclusion: Our results seem to imply that hemorrhoids have a larger proportion of type III collagen than fetal tissue. They also suggest a possible age-related deterioration of the tissue. Resumo: Objetivo: Esse estudo tem por objetivo determinar mudanças nos percentuais do colágeno dos tipos I e III em hemorroidas e verificar a teoria do revestimento de canal anal deslizante. Pacientes e método: O estudo está focado em uma amostra de 17 pacientes (9 mulheres e 8 homes; faixa etária: 30-70 anos, com hemorroidas de graus III e IV. Utilizamos tecido de quatro fetos (idade: 16 semanas de gestação como amostra de controle. Todos os participantes deram consentimento informado. As amostras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masciola, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.
2014-03-01
Techniques to model dynamic mooring lines come in various forms. The most widely used models include either a heuristic representation of the physics (such as a Lumped-Mass, LM, system), a Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) discretization of the lines (discretized in space), or a Finite-Difference (FD) model (which is discretized in both space and time). In this paper, we explore the features of the various models, weigh the advantages of each, and propose a plan for implementing one dynamic mooring line model into the open-source Mooring Analysis Program (MAP). MAP is currently used as a module for the FAST offshore wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool to model mooring systems quasi-statically, although dynamic mooring capabilities are desired. Based on the exploration in this manuscript, the lumped-mass representation is selected for implementation in MAP based on its simplicity, computational cost, and ability to provide similar physics captured by higher-order models.
Olsen, W. A.; Krejsa, E. A.; Coats, J. W.
1972-01-01
Noise attenuation was measured for several types of cylindrical suppressors that use a duct lining composed of honeycomb cells covered with a perforated plate. The experimental technique used gave attenuation data that were repeatable and free of noise floors and other sources of error. The suppressor length, the effective acoustic diameter, suppressor shape and flow velocity were varied. The agreement among the attenuation data and two widely used analytical models was generally satisfactory. Changes were also made in the construction of the acoustic lining to measure their effect on attenuation. One of these produced a very broadband muffler.
Lord, Ramo J.
2009-01-01
This study focused on front-line supervisors in a union shop, steel-production plant and how they learn to successfully negotiate their role with in the corporation's division of labor. Negotiating their role means continued practice in how issues of standpoint, agency, power, oppression, habits, knowledge, related business concerns, mediating…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welch, D.O.
1999-01-01
In this paper the author will discuss how the nature of the stress state in the flux-line lattice (FLL) of superconductors arises from the distribution, density, geometry, and strength of pinning centers. Under certain conditions this stress causes the onset of plastic deformation in the FLL for values of the current density below that required for flux-flow by general depinning. He will describe an analytic framework, based on a theory of plasticity of the FLL, which describes the flux-flow characteristics, including the possibility of thermally-activated flow and flux creep
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul van den Akker
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Paul van den Akker, Looking for Lines: Theories of the Essence of Art and the Problem of Mannerism, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press 2010 including preface, contents and introduction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauptmann, S; Bülk, M; Cheng, P W; Schön, L; Erbslöh, S; Boorsma, K; Grasso, F; Kühn, M
2014-01-01
Design load simulations for wind turbines are traditionally based on the blade- element-momentum theory (BEM). The BEM approach is derived from a simplified representation of the rotor aerodynamics and several semi-empirical correction models. A more sophisticated approach to account for the complex flow phenomena on wind turbine rotors can be found in the lifting-line free vortex wake method. This approach is based on a more physics based representation, especially for global flow effects. This theory relies on empirical correction models only for the local flow effects, which are associated with the boundary layer of the rotor blades. In this paper the lifting-line free vortex wake method is compared to a state- of-the-art BEM formulation with regard to aerodynamic and aeroelastic load simulations of the 5MW UpWind reference wind turbine. Different aerodynamic load situations as well as standardised design load cases that are sensitive to the aeroelastic modelling are evaluated in detail. This benchmark makes use of the AeroModule developed by ECN, which has been coupled to the multibody simulation code SIMPACK
Hauptmann, S.; Bülk, M.; Schön, L.; Erbslöh, S.; Boorsma, K.; Grasso, F.; Kühn, M.; Cheng, P. W.
2014-12-01
Design load simulations for wind turbines are traditionally based on the blade- element-momentum theory (BEM). The BEM approach is derived from a simplified representation of the rotor aerodynamics and several semi-empirical correction models. A more sophisticated approach to account for the complex flow phenomena on wind turbine rotors can be found in the lifting-line free vortex wake method. This approach is based on a more physics based representation, especially for global flow effects. This theory relies on empirical correction models only for the local flow effects, which are associated with the boundary layer of the rotor blades. In this paper the lifting-line free vortex wake method is compared to a state- of-the-art BEM formulation with regard to aerodynamic and aeroelastic load simulations of the 5MW UpWind reference wind turbine. Different aerodynamic load situations as well as standardised design load cases that are sensitive to the aeroelastic modelling are evaluated in detail. This benchmark makes use of the AeroModule developed by ECN, which has been coupled to the multibody simulation code SIMPACK.
Feng, Qingshan; Li, Rui; Nie, Baohua; Liu, Shucong; Zhao, Lianyu; Zhang, Hong
2016-01-01
Girth weld cracking is one of the main failure modes in oil and gas pipelines; girth weld cracking inspection has great economic and social significance for the intrinsic safety of pipelines. This paper introduces the typical girth weld defects of oil and gas pipelines and the common nondestructive testing methods, and systematically generalizes the progress in the studies on technical principles, signal analysis, defect sizing method and inspection reliability, etc., of magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection, liquid ultrasonic inspection, electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) inspection and remote field eddy current (RFDC) inspection for oil and gas pipeline girth weld defects. Additionally, it introduces the new technologies for composite ultrasonic, laser ultrasonic, and magnetostriction inspection, and provides reference for development and application of oil and gas pipeline girth weld defect in-line inspection technology. PMID:28036016
Sine-Gordon quantum field theory on the half-line with quantum boundary degrees of freedom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baseilhac, P.; Koizumi, K.
2003-01-01
The sine-Gordon model on the half-line with a dynamical boundary introduced by Delius and one of the authors is considered at quantum level. Classical boundary conditions associated with classical integrability are shown to be preserved at quantum level too. Non-local conserved charges are constructed explicitly in terms of the field and boundary operators. We solve the intertwining equation associated with a certain coideal subalgebra of U q (sl 2 -bar) generated by these non-local charges. The corresponding solution is shown to satisfy quantum boundary Yang-Baxter equations. Up to an exact relation between the quantization length of the boundary quantum mechanical system and the sine-Gordon coupling constant, we conjecture the soliton/antisoliton reflection matrix and bound states reflection matrices. The structure of the boundary state is then considered, and shown to be divided in two sectors. Also, depending on the sine-Gordon coupling constant a finite set of boundary bound states are identified. Taking the analytic continuation of the coupling, the corresponding boundary sinh-Gordon model is briefly discussed. In particular, the particle reflection factor enjoys weak-strong coupling duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaic and Grid Integration Group; Robinson, Matt [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Yasaei, Yasser [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Caudell, Thomas [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Martinez-Ramon, Manel [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Mammoli, Andrea [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2016-07-01
Optimal integration of thermal energy storage within commercial building applications requires accurate load predictions. Several methods exist that provide an estimate of a buildings future needs. Methods include component-based models and data-driven algorithms. This work implemented a previously untested algorithm for this application that is called a Laterally Primed Adaptive Resonance Theory (LAPART) artificial neural network (ANN). The LAPART algorithm provided accurate results over a two month period where minimal historical data and a small amount of input types were available. These results are significant, because common practice has often overlooked the implementation of an ANN. ANN have often been perceived to be too complex and require large amounts of data to provide accurate results. The LAPART neural network was implemented in an on-line learning manner. On-line learning refers to the continuous updating of training data as time occurs. For this experiment, training began with a singe day and grew to two months of data. This approach provides a platform for immediate implementation that requires minimal time and effort. The results from the LAPART algorithm were compared with statistical regression and a component-based model. The comparison was based on the predictions linear relationship with the measured data, mean squared error, mean bias error, and cost savings achieved by the respective prediction techniques. The results show that the LAPART algorithm provided a reliable and cost effective means to predict the building load for the next day.
Magnetically insulated transmission line used for relativistic electron beam injection into SPAC-VI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuzuki, Tetsuya; Narihara, Kazumichi; Tomita, Yukihiro; Mohri, Akihiro.
1980-10-01
For the purpose to inject the electron beam with energy of about 1.5 MeV and current of about 100 kA into the SPAC-6 (torus device), a magnetically insulated transmission line was designed and constructed. The motion of electrons in the line was theoretically analyzed. The requirements for the design of the transmission line were as follows-: (a) condition of magnetic insulation, (b) suppression against reverse gas flow from the beam source to the torus, (c) care to minimize the influence of strong torus magnetic field, (d) reduction of inductance and (e) safety engineering measures, e.g., separation valve in the MITL between the beam source and the SPAC-6. The transmission line of 2.4 m long was designed and constructed. The wave forms of electric potential and current were measured. The transmission efficiency of current along the axis and the efficiency as a function of current at the end of the line were also measured. The reason of the loss of current is discussed. (J.P.N.)
Dettmer, K; Hanna, D; Whetstone, P; Hansen, R; Hammock, B D
2007-08-01
Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with unknown etiology. One hypothesis regarding etiology in autism is the "opioid peptide excess" theory that postulates that excessive amounts of exogenous opioid-like peptides derived from dietary proteins are detectable in urine and that these compounds may be pathophysiologically important in autism. A selective LC-MS/MS method was developed to analyze gliadinomorphin, beta-casomorphin, deltorphin 1, and deltorphin 2 in urine. The method is based on on-line SPE extraction of the neuropeptides from urine, column switching, and subsequent HPLC analysis. A limit of detection of 0.25 ng/mL was achieved for all analytes. Analyte recovery rates from urine ranged between 78% and 94%, with relative standard deviations of 0.2-6.8%. The method was used to screen 69 urine samples from children with and without autism spectrum disorders for the occurrence of neuropeptides. The target neuropeptides were not detected above the detection limit in either sample set.
Magnetic field line Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boozer, A.H.
1985-02-01
The basic properties of the Hamiltonian representation of magnetic fields in canonical form are reviewed. The theory of canonical magnetic perturbation theory is then developed and applied to the time evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a toroidal plasma. Finally, the extension of the energy principle to tearing modes, utilizing the magnetic field line Hamiltonian, is outlined
Covariant electromagnetic field lines
Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.
2017-08-01
Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guan Xialing; Cao Qingxi; Zhang Jie; Ye Jingping
1986-01-01
It follows from the motion equations of charged particle in curvilinear coordinates system that the transfer matrix of electrostatic analyzer was derived in six dimensional phase space. In accordance with these matrixes, the concept design of the supersensitive mass spectrometer beam line for HI-13 tandem accelerator was calculated
Stewart, Ian
2003-01-01
Ian Stewart's Galois Theory has been in print for 30 years. Resoundingly popular, it still serves its purpose exceedingly well. Yet mathematics education has changed considerably since 1973, when theory took precedence over examples, and the time has come to bring this presentation in line with more modern approaches.To this end, the story now begins with polynomials over the complex numbers, and the central quest is to understand when such polynomials have solutions that can be expressed by radicals. Reorganization of the material places the concrete before the abstract, thus motivating the g
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marchesi Julian R
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of how a circle or line segment becomes covered when random arcs are marked off has arisen repeatedly in bioinformatics. The number of uncovered gaps is of particular interest. Approximate distributions for the number of gaps have been given in the literature, one motivation being ease of computation. Error bounds for these approximate distributions have not been given. Results We give bounds on the probability distribution of the number of gaps when a circle is covered by fragments of fixed size. The absolute error in the approximation is typically on the order of 0.1% at 10× coverage depth. The method can be applied to coverage problems on the interval, including edge effects, and applications are given to metagenomic libraries and shotgun sequencing.
Engel, David; Woolley, Anita Williams; Jing, Lisa X.; Chabris, Christopher F.; Malone, Thomas W.
2014-01-01
Recent research with face-to-face groups found that a measure of general group effectiveness (called “collective intelligence”) predicted a group’s performance on a wide range of different tasks. The same research also found that collective intelligence was correlated with the individual group members’ ability to reason about the mental states of others (an ability called “Theory of Mind” or “ToM”). Since ToM was measured in this work by a test that requires participants to “read” the mental states of others from looking at their eyes (the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test), it is uncertain whether the same results would emerge in online groups where these visual cues are not available. Here we find that: (1) a collective intelligence factor characterizes group performance approximately as well for online groups as for face-to-face groups; and (2) surprisingly, the ToM measure is equally predictive of collective intelligence in both face-to-face and online groups, even though the online groups communicate only via text and never see each other at all. This provides strong evidence that ToM abilities are just as important to group performance in online environments with limited nonverbal cues as they are face-to-face. It also suggests that the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test measures a deeper, domain-independent aspect of social reasoning, not merely the ability to recognize facial expressions of mental states. PMID:25514387
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiib, Hans
2015-01-01
At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...
Optimization of line configuration and balancing for flexible machining lines
Liu, Xuemei; Li, Aiping; Chen, Zurui
2016-05-01
Line configuration and balancing is to select the type of line and allot a given set of operations as well as machines to a sequence of workstations to realize high-efficiency production. Most of the current researches for machining line configuration and balancing problems are related to dedicated transfer lines with dedicated machine workstations. With growing trends towards great product variety and fluctuations in market demand, dedicated transfer lines are being replaced with flexible machining line composed of identical CNC machines. This paper deals with the line configuration and balancing problem for flexible machining lines. The objective is to assign operations to workstations and find the sequence of execution, specify the number of machines in each workstation while minimizing the line cycle time and total number of machines. This problem is subject to precedence, clustering, accessibility and capacity constraints among the features, operations, setups and workstations. The mathematical model and heuristic algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are presented to find an optimal solution. The feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are used to establish constraint model. A heuristic operations sequencing and assignment algorithm is given. An industrial case study is carried out, and multiple optimal solutions in different line configurations are obtained. The case studying results show that the solutions with shorter cycle time and higher line balancing rate demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. This research proposes a heuristic line configuration and balancing algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory which is able to provide better solutions while achieving an improvement in computing time.
Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard
2010-01-01
In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Schwarz, John H.
String theory is one of the most exciting and challenging areas of modern theoretical physics. This book guides the reader from the basics of string theory to recent developments. It introduces the basics of perturbative string theory, world-sheet supersymmetry, space-time supersymmetry, conformal field theory and the heterotic string, before describing modern developments, including D-branes, string dualities and M-theory. It then covers string geometry and flux compactifications, applications to cosmology and particle physics, black holes in string theory and M-theory, and the microscopic origin of black-hole entropy. It concludes with Matrix theory, the AdS/CFT duality and its generalizations. This book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in modern string theory, and will make an excellent textbook for a one-year course on string theory. It contains over 120 exercises with solutions, and over 200 homework problems with solutions available on a password protected website for lecturers at www.cambridge.org/9780521860697. Comprehensive coverage of topics from basics of string theory to recent developments Ideal textbook for a one-year course in string theory Includes over 100 exercises with solutions Contains over 200 homework problems with solutions available to lecturers on-line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vollendorf, F.
1976-01-01
A theory is developed in which the gravitational as well as the electromagnetic field is described in a purely geometrical manner. In the case of a static central symmetric field Newton's law of gravitation and Schwarzschild's line element are derived by means of an action principle. The same principle leads to Fermat's law which defines the world lines of photons. (orig.) [de
Propeller performance analysis using lifting line theory
Flood, Kevin M.
2009-01-01
CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited Propellers are typically optimized to provide the maximum thrust for the minimum torque at a specific number of revolutions per minute (RPM) at a particular ship speed. This process allows ships to efficiently travel at their design speed. However, it is useful to know how the propeller performs during off-design conditions. This is especially true for naval warships whose missions req...
Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn
2014-01-01
The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baden Fuller, A J
2014-01-01
Engineering Field Theory focuses on the applications of field theory in gravitation, electrostatics, magnetism, electric current flow, conductive heat transfer, fluid flow, and seepage.The manuscript first ponders on electric flux, electrical materials, and flux function. Discussions focus on field intensity at the surface of a conductor, force on a charged surface, atomic properties, doublet and uniform field, flux tube and flux line, line charge and line sink, field of a surface charge, field intensity, flux density, permittivity, and Coulomb's law. The text then takes a look at gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingshan Li
2000-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James G. Worner
2017-05-01
Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship. ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.
High voltage high brightness electron accelerator with MITL voltage adder coupled to foilless diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazarakis, M.G.; Poulkey, J.W.; Rovang, D.
1995-01-01
The design and analysis of a high brightness electron beam experiment under construction at Sandia National Laboratory is presented. The beam energy is 12 MeV, the current 35-40 kA, the rms radius 0.5 mm, and the pulse duration FWHM 40 ns. The accelerator is SABRE a pulsed inductive voltage adder, and the electron source is a magnetically immersed foilless diode. This experiment has as its goal to stretch the technology to the edge and produce the highest possible electron current in a submillimeter radius beam
Form of relativistic dynamics with world lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukunda, N.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.
1981-01-01
In any Hamiltonian relativistic theory there are ten generators of the Poincare group which are realized canonically. The dynamical evolution is described by a Hamiltonian which is one of the ten generators in Dirac's generator formalism. The requirement that the canonical transformations reproduce the geometrical transformation of world points generates the world-line conditions. The Dirac identification of the Hamiltonian and the world-line conditions together lead to the no-interaction theorem. Interacting relativistic theories with world-line conditions should go beyond the Dirac theory and have eleven generators. In this paper we present a constraint dynamics formalism which describes an eleven-generator theory of N interacting particles using 8(N+1) variables with suitable constraints. The (N+1)th pair of four-vectors is associated with the uniform motion of a center which coincides with the center of energy for free particles. In such theories dynamics and kinematics cannot be separated out in a simple fashion
VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...
Multiscale Modeling of Point and Line Defects in Cubic Lattices
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Chung, P. W; Clayton, J. D
2007-01-01
.... This multiscale theory explicitly captures heterogeneity in microscopic atomic motion in crystalline materials, attributed, for example, to the presence of various point and line lattice defects...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wæver, Ole
2009-01-01
-empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory......, shows the power of a dominant philosophy of science in US IR, and thus the challenge facing any ambitious theorising. The article suggests a possible movement of fronts away from the ‘fourth debate' between rationalism and reflectivism towards one of theory against empiricism. To help this new agenda...
The U-line line balancing problem
Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.
1994-01-01
The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged
Governance and organizational theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos E. Quintero Castellanos
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to propose a way to link the theoretical body that has been weaved around governance and organizational theory. For this, a critical exposition is done about what is the theoretical core of governance, the opportunity areas are identified for the link of this theory with organizational theory. The essay concludes with a proposal for the organizational analysis of administrations in governance. The essay addresses with five sections. The first one is the introduction. In the second one, I present a synthesis of the governance in its current use. In the next one are presented the work lines of the good governance. In the fourth part, I show the organizational and managerial limits in the governance theory. The last part develops the harmonization proposal for the governance and organizational theories.
Silva, C E
2007-01-01
This book is an introduction to basic concepts in ergodic theory such as recurrence, ergodicity, the ergodic theorem, mixing, and weak mixing. It does not assume knowledge of measure theory; all the results needed from measure theory are presented from scratch. In particular, the book includes a detailed construction of the Lebesgue measure on the real line and an introduction to measure spaces up to the Carathéodory extension theorem. It also develops the Lebesgue theory of integration, including the dominated convergence theorem and an introduction to the Lebesgue L^pspaces. Several examples of a dynamical system are developed in detail to illustrate various dynamical concepts. These include in particular the baker's transformation, irrational rotations, the dyadic odometer, the Hajian-Kakutani transformation, the Gauss transformation, and the Chacón transformation. There is a detailed discussion of cutting and stacking transformations in ergodic theory. The book includes several exercises and some open q...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.
1983-01-01
It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt
Applying TPM on Production Line of Huanwei
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhai Yunkai
2017-01-01
The study based on the study and analysis of the TPM theory, based on my practice in the SMT2 production line of Victoria Electronics of Huanwei. Then it studied the promotion and implementation steps of TPM on SMT2 line. And it also introduced the improvement instance of SMT2 line. By contrasting the utilization of equipment on SMT2 line before and after the comprehensive of TPM, the necessity of implementing TPM is derived. For how to apply TPM on the production lines, and how to improve equipment comprehensive utilization, finish the order on time, provide high quality products to our customers, these are the main part of production line equipment management work. This article provides the reference for how to promote TPM on other production lines.
Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Hao; Qu, Zhongquan [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China); Landi Degl’Innocenti, Egidio, E-mail: sayahoro@ynao.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)
2017-03-20
Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weak and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.
Antennas from theory to practice
Huang, Yi
2008-01-01
Practical, concise and complete reference for the basics of modern antenna design Antennas: from Theory to Practice discusses the basics of modern antenna design and theory. Developed specifically for engineers and designers who work with radio communications, radar and RF engineering, this book offers practical and hands-on treatment of antenna theory and techniques, and provides its readers the skills to analyse, design and measure various antennas. Key features: Provides thorough coverage on the basics of transmission lines, radio waves and propag
Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas
1988-01-01
The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent F.
Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....
Signal integrity analysis on discontinuous microstrip line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiao, Qingyang; Dai, Yawen; Chen, Zipeng
2013-01-01
In high speed PCB design, microstirp lines were used to control the impedance, however, the discontinuous microstrip line can cause signal integrity problems. In this paper, we use the transmission line theory to study the characteristics of microstrip lines. Research results indicate that the discontinuity such as truncation, gap and size change result in the problems such as radiation, reflection, delay and ground bounce. We change the discontinuities to distributed parameter circuits, analysed the steady-state response and transient response and the phase delay. The transient response cause radiation and voltage jump.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Hongmo.
1987-10-01
The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)
String theory or field theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshakov, A.V.
2002-01-01
The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments, which are our concern in this review [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uehara, S.
1985-01-01
Of all supergravity theories, the maximal, i.e., N = 8 in 4-dimension or N = 1 in 11-dimension, theory should perform the unification since it owns the highest degree of symmetry. As to the N = 1 in d = 11 theory, it has been investigated how to compactify to the d = 4 theories. From the phenomenological point of view, local SUSY GUTs, i.e., N = 1 SUSY GUTs with soft breaking terms, have been studied from various angles. The structures of extended supergravity theories are less understood than those of N = 1 supergravity theories, and matter couplings in N = 2 extended supergravity theories are under investigation. The harmonic superspace was recently proposed which may be useful to investigate the quantum effects of extended supersymmetry and supergravity theories. As to the so-called Kaluza-Klein supergravity, there is another possibility. (Mori, K.)
Johnstone, PT
2014-01-01
Focusing on topos theory's integration of geometric and logical ideas into the foundations of mathematics and theoretical computer science, this volume explores internal category theory, topologies and sheaves, geometric morphisms, other subjects. 1977 edition.
Dorogovtsev, A Ya; Skorokhod, A V; Silvestrov, D S; Skorokhod, A V
1997-01-01
This book of problems is intended for students in pure and applied mathematics. There are problems in traditional areas of probability theory and problems in the theory of stochastic processes, which has wide applications in the theory of automatic control, queuing and reliability theories, and in many other modern science and engineering fields. Answers to most of the problems are given, and the book provides hints and solutions for more complicated problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, B.W.
1976-01-01
Some introductory remarks to Yang-Mills fields are given and the problem of the Coulomb gauge is considered. The perturbation expansion for quantized gauge theories is discussed and a survey of renormalization schemes is made. The role of Ward-Takahashi identities in gauge theories is discussed. The author then discusses the renormalization of pure gauge theories and theories with spontaneously broken symmetry. (B.R.H.)
Universal statistics of vortex lines.
Nahum, Adam; Chalker, J T
2012-03-01
We study the vortex lines that are a feature of many random or disordered three-dimensional systems. These show universal statistical properties on long length scales, and geometrical phase transitions analogous to percolation transitions but in distinct universality classes. The field theories for these problems have not previously been identified, so that while many numerical studies have been performed, a framework for interpreting the results has been lacking. We provide such a framework with mappings to simple supersymmetric models. Our main focus is on vortices in short-range-correlated complex fields, which show a geometrical phase transition that we argue is described by the CP(k|k) model (essentially the CP(n-1) model in the replica limit n→1). This can be seen by mapping a lattice version of the problem to a lattice gauge theory. A related field theory with a noncompact gauge field, the 'NCCP(k|k) model', is a supersymmetric extension of the standard dual theory for the XY transition, and we show that XY duality gives another way to understand the appearance of field theories of this type. The supersymmetric descriptions yield results relevant, for example, to vortices in the XY model and in superfluids, to optical vortices, and to certain models of cosmic strings. A distinct but related field theory, the RP(2l|2l) model (or the RP(n-1) model in the limit n→1) describes the unoriented vortices that occur, for instance, in nematic liquid crystals. Finally, we show that in two dimensions, a lattice gauge theory analogous to that discussed in three dimensions gives a simple way to see the known relation between two-dimensional percolation and the CP(k|k) σ model with a θ term.
The teaching theory of Montaigne
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José PENALVA BUITRAGO
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This article seeks to articulate the teaching theory of Montaigne. The core idea is that Montaigne’s thought, founded on formation classical ideal, is based on basic belief about the confidence in man, confidence in humanity possibilities to release from the weakness and frauds of the mind, to be a real man. The author develops the idea along these three lines: firstly, anthropology theory that inspires the educational theory of Montaigne; secondly, the anthropology values that we need to became a real man; and thirdly, the teaching process and the relationship with the teacher. Finally, in conclusion, the author shows a articulation of the tea- ching theory.
Basic methods of soliton theory
Cherednik, I
1996-01-01
In the 25 years of its existence Soliton Theory has drastically expanded our understanding of "integrability" and contributed a lot to the reunification of Mathematics and Physics in the range from deep algebraic geometry and modern representation theory to quantum field theory and optical transmission lines.The book is a systematic introduction to the Soliton Theory with an emphasis on its background and algebraic aspects. It is the first one devoted to the general matrix soliton equations, which are of great importance for the foundations and the applications.Differential algebra (local cons
Quantum set theory and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, E.
1984-01-01
The work of von Neumann tells us that the logic of quantum mechanics is not Boolenan. This suggests the formulation of a quantum theory of sets based on quantum logic much as modern set theory is based on Boolean logic. In the first part of this dissertation such a quantum set theory is developed. In the second part, quantum set theory is proposed as a universal language for physics. A quantum topology and the beginnings of a quantum geometry are developed in this language. Finally, a toy model is studied. It gives indications of possible lines for progress in this program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koehler, H.S.
1979-01-01
A short review of the early developments due largely to K. A Brueckner is given. Special emphasis is given to insertions in hole and particle lines, dispersion-effects and healings, and how the quantitative effects of these are related to the nature of the force. The importance of higher-order insertions in hole and particle lines and its relation to the force is also emphasized. This is important in a quantitative comparison of BBG theory with variational theory. The inceased healing-distance due to the tensor force is also pointed out. This gives convergence problems. Experiment may leave room for a nuclear force with weaker tensor force than mostly used. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong
1998-02-01
This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.
Loring, FH
2014-01-01
Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec
Harris, Tina
2015-04-29
Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.
Number theory via Representation theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-11-09
Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwarz, J.H.
1985-01-01
Dual string theories, initially developed as phenomenological models of hadrons, now appear more promising as candidates for a unified theory of fundamental interactions. Type I superstring theory (SST I), is a ten-dimensional theory of interacting open and closed strings, with one supersymmetry, that is free from ghosts and tachyons. It requires that an SO(eta) or Sp(2eta) gauge group be used. A light-cone-gauge string action with space-time supersymmetry automatically incorporates the superstring restrictions and leads to the discovery of type II superstring theory (SST II). SST II is an interacting theory of closed strings only, with two D=10 supersymmetries, that is also free from ghosts and tachyons. By taking six of the spatial dimensions to form a compact space, it becomes possible to reconcile the models with our four-dimensional perception of spacetime and to define low-energy limits in which SST I reduces to N=4, D=4 super Yang-Mills theory and SST II reduces to N=8, D=4 supergravity theory. The superstring theories can be described by a light-cone-gauge action principle based on fields that are functionals of string coordinates. With this formalism any physical quantity should be calculable. There is some evidence that, unlike any conventional field theory, the superstring theories provide perturbatively renormalizable (SST I) or finite (SST II) unifications of gravity with other interactions
String theory or field theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshakov, Andrei V
2002-01-01
The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of string theory in the modern picture of the physical world. Even though quantum field theory describes a wide range of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments which are our concern in this review. (reviews of topical problems)
Dependence theory via game theory
Grossi, D.; Turrini, P.
2011-01-01
In the multi-agent systems community, dependence theory and game theory are often presented as two alternative perspectives on the analysis of social interaction. Up till now no research has been done relating these two approaches. The unification presented provides dependence theory with the sort
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosti J.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available We have studied experimentally the dynamics of the separation of a sheet of paper into two halves in a peeling conﬁguration. The experimental setup consists of a peeling device, where a fracture front is driven along the plane of the paper, with a constant force. The theoretical picture is how an elastic line interacts with a random landscape of fracture toughness. We compare the results with theoretical simulations in several aspects. One recent ﬁnding concerns the autocorrelation function of the average front position. The data from the experiments produces so-called cusps or singularities in the correlation function, as predicted by the functional renormalization group theory for elastic lines. Comparisons with simulations with either a short range or a long range elastic kernel demonstrate that the latter agrees with the experimental observations, as expected.
Ore, Oystein
2017-01-01
Number theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with the counting numbers, 1, 2, 3, … and their multiples and factors. Of particular importance are odd and even numbers, squares and cubes, and prime numbers. But in spite of their simplicity, you will meet a multitude of topics in this book: magic squares, cryptarithms, finding the day of the week for a given date, constructing regular polygons, pythagorean triples, and many more. In this revised edition, John Watkins and Robin Wilson have updated the text to bring it in line with contemporary developments. They have added new material on Fermat's Last Theorem, the role of computers in number theory, and the use of number theory in cryptography, and have made numerous minor changes in the presentation and layout of the text and the exercises.
Electronic transport of bilayer graphene with asymmetry line defects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Xiao-Ming; Chen Chan; Liang Ying; Kou Su-Peng; Wu Ya-Jie
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the quantum properties of a bilayer graphene with (asymmetry) line defects. The localized states are found around the line defects. Thus, the line defects on one certain layer of the bilayer graphene can lead to an electric transport channel. By adding a bias potential along the direction of the line defects, we calculate the electric conductivity of bilayer graphene with line defects using the Landauer–Büttiker theory, and show that the channel affects the electric conductivity remarkably by comparing the results with those in a perfect bilayer graphene. This one-dimensional line electric channel has the potential to be applied in nanotechnology engineering. (paper)
Chang, CC
2012-01-01
Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko
Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick
2011-01-01
Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai
Cox, David A
2012-01-01
Praise for the First Edition ". . .will certainly fascinate anyone interested in abstract algebra: a remarkable book!"—Monatshefte fur Mathematik Galois theory is one of the most established topics in mathematics, with historical roots that led to the development of many central concepts in modern algebra, including groups and fields. Covering classic applications of the theory, such as solvability by radicals, geometric constructions, and finite fields, Galois Theory, Second Edition delves into novel topics like Abel’s theory of Abelian equations, casus irreducibili, and the Galo
Dufwenberg, Martin
2011-03-01
Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hashiguchi, Koichi
2009-01-01
This book details the mathematics and continuum mechanics necessary as a foundation of elastoplasticity theory. It explains physical backgrounds with illustrations and provides descriptions of detailed derivation processes..
VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...
Asymmetries of the solar Ca II lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heasley, J.N.
1975-01-01
A theoretical study of the influence of propagating acoustic pulses in the solar chromosphere upon the line profiles of the Ca II resonance and infrared triplet lines has been made. The major objective has been to explain the observed asymmetries seen in the cores of the H and K lines and to predict the temporal behavior of the infrared lines caused by passing acoustic or shock pulses. The velocities in the pulses, calculated from weak shock theory, have been included consistently in the non-LTE calculations. The results of the calculations show that these lines are very sensitive to perturbations in the background atmosphere caused by the pulses. Only minor changes in the line shapes result from including the velocities consistently in the line source function calculations. The qualitative changes in the line profiles vary markedly with the strength of the shock pulses. The observed differences in the K line profiles seen on the quiet Sun can be explained in terms of a spectrum of pulses with different wavelengths and initial amplitudes in the photosphere. (Auth.)
Displacement of location in illusory line motion.
Hubbard, Timothy L; Ruppel, Susan E
2013-05-01
Six experiments examined displacement in memory for the location of the line in illusory line motion (ILM; appearance or disappearance of a stationary cue is followed by appearance of a stationary line that is presented all at once, but the stationary line is perceived to "unfold" or "be drawn" from the end closest to the cue to the end most distant from the cue). If ILM was induced by having a single cue appear, then memory for the location of the line was displaced toward the cue, and displacement was larger if the line was closer to the cue. If ILM was induced by having one of two previously visible cues vanish, then memory for the location of the line was displaced away from the cue that vanished. In general, the magnitude of displacement increased and then decreased as retention interval increased from 50 to 250 ms and from 250 to 450 ms, respectively. Displacement of the line (a) is consistent with a combination of a spatial averaging of the locations of the cue and the line with a relatively weaker dynamic in the direction of illusory motion, (b) might be implemented in a spreading activation network similar to networks previously suggested to implement displacement resulting from implied or apparent motion, and (c) provides constraints and challenges for theories of ILM.
Theory of radiatively driven stellar winds. I. A physical interpretation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, D.C.
1980-01-01
This series of papers extends the line-driven wind theory of Castor, Abbott, and Klein (CAK). The present paper develops a physical interpretation of line-driven flows using analytic methods. Numerical results will follow in two subsequent papers
Temperature effects on neutron drip line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajasekaran, M.; Aggarwal, Mamta
1996-01-01
Extremely neutron rich hot nuclei formed in high energy collisions having high thermal excitation energies are investigated in the framework of statistical theory and the effect of level density parameter a = U/T 2 , on the drip line is analysed
Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines
African Journals Online (AJOL)
fraction of A. sieberi against seven cancer cell lines (Colo20, HCT116, DLD, MCF7, Jurkat, HepG2 and ... The morphology of the HepG2 cell nucleus was investigated by Hoechst 33342, ..... Gong F, Liang Y, Xie P, Chau F. Information theory.
Homotopic Polygonal Line Simplification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski
This thesis presents three contributions to the area of polygonal line simplification, or simply line simplification. A polygonal path, or simply a path is a list of points with line segments between the points. A path can be simplified by morphing it in order to minimize some objective function...
Wavelet-Based Quantum Field Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikhail V. Altaisky
2007-11-01
Full Text Available The Euclidean quantum field theory for the fields $phi_{Delta x}(x$, which depend on both the position $x$ and the resolution $Delta x$, constructed in SIGMA 2 (2006, 046, on the base of the continuous wavelet transform, is considered. The Feynman diagrams in such a theory become finite under the assumption there should be no scales in internal lines smaller than the minimal of scales of external lines. This regularisation agrees with the existing calculations of radiative corrections to the electron magnetic moment. The transition from the newly constructed theory to a standard Euclidean field theory is achieved by integration over the scale arguments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartlett, R.; Kirtman, B.; Davidson, E.R.
1978-01-01
After noting some advantages of using perturbation theory some of the various types are related on a chart and described, including many-body nonlinear summations, quartic force-field fit for geometry, fourth-order correlation approximations, and a survey of some recent work. Alternative initial approximations in perturbation theory are also discussed. 25 references
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2014-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Need theory of happiness is linked to affect theory, which holds that happiness is a reflection of how well we feel generally. In this view, we do not "calculate" happiness but rather "infer" it, the typical heuristic being "I feel good most of the time, hence
Bouwkamp, C.J.
1954-01-01
A critical review is presented of recent progress in classical diffraction theory. Both scalar and electromagnetic problems are discussed. The report may serve as an introduction to general diffraction theory although the main emphasis is on diffraction by plane obstacles. Various modifications of
Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří
1988-01-01
Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerg, Ole; Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas
2017-01-01
The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory......’. It is demonstrated how such a designation relegates these questions and explanations beyond the realm of meaningful discourse. In addition, Agamben’s concept of sovereignty is applied to explore the political effects of using the concept of conspiracy theory. The exceptional epistemological status assigned...... to alleged conspiracy theories within our prevalent paradigms of knowledge and truth is compared to the exceptional legal status assigned to individuals accused of terrorism under the War on Terror. The paper concludes by discussing the relation between conspiracy theory and ‘the paranoid style...
1999-11-08
In these lectures I will build up the concept of field theory using the language of Feynman diagrams. As a starting point, field theory in zero spacetime dimensions is used as a vehicle to develop all the necessary techniques: path integral, Feynman diagrams, Schwinger-Dyson equations, asymptotic series, effective action, renormalization etc. The theory is then extended to more dimensions, with emphasis on the combinatorial aspects of the diagrams rather than their particular mathematical structure. The concept of unitarity is used to, finally, arrive at the various Feynman rules in an actual, four-dimensional theory. The concept of gauge-invariance is developed, and the structure of a non-abelian gauge theory is discussed, again on the level of Feynman diagrams and Feynman rules.
Liu, Baoding
2015-01-01
When no samples are available to estimate a probability distribution, we have to invite some domain experts to evaluate the belief degree that each event will happen. Perhaps some people think that the belief degree should be modeled by subjective probability or fuzzy set theory. However, it is usually inappropriate because both of them may lead to counterintuitive results in this case. In order to rationally deal with belief degrees, uncertainty theory was founded in 2007 and subsequently studied by many researchers. Nowadays, uncertainty theory has become a branch of axiomatic mathematics for modeling belief degrees. This is an introductory textbook on uncertainty theory, uncertain programming, uncertain statistics, uncertain risk analysis, uncertain reliability analysis, uncertain set, uncertain logic, uncertain inference, uncertain process, uncertain calculus, and uncertain differential equation. This textbook also shows applications of uncertainty theory to scheduling, logistics, networks, data mining, c...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjørland, Birger
2009-01-01
Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...
Topics in conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiritsis, E.B.
1988-01-01
In this work two major topics in Conformal Field Theory are discussed. First a detailed investigation of N = 2 Superconformal theories is presented. The structure of the representations of the N = 2 superconformal algebras is investigated and the character formulae are calculated. The general structure of N = 2 superconformal theories is elucidated and the operator algebra of the minimal models is derived. The first minimal system is discussed in more detail. Second, applications of the conformal techniques are studied in the Ashkin-Teller model. The c = 1 as well as the c = 1/2 critical lines are discussed in detail
Hot rotating fp shell Fe isotopes near proton drip line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aggarwal, Mamta
2003-01-01
F p shell 44-58 Fe nuclei have been investigated in highly excited state using the statistical theory of hot rotating nucleus. Effects of thermal and rotational excitation at drip line nuclei are studied
Andrews, George E
1994-01-01
Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl
Schmidli, Hanspeter
2017-01-01
This book provides an overview of classical actuarial techniques, including material that is not readily accessible elsewhere such as the Ammeter risk model and the Markov-modulated risk model. Other topics covered include utility theory, credibility theory, claims reserving and ruin theory. The author treats both theoretical and practical aspects and also discusses links to Solvency II. Written by one of the leading experts in the field, these lecture notes serve as a valuable introduction to some of the most frequently used methods in non-life insurance. They will be of particular interest to graduate students, researchers and practitioners in insurance, finance and risk management.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smith, Shelley
This paper came about within the context of a 13-month research project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, at the Center for Public Space Research at the Royal Academy of the Arts School of Architecture in Copenhagen, Denmark. This project has been funded by RealDania. The goals of the research...... project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, which forms the framework for this working paper, are: * To provide a basis from which to discuss the concept of public space in a contemporary architectural and urban context - specifically relating to theory and method * To broaden the discussion of the concept...
Lubliner, Jacob
2008-01-01
The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul
Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... ante (“hidden characteristics”) as well as ex post information asymmetry (“hidden action”), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul
2015-01-01
Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... ante (‘hidden characteristics’) as well as ex post information asymmetry (‘hidden action’), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....
Changing theories of change: strategic shifting in implicit theory endorsement.
Leith, Scott A; Ward, Cindy L P; Giacomin, Miranda; Landau, Enoch S; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Wilson, Anne E
2014-10-01
People differ in their implicit theories about the malleability of characteristics such as intelligence and personality. These relatively chronic theories can be experimentally altered, and can be affected by parent or teacher feedback. Little is known about whether people might selectively shift their implicit beliefs in response to salient situational goals. We predicted that, when motivated to reach a desired conclusion, people might subtly shift their implicit theories of change and stability to garner supporting evidence for their desired position. Any motivated context in which a particular lay theory would help people to reach a preferred directional conclusion could elicit shifts in theory endorsement. We examine a variety of motivated situational contexts across 7 studies, finding that people's theories of change shifted in line with goals to protect self and liked others and to cast aspersions on disliked others. Studies 1-3 demonstrate how people regulate their implicit theories to manage self-view by more strongly endorsing an incremental theory after threatening performance feedback or memories of failure. Studies 4-6 revealed that people regulate the implicit theories they hold about favored and reviled political candidates, endorsing an incremental theory to forgive preferred candidates for past gaffes but leaning toward an entity theory to ensure past failings "stick" to opponents. Finally, in Study 7, people who were most threatened by a previously convicted child sex offender (i.e., parents reading about the offender moving to their neighborhood) gravitated most to the entity view that others do not change. Although chronic implicit theories are undoubtedly meaningful, this research reveals a previously unexplored source of fluidity by highlighting the active role people play in managing their implicit theories in response to goals. 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Simple recursion relations for general field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Trnka, Jaroslav
2015-01-01
On-shell methods offer an alternative definition of quantum field theory at tree-level, replacing Feynman diagrams with recursion relations and interaction vertices with a handful of seed scattering amplitudes. In this paper we determine the simplest recursion relations needed to construct a general four-dimensional quantum field theory of massless particles. For this purpose we define a covering space of recursion relations which naturally generalizes all existing constructions, including those of BCFW and Risager. The validity of each recursion relation hinges on the large momentum behavior of an n-point scattering amplitude under an m-line momentum shift, which we determine solely from dimensional analysis, Lorentz invariance, and locality. We show that all amplitudes in a renormalizable theory are 5-line constructible. Amplitudes are 3-line constructible if an external particle carries spin or if the scalars in the theory carry equal charge under a global or gauge symmetry. Remarkably, this implies the 3-line constructibility of all gauge theories with fermions and complex scalars in arbitrary representations, all supersymmetric theories, and the standard model. Moreover, all amplitudes in non-renormalizable theories without derivative interactions are constructible; with derivative interactions, a subset of amplitudes is constructible. We illustrate our results with examples from both renormalizable and non-renormalizable theories. Our study demonstrates both the power and limitations of recursion relations as a self-contained formulation of quantum field theory.
Workshop on Radio Recombination Lines
1980-01-01
Since their first detection 15 years ago, radio recombination lines from several elements have been observed in a wide variety of objects including HII regions, planetary nebulae, molecular clouds, the diffuse interstellar medium, and recently, other galaxies. The observations span almost the entire range from 0.1 to 100 GHz, and employ both single djsh and aperture synthesis techniques. The theory of radio recombination lines has also advanced strongly, to the point where it is perhaps one of the best-understood in astro physics. In a parallel development, it has become possible over the last decade to study these same highly-excited atoms in the laboratory; this work provides further confirmation of the theoretical framework. However there has been continuing controversy over the astrophysical interpre tation of radio recombination line observations, especially regarding the role of stimulated emission. A workshop was held in Ottawa on 24-25 August, 1979, bringing together many of the active scientist...
BROADENING OF BALMER LINES FOR HIGH QUANTUM NUMBER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armstrong, B. H.
1963-10-15
It is shown that the impact theory breakdown at sufficiently large distances from the line center in effect lowers the principle quantum number at which electron broadening might otherwise be assumed to dominate. Since the impact theory breaks down and effectively the impact widths decrease progressively for the line components more distant from the center, the contributions of the components to the folding integral decrease rapidly except at their own positions. (R.E.U.)
Quantum depinning of flux lines from columnar defects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, E.M.; Ferrera, A.; Vilenkin, A.
1995-01-01
The depinning of a flux line from a columnar defect is studied within the path-integral approach. Instantons of the quantum field theory in 1+1 dimensions are computed for the flux line whose dynamics is dominated by the Magnus force. The universal temperature dependence of the decay rate in the proximity of the critical current is obtained. This problem provides an example of macroscopic quantum tunneling, which is accessible to the direct comparison between theory and experiment
Modeling of MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesters using electromagnetic and power system theories
Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Alshareef, Husam N.; Elshurafa, Amro M.; Salama, Khaled N.
2012-01-01
-to-electrical analogy, electromagnetic theory, and power system theory is developed. The mechanical-to-electrical analogy and power system theory allow the derivation of an equivalent input impedance expression for the network, whereas electromagnetic transmission line
Nel, Louis
2016-01-01
This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...
Hodges, Wilfrid
1993-01-01
An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.
Lunardi, Alessandra
2018-01-01
This book is the third edition of the 1999 lecture notes of the courses on interpolation theory that the author delivered at the Scuola Normale in 1998 and 1999. In the mathematical literature there are many good books on the subject, but none of them is very elementary, and in many cases the basic principles are hidden below great generality. In this book the principles of interpolation theory are illustrated aiming at simplification rather than at generality. The abstract theory is reduced as far as possible, and many examples and applications are given, especially to operator theory and to regularity in partial differential equations. Moreover the treatment is self-contained, the only prerequisite being the knowledge of basic functional analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-06-01
This report discusses concepts in nuclear theory such as: neutrino nucleosynthesis; double beta decay; neutrino oscillations; chiral symmetry breaking; T invariance; quark propagator; cold fusion; and other related topics
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
2014-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Assumptions Livability theory involves the following six key assumptions: 1. Like all animals, humans have innate needs, such as for food, safety, and companionship. 2. Gratification of needs manifests in hedonic experience. 3. Hedonic experience determines how
SAIDANI Lassaad
2015-01-01
The nokton theory is an attempt to construct a theory adapted to every physical phenomenon. Space and time have been discretized. Its laws are iterative and precise. Probability plays an important role here. At first I defined the notion of image function and its mathematical framework. The notion of nokton and its state are the basis of several definitions. I later defined the canonical image function and the canonical contribution. Two constants have been necessary to define the dynam...
SAIDANI Lassaad
2017-01-01
The nokton theory is an attempt to construct a theory adapted to every physical phenomenon. Space and time have been discretized. Its laws are iterative and precise. Probability plays an important role here. At first I defined the notion of image function and its mathematical framework. The notion of nokton and its state are the basis of several definitions. I later defined the canonical image function and the canonical contribution. Two constants have been necessary to define the dynam...
Gould, Ronald
2012-01-01
This introduction to graph theory focuses on well-established topics, covering primary techniques and including both algorithmic and theoretical problems. The algorithms are presented with a minimum of advanced data structures and programming details. This thoroughly corrected 1988 edition provides insights to computer scientists as well as advanced undergraduates and graduate students of topology, algebra, and matrix theory. Fundamental concepts and notation and elementary properties and operations are the first subjects, followed by examinations of paths and searching, trees, and networks. S
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Svintsov
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The article discusses the theory of quantitative description of the possible presence in the telephone line devices unauthorized removal of information, investigated with the help of probability theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamien, R.D.
1992-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. The authors discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro-fluids, flux lines in high temperature superconductors and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons all share similar descriptions. They study a continuous transition in all of these systems, and then study the critical mixing properties of binary mixtures of directed polymers through the renormalization group. They predict the exponents for a directed polymer blend consolute point and a novel two-phase superfluid liquid-gas critical point
Series Transmission Line Transformer
Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.
2004-06-29
A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.
DISCOVERY OF A TRANSITING PLANET NEAR THE SNOW-LINE
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kipping, D. M.; Torres, G.; Buchhave, L. A.
2014-01-01
In most theories of planet formation, the snow-line represents a boundary between the emergence of the interior rocky planets and the exterior ice giants. The wide separation of the snow-line makes the discovery of transiting worlds challenging, yet transits would allow for detailed subsequent...
Nonlinear Lorentz-invariant theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petry, W.
1976-01-01
A nonlinear Lorentz-invariant theory of gravitation and a Lorentz-invariant Hamiltonian for a particle with spin in the gravitational field are developed. The equations of motions are studied. The theory is applied to the three well known tests of General Relativity. In the special case of the red shift of spectral lines and of the deflection of light, the theory gives the same results as the General Theory of Relativity, whereas in the case of the perihelion of the Mercury, the theory gives 40,3'', in good agreement with experimental results of Dicke. (author)
Audiences for the Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Gardner, Howard
2004-01-01
In his closing comments, Howard Gardner discusses the various audiences that have emerged over the years for the theory of multiple intelligences. Under that rubric, he places the various papers in this issue and speculates about future lines of work on MI theory.
Quantum field theory and link invariants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cotta-Ramusino, P.; Guadagnini, E.; Mintchev, M.; Martellini, M.
1990-01-01
A skein relation for the expectation values of Wilson line operators in three-dimensional SU(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory is derived at first order in the coupling constant. We use a variational method based on the properties of the three-dimensional field theory. The relationship between the above expectation values and the known link invariants is established. (orig.)
Domain Theory, Its Models and Concepts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Howard, Thomas J.; Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt
2014-01-01
Domain Theory is a systems approach for the analysis and synthesis of products. Its basic idea is to view a product as systems of activities, organs and parts and to define structure, elements, behaviour and function in these domains. The theory is a basis for a long line of research contribution...
Optoelectronic line transmission an introduction to fibre optics
Tricker, Raymond L
2013-01-01
Optoelectronic Line Transmission: An Introduction to Fibre Optics presents a basic introduction as well as a background reference manual on fiber optic transmission. The book discusses the basic principles of optical line transmission; the advantages and disadvantages of optical fibers and optoelectronic signalling; the practical applications of optoelectronics; and the future of optoelectronics. The text also describes the theories of optical line transmission; fibers and cables for optical transmission; transmitters including light-emitting diodes and lasers; and receivers including photodi
Minnesota County Boundaries - lines
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....
Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.
1998-11-01
A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.
Kodaira, Kunihiko
2017-01-01
This book deals with the classical theory of Nevanlinna on the value distribution of meromorphic functions of one complex variable, based on minimum prerequisites for complex manifolds. The theory was extended to several variables by S. Kobayashi, T. Ochiai, J. Carleson, and P. Griffiths in the early 1970s. K. Kodaira took up this subject in his course at The University of Tokyo in 1973 and gave an introductory account of this development in the context of his final paper, contained in this book. The first three chapters are devoted to holomorphic mappings from C to complex manifolds. In the fourth chapter, holomorphic mappings between higher dimensional manifolds are covered. The book is a valuable treatise on the Nevanlinna theory, of special interests to those who want to understand Kodaira's unique approach to basic questions on complex manifolds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kenyon, I.R.
1986-01-01
Modern theories of the interactions between fundamental particles are all gauge theories. In the case of gravitation, application of this principle to space-time leads to Einstein's theory of general relativity. All the other interactions involve the application of the gauge principle to internal spaces. Electromagnetism serves to introduce the idea of a gauge field, in this case the electromagnetic field. The next example, the strong force, shows unique features at long and short range which have their origin in the self-coupling of the gauge fields. Finally the unification of the description of the superficially dissimilar electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces completes the picture of successes of the gauge principle. (author)
Understanding Cognitive Load Using On-line Dictionaries
Robert F. , Dilenschneider
2017-01-01
Cognitive Load Theory may useful for language instructors to understand how the look up conditions ofusing an on-line dictionary might influence learning. This paper first reviews previous studies that haveinvestigated dictionary use for vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension Second, it explainsthe various elements of Cognitive Load Theory. Third, it describes how Cognitive Load Theory appliesto language learners' to learn unknown words and comprehend texts Last, it discusses the pe...
Contemporary Advertising and Mass Communications Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diogo Rógora Kawano
2008-08-01
Full Text Available From readings of classic works on communications theories, presented in Wolf (2005 and Mattelart and Mattelart (2000, in this work are presented the main theoretical reflections on communications theories that have contributed for the understanding of the processes in advertising and propaganda, in order to observe the most used theoretical lines in the area, as well as to point out other theories and less worked hypotheses in the studies of communication.
Theory of atomic spectral emission intensity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yngstroem, S.
1989-02-01
The theoretical derivation of a new spectral line intensity formula for atomic radiative emission is presented. The theory is based on first principles of quantum physics and statistical physics. It is argued that the formulation of the theory provides a very good example of the manner in which quantum logic transforms into common sense logic. The theory is strongly supported by experimental evidence. (author) (16 refs.)
Analytic aspects of rational conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiritsis, E.B.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA
1990-01-01
The problem of deriving linear differential equations for correlation functions of Rational Conformal Field Theories is considered. Techniques from the theory of fuchsian differential equations are used to show that knowledge of the central charge, dimensions of primary fields and fusion rules are enough to fix the differential equations for one- and two-point functions on the tours. Any other correlation function can be calculated along similar lines. The results settle the issue of 'exact solution' of rational conformal field theories. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sitenko, A.
1991-01-01
This book emerged out of graduate lectures given by the author at the University of Kiev and is intended as a graduate text. The fundamentals of non-relativistic quantum scattering theory are covered, including some topics, such as the phase-function formalism, separable potentials, and inverse scattering, which are not always coverded in textbooks on scattering theory. Criticisms of the text are minor, but the reviewer feels an inadequate index is provided and the citing of references in the Russian language is a hindrance in a graduate text
Spectral line profiles in weakly turbulent plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capes, H.; Voslamber, D.
1976-07-01
The unified theory of line broadening by electron perturbers is generalized to include the case of a weakly turbulent plasma. The collision operator in the line shape expression is shown to be the sum of two terms, both containing effects arising from the non-equilibrium nature of the plasma. One of the two terms represents the influence of individual atom-particle interactions occuring via the nonequilibrium dielectric plasma medium. The other term is due to the interaction of the atom with the turbulent waves. Both terms contain damping and diffusion effects arising from the plasma turbulence
Disocclusion: a variational approach using level lines.
Masnou, Simon
2002-01-01
Object recognition, robot vision, image and film restoration may require the ability to perform disocclusion. We call disocclusion the recovery of occluded areas in a digital image by interpolation from their vicinity. It is shown in this paper how disocclusion can be performed by means of the level-lines structure, which offers a reliable, complete and contrast-invariant representation of images. Level-lines based disocclusion yields a solution that may have strong discontinuities. The proposed method is compatible with Kanizsa's amodal completion theory.
Line width of Josephson flux flow oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koshelets, V.P.; Dmitriev, P.N.; Sobolev, A.S.
2002-01-01
to be proven before one initiates real FFO applications. To achieve this goal a comprehensive set of line width measurements of the FFO operating in different regimes has been performed. FFOs with tapered shape have been successfully implemented in order to avoid the superfine resonant structure with voltage...... spacing of about 20 nV and extremely low differential resistance, recently observed in the IVC of the standard rectangular geometry. The obtained results have been compared with existing theories and FFO models in order to understand and possibly eliminate excess noise in the FFO. The intrinsic line width...
Quiver gauge theories and integrable lattice models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yagi, Junya
2015-01-01
We discuss connections between certain classes of supersymmetric quiver gauge theories and integrable lattice models from the point of view of topological quantum field theories (TQFTs). The relevant classes include 4d N=1 theories known as brane box and brane tilling models, 3d N=2 and 2d N=(2,2) theories obtained from them by compactification, and 2d N=(0,2) theories closely related to these theories. We argue that their supersymmetric indices carry structures of TQFTs equipped with line operators, and as a consequence, are equal to the partition functions of lattice models. The integrability of these models follows from the existence of extra dimension in the TQFTs, which emerges after the theories are embedded in M-theory. The Yang-Baxter equation expresses the invariance of supersymmetric indices under Seiberg duality and its lower-dimensional analogs.
Contribution to diffraction theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chako, N.
1966-11-01
In a first part, we have given a general and detailed treatment of the modern theory of diffraction. The rigorous theory is formulated as a boundary value problem of the wave equation or Maxwell equations. However, up to the present time, such a program of treating diffraction by optical systems, even for simple optical instruments, has not been realized due to the complicated character of the boundary conditions. The recent developments show clearly the nature of the approximation of the classical theories originally due to Fresnel and Young, later formulated in a rigorous manner by Kirchhoff and Rubinowicz, respectively and, at the same time the insufficiency of these theories in explaining a number of diffraction phenomena. Furthermore, we have made a study of the limitations of the approximate theories and the recent attempts to improve these. The second part is devoted to a general mathematical treatment of the theory of diffraction of optical systems including aberrations. After a general and specific analysis of geometrical and wave aberrations along classical and modern (Nijboer) lines, we have been able to evaluate the diffraction integrals representing the image field at any point in image space explicitly, when the aberrations are small. Our formulas are the generalisations of all anterior results obtained by previous investigators. Moreover, we have discussed the Zernike-Nijboer theory of aberration and generalised it not only for rotational systems, but also for non-symmetric systems as well, including the case of non circular apertures. The extension to non-circular apertures is done by introducing orthogonal functions or polynomials over such aperture shapes. So far the results are valid for small aberrations, that is to say, where the deformation of the real wave front emerging from the optical system is less than a wave length of light or of the electromagnetic wave from the ideal wave front. If the aberrations are large, then one must employ the
Contribution of the backstreaming ions to the Self-Magnetic pinch (SMP) diode current
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mazarakis, Michael G.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Fournier, Sean D.; Johnston, Mark D.; Kiefer, Mark L.; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Nielsen, Dan S.; Oliver, Bryan V.; Simpson, Sean; Renk, Timothy J.; Webb, Timothy J.; Ziska, Derek; Bennett, Nichelle; Droemer, Darryl W.; Cignac, Raymond E.; Obregon, Robert J.; Smith, Chase C.; Wilkins, Frank L.; Welch, Dale R.
2016-08-08
Summary form only given. The results presented here were obtained with an SMP diode mounted at the front high voltage end of the RITS accelerator. RITS is a Self-Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line (MITL) voltage adder that adds the voltage pulses of six 1.3 MV inductively insulated cavities. Our experiments had two objectives: first to measure the contribution of the back-streaming ion currents emitted from the anode target to the diode beam current, and second to try to evaluate the energy of those ions and hence the actual Anode-Cathode (A-K) gap actual voltage. In any very high voltage inductive voltage adder (IVA) utilizing MITLs to transmit the power to the diode load, the precise knowledge of the accelerating voltage applied on the anode-cathode (A-K) gap is problematic. The accelerating voltage quoted in the literature is from estimates based on measurements of the anode and cathode currents of the MITL far upstream from the diode and utilizing the para-potential flow theories and inductive corrections. Thus it would be interesting to have another independent measurement to evaluate the A-K voltage. The diode's anode is made of a number of high Z metals in order to produce copious and energetic flash x-rays. The backstreaming currents are a strong fraction of the anode materials and their stage of cleanness and gas adsorption. We have measured the back-streaming ion currents emitted from the anode and propagating through a hollow cathode tip for various diode configurations and different techniques of target cleaning treatments, such as heating to very high temperatures with DC and pulsed current, with RF plasma cleaning and with both plasma cleaning and heating. Finally, we have also evaluated the A-K gap voltage by ion filtering techniques.
Sferra, Bobbie A.; Paddock, Susan C.
This booklet describes various theoretical aspects of leadership, including the proper exercise of authority, effective delegation, goal setting, exercise of control, assignment of responsibility, performance evaluation, and group process facilitation. It begins by describing the evolution of general theories of leadership from historic concepts…
Hall, Marshall
2011-01-01
Includes proof of van der Waerden's 1926 conjecture on permanents, Wilson's theorem on asymptotic existence, and other developments in combinatorics since 1967. Also covers coding theory and its important connection with designs, problems of enumeration, and partition. Presents fundamentals in addition to latest advances, with illustrative problems at the end of each chapter. Enlarged appendixes include a longer list of block designs.
Toso, Robert B.
2000-01-01
Inspired by William Glasser's Reality Therapy ideas, Control Theory (CT) is a disciplinary approach that stresses people's ability to control only their own behavior, based on internal motivations to satisfy five basic needs. At one North Dakota high school, CT-trained teachers are the program's best recruiters. (MLH)
de Vreese, C.H.; Lecheler, S.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.
2016-01-01
Political issues can be viewed from different perspectives and they can be defined differently in the news media by emphasizing some aspects and leaving others aside. This is at the core of news framing theory. Framing originates within sociology and psychology and has become one of the most used
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong, Ha Soung
2006-12-01
The text book composed of five parts, which are summary of this book, arrangement of electricity theory including electricity nad magnetism, a direct current, and alternating current. It has two dictionary electricity terms for a synonym. The last is an appendix. It is for preparing for test of officer, electricity engineer and fire fighting engineer.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Monthoux, Pierre Guillet de; Statler, Matt
2014-01-01
The recent Carnegie report (Colby, et al., 2011) characterizes the goal of business education as the development of practical wisdom. In this chapter, the authors reframe Scharmer’s Theory U as an attempt to develop practical wisdom by applying certain European philosophical concepts. Specifically...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guillet de Monthoux, Pierre; Statler, Matt
2017-01-01
The recent Carnegie report (Colby, et al., 2011) characterizes the goal of business education as the development of practical wisdom. In this chapter, the authors reframe Scharmer's Theory U as an attempt to develop practical wisdom by applying certain European philosophical concepts. Specifically...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, W.M.
2001-01-01
This is a summary of the advances in magnetic fusion energy theory research presented at the 17th International Atomic Energy Agency Fusion Energy Conference from 19 24 October, 1998 in Yokohama, Japan. Theory and simulation results from this conference provided encouraging evidence of significant progress in understanding the physics of thermonuclear plasmas. Indeed, the grand challenge for this field is to acquire the basic understanding that can readily enable the innovations which would make fusion energy practical. In this sense, research in fusion energy is increasingly able to be categorized as fitting well the 'Pasteur's Quadrant' paradigm, where the research strongly couples basic science ('Bohr's Quadrant') to technological impact ('Edison's Quadrant'). As supported by some of the work presented at this conference, this trend will be further enhanced by advanced simulations. Eventually, realistic three-dimensional modeling capabilities, when properly combined with rapid and complete data interpretation of results from both experiments and simulations, can contribute to a greatly enhanced cycle of understanding and innovation. Plasma science theory and simulation have provided reliable foundations for this improved modeling capability, and the exciting advances in high-performance computational resources have further accelerated progress. There were 68 papers presented at this conference in the area of magnetic fusion energy theory
Penland, Patrick R.
Three papers are presented which delineate the foundation of theory and principles which underlie the research and instructional approach to communications at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Pittsburgh. Cybernetic principles provide the integration, and validation is based in part on a situation-producing…
Lee, William H K.
2016-01-01
A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.
Plummer, MD
1986-01-01
This study of matching theory deals with bipartite matching, network flows, and presents fundamental results for the non-bipartite case. It goes on to study elementary bipartite graphs and elementary graphs in general. Further discussed are 2-matchings, general matching problems as linear programs, the Edmonds Matching Algorithm (and other algorithmic approaches), f-factors and vertex packing.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Bødker, Susanne
2003-01-01
the young HCI research tradition. But HCI was already facing problems: lack of consideration for other aspects of human behavior, for interaction with other people, for culture. Cognitive science-based theories lacked means to address several issues that came out of the empirical projects....
Wareing, Brian
2005-01-01
This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate
Line selection in celestial masers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Middleton, M.S.
1978-09-01
The primary themes of this work concern the applicability of the Cook (1975) filter mechanism to line selection in hydroxyl masers, and the question of whether interstellar hydroxyl, water, and silicon monoxide masers are saturated. Whether the Cook filter is operative in celestial masers has not thus far been decided, even though it has been shown that such an effect might be occurring. The theory in its present form does not account for line broadening, nor have its consequences with regard to microwave maser emission from excited states of hydroxyl been explored. Both these topics are discussed and the findings are compared with the observations of NGC 6334A, a source which is interesting because of the strong evidence for Zeeman splitting which can be seen in some of its observed spectra. The question of whether interstellar masers are saturated has been much discussed, but a simple method for determining the state of saturation of observed masers does not exist. In particular, the importance of background radiation and of different cloud geometries on the state of saturation of interstellar masers up to now has not been fully appreciated. Both these topics are discussed. (author)
LED-Based High-Voltage Lines Warning System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eldar MUSA
2013-04-01
Full Text Available LED-based system, running with the current of high-voltage lines and converting the current flowing through the line into the light by using a toroid transformer, has been developed. The transformer’s primary winding is constituted by the high voltage power line. Toroidal core consists of two equal parts and the secondary windings are evenly placed on these two parts. The system is mounted on the high-voltage lines as a clamp. The secondary winding ends are connected in series by the connector on the clamp. LEDs are supplied by the voltage at the ends of secondary. Current flowing through highvoltage transmission lines is converted to voltage by the toroidal transformer and the light emitting LEDs are supplied with this voltage. The theory of the conversion of the current flowing through the line into the light is given. The system, running with the current of the line and converting the current into the light, has been developed. System has many application areas such as warning high voltage lines (warning winches to not hinder the high-voltage lines when working under the lines, warning planes to not touch the high-voltage lines, remote measurement of high-voltage line currents, and local illumination of the line area
ESP On-line Activities: Theory and Practice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hélvia Pereira Pinto Bastos
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Reading electronic texts in a foreign language has become an important skill in most professional areas. Electronic literacy is a pedagogical activity which develops both the learner’s linguistic knowledge and his / her ability to communicate and do research on the Internet. This article shows the reasons and how this practice, based on sociocognitive principles and using reading guidelines given by the teaching of Languages for Specific Purposes, has been implemented in the English language programs at CEFET-Campos, RJ. Comments on different aspects of the experience are also provided.
Introduction to transfer lines and circular machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bryant, P.J.
1984-01-01
This course was given in the 1983-84 Academic Training Programme. It is designed as an elementary introduction to both the theory and the hardware for transfer lines and circular machines. The course is limited to linear problems and treates the topics of single particle motion in the transverse and longitudinal planes, emittance ellipses, parameterisation, optical properties of some specific modules, stabilities in the transverse and longitudinal planes, field and gradient errors, and scattering in thin windows. (orig.)
Chemical exchange effects in spectral line shapes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diaz, M.A.; Veguillas, J.
1990-01-01
A theory of spectral-line shapes has been extended to the case in which relaxation broadening may be influenced by reactive interactions. This extension is valid for gaseous systems in the same way it is valid for condensed media, and particularly, for such chemical mechanisms as isomerizations. The dependence of the spectral rate on the chemical exchange rate is clarified. Finally, a discussion concerning the above aspects and their applications has been included. (author)
Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent
2015-01-01
Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015
Kansas Electric Transmission Lines
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...
Electric Power Transmission Lines
Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.
1983-10-01
An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper
Capital Improvements Business Line
2012-08-08
NAVFAC Southwest Dan Waid Program & Business Mgmt NAVFAC SW Capital Improvements Business Line NAVFAC SW 8 August 2012 1 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capital Improvements Business Line 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 2012 Navy Gold Coast Small Business
AUTOMATIC RAILWAY POWER LINE EXTRACTION USING MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Zhang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Research on power line extraction technology using mobile laser point clouds has important practical significance on railway power lines patrol work. In this paper, we presents a new method for automatic extracting railway power line from MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning data. Firstly, according to the spatial structure characteristics of power-line and trajectory, the significant data is segmented piecewise. Then, use the self-adaptive space region growing method to extract power lines parallel with rails. Finally use PCA (Principal Components Analysis combine with information entropy theory method to judge a section of the power line whether is junction or not and which type of junction it belongs to. The least squares fitting algorithm is introduced to model the power line. An evaluation of the proposed method over a complicated railway point clouds acquired by a RIEGL VMX450 MLS system shows that the proposed method is promising.
2001-01-01
The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
Moving contact lines on vibrating surfaces
Solomenko, Zlatko; Spelt, Peter; Scott, Julian
2017-11-01
Large-scale simulations of flows with moving contact lines for realistic conditions generally requires a subgrid scale model (analyses based on matched asymptotics) to account for the unresolved part of the flow, given the large range of length scales involved near contact lines. Existing models for the interface shape in the contact-line region are primarily for steady flows on homogeneous substrates, with encouraging results in 3D simulations. Introduction of complexities would require further investigation of the contact-line region, however. Here we study flows with moving contact lines on planar substrates subject to vibrations, with applications in controlling wetting/dewetting. The challenge here is to determine the change in interface shape near contact lines due to vibrations. To develop further insight, 2D direct numerical simulations (wherein the flow is resolved down to an imposed slip length) have been performed to enable comparison with asymptotic theory, which is also developed further. Perspectives will also be presented on the final objective of the work, which is to develop a subgrid scale model that can be utilized in large-scale simulations. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ANR for financial support (ANR-15-CE08-0031) and the meso-centre FLMSN for use of computational resources. This work was Granted access to the HPC resources of CINES under the allocation A0012B06893 made by GENCI.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard
2011-01-01
Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...... is not a data processing device. In this chapter, communication is understood as a process of shared meaning-making (Bruner, 1990). Human beings interpret their environment, other people, and themselves on the basis of their dynamic interaction with the surrounding world. Meaning is essential because people...... ascribe specific meanings to their experiences, their actions in life or work, and their interactions. Meaning is reshaped, adapted, and transformed in every communication encounter. Furthermore, meaning is cocreated in dialogues or in communities of practice, such as in teams at a workplace or in school...
2015-01-01
A one-sentence definition of operator theory could be: The study of (linear) continuous operations between topological vector spaces, these being in general (but not exclusively) Fréchet, Banach, or Hilbert spaces (or their duals). Operator theory is thus a very wide field, with numerous facets, both applied and theoretical. There are deep connections with complex analysis, functional analysis, mathematical physics, and electrical engineering, to name a few. Fascinating new applications and directions regularly appear, such as operator spaces, free probability, and applications to Clifford analysis. In our choice of the sections, we tried to reflect this diversity. This is a dynamic ongoing project, and more sections are planned, to complete the picture. We hope you enjoy the reading, and profit from this endeavor.
Helms, Lester L
2014-01-01
Potential Theory presents a clear path from calculus to classical potential theory and beyond, with the aim of moving the reader into the area of mathematical research as quickly as possible. The subject matter is developed from first principles using only calculus. Commencing with the inverse square law for gravitational and electromagnetic forces and the divergence theorem, the author develops methods for constructing solutions of Laplace's equation on a region with prescribed values on the boundary of the region. The latter half of the book addresses more advanced material aimed at those with the background of a senior undergraduate or beginning graduate course in real analysis. Starting with solutions of the Dirichlet problem subject to mixed boundary conditions on the simplest of regions, methods of morphing such solutions onto solutions of Poisson's equation on more general regions are developed using diffeomorphisms and the Perron-Wiener-Brelot method, culminating in application to Brownian motion. In ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Klaus Bruhn
2016-01-01
This article revisits the place of normative and other practical issues in the wider conceptual architecture of communication theory, building on the tradition of philosophical pragmatism. The article first characterizes everyday concepts of communication as the accumulated outcome of natural...... evolution and history: practical resources for human existence and social coexistence. Such practical concepts have served as the point of departure for diverse theoretical conceptions of what communication is. The second part of the article highlights the past neglect and current potential of normative...... communication theories that ask, in addition, what communication ought to be, and what it could be, taking the relationship between communication and justice as a case in point. The final section returns to empirical conceptualizations of different institutions, practices and discourses of communication...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarlskog, C.
An introduction to the unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions is given. The ingredients of gauge theories and symmetries and conservation laws lead to discussion of local gauge invariance and QED, followed by weak interactions and quantum flavor dynamics. The construction of the standard SU(2)xU(1) model precedes discussion of the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions and weak neutral current couplings in this model. Presentation of spontaneous symmetry breaking and spontaneous breaking of a local symmetry leads to a spontaneous breaking scheme for the standard SU(2)xU(1) model. Consideration of quarks, leptons, masses and the Cabibbo angles, of the four quark and six quark models and CP violation lead finally to grand unification, followed by discussion of mixing angles in the Georgi-Glashow model, the Higgses of the SU(5) model and proton/ neutron decay in SU(5). (JIW)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perjes, Z.
1982-01-01
Particle models in twistor theory are reviewed, starting with an introduction into the kinematical-twistor formalism which describes massive particles in Minkowski space-time. The internal transformations of constituent twistors are then discussed. The quantization rules available from a study of twistor scattering situations are used to construct quantum models of fundamental particles. The theory allows the introduction of an internal space with a Kaehlerian metric where hadron structure is described by spherical states of bound constituents. It is conjectured that the spectrum of successive families of hadrons might approach an accumulation point in energy. Above this threshold energy, the Kaehlerian analog of ionization could occur wherein the zero-mass constituents (twistors) of the particle break free. (Auth.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carroll, Joseph; Clasen, Mathias; Jonsson, Emelie
2017-01-01
Biocultural theory is an integrative research program designed to investigate the causal interactions between biological adaptations and cultural constructions. From the biocultural perspective, cultural processes are rooted in the biological necessities of the human life cycle: specifically human...... of research as contributions to a coherent, collective research program. This article argues that a mature biocultural paradigm needs to be informed by at least 7 major research clusters: (a) gene-culture coevolution; (b) human life history theory; (c) evolutionary social psychology; (d) anthropological...... forms of birth, growth, survival, mating, parenting, and sociality. Conversely, from the biocultural perspective, human biological processes are constrained, organized, and developed by culture, which includes technology, culturally specific socioeconomic and political structures, religious...
Weber, Rebecca
2012-01-01
What can we compute--even with unlimited resources? Is everything within reach? Or are computations necessarily drastically limited, not just in practice, but theoretically? These questions are at the heart of computability theory. The goal of this book is to give the reader a firm grounding in the fundamentals of computability theory and an overview of currently active areas of research, such as reverse mathematics and algorithmic randomness. Turing machines and partial recursive functions are explored in detail, and vital tools and concepts including coding, uniformity, and diagonalization are described explicitly. From there the material continues with universal machines, the halting problem, parametrization and the recursion theorem, and thence to computability for sets, enumerability, and Turing reduction and degrees. A few more advanced topics round out the book before the chapter on areas of research. The text is designed to be self-contained, with an entire chapter of preliminary material including re...
Hashiguchi, Koichi
2014-01-01
This book was written to serve as the standard textbook of elastoplasticity for students, engineers and researchers in the field of applied mechanics. The present second edition is improved thoroughly from the first edition by selecting the standard theories from various formulations and models, which are required to study the essentials of elastoplasticity steadily and effectively and will remain universally in the history of elastoplasticity. It opens with an explanation of vector-tensor analysis and continuum mechanics as a foundation to study elastoplasticity theory, extending over various strain and stress tensors and their rates. Subsequently, constitutive equations of elastoplastic and viscoplastic deformations for monotonic, cyclic and non-proportional loading behavior in a general rate and their applications to metals and soils are described in detail, and constitutive equations of friction behavior between solids and its application to the prediction of stick-slip phenomena are delineated. In additi...
Dimensions of ecosystem theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Neill, R.V.; Reichle, D.E.
1979-01-01
Various dimensions of ecosystem structure and behavior that seem to develop from the ubiquitous phenomena of system growth and persistence were studied. While growth and persistence attributes of ecosystems may appear to be simplistic phenomena upon which to base a comprehensive ecosystem theory, these same attributes have been fundamental to the theoretical development of other biological disciplines. These attributes were explored at a hierarchical level in a self-organizing system, and adaptive system strategies that result were analyzed. Previously developed causative relations (Reichle et al., 1975c) were examined, their theoretical implications expounded upon, and the assumptions tested with data from a variety of forest types. The conclusions are not a theory in themselves, but a state of organization of concepts contributing towards a unifying theory, along the lines promulgated by Bray (1958). The inferences drawn rely heavily upon data from forested ecosystems of the world, and have yet to be validated against data from a much more diverse range of ecosystem types. Not all of the interpretations are logically tight - there is room for other explanations, which it is hoped will provide fruitful grounds for further speculation
Veenhoven, Ruut
2014-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Assumptions Livability theory involves the following six key assumptions: 1. Like all animals, humans have innate needs, such as for food, safety, and companionship. 2. Gratification of needs manifests in hedonic experience. 3. Hedonic experience determines how much we like the life we live (happiness). Hence, happiness depends on need gratification. 4.Need gratification depends on both external living conditions and inner abilities to use these. Hence, bad living...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casten, R F
2015-01-01
This paper discusses some simple issues that arise in testing models, with a focus on models for low energy nuclear structure. By way of simplified examples, we illustrate some dangers in blind statistical assessments, pointing out especially the need to include theoretical uncertainties, the danger of over-weighting precise or physically redundant experimental results, the need to assess competing theories with independent and physically sensitive observables, and the value of statistical tests properly evaluated. (paper)
Diestel, Reinhard
2017-01-01
This standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fifth edition, combines the authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmark of active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yet reliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methods in each field by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail. The book can be used as a reliable text for an introductory course, as a graduate text, and for self-study. From the reviews: “This outstanding book cannot be substituted with any other book on the present textbook market. It has every chance of becoming the standard textbook for graph theory.”Acta Scientiarum Mathematiciarum “Deep, clear, wonderful. This is a serious book about the heart of graph theory. It has depth and integrity. ”Persi Diaconis & Ron Graham, SIAM Review “The book has received a very enthusiastic reception, which it amply deserves. A masterly elucidation of modern graph theo...
Friedrich, Harald
2016-01-01
This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...
1976-04-01
analytically. This deficiency has led to the development of various computer-aided intra-systern (as :,pposed to inte.- system) cormpatibility...associated with the forms of the lumped iterative matrix chain parameters in (78). Therefore, substituting (D-9) into (D-8) and multiplying on the left by " tk2
Matching problems in pulse power radial transmission lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittag, K.; Brandelik, A.
1984-12-01
In this report we study the power transfer from a generator along a coaxial transmission line followed by a radial transmission line into a load, which in our application is a pseudo-spark plasma of about one millimeter diameter and about 15 cm in length. First the theoretical background based on transmission line theory is described. Then numerical results are presented. The main conclusion is that when matching the pulse power generator to the pseudo-spark plasma, the effect of the impedance transformation caused by the radial transmission line has to be taken into account. The conditions to obtain an optimal match are described. (orig.) [de
Transmission line capital costs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.
1995-05-01
The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonaccorso, Angela
2015-01-01
Among exotic nuclei those at the drip line which are unstable against neutron emission are particularly interesting because they convey information on the nuclear force in the most extreme situations. Strictly speaking they are not ''nuclei'' but they exist thanks to long living resonances between a neutron and a bound ''core'' nucleus. Adding one more neutron they become bound and are called ''borromean''. Being particularly exotic they have attracted much attention in past years. One very challenging example is 13 Be whose level ordering has been discussed in a large number of papers in which it has been studied by transfer and fragmentation experiments, or it has been discussed theoretically. Although projectile fragmentation spectra show evident similarities, the interpretations of data all differ from each other. In this paper we argue that a way trough the problem could be to try to establish first, or at the same time, the quite elusive ''nature'' of the second s-state in the Beryllium isotopes with A=9-14. On the other hand there are other recent neutron removal experiments leading to nuclei unstable by one or more proton emissions, and thus somewhat mirror to borromean nuclei, performed with nuclei close to the proton drip line. It has been shown that by taking in coincidence all (charged) particles but the removed neutron, reconstructing the invariant mass and gating on the ground state peak, it is possible to obtain the longitudinal momentum distribution of the unbound ''core''. One can link it to the original wave function of the bound orbital and thus determine the initial neutron angular momentum from the shape of the distribution and the initial occupation probability from the absolute removal cross section. Then it is clear that modern experiments and theories are able to study unstable nuclei with the same degree of accuracy as stable nuclei. Such a
On a connection between Stieltjes continued fraction, KAM theory and E-infinity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marek-Crnjac, L.
2004-01-01
In the present work we establish a connection between El Naschie's E-infinity theory and Stieltjes solution of the problem on the distribution of mass along a line and KAM theory following Gantmacher and Krein mechanical interpretation of Stieltjes' classical research on the subject
Reading Hertz's own dipole theory
Aničin, B. A.
2008-01-01
It is well known that the discoverer of radio waves, Heinrich Hertz, was the first man to apply Maxwell's electrodynamic theory to a problem in radio wave propagation. In this paper, we scrutinize his near-field lines of force using computers and his theory. In one of his four figures, a feature was found which was not to be obtained by computation. This feature, a self-intersecting line of force, more or less a figure of eight, appears strange to the eye. The clarity of the original work by H Hertz on electromagnetic waves should be of great value in both physics and engineering courses. This holds in particular for his Q function, almost completely forgotten today.
Reading Hertz's own dipole theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anicin, B A
2008-01-01
It is well known that the discoverer of radio waves, Heinrich Hertz, was the first man to apply Maxwell's electrodynamic theory to a problem in radio wave propagation. In this paper, we scrutinize his near-field lines of force using computers and his theory. In one of his four figures, a feature was found which was not to be obtained by computation. This feature, a self-intersecting line of force, more or less a figure of eight, appears strange to the eye. The clarity of the original work by H Hertz on electromagnetic waves should be of great value in both physics and engineering courses. This holds in particular for his Q function, almost completely forgotten today
Pluripotential theory and convex bodies
Bayraktar, T.; Bloom, T.; Levenberg, N.
2018-03-01
A seminal paper by Berman and Boucksom exploited ideas from complex geometry to analyze the asymptotics of spaces of holomorphic sections of tensor powers of certain line bundles L over compact, complex manifolds as the power grows. This yielded results on weighted polynomial spaces in weighted pluripotential theory in {C}^d. Here, motivated by a recent paper by the first author on random sparse polynomials, we work in the setting of weighted pluripotential theory arising from polynomials associated to a convex body in ({R}^+)^d. These classes of polynomials need not occur as sections of tensor powers of a line bundle L over a compact, complex manifold. We follow the approach of Berman and Boucksom to obtain analogous results. Bibliography: 16 titles.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dinesen, Cort Ross
2011-01-01
Embarking on a work of art constitutes a reduction of information – because we grasp the diversity and plurality of the manifestations we encounter by abstracting them and transforming them into manageable concepts; as we do when we draw contour lines on the landscape – they are imaginary...... and invisible but an abstraction essential for noting a difference or marking a place on a map. In the same way, a stroke in a sketch or a line in the sand is a manifestation of our ability to draw a boundary that both includes and excludes information. Where the line makes the birth of an idea visible......, it expresses through movement our tendency to mark a difference by drawing attention to and enclosing a whole series of relations that confront our preconceived notions. It is in the process of transformation in which we reduce the complexity of how we work, and rethink our ideas anew by refining the very same...
Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.
1997-01-01
These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikiskov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.
1993-01-01
The concept of Stokes line width is introduced for the asymptotic expansions of functions near an essential singularity. Explicit expressions are found for functions (switching functions) that switch on the exponentially small terms for the Dawson integral, Airy function, and the gamma function. A different, more natural representation of a function, not associated with expansion in an asymptotic series, in the form of dominant and recessive terms is obtained by a special division of the contour integral which represents the function into contributions of higher and lower saddle points. This division leads to a narrower, natural Stokes line width and a switching function of an argument that depends on the topology of the lines of steepest descent from the saddle point
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ferreira, H. C
2010-01-01
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 Channel Characterization P. Amirshahi, F. Cañete, K. Dostert, S. Galli, M. Katayama and M. Kavehrad 7 2.1 2.2 Introduction...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ferreira, H. C
2010-01-01
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Modeling Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Brief Review of Indoor/Outdoor Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1.1 Low...
application of yield line the ion of yield line theory in pre ion of yield
African Journals Online (AJOL)
User
for manufacturing equipment that i vibration sensitive. ... procedure based on the use of certain .... For continuous supports, i1. =i2 = 1 .... YLRGT has facilitated the improved analysis of pre-cast ... Engineering Magazine,March 2005 edition.
Goldie, Charles M
1991-01-01
This book is an introduction, for mathematics students, to the theories of information and codes. They are usually treated separately but, as both address the problem of communication through noisy channels (albeit from different directions), the authors have been able to exploit the connection to give a reasonably self-contained treatment, relating the probabilistic and algebraic viewpoints. The style is discursive and, as befits the subject, plenty of examples and exercises are provided. Some examples and exercises are provided. Some examples of computer codes are given to provide concrete illustrations of abstract ideas.
2009-01-01
This book deals with the basic subjects of design theory. It begins with balanced incomplete block designs, various constructions of which are described in ample detail. In particular, finite projective and affine planes, difference sets and Hadamard matrices, as tools to construct balanced incomplete block designs, are included. Orthogonal latin squares are also treated in detail. Zhu's simpler proof of the falsity of Euler's conjecture is included. The construction of some classes of balanced incomplete block designs, such as Steiner triple systems and Kirkman triple systems, are also given.
International business theory and marketing theory
Soldner, Helmut
1984-01-01
International business theory and marketing theory : elements for internat. marketing theory building. - In: Marketing aspects of international business / Gerald M. Hampton ... (eds.). - Boston u.a. : Kluwer, 1984. - S. 25-57
VT Digital Line Graph Railroads
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of major railroad lines for the state of Vermont. These railroad lines line up well along quadrangle boundaries, but...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hindle, D.
1999-12-01
Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.
Functional determinants in gauge theory and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Della Pietra, V.J.
1988-01-01
Determinants arise whenever Gaussian functional integrals are evaluated. As a result, they are pervasive in physics. In this thesis the author studied, in a mathematically precise fashion, some questions concerning functional determinants in Quantum Field Theory and String Theory. The emphasis is on deriving explicit general identities which can be applied to physical problems. In Chapters 1-3, he studies determinants of families of Weyl operators on compact manifolds. The motivation for this work comes from Chiral Gauge Theory. In a theory containing chiral Fermions coupled to Bosons y, a partial integration in the functional integral over the Fermi fields yields terms involving determinants of Weyl operators ∂y. In Chapter 4 he turns his attention to a problem in String Theory. In the Polyakov formulation of string perturbation theory, the partition function and scattering amplitudes are calculated as sums of contributions from different world sheet topologies. The contribution from surfaces of a particular topology is given by a functional integral, which, after gauge-fixing, can be expressed as an integral of a certain measure over an appropriate moduli space. For an arbitrary finite group acting on a compact manifold, he defines an analytic torsion for the invariant subcomplex of the de Rham complex, generalizing the definition given by Ray and Singer in the absence of a group action. Motivated by the work of Quillen, he uses this torsion to define a natural norm on the determinant line of the invariant cohomology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markland, J.T.
1992-01-01
Techniques used in conventional project appraisal are mathematically very simple in comparison to those used in reservoir modelling, and in the geosciences. Clearly it would be possible to value assets in mathematically more sophisticated ways if it were meaningful and worthwhile so to do. The DCf approach in common use has recognized limitations; the inability to select a meaningful discount rate being particularly significant. Financial Theory has advanced enormously over the last few years, along with computational techniques, and methods are beginning to appear which may change the way we do project evaluations in practice. The starting point for all of this was a paper by Black and Scholes, which asserts that almost all corporate liabilities can be viewed as options of varying degrees of complexity. Although the financial presentation may be unfamiliar to engineers and geoscientists, some of the concepts used will not be. This paper outlines, in plain English, the basis of option pricing theory for assessing the market value of a project. it also attempts to assess the future role of this type of approach in practical Petroleum Exploration and Engineering economics. Reference is made to relevant published Natural Resource literature
Spin chain and duality between string theory and gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorskij, A.S.
2005-01-01
One discusses a string pattern hidden by the integrable spin chains describing the evolution equations in the Yang- Mills theory. It is shown that the single-loop correction to the dilatation operator in N = 4 theory may be expressed in terms of two-point correlation functions at two-dimensional world surface of a string. Correspondence between the Neumann integrable systems and the spin chains leads us to believe that passing to the finite values of the coupling constants in the gauge theory corresponds to the quantization of the world surface. The model of string bits for the digitized world surface is assumed to be in line with representation of the integrable spin chains in terms of the separable variables [ru
Theoretical investigation of field-line quality in a driven spheromak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, R.H.; Cohen, B.I.; Berk, H.L.
2003-01-01
Theoretical studies aimed at predicting and diagnosing field-line quality in a spheromak are described. These include nonlinear 3-D MHD simulations, stability studies, analyses of confinement in spheromaks dominated by either open (stochastic) field lines or approximate flux surfaces, and a theory of fast electrons as a probe of field-line length. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuster-López, Laura; Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bouillon, Nicolas
2017-01-01
Glue-paste linings of (Western) canvas paintings have been performed with a variety of materials throughout history and are present in a very significant amount of artworks in collections in Europe and elsewhere. Cereal flours and animal glues were usually the main ingredients because they were r...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent
2015-01-01
Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henry, R.C.
1979-01-01
A brief review is given of more than a decade of work involving measurement of the strength of the K line of calcium in A-type stars. The effects of interstellar reddening are reexamined, and an improved estimate for the range in calcium abundance among field stars is obtained. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jedlovec, D.R.; Bowen, W.W.; Brown, R.L.
1983-10-01
Automated and remotely controlled pellet inspection operations will be utilized in the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line. A prototypic pellet gage was designed and tested to verify conformance to the functions and requirements for measurement of diameter, surface flaws and weight-per-unit length
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Chapel Hill Bike Map Lines from KMZ file.This data came from the wiki comment board for the public, not an “official map” showing the Town of Chapel Hill's plans or...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Isak Winkel
2016-01-01
of judgement that distinguishes between the inside and outside of a political community, between citizens and zombies. Second, the chapter focuses on the rhetorics applied to draw the line between rights-bearers and the rightless. ‘Prophetic’ speech, echoing the language of the Old Testament prophets, is vital...
Developing Green Line Products
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig
2011-01-01
This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...
Magnetic field line Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boozer, A.H.
1984-03-01
The magnetic field line Hamiltonian and the associated canonical form for the magnetic field are important concepts both for understanding toroidal plasma physics and for practical calculations. A number of important properties of the canonical or Hamiltonian representation are derived and their importance is explained
Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts
Faraon, I.C.
2005-01-01
The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krarup Andersen, Cecil
2013-01-01
at 50% RH but increased the stress level severely in dry conditions and offered no support to the painting at 70-80 % RH. This means that the traditional glue-paste lining techniques and the wax-resin technique in high RH seem to limit the advisable RH fluctuation in a cultural institution. Conversely...
LEAR: antiproton extraction lines
Photographic Service
1992-01-01
Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.
Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.
2001-01-01
Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line
Subjective poverty line definitions
J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)
1991-01-01
textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed
Hubbert, Beth
2011-01-01
Architecture is a versatile, multifaceted area to study in the artroom with multiple age levels. It can easily stimulate a study of basic line, shape, and various other art elements and principles. It can then be extended into a more extensive study of architectural elements, styles, specific architects, architecture of different cultures, and…
Biosynthesis: Reprogramming assembly lines
Menon, Binuraj R. K.; Jenner, Matthew
2018-03-01
Rational engineering of biosynthetic assembly lines for production of new compounds is an attractive prospect, yet it presents many challenges. Learning from biology, some of the rules for expanding the chemical diversity of non-ribosomal peptides have been uncovered in two recent studies.
Defining line replaceable units
Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I
2015-01-01
Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of
Group and representation theory
Vergados, J D
2017-01-01
This volume goes beyond the understanding of symmetries and exploits them in the study of the behavior of both classical and quantum physical systems. Thus it is important to study the symmetries described by continuous (Lie) groups of transformations. We then discuss how we get operators that form a Lie algebra. Of particular interest to physics is the representation of the elements of the algebra and the group in terms of matrices and, in particular, the irreducible representations. These representations can be identified with physical observables. This leads to the study of the classical Lie algebras, associated with unitary, unimodular, orthogonal and symplectic transformations. We also discuss some special algebras in some detail. The discussion proceeds along the lines of the Cartan-Weyl theory via the root vectors and root diagrams and, in particular, the Dynkin representation of the roots. Thus the representations are expressed in terms of weights, which are generated by the application of the elemen...
An elastic-plastic contact model for line contact structures
Zhu, Haibin; Zhao, Yingtao; He, Zhifeng; Zhang, Ruinan; Ma, Shaopeng
2018-06-01
Although numerical simulation tools are now very powerful, the development of analytical models is very important for the prediction of the mechanical behaviour of line contact structures for deeply understanding contact problems and engineering applications. For the line contact structures widely used in the engineering field, few analytical models are available for predicting the mechanical behaviour when the structures deform plastically, as the classic Hertz's theory would be invalid. Thus, the present study proposed an elastic-plastic model for line contact structures based on the understanding of the yield mechanism. A mathematical expression describing the global relationship between load history and contact width evolution of line contact structures was obtained. The proposed model was verified through an actual line contact test and a corresponding numerical simulation. The results confirmed that this model can be used to accurately predict the elastic-plastic mechanical behaviour of a line contact structure.
Scattering theory and orthogonal polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geronimo, J.S.
1977-01-01
The application of the techniques of scattering theory to the study of polynomials orthogonal on the unit circle and a finite segment of the real line is considered. The starting point is the recurrence relations satisfied by the polynomials instead of the orthogonality condition. A set of two two terms recurrence relations for polynomials orthogonal on the real line is presented and used. These recurrence relations play roles analogous to those satisfied by polynomials orthogonal on unit circle. With these recurrence formulas a Wronskian theorem is proved and the Christoffel-Darboux formula is derived. In scattering theory a fundamental role is played by the Jost function. An analogy is deferred of this function and its analytic properties and the locations of its zeros investigated. The role of the analog Jost function in various properties of these orthogonal polynomials is investigated. The techniques of inverse scattering theory are also used. The discrete analogues of the Gelfand-Levitan and Marchenko equations are derived and solved. These techniques are used to calculate asymptotic formulas for the orthogonal polynomials. Finally Szego's theorem on toeplitz and Hankel determinants is proved using the recurrence formulas and some properties of the Jost function. The techniques of inverse scattering theory are used to calculate the correction terms
Oestreicher, Christian
2007-01-01
Whether every effect can be precisely linked to a given cause or to a list of causes has been a matter of debate for centuries, particularly during the 17th century, when astronomers became capable of predicting the trajectories of planets. Recent mathematical models applied to physics have included the idea that given phenomena cannot be predicted precisely, although they can be predicted to some extent, in line with the chaos theory. Concepts such as deterministic models, sensitivity to initial conditions, strange attractors, and fractal dimensions are inherent to the development of this theory A few situations involving normal or abnormal endogenous rhythms in biology have been analyzed following the principles of chaos theory. This is particularly the case with cardiac arrhythmias, but less so with biological clocks and circadian rhythms.
Oestreicher, Christian
2007-01-01
Whether every effect can be precisely linked to a given cause or to a list of causes has been a matter of debate for centuries, particularly during the 17th century when astronomers became capable of predicting the trajectories of planets. Recent mathematical models applied to physics have included the idea that given phenomena cannot be predicted precisely although they can be predicted to some extent in line with the chaos theory Concepts such as deterministic models, sensitivity to initial conditions, strange attractors, and fractal dimensions are inherent to the development of this theory, A few situations involving normal or abnormal endogenous rhythms in biology have been analyzed following the principles of chaos theory This is particularly the case with cardiac arrhythmias, but less so with biological clocks and circadian rhythms. PMID:17969865
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong, Ha Seong
2006-02-01
This book explains electric theory which is divided into four chapters. The first chapter includes electricity and material, electric field, capacitance, magnetic field and electromagnetic force, inductance. The second chapter mentions electronic circuit analysis, electric resistance,heating and power, chemical activity on current and battery with electrolysis. The third chapter deals with an alternating current circuit about the basics of an AC circuit, operating of resistance, inductance and capacitance, series circuit and parallel circuit of PLC, an alternating current circuit, Three-phase Alternating current, two terminal pair network and voltage and current of non-linearity circuit. The last explains transient phenomena of RC series circuit, RL series circuit, transient phenomena of an alternating current circuit and transient phenomena of RLC series circuit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nobile, G.
1993-07-01
With reference to highly debated sustainable growth strategies to counter pressing interrelated global environmental and socio-economic problems, this paper reviews economic and resource development theories proposed by classical and neoclassical economists. The review evidences the growing debate among public administration decision makers regarding appropriate methods to assess the worth of natural resources and ecosystems. Proposed methods tend to be biased either towards environmental protection or economic development. Two major difficulties in the effective implementation of sustainable growth strategies are also evidenced - the management of such strategies would require appropriate revisions to national accounting systems, and the dynamic flow of energy and materials between an economic system and the environment would generate a sequence of unstable structures evolving in a chaotic and unpredictable way
Towards a theory of geometric graphs
Pach, Janos
2004-01-01
The early development of graph theory was heavily motivated and influenced by topological and geometric themes, such as the Konigsberg Bridge Problem, Euler's Polyhedral Formula, or Kuratowski's characterization of planar graphs. In 1936, when Denes Konig published his classical Theory of Finite and Infinite Graphs, the first book ever written on the subject, he stressed this connection by adding the subtitle Combinatorial Topology of Systems of Segments. He wanted to emphasize that the subject of his investigations was very concrete: planar figures consisting of points connected by straight-line segments. However, in the second half of the twentieth century, graph theoretical research took an interesting turn. In the most popular and most rapidly growing areas (the theory of random graphs, Ramsey theory, extremal graph theory, algebraic graph theory, etc.), graphs were considered as abstract binary relations rather than geometric objects. Many of the powerful techniques developed in these fields have been su...
Geometric function theory in higher dimension
2017-01-01
The book collects the most relevant outcomes from the INdAM Workshop “Geometric Function Theory in Higher Dimension” held in Cortona on September 5-9, 2016. The Workshop was mainly devoted to discussions of basic open problems in the area, and this volume follows the same line. In particular, it offers a selection of original contributions on Loewner theory in one and higher dimensions, semigroups theory, iteration theory and related topics. Written by experts in geometric function theory in one and several complex variables, it focuses on new research frontiers in this area and on challenging open problems. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers working in complex analysis, several complex variables and geometric function theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2015-06-03
This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rivier, N.
1985-01-01
The physical properties of glass are direct consequences of its non-crystalline structure. The structure is described from a topological point of view, since topology is the only geometry surviving non-crystallinity, i.e. absence of metric and trivial space group. This fact has two main consequences: the overall homogeneity of glass is a gauge symmetry, and the only extended, structurally stable constituents are odd lines (or 2π-disclinations in the elastic continuum limit). A gauge theory of glass, based on odd lines as sources of frozen-in strain, can explain those properties of glasses which are both specific to, and universal in amorphous solids: low-temperature excitations, and relaxation at high temperatures. The methods of statistical mechanics can be applied to give a minimal description of amorphous structures in statistical equilibrium. Criteria for statistical equilibrium of the structure and detailed balance are given, together with structural equations of state, which turn out to be well-known empirically among botanists and metallurgists. This review is based on lectures given in 1984 in Niteroi. It contains five parts: I - Structure, from a topological viewpoint; II - gauge invariance; III - Tunneling modes; IV - Supercooled liquid and the glass transitions; V - Statistical crystallography. (Author) [pt
A Future of Communication Theory: Systems Theory.
Lindsey, Georg N.
Concepts of general systems theory, cybernetics and the like may provide the methodology for communication theory to move from a level of technology to a level of pure science. It was the purpose of this paper to (1) demonstrate the necessity of applying systems theory to the construction of communication theory, (2) review relevant systems…
The last line effect explained
Beller, M. (Moritz); Zaidman, A. (Andy); Karpov, A. (Andrey); R.A. Zwaan (Rolf)
2017-01-01
textabstractMicro-clones are tiny duplicated pieces of code; they typically comprise only few statements or lines. In this paper, we study the “Last Line Effect,” the phenomenon that the last line or statement in a micro-clone is much more likely to contain an error than the previous lines or
The last line effect explained
Beller, M.M.; Zaidman, A.E.; Karpov, Andrey; Zwaan, Rolf A.
Micro-clones are tiny duplicated pieces of code; they typically comprise only few statements or lines. In this paper, we study the “Last Line Effect,” the phenomenon that the last line or statement in a micro-clone is much more likely to contain an error than the previous lines or statements. We do
Line operators from M-branes on compact Riemann surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amariti, Antonio [Physics Department, The City College of the CUNY, 160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Orlando, Domenico [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Reffert, Susanne, E-mail: sreffert@itp.unibe.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)
2016-12-15
In this paper, we determine the charge lattice of mutually local Wilson and 't Hooft line operators for class S theories living on M5-branes wrapped on compact Riemann surfaces. The main ingredients of our analysis are the fundamental group of the N-cover of the Riemann surface, and a quantum constraint on the six-dimensional theory. The latter plays a central role in excluding some of the possible lattices and imposing consistency conditions on the charges. This construction gives a geometric explanation for the mutual locality among the lines, fixing their charge lattice and the structure of the four-dimensional gauge group.
Kreiss, Gunilla; Holmgren, Hanna; Kronbichler, Martin; Ge, Anthony; Brant, Luca
2017-11-01
The conventional no-slip boundary condition leads to a non-integrable stress singularity at a moving contact line. This makes numerical simulations of two-phase flow challenging, especially when capillarity of the contact point is essential for the dynamics of the flow. We will describe a modeling methodology, which is suitable for numerical simulations, and present results from numerical computations. The methodology is based on combining a relation between the apparent contact angle and the contact line velocity, with the similarity solution for Stokes flow at a planar interface. The relation between angle and velocity can be determined by theoretical arguments, or from simulations using a more detailed model. In our approach we have used results from phase field simulations in a small domain, but using a molecular dynamics model should also be possible. In both cases more physics is included and the stress singularity is removed.
Saucez, Ph
2001-01-01
The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, D.C.; Baybutt, P.
1982-01-01
Approaches to the regulation of risk from technological systems, such as nuclear power plants or chemical process plants, in which potential accidents may result in a broad range of adverse consequences must take into account several different aspects of risk. These include overall or average risk, accidents posing high relative risks, the rate at which accident probability decreases with increasing accident consequences, and the impact of high frequency, low consequence accidents. A hypothetical complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF), with appropriately chosen parametric form, meets all these requirements. The Farmer limit line, by contrast, places limits on the risks due to individual accident sequences, and cannot adequately account for overall risk. This reduces its usefulness as a regulatory tool. In practice, the CCDF is used in the Canadian nuclear licensing process, while the Farmer limit line approach, supplemented by separate qualitative limits on overall risk, is employed in the United Kingdom
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
present proceedings from the UPGEM conference "Draw the Line!" in Copenhagen May 2008. The proceedings include contributions by UPGEM researchers, conference speeches by other researchers, politicians and gender equality officers in which they relate their work and research with the research done in UPGEM......Draw the Line! International Conference, Copenhagen 2008 Papers, proceedings and recommendations is the second publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM), which is financed by the European Commission. In this publication we....... The UPGEM research has previously been published in national reports from each of the partner countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland). In these individual national reports of universities as workplaces for male and female researchers we discuss scientific cultures in physics embedded...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petillo, J.; Chernin, D.; Kostas, C.; Mondelli, A.
1990-01-01
The Spiral Line Induction Accelerator (SLIA) is a multi-kiloampere compact electron accelerator. It uses linear induction accelerator modules on the straight sections of a racetrack spiral, with strong-focusing bends to recirculate the electrons. The strong focusing is provided by stellarator windings on the bends. Stellarator coils are used to provide the strong focusing on the bends. The matching of the electron beam from a diode through a series of accelerator modules and stellarator bends is a major issue in the design of this accelerator. The beam line design for a proof-of-concept SLIA experiment (10 kA, 7 MeV) to be carried out at Pulse Sciences, Inc. will be presented. The design will demonstrate beam matching from element to element in the focusing system, the design of an achromatic bend, and the requirements for avoiding collective instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nuttall, K.R.; Gardner, P.R.
1991-01-01
Westinghouse Hanford Company is developing a desk-top simulation based training program on the operation of the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line process in the Plutonium Finishing Plant on the Hanford site, Richland, Washington. Simulations display aod contioually update current values of system parameters on computer graphics of RMC line equipment. Students are able to operate a variety of controllers to maintain proper system status. Programmed faults, selectable by the course instructor, can be used to test student responses to off-normal events. Prior to operation of the simulation, students are given computer-based tutorials on the function, processes, operation, and error conditions associated with individual components. By including the capability of operating each individual component - valves, heaters, agitators, etc. - the computer-based training (CBT) lessons become an interactive training manual. From one perspective RMC represents one step in the diffusion of the well-known and well-documented simulator training activities for nuclear reactor operators to other training programs, equally critical, perhaps, but less well scrutinized in the past. Because of the slowly responding nature of the actual process, RMC can retain many of the capabilities of practice and testing in a simulated work environment while avoiding the cost of a full scale simulator and the exposure and waste developed by practice runs of the RMC line. From another perspective RMC suggests training advances even beyond the most faithful simulators. For example, by integrating CBT lessons with the simulation, RMC permits students to focus in on specific processes occurring inside chosen components. In effect, the interactive training manual is available on-line with the simulation itself. Cost are also discussed
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Ravindran J.; Raghukumar, C.; Manikandan, B.
, a physiological crisis in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea. Marine biology 149: 347-356 7. Ravindran J, Raghukumar C (2006a) Histological observations on the scleractinian coral Porites lutea affected by pink-line syndrome. Current science... handbook: guidelines for assessment and monitoring. Currie Communications, Melbourne, Australia, 94p+App 10. Vargas-Angel B, Wheeler B (2009) Coral health and disease assessment in the US Pacific territories and affiliated states. Proc. 11th Coral Reef...
Stanton, John F.
2015-05-01
The interaction between quantum-mechanical theory and spectroscopy is one of the most fertile interfaces in all of science, and has a richly storied history. Of course it was spectroscopy that provided essentially all of the evidence that not all was well (or, perhaps more correctly put, complete) with the world of 19th century classical physics. From the discoveries of the dark lines in the solar spectrum by Fraunhöfer in 1814 to the curiously simple geometric formula discovered seventy years later that described the hydrogen atom spectrum, spectroscopy and spectroscopists have consistently identified the areas of atomic and molecular science that are most in need of hard thinking by theoreticians. The rest of the story, of course, is well-known: spectroscopic results were used to understand and motivate the theory of radioactivity and ultimately the quantum theory, first in its immature form that was roughly contemporaneous with the first World War, and then the Heisenberg-Schrödinger-Dirac version that has withstood the test of time. Since the basic principles of quantum mechanics ware first understood, the subject has been successfully used to understand the patterns found in spectra, and how these relate to molecular structure, symmetry, energy levels, and dynamics. But further understanding required to attain these intellectual achievements has often come only as a result of vital and productive interactions between theoreticians and spectroscopists (of course, many people have strengths in both areas). And indeed, a field that might be termed "theoretical spectroscopy" was cultivated and is now an important part of modern molecular science.
Rynne, T J
1986-09-01
Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications.
IUE observations of Si and C lines and comparison with non-LTE models
Kamp, L. W.
1982-01-01
Classical model atmosphere techniques are applied to analyze IUE spectra, and to determine abundances, effective temperatures and gravities. Measurements of the equivalent widths and other properties of the line profiles of 24 photospheric lines of Si II, Si III, Si IV, C II, C III and C IV are presented in the range of 1175-1725 A for seven B and two O stars. Observed line profiles are compared with theoretical profiles computed using non-LTE theory and models, and using line-blanketed model atmospheres. Agreement is reasonably good, although strong lines are calculated to be systematically stronger than those observed, while the reverse occurs for weak lines, and empirical profiles have smaller wings than theoretical profiles. It is concluded that the present theory of line formation when used with solar abundances, represents fairly well observed UV photospheric lines of silicon and carbon ions in the atmospheres of main sequence stars of types B5-O9.
Mathematical theory of peer-instruction dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hideo Nitta
2010-08-01
Full Text Available A mathematical theory of peer instruction describing the increase of the normalized number of correct answers due to peer discussion is presented. A simple analytic expression is derived which agrees with class data. It is shown that our theory is connected to the mathematical learning models proposed by Pritchard et al. It is also shown that obtained theoretical lines are useful for analyzing peer-instruction efficiencies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maillard, S.; Skorek, R.; Maugis, P.; Dumont, M.
2015-01-01
This chapter presents the basic principles of cluster dynamics as a particular case of mesoscopic rate theory models developed to investigate fuel behaviour under irradiation such as in UO 2 . It is shown that as this method simulates the evolution of the concentration of every type of point or aggregated defect in a grain of material. It produces rich information that sheds light on the mechanisms involved in microstructure evolution and gas behaviour that are not accessible through conventional models but yet can provide for improvements in those models. Cluster dynamics parameters are mainly the energetic values governing the basic evolution mechanisms of the material (diffusion, trapping and thermal resolution). In this sense, the model has a general applicability to very different operational situations (irradiation, ion-beam implantation, annealing) provided that they rely on the same basic mechanisms, without requiring additional data fitting, as is required for more empirical conventional models. This technique, when applied to krypton implanted and annealed samples, yields a precise interpretation of the release curves and helps assess migration mechanisms and the krypton diffusion coefficient, for which data is very difficult to obtain due to the low solubility of the gas. (authors)
Gauge theories and integrable lattice models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witten, E.
1989-01-01
Investigations of new knot polynomials discovered in the last few years have shown them to be intimately connected with soluble models of two dimensional lattice statistical mechanics. In this paper, these results, which in time may illuminate the whole question of why integrable lattice models exist, are reconsidered from the point of view of three dimensional gauge theory. Expectation values of Wilson lines in three dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theories can be computed by evaluating the partition functions of certain lattice models on finite graphs obtained by projecting the Wilson lines to the plane. The models in question - previously considered in both the knot theory and statistical mechanics literature - are IRF models in which the local Boltzmann weights are the matrix elements of braiding matrices in rational conformal field theories. These matrix elements, in turn, can be represented in three dimensional gauge theory in terms of the expectation value of a certain tetrahedral configuration of Wilson lines. This representation makes manifest a surprising symmetry of the braiding matrix elements in conformal field theory. (orig.)
Quantum anomalies in nodal line semimetals
Burkov, A. A.
2018-04-01
Topological semimetals are a new class of condensed matter systems with nontrivial electronic structure topology. Their unusual observable properties may often be understood in terms of quantum anomalies. In particular, Weyl and Dirac semimetals, which have point band-touching nodes, are characterized by the chiral anomaly, which leads to the Fermi arc surface states, anomalous Hall effect, negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, and planar Hall effect. In this paper, we explore analogous phenomena in nodal line semimetals. We demonstrate that such semimetals realize a three-dimensional analog of the parity anomaly, which is a known property of two-dimensional Dirac semimetals arising, for example, on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. We relate one of the characteristic properties of nodal line semimetals, namely, the drumhead surface states, to this anomaly, and derive the field theory, which encodes the corresponding anomalous response.
Radiofrequency spark chambers and delay line resonators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sayag, Jacques
1971-01-01
According to a suggestion of A. Kastler, a spark chamber was excited by an undamped radiofrequency pulse and tracks about 1 mm wide obtained; the result was interpreted by computation of the coefficients of electronic amplification and partial ambipolar diffusion. This work led us to the construction of a new fast triggering undamped wave-train generator of very high tension (patent taken out by the C.E.A. under the no.: EN 7 134 650 the 27.9.1971). Since this apparatus uses a resonant storage line, its design implied a precise knowledge of high impedance delay lines. The experimental radiofrequency spectra of the input impedance of opened or short-circuited lines were plotted completely and analysed by the circuits theory, new measuring methods were established, dispersion relations accurately checked and the equivalence of the formulas, within the third order, with theses of Debye's Dipolar Absorption demonstrated. General properties of Hilbert's transform were also investigated. From the experimental point of view, the electromagnetic energy storage process was extended to the case of a liquid nitrogen-immersed resonant delay line. The good behavior of the cryogenic experiment, where the main difficulty of icing was overcame by the construction of special electrodes, offers great promise for extrapolation to superconductivity. (author) [fr
Circuit QED with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruloff, Stefan; Taketani, Bruno; Wilhelm, Frank [Theoretical Physics, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)
2016-07-01
We're working on the theory of metamaterials providing some interesting results. The negative refraction index causes an opposite orientation of the wave vector k and the Poynting vector S of the travelling waves. Hence the metamaterial has a falling dispersion relation ∂ω(k)/∂k < 0 implying that low frequencies correspond to short wavelengths. Metamaterials are simulated by left-handed transmission lines consisting of discrete arrays of series capacitors and parallel inductors to ground. Unusual physics arises when right-and left-handed transmission lines are coupled forming a hybrid metamaterial transmission line. E.g. if a qubit is placed in front of a hybrid metamaterial transmission line terminated in an open circuit, the spontaneous emission rate is weakened or unaffected depending on the transition frequency of the qubit. Some other research interests are the general analysis of metamaterial cavities and the mode structure of hybrid metamaterial cavities for QND readout of multi-qubit operators. Especially the precise answer to the question about the definition of the mode volume of a metamaterial cavity is one of our primary goals.
Apical Cyst Theory: a Missing Link.
Huang, George T-J
2010-10-05
The mechanism of the formation of apical cyst has been elusive. Several theories have long been proposed and discussed speculating how an apical cyst is developed and formed in the jaw bone resulting from endododontic infection. Two popular theories are the nutritional deficiency theory and the abscess theory. The nutritional deficiency theory assumes that the over proliferated epithelial cells will form a ball mass such that the cells in the center of the mass will be deprived of nutrition. The abscess theory postulates that when an abscess cavity is formed in connective tissue, epithelial cells proliferate and line the preexisting cavity because of their inherent tendency to cover exposed connective tissue surfaces. Based on the nature of epithelial cells and the epithelium, nutritional theory is a fairy tale, while abscess theory at best just indicates that abscess may be one of the factors that allows the stratified epithelium to form but not to explain a mechanism that makes the cyst to form. Apical cyst formation is the result of proliferation of resting epithelial cells, due to inflammation, to a sufficient number such that they are able to form a polarized and stratified epithelial lining against dead tissues or foreign materials. These stratified epithelial lining expands along the dead tissue or foreign materials and eventually wrap around them as a spherical sac, i.e. a cyst. The space in the sac is considered the external environment separating the internal (tissue) environment - the natural function of epithelium. This theory may be tested by introducing a biodegradable device able to slowly release epithelial cell mitogens in an in vivo environment implanted with epithelial cells next to a foreign object. This will allow the cells to continuously proliferate which may form a cystic sac wrapping around the foreign object.
Resonant Alfven waves on auroral field lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiu, Y.T.
1987-01-01
It is shown that resonant Alfven waves on dipole magnetic field geometry and plasma distributions suitable for auroral field lines can be conveniently treated in the theory of Mathieu functions. Resurgent interest in invoking large-scale Alfven waves to structure some elements of auroral electrodynamics calls for interpretation of measured perpendicular electric and magnetic disturbance fields in terms of Alfven waves. The ability to express the resonant eigenmodes in closed form in terms of Mathieu functions allows for convenient tests of the Alfven wave structuring hypothesis. Implications for current vector electric and magnetic disturbance measurements are discussed
Classification of the line-soliton solutions of KPII
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakravarty, Sarbarish; Kodama, Yuji
2008-01-01
In the previous papers (notably, Kodama Y 2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 11169-90, Biondini G and Chakravarty S 2006 J. Math. Phys. 47 033514), a large variety of line-soliton solutions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili II (KPII) equation was found. The line-soliton solutions are solitary waves which decay exponentially in the (x, y)-plane except along certain rays. In this paper, it is shown that those solutions are classified by asymptotic information of the solution as |y| → ∞. The present work then unravels some interesting relations between the line-soliton classification scheme and classical results in the theory of permutations
Classification of the line-soliton solutions of KPII
Chakravarty, Sarbarish; Kodama, Yuji
2008-07-01
In the previous papers (notably, Kodama Y 2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 11169-90, Biondini G and Chakravarty S 2006 J. Math. Phys. 47 033514), a large variety of line-soliton solutions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili II (KPII) equation was found. The line-soliton solutions are solitary waves which decay exponentially in the (x, y)-plane except along certain rays. In this paper, it is shown that those solutions are classified by asymptotic information of the solution as |y| → ∞. The present work then unravels some interesting relations between the line-soliton classification scheme and classical results in the theory of permutations.
Coaxial transmission line - Equalization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonnerue, J.L.; Fremont, Jacques; Haubtmann, Jack; Pillon, Gerard.
1981-09-01
The transmission of electrical signal through a coaxial line is not perfect and signal distortions are increased as much as the frequency spectrum is extended. We have designed and achieved passive filters (named equalizers) with transfer functions which are inverse of coaxial transfer functions. Doing so our attempt is to avoid definitive loss of information in the recorded data. The main feature of our equalization method lies in the fact it could be either an electrical or a numerical correction or both of them. Some examples in the use of this technique are also proposed [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caurier, E.; Zuker, A.P.
1991-01-01
A study of the α-line, defined as a set of differences (D α ) characterized binding energies of (N,Z) nuclei, is presented. The 2p2n-separation energies for even-even nuclei, odd-odd nuclei, even(Z)-odd(N) nuclei, odd(Z)-even(N) nuclei are presented. Trends and details in even-even nuclei, magic numbers of even-even and odd-odd nuclei are discussed. (G.P.) 1 ref.; 8 figs
MACCIA, ELIZABETH S.; AND OTHERS
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 20 ITEMS AND A DISCUSSION OF ITS SIGNIFICANCE WAS PRESENTED TO DESCRIBE CURRENT UTILIZATION OF SUBJECT THEORIES IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN EDUCATIONAL THEORY. ALSO, A THEORY MODEL WAS USED TO DEMONSTRATE CONSTRUCTION OF A SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL THEORY. THE THEORY MODEL INCORPORATED SET THEORY (S), INFORMATION THEORY…
On the mechanics of elastic lines in thin shells
Benet, Eduard; Vernerey, Franck
The deformation of soft shells in nature and engineering is often conditioned by the presence of lines whose mechanical properties are different from the shell. For instance, the deformation of tree leaves is conditioned by the presence of harder stems, and cell mitosis is driven by a stiffening line along its membrane. From an experimental standpoint, many groups have taken advantage of this feature to develop self-actuated shells with prescribed deformations. Examples include the polymerization of gels along certain lines, or the inclusion of stiffer lines via 3D printing. However, there is not yet a general continuum theory that accounts for this type of discontinuity within the membrane. Hence, we extend the general shell theory to account for the inclusion of a line that potentially induces jumps in stresses, couple stresses and moments, across its thickness. This is achieved via coupling the rod and the membrane deformations, and ensuring continuity of displacements. The model is then applied to three important problems: a constriction disc inside a shell of revolution, the induced twisting of a shell via the torsion of an embedded line, and the effect of an helicoidal line on the uni-axial deformation of a cylindrical shell. National Science Foundation CAREER award 1350090.
Simulation of a low energy beam transport line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Yao; Liu Zhanwen; Zhang Wenhui; Ma Hongyi; Zhang Xuezhen; Zhao Hongwei; Yao Ze'en
2012-01-01
A 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance intense proton source and a low energy beam transport line with dual-Glaser lens were designed and fabricated by Institute of Modern Physics for a compact pulsed hadron source at Tsinghua. The intense proton beams extracted from the ion source are transported through the transport line to match the downstream radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. Particle-in-cell code BEAMPATH was used to carry out the beam transport simulations and optimize the magnetic field structures of the transport line. Emittance growth due to space charge and spherical aberrations of the Glaser lens were studied in both theory and simulation. The results show that narrow beam has smaller aberrations and better beam quality through the transport line. To better match the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator, a shorter transport line is desired with sufficient space charge neutralization. (authors)
From Off-line to On-line Handwriting Recognition
Lallican, P.; Viard-Gaudin, C.; Knerr, S.
2004-01-01
On-line handwriting includes more information on time order of the writing signal and on the dynamics of the writing process than off-line handwriting. Therefore, on-line recognition systems achieve higher recognition rates. This can be concluded from results reported in the literature, and has been
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whelan, M.A.; Myung, K.H.; Bergeron, R.T.
1984-01-01
The innominate line continues to be of value in evaluating the integrity of the sphenoid bone since plain skull radiographs remain a primary screening tool for metastatic disease, seizure disorder and headache. The detection of lesions involving the sphenoid bone can be difficult. The accuracy of the radionulcide scan is reduced because of confusion caused by uptake in the adjacent nasal and sinus mucosa. On computed tomography, the sections through the base of the skull and orbit can contain many artifictual densities caused by a combination of bone, soft tissue and sinus air interfaces. In addition, routine settings of window width and level on CT scan are designed to best demonstrate the soft tissues, and bony lesions can easily be missed. Thus, disruption of the ''integrity'' of this line on plain films, particularly the Caldwell projection, can be a sensitive first indicator of disease involving the sphenoid bone. Such a determination on plain film leads to more accurate CT scanning, in that attention will be given to the skull base and scans will be imaged with both soft tissue and bone windows. (orig./MG)
Radiation resistant lining material
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouchi, Koki; Okagawa, Seigo; Tamaki, Hidehiro.
1990-01-01
Rigidity, viscoelasticity, flexibility, radiation resistance, leaching resistance, rust-proofness, endurance, etc. are required for the lining materials to wall surfaces and floor surfaces of facilities used under the effect of radiation rays and for the inner surface protection of vessels for radioactive wastes. The present invention provides radiation resistant lining material capable of satisfying such various requirements in a well-balanced manner. That is, the material contains (A) 100 parts by weight of rapidly curing cement, (B) 50 to 300 % by weight of aggregate, and (C) 80 to 120 parts by weight of polymer emulsion. As the specific example, the ingredient (A) is commercially available under the trade name of Jet Cement. The aggregate of the ingredient (B) has preferably from about 0.6 to 0.2 mm of size and is made of material, preferably, silicon or iron grains. As the ingredient (C), acrylic resin emulsion is preferred. As a result of example, these ingredient constitutions can satisfy each of the required performance described above. (I.S.)
Strategic production line synchronisation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hattingh, Teresa
2016-08-01
Full Text Available A study was conducted at the sole global producer of suspension struts for a particular vehicle manufacturer. This supplier is currently able to meet customer demand. However, it does so because of a large finished goods and work-in-progress (WIP inventory. The plant operates two production processes that are separated by a large buffer of WIP, which essentially decouples the production processes. This study aimed to reduce this WIP buffer; this would require the processes to become synchronised, bearing in mind that the reliability of delivery should not decrease. A tool that considers time, quality, and machine capacity was developed to assess the impact of line synchronisation on company performance figures. It was found that line synchronisation produced several benefits for the supplier, including batch size reduction, lower inventory levels, and associated shorter lead times. This further allowed the supplier to improve flow in the plant by introducing a pull system. Improved visual oversight could lead to further improved problem-solving and innovation.
Müller, Gert; Sacks, Gerald
1990-01-01
These proceedings contain research and survey papers from many subfields of recursion theory, with emphasis on degree theory, in particular the development of frameworks for current techniques in this field. Other topics covered include computational complexity theory, generalized recursion theory, proof theoretic questions in recursion theory, and recursive mathematics.
K-theory and representation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuku, A.O.
2003-01-01
This contribution includes K-theory of orders, group-rings and modules over EI categories, equivariant higher algebraic K-theory for finite, profinite and compact Lie group actions together with their relative generalisations and applications
Gravity, general relativity theory and alternative theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zel'dovich, Ya.B.; Grishchuk, L.P.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.
1986-01-01
The main steps in plotting the current gravitation theory and some prospects of its subsequent development are reviewed. The attention is concentrated on a comparison of the relativistic gravitational field with other physical fields. Two equivalent formulations of the general relativity (GR) - geometrical and field-theoretical - are considered in detail. It is shown that some theories of gravity constructed as the field theories at a flat background space-time are in fact just different formulations of GR and not alternative theories
Generalizability theory and item response theory
Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.
2012-01-01
Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a selected-response format. This chapter presents a short overview of how item response theory and generalizability theory were integrated to model such assessments. Further, the precision of the esti...
China's Bilateral Currency Swap Lines
Zhitao, Lin; Wenjie, Zhan; Cheung, Yin-Wong
2016-01-01
We study the determinants of China’s bilateral local currency swap lines that were established since the recent global finance crisis. It is found that economic factors, political considerations, and institutional characteristics including trade intensity, economic size, strategic partnership, free trade agreement, corruption, and stability affect the decision of signing a swap line agreement. Once a swap line agreement decision is made, the size of the swap line is then mainly affected by tr...
The sweep-line state space exploration method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars M.; Mailund, Thomas
2012-01-01
. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we provide a coherent presentation of the sweep-line theory and the many variants of the method that have been developed over the past 10 years since the basic idea of the method was conceived. Second, we survey a selection of case studies where the sweep...
Component efficient solutions in line-graph games with applications
van den Brink, J.R.; van der Laan, G.; Vasil'ev, V.
2007-01-01
Recently, applications of cooperative game theory to economic allocation problems have gained popularity. We investigate a class of cooperative games that generalizes some economic applications with a similar structure. These are the so-called line-graph games being cooperative TU-games in which the
Numerical determination of the magnetic field line Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuo-Petravic, G.; Boozer, A.H.
1986-03-01
The structure of a magnetic field is determined by a one-degree of freedom, time-dependent Hamiltonian. This Hamiltonian is evaluated for a given field in a perturbed action-angle form. The location and the size of magnetic islands in the given field are determined from Hamiltonian perturbation theory and from an ordinary Poincare plot of the field line trajectories
The Cybernetic Metaphor in Organisation Theory: Epistemological ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
to build machines upon the principles which characterise organisms, and another which follows the epistemological implications deriving from the cybernetic perspective. The former line of development has given rise to a number of theories and techniques, which facilitate the achievement of regulation and control in social ...
The Excellence of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation.
Dirac, P. A. M.
1979-01-01
This article is adapted from a presentation made in 1978 at the symposium on the Impact of Modern Scientific Ideas on Society organized by UNESCO in Ulm, West Germany. It discusses Einstein's theory of gravitation and how it started a new line of activity for physicists. (HM)
Mjollnir Rotational Line Scan Diagnostics.
1981-05-19
using long cavity. M8 Removable Pellicle Beam Splitter for He-Ne Lineup Beam. Removed before HF or DF laser is turned on. 27 A 27 * A r of the chopper...three probe laser lines, however three lines were sequentially measured to verify the diagnostic equipment. Two of the three lines have been monitored
Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Meehan, Terrence F.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Vempati, Uma D.; Schuerer, Stephan C.; Pang, Chao; Malone, James; Parkinson, Helen; Liu, Yue; Takatsuki, Terue; Saijo, Kaoru; Masuya, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yukio; Brush, Matthew H.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Zheng, Jie; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Peters, Bjoern; Mungall, Christopher J.; Carey, Thomas E.; States, David J.; Athey, Brian D.; He, Yongqun
2014-01-01
Background: Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO
Parallel plate transmission line transformer
Voeten, S.J.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Pemen, A.J.M.
2011-01-01
A Transmission Line Transformer (TLT) can be used to transform high-voltage nanosecond pulses. These transformers rely on the fact that the length of the pulse is shorter than the transmission lines used. This allows connecting the transmission lines in parallel at the input and in series at the
Topological Acoustic Delay Line
Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan
2018-03-01
Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.
Austerity and geometric structure of field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kheyfets, A.
1986-01-01
The relation between the austerity idea and the geometric structure of the three basic field theories - electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory, and general relativity - is studied. One of the most significant manifestations of the austerity idea in field theories is thought to be expressed by the boundary of a boundary principle (BBP). The BBP says that almost all content of the field theories can be deduced from the topological identity of delta dot produced with delta = 0 used twice, at the 1-2-3-dimensional level (providing the homogeneous field equations), and at the 2-3-4-dimensional level (providing the conservation laws for the source currents). There are some difficulties in this line of thought due to the apparent lack of universality in application of the BBP to the three basic modern field theories above. This dissertation: (a) analyzes the difficulties by means of algebraic topology, integration theory, and modern differential geometry based on the concepts of principal bundles and Ehresmann connections: (b) extends the BBP to the unified Kaluza-Klein theory; (c) reformulates the inhomogeneous field equations and the BBP in terms of E. Cartan moment of rotation, in the way universal for the three theories and compatible with the original austerity idea; and (d) underlines the important role of the soldering structure on spacetime, and indicates that the future development of the austerity idea would involve the generalized theories
Conversation at the Border Between Organizational Culture Theory and Institutional Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hatch, Mary Jo; Zilber, Tammar
2012-01-01
This paper reflects our conversation at the border - a dividing line but also a potential meeting place - of organizational culture theory and institutional theory. First, we discuss the border between institutional theory and organizational culture theory by exploring two notions central to both...... - taken for grantedness and meanings. We ask what is taken for granted about institutions and organizational culture and how institutions and organizational cultures materialize? Our conversation reveals that although the notion of the taken for granted is important to institutional theory...... and organizational culture theory, what this means and implies is quite different for each. We also found that even though institutions and cultures involve meaning and evolve through meaning making, the two are understood and hence explored methodologically in quite different ways. So what seemed to be similar...
Directional borehole antenna - Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falk, L.
1992-02-01
A directional antenna has been developed for the borehole radar constructed during phase 2 of the Stripa project. The new antenna can determine the azimuth of a strong reflector with an accuracy of about 3 degrees as confirmed during experiments in Stripa, although the ratio of borehole diameter to wavelength is small, about 0.03. The antenna synthesizes the effect of a loop antenna rotating in the borehole from four signals measured in turn by a stationary antenna. These signals are also used to calculate an electric dipole signal and a check sum which is used to examine the function of the system. The theory of directional antennas is reviewed and used to design an antenna consisting of four parallel wires. The radiation pattern of this antenna is calculated using transmission line theory with due regard to polarization, which is of fundamental importance for the analysis of directional data. In particular the multipole expansion of the field is calculated to describe the antenna radiation pattern. Various sources of error, e.g. the effect of the borehole, are discussed and the methods of calibrating the antenna are reviewed. The ambiguity inherent in a loop antenna can be removed by taking the phase of the signal into account. Typical reflectors in rock, e.g. fracture zones an tunnels, may be modelled as simple geometrical structures. The corresponding analysis is described and exemplified on measurements from Stripa. Radar data is nowadays usually analyzed directly on the computer screen using the program RADINTER developed within the Stripa project. An algorithm for automatic estimation of the parameters of a reflector have been tested with some success. The relation between measured radar data and external coordinates as determined by rotational indicators is finally expressed in terms of Euler angles. (au)
Study of the Auger line shape of polyethylene and diamond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dayan, M; Pepper, S V
1984-03-01
The KVV Auger electron line shapes of carbon in polyethylene and diamond have been studied. The spectra were obtained in derivative form by electron beam excitation. They were treated by background subtraction, integration and deconvolution to produce the intrinsic Auger line shape. Electron energy loss spectra provided the response function in the deconvolution procedure. The line shape from polyethylene is compared with spectra from linear alkanes and with a previous spectrum of Kelber et al. Both spectra are compared with the self-convolution of their full valence band densities of states and of their p-projected densities. The experimental spectra could not be understood in terms of existing theories. This is so even when correlation effects are qualitatively taken into account according to the theories of Cini and Sawatzky and Lenselink.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergmann, P.G.
1980-01-01
A problem of construction of the unitary field theory is discussed. The preconditions of the theory are briefly described. The main attention is paid to the geometrical interpretation of physical fields. The meaning of the conceptions of diversity and exfoliation is elucidated. Two unitary field theories are described: the Weyl conformic geometry and Calitzy five-dimensioned theory. It is proposed to consider supersymmetrical theories as a new approach to the problem of a unitary field theory. It is noted that the supergravitational theories are really unitary theories, since the fields figuring there do not assume invariant expansion
Boley, Bruno A
1997-01-01
Highly regarded text presents detailed discussion of fundamental aspects of theory, background, problems with detailed solutions. Basics of thermoelasticity, heat transfer theory, thermal stress analysis, more. 1985 edition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marciano, W.J.
1984-12-01
The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references
Effective field theory for magnetic compactifications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchmuller, Wilfried; Dierigl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,22607 Hamburg (Germany); Dudas, Emilian [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay,F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Schweizer, Julian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,22607 Hamburg (Germany)
2017-04-10
Magnetic flux plays an important role in compactifications of field and string theories in two ways, it generates a multiplicity of chiral fermion zero modes and it can break supersymmetry. We derive the complete four-dimensional effective action for N=1 supersymmetric Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories in six dimensions compactified on a torus with flux. The effective action contains the tower of charged states and it accounts for the mass spectrum of bosonic and fermionic fields as well as their level-dependent interactions. This allows us to compute quantum corrections to the mass and couplings of Wilson lines. We find that the one-loop corrections vanish, contrary to the case without flux. This can be traced back to the spontaneous breaking of symmetries of the six-dimensional theory by the background gauge field, with the Wilson lines as Goldstone bosons.
Radiosensitivity of mesothelioma cell lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haekkinen, A.M.; Laasonen, A.; Linnainmaa, K.; Mattson, K.; Pyrhoenen, S.
1996-01-01
The present study was carried out in order to examine the radiosensitivity of malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines. Cell kinetics, radiation-induced delay of the cell cycle and DNA ploidy of the cell lines were also determined. For comparison an HeLa and a human foetal fibroblast cell line were simultaneously explored. Six previously cytogenetically and histologically characterized mesothelioma tumor cell lines were applied. A rapid tiazolyl blue microtiter (MTT) assay was used to analyze radiosensitivity and cell kinetics and DNA ploidy of the cultured cells were determined by flow cytometry. The survival fraction after a dose of 2 Gy (SF2), parameters α and β of the linear quadratic model (LQ-model) and mean inactivation dose (D MID ) were also estimated. The DNA index of four cell lines equaled 1.0 and two cell lines equaled 1.5 and 1.6. Different mesothelioma cell lines showed a great variation in radiosensitivity. Mean survival fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.60 and ranged from 0.36 to 0.81 and mean α value was 0.26 (range 0.48-0.083). The SF2 of the most sensitive diploid mesothelioma cell line was 0.36: Less than that of the foetal fibroblast cell line (0.49). The survival fractions (0.81 and 0.74) of the two most resistant cell lines, which also were aneuploid, were equal to that of the HeLa cell line (0.78). The α/β ratios of the most sensitive cell lines were almost an order of magnitude greater than those of the two most resistant cell lines. Radiation-induced delay of the most resistant aneuploid cell line was similar to that of HeLa cells but in the most sensitive (diploid cells) there was practically no entry into the G1 phase following the 2 Gy radiation dose during 36 h. (orig.)
Jardine, John F
2015-01-01
This monograph on the homotopy theory of topologized diagrams of spaces and spectra gives an expert account of a subject at the foundation of motivic homotopy theory and the theory of topological modular forms in stable homotopy theory. Beginning with an introduction to the homotopy theory of simplicial sets and topos theory, the book covers core topics such as the unstable homotopy theory of simplicial presheaves and sheaves, localized theories, cocycles, descent theory, non-abelian cohomology, stacks, and local stable homotopy theory. A detailed treatment of the formalism of the subject is interwoven with explanations of the motivation, development, and nuances of ideas and results. The coherence of the abstract theory is elucidated through the use of widely applicable tools, such as Barr's theorem on Boolean localization, model structures on the category of simplicial presheaves on a site, and cocycle categories. A wealth of concrete examples convey the vitality and importance of the subject in topology, n...
Self-limiting current for magnetically insulated coaxial vacuum transmission lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergeron, K.D.
1976-11-01
Existing cold fluid theories for magnetic insulation are analyzed and applied to the transmission line configuration. The relevance of these results to the propagating short pulse problem, and to DC operation, are discussed
The Ratio of the Resonance Line to Intercombination Line in Neonlike Ions
Panchenko, D.; Andrianarijaona, Vm; Brown, Gv; Hell, N.; Beiersdorfer, P.
2017-04-01
We present the measurement results of the intensity ratios of astrophysically important 1s22s22p1/2 53d3/2 -> 1s22s22p6 resonance line to the 1s2 2s2 2p3/253d5/2 -> 1s22s22p6 intercombination line for Ne-like Kr26+ and Mo32+. The experiment was done at the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and utilized an x-ray microcalorimeter. The Mo32+ experiment is the highest Z-measurement of such type to date, where the dominant role of the intercombination line, known to increase with Z, puts our measurement firmly into the relativistic regime. Compared to the earlier measurements of ions with lower atomic numbers, the measurement for Mo32+ shows much a closer agreement with theory. Our results support the hypothesis that the disagreement should narrow with atomic number. This implies that the disagreement with theory may be confined to the range of atomic numbers where the correlation effects are largest. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by LLNL, contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and was supported in part by NASA's APRA program and by the ESA, contract 4000114313/15/NL/CB.
Perturbation Theory of Massive Yang-Mills Fields
Veltman, M.
1968-08-01
Perturbation theory of massive Yang-Mills fields is investigated with the help of the Bell-Treiman transformation. Diagrams containing one closed loop are shown to be convergent if there are more than four external vector boson lines. The investigation presented does not exclude the possibility that the theory is renormalizable.
Understanding the queuing theory for improved service delivery: an ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The methodology adopted in this paper, therefore is to describe queuing theory and its associated terminologies in relation to service delivery. In view of this, the paper presented a simplified exposition of queuing theory and management of waiting lines as it affects entrepreneurial drive for more business growth and ...
Incoherent Scatter Radar Studies of Daytime Plasma Lines
Djuth, Frank T.; Carlson, Herbert C.; Zhang, Liwei D.
2018-03-01
First results from wideband (electron phase energies of 5-51 eV), high-resolution (0.1 eV) spectral measurements of photoelectron-enhanced plasma lines made with the 430 MHz radar at Arecibo Observatory are presented. In the F region, photoelectrons produced by solar EUV line emissions (He II and Mg IX) give rise to plasma line spectral peaks/valleys. These and other structures occur within an enhancement zone extending from electron phase energies of 14-27 eV in both the bottomside and topside ionosphere. However, photoelectron-thermal electron Coulomb energy losses can lead to a broadened spectral structure with no resolved peaks in the topside ionosphere. The plasma line energy spectra obtained in the enhancement zone exhibit a unique relation in that phase energy is dependent on pitch angle; this relation does not exist in any other part of the energy spectrum. Moreover, large fluctuations in the difference frequency between the upshifted and downshifted plasma lines are evident in the 14-27 eV energy interval. At high phase energies near 51 eV the absolute intensities of photoelectron-excited Langmuir waves are much larger than those predicted by existing theory. The new measurements call for a revision/improvement of plasma line theory in several key areas.
Rationality, Theory Acceptance and Decision Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Nicolas Kaufmann
1998-06-01
Full Text Available Following Kuhn's main thesis according to which theory revision and acceptance is always paradigm relative, I propose to outline some possible consequences of such a view. First, asking the question in what sense Bayesian decision theory could serve as the appropriate (normative theory of rationality examined from the point of view of the epistemology of theory acceptance, I argue that Bayesianism leads to a narrow conception of theory acceptance. Second, regarding the different types of theory revision, i.e. expansion, contraction, replacement and residuals shifts, I extract from Kuhn's view a series of indications showing that theory replacement cannot be rationalized within the framework of Bayesian decision theory, not even within a more sophisticated version of that model. Third, and finally, I will point to the need for a more comprehensive model of rationality than the Bayesian expected utility maximization model, the need for a model which could better deal with the different aspects of theory replacement. I will show that Kuhn's distinction between normal and revolutionary science gives us several hints for a more adequate theory of rationality in science. I will also show that Kuhn is not in a position to fully articulate his main ideas and that he well be confronted with a serious problem concerning collective choice of a paradigm.
Rhodes, Mark A.
2008-10-21
A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verkerk, C.
1978-01-01
Present day electronic detectors used in high energy physics make it possible to obtain high event rates and it is likely that future experiments will face even higher data rates than at present. The complexity of the apparatus increases very rapidly with time and also the criteria for selecting desired events become more and more complex. So complex in fact that the fast trigger system cannot be designed to fully cope with it. The interesting events become thus contaminated with multitudes of uninteresting ones. To distinguish the 'good' events from the often overwhelming background of other events one has to resort to computing techniques. Normally this selection is made in the first part of the analysis of the events, analysis normally performed on a powerful scientific computer. This implies however that many uninteresting or background events have to be recorded during the experiment for subsequent analysis. A number of undesired consequences result; and these constitute a sufficient reason for trying to perform the selection at an earlier stage, in fact ideally before the events are recorded on magnetic tape. This early selection is called 'on-line filtering' and it is the topic of the present lectures. (Auth.)
Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.;
2012-01-01
We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 galaxies down to a limiting flux of approx 10 - 18 erg/s/sq cm . The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis we find three key results: 1) The computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; 2) The star forming systems show evidence of disturbed morphologies, with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass; and 3) The number density of star forming galaxies with M(*) >= 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velasco, E.S.
1986-01-01
This dissertation deals with several topics of field theory. Chapter I is a brief outline of the work presented in the next chapters. In chapter II, the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem for manifolds with boundary is computed using the path integral representation of the Witten index for supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems. In chapter III the action of N = 2 (Poincare) supergravity is obtained in terms of N = 1 superfields. In chapter IV, N = 2 supergravity coupled to the (abelian) vector multiplet is projected into N - 1 superspace. There, the resulting set of constraints is solved in terms of unconstrained prepotential and the action in terms of N = 1 superfields is constructed. In chapter V the set of constraints for N = 2 conformal supergravity is projected into N = 1 superspace and solved in terms of N = 1 conformal supergravity fields a d matter prepotentials. In chapter VI the role of magnetic monopoles in the phase structure of the change one fixed length abelian Higgs model ins the latticer is investigated using analytic and numerical methods. The technique of monopole suppression is used to determine the phase transition lines that are monopole driven. Finally in chapter VII, the role of the charge of the Higgs field in the abelian Higgs model in the lattice is investigated
Classical tokamak transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nocentini, Aldo
1982-01-01
A qualitative treatment of the classical transport theory of a magnetically confined, toroidal, axisymmetric, two-species plasma is presented. The 'weakly collisional' ('banana' and 'plateau') and 'collision dominated' ('Pfirsch-Schlueter' and 'highly collisional') regimes, as well as the Ware effect are discussed. The method used to evaluate the diffusion coffieicnts of particles and heat in the weakly collisional regime is based on stochastic argument, that requires an analysis of the characteristic collision frequencies and lengths for particles moving in a tokamak-like magnetic field. The same method is used to evaluate the Ware effect. In the collision dominated regime on the other hand, the particle and heat fluxes across the magnetic field lines are dominated by macroscopic effects so that, although it is possible to present them as diffusion (in fact, the fluxes turn out to be proportional to the density and temperature gradients), a macroscopic treatment is more appropriate. Hence, fluid equations are used to inveatigate the collision dominated regime, to which particular attention is devoted, having been shown relatively recently that it is more complicated than the usual Pfirsch-Schlueter regime. The whole analysis presented here is qualitative, aiming to point out the relevant physical mechanisms involved in the various regimes more than to develop a rigorous mathematical derivation of the diffusion coefficients, for which appropriate references are given. (author)
From chaos to unification: U theory vs. M theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye, Fred Y.
2009-01-01
A unified physical theory called U theory, that is different from M theory, is defined and characterized. U theory, which includes spinor and twistor theory, loop quantum gravity, causal dynamical triangulations, E-infinity unification theory, and Clifford-Finslerian unifications, is based on physical tradition and experimental foundations. In contrast, M theory pays more attention to mathematical forms. While M theory is characterized by supersymmetry string theory, U theory is characterized by non-supersymmetry unified field theory.
Recent progress in the description of nuclei at and far away from the stability line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, M.M.
1996-01-01
The relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory has witnessed a significant progress in the description of the ground-state properties of nuclei near the stability line as well as far away from it. In this paper the recent developments which have taken place in the RMF theory especially in the description of exotic nuclei very far away from the stability line is reviewed. (author). 34 refs., 8 figs
Alternate Double Single Track Lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moraga Contreras, P.; Grande Andrade, Z.; Castillo Ron, E.
2016-07-01
The paper discusses the advantages and shortcomings of alternate double single track (ADST) lines with respect to double track lines for high speed lines. ADST lines consists of sequences of double and single track segments optimally selected in order to reduce the construction and maintenance costs of railway lines and to optimize the timetables used to satisfy a given demand. The single tracks are selected to coincide with expensive segments (tunnels and viaducts) and the double tracks are chosen to coincide with flat areas and only where they are necessary. At the same time, departure times are adjusted for trains to cross at the cheap double track segments. This alternative can be used for new lines and also for existing conventional lines where some new tracks are to be constructed to reduce travel time (increase speed). The ADST proposal is illustrated with some examples of both types (new lines and where conventional lines exist), including the Palencia-Santander, the Santiago-Valparaíso-Viña del Mar and the Dublin-Belfast lines, where very important reductions (90 %) are obtained, especially where a railway infrastructure already exist. (Author)
Contemporary theories of democracy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mladenović Ivan
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is two-fold: first, to analyze several contemporary theories of democracy, and secondly, to propose a theoretical framework for further investigations based on analyzed theories. The following four theories will be analyzed: pluralism, social choice theory, deliberative democracy and participatory democracy.
Moschovakis, YN
1987-01-01
Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.
't Hooft, Gerardus; Witten, Edward
2005-01-01
In his later years, Einstein sought a unified theory that would extend general relativity and provide an alternative to quantum theory. There is now talk of a "theory of everything"; fifty years after his death, how close are we to such a theory? (3 pages)
de Bruin, B.P.
2005-01-01
Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
The basic ideas of game theory were originated from the problems of maximum and minimum given by J.Yon Neumann in 1928. Later, wars accelerated the study of game theory, there are many developments that contributed to the advancement of game theory, many problems of optimum appeared in economic development process. Scientists applied mathematic methods to studying game theory to make the theory more profound and perfect. The axiomatic structure of game theory was nearly complete in 1944. The path of the development of game theory started from finite to infinite, from two players to many players, from expressing gains with quantity to showing the ending of game theory with abstract result, and from certainty problems to random problems. Thus development of game theory is closely related to the economic development. In recent years, the research on the non-differentiability of Shapley value posed by Belgian Mertens is one of the advanced studies in game theory.
Nonrelativistic superstring theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Bom Soo
2007-01-01
We construct a supersymmetric version of the critical nonrelativistic bosonic string theory [B. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. D 76, 106007 (2007).] with its manifest global symmetry. We introduce the anticommuting bc conformal field theory (CFT) which is the super partner of the βγ CFT. The conformal weights of the b and c fields are both 1/2. The action of the fermionic sector can be transformed into that of the relativistic superstring theory. We explicitly quantize the theory with manifest SO(8) symmetry and find that the spectrum is similar to that of type IIB superstring theory. There is one notable difference: the fermions are nonchiral. We further consider noncritical generalizations of the supersymmetric theory using the superspace formulation. There is an infinite range of possible string theories similar to the supercritical string theories. We comment on the connection between the critical nonrelativistic string theory and the lightlike linear dilaton theory
Nonrelativistic closed string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomis, Jaume; Ooguri, Hirosi
2001-01-01
We construct a Galilean invariant nongravitational closed string theory whose excitations satisfy a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. This theory can be obtained by taking a consistent low energy limit of any of the conventional string theories, including the heterotic string. We give a finite first order worldsheet Hamiltonian for this theory and show that this string theory has a sensible perturbative expansion, interesting high energy behavior of scattering amplitudes and a Hagedorn transition of the thermal ensemble. The strong coupling duals of the Galilean superstring theories are considered and are shown to be described by an eleven-dimensional Galilean invariant theory of light membrane fluctuations. A new class of Galilean invariant nongravitational theories of light-brane excitations are obtained. We exhibit dual formulations of the strong coupling limits of these Galilean invariant theories and show that they exhibit many of the conventional dualities of M theory in a nonrelativistic setting
Moduli spaces of unitary conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wendland, K.
2000-08-01
We investigate various features of moduli spaces of unitary conformal field theories. A geometric characterization of rational toroidal conformal field theories in arbitrary dimensions is presented and discussed in relation to singular tori and those with complex multiplication. We study the moduli space M 2 of unitary two-dimensional conformal field theories with central charge c = 2. All the 26 non-exceptional non-isolated irreducible components of M 2 are constructed that may be obtained by an orbifold procedure from toroidal theories. The parameter spaces and partition functions are calculated explicitly. All multicritical points and lines are determined, such that all but three of these 26 components are directly or indirectly connected to the space of toroidal theories in M 2 . Relating our results to those by Dixon, Ginsparg, Harvey on the classification of c = 3/2 superconformal field theories, we give geometric interpretations to all non-isolated orbifolds discussed by them and correct their statements on multicritical points within the moduli space of c = 3/2 superconformal field theories. In the main part of this work, we investigate the moduli space M of N = (4, 4) superconformal field theories with central charge c = 6. After a slight emendation of its global description we give generic partition functions for models contained in M. We explicitly determine the locations of various known models in the component of M associated to K3 surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munro, Peter
1997-01-01
Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging, describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine geometric errors quantitatively, and discuss how portal imaging has been incorporated into clinical practice. Discussion: Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems. The commercial devices include T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and shortly, flat panel systems. The characteristics of these imaging systems will be discussed. In addition, other approaches such as the use of kilovoltage x-ray sources, video monitoring, and ultrasound have been proposed for improving patient positioning. Some of the advantages of these approaches will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same structures on a digitized simulator film. Once the anatomic structures have been registered, any discrepancies in the position of the patient can be identified. One problem is finding a common frame of reference for the simulator and portal images, since the location of the radiation field within the pixel matrix may differ for the two images. As a result, a common frame of reference has to be established before the anatomic structures in the images can be registered - generally by registering radiation field edges identified in the simulator and portal images. In addition, distortions in patient geometry or rotations out of the image plane can confound the image registration techniques. Despite the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munro, Peter
1996-01-01
Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging; describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine geometric errors quantitatively; discuss some of the ways that portal imaging has been incorporated into routine clinical practice; describe quality assurance procedures for these devices, and discuss the use of portal imaging devices for dosimetry applications. Discussion: Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems. The commercial devices can be classified into three categories: T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and amorphous silicon systems. Many factors influence the quality of images generated by these portal imaging systems. These include factors which are unavoidable (e.g., low subject contrast), factors which depend upon the individual imaging device forming the image (e.g., dose utilisation, spatial resolution) as well as factors which depend upon the characteristics of the linear accelerator irradiating the imaging system (x-ray source size, image magnification). The characteristics of individual imaging systems, such as spatial resolution, temporal response, and quantum utilisation will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same structures on a digitized simulator film. Once the anatomic structures have been registered, any discrepancies in the position of the patient can be identified. However, the task is not nearly as straight-forward as it sounds. One problem
Rapid line scan MR angiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frahm, J.; Merboldt, K.D.; Hanicke, W.; Bruhn, H.
1987-01-01
Direct MR angiography may be performed using line scan imaging techniques combined with presaturation of stationary spins. Thus, a single line scan echo yields a projection of vessels due to the signal from reflowing unsaturated spins. Reconstruction of an angiographic image is performed line by line at slightly incremented positions. In particular, line scan angiography is direct and fast without a sensitivity to artifacts even for high flow rates. Image resolution and field of view may be chosen without restrictions, and zoom images using enhanced gradients may be recorded without aliasing artifacts. The method is robust with respect to eddy currents and pulsatile flow. Line scan MR angiograms of phantoms, animals, and human volunteers have been recorded using 90 0 radio frequency pulses and gradient-recalled echoes
Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drukker, Nadav; Teschner, Joerg
2009-10-01
We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S 4 - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)
Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.
Stryker, Sheldon
2007-12-01
Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics.
Towards a theory of spacetime theories
Schiemann, Gregor; Scholz, Erhard
2017-01-01
This contributed volume is the result of a July 2010 workshop at the University of Wuppertal Interdisciplinary Centre for Science and Technology Studies which brought together world-wide experts from physics, philosophy and history, in order to address a set of questions first posed in the 1950s: How do we compare spacetime theories? How do we judge, objectively, which is the “best” theory? Is there even a unique answer to this question? The goal of the workshop, and of this book, is to contribute to the development of a meta-theory of spacetime theories. Such a meta-theory would reveal insights about specific spacetime theories by distilling their essential similarities and differences, deliver a framework for a class of theories that could be helpful as a blueprint to build other meta-theories, and provide a higher level viewpoint for judging which theory most accurately describes nature. But rather than drawing a map in broad strokes, the focus is on particularly rich regions in the “space of spaceti...
Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drukker, Nadav [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Gomis, Jaume; Okuda, Takuda [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Teschner, Joerg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2009-10-15
We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S{sup 4} - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jack
2015-01-01
Purpose To provide a small overview of genre theory and its associated concepts and to show how genre theory has had its antecedents in certain parts of the social sciences and not in the humanities. Findings The chapter argues that the explanatory force of genre theory may be explained with its...... emphasis on everyday genres, de facto genres. Originality/value By providing an overview of genre theory, the chapter demonstrates the wealth and richness of forms of explanations in genre theory....
Conlon, Joseph
2016-01-01
Is string theory a fraud or one of the great scientific advances? Why do so many physicists work on string theory if it cannot be tested? This book provides insight into why such a theory, with little direct experimental support, plays such a prominent role in theoretical physics. The book gives a modern and accurate account of string theory and science, explaining what string theory is, why it is regarded as so promising, and why it is hard to test.
Teaching Theory X and Theory Y in Organizational Communication
Noland, Carey
2014-01-01
The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…
Constructing Poverty Lines in Croatia Using Kakwani’s Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marinko Škare
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new model for defining the poverty line as a possible candidate for the construction of a new official poverty line in Croatia. The model, based on Kakwani’s (2010 approach (nutrition-based anchor, uses consumer theory as the basis for defining food and non-food poverty lines. In Croatia, various alternative poverty indicators have been developed to define the official poverty line. To ensure international comparability and consistency, the poverty threshold expressed in local currency by applying the exchange rate of currencies’ purchasing power (PPP is expressed in international dollars. It is important to ensure implementation of redistributive policies, maximization of market efficiency, and increased social justice. All this policy goals and instruments heavily depend on efficient and precise poverty measurement methods.
Carli, Ch; Hemery, J-Y
2002-01-01
The LEIR transfer lines are designed to transport the ion beam from the Linac 3 to LEIR and, after accumulation and acceleration from LEIR to the PS. A part of the transfer line is used for both, injection and extraction. Thus, it is natural to design injection and extraction optics in common. Beside optics constraints, the geometry of the existing machines (Linac 3, LEIR and PS) and transfer tunnels have to be respected. A new proposal for the LEIR transfer lines is presented.
Goedel universe from string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Shou-Long; Wei, Hao [Beijing Institute of Technology, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Feng, Xing-Hui; Lue, H. [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Beijing (China)
2017-05-15
The Goedel universe is a direct product of a line and a three-dimensional spacetime we call G{sub α}. In this paper, we show that the Goedel metrics can arise as exact solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-Axion, Einstein-Proca-Axion, or Freedman-Schwarz gauged supergravity theories. The last option allows us to embed the Goedel universe in string theory. The ten-dimensional spacetime is a direct product of a line and the nine-dimensional one of an S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} bundle over G{sub α}, and it can be interpreted as some decoupling limit of the rotating D1/D5/D5 intersection. For some appropriate parameter choice, the nine-dimensional metric becomes an AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} bundle over squashed 3-sphere. We also study the properties of the Goedel black holes that are constructed from the double Wick rotations of the Goedel metrics. (orig.)
Prosperity or Perdition: Do Lines of Operations Apply in Stability Operations?
2003-01-01
evolution of military theory and practice. One such phase is “lines of operations.” The etymology of the term “lines of operations” reveals that it has been...interrelationships and overlap between separate disciplines (i.e. chemistry , physics, biology, as well as philosophy, economics
Explanation of the Inverse Doppler Effect Observed in Nonlinear Transmission Lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozyrev, Alexander B.; Weide, Daniel W. van der
2005-01-01
The theory of the inverse Doppler effect recently observed in magnetic nonlinear transmission lines is developed. We explain the crucial role of the backward spatial harmonic in the occurrence of an inverse Doppler effect and draw analogies of the magnetic nonlinear transmission line to the backward wave oscillator
Introduction to Grand Unified Theories. 12
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wali, K.C.
1989-01-01
This chapter presents an introduction into Grand Unified Theories. After a discussion of the general features to be expected in any such theory, and of the motivations for them, a detailed presentation of SU(5) theory is given. The group structures, particle multiplets, gauge and Higgs bosons are explained. The two stages of spontaneous symmetry breaking via the Higgs model, are calculated individually and in combination. Fermion mass matrices and relations between quark and lepton masses are derived. predictions of SU(5) theory, calculated using renormalization group methods, are derived. The chapter ends with discussions that bring together particle physics and cosmology, including the baryon asymmetry problem, phase transitions in the very early universe, and singularities like domain walls, vortex lines and monopoles. (author). 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs
Theory of optical spectra of solvated electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kestner, N.R.
1975-01-01
During the last few years better theoretical models of solvated electron have been developed. These models allow one to calculate a priori the observable properties of the trapped electron. One of the most important and most widely determined properties is the optical spectrum. In this paper we consider the predictions of the theories not only as to the band maximum but line shape and width. In addition we will review how the theories predict these will depend on the solvent, pressure, temperature, and solvent density. In all cases extensive comparisons will be made with experimental work. In addition four new areas will be explored and recent results will be presented. These concern electrons in dense polar gases, the time development of the solvated electron spectrum, solvated electrons in mixed solvents, and photoelectron emission spectra (PEE) as it relates to higher excited states. This paper will review all recent theoretical calculations and present a critical review of the present status and future developments which are anticipated. The best theories are quite successful in predicting trends, and qualitative agreement concerning band maximum. The theory is still weak in predicting line shape and line width
Concept analysis and the building blocks of theory: misconceptions regarding theory development.
Bergdahl, Elisabeth; Berterö, Carina M
2016-10-01
The purpose of this article is to discuss the attempts to justify concepts analysis as a way to construct theory - a notion often advocated in nursing. The notion that concepts are the building blocks or threads from which theory is constructed is often repeated. It can be found in many articles and well-known textbooks. However, this notion is seldom explained or defended. The notion of concepts as building blocks has also been questioned by several authors. However, most of these authors seem to agree to some degree that concepts are essential components from which theory is built. Discussion paper. Literature was reviewed to synthesize and debate current knowledge. Our point is that theory is not built by concepts analysis or clarification and we will show that this notion has its basis in some serious misunderstandings. We argue that concept analysis is not a part of sound scientific method and should be abandoned. The current methods of concept analysis in nursing have no foundation in philosophy of science or in language philosophy. The type of concept analysis performed in nursing is not a way to 'construct' theory. Rather, theories are formed by creative endeavour to propose a solution to a scientific and/or practical problem. The bottom line is that the current style and form of concept analysis in nursing should be abandoned in favour of methods in line with modern theory of science. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Direction: unified theory of interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valko, P.
1987-01-01
Briefly characterized are the individual theories, namely, the general relativity theory, the Kaluza-Klein theory, the Weyl theory, the unified theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions, the supergravity theory, and the superstring theory. The history is recalled of efforts aimed at creating a unified theory of interactions, and future prospects are outlined. (M.D.). 2 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munro, Peter
1995-01-01
Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to review the physics of imaging with high energy x-ray beams; examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging; describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine errors in patient positioning quantitatively; and discuss some of the ways that portal imaging has been incorporated into routine clinical practice. Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Checks of patient positioning have generally been done with film, however, film suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as poor image display and delays due to film development. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems, which are intended to overcome the limitations of portal films. The commercial devices can be classified into three categories: T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and amorphous silicon systems. Many factors influence the quality of images generated by these portal imaging systems. These include factors which are unavoidable (e.g., low subject contrast), factors which depend upon the individual imaging device forming the image (e.g., dose utilisation, spatial resolution) as well as factors which depend upon the characteristics of the linear accelerator irradiating the imaging system (x-ray source size, image magnification). The fundamental factors which limit image quality and the characteristics of individual imaging systems, such as spatial resolution, temporal response, and quantum utilisation will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same
Dynamics of the Molten Contact Line
Sonin, Ain A.; Duthaler, Gregg; Liu, Michael; Torresola, Javier; Qiu, Taiqing
1999-01-01
The purpose of this program is to develop a basic understanding of how a molten material front spreads over a solid that is below its melting point, arrests, and freezes. Our hope is that the work will contribute toward a scientific knowledge base for certain new applications involving molten droplet deposition, including the "printing" of arbitrary three-dimensional objects by precise deposition of individual molten microdrops that solidify after impact. Little information is available at this time on the capillarity-driven motion and arrest of molten contact line regions. Schiaffino and Sonin investigated the arrest of the contact line of a molten microcrystalline wax spreading over a subcooled solid "target" of the same material. They found that contact line arrest takes place at an apparent liquid contact angle that depends primarily on the Stefan number S=c(T(sub f) -T(sub t)/L based on the temperature difference between the fusion point and the target temperature, and proposed that contact line arrest occurs when the liquid's dynamic contact angle approaches the angle of attack of the solidification front just behind the contact line. They also showed, however, that the conventional continuum equations and boundary conditions have no meaningful solution for this angle. The solidification front angle is determined by the heat flux just behind the contact line, and the heat flux is singular at that point. By comparing experiments with numerical computations, Schiaffino and Sonin estimated that the conventional solidification model must break down within a distance of order 0.1 - 1 microns of the contact line. The physical mechanism for this breakdown is as yet undetermined, and no first-principles theory exists for the contact angle at arrest. Schiaffino and Sonin also presented a framework for understanding how to moderate Weber number molten droplet deposition in terms of similarity laws and experimentation. The study is based on experiments with three molten
Building theory through design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markussen, Thomas
2017-01-01
This chapter deals with a fundamental matter of concern in research through design: how can design work lead to the building of new theory? Controversy exists about the balance between theory and design work in research through design. While some researchers see theory production as the scientific...... hallmark of this type of research, others argue for design work being the primary achievement, with theory serving the auxiliary function of inspiring new designs. This paper demonstrates how design work and theory can be appreciated as two equally important outcomes of research through design. To set...... the scene, it starts out by briefly examining ideas on this issue presented in existing research literature. Hereafter, it introduces three basic forms in which design work can lead to theory that is referred to as extending theories, scaffolding theories and blending theories. Finally, it is discussed how...
Generalizability Theory and Classical Test Theory
Brennan, Robert L.
2011-01-01
Broadly conceived, reliability involves quantifying the consistencies and inconsistencies in observed scores. Generalizability theory, or G theory, is particularly well suited to addressing such matters in that it enables an investigator to quantify and distinguish the sources of inconsistencies in observed scores that arise, or could arise, over…
Generalizability theory and item response theory
Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.
2012-01-01
Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, M.
1987-01-01
In this article, the authors summarize the rapid progress in constructing string field theory actions, such as the development of the covariant BRST theory. They also present the newer geometric formulation of string field theory, from which the BRST theory and the older light cone theory can be derived from first principles. This geometric formulation allows us to derive the complete field theory of strings from two geometric principles, in the same way that general relativity and Yang-Mills theory can be derived from two principles based on global and local symmetry. The geometric formalism therefore reduces string field theory to a problem of finding an invariant under a new local gauge group they call the universal string group (USG). Thus, string field theory is the gauge theory of the universal string group in much the same way that Yang-Mills theory is the gauge theory of SU(N). The geometric formulation places superstring theory on the same rigorous group theoretical level as general relativity and gauge theory
String theory constructions and conformal invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govaerts, J.
1990-01-01
This paper reports that as is rather well known, string theories are regarded nowadays by theoretical physicists as a possible framework for the Theory of Everything, or more correctly, for a consistent unified quantum theory of all particles and all their interactions, including gravity. One of the many fascinating facets of these theories is that they could make a centuries old dream come true in a most unique way. Indeed, string theories could well provide the ultimate unification of Nature: the Universe and all that it contains being made of only one fundamental object, with dynamics so rich that it leads to this infinitely large variety of physical phenomena that we observe at all energy scales in our Universe. Moreover, the mathematical structures involved in these theories are so profound and beautiful that they bring together so far unrelated fields in pure mathematics, and have led to important developments in other fields of physics as well. All of physics and all of mathematics coming together in our understanding of the world: was that not the ultimate dream of the Ancient Greeks? But, what are string theories? In the first qualitative approach of this introduction, it may be useful to contrast these theories against the more familiar description of relativistic point-particles. When a single particle propagates freely in space-time, it describes a one- dimensional manifold: its world line. In a quantum description, we associate to this process a quantum amplitude: the Feynman propagator. It is also possible to describe interactions between such particles, by defining probability amplitudes for the splitting and joining of the corresponding world-lines (a priori, the number of particles involved in any such single interaction could be arbitrary but finite)
On field line resonances of hydromagnetic Alfven waves in dipole magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Liu; Cowley, S.C.
1989-07-01
Using the dipole magnetic field model, we have developed the theory of field line resonances of hydromagnetic Alfven waves in general magnetic field geometries. In this model, the Alfven speed thus varies both perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field. Specifically, it is found that field line resonances do persist in the dipole model. The corresponding singular solutions near the resonant field lines as well as the natural definition of standing shear Alfven eigenfunctions have also been systematically derived. 11 refs
Similarity law for Widom lines and coexistence lines.
Banuti, D T; Raju, M; Ihme, M
2017-05-01
The coexistence line of a fluid separates liquid and gaseous states at subcritical pressures, ending at the critical point. Only recently, it became clear that the supercritical state space can likewise be divided into regions with liquidlike and gaslike properties, separated by an extension to the coexistence line. This crossover line is commonly referred to as the Widom line, and is characterized by large changes in density or enthalpy, manifesting as maxima in the thermodynamic response functions. Thus, a reliable representation of the coexistence line and the Widom line is important for sub- and supercritical applications that depend on an accurate prediction of fluid properties. While it is known for subcritical pressures that nondimensionalization with the respective species critical pressures p_{cr} and temperatures T_{cr} only collapses coexistence line data for simple fluids, this approach is used for Widom lines of all fluids. However, we show here that the Widom line does not adhere to the corresponding states principle, but instead to the extended corresponding states principle. We resolve this problem in two steps. First, we propose a Widom line functional based on the Clapeyron equation and derive an analytical, species specific expression for the only parameter from the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. This parameter is a function of the acentric factor ω and compares well with experimental data. Second, we introduce the scaled reduced pressure p_{r}^{*} to replace the previously used reduced pressure p_{r}=p/p_{cr}. We show that p_{r}^{*} is a function of the acentric factor only and can thus be readily determined from fluid property tables. It collapses both subcritical coexistence line and supercritical Widom line data over a wide range of species with acentric factors ranging from -0.38 (helium) to 0.34 (water), including alkanes up to n-hexane. By using p_{r}^{*}, the extended corresponding states principle can be applied within
Fractions, Number Lines, Third Graders
Cramer, Kathleen; Ahrendt, Sue; Monson, Debra; Wyberg, Terry; Colum, Karen
2017-01-01
The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) outlines ambitious goals for fraction learning, starting in third grade, that include the use of the number line model. Understanding and constructing fractions on a number line are particularly complex tasks. The current work of the authors centers on ways to successfully…
Mechanical Behaviour of Lined Pipe
Hilberink, A.
2011-01-01
Installing lined pipe by means of the reeling installation method seems to be an attractive combination, because it provides the opportunity of eliminating the demanding welds from the critical time offshore and instead preparing them onshore. However, reeling of lined pipe is not yet proven
Marine line fish research programme
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
SANCOR
1979-04-01
Full Text Available This report outlines the framework for a marine line fish programme under the aegis of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). An attempt is made to assess the state of knowledge about South African marine line...
A tangent subsolar merging line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crooker, N.U.; Siscoe, G.L.; Toffoletto, F.R.
1990-01-01
The authors describe a global magnetospheric model with a single subsolar merging line whose position is determined neither locally by the relative orientations and strengths of the merging fields nor globally by the orientation of a separator line--the governing parameters of most previous models--but by the condition of tangential contact between the external field and the magnetopause. As in previous models, the tilt of the merging line varies with IMF orientation, but here it also depends upon the ratio of Earth's magnetic flux that leaks out of the magnetopause to IMF flux that penetrates in. In the limiting case treated by Alekseyev and Belen'kaya, with no leakage of Earth's field and total IMF penetration, the merging line forms a great circle around a spherical magnetosphere where undeviated IMF lines lie tangent to its surface. This tangent merging line lies perpendicular to the IMF. They extend their work to the case of finite leakage and partial penetration, which distort the IMF into a draped pattern, thus changing the locus of tangency to the sphere. In the special case where the penetrating IMF flux is balanced by an equal amount of Earth flux leakage, the tangent merging line bisects the angle between the IMF and Earth's northward subsolar field. This result is identical to the local merging line model result for merging fields with equal magnitude. Here a global flux balance condition replaces the local equal magnitude condition
Effective quantum field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Georgi, H.M.
1993-01-01
The most appropriate description of particle interactions in the language of quantum field theory depends on the energy at which the interactions are studied; the description is in terms of an ''effective field theory'' that contains explicit reference only to those particles that are actually important at the energy being studied. The various themes of the article are: local quantum field theory, quantum electrodynamics, new physics, dimensional parameters and renormalizability, socio-dynamics of particle theory, spontaneously broken gauge theories, scale dependence, grand unified and effective field theories. 2 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.
2005-03-01
Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.
Schürmann, Michael
2008-01-01
This volume contains the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Potential Theory: Structure and Applications to Physics," held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald from February 26 to March 10, 2007. Quantum potential theory studies noncommutative (or quantum) analogs of classical potential theory. These lectures provide an introduction to this theory, concentrating on probabilistic potential theory and it quantum analogs, i.e. quantum Markov processes and semigroups, quantum random walks, Dirichlet forms on C* and von Neumann algebras, and boundary theory. Applications to quantum physics, in particular the filtering problem in quantum optics, are also presented.
Historicizing affordance theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Sofie; Bang, Jytte Susanne
2017-01-01
The aim of this article is to discuss how mutually enriching points from both affordance theory and cultural-historical activity theory can promote theoretical ideas which may prove useful as analytical tools for the study of human life and human development. There are two issues that need...... to be overcome in order to explore the potentials of James Gibson’s affordance theory: it does not sufficiently theorize (a) development and (b) society. We claim that Gibson’s affordance theory still needs to be brought beyond “the axiom of immediacy.” Ambivalences in Gibson’s affordance theory...... societal character of affordance theory....
Radiosensitivity of mesothelioma cell lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haekkinen, A.M. [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Laasonen, A. [Dept. of Pathology, Central Hospital of Etelae-Pohjanmaa, Seinaejoki (Finland); Linnainmaa, K. [Dept. of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Mattson, K. [Dept. Pulmonary Medicine, Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Pyrhoenen, S. [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)
1996-10-01
The present study was carried out in order to examine the radiosensitivity of malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines. Cell kinetics, radiation-induced delay of the cell cycle and DNA ploidy of the cell lines were also determined. For comparison an HeLa and a human foetal fibroblast cell line were simultaneously explored. Six previously cytogenetically and histologically characterized mesothelioma tumor cell lines were applied. A rapid tiazolyl blue microtiter (MTT) assay was used to analyze radiosensitivity and cell kinetics and DNA ploidy of the cultured cells were determined by flow cytometry. The survival fraction after a dose of 2 Gy (SF2), parameters {alpha} and {beta} of the linear quadratic model (LQ-model) and mean inactivation dose (D{sub MID}) were also estimated. The DNA index of four cell lines equaled 1.0 and two cell lines equaled 1.5 and 1.6. Different mesothelioma cell lines showed a great variation in radiosensitivity. Mean survival fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.60 and ranged from 0.36 to 0.81 and mean {alpha} value was 0.26 (range 0.48-0.083). The SF2 of the most sensitive diploid mesothelioma cell line was 0.36: Less than that of the foetal fibroblast cell line (0.49). The survival fractions (0.81 and 0.74) of the two most resistant cell lines, which also were aneuploid, were equal to that of the HeLa cell line (0.78). The {alpha}/{beta} ratios of the most sensitive cell lines were almost an order of magnitude greater than those of the two most resistant cell lines. Radiation-induced delay of the most resistant aneuploid cell line was similar to that of HeLa cells but in the most sensitive (diploid cells) there was practically no entry into the G1 phase following the 2 Gy radiation dose during 36 h. (orig.).
Open Wilson lines as states of closed string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, Koichi; Nakatsu, Toshio
2003-01-01
A system of a D-brane in bosonic string theory on a constant B field background is studied in order to obtain further insight into the bulk-boundary duality. Boundary states which describe arbitrary numbers of open-string tachyons and gluons are given. The UV behavior of field theories on the non-commutative world-volume is investigated by using these states. We take the zero-slope limits of the generating functions of one-loop amplitudes of gluons (and open-string tachyons) in which the region of the small open-string proper time is magnified. The existence of a B field allows the limits to be slightly different from the standard field theory limits of a closed-string. These limits enable us to obtained world-volume theories at a trans-string scale. In this limit the generating functions are shown to be factorized into two curved open Wilson lines (and their analogues) and become integrals on the space of paths with a Gaussian distribution around straight lines. These facts indicate the possibility that field theories on the non-commutative world-volume are topological at such a trans-string scale. We also give a proof of the Dhar-Kitazawa conjecture by determining an explicit correspondence between the closed-string states and the paths. Momentum eigenstates of closed-string or momentum loops also play an important role in these analyses. (author)
Polyakov lines in Yang-Mills matrix models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Austing, Peter; Wheater, John F.; Vernizzi, Graziano
2003-01-01
We study the Polyakov line in Yang-Mills matrix models, which include the IKKT model of IIB string theory. For the gauge group SU(2) we give the exact formulae in the form of integral representations which are convenient for finding the asymptotic behaviour. For the SU(N) bosonic models we prove upper bounds which decay as a power law at large momentum p. We argue that these capture the full asymptotic behaviour. We also indicate how to extend the results to some correlation functions of Polyakov lines. (author)
5th Computer Science On-line Conference
Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Silhavy, Petr; Prokopova, Zdenka
2016-01-01
This volume is based on the research papers presented in the 5th Computer Science On-line Conference. The volume Artificial Intelligence Perspectives in Intelligent Systems presents modern trends and methods to real-world problems, and in particular, exploratory research that describes novel approaches in the field of artificial intelligence. New algorithms in a variety of fields are also presented. The Computer Science On-line Conference (CSOC 2016) is intended to provide an international forum for discussions on the latest research results in all areas related to Computer Science. The addressed topics are the theoretical aspects and applications of Computer Science, Artificial Intelligences, Cybernetics, Automation Control Theory and Software Engineering.
On Line-Elements and Radii: A Correction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Crothers S. J.
2007-04-01
Full Text Available Using a manifold with boundary various line-elements have been proposed as solutions to Einstein’s gravitational field. It is from such line-elements that black holes, expansion of the Universe, and big bang cosmology have been alleged. However, it has been proved that black holes, expansion of the Universe, and big bang cosmology are not consistent with General Relativity. In a previous paper disproving the black hole theory, the writer made an error which, although minor and having no effect on the conclusion that black holes are inconsistent with General Relativity, is corrected herein for the record.
Cooney, Adeline
2011-01-01
This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.
Synthesis of Beam Lines with Necessary Properties
Andrianov, Serge
2005-01-01
In this paper a new approach to the problem of synthesis of beam lines is discussed. Usually this problem can be overcome by the use of numerical simulation and optimal control theory methods. But this results in sufficiently great number of variable parameters and functions. Obviously, that this degrades quality of a modeling procedure. The suggested approach is demonstrated on a problem of a microprobe design problem. Essence of the problem is that necessary to design a high precision focusing system which satisfies some additional conditions. For solution of this problem we use an algebraic treatment based on Lie algebraic methods and computer algebra techniques. Using the symmetry ideology this approach allows rewriting beam properties to enough simple conditions for control parameters and functions. This leads a set of desired solutions and show results in some most suitable form. Moreover, this approach decreases the number of variable parameters.
The hopelessness theory of depression: attributional aspects.
Alloy, L B; Abramson, L Y; Metalsky, G I; Hartlage, S
1988-02-01
In this article, we clarify, expand and revise the basic postulates of the hopelessness theory of depression (Abramson, Alloy & Metalsky, 1988a; Abramson, Metalsky & Alloy, 1987, 1988b; previously referred to as the reformulated helplessness theory of depression: Abramson, Seligman & Teasdale, 1978) and place the theory more explicitly in the context of work in descriptive psychiatry about the heterogeneity among the depressive disorders. We suggest that the hopelessness theory hypothesizes the existence in nature of an, as yet, unidentified subtype of depression--'hopelessness depression'--defined, in part, by its cause. We then give a critique of work conducted to test the hopelessness theory and explicate the limitations in research strategy associated with this line of work. Our critique includes a logical analysis that deduces the conceptual and methodological inadequacies of the research strategies used to test the theory. Finally, we suggest more adequate research strategies for testing the hopelessness theory and discuss conceptual and assessment issues that will arise in conducting such tests with special emphasis on attributional styles.
Filamentary ion flow theory and experiments
Lattarulo, Francesco
2014-01-01
Presents all-new laboratory-tested theory for calculating more accurate ionized electric fields to aid in designing high-voltage devices and its components Understanding and accurately calculating corona originated electric fields are important issues for scientists who are involved in electromagnetic and electrostatic studies. High-voltage dc lines and equipment, in particular, can generate ion flows that can give rise to environmental inconveniences. Filamentary Ion Flow: Theory and Experiments provides interdisciplinary theoretical arguments to attain a final model for computational elect
Teaching Braille Line Tracking Using Stimulus Fading
Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.
2014-01-01
Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only…
Theories of Career Development. A Comparison of the Theories.
Osipow, Samuel H.
These seven theories of career development are examined in previous chapters: (1) Roe's personality theory, (2) Holland's career typology theory, (3) the Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrod, and Herma Theory, (4) psychoanalytic conceptions, (5) Super's developmental self-concept theory, (6) other personality theories, and (7) social systems theories.…
Supersymmetric gauge theories from string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metzger, St.
2005-12-01
This thesis presents various ways to construct four-dimensional quantum field theories from string theory. In a first part we study the generation of a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, coupled to an adjoint chiral superfield, from type IIB string theory on non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds, with D-branes wrapping certain sub-cycles. Properties of the gauge theory are then mapped to the geometric structure of the Calabi-Yau space. Even if the Calabi-Yau geometry is too complicated to evaluate the geometric integrals explicitly, one can then always use matrix model perturbation theory to calculate the effective superpotential. The second part of this work covers the generation of four-dimensional super-symmetric gauge theories, carrying several important characteristic features of the standard model, from compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity on G 2 -manifolds. If the latter contain conical singularities, chiral fermions are present in the four-dimensional gauge theory, which potentially lead to anomalies. We show that, locally at each singularity, these anomalies are cancelled by the non-invariance of the classical action through a mechanism called 'anomaly inflow'. Unfortunately, no explicit metric of a compact G 2 -manifold is known. Here we construct families of metrics on compact weak G 2 -manifolds, which contain two conical singularities. Weak G 2 -manifolds have properties that are similar to the ones of proper G 2 -manifolds, and hence the explicit examples might be useful to better understand the generic situation. Finally, we reconsider the relation between eleven-dimensional supergravity and the E 8 x E 8 -heterotic string. This is done by carefully studying the anomalies that appear if the supergravity theory is formulated on a ten-manifold times the interval. Again we find that the anomalies cancel locally at the boundaries of the interval through anomaly inflow, provided one suitably modifies the classical action. (author)
Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A
2017-01-01
Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...
Covariant Noncommutative Field Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Estrada-Jimenez, S [Licenciaturas en Fisica y en Matematicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas Calle 4a Ote. Nte. 1428, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Garcia-Compean, H [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN P.O. Box 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F., Mexico and Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Monterrey Via del Conocimiento 201, Parque de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica (PIIT) Autopista nueva al Aeropuerto km 9.5, Lote 1, Manzana 29, cp. 66600 Apodaca Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato P.O. Box E-143, 37150 Leon Gto. (Mexico); Ramirez, C [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, P.O. Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)
2008-07-02
The covariant approach to noncommutative field and gauge theories is revisited. In the process the formalism is applied to field theories invariant under diffeomorphisms. Local differentiable forms are defined in this context. The lagrangian and hamiltonian formalism is consistently introduced.
Zielenkiewicz, Wojciech
2004-01-01
The purpose of this book is to give a comprehensive description of the theoretical fundamentals of calorimetry. The considerations are based on the relations deduced from the laws and general equations of heat exchange theory and steering theory.
Covariant Noncommutative Field Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estrada-Jimenez, S.; Garcia-Compean, H.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.
2008-01-01
The covariant approach to noncommutative field and gauge theories is revisited. In the process the formalism is applied to field theories invariant under diffeomorphisms. Local differentiable forms are defined in this context. The lagrangian and hamiltonian formalism is consistently introduced
Stabilizing bottomless action theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greensite, J.; Halpern, M.B.
1983-12-01
The authors show how to construct the Euclidean quantum theory corresponding to classical actions which are unbounded from below. The method preserves the classical limit, the large-N limit, and the perturbative expansion of the unstabilized theories. (Auth.)
Algebraic conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuchs, J.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica
1991-11-01
Many conformal field theory features are special versions of structures which are present in arbitrary 2-dimensional quantum field theories. So it makes sense to describe 2-dimensional conformal field theories in context of algebraic theory of superselection sectors. While most of the results of the algebraic theory are rather abstract, conformal field theories offer the possibility to work out many formulae explicitly. In particular, one can construct the full algebra A-bar of global observables and the endomorphisms of A-bar which represent the superselection sectors. Some explicit results are presented for the level 1 so(N) WZW theories; the algebra A-bar is found to be the enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra L-bar which is an extension of the chiral symmetry algebra of the WZW theory. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs
Rothbart, Andrea
2012-01-01
An imaginative introduction to number theory and abstract algebra, this unique approach employs a pair of fictional characters whose dialogues explain theories and demonstrate applications in terms of football scoring, chess moves, and more.
Economic theories of dictatorship
Alexandre Debs
2010-01-01
This article reviews recent advances in economic theories of dictatorships and their lessons for the political stability and economic performance of dictatorships. It reflects on the general usefulness of economic theories of dictatorship, with an application to foreign relations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elliott, J.A.
1993-01-01
Plasma kinetic theory is discussed and a comparison made with the kinetic theory of gases. The plasma is described by a modified set of fluid equations and it is shown how these fluid equations can be derived. (UK)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
strongly motivate a detailed search for inflation within string theory, although it has ... between string theory and observations provides a strong incentive for ..... sonably be expected to arise for any system having very many degrees of freedom.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonara, L.; Cotta-Ramusino, P.; Rinaldi, M.
1987-01-01
It is well-known that type I and heterotic superstring theories have a zero mass spectrum which correspond to the field content of N=1 supergravity theory coupled to supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in 10-D. The authors study the field theory ''per se'', in the hope that simple consistency requirements will determine the theory completely once one knows the field content inherited from string theory. The simplest consistency requirements are: N=1 supersymmetry; and absence of chiral anomalies. This is what the authors discuss in this paper here leaving undetermined the question of the range of validity of the resulting field theory. As is known, a model of N=1 supergravity (SUGRA) coupled to supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory was known in the form given by Chapline and Manton. The coupling of SUGRA to SYM was determined by the definition of the ''field strength'' 3-form H in this paper
Introduction to percolation theory
Stauffer, Dietrich
1991-01-01
Percolation theory deals with clustering, criticallity, diffusion, fractals, phase transitions and disordered systems. This book covers the basic theory for the graduate, and also professionals dealing with it for the first time
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clemmensen, Torkil; Kaptelinin, Victor; Nardi, Bonnie
2016-01-01
different ways of using activity theory: (1) analysing unique features, principles, and problematic aspects of the theory; (2) identifying domain-specific requirements for new theoretical tools; (3) developing new conceptual accounts of issues in the field of HCI; (4) guiding and supporting empirical...... analyses of HCI phenomena; and (5) providing new design illustrations, claims, and guidelines. We conclude that HCI researchers are not only users of imported theory, but also theory-makers who adapt and develop theory for different purposes.......This paper reports a study of the use of activity theory in human–computer interaction (HCI) research. We analyse activity theory in HCI since its first appearance about 25 years ago. Through an analysis and meta-synthesis of 109 selected HCI activity theory papers, we created a taxonomy of 5...
Theory of information warfare: basic framework, methodology and conceptual apparatus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Олександр Васильович Курбан
2015-11-01
Full Text Available It is conducted a comprehensive theoretical study and determine the basic provisions of the modern theory of information warfare in on-line social networks. Three basic blocks, which systematized the theoretical and methodological basis of the topic, are established. There are information and psychological war, social off-line and on-line network. According to the three blocks, theoretical concepts are defined and methodological substantiation of information processes within the information warfare in the social on-line networks is formed
An Attempt to Extend Taylor-Spence Drive Theory to Vocational Choice Behavior
Sharf, Richard S.
1972-01-01
Predictions were made from Taylor-Spence drive theory about vocational choice behavior. Although the results did not specifically support the predictions made from Taylor-Spence theory, they indicated the potential usefulness of certain concepts in this theory and suggested several lines of inquiry for further research. (Author)
Atlas transmission line breakdown analysis
Nielsen, K E; Ballard, E O; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; McCuistian, B T; Parsons, W M
1999-01-01
The Atlas facility will use 24 radially converging, vertically oriented and tapered, oil insulated, triplate transmission lines between the Marx generators and the central load region. Among the requirements of the transmission lines are low inductance and high reliability. The inter-conductor gap is nominally 2 cm and the lines taper from a height of 1.75 m at the Marx end to 0.32 m at the output end. The aluminum conductors, held together by 20 insulating spacers, are assembled and inserted as a unit into radial oil-filled steel tanks. The negative, high-voltage, center conductor is 2.54-cm thick and the outer ground conductors are 1.59-cm thick. All 24 triplate transmission lines connect to a transition section at near 1 m radius that couples the transmission lines to a disk/conical solid- dielectric-insulated power flow channel transmission line terminating at the load. Peak operating voltage on the lines can be as high as 240 kV with an effective stress time of 0.8 mu s. Testing of small sections of the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Partovi, M.H.
1982-01-01
From a generalization of the covariant derivative, nonlocal gauge theories are developed. These theories enjoy local gauge invariance and associated Ward identities, a corresponding locally conserved current, and a locally conserved energy-momentum tensor, with the Ward identities implying the masslessness of the gauge field as in local theories. Their ultraviolet behavior allows the presence as well as the absence of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly, the latter in analogy with lattice theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglas, Michael R.; Nekrasov, Nikita A.
2001-01-01
This article reviews the generalization of field theory to space-time with noncommuting coordinates, starting with the basics and covering most of the active directions of research. Such theories are now known to emerge from limits of M theory and string theory and to describe quantum Hall states. In the last few years they have been studied intensively, and many qualitatively new phenomena have been discovered, on both the classical and the quantum level
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, S.L.; Wilczek, F.
1993-11-01
Areas of emphasis include acceleration algorithms for the Monte Carlo analysis of lattice field and gauge theories, quaternionic generalizations of complex quantum mechanics and field theory, application of the renormalization group to the QCD phase transition, the quantum Hall effect, and black holes. Other work involved string theory, statistical properties of energy levels in integrable quantum systems, baryon asymmetry and the electroweak phase transition, anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, and theory of superconductors
1990-02-21
LIDS-P-1953 Multiscale System Theory Albert Benveniste IRISA-INRIA, Campus de Beaulieu 35042 RENNES CEDEX, FRANCE Ramine Nikoukhah INRIA...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multiscale System Theory 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...the development of a corresponding system theory and a theory of stochastic processes and their estimation. The research presented in this and several
Philosophical theories of probability
Gillies, Donald
2000-01-01
The Twentieth Century has seen a dramatic rise in the use of probability and statistics in almost all fields of research. This has stimulated many new philosophical ideas on probability. Philosophical Theories of Probability is the first book to present a clear, comprehensive and systematic account of these various theories and to explain how they relate to one another. Gillies also offers a distinctive version of the propensity theory of probability, and the intersubjective interpretation, which develops the subjective theory.
Davis, Philip W.
This volume explores objectively the essential characteristic of nine twentieth-century linguistic theories with the theoretical variant for discussion based on one closely representative of work within a given approach or usually associated with the name of the theory. First, the theory of Ferdinand de Saussure is discussed based on his book,…
Constructivist Grounded Theory?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD
2012-06-01
Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.
Maasland, E.
2012-01-01
Auction theory is a branch of game theory that considers human behavior in auction markets and the ensuing market outcomes. It is also successfully used as a tool to design real-life auctions. This thesis contains five essays addressing a variety of topics within the realm of auction theory. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasad, R.
1975-01-01
Results of researches into Unified Field Theory over the past seven years are presented. The subject is dealt with in chapters entitled: the choice of affine connection, algebraic properties of the vector fields, field laws obtained from the affine connection based on the path integral method, application to quantum theory and cosmology, interpretation of physical theory in terms of geometry. (U.K.)
Missinne, Leo E.; Wilcox, Victoria
This paper discusses the life, theories, and therapeutic techniques of psychotherapist, Viktor E. Frankl. A brief biography of Frankl is included discussing the relationship of his early experiences as a physician to his theory of personality. Frankl's theory focusing on man's need for meaning and emphasizing the spiritual dimension in each human…
Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Mitchell, Peter
2007-01-01
This article considers three theories of autism: The Theory of Mind Deficit, Executive Dysfunction and the Weak Central Coherence accounts. It outlines each along with studies relevant to their emergence, their expansion, their limitations and their possible integration. Furthermore, consideration is given to any implication from the theories in…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.
1982-01-01
After a description of a pure Yang-Mills theory on a lattice, the author considers a three-dimensional pure U(1) lattice gauge theory. Thereafter he discusses the exact relation between lattice gauge theories with the gauge groups SU(2) and SO(3). Finally he presents Monte Carlo data on phase transitions in SU(2) and SO(3) lattice gauge models. (HSI)
Onderstal, A.M.
2002-01-01
This thesis is a collection of six papers in auction theory, with several economic applications, both to real life auctions and to other economic phenomena. In the introduction to the thesis, Onderstal argues why auction theory is an important branch of economic theory, and discusses several
Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David
2007-01-01
One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.
Reflections on Activity Theory
Bakhurst, David
2009-01-01
It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…
Superspace conformal field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2013-07-15
Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.
Superspace conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quella, Thomas
2013-07-01
Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikkawa, Keiji; Nakanishi, Noboru; Nariai, Hidekazu
1983-01-01
These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named symposium. They deal with geometrical aspects of gauge theory and gravitation, special problems in gauge theories, quantum field theory in curved space-time, quantum gravity, supersymmetry including supergravity, and grand unification. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)
Constructor theory of probability
2016-01-01
Unitary quantum theory, having no Born Rule, is non-probabilistic. Hence the notorious problem of reconciling it with the unpredictability and appearance of stochasticity in quantum measurements. Generalizing and improving upon the so-called ‘decision-theoretic approach’, I shall recast that problem in the recently proposed constructor theory of information—where quantum theory is represented as one of a class of superinformation theories, which are local, non-probabilistic theories conforming to certain constructor-theoretic conditions. I prove that the unpredictability of measurement outcomes (to which constructor theory gives an exact meaning) necessarily arises in superinformation theories. Then I explain how the appearance of stochasticity in (finitely many) repeated measurements can arise under superinformation theories. And I establish sufficient conditions for a superinformation theory to inform decisions (made under it) as if it were probabilistic, via a Deutsch–Wallace-type argument—thus defining a class of decision-supporting superinformation theories. This broadens the domain of applicability of that argument to cover constructor-theory compliant theories. In addition, in this version some of the argument's assumptions, previously construed as merely decision-theoretic, follow from physical properties expressed by constructor-theoretic principles. PMID:27616914
Schmidt, Ulrich; Zank, Horst
2010-01-01
In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This paper provides an axiomatization of a new specification of cumulative prospect theory, termed endogenous prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.
Sharpening Intertemporal Prospect Theory
Pushpa, Rathie; Carlos, Radavelli; Sergio, Da Silva
2006-01-01
Prospect theory [4] of risky choices has been extended to encompass intertemporal choices [6]. Presentation of intertemporal prospect theory suffers from minor mistakes, however [2]. To clarify the theory we restate it and show further mistakes in current presentations ([6], [2]) of value and discount functions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.
1979-03-01
A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.
1979-03-01
A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system.
Rodin, A M; Bogdanov, D D; Golovkov, M S; Fomichev, A S; Sidorchuk, S I; Slepnev, R S; Wolski, R; Ter-Akopian, G M; Oganessian, Yu T; Yukhimchuk, A A; Perevozchikov, V V; Vinogradov, Yu I; Grishenchkin, S K; Demin, A M; Zlatoustovskii, S V; Kuryakin, A V; Filchagin, S V; Ilkaev, R I
2003-01-01
The separator ACCULINNA was upgraded to achieve new experimental requirements. The beam line was extended by new ion-optical elements beyond the cyclotron hall. The new arrangements yield much better background conditions. The intensities of sup 6 He and sup 8 He radioactive beams produced in fragmentation of 35 A MeV sup 1 sup 1 B ions were increased up to a factor of 10. The upgraded beam line was used in experiments to study the sup 5 H resonance states populated in the t+t reaction. A cryogenic liquid tritium target was designed and installed at the separator beam line.
Four-dimensional Ashkin-Teller gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcaraz, F.C.; Jacobs, L.
1983-01-01
The authors construct and analyze a lattice field theory of two Z 2 gauge fields which interact in a minimal gauge-invariant fashion. Although the theory presented here, a generalization of the two-dimensional Ashkin-Teller spin system, has no formal continuum limit, it is found that it has an electrodynamicslike phase similar to that observed in general Z/sub N/ theories for N> or =4. This model is probably the simplest generalization of the conventional Z 2 pure gauge theory which has a massless phase separated from the strong- and weak-coupling regions by lines of second-order phase transitions
Yuan, Naichang; He, Jianguo; Yao, Demiao; Dai, Qin; Lin, Weigan
1995-06-01
Two types of coplanar transmission lines, rectangular microshield coplanar coupled lines (RMCCL) and coplanar coupled rectangular microshield lines (CCRML), are proposed for MMIC applications. These are developed from coplanar coupled lines (CCL) and coplanar coupled strip lines (CCS). Analytic formulas are presented for calculating the quasistatic TEM parameters of these coupled lines by means of exact conformal mapping techniques. Numerical results are also presented to illustrate the properties of these coplanar transmission lines.
Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-10-01
This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.
Discrete Curvature Theories and Applications
Sun, Xiang
2016-08-25
Discrete Di erential Geometry (DDG) concerns discrete counterparts of notions and methods in di erential geometry. This thesis deals with a core subject in DDG, discrete curvature theories on various types of polyhedral surfaces that are practically important for free-form architecture, sunlight-redirecting shading systems, and face recognition. Modeled as polyhedral surfaces, the shapes of free-form structures may have to satisfy di erent geometric or physical constraints. We study a combination of geometry and physics { the discrete surfaces that can stand on their own, as well as having proper shapes for the manufacture. These proper shapes, known as circular and conical meshes, are closely related to discrete principal curvatures. We study curvature theories that make such surfaces possible. Shading systems of freeform building skins are new types of energy-saving structures that can re-direct the sunlight. From these systems, discrete line congruences across polyhedral surfaces can be abstracted. We develop a new curvature theory for polyhedral surfaces equipped with normal congruences { a particular type of congruences de ned by linear interpolation of vertex normals. The main results are a discussion of various de nitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula. In addition to architecture, we consider the role of discrete curvatures in face recognition. We use geometric measure theory to introduce the notion of asymptotic cones associated with a singular subspace of a Riemannian manifold, which is an extension of the classical notion of asymptotic directions. We get a simple expression of these cones for polyhedral surfaces, as well as convergence and approximation theorems. We use the asymptotic cones as facial descriptors and demonstrate the
Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-10-01
This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program
Fusion plasma theory project summaries
1993-10-01
This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at U.S. government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the U.S. Fusion Energy Program.
Gauge theories as theories of spontaneous breakdown
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, E.A.; Ogievetsky, V.I.
1976-01-01
Any gauge theory is proved to arise from spontaneous breakdown of symmetry under certain infinite parameter group, the corresponding gauge field being the Goldstone field by which this breakdown is accompanied
Theory and context / Theory in context
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
2014-01-01
trans-disciplinary manner. Consideration needs to be given as well to connected scholarship focusing on imagination, innova-tion, and improvisation. Last but not least, an expanded the-ory of context cannot ignore the institutional context of doing research on creativity. Creativity scholars are facing......It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological...... questions? This de-pends on how one understands theory. Against a view of theoretical work as aiming towards generality, universality, uniformity, completeness, and singularity, I advocate for a dynamic perspective in which theory is plural, multifaceted, and contextual. Far from ‘waiting for the Messiah...
Invariant Theory (IT) & Standard Monomial Theory (SMT)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2013-07-06
Jul 6, 2013 ... Why invariant theory? (continued). Now imagine algebraic calculations being made, with the two different sets of co-ordinates, about something of geometrical or physical interest concerning the configuration of points, ...
Application of queuing theory in banking services
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vitor Costa de Lima
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Bearing in mind the intense competition in the current economy and the increasing necessity of having more customers and keeping them loyal, this paper aims to apply the well known Queuing Theory in a bank agency to identify improvement opportunities in customer waiting time, from the assumption that the analyzed lines follow the Poisson’s distribution. This assumption results from the comparison between such distribution to the customers' arrival data in all analyzed lines. It was also found that there are queues with seasonality in demand, while others showed a regular demand. From the study performed, improvements in the management of this bank agency may be made, for example, the reallocation of staff in certain periods for functions with higher demand. It was concluded, therefore, that the application of the theory is feasible and can help to increase the competitive advantages of the agency.
Irvine, J M
1972-01-01
Nuclear Structure Theory provides a guide to nuclear structure theory. The book is comprised of 23 chapters that are organized into four parts; each part covers an aspect of nuclear structure theory. In the first part, the text discusses the experimentally observed phenomena, which nuclear structure theories need to look into and detail the information that supports those theories. The second part of the book deals with the phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potentials derived from phase shift analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering. Part III talks about the phenomenological parameters used to de