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Sample records for line measurement program

  1. A programming system for bubble chamber photographs measuring tables on-line to a computer

    Miche, Roger.

    1975-06-01

    A programming system available on an industrial computer, type PDP 15/20, performing the exploitation of bubble chamber pictures with the projection tables on line to the computer was developed. This system must suit the particular conditions met in the analysis of photographs from different bubble chambers, the different stage for dealing with the views (scanning, premeasurement, measurement) adapting to different strategies in the handling of measurements. The exploitation of photographs takes place in a conversational mode to which a concrete form is given by sending messages to the operators at the tables and by receiving coded answers. In this framework, the aims of the operating system are: to guide the operator work at the tables while allowing them to interrupt the normal sequence of events, to carry out some elementary logical checks, to write on magnetic tape the checked data with the appropriate labels as required [fr

  2. Program of telluric lines monitoring

    Vince I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new observational program of telluric lines monitoring was introduced at Belgrade Astronomical Observatory. The ultimate goal of this program is to investigate the properties of Earth’s atmosphere through modeling the observed profiles of telluric lines. The program is intend to observe infrared molecular oxygen lines that were selected according to spectral sensitivity of the available CCD camera. In this paper we give the initial and the final selection criteria for spectral lines included in the program the description of equipment and procedures used for observations and reduction, a review of preliminary observational results with the estimated precision, and a short discussion on the comparison of the theoretical predictions and the measurements.

  3. Program for large scanning-measuring table calibration on-line with the TRA-1001 computer

    Kalmykova, L.P.; Ososkov, G.A.; Pogodina, G.A.; Skryl', I.I.

    1975-01-01

    A description of a programme variant for complex calibration of the system of boards BPS-2, is given in which the stage of measurements and accumulation of calibration data is separated from that of data processing on CDC-1604A computers. Stage-by-stage calibration allows for simultaneous and parallel measurements on all the 6 boards. Such a possibility of the boards' operation on a computer-controlled line has been used as checking of the operators' actions with current control of the data obtained. Mathematical formulae are followed by programmes' descriptions. Reception and accumulation of coordinates of the units of the calibrating plate, with a highly precise net of straight lines, are accomplished with the help of the DATREC programme working on a guiding TPA-1001 computer with simultaneous calibration of all the six BPS-2 boards. The DATREC programme is written in the SLANG-1 language. The CALBPS programme works on CDC-1604A computer, is written in FORTRAN, and calculates transformation coefficients and corresponding precision characteristics. The work has resulted in reducing the calibration time from 10-15 min. per board to 10-15 min. per all the 6 boards. The time of accumulation in the memory TPA-1001 and of recording on the CDC-608 tape recorder of calibration data is from 3 to 5 min.; the remaining time is spent on processing on a bigger CDC-1604A computer. Examples of typical output and certain results of calibration measurements are given

  4. In-core program for on line measurements of neutron, photon and nuclear heating parameters inside Jules Horowitz MTR reactor

    Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate on-line measurements of key parameters inside experimental channels of Material Testing Reactor are necessary to dimension the irradiation devices and consequently to conduct smart experiments on fuels and materials under suitable conditions. In particular the quantification of nuclear heating, a relevant parameter to reach adapted thermal conditions, has to be improved. These works focus on an important collaborative program between CEA and Aix-Marseille University called INCORE (Instrumentation for Nuclear radiations and Calorimetry On-line in Reactor) dedicated to the development of a new measurement methodology to quantify both nuclear heating and accurate radiation flux levels (neutrons and photons). The methodology, which is based on experiments carried out under irradiation conditions with a multi-sensor device (ionization chamber, fission chamber, gamma thermometer, calorimeter, SPND, SPGD) as well as works performed out-of nuclear/radiative environment on a reference sensor used to measure nuclear heating (calorimeter), is presented (authors)

  5. HOPI: on-line injection optimization program

    LeMaire, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    A method of matching the beam from the 200 MeV linac to the AGS without the necessity of making emittance measurements is presented. An on-line computer program written on the PDP10 computer performs the matching by modifying independently the horizontal and vertical emittance. Experimental results show success with this method, which can be applied to any matching section

  6. Measurements of weak conversion lines

    Feoktistov, A.I.; Frantsev, Yu.E.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a new methods for measuring weak conversion lines with the help of the β spectrometer of the π √ 2 type which permits to increase the reliability of the results obtained. According to this method the measurements were carried out by short series with the storage of the information obtained on the punched tape. The spectrometer magnetic field was stabilized during the measuring of the conversion spectra with the help of three nmr recorders. Instead of the dependence of the pulse calculation rate on the magnetic field value was measured the dependence of the calculation rate on the value of the voltage applied between the source and the spectrometer chamber. A short description of the automatic set-up for measuring conversion lines according to the method proposed is given. The main set-up elements are the voltage multiplexer timer, printer, scaler and the pulse analyzer. With the help of the above methods obtained is the K 1035, 8 keV 182 Ta line. It is obtained as a result of the composition of 96 measurement series. Each measurement time constitutes 640 s 12 points are taken on the line

  7. Second Line of Defense Spares Program Assessment

    Henderson, Dale L.; Muller, George; Mercier, Theresa M.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Perkins, Casey J.; Cooley, Scott K.

    2012-11-20

    The Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is part of the Department of Energy‘s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The SLD Program accomplishes its critical global security mission by forming cooperative relationships with partner countries to install passive radiation detection systems that augment traditional inspection and law enforcement measures by alerting border officials to the presence of special nuclear or other radiological materials in cross-border traffic. An important tenet of the program is to work collaboratively with these countries to establish the necessary processes, procedures, infrastructure and conditions that will enable them to fully assume the financial and technical responsibilities for operating the equipment. As the number of operational deployments grows, the SLD Program faces an increasingly complex logistics process to promote the timely and efficient supply of spare parts.

  8. Generalized emittance measurements in a beam transport line

    Skelly, J.; Gardner, C.; Luccio, A.; Kponou, A.; Reece, K.

    1991-01-01

    Motivated by the need to commission 3 beam transport lines for the new AGS Booster project, we have developed a generalized emittance-measurement program; beam line specifics are entirely resident in data tables, not in program code. For instrumentation, the program requires one or more multi-wire profile monitors; one or multiple profiles are acquired from each monitor, corresponding to one or multiple tunes of the transport line. Emittances and Twiss parameters are calculated using generalized algorithms. The required matix descriptions of the beam optics are constructed by an on-line general beam modeling program. Design of the program, its algorithms, and initial experience with it will be described. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Measurement control program

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A measurement control program for the model plant is described. The discussion includes the technical basis for such a program, the application of measurement control principles to each measurement, and the use of special experiments to estimate measurement error parameters for difficult-to-measure materials. The discussion also describes the statistical aspects of the program, and the documentation procedures used to record, maintain, and process the basic data. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the criteria for this type of a measurement control program; (2) understand the kinds of physical standards required for the various measurement processes, e.g., weighing, analytical, NDA; (3) understand the need for and importance of a measurement control program; (4) understand the need for special experiments to provide an improved basis for the measurement of difficult-to-measure materials; (5) understand the general scope of the program's statistical aspects; and (6) understand the basis and scope of the documentation procedures

  10. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  11. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 4 of 6: ON-LINE, NON-DESTRUCTIVE MECHANICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENT USING LASER-ULTRASOUND

    Andre' Moreau; Martin Lord; Daniel Levesqure; Marc Dubois; Jean Bussiere; Jean-Pierre Monchalin; Christian Padioleau; Guy Lamouche; Teodor Veres; Martin Viens; Harold Hebert; Pierre Basseras; Cheng-Kuei Jen

    2001-03-31

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility to measure the mechanical properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, strain hardening exponent and plastic strain ratio parameters, of low carbon steel sheets on the production line using laser ultrasound. The ultrasound generated by the developed apparatus travels mostly back and forth in the thickness of the steel sheet. By measuring the time delay between two echoes, and the relative amplitude of these two echoes, one can measure ultrasound velocity and attenuation. These are governed by the microstructure: grain size, crystallographic texture, dislocations, etc. Thus, by recording the time behavior of the ultrasonic signal, one can extract microstructural information. These microstructural information together with the modified Hall-Petch equation allow measurement of the mechanical properties. Through laboratory investigations with a laboratory laser ultrasound system, followed by the installation of a prototype system at LTV Steel Company's No.1 Inspection Line in Cleveland, all target mechanical properties of ultra low carbon (ULC), low carbon (LC) and high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel sample lots were measured meeting or nearly meeting all the target accuracies. Thus, the project realized its goal to demonstrate that the mechanical properties of low carbon steel sheets can be measured on-line using laser ultrasound

  12. Auditing measurement control programs

    Roberts, F.P.; Brouns, R.J.

    1979-10-01

    Requirements and a general procedure for auditing measurement control programs used in special nuclear material accounting are discussed. The areas of measurement control that need to be examined are discussed and a suggested checklist is included to assist in the preparation and performance of the audit

  13. Second Line of Defense Spares Program

    Henderson, Dale L.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Muller, George; Mercier, Theresa M.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Perkins, Casey J.; Cooley, Scott K.; Thorsen, Darlene E.

    2012-11-20

    During Fiscal Year 2012, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an assessment and analysis of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Sustainability spare parts program. Spare parts management touches many aspects of the SLD Sustainability Program including contracting and integration of Local Maintenance Providers (LMP), equipment vendors, analyses and metrics on program performance, system state of health, and maintenance practices. Standardized spares management will provide better data for decisions during site transition phase and will facilitate transition to host country sustainability ownership. The effort was coordinated with related SLD Sustainability Program initiatives, including a configuration items baselining initiative, a metrics initiative, and a maintenance initiative. The spares study has also led to pilot programs for sourcing alternatives that include regional intermediate inventories and partnering agreements that leverage existing supply chains. Many partners from the SLD Sustainability program contributed to and were consulted in the course of the study. This document provides a description of the findings, recommendations, and implemented solutions that have resulted from the study.

  14. Off-line programming (OLP) system comparison

    Holliday, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Off-line programming (OLP) systems are being used to conceptualize, design, simulate, and now control automated robotic workcells. Currently available systems by Deneb, SILMA, and Cimetrix are being used at the Lawrenece Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to simulate and control automated robotic systems for radioactive material processing and hazardous waste sorting. The differences in system architectures, workcell and robot calibration procedures, operator interface, and graphical output capability of each will be discussed. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these attributes will be discussed as they relate to varying applications in robotic workcell development and control

  15. A Distributed System for Learning Programming On-Line

    Verdu, Elena; Regueras, Luisa M.; Verdu, Maria J.; Leal, Jose P.; de Castro, Juan P.; Queiros, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Several Web-based on-line judges or on-line programming trainers have been developed in order to allow students to train their programming skills. However, their pedagogical functionalities in the learning of programming have not been clearly defined. EduJudge is a project which aims to integrate the "UVA On-line Judge", an existing…

  16. Line pressure effects on differential pressure measurements

    Neff, G.G.; Evans, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of differential pressure transducers in experimental pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems was evaluated. Transient differential pressure measurements made using a simple calibration proportionality relating differential pressure to output voltage could have large measurement uncertainties. A more sophisticated calibration equation was derived to incorporate the effects of zero shifts and sensitivity shifts as pressure in the pressure sensing line changes with time. A comparison made between the original calibration proportionality equation and the derived compensation equation indicates that potential measurement uncertainties can be reduced

  17. Secondary beam line phase space measurement and modeling at LAMPF

    Floyd, R.; Harrison, J.; Macek, R.; Sanders, G.

    1979-01-01

    Hardware and software have been developed for precision on-line measurement and fitting of secondary beam line phase space parameters. A system consisting of three MWPC planes for measuring particle trajectories, in coincidence with a time-of-flight telescope and a range telescope for particle identification, has been interfaced to a computer. Software has been developed for on-line track reconstruction, application of experimental cuts, and fitting of two-dimensional phase space ellipses for each particle species. The measured distributions have been found to agree well with the predictions of the Monte Carlo program DECAY TURTLE. The fitted phase space ellipses are a useful input to optimization routines, such as TRANSPORT, used to search for superior tunes. Application of this system to the LAMPF Stopped Muon Channel is described

  18. On the Transmission Line Pulse Measurement Technique

    X. Rodriguez; M. Eduardo; M. Harington

    2015-01-01

    Transmission Line Pulse is a short pulse (25ns to 150ns) measurement of the current-voltage (I/V) characteristics of the ESD protection built into an integrated circuit. The short TLP pulses are used to simulate the short ESD pulse threats and integrated circuit must tolerate without being damaged. In this work the fundamental principles of how the TLP pulse is generated and used to create I-V characteristic plots will be explored. The measurement will be then used to characterize the I-V cha...

  19. Moving droplets : The measurement of contact lines

    Poelma, C.; Franken, M.J.Z.; Kim, H.; Westerweel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Contact lines are the locations where a gas, liquid and a solid meet. From everyday experience we know that such contact lines can be mobile, for example in the case of a water droplet sliding over a glass surface. However, the continuum description of the flow towards or away from a contact line

  20. Calibration Base Lines for Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMI)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A calibration base line (CBL) is a precisely measured, straight-line course of approximately 1,400 m used to calibrate Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments...

  1. Off-line programming and simulation in handling nuclear components

    Baker, C.P.

    1993-10-01

    IGRIP was used to create a simulation of the robotic workcell design for handling components at the PANTEX nuclear arms facility. This initial simulation identified problems with the customer's proposed worker layout, and allowed a correction to be proposed. Refinement of the IGRIP simulation allowed the design and construction of a workcell mock-up and accurate off-line programming of the system. IGRIP's off-line programming capabilities are being used to develop the motion control code for the workcell. PNLs success in this area suggests that simulation and off-line programming may be valuable tools for developing robotics in some automation resistant industries

  2. An off-line programming system for palletizing robot

    Youdong Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Off-line programming systems are essential tools for the effective use of palletizing robots. This article presents a dedicated off-line programming system for palletizing robots. According to the user practical requirements, there are many user-defined patterns that can’t be easily generated by commercial off-line robot programming systems. This study suggests a pattern generation method that users can easily define their patterns. The proposed method has been simulation and experiment. The results have attested the effectiveness of the proposed pattern generation method.

  3. Line Profile Measurements of the Lunar Exospheric Sodium

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Line, Michael R.; Roesler, Fred L.; Lupie, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    We report ongoing results of a program to measure the lunar sodium exospheric line profile from near the lunar limb out to two lunar radii (approx 3500 km). These observations are conducted from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce telescope using a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,600 (1.7 km/s) to measure line widths and velocity shifts of the Na D2 (5889 950 A) emission line in equatorial and polar regions at different lunar phases. The typical field of view (FOV) is 3 arcmin (approx 360 km) with an occasional smaller 1 arcmin FOV used right at the limb edge. The first data were obtained from full Moon to 3 days following full Moon (waning phase) in March 2009 as part of a demonstration run aimed at establishing techniques for a thorough study of temperatures and velocity variations in the lunar sodium exosphere. These data indicate velocity displacements from different locations off the lunar limb range between 150 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/- 20 to +/- 50 m/s depending on brightness. The measured Doppler line widths for observations within 10.5 arcmin of the east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 deg and 40 deg lunar phase imply temperatures ranging decreasing from 3250 +/- 260K to 1175 +/- 150K. Additional data is now being collected on a quarterly basis since March 2011 and preliminary results will be reported.

  4. On-line data processing apparatus for spectroscopic measurements of atomic uranium

    Miron, E.; Levin, L.A.; Erez, G; Baumatz, D; Goren, I.; Shpancer, I.

    1977-01-01

    A computer-based apparatus for on-line spectroscopic measurements of atomic uranium is described. The system is capable of enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio by averaging, and performing calculations. Computation flow charts and programs are included

  5. Integrating Robot Task Planning into Off-Line Programming Systems

    Sun, Hongyan; Kroszynski, Uri

    1988-01-01

    a system architecture for integrated robot task planning. It identifies and describes the components considered necessary for implementation. The focus is on functionality of these elements as well as on the information flow. A pilot implementation of such an integrated system architecture for a robot......The addition of robot task planning in off-line programming systems aims at improving the capability of current state-of-the-art commercially available off-line programming systems, by integrating modeling, task planning, programming and simulation together under one platform. This article proposes...... assembly task is discussed....

  6. Using linear programming to analyze and optimize stochastic flow lines

    Helber, Stefan; Schimmelpfeng, Katja; Stolletz, Raik

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a linear programming approach to analyze and optimize flow lines with limited buffer capacities and stochastic processing times. The basic idea is to solve a huge but simple linear program that models an entire simulation run of a multi-stage production process in discrete time...... programming and hence allows us to solve buffer allocation problems. We show under which conditions our method works well by comparing its results to exact values for two-machine models and approximate simulation results for longer lines....

  7. On-Line Voltage Stability Assessment based on PMU Measurements

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; P. Da Silva, Luiz C.; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for on-line monitoring of risk voltage collapse based on synchronised phasor measurement. As there is no room for intensive computation and analysis in real-time, the method is based on the combination of off-line computation and on-line monitoring, which are correlat...

  8. CORRELATION BETWEEN SOME BODY MEASURES OF LIPPIZANER STALLION PER LINES AT ĐAKOVO STUD

    T. Rastija

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Body measures of Lippizaner line stallions and their correlation were processed in Đakovo stud. The measures performed by Lydtin rod and stock band included withers height, chest girth and cannon bone circumference on the total of 75 heads. Neapolitano line was characterized by the fewest number of stallions (4 whereas Tulip by the largest one (20. Data attained by the measuring were processed by the statistical program SPSS/PC (Nie et. al. 1975. Neapolitano line stallions had the lowest withers height (164.00 cm measured by the band whereas Conversano line stallions had the highest one (166.33 cm. Withers height measured by the rod was the lowest in the Maestoso line stallion (156.50 cm and the highest one in the Favory line (159.20 cm. Chest girth ranged between 183.82 cm (Pluto line and 186.89 cm (Conversano line. Cannon bone circumference was uniform with all lines ranged from 20.05 cm (Tulipan line and 20.65 cm (Maestoso lines. Correlation between withers height measured by the band and rod and that one measured by the rod and chest girth was positive and highly significant. However, correlation between others ranged from slight positive to slight negative. Neapolitano line was known for the most pronounced correlation per lines whereas Tulip line for the weakest one. Correlation between withers height measured by the band and rod was in all lines highly significant (except Tulip line whereas other correlation varied from positive to negative.

  9. Measurement control program for new special recovery

    Hsue, S.T.; Campbell, K.; Barlich, G.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes the design of the measurement control (MC) program for the New Special Recovery facility. The MC program is divided into two levels. Level 1 MC checks are performed at the individual instrument computer and will always be functional even when the instrument-control computer is down. The level 1 MCs are divided into statistical checks for both bias and precision, and diagnostic checks. All the instruments are connected on line to an instrument-control computer to which the measurement results can be communicated. Level 2 MC analyses are performed at this computer. The analyses consist of control charts for bias and precision and statistical tests used as analytic supplements to the control charts. They provide the desired detection sensitivity and yet can be interpreted quickly and easily. Recommendations are also made in terms of the frequency of the tests, the standard used, and other operational aspects of the MC program. 16 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  10. LineVISAR. A fringe-trace data analysis program

    Furnish, Michael D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The line-imaging ORVIS or VISAR provides velocity as a function of position and time for a line on an experimental setup via a streak camera record of interference fringes. This document describes a Matlab-based program which guides the user through the process of converting these fringe data to a velocity surface. The data reduction is of the "fringe trace" type, wherein the changes in velocity at a given position on the line are calculated based on fringe motion past that point. The analyst must establish the fringe behavior up front, aided by peak-finding routines in the program. However, the later work of using fringe jumps to compensate for phase problems in other analysis techniques is greatly reduced. This program is not a standard GUI construction, and is prescriptive. At various points it saves the progress, allowing later restarts from those points.

  11. Smile line assessment comparing quantitative measurement and visual estimation

    Geld, P. Van der; Oosterveld, P.; Schols, J.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Esthetic analysis of dynamic functions such as spontaneous smiling is feasible by using digital videography and computer measurement for lip line height and tooth display. Because quantitative measurements are time-consuming, digital videography and semiquantitative (visual) estimation

  12. Measuring service line competitive position. A systematic methodology for hospitals.

    Studnicki, J

    1991-01-01

    To mount a broad effort aimed at improving their competitive position for some service or group of services, hospitals have begun to pursue product line management techniques. A few hospitals have even reorganized completely under the product line framework. The benefits include focusing accountability for operations and results, facilitating coordination between departments and functions, stimulating market segmentation, and promoting rigorous examination of new and existing programs. As part of its strategic planning process, a suburban Baltimore hospital developed a product line management methodology with six basic steps: (1) define the service lines (which they did by grouping all existing diagnosis-related groups into 35 service lines), (2) determine the contribution of each service line to total inpatient volume, (3) determine trends in service line volumes (by comparing data over time), (4) derive a useful comparison group (competing hospitals or groups of hospitals with comparable size, scope of services, payer mix, and financial status), (5) review multiple time frames, and (6) summarize the long- and short-term performance of the hospital's service lines to focus further analysis. This type of systematic and disciplined analysis can become part of a permanent strategic intelligence program. When hospitals have such a program in place, their market research, planning, budgeting, and operations will be tied together in a true management decision support system.

  13. An electromagnetic field measurement protocol for monitoring power lines

    Lubritto, C.; Iavazzo, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; Palmieri, A.; Sabbarese, C.; Terrasi, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the actions aiming to prevent risks related to the exposure to Low Frequencies Non Ionising electromagnetic Radiations (ELF-NIR), always arises the need to perform measurements in order to assess the field level existing in the considered sites. As a matter of fact very often it turns out difficult to predict, on the base of calculations, with sufficient approximation the field levels, due to extended variability of environmental conditions (e.g. coexistence of several sources, ground and building conformation, etc..). The measurement procedures must follow a methodology that could allow to minimise the interferences with the measurement set-up and the systematic and accidental errors. Risks for the operator and damages to the instrument should also be taken into account. One of the goal set for this research program was then the definition of the measurement protocol for electromagnetic field generated by low frequency non ionising radiation sources. In particular sources like power lines will be considered in order to validate the protocol by means of in-field measurements

  14. Material Control and Accountability Measurements for FB-Line Processes

    Casella, V.R.

    2002-01-01

    This report provides an overview of FB-Line processes and nuclear material accountability measurements. Flow diagrams for the product, waste, and packaging and stabilization processes are given along with the accountability measurements done before and after each of these processes. Brief descriptions of these measurements are provided. This information provides a better understanding of the general FB-Line processes and how MC and A measurements are used to keep track of the accountable material inventory

  15. Statistical evaluation and measuring strategy for extremely small line shifts

    Hansen, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    For a measuring situation limited by counting statistics, but where the level of precision is such that possible systematic errors are a major concern, it is proposed to determine the position of a spectral line from a measured line segment by applying a bias correction to the centre of gravity of the segment. This procedure is statistically highly efficient and not sensitive to small errors in assumptions about the line shape. The counting strategy for an instrument that takes data point by point is also considered. It is shown that an optimum (''two-point'') strategy exists; a scan of the central part of the line is 68% efficient by this standard. (Auth.)

  16. Stark broadening measurements of Xe III spectral lines

    Pelaez, R J; Cirisan, M; Djurovic, S; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S

    2006-01-01

    This work reports measured Stark widths of doubly ionized xenon lines. Pulsed arc was used as a plasma source. Measured electron densities and temperatures were in the ranges of (0.2 - 1.6) x 10 23 m -3 and 18 300-25 500 K, respectively. Stark halfwidths of lines from 6s-6p, 6s-4f and 5d-6p transitions have been measured and compared with available experimental and theoretical data

  17. The NRC measurement verification program

    Pham, T.N.; Ong, L.D.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A perspective is presented on the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach for effectively monitoring the measurement methods and directly testing the capability and performance of licensee measurement systems. A main objective in material control and accounting (MC and A) inspection activities is to assure the accuracy and precision of the accounting system and the absence of potential process anomalies through overall accountability. The primary means of verification remains the NRC random sampling during routine safeguards inspections. This involves the independent testing of licensee measurement performance with statistical sampling plans for physical inventories, item control, and auditing. A prospective cost-effective alternative overcheck is also discussed in terms of an externally coordinated sample exchange or ''round robin'' program among participating fuel cycle facilities in order to verify the quality of measurement systems, i.e., to assure that analytical measurement results are free of bias

  18. High-resolution Laboratory Measurements of Coronal Lines near the Fe IX Line at 171 Å

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Träbert, Elmar

    2018-02-01

    We present high-resolution laboratory measurements in the spectral region between 165 and 175 Å that focus on the emission from various ions of C, O, F, Ne, S, Ar, Fe, and Ni. This wavelength region is centered on the λ171 Fe IX channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and we place special emphasis on the weaker emission lines of Fe IX predicted in this region. In general, our measurements show a multitude of weak lines missing in the current databases, where the emission lines of Ni are probably most in need of further identification and reclassification. We also find that the wavelengths of some of the known lines need updating. Using the multi-reference Møller–Plesset method for wavelength predictions and collisional-radiative modeling of the line intensities, we have made tentative assignments of more than a dozen lines to the spectrum of Fe IX, some of which have formerly been identified as Fe VII, Fe XIV, or Fe XVI lines. Several Fe features remain unassigned, although they appear to be either Fe VII or Fe X lines. Further work will be needed to complete and correct the spectral line lists in this wavelength region.

  19. On-line adaptive line frequency noise cancellation from a nuclear power measuring channel

    Qadir Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On-line software for adaptively canceling 50 Hz line frequency noise has been designed and tested at Pakistan Research Reactor 1. Line frequency noise causes much problem in weak signals acquisition. Sometimes this noise is so dominant that original signal is totally corrupted. Although notch filter can be used for eliminating this noise, but if signal of interest is in close vicinity of 50 Hz, then original signal is also attenuated and hence overall performance is degraded. Adaptive noise removal is a technique which could be employed for removing line frequency without degrading the desired signal. In this paper line frequency noise has been eliminated on-line from a nuclear power measuring channel. The adaptive LMS algorithm has been used to cancel 50 Hz noise. The algorithm has been implemented in labVIEW with NI 6024 data acquisition card. The quality of the acquired signal has been improved much as can be seen in experimental results.

  20. Comparison of electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines

    Korpinen, L.; Kuisti, H.; Tarao, H.; Paeaekkoenen, R.; Elovaara, J.

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines. The authors compared two different methods under power lines: in Method A, the sensor was placed on a tripod; and Method B required the measurer to hold the meter horizontally so that the distance from him/her was at least 1.5 m. The study includes 20 measurements in three places under 400 kV power lines. The authors used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300. In statistical analyses, they did not find significant differences between Methods A and B. However, in the future, it is important to take into account that measurement methods can, in some cases, influence ELF electric field measurement results, and it is important to report the methods used so that it is possible to repeat the measurements. (authors)

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program plan

    1990-02-01

    In order to understand energy's role in anthropogenic global climate change, significant reliance is being placed on General Circulation Models (GCMs). A major goal is to foster the development of GCMs capable of predicting the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and the regional effects of such warming. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program will contribute to the Department of Energy goal by improving the treatment of cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks in GCMs. Two issues will be addressed: the radiation budget and its spectral dependence and the radiative and other properties of clouds. The experimental objective of the ARM Program is to characterize empirically the radiative processes in the Earth's atmosphere with improved resolution and accuracy. A key to this characterization is the effective treatment of cloud formation and cloud properties in GCMs. Through this characterization of radiative properties, it will be possible to understand both the forcing and feedback effects. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Smile line assessment comparing quantitative measurement and visual estimation.

    Van der Geld, Pieter; Oosterveld, Paul; Schols, Jan; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2011-02-01

    Esthetic analysis of dynamic functions such as spontaneous smiling is feasible by using digital videography and computer measurement for lip line height and tooth display. Because quantitative measurements are time-consuming, digital videography and semiquantitative (visual) estimation according to a standard categorization are more practical for regular diagnostics. Our objective in this study was to compare 2 semiquantitative methods with quantitative measurements for reliability and agreement. The faces of 122 male participants were individually registered by using digital videography. Spontaneous and posed smiles were captured. On the records, maxillary lip line heights and tooth display were digitally measured on each tooth and also visually estimated according to 3-grade and 4-grade scales. Two raters were involved. An error analysis was performed. Reliability was established with kappa statistics. Interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability values were high, with median kappa values from 0.79 to 0.88. Agreement of the 3-grade scale estimation with quantitative measurement showed higher median kappa values (0.76) than the 4-grade scale estimation (0.66). Differentiating high and gummy smile lines (4-grade scale) resulted in greater inaccuracies. The estimation of a high, average, or low smile line for each tooth showed high reliability close to quantitative measurements. Smile line analysis can be performed reliably with a 3-grade scale (visual) semiquantitative estimation. For a more comprehensive diagnosis, additional measuring is proposed, especially in patients with disproportional gingival display. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic Line Rating Oncor Electric Delivery Smart Grid Program

    Johnson, Justin; Smith, Cale; Young, Mike; Donohoo, Ken; Owen, Ross; Clark, Eddit; Espejo, Raul; Aivaliotis, Sandy; Stelmak, Ron; Mohr, Ron; Barba, Cristian; Gonzalez, Guillermo; Malkin, Stuart; Dimitrova, Vessela; Ragsdale, Gary; Mitchem, Sean; Jeirath, Nakul; Loomis, Joe; Trevino, Gerardo; Syracuse, Steve; Hurst, Neil; Mereness, Matt; Johnson, Chad; Bivens, Carrie

    2013-05-04

    Electric transmission lines are the lifeline of the electric utility industry, delivering its product from source to consumer. This critical infrastructure is often constrained such that there is inadequate capacity on existing transmission lines to efficiently deliver the power to meet demand in certain areas or to transport energy from high-generation areas to high-consumption regions. When this happens, the cost of the energy rises; more costly sources of power are used to meet the demand or the system operates less reliably. These economic impacts are known as congestion, and they can amount to substantial dollars for any time frame of reference: hour, day or year. There are several solutions to the transmission constraint problem, including: construction of new generation, construction of new transmission facilities, rebuilding and reconductoring of existing transmission assets, and Dynamic Line Rating (DLR). All of these options except DLR are capital intensive, have long lead times and often experience strong public and regulatory opposition. The Smart Grid Demonstration Program (SGDP) project co-funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Oncor Electric Delivery Company developed and deployed the most extensive and advanced DLR installation to demonstrate that DLR technology is capable of resolving many transmission capacity constraint problems with a system that is reliable, safe and very cost competitive. The SGDP DLR deployment is the first application of DLR technology to feed transmission line real-time dynamic ratings directly into the system operation’s State Estimator and load dispatch program, which optimizes the matching of generation with load demand on a security, reliability and economic basis. The integrated Dynamic Line Rating (iDLR)1 collects transmission line parameters at remote locations on the lines, calculates the real-time line rating based on the equivalent conductor temperature, ambient temperature and influence of wind and solar

  4. LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS OF WHITE DWARF PHOTOSPHERIC SPECTRAL LINES: Hβ

    Falcon, Ross E.; Gomez, T. A.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Nagayama, T.

    2015-01-01

    We spectroscopically measure multiple hydrogen Balmer line profiles from laboratory plasmas to investigate the theoretical line profiles used in white dwarf (WD) atmosphere models. X-ray radiation produced at the Z Pulsed Power Facility at Sandia National Laboratories initiates plasma formation in a hydrogen-filled gas cell, replicating WD photospheric conditions. Here we present time-resolved measurements of Hβ and fit this line using different theoretical line profiles to diagnose electron density, n e , and n = 2 level population, n 2 . Aided by synthetic tests, we characterize the validity of our diagnostic method for this experimental platform. During a single experiment, we infer a continuous range of electron densities increasing from n e ∼ 4 to ∼30 × 10 16 cm −3 throughout a 120-ns evolution of our plasma. Also, we observe n 2 to be initially elevated with respect to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE); it then equilibrates within ∼55 ns to become consistent with LTE. This supports our electron-temperature determination of T e ∼ 1.3 eV (∼15,000 K) after this time. At n e ≳ 10 17 cm −3 , we find that computer-simulation-based line-profile calculations provide better fits (lower reduced χ 2 ) than the line profiles currently used in the WD astronomy community. The inferred conditions, however, are in good quantitative agreement. This work establishes an experimental foundation for the future investigation of relative shapes and strengths between different hydrogen Balmer lines

  5. Sensing line effects on PWR-based differential pressure measurements

    Evans, R.P.; Neff, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    An incorrrect configuration of the fluid-filled pressure sensing lines connecting differential pressure transducers to the pressure taps in a pressurized water reactor system can cause errors in the measurement and, during rapid pressure transients, could cause the transducer to fail. Testing was performed in both static and dynamic modes to experimentally determine the effects of sensing lines of various lengths, diameters, and materials. Testing was performed at ambient temperature with absolute line pressures at about 17 MPa using water as the pressure transmission fluid

  6. Program elaborated of combined regime for on-line and off-line problems

    Ivanova, A.B.; Ioramashvili, Eh.Sh.; Polyakov, B.F.; Razdol'skaya, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    A description of the part of operational system designed for organization of packet treatment of algol tasks combined with the on-line system is provided. A block-scheme of the operational system functioning in the packet regime is presented. The ''Director'' program is the main part of the operational system which is responsible for the functioning of the algol programs. Its starting for the first time is carried out by the operator. All the subsequent process of the operation is automized. Problems connected with the organization of interruptions appearing in the cases of failures and as a reaction for the end of operation of any algol program or some of its links are considered

  7. HB-Line Material Control and Accountability Measurements at SRS

    Casella, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    Presently, HB-Line work at the Savannah River Site consists primarily of the stabilization and packaging of nuclear materials for storage and the characterization of materials for disposition in H-Area. In order to ensure compliance with Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) Regulations, accountability measurements are performed throughout the HB-Line processes. Accountability measurements are used to keep track of the nuclear material inventory by constantly updating the amount of material in the MBAs (Material Balance Area) and sub-MBAs. This is done by subtracting the amount of accountable material that is added to a process and by adding the amount of accountable material that is put back in storage. A Physical Inventory is taken and compared to the ''Book Value'' listed in the Nuclear Material Accounting System. The difference (BPID) in the Book Inventory minus the Physical Inventory of a sub-account for bulk material must agree within the measurement errors combined in quadrature to provide assurance that nuclear material is accounted for. This work provides an overview of HB-Line processes and accountability measurements. The Scrap Recovery Line and Neptunium-237/Plutonium-239 Oxide Line are described and sampling and analyses for Phase II are provided. Recommendations for improvements are provided to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness

  8. Design and Validation with Measurements of the LEIR Injection Line

    Roncarolo, F; Chanel, M; Dumas, L; Scrivens, R

    2006-01-01

    The CERN Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) commissioning started in the year 2005. O4+and Pb54+ion beams are transferred at 4.2 MeV/nucleon from Linac 3 to LEIR through a low energy transfer line, for which the constraints and the resulting optics design are presented. First trajectory and dispersion measurements agreed only poorly with the theoretical model. Iterations of a refined optics model and further measurements improved the agreement between experimental observations and expectations. In particular, the effect of quadrupole errors in the line dipole magnets is discussed.

  9. Measurement of the deuterium Balmer series line emission on EAST

    Wu, C. R.; Xu, Z.; Jin, Z.; Zhang, P. F. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, J., E-mail: juan.huang@ipp.ac.cn; Gao, W.; Gao, W.; Chang, J. F.; Xu, J. C.; Duan, Y. M.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhang, L.; Wu, Z. W.; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Hou, Y. M. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Volume recombination plays an important role towards plasma detachment for magnetically confined fusion devices. High quantum number states of the Balmer series of deuterium are used to study recombination. On EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak), two visible spectroscopic measurements are applied for the upper/lower divertor with 13 channels, respectively. Both systems are coupled with Princeton Instruments ProEM EMCCD 1024B camera: one is equipped on an Acton SP2750 spectrometer, which has a high spectral resolution ∼0.0049 nm with 2400 gr/mm grating to measure the D{sub α}(H{sub α}) spectral line and with 1200 gr/mm grating to measure deuterium molecular Fulcher band emissions and another is equipped on IsoPlane SCT320 using 600 gr/mm to measure high-n Balmer series emission lines, allowing us to study volume recombination on EAST and to obtain the related line averaged plasma parameters (T{sub e}, n{sub e}) during EAST detached phases. This paper will present the details of the measurements and the characteristics of deuterium Balmer series line emissions during density ramp-up L-mode USN plasma on EAST.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Plan

    1990-02-01

    In order to understand energy's role in anthropogenic global climate change, significant reliance is being placed on General Circulation Models (GCMs). A major goal of the Department is to foster the development of GCMs capable of predicting the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and the regional effects of such warming. DOE research has revealed that cloud radiative feedback is the single most important effect determining the magnitude of possible climate responses to human activity. However, cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks are not understood at the levels needed for reliable climate prediction. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program will contribute to the DOE goal by improving the treatment of cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks in GCMs. Two issues will be addressed: the radiation budget and its spectral dependence and the radiative and other properties of clouds. Understanding cloud properties and how to predict them is critical because cloud properties may very well change as climate changes. The experimental objective of the ARM Program is to characterize empirically the radiative processes in the Earth's atmosphere with improved resolution and accuracy. A key to this characterization is the effective treatment of cloud formation and cloud properties in GCMs. Through this characterization of radiative properties, it will be possible to understand both the forcing and feedback effects. GCM modelers will then be able to better identify the best approaches to improved parameterizations of radiative transfer effects. This is expected to greatly improve the accuracy of long-term, GCM predictions and the efficacy of those predictions at the important regional scale, as the research community and DOE attempt to understand the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on the Earth's climate. 153 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Distribution Line Parameter Estimation Under Consideration of Measurement Tolerances

    Prostejovsky, Alexander; Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    conductance that the absolute compensated error is −1.05% and −1.07% for both representations, as opposed to the expected uncompensated error of −79.68%. Identification of a laboratory distribution line using real measurement data grid yields a deviation of 6.75% and 4.00%, respectively, from a calculation...

  12. Linearized spectrum correlation analysis for line emission measurements.

    Nishizawa, T; Nornberg, M D; Den Hartog, D J; Sarff, J S

    2017-08-01

    A new spectral analysis method, Linearized Spectrum Correlation Analysis (LSCA), for charge exchange and passive ion Doppler spectroscopy is introduced to provide a means of measuring fast spectral line shape changes associated with ion-scale micro-instabilities. This analysis method is designed to resolve the fluctuations in the emission line shape from a stationary ion-scale wave. The method linearizes the fluctuations around a time-averaged line shape (e.g., Gaussian) and subdivides the spectral output channels into two sets to reduce contributions from uncorrelated fluctuations without averaging over the fast time dynamics. In principle, small fluctuations in the parameters used for a line shape model can be measured by evaluating the cross spectrum between different channel groupings to isolate a particular fluctuating quantity. High-frequency ion velocity measurements (100-200 kHz) were made by using this method. We also conducted simulations to compare LSCA with a moment analysis technique under a low photon count condition. Both experimental and synthetic measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of LSCA.

  13. Potential transportation demand management programs and measures

    Litman, T. [Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    1997-02-07

    The advantages of transportation demand management (TDM) programs were discussed. TDM includes several policies, programs and measures designed to change travel patterns. TDM programs include commute trip reductions, pricing policies, land use management strategies, and programs to support alternative modes of transportation such as public transit, carpooling, bicycling, walking and telecommuting. TDM programs are designed to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. Some other TDM programs and measures include: enabling programs, alternative mode encouragement, driving disincentives, parking programs, marginalizing user costs, reducing automobile ownership, and land use management.

  14. Selenium x-ray laser line profile measurements

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.; Matthews, D.L.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss our recent measurements of the spectral width of the 206.38 Angstrom laser in Ne-like Se. These measurements were performed over a wide range of amplifier length indicate an intrinsic line width of 50 m Angstrom FWHM (full-width at half-maximum), show gain narrowing to 10 m Angstrom in intermediate length amplifiers and show no significant re-broadening in We briefly discuss the experiments and interpretations

  15. ELT-MELAS analyzer and its on-line programs

    Anikeev, V.B.; Berezhnoj, V.A.; Glupova

    1976-01-01

    ELT-MELAS device constructed for an automatic analysis of pictures from big bubble chambers is described. It is controlled by a medium-size ICL-1903A computer and has two measuring modes: analysis of the ''agreement'' signal and digitation of slice-scans. Main features of the hardware and of on-line controlling and diagnostic software are presented. The test results of the MELAS complex as well as preliminary results of the scan-slice measurements of pictures from 15sup(') chamber are given

  16. NASA's Optical Measurement Program 2014

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Stansbery, G.; Seitzer, P.; Buckalew, B.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Optical Measurements Group (OMG) within the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) addresses U.S. National Space Policy goals by monitoring and characterizing debris. Since 2001, the OMG has used the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST) at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile for general orbital debris survey. The 0.6-m Schmidt MODEST provides calibrated astronomical data of GEO targets, both catalogued and uncatalogued debris, with excellent image quality. The data are utilized by the ODPO modeling group and are included in the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) v. 3.0. MODEST and the CTIO/SMARTS (Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System) 0.9 m both acquire filter photometric data, as well as synchronously observing targets in selected optical filters. This information provides data used in material composition studies as well as longer orbital arc data on the same target, without time delay or bias from a rotating, tumbling, or spinning target. NASA, in collaboration with the University of Michigan, began using the twin 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for deep imaging (Baade) and spectroscopic data (Clay) in 2011. Through the data acquired on Baade, debris have been detected that are 3 magnitudes fainter than detections with MODEST, while the data from Clay provide better resolved information used in material characterization analyses via selected bandpasses. To better characterize and model optical data, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC has been in operation since 2005, resulting in a database of comparison laboratory data. The OMC is designed to emulate illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations. Lastly, the OMG is building the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) at Ascension Island. The 1.3-m telescope is designed to observe GEO and LEO targets, using a

  17. MIRKO - An interactive program for beam lines and synchrotrons

    Franczak, B.

    1984-01-01

    The ion-optical design of beam lines and synchrotrons is usually not done by a single run of one program. It takes many iterations of calculation, examination of results, and modification of input data. In most cases the first order design has to be followed by the investigation of higher order effects, i.e. chromatic and geometrical aberrations or resonance phenomena. The interactive computer program MIRKO is operated from a terminal and has a command structure, which enables the user to edit data, perform calculations, and to obtain alpha or graphics output on the terminal in any desired sequence. With graphics one can recognize the properties of an optical system much faster than with numbers only. Thus modifications of input data depending on the results of calculations can be made easily without stopping and restarting the program. Higher order effects can sometimes influence the first order design. Therefore, particle tracking capability was included in MIRKO as well as the calculation of stop band widths for synchrotrons. Consequently a large variety of phenomena can be studied with one program in one session based upon exactly the same data for the optical system and the possibility of fast switching between the different features

  18. Accurate micro Hall effect measurements on scribe line pads

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Hall mobility and sheet carrier density are important parameters to monitor in advanced semiconductor production. If micro Hall effect measurements are done on small pads in scribe lines, these parameters may be measured without using valuable test wafers. We report how Hall mobility can...... be extracted from micro four-point measurements performed on a rectangular pad. The dimension of the investigated pad is 400 × 430 ¿m2, and the probe pitches range from 20 ¿m to 50 ¿m. The Monte Carlo method is used to find the optimal way to perform the Hall measurement and extract Hall mobility most...

  19. E-line: A new crystal collimator beam line for source size measurements at CHESS

    White, Jeffrey A. [CHESS, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850-8001 (United States)], E-mail: jaw7@cornell.edu; Revesz, Peter; Finkelstein, Ken [CHESS, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850-8001 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    A new X-ray beam line has been constructed at cornell high energy synchrotron source (CHESS) to measure the vertical and horizontal source size of the positron particle beam. The cornell laboratory of elementary particle physics (LEPP) operates the storage ring (CESR) for X-ray generation for the CHESS user community by circulating electrons and their antimatter counterpart positrons in counter-rotating beams. As the laboratory reduces the emittances of particle beams to increase X-ray brilliance, there has been an increasing need for diagnostic tools to measure and monitor source size. A beam line front end that accesses the positron synchrotron light has been fitted with an experimental chamber and apparatus of compact design capable of horizontal and vertical source size measurement using the 'crystal collimator' technique, and an additional setup for vertical beam position monitoring using a luminescence-based X-ray video beam position monitoring system. The crystal collimators each consist of two Si(2 2 0) crystals in a dispersive (+,+) arrangement that diffract X-rays to a fluorescent material coated on a view port observed with a CCD camera. Measurements of the positron vertical beam size using the crystal collimation method at E-line are compared with measurements of visible synchrotron light at a remotely located dedicated port on the storage ring.

  20. E-line: A new crystal collimator beam line for source size measurements at CHESS

    White, Jeffrey A.; Revesz, Peter; Finkelstein, Ken

    2007-01-01

    A new X-ray beam line has been constructed at cornell high energy synchrotron source (CHESS) to measure the vertical and horizontal source size of the positron particle beam. The cornell laboratory of elementary particle physics (LEPP) operates the storage ring (CESR) for X-ray generation for the CHESS user community by circulating electrons and their antimatter counterpart positrons in counter-rotating beams. As the laboratory reduces the emittances of particle beams to increase X-ray brilliance, there has been an increasing need for diagnostic tools to measure and monitor source size. A beam line front end that accesses the positron synchrotron light has been fitted with an experimental chamber and apparatus of compact design capable of horizontal and vertical source size measurement using the 'crystal collimator' technique, and an additional setup for vertical beam position monitoring using a luminescence-based X-ray video beam position monitoring system. The crystal collimators each consist of two Si(2 2 0) crystals in a dispersive (+,+) arrangement that diffract X-rays to a fluorescent material coated on a view port observed with a CCD camera. Measurements of the positron vertical beam size using the crystal collimation method at E-line are compared with measurements of visible synchrotron light at a remotely located dedicated port on the storage ring

  1. Measurement problem in PROGRAM UNIVERSE

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.

    1984-12-01

    We present a discrete theory that meets the measurement problem in a new way. We generate a growing universe of bit strings, labeled by 2 127 + 136 strings organized by some representation of the closed, four level, combinatorial hierarchy, of bit-length N 139 greater than or equal to 139. The rest of the strings for each label, which grow in both length and number, are called addresses. The generating algorithm, called PROGRAM UNIVERSE, starts from a random choice between the two symbols ''0'' and ''1'' and grows (a) by discriminating between two randomly chosen strings and adjoining a novel result to the universe, or when the string so generated is not novel, by (b) adjoining a randomly chosen bit at the growing end of each string. We obtain, by appropriate definitions and interpretations, stable ''particles'' which satisfy the usual relativistic kinematics and quantized angular momentum without being localizable in a continuum space-time. The labeling scheme is congruent with the ''standard model'' of quarks and leptons with three generations, but for the problem at hand, the implementation of this aspect of the theory is unimportant. What matters most is that (a) these complicated ''particles'' have the periodicities familiar from relativistic ''deBroglie waves'' and resolve in a discrete way the ''wave-particle dualism'' and (b) can be ''touched'' by our discrete equivalent of ''soft photons'' in such a way as to follow, macroscopically, the usual Rutherford scattering trajectories with the associated bound states. Thus our theory could provide a discrete description of ''measurement'' in a way that allows no conceptual barrier between the ''micro'' and the ''macro'' worlds, if we are willing to base our physics on counting and exclude the ambiguities associated with the unobservable ''continuum''. 27 refs

  2. Measurement control program at model facility

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement control program for the model plant is described. The discussion includes the technical basis for such a program, the application of measurement control principles to each measurement, and the use of special experiments to estimate measurement error parameters for difficult-to-measure materials. The discussion also describes the statistical aspects of the program, and the documentation procedures used to record, maintain, and process the basic data

  3. Direct measurement of friction of a fluctuating contact line.

    Guo, Shuo; Gao, Min; Xiong, Xiaomin; Wang, Yong Jian; Wang, Xiaoping; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

    2013-07-12

    We report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient of a fluctuating (and slipping) contact line using a thin vertical glass fiber of diameter d with one end glued onto a cantilever beam and the other end touching a liquid-air interface. By measuring the broadening of the resonant peak of the cantilever system with varying liquid viscosity η, we find the friction coefficient of the contact line has a universal form, ξ(c)≃0.8πdη, independent of the liquid-solid contact angle. The obtained scaling law is further supported by the numerical simulation based on the phase field model under the generalized Navier boundary conditions.

  4. TLINES: A Computer Program for Circuits of Transmission Lines.

    1983-12-01

    of various lengths are handled by stringing together many short lines, with the assumption that each of the longer lines has a length approximated as...expressed in terms of transmission lines numbered from 2 through CAPM , connected in numerical sequence as in figure 3. Line 1 is a dummy element disconnected...from line 2 and the rest of the circuit. Lines 2 through CAPM can each be set to any impedance the user desires. Line CAPM +1 is a zero-impedance line

  5. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular

  6. Measuring the sensitivity of a boron-lined ion chamber

    Barton, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    Boron-lined ion chambers are used to monitor external neutron flux from fissionable materials assembled at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Experiment Facility. The sensitivity of these chambers must be measured periodically in order to detect changes in filling gas and to evaluate other factors that may affect chamber performance. We delineate a procedure to measure ion chamber response using a particular neutron source ( 239 PuBe) in a particular moderating geometry of polyethylene. We also discuss use of the amplifier, high-voltage power supply, recorders, and scram circuits that comprise the complete ion chamber monitoring system

  7. Mitigation measures and programs in Hungary

    Molnar, S. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    In Hungary there are four main governmental programs, which may result in a decrease of emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs): (1) National program of energy efficiency improvement and energy conservation, (2) Afforestation program, (3) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission reduction program, and (4) Program to reduce the use of ozone depleting substances. These ambitious programs were launched in the beginning of the 90`s, but they have been slowed down because of budgetary problems. The comprehensive action plan for mitigation of GHG emissions should be based on these ongoing programs. These programs should be expanded by further measures and programs in order to fulfill the requirements of the FCCC. In the next sections the results and prospects of the above mentioned programs will be summarized. Also the results of the mitigation study supported by the U.S. Country Studies Program are included.

  8. In-line measurement of transparent micro membranes

    Fugl, Jimmy; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work has been to develop a new measuring principle to bring down the time for quality assurance, and obtain larger uniformity of the end product, in a specific production line. The production concerns thin transparent micro membranes (approx 35 micron thickness) dispensed...... in micro cavities, each membrane consisting of several membrane layers. A quality control should be performed every time a new layer is dispensed. The paper describes a new way of measuring membrane thickness. The method was achieved through the use of a vision system, whereby the thickness of the thin...... transparent micro membrane is determined in terms of the light absorbance of the membrane substrate. The new and faster measuring method makes is possible to measure the thickness of individual membranes and perform a 100% quality control....

  9. Measurements of VUV lines on dense Z-pinch plasma

    Bertschinger, G.

    1980-01-01

    The transition n = 1 to n = 2 has the most simple structure of all hydrogen transitions and the corresponding spectralline Ly-α is therefore very appropriate to reveal discrepancies between theory and experiment. In this work mainly the Ly-α spectral line of neutral hydrogen has been studied. The electron density of the Z-pinch amounts to 1.5 x 10 24 m -3 with an electron temperature of about 1.2 x 10 5 K. In this parameter range the plasma can still be studied with spectroscopic methods in the visible spectral region. Based on a space and time resolved measurement of the continuous emission spectra the plasma parameters can be determined independent of line broadening. (orig./HT) [de

  10. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    Wasiolek, P.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  11. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibrations and Test Lines

    Wasiolek, Piotr T. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-12-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima NPP accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination, a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count data, expressed in counts per second (cps), need to be converted to a terrestrial component of the exposure rate at 1 meter (m) above ground, or surface activity of the isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large-scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, because production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish a common calibration line very early into the event. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and that are potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  12. Clustering Measurements of broad-line AGNs: Review and Future

    Mirko Krumpe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial effort, the precise physical processes that lead to the growth of super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies are still not well understood. These phases of black hole growth are thought to be of key importance in understanding galaxy evolution. Forthcoming missions such as eROSITA, HETDEX, eBOSS, BigBOSS, LSST, and Pan-STARRS will compile by far the largest ever Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs catalogs which will allow us to measure the spatial distribution of AGNs in the universe with unprecedented accuracy. For the first time, AGN clustering measurements will reach a level of precision that will not only allow for an alternative approach to answering open questions in AGN and galaxy co-evolution but will open a new frontier, allowing us to precisely determine cosmological parameters. This paper reviews large-scale clustering measurements of broad line AGNs. We summarize how clustering is measured and which constraints can be derived from AGN clustering measurements, we discuss recent developments, and we briefly describe future projects that will deliver extremely large AGN samples which will enable AGN clustering measurements of unprecedented accuracy. In order to maximize the scientific return on the research fields of AGN and galaxy evolution and cosmology, we advise that the community develops a full understanding of the systematic uncertainties which will, in contrast to today’s measurement, be the dominant source of uncertainty.

  13. 4He abundances: Optical versus radio recombination line measurements

    Balser, Dana S.; Rood, Robert T.; Bania, T. M.

    2010-04-01

    Accurate measurements of the 4He/H abundance ratio are important in constraining Big Bang nucleosynthesis, models of stellar and Galactic evolution, and H ii region physics. We discuss observations of radio recombination lines using the Green Bank Telescope toward a small sample of H ii regions and planetary nebulae. We report 4He/H abundance ratio differences as high as 15-20% between optical and ratio data that are difficult to reconcile. Using the H ii regions S206 and M17 we determine 4He production in the Galaxy to be dY/dZ = 1.71 ± 0.86.

  14. Measurement control program for nuclear material accounting

    Brouns, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Merrill, J.A.; Brown, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurments of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities, equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality

  15. Interferometric measurement of lines shift in flames in connection with interpretation of lined absorption method in atomic absorption spectroscopy

    L'vov, B.V.; Polzik, L.K.; Katskov, D.A.; Kruglikova, L.P.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is concerned with interferometric measuring of the line shift in flames in the view of interpretation of absorption lines in the atomic absorption spectroscopy. The newly measured line shifts were compared to the known data on Lorentz broadening of the same lines obtained by methods free of the systematic errors. The resonant lines of the alkaline earth elements (Sr, Ca, Ba) were investigated. To reduce self-absorption in the flame the solutions with minimum concentrations of the elements were used. The computation scheme includes the spectrometer apparatus width and line broadening due to the self-absorption. Formulae are given for computing the values studied. Good agreement was observed between the computed and experimental results. Error analysis was performed. It was concluded that any line shifts in the hydrocarbons were correctly taken into an account in the absolute computations of absorption

  16. Aerial radiological measuring system program

    Doyle, J.F.; Boyns, P.K.

    1972-01-01

    The present ARMS aircraft has an effective survey time of four hours. Typical survey altitudes are 300 to 500 feet for terrain surveys and up to 20,000 feet for cloud tracks. A number of special airframe modifications have been made to accommodate the various sensor systems. The ARMS radiation measurement system consists of fourteen 4-inch diameter by 4-inch thick sodium iodide (NaI) detectors, a summing network for the detector signals, single and multichannel analyzers, analog computers, digital display and recording equipment, a doppler radar position computer, and strip chart recorders. Major subsystems include meteorology sensors, multispectral camera systems, and an infrared scanner for thermal mapping. Additional radiation detectors include an alpha spectrometer and a beta counter, used to count filter samples taken from a 150 cfm air sampler, which is a permanent part of the aircraft. A small lead shield houses a 1 / 2 -in. x 3-in. NaI crystal for beta and gamma counting of air filter samples. Several BF 3 neutron detectors are also available for neutron counting. The raw data from the gross gamma count and the gamma spectral measurements are permanently recorded on paper tape, and they must undergo reduction and analysis for final characterization of the radiological properties of the surveyed area. (U.S.)

  17. Annular shape silver lined proportional counter for on-line pulsed neutron yield measurement

    Dighe, P.M.; Das, D.

    2015-01-01

    An annular shape silver lined proportional counter is developed to measure pulsed neutron radiation. The detector has 314 mm overall length and 235 mm overall diameter. The central cavity of 150 mm diameter and 200 mm length is used for placing the neutron source. Because of annular shape the detector covers >3π solid angle of the source. The detector has all welded construction. The detector is developed in two halves for easy mounting and demounting. Each half is an independent detector. Both the halves together give single neutron pulse calibration constant of 4.5×10 4 neutrons/shot count. The detector operates in proportional mode which gives enhanced working conditions in terms of dead time and operating range compared to Geiger Muller based neutron detectors

  18. On-Line Flatness Measurement in the Steelmaking Industry

    Rubén Usamentiaga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Shape is a key characteristic to determine the quality of outgoing flat-rolled products in the steel industry. It is greatly influenced by flatness, a feature to describe how the surface of a rolled product approaches a plane. Flatness is of the utmost importance in steelmaking, since it is used by most downstream processes and customers for the acceptance or rejection of rolled products. Flatness sensors compute flatness measurements based on comparing the length of several longitudinal fibers of the surface of the product under inspection. Two main different approaches are commonly used. On the one hand, most mechanical sensors measure the tensile stress across the width of the rolled product, while manufacturing and estimating the fiber lengths from this stress. On the other hand, optical sensors measure the length of the fibers by means of light patterns projected onto the product surface. In this paper, we review the techniques and the main sensors used in the steelmaking industry to measure and quantify flatness defects in steel plates, sheets and strips. Most of these techniques and sensors can be used in other industries involving rolling mills or continuous production lines, such as aluminum, copper and paper, to name a few. Encompassed in the special issue, State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2013, this paper also reviews the most important flatness sensors designed and developed for the steelmaking industry in Spain.

  19. On-Line Flatness Measurement in the Steelmaking Industry

    Molleda, Julio; Usamentiaga, Rubén; Garcίa, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Shape is a key characteristic to determine the quality of outgoing flat-rolled products in the steel industry. It is greatly influenced by flatness, a feature to describe how the surface of a rolled product approaches a plane. Flatness is of the utmost importance in steelmaking, since it is used by most downstream processes and customers for the acceptance or rejection of rolled products. Flatness sensors compute flatness measurements based on comparing the length of several longitudinal fibers of the surface of the product under inspection. Two main different approaches are commonly used. On the one hand, most mechanical sensors measure the tensile stress across the width of the rolled product, while manufacturing and estimating the fiber lengths from this stress. On the other hand, optical sensors measure the length of the fibers by means of light patterns projected onto the product surface. In this paper, we review the techniques and the main sensors used in the steelmaking industry to measure and quantify flatness defects in steel plates, sheets and strips. Most of these techniques and sensors can be used in other industries involving rolling mills or continuous production lines, such as aluminum, copper and paper, to name a few. Encompassed in the special issue, State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2013, this paper also reviews the most important flatness sensors designed and developed for the steelmaking industry in Spain. PMID:23939583

  20. On-line measurement with automatic emulsion analysis system and off-line data processing (E531 neutrino experiment)

    Miyanishi, Motoaki

    1984-01-01

    The automatic emulsion analysis system developed by Nagoya cosmic ray observation group was practically used for the experiment (FNAL-E531) on determining the lifetime of charm particles for the first time in the world, and achieved a great successful result. The system consists of four large precise coordinate-measuring stages capable of conducting simultaneous measurement and multiple (currently four) DOMS (digitized on-line microscope), supported with one mini-computer (ECLIPS S/130). The purpose of E531 experiment was the determination of charm particle lifetime. The experiment was carried out at FNAL, USA, and by the irradiation of wide band ν sub(μ) beam equivalent to 7 x 10 18 of 350 GeV/c protons. The detector was a hybrid system of emulsions and a counter spectrometer. The scan of neutrino reaction, the scan of charm particles, and charm event measurement were analyzed in emulsions, and the on-line programs for-respective analyses were created. Nagoya group has found 726 neutrino reactions in the first run, obtained 37 charm particle candidates, and found 1442 neutrino reactions in the second run, and obtained 56 charm particle candidates. The capability of the automatic emulsion analysis system in terms of the time equired for analysis is in total 3.5 hours per event; 15 minutes for C.S. scan, 15 minutes for coupling to module, 20 minutes for tracing to vertex, 1 hour for neutrino reaction measurement, 10 minutes for offline data processing and 1.5 hours for charm particle scanning. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Line Program Environmental Management Audit: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    1992-05-01

    This report documents the results of the Line Program Environmental Management Audit completed for the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). During this Audit, activities and records were reviewed and personnel interviewed at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Additionally, since FUSRAP falls under the responsibility of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, selected individuals from this office were interviewed in Washington, DC and Germantown, Maryland. The onsite portion of the FUSRAP Audit was conducted from March 16 through 27, 1992, by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (EH-1). The scope of the FUSRAP Line Program Environmental Management Audit was comprehensive and included all areas of environmental management with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Since the subject of compliance with and implementation of the requirements of NEPA is the responsibility of the DOE Headquarters Office of NEPA Oversight, management issues pertaining to NEPA were not investigated as part of this Audit

  2. Local high precision 3D measurement based on line laser measuring instrument

    Zhang, Renwei; Liu, Wei; Lu, Yongkang; Zhang, Yang; Ma, Jianwei; Jia, Zhenyuan

    2018-03-01

    In order to realize the precision machining and assembly of the parts, the geometrical dimensions of the surface of the local assembly surfaces need to be strictly guaranteed. In this paper, a local high-precision three-dimensional measurement method based on line laser measuring instrument is proposed to achieve a high degree of accuracy of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the surface. Aiming at the problem of two-dimensional line laser measuring instrument which lacks one-dimensional high-precision information, a local three-dimensional profile measuring system based on an accurate single-axis controller is proposed. First of all, a three-dimensional data compensation method based on spatial multi-angle line laser measuring instrument is proposed to achieve the high-precision measurement of the default axis. Through the pretreatment of the 3D point cloud information, the measurement points can be restored accurately. Finally, the target spherical surface is needed to make local three-dimensional scanning measurements for accuracy verification. The experimental results show that this scheme can get the local three-dimensional information of the target quickly and accurately, and achieves the purpose of gaining the information and compensating the error for laser scanner information, and improves the local measurement accuracy.

  3. Beam position measurement in transport line-1 of Indus accelerator

    Ojha, Avanish; Yadav, Surendra; Holikatti, Anil C.; Puntambekar, T.A.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    In Indus Accelerator Complex at RRCAT Indore, 20 MeV electron beam is transported from injector Microtron to Booster Synchrotron through Transport Line-1 (TL-1). This beam has nominal pulse width of 500 ns with repetition rate of 1 Hz. A split electrode type beam position Indicator (BPI) is planned to be used to detect position of beam in TL-1, for which a four-channel processing electronics has been designed and developed. The circuit consists of microcontroller based four-channel peak detector circuit followed by multiplexer and ADC. The microcontroller is triggered from the timing system of microtron, which enables microcontroller to control and synchronize various parts of electronics. Microcontroller also sends the digitized data to a PC on serial link. During development, a problem of overcharging of capacitor was faced, which was resulting in false peak detection. Circuit was simulated and necessary modifications were incorporated in the circuit to solve this problem. A test setup with provision to simulate the beam signal using an antenna was used for testing the circuit in lab and a suitable Graphical User Interface (GUI) program was developed in LabVIEW. This GUI can also be used to calibrate the BPI. The prototype BPI was tested under simulated beam condition, which gave positional accuracy of ± 200 microns. (author)

  4. Programming the control of magnetic field measurements

    David, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives a short review concerning the new NMR probe measurement control system. Then it presents the new program 'CYCLOCHAMP' attached to the magnetic field measurement which also allows to cycle the magnetic field inside the cyclotrons and to equilibrate it among the SSC sectors. (authors)

  5. Emittance Measurements For Future LHC Beams Using The PS Booster Measurement Line

    Abelleira, Jose; Mikulec, Bettina; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The CERN PS Booster measurement line contains three pairs of SEM grids separated by drift space that measures the beam size in both planes. The combined analysis of these grids allows calculating a value for the transverse beam emittances. The precision of such a measurement depends on the ratio of RMS beam size and wire spacing. Within the LIU-PSB upgrade the extraction kinetic energy of the PSB will be increased from the current 1.4 GeV to 2.0 GeV. This will result in smaller transverse beam sizes for some of the future beams. The present layout of the transverse emittance measurement line is reviewed to verify if it will satisfy future requirements.

  6. Argon line broadening by neutral atoms and application to the measurement of oscillator strengths of AI resonance lines

    Vallee, O.; Ranson, P.; Chapelle, J.

    1977-01-01

    AI line broadening was studied from collisions between neutral argon atoms (3p 5 4p-3p 5 4s transitions) in a weakly ionised plasma jet (neutral atoms temperature T 0 approximately 4000K, electrons temperature Tsub(e) approximately 6000K, electronic density Nsub(e) 15 cm -3 , ionisation rate α -4 , and pressure range from 1 to 3 kg/cm 2 ). A satisfactory description of Van der Waals broadened lines is obtained by means of a Lennard-Jones potential. Measurement of line widths whose corresponding transitions occur on resonant levels, gives with relatively good accuracy the oscillator strength of the argon resonance lines [fr

  7. Measuring Student Transformation in Entrepreneurship Education Programs

    Steven A. Gedeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to measure student transformation primarily within a university entrepreneurship degree program. Student transformation is defined as changes in knowledge (“Head”, skills (“Hand”, and attitudinal (“Heart” learning outcomes. Following the institutional impact model, student transformation is the primary goal of education and all other program goals and aspects of quality desired by stakeholders are either input factors (professors, courses, facilities, support, etc. or output performance (number of startups, average starting salary, % employment, etc.. This goal-setting framework allows competing stakeholder quality expectations to be incorporated into a continuous process improvement (CPI model when establishing program goals. How to measure these goals to implement TQM methods is shown. Measuring student transformation as the central focus of a program promotes harmony among competing stakeholders and also provides a metric on which other program decisions (e.g., class size, assignments, and pedagogical technique may be based. Different stakeholders hold surprisingly different views on defining program quality. The proposed framework provides a useful way to bring these competing views into a CPI cycle to implement TQM requirements of accreditation. The specific entrepreneurial learning outcome goals described in the tables in this article may also be used directly by educators in nonaccredited programs and single courses/workshops or for other audiences.

  8. Organization of the M-6000 computer calculating process in the CAMAC on-line measurement systems for a physical experiment

    Bespalova, T.V.; Volkov, A.S.; Golutvin, I.A.; Maslov, V.V.; Nevskaya, N.A.; Okonishnikov, A.A.; Terekhov, V.E.; Shilkin, I.P.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed are the basic results of the work on designing the software of the computer measuring complex (CMC) which uses the M-6000 computer and operates on line with an accelerator. All the CMC units comply with the CAMAC standard. The CMC incorporates a mainframe memory, twenty-four kilobytes of 16-digit words in size, and external memory on magnetic disks, 1 megabyte in size. Suggested is a modification of the technique for designing the CMC software providing for program complexes which are dynamically adjusted by an experimentalist for the given experiment for a short time. The CMC software comprises the following major portions: a software generator, data acquisition program, on-line data processing routines, off-line data processing programs and programs for data recording on magnetic tapes and disks. Testing of the designed CMC has revealed that the total data processing time equals to from 150 to 500 ms

  9. Graphical programming: On-line robot simulation for telerobotic control

    McDonald, M.J.; Palmquist, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia has developed an advanced operational control system approach, caged Graphical Programming, to design and operate robotic waste cleanup and other hazardous duty robotic systems. The Graphical Programming approach produces robot systems that are faster to develop and use, safer in operation, and cheaper overall than altemative teleoperation or autonomous robot control systems. The Graphical Programming approach uses 3-D visualization and simulation software with intuitive operator interfaces for the programming and control of complex robotic systems. Graphical Programming Supervisor software modules allow an operator to command and simulate complex tasks in a graphic preview mode and, when acceptable, command the actual robots and monitor their motions with the graphic system. Graphical Progranuning Supervisors maintain registration with the real world and allow the robot to perform tasks that cannot be accurately represented with models alone by using a combination of model and sensor-based control. This paper describes the Graphical Programming approach, several example control systems that use Graphical Programming, and key features necessary for implementing successful Graphical Programming systems

  10. Application Of Database Program in selecting Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L) Mutant Lines

    H, Soeranto

    2000-01-01

    Computer database software namely MSTAT and paradox have been exercised in the field of mutation breeding especially in the process of selecting plant mutant lines of sorghum. In MSTAT, selecting mutant lines can be done by activating the SELECTION function and then followed by entering mathematical formulas for the selection criterion. Another alternative is by defining the desired selection intensity to the analysis results of subprogram SORT. Including the selected plant mutant lines in BRSERIES program, it will make their progenies be easier to be traced in subsequent generations. In paradox, an application program for selecting mutant lines can be made by combining facilities of Table, form and report. Selecting mutant lines with defined selection criterion can easily be done through filtering data. As a relation database, paradox ensures that the application program for selecting mutant lines and progeny trachings, can be made easier, efficient and interactive

  11. NITRATE REDUCTION PROGRAM AT THE LINE CREEK OPERATION

    Jeff W Hawley

    2015-01-01

    Blasting activities at the Line Creek operation are releasing oxides of nitrogen and arecontributing to chemical changes in the surrounding watersheds. Through analysis of themechanisms of nitrogen release, history of explosive usage, historical nitrate release, changingregulatory requirements, strategy analysis and social impacts associated with the release ofnitrates a nitrate reduction plan will be established.The paper develops the framework for engineering groups, operations groups andma...

  12. Performance expectations of measurement control programs

    Hammond, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The principal index for designing and assessing the effectiveness of safeguards is the sensitivity and reliability of gauging the true status of material balances involving material flows, transfers, inventories, and process holdup. The measurement system must not only be capable of characterizing the material for gradation or intensity of protection, but also be responsive to needs for detection and localization of losses, provide confirmation that no diversion has occurred, and help meet requirements for process control, health and safety. Consequently, the judicious application of a measurement control and quality assurance program is vital to a complete understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the measurement system including systematic and random components of error for weight, volume, sampling, chemical, isotopic, and nondestructive determinations of material quantities in each material balance area. This paper describes performance expectations or criteria for a measurement control program in terms of ''what'' is desired and ''why'', relative to safeguards and security objectives

  13. ANALISIS GERAK ROBOT LINE TRACER DENGAN PROGRAM ARTIFICIAL INTELLEGENCE MENGGUNAKAN MICROCONTROLLER AT89S51

    I Wayan Widhiada

    2012-01-01

    The research discussed about the work system of The Line Tracer Robot movement analysis, with using the AI program and assembler programming language. The tools that used are microcontroller type AT89S51, Meitan ASM 2005 Standard Edition version 1.00 as development tools and Meitan 2005 as the hardware tools modul. From the result of research, it can be known that The Line Tracer Robot with AI program is able to show differences, among the white as a based colour and black as a line colour. T...

  14. Security camera resolution measurements: Horizontal TV lines versus modulation transfer function measurements.

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, John Clark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The horizontal television lines (HTVL) metric has been the primary quantity used by division 6000 related to camera resolution for high consequence security systems. This document shows HTVL measurements are fundamen- tally insufficient as a metric to determine camera resolution, and propose a quantitative, standards based methodology by measuring the camera system modulation transfer function (MTF), the most common and accepted metric of res- olution in the optical science community. Because HTVL calculations are easily misinterpreted or poorly defined, we present several scenarios in which HTVL is frequently reported, and discuss their problems. The MTF metric is discussed, and scenarios are presented with calculations showing the application of such a metric.

  15. Optimization of temperature-programmed GC separations. II. Off-line simplex optimization and column selection

    Snijders, H.M.J.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Sandra, P; Bertsch, W.; Sandra, P.; Devos, G.

    1996-01-01

    In this work a method is described which allows off-line optimization of temperature programmed GC separations. Recently, we described a new numerical method to predict off-line retention times and peak widths of a mixture containing components with known identities in capillary GC. In the present

  16. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life

  17. PHEBUS on-line aerosol monitor development test program

    Sprenger, M.H.; Pentecost, C.G.

    1992-03-01

    EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. developed an on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM) for the French PHEBUS Fission Product Project. Part of the development was to manufacture and test an OLAM prototype. This report presents the results of the testing which determined the mechanical integrity of the monitor at operating temperature and pressure and performed a preliminary test of the optical system. A series of twenty different tests was conducted during the prototype testing sequence. Since no leaks were detected, the OLAM demonstrated that it could provide a pressure boundary at required test conditions. The optical and electrical system also proved its integrity by exceeding the design requirement of less than 105 optical signal drift during an actual two-hour test sequence

  18. Trend Analysis to Measure The Effectiveness of the QA Program

    Mell, Martin A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper represents an approach to the development and use of a system for the evaluation of available information to recognize and deal with quality trends in the design, engineering, procurement and construction process. Selection, collection, analysis and reporting of data and information will be described. The Trend Analysis System is intended to identify, for line and management personnel, areas where improved compliance, revision of practices or procedures, or other appropriate systematic corrective action is warranted, and provides management with a measure of the overall effectiveness of the quality program

  19. ANALISIS GERAK ROBOT LINE TRACER DENGAN PROGRAM ARTIFICIAL INTELLEGENCE MENGGUNAKAN MICROCONTROLLER AT89S51

    I Wayan Widhiada

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research discussed about the work system of The Line Tracer Robot movement analysis, with using the AI program and assembler programming language. The tools that used are microcontroller type AT89S51, Meitan ASM 2005 Standard Edition version 1.00 as development tools and Meitan 2005 as the hardware tools modul. From the result of research, it can be known that The Line Tracer Robot with AI program is able to show differences, among the white as a based colour and black as a line colour. The AI program is able to accelerate/coordinate the system of work, between the censor and the parts of driver motor combinations. The robot that did not use AI program can not run well, and the wheel just able to rotate in one direction.

  20. A tewlve detector coincidence spectrometer for on-line and off-line measurements of nuclear g-factors

    Alfter, I.; Bodenstedt, E.; Hamer, B.; Hoff, J. van den; Knichel, W.; Muenning, H.; Piel, S.; Schueth, J.; Sajok, R.

    1992-01-01

    A twelve detector γ-γ directional correlation setup is described which has been designed and constructed for high precision on-line and off-line IPAC measurements. A ring of twelve BaF 2 detectors which may be replaced by Ge detectors is arranged around a superconducting magnet providing a maximum magnetic field of 4.5 T. In on-line experiments the magnetic field has the direction of the beam which passes through a central bore of the magnet. The data acquisition system stores directly the Esub(γ 1 )-Esub(γ 2 ) coincidence matrices for all 66 two-detector combinations in two 8 Mbyte RAMs, one for each of the two field directions. This allows a very fast data evaluation with a small on-line computer. The apparatus got into operation one-and-a-halve years ago and revealed excellent properties. (orig.)

  1. Programming and Playing with RoboSapien on line

    Vladimir M Cvjetkovic

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available RoboSapien is famous human like robot toy intended for playing with, of interested in, of all ages, and learning through the game, of some basic characteristics of robots and robotic control. The programming of RoboSapien as described in user’s manual is limited with the internal memory, battery life, and not very convenient input of actions through the multipurpose buttons of the RoboSapien IR remote control device. In order to offer better conditions for experimenting and using of RoboSapien, the web user interface was developed, that provides interactive user control, programming of command sequences of arbitrary length, observing of RoboSapien actions using the web cam that shows the movements and actions on web page. Access and control of RoboSapien by remote user through the web page user interface, is controlled by access levels depending on whether the user is logged in or not. The whole system is implemented in C# as ASP.NET project with NI USB 6501 digital I/O driving the CMOS 4066 analog switches for controlling the RoboSapien IR remote control device.

  2. Repetitive display system of line profiles for Doppler broadening measurement

    Mohri, A.; Narihara, K.; Haba, K.

    1982-10-01

    Line profiles of impurities in visible and ultraviolet regions are repetitively displayed on a CRT with an interval of 250 mu s or 500 mu s, using a system composed of a Czerny-Turner monochromator with 1 m F.L., a self-resonant optical scanner, a photomultiplier shielded against hard X-rays and electronic circuits. The profile resolution is 0.035 nm FWHM. This system can be used in the environment of strong hard X-rays. (author)

  3. GRI proposes to hold the line on research program

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Gas Research Institute has proposed a 1993 US research and development program totaling $201.8 million, the same level as the 1991 but down from $212.9 million this year. GRI filed the 1993 proposal and its 1993-97 R and D plan with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. If FERC approves the plan, interstate gas pipeline companies would support the GRI research by collecting a surcharge of 1.51 cents/Mcf on nondiscounted gas transactions and 8 cents/Mcf/month on uniform demand or reservations. The proposed budget is based on a revised funding mechanism FERC is considering for GRI. The research agency's general expanses and capital budget would remain at the 1992 level of $9.8 million

  4. Measurement-Based Transmission Line Parameter Estimation with Adaptive Data Selection Scheme

    Li, Changgang; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Hengxu

    2017-01-01

    Accurate parameters of transmission lines are critical for power system operation and control decision making. Transmission line parameter estimation based on measured data is an effective way to enhance the validity of the parameters. This paper proposes a multi-point transmission line parameter...

  5. Inverse kinetics equations for on line measurement of reactivity using personal computer

    Ratemi, Wajdi; El Gadamsi, Walied; Beleid, Abdul Kariem

    1993-01-01

    Computer with their astonishing speed of calculations along with their easy connection to real systems, are very appropriate for digital measurements of real system variables. In the nuclear industry, such computer application will produce compact control rooms of real power plants, where information and results display can be obtained through push button concept. In our study, we use two personal computers for the purpose of simulation and measurement. One of them is used as a digital simulator to a real reactor, where we effectively simulate the reactor power through a cross talk network. The computed power is passed at certain chosen sampling time to the other computer. The purpose of the other computer is to use the inverse kinetics equations to calculate the reactivity parameter based on the received power and then it performs on line display of the power curve and the reactivity curve using color graphics. In this study, we use the one group version of the inverse kinetics algorithm which can easily be extended to larger group version. The language of programming used in Turbo BASIC, which is very comparable, in terms of efficiency, to FORTRAN language, besides its effective graphics routines. With the use of the extended version of the Inverse Kinetics algorithm, we can effectively apply this techniques of measurement for the purpose of on line display of the reactivity of the Tajoura Research Reactor. (author)

  6. Program system for inclusion, settlement of account and statistical evaluation of on-line recherches

    Helmreich, F.; Nevyjel, A.

    1981-03-01

    The described program system is used for the automatisation of the administration in an information retrieval department. The data of the users and of every on line session are stored in two files and can be evaluated in different statistics. The data acquisition is done interactively, the statistic programs run as well in dialog and in batch. (author)

  7. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of Carbonyl Sulfide from 3700 to 4800 cm -1and Selection of a Line-Pointing Program

    Naı̈m, S.; Fayt, A.; Bredohl, H.; Blavier, J.-F.; Dubois, I.

    1998-11-01

    We have measured the Fourier transform spectrum of natural OCS from 3700 to 4800 cm-1with a near Doppler resolution and a line-position accuracy between 4 and 8 × 10-5cm-1. For the normal isotopic species, 37 vibrational transitions have been analyzed for both frequencies and intensities. We also report 15 bands of OC34S, eight bands of O13CS, nine bands of OC33S, and two bands of18OCS. Important effective Herman-Wallis terms are explained on the basis of eigenvectors. A comparison of different line-pointing programs is also presented.

  8. Measurements of visible forbidden lines and ion distributions of tungsten highly charged ions at the LHD

    Kato, D.; Sakaue, H.A.; Murakami, I.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.; Nakamura, N.; Koike, F.; Sasaki, Akira; Ding, X.-B.; Dong, C.-Z.

    2013-01-01

    Visible lines, which are presumably associated with forbidden lines from tungsten highly charged ions, were clearly observed in a spectrum of 370 - 410 nm recorded shortly after a tungsten pellet injection at the LHD. One of the measured lines has been assigned to a magnetic-dipole (M1) line of the ground-term fine-structure transition of W 26+ . Photon emission was observed at 44 lines of sight divided along the vertical direction of a horizontally elongated poloidal cross section of the LHD plasma. The line-integrated intensity of the lines along each line of sight indicates peaked profiles near the plasma center, while visible line emissions of neutral hydrogen and helium recoded in the same sampling time have a maximum located in the peripheral region of the poloidal cross section. (author)

  9. LINES

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  10. Measurements on the He-Ne laser lines near 633 nm

    Steinhaus, David W.

    1983-09-01

    The red line from an inexpensive He-Ne laser is made up of several closely spaced lines. To separate these lines very high spectral resolution is required. This apparatus requirement can be met by a simple modification of a student Fabry-Perot interferometer. Laboratory measurements can then be made to verify the expected number, spacing, and polarization of these lines during a single afternoon laboratory session.

  11. Front-Line Advocacy: Fighting Off a Voucher Measure

    Grimesey, Robert P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the U.S. Senate's Armed Services Committee approved an amendment to the proposed National Defense Authorization Act. The amendment, known as Section 583, authorized a Defense Department pilot voucher program to mitigate the cost of private school tuition for special-needs children of military parents. Sen. Jim Webb, a member of…

  12. Impulse response measurements with an off-line cross correlator

    Corran, E.R.; Cummins, J.D.

    1963-11-01

    The impulse responses of simulated systems have been computed by off-line cross-correlation of the system input and output signals. The input test signal consisted of a discrete interval binary code whose autocorrelation was a triangular pulse at zero lag. The main object of the experiments was to study the inaccuracies introduced in ideal, noise free systems by determining the impulse response digitally from sampled versions of the system input and output signals. A second object was to determine the error introduced by adding controlled amounts of uncorrelated noise at the system outputs. The experimental results showed that for signal to noise ratios greater than 10:1 in the mean square sense, the impulse responses may be determined with reasonable accuracy using only one cycle of the binary code. The method lends itself to on-line computation of system impulse responses. The latter could be used to monitor the stability of the system or to determine control parameters in an adaptive control system. (author)

  13. Impulse response measurements with an off-line cross correlator

    Corran, E R; Cummins, J D [Dynamics Group, Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    The impulse responses of simulated systems have been computed by off-line cross-correlation of the system input and output signals. The input test signal consisted of a discrete interval binary code whose autocorrelation was a triangular pulse at zero lag. The main object of the experiments was to study the inaccuracies introduced in ideal, noise free systems by determining the impulse response digitally from sampled versions of the system input and output signals. A second object was to determine the error introduced by adding controlled amounts of uncorrelated noise at the system outputs. The experimental results showed that for signal to noise ratios greater than 10:1 in the mean square sense, the impulse responses may be determined with reasonable accuracy using only one cycle of the binary code. The method lends itself to on-line computation of system impulse responses. The latter could be used to monitor the stability of the system or to determine control parameters in an adaptive control system. (author)

  14. Environmental Measurements Laboratory program review, December 1983

    Volchok, H.L.; de Planque, G.

    1984-03-01

    This volume contains all of the written material that was submitted to the panel of Reviewers in advance of a Program Review conducted by the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) December 7-9, 1983. In addition to a general introduction there are nineteen papers grouped into the five broad program categories covering all of the scientific and engineering projects of the Laboratory: Natural Radioactivity and Radiation, Anthropogenic Radioactivity and Radiation, Non-nuclear, Quality Assurance, and Development and Support. These short articles, for the most part, focus on the rationale for EML's involvement in each project, emphasizing their relevance to the EML and Department of Energy missions. Project results and their interpretation were presented at the Review and can be found in the material referenced in this volume

  15. LINE-1 couples EMT programming with acquisition of oncogenic phenotypes in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Reyes-Reyes, Elsa M; Aispuro, Ivan; Tavera-Garcia, Marco A; Field, Matthew; Moore, Sara; Ramos, Irma; Ramos, Kenneth S

    2017-11-28

    Although several lines of evidence have established the central role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) in malignant progression of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), the molecular events connecting EMT to malignancy remain poorly understood. This study presents evidence that Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon couples EMT programming with malignancy in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). This conclusion is supported by studies showing that: 1) activation of EMT programming by TGF-β1 increases LINE-1 mRNAs and protein; 2) the lung carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene coregulates TGF-β1 and LINE-1 mRNAs, with LINE-1 positioned downstream of TGF-β1 signaling; and, 3) forced expression of LINE-1 in BEAS-2B cells recapitulates EMT programming and induces malignant phenotypes and tumorigenesis in vivo . These findings identify a TGFβ1-LINE-1 axis as a critical effector pathway that can be targeted for the development of precision therapies during malignant progression of intractable NSCLCs.

  16. On-line pressure measurement using scanning systems

    Morss, A.G.; Watson, A.P.

    1978-08-01

    Data collection methods can be improved significantly by using pressure scanning systems in conjunction with transducers for the measurement of pressure distribution in fluid flow rigs. However, the response of pressure transducers to the slight random pressure fluctuations that occur in practice can cause some measurement problems, especially for accurate work. The nature of these pressure fluctuations is examined and suitable analysis techniques are recommended. Results obtained using these techniques are presented. It is concluded that by using the correct techniques pressure transducer systems can be used to measure pressure distributions accurately and are sufficiently sensitive to measure very small systematic effects with great precision. (author)

  17. Measurements of residual deformations of steel-aluminum conductors in operating overhead lines

    Durov, E.V.; Kesel' man, L.M.; Treiger, A.S.

    1982-12-01

    Experience in the operation of overhead power lines using steel-aluminum conductors is presented. Measurements were taken on the residual deformation of the steel-aluminum lines to determine the amount of sag increase and to forecast this increase for the entire period of operation. It is recommended that the work on measuring the residual deformation in the power lines be extended to a broader range of operating conditions such as conductors, spans, and climate conditions.

  18. GARLIC, a shielding program for GAmma Radiation from Line- and Cylinder-sources

    Roos, Matts

    1959-07-15

    GARLIC is a program for computing the gamma ray flux or dose rate at a shielded idotropic point detector, due to a line source or the line equivalent of a cylindrical source. The source strength distribution along the line must be either uniform or an arbitrary part of the positive half-cycle of a cosine function. The line source can be oriented arbitrarily with respect to the main shield and the detector, except that the detector must not be located on the line source or on its extension. The main source is a homogeneous plane slab in which scattered radiation is accounted for by multiplying each point element of the line source by a point source build-up factor inside the integral over the point elements. Between, the main shield and the line source additional shields can be introduced, which are either plane slabs, parallel to the main shield, or cylindrical rings, coaxial with the line source. Scattered radiation in the additional shields can only be accounted for by constant build-up factors outside the integral. GARLIC-xyz is an extended version particularly suited for the frequently met problem of shielding a room containing a large number of line sources in different positions. The program computes the angles and linear dimensions of a problem for GARLIC when the positions of the detector point and the end points of the line source are given as points in an arbitrary rectangular coordinate system. As an example the isodose curves in water are presented for a monoenergetic cosine-distributed line source at several source energies and for an operating fuel element of the Swedish reactor R3.

  19. Measurement of magnetically insulated line voltage using a Thomson Parabola Charged Particle Analyser

    Stanley, T.D.; Stinnett, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The absence of direct measurements of magnetically insulated line voltage necessitated reliance on inferred voltages based on theoretical calculation and current measurements. This paper presents some of the first direct measurements of magnetically insulated transmission line peak voltages. These measurements were made on the Sandia National Laboratories HydraMITE facility. The peak voltage is measured by observing the energy of negative ions produced at the line cathode and accelerated through the line voltage. The ion energy and the charge-to-mass ratio are measured using the Thomson Parabola mass spectrometry technique. This technique uses parallel E and B fields to deflect the ions. The deflected ions are detected using a microchannel plate coupled to a phosphor screen and photographic film. The Thomson Parabola results are compared to Faraday Cup measurements and to calculated voltages based on current measurements. In addition, the significance of observed positive ions is discussed

  20. ELF field in the proximity of complex power line configuration measurement procedures

    Benes, M.; Comelli, M.; Villalta, R.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of how to measure magnetic induction fields generated by various power line configurations, when there are several power lines that run across the same exposure area, has become a matter of interest and study within the Regional Environment Protection Agency of Friuli Venezia Giulia. In classifying the various power line typologies the definition of double circuit line was given: in this instance the magnetic field is determined by knowing the electrical and geometric parameters of the line. In the case of independent lines instead, the field is undetermined. It is therefore pointed out how, in the latter case, extracting projected information from a set of measurements of the magnetic field alone is impossible. Making measurements throughout the territory of service has in several cases offered the opportunity to define standard operational procedures. (authors)

  1. Effect of resonance line shape on precision measurements of nuclear magnetic resonance shifts

    Kachurin, A.M.; Smelyanskij, A.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Effect of resonance line shape on the systematic error of precision measurements of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shifts of high resolution (on the center of NMR dispersion line) is analysed. Effect of the device resonance line form-function asymmetry is evaluated; the form-function is determined by configuration of the spectrometer magnetic field and enters the convolution, which describes the resonance line form. It is shown that with the increase of the relaxation line width the form-function effect on the measurement error yields to zero. The form-function effect on measurements and correction of a phase angle of NMR detection is evaluated. The method of semiquantitative evaluation of resonance line and NMR spectrometer parameters, guaranteeing the systematic error of the given infinitesimal, is presented

  2. Research program with no ''measurement problem''

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is met by recognizing that the physicist participates when constructing and when applying the theory consisting of the formulated formal and measurement criteria (the expressions and rules) providing the necessary conditions which allow him to compute and measure facts, yet retains objectivity by requiring that these criteria, rules and facts be in corroborative equilibrium. We construct the particulate states of quantum physics by a recursive program which incorporates the non-determinism born of communication between asynchronous processes over a shared memory. Their quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar, and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact

  3. A precision measurement of the Z0-line shape

    Schmitt, B.

    1996-01-01

    A precise measurement of the cross section of the process e + e - → hadrons at energies around the Z 0 -resonance is performed. The aim is to achieve a systematic error of 0.1%. Data recorded with the OPAL detector at LEP during the years 1990 to 1994 are used. To achieve a small systematic luminosity error the OPAL detector was upgraded with a new luminosity monitor. The new luminosity detector, the luminosity measurement, and the selection of multi hadronic events is described in detail. The measured hadronic cross sections together with the leptonic cross sections are used to determine the mass and the width of the Z 0 -boson. The partial widths are used for a precision test of the standard model. (orig.)

  4. A dynamic programming algorithm for the buffer allocation problem in homogeneous asymptotically reliable serial production lines

    Diamantidis A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the buffer allocation problem (BAP in homogeneous, asymptotically reliable serial production lines is considered. A known aggregation method, given by Lim, Meerkov, and Top (1990, for the performance evaluation (i.e., estimation of throughput of this type of production lines when the buffer allocation is known, is used as an evaluative method in conjunction with a newly developed dynamic programming (DP algorithm for the BAP. The proposed algorithm is applied to production lines where the number of machines is varying from four up to a hundred machines. The proposed algorithm is fast because it reduces the volume of computations by rejecting allocations that do not lead to maximization of the line's throughput. Numerical results are also given for large production lines.

  5. On-line fast flux measurements in the BR2 reactor

    Vermeeren, L.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001, CEA-Cadarache and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are collaborating on the development and in-pile qualification of subminiature fission chambers (diameter of 1.5 mm). Initially, efforts concentrated on fission chambers for the in-pile measurement of thermal fluxes (with 235 U as fissile material). Meanwhile successful long-term tests of the prototypes have been performed in various environments: in low temperature (40-100 degress Celsius) BR2 pool water (up to a thermal neutron fluence of 3 1 0 21 n/cm 2 ) and in the CALLISTO PWR loop (300 degrees Celsius, 155 bars). The long-term qualification of derived industrial detectors (Photonis CFUZ53) in CALLISTO is still ongoing. However, for various types of irradiations in research reactors, the knowledge of the evolution of the fast neutron flux is even of more interest than the thermal flux data. Therefore the collaboration program was extended to the development and the in-pile qualification of subminiature or miniature fission chambers (with 3 mm diameter) for fast neutron detection, for which 242 Pu was selected as the optimal fissile material. In order to achieve the on-line in-pile measurement of fast neutron flux, the fission chambers will be operated in the Campbelling mode (based on the mean square fluctuation of the detector current). In this mode the gamma induced contribution to the signal can be efficiently suppressed. Moreover, a data processing software will take into account the evolution of the fissile deposit in order to assess on-line the fast flux sensitivity and to correct for the low energy neutron contributions. The final objective is to qualify a Fast Neutron Detector System (FNDS) able to provide on-line data for local fast neutron fluxes in Material Testing Reactors. The on-line measurement of the fast neutron flux would contribute significantly to the characterization of the irradiation conditions during test experiments with materials and innovative fuel elements

  6. Universal control and measuring system for modern classic and amorphous magnetic materials single/on-line strip testers

    Zemánek, Ivan; Havlíček, Václav

    2006-09-01

    A new universal control and measuring system for classic and amorphous soft magnetic materials single/on-line strip testing has been developed at the Czech Technical University in Prague. The measuring system allows to measure magnetization characteristic and specific power losses of different tested materials (strips) at AC magnetization of arbitrary magnetic flux density waveform at wide range of frequencies 20 Hz-20 kHz. The measuring system can be used for both single strip testing in laboratories and on-line strip testing during the production process. The measuring system is controlled by two-stage master-slave control system consisting of the external PC (master) completed by three special A/D measuring plug-in boards, and local executing control unit (slave) with one-chip microprocessor 8051, connected with PC by the RS232 serial line. The "user friendly" powerful control software implemented on the PC and the effective program code for the microprocessor give possibility for full automatic measurement with high measuring power and high measuring accuracy.

  7. Effectiveness of the toll-free line for public insurance programs.

    Saunders, Cynthia M

    2005-03-01

    Toll-free lines for public insurance programs are a major point of entry to inquire about information. More than 1 million Californians are eligible for public insurance programs based on income but not yet enrolled. In 2000 and 2002, a "mystery-shopper" survey was conducted to ascertain overall effectiveness and interlanguage variation for information provided in Armenian, Cantonese, English, Farsi, Hmong, Khmer, Korean, Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese. Although the 2002 study showed statistically significant improvements from 2000, many constructs remained problematic. In 2002, for example, statistically significant interlanguage variation was identified in discussing and checking eligibility for the program. Specifically, Spanish and Armenian callers were less likely than other language callers to have eligibility checked or deemed eligible. Removing barriers to enrollment in public insurance programs often requires political solutions, but improving customer service for the toll-free line necessitates efficiency and a focus on continuous quality improvement.

  8. On-line fibration measurements in lifting magnets

    Joas, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    After a solenoid pilot valve had failed to open during a functional test, all of the 17 lifting magnets of the pilot valves were removed, inspected and overhauled during the refuelling of a BWR. Some lifting magnets were found to have deposits between rod (austenitic) and guide sleeve (brass). A relative movement (hammering) between both components was the suspected cause. Measurements confirmed the assumption of a laterally hammering movement of the rods, and also a correlation between acceleration intensity and deposit thickness. Local changes of design or modification of material pairing were suggested as remedial actions. The simulation of measured operation loads was effected on a test rig by means of vibration exciter and the acceleration-time factors known from operation. This resulted in a simple design modification which reduces the impact load between rod and bearing during operation, or else in a suitable material pairing which is optimized for impact load rather than sliding load. Building-up the wear area of the rod was found to interfere least with the existing design. (orig./DG) [de

  9. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time...

  10. Supercritical fluid extraction-capillary gas chromatography: on-line coupling with a programmed temperature vaporizer

    Houben, R.J.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Leclercq, P.A.; Rijks, J.A.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.

    1990-01-01

    A simple and versatile system is described for the on-line coupling of SFE to capillary GC. The interfacing consists of a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector. With this injector it is possible to combine solute trapping, elimination of a high flow of extraction fluid, and quantitative

  11. Stark shift measurements of Xe II and Xe III spectral lines

    Cirisan, M; Pelaez, R J; Djurovic, S; Aparicio, J A; Mar, S

    2007-01-01

    Stark shift measurements of singly and doubly ionized Xe spectral lines are presented in this paper. Shifts of 110 Xe II lines and 42 Xe III lines are reported, including a significant number of new results. A low-pressure-pulsed arc with 95% of He and 5% of Xe was used as a plasma source. All measurements were performed under the following plasma conditions: electron density (0.2-1.4) x 10 23 m -3 and electron temperature 18 000-23 000 K. The measured Stark shifts are compared with other experimental and theoretical data

  12. The Corrosion Inhibition Characteristics of Sodium Nitrite Using an On-line Corrosion Rate Measurement System

    Park, Mal-Yong; Kang, Dae-Jin; Moon, Jeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    An on-line corrosion rate measurement system was developed using a personal computer, a data acquisition board and program, and a 2-electrode corrosion probe. Reliability of the developed system was confirmed with through comparison test. With this system, the effect of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) as a corrosion inhibitor were studied on iron and aluminum brass that were immersed in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Corrosion rate was measured based on the linear polarization resistance method. The corrosion rates of aluminum brass and iron in 1% NaCl solutions were measured to be 0.290 mm per year (mmpy) and 0.2134 mmpy, respectively. With the addition of 200 ppm of NO 2 - , the corrosion rates decreased to 0.0470 mmpy and 0.0254 mmpy. The addition of NO 2 - caused a decrease in corrosion rates of both aluminum brass and iron, yet the NO 2 - acted as a more effective corrosion inhibitor for iron. than aluminum brass

  13. Experimental Program for the CLIC test facility 3 test beam line

    Adli, E; Dobert, S; Olvegaard, M; Schulte, D; Syratchev, I; Lillestol, Reidar

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility 3 Test Beam Line is the first prototype for the CLIC drive beam decelerator. Stable transport of the drive beam under deceleration is a mandatory component in the CLIC two-beam scheme. In the Test Beam Line more than 50% of the total energy will be extracted from a 150 MeV, 28 A electron drive beam, by the use of 16 power extraction and transfer structures. A number of experiments are foreseen to investigate the drive beam characteristics under deceleration in the Test Beam Line, including beam stability, beam blow up and the efficiency of the power extraction. General benchmarking of decelerator simulation and theory studies will also be performed. Specially designed instrumentation including precision BPMs, loss monitors and a time-resolved spectrometer dump will be used for the experiments. This paper describes the experimental program foreseen for the Test Beam Line, including the relevance of the results for the CLIC decelerator studies.

  14. Robot off-line programming and simulation as a true CIME-subsystem

    Nielsen, L.F; Trostmann, S; Trostmann, Erik

    1992-01-01

    A robot off-line programming and real-time simulation system, ROPSIM, which is based on the neutral interface concept and features simulation of the dynamics of both the controller and robot arm, has been developed. To avoid dependency on dedicated robot models, ROPSIM is based on generic models...... describing the robot controller, robot arm geometry, and the robot and arm kinetics. The software was developed using the C++ programming language. The key modules are discussed. The system is a true computer-integrated manufacturing and engineering subsystem which facilitates the exchange and reuse of robot...... model definition data and robot program definition data with systems of other origin or different functionality...

  15. Laboratory measurements of the x-ray line emission from neon-like Fe XVII

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Chen, H; Scofield, J; Boyce, K R; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Gu, M F; Kahn, S M; Szymkowiak, A E

    2006-01-01

    The authors have conducted a systematic study of the dominant x-ray line emission from Fe XVII. These studies include relative line intensities in the optically thin limit, intensities in the presence of radiation from satellite lines from lower charge states of iron, and the absolute excitation cross sections of some of the strongest lines. These measurements were conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap facility using crystal spectrometers and a NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center microcalorimeter array

  16. Characterization of the replication timing program of 6 human model cell lines

    Djihad Hadjadj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During the S-phase, the DNA replication process is finely orchestrated and regulated by two programs: the spatial program that determines where replication will start in the genome (Cadoret et al. (2008 Oct 14, Cayrou et al. (2011 Sep, Picard et al. (2014 May 1 [1–3], and the temporal program that determines when during the S phase different parts of the genome are replicated and when origins are activated. The temporal program is so well conserved for each cell type from independent individuals [4] that it is possible to identify a cell type from an unknown sample just by determining its replication timing program. Moreover, replicative domains are strongly correlated with the partition of the genome into topological domains (determined by the Hi-C method, Lieberman-Aiden et al. (2009 Oct 9, Pope et al. (2014 Nov 20 [5,6]. On the one hand, replicative areas are well defined and participate in shaping the spatial organization of the genome for a given cell type. On the other hand, studies on the timing program during cell differentiation showed a certain plasticity of this program according to the stage of cell differentiation Hiratani et al. (2008 Oct 7, 2010 Feb [7,8]. Domains where a replication timing change was observed went through a nuclear re-localization. Thus the temporal program of replication can be considered as an epigenetic mark Hiratani and Gilbert (2009 Feb 16 [9]. We present the genomic data of replication timing in 6 human model cell lines: U2OS (GSM2111308, RKO (GSM2111309, HEK 293T (GSM2111310, HeLa (GSM2111311, MRC5-SV (GSM2111312 and K562 (GSM2111313. A short comparative analysis was performed that allowed us to define regions common to the 6 cell lines. These replication timing data can be taken into account when performing studies that use these model cell lines.

  17. Second line of defense program overview LA-UR-00-5161

    Knepper, P.L.; Martin, D.D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The illicit trafficking of nuclear material is a major concern for non-proliferation and global stability. The nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) program provides the first line of defense in protecting nuclear materials within Russia by upgrading safeguards and security measures at Russian nuclear facilities. Second Line of Defense (SLD) is a cooperative program between the Russian Federation State Customs Committee (RF SCC) and the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to minimize illicit trafficking of restricted nuclear materials through Russian border control points. This partnership was solidified with the signing of a protocol between DOE and the RF SCC in June 1998. The relationship will soon be formalized in a Memorandum of Understanding that will outline the working relationships and commitments to successful implementation of the SLD Program. The Russians first acknowledged the threat of nuclear smuggling at a Nuclear Safety Summit in Moscow in April 1996. Nikolai Kravehenko, head of the Regional Information and Technical Customs Department of the RF SCC, subsequently stated in a July 1998 interview, 'In order to stop trafficking and illegal shipment to other countries we [also] have to tighten security at the facilities and equip our borders with reliable technology.' At the September 1998 U.S.-Russia Presidential Summit, the then Chairman of the RF SCC, Valery Draganov, highlighted the illicit trafficking challenge confronting Russia and requested U.S. assistance. Since 1991, a myriad of cases associated with the diversion and recovery of nuclear materials appear to be linked to the FSU. In the majority of cases, the material's origin was attributed to Russia. With more than 20,000 km of border contiguous to fourteen other countries, and more than 350 customs and border sites, addressing the threat posed by nuclear smuggling in Russia is not only an urgent but also an expansive problem requiring joint U

  18. Contact wire positions and contact forces. Measurements at high-speed lines in China; Fahrdrahtlage und Kontaktkraefte. Messungen an Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecken in China

    Heland, Joerg; Rick, Frank; Sarnes, Bernhard [DB Systemtechnik GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Puschmann, Rainer [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Infrastructure and Cities

    2012-07-15

    The reliable energy transmission from overhead contact line to pantograph of traction units without interruption decides on the successful operation of high-speed railway lines. Measurements of contact wire position and contact forces are suited to assess interaction of overhead contact line and pantograph. Chinese Railways actually implement the biggest electrification program for high-speed lines worldwide. For these projects contact wire position and contact forces are monitored by procedures developed in Germany. The experience confirms that keeping the contact wire position within the specified limits lead to a superior energy transmission up to 350 km/h. (orig.)

  19. Ontario Hydro's environmental monitoring program for HV [high voltage] transmission line projects

    Braekevelt, P.N.

    1991-01-01

    Responsible monitoring and control of environmental impacts is key to obtaining future needed approvals for new high voltage (HV) transmission line projects. Ontario Hydro's environmental monitoring program was developed as a highly structured, self-imposed monitoring system to relieve government agencies of the responsibility of developing a similar external program. The goal was to be self-policing. The historical development, program structure, standards, priority ratings, documentation, communication and computerization of the program is described. The most effective way to minimize environmental impacts is to avoid sensitive features at the route selection stage, well before any construction takes place. The environmental monitoring program is based on the following blueprint: each crew member is responsible for environmental protection; environmental problems are to be resolved at the lowest level possible; potential concerns should be resolved before they become problems; known problems should be dealt with quickly to minimize impacts; team members should work cooperatively; and formal and regular communication is emphasized

  20. On the inversion problem of the plasma line intensity measurements in terms of photoelectron fluxes

    Lejeune, G.

    1979-01-01

    Assuming that the unidimensional distribution function of the photoelectron flux can be determined from plasma line intensity measurement, it is shown that the photoelectron flux distribution is not uniquely determined if additional hypotheses are not made. The limitations of the inversion procedure are shown: in particular, plasma line measurements cannot allow the determination of more than the first two Legendre components of the photoelectron flux. Experimental procedures for this determination are finally reviewed. (author)

  1. Deterministic Line-Shape Programming of Silicon Nanowires for Extremely Stretchable Springs and Electronics.

    Xue, Zhaoguo; Sun, Mei; Dong, Taige; Tang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yaolong; Wang, Junzhuan; Wei, Xianlong; Yu, Linwei; Chen, Qing; Xu, Jun; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca I Cabarrocas, Pere

    2017-12-13

    Line-shape engineering is a key strategy to endow extra stretchability to 1D silicon nanowires (SiNWs) grown with self-assembly processes. We here demonstrate a deterministic line-shape programming of in-plane SiNWs into extremely stretchable springs or arbitrary 2D patterns with the aid of indium droplets that absorb amorphous Si precursor thin film to produce ultralong c-Si NWs along programmed step edges. A reliable and faithful single run growth of c-SiNWs over turning tracks with different local curvatures has been established, while high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals a high quality monolike crystallinity in the line-shaped engineered SiNW springs. Excitingly, in situ scanning electron microscopy stretching and current-voltage characterizations also demonstrate a superelastic and robust electric transport carried by the SiNW springs even under large stretching of more than 200%. We suggest that this highly reliable line-shape programming approach holds a strong promise to extend the mature c-Si technology into the development of a new generation of high performance biofriendly and stretchable electronics.

  2. Process measuring techniques applying in-line and on-line analyzers. Betriebsmesstechnik unter Einsatz von in-line und on-line Analysatoren

    Oehme, F; Jola, M

    1982-01-01

    The measurement and control of classical physical parameters such as pressure, temperature etc, is frequently not sufficient now for optimum process control in chemistry and associated fields. Only the use of inline and online analysers makes it possible to maintain the narrow limits of chemical reaction conditions. This ABC pocket book should help the user to select the best from the large number of available methods of measurement. Using 120 alphabetically arranged key words with many cross-references, it has a well-thought-out treatment of basic measurements and descriptions of apparatus, and on the other hand, it contains selected typical examples of applications. Width rather than depth of information is aimed at. The electrochemical methods discussed are potentiometry (pH value, redox potential, direct potentiometry with ion selective electrodes), conductometry (measurement of conductivity) and voltammetry (polarography, ammetry). Photometry, the measurement of density, the refractive index, surface tension and viscosity are described. From the large number of applications, the examples of textile processing, the cellulose and paper industry, the surface treatment of materials and petrochemicals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the treatment of service water, drinking water and boiler feed water. In connection with questions of work and environmental protection, emission control and the treatment of domestic and industrial waste water are described. With 119 figs.

  3. Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program methods and devices

    Harrison, J.; Hoornbeek, J.; Jalbert, P.; Sensintaffar, E.; Hopper, R.

    1991-01-01

    The US EPA developed the voluntary Radon Measurement Proficiency Program in 1986 in response to a Federal and State need for measurement services firms to demonstrate their proficiency with radon measurement methods and devices. Since that time, the program has set basic standards for the radon measurement industry. The program has grown dramatically since its inception. In 1986, fewer than 50 companies participated in the program. By 1989, more than 5,000 companies were participating. Participants represent firms with an analytical capability as well as firms that rely upon another firm for analysis service. Since the beginning of the RMP Program, the Agency has learned a great deal about radon measurement methods and devices. This paper reviews the measurement devices used in the program and what the EPA has learned about them since the program's inception. Performance data from the RMP Program are used to highlight relevant findings

  4. Electric field simulation and measurement of a pulse line ion accelerator

    Shen Xiaokang; Zhang Zimin; Cao Shuchun; Zhao Hongwei; Zhao Quantang; Liu Ming; Jing Yi; Wang Bo; Shen Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    An oil dielectric helical pulse line to demonstrate the principles of a Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA) has been designed and fabricated. The simulation of the axial electric field of an accelerator with CST code has been completed and the simulation results show complete agreement with the theoretical calculations. To fully understand the real value of the electric field excited from the helical line in PLIA, an optical electric integrated electric field measurement system was adopted. The measurement result shows that the real magnitude of axial electric field is smaller than that calculated, probably due to the actual pitch of the resister column which is much less than that of helix. (authors)

  5. A Two-Line Absorption Instrument for Scramjet Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Measurement in HYPULSE

    Tsai, C. Y.

    1998-01-01

    A three beam water vapor sensor system has been modified to provide for near simultaneous temperature measurement. The system employs a tunable diode laser to scan spectral line of water vapor. The application to measurements in a scramjet combustor environment of a shock tunnel facility is discussed. This report presents and discusses die initial calibration of the measurement system.

  6. Study of electric and magnetic fields on transmission lines using a computer simulation program

    Robelo Mojica, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine and reduce levels of electric and magnetic fields with different configurations used by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad in power transmission lines in Costa Rica. The computer simulation program PLS-CADD with EPRI algorithm has been used to obtain field values close to those actual to lines easements that have worked to date. Different configurations have been compared on equal terms and the lowest levels of electric and magnetic fields are determined. The most appropriate configuration of the tower has been obtained and therefore has decreased exposure to electromagnetic fields people, without affecting the energy demand of the population. (author) [es

  7. Spectro web: oscillator strength measurements of atomic absorption lines in the sun and procyon

    Lobel, A

    2008-01-01

    We update the online SpectroWeb database of spectral standard reference stars with 1178 oscillator strength values of atomic absorption lines observed in the optical spectrum of the Sun and Procyon (α CMi A). The updated line oscillator strengths are measured with best fits to the disk-integrated KPNO-FTS spectrum of the Sun observed between 4000 A and 6800 A using state-of-the-art detailed spectral synthesis calculations. A subset of 660 line oscillator strengths is validated with synthetic spectrum calculations of Procyon observed with ESO-UVES between 4700 A and 6800 A. The new log(gf)-values in SpectroWeb are improvements upon the values offered in the online Vienna Atomic Line Database (VALD). We find for neutral iron-group elements, such as Fe I, Ni I, Cr I, and Ti I, a statistically significant over-estimation of the VALD log((gf)-values for weak absorption lines with normalized central line depths below 15 %. For abundant lighter elements (e.g. Mg I and Ca I) this trend is statistically not significantly detectable, with the exception of Si I for which the log(gf)-values of 60 weak and medium-strong lines are substantially decreased to best fit the observed spectra. The newly measured log(gf)-values are available in the SpectroWeb database at http://spectra.freeshell.org, which interactively displays the observed and computed stellar spectra, together with corresponding atomic line data.

  8. Orbital Debris and NASA's Measurement Program

    Africano, J. L.; Stansbery, E. G.

    2002-05-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, the number of manmade objects in orbit around the Earth has dramatically increased. The United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) tracks and maintains orbits on over nine thousand objects down to a limiting diameter of about ten centimeters. Unfortunately, active spacecraft are only a small percentage ( ~ 7%) of this population. The rest of the population is orbital debris or ``space junk" consisting of expended rocket bodies, dead payloads, bits and pieces from satellite launches, and fragments from satellite breakups. The number of these smaller orbital debris objects increases rapidly with decreasing size. It is estimated that there are at least 130,000 orbital debris objects between one and ten centimeters in diameter. Most objects smaller than 10 centimeters go untracked! As the orbital debris population grows, the risk to other orbiting objects, most importantly manned space vehicles, of a collision with a piece of debris also grows. The kinetic energy of a solid 1 cm aluminum sphere traveling at an orbital velocity of 10 km/sec is equivalent to a 400 lb. safe traveling at 60 mph. Fortunately, the volume of space in which the orbiting population resides is large, collisions are infrequent, but they do occur. The Space Shuttle often returns to earth with its windshield pocked with small pits or craters caused by collisions with very small, sub-millimeter-size pieces of debris (paint flakes, particles from solid rocket exhaust, etc.), and micrometeoroids. To get a more complete picture of the orbital-debris environment, NASA has been using both radar and optical techniques to monitor the orbital debris environment. This paper gives an overview of the orbital debris environment and NASA's measurement program.

  9. Measuring Satisfaction in the Program Manager, Procuring Contracting Officer Relationship

    1997-12-01

    Contracting Officer) and one of her customers (a U. S. Navy Program Manager ). From an examination of this relationship , the most appropriate criteria... Customer Satisfaction, Performance Measurement, Metrics, Contracting, Program Management 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified...methodology for developing an instrument to measure the satisfaction of their customers , Navy Program Managers . The purpose of this thesis was to develop

  10. Measurement assurance program for FTIR analyses of deuterium oxide samples

    Johnson, S.R.; Clark, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Analytical chemistry measurements require an installed criterion based assessment program to identify and control sources of error. This program should also gauge the uncertainty about the data. A self- assessment was performed of long established quality control practices against the characteristics of a comprehensive measurement assurance program. Opportunities for improvement were identified. This paper discusses the efforts to transform quality control practices into a complete measurement assurance program. The resulting program heightened the laboratory's confidence in the data it generated, by providing real-time statistical information to control and determine measurement quality

  11. Microscopic simulation model of superconducting transmission lines for standard microwave CAD programs

    Hoefer, G.J.; Kratz, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Superconducting lines are very promising candidates for fast signal transmission in integrated circuits, because of their low losses and dispersion, which result in large usable bandwidths. Coplanar waveguides are of special interest, since only one superconducting layer is needed for their implementation. This requirement fits well the present day capabilities of the high temperature superconductor technology. At present, the major drawback of this type of transmission line is the lack of accurate and fast CAD models including the special properties of superconducting electrodes. In the following we will briefly describe the essentials of a model for the case of superconducting lines. For a complete description the reader is referenced to. The model has been proven to be useful in conjunction with commercially available microwave CAD programs. (orig.)

  12. Dynamic modelling, identification and simulation of industrial robots – for off-line programming of robotised laser welding –

    Waiboer, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Robotised laser welding is an innovative joining technique which is increasingly finding applications, especially in the automotive industry. In order to reduce the time needed to prepare and programthe laser welding robot, off-line programming systems are used. The off-line programming systems

  13. Development and validation of a novel patient-reported treatment satisfaction measure for hyperfunctional facial lines: facial line satisfaction questionnaire.

    Pompilus, Farrah; Burgess, Somali; Hudgens, Stacie; Banderas, Benjamin; Daniels, Selena

    2015-12-01

    Facial lines or wrinkles are among the most visible signs of aging, and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures are becoming increasingly popular. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Facial Line Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLSQ) for use in adults with upper facial lines (UFL). A literature review, concept elicitation interviews (n = 33), and cognitive debriefing interviews (n = 23) of adults with UFL were conducted to develop the FLSQ. The FLSQ comprises Baseline and Follow-up versions and was field-tested with 150 subjects in a US observational study designed to assess its psychometric performance. Analyses included acceptability (item and scale distribution [i.e. missingness, floor, and ceiling effects]), reliability, and validity (including concurrent validity). In total, 69 concepts were elicited during patient interviews. Following cognitive debriefing interviews, the FLSQ-Baseline version included 11 items and the Follow-up version included 13 items. Response rates for the FLSQ were 100% and 73% at baseline and follow-up, respectively; no items had excessive missing data. Questionnaire scale scores were normally distributed. Most domain scores demonstrated good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70). Most items within their respective domains exhibited good convergent (item-scale correlations > 0.40) and discriminant (items had higher correlation with their hypothesized scales than other scales) validity. Concurrent validity correlation coefficients of the FLSQ domain scores with the associated concurrent measures were acceptable (range: r = 0.40-0.70). Six FLSQ items demonstrated reliability and validity as stand-alone items outside their domains. The FLSQ is a valid questionnaire for assessing treatment expectations, satisfaction, impact, and preference in adults with UFL. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Measurements of national radiation exposure rates on train lines in Tokai area

    Matsuda, Hideharu

    1996-01-01

    For data accumulation of natural radiation exposure rate derived from gamma-ray and cosmic-ray to evaluate population dose, the author measured the rate in the running vehicles of 12 JR Tokai lines, 17 Nagoya Railway lines, 4 Kinkinippon Railway lines and 1 line of Nagoya City Bus. A portable gamma spectrometer equipped with 3' in diameter x 3' NaI (Tl) scintillation detector was placed on the seat of the vehicle for measurement in the period of December, 1992-August, 1995. Gamma-ray and cosmic-ray exposure rates in air were assessed separately as reported before and expressed in Gy/h. The average exposure rate of gamma-ray in JR Tokai lines was 19.8 nGy/h and of cosmic-ray, 28.5 nGy/h, both of which were markedly varied from line to line. The average rates of gamma-and cosmic-ray were 21.6 nGy/h and 29.0 nGy/h, respectively, in Nagoya Railway lines and 20.9 nGy/h and 28.7 nGy/h, respectively, in Kinkinippon lines. In the city bus, the respective rates were 27.2 nGy/h and 27.0 nGy/h. Thus, the average rates of gamma-ray (about 20 nGy/h) and cosmic-ray (about 29 nGy/h) were not so different between JR and other private railway lines. In the bus, the former rate was slightly lower and the latter, slightly higher. However, the total rates of both rays were in the range of about 50-55 nGy/h in all vehicles examined. (H.O.)

  15. Measuring the impact of antimicrobial stewardship programs

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Hendrix, Ron; Poelman, Randy; Niesters, Hubert G.; Postma, Maarten J.; Sinha, Bhanu; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) are being implemented worldwide to optimize antimicrobial therapy, and thereby improve patient safety and quality of care. Additionally, this should counteract resistance development. It is, however, vital that correct and timely diagnostics are performed in

  16. Automated measurement of bolometer line of sight alignment and characteristics for application in ITER

    Penzel, Florian Olivier

    2015-07-01

    The line of sight (LOS) alignment and characteristic of a bolometer camera used in a fusion experiment is a crucial parameter for the measurement accuracy of the diagnostic. A robot based LOS measurement device has been developed which allows the fully automatic measurement of the two dimensional transmission function of a bolometer camera. It has been used to optimize camera prototypes for ITER and has been successfully operated in the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade in order to measure the LOS alignment.

  17. An apparatus for on-line measuring of the coating weight on art paper

    Huang Meifen; Mao Shunjuan

    1986-01-01

    The method and apparatus for on-line measuring of the coating weight on art paper are described. The design of the coating gauge was based on the technique of charcateristic X-ray fluorescence preferential absorption. The gauge was equipped with a TP-801 micro-computer which makes the gauge capable of showing and typing the data in different forms. The measurement is quick, continuous, accurate and non-destructive. Analysis period is 10 seconds. In on-line measuring, the reproducibility is +- 1 g/m 2 and the relative error of this method amounts to +- 5% with the weighing method as a standard

  18. Simultaneous measurement of line electron density and Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Ma, C.H.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    A new diagnostic system utilizing a submillimetre-wave, phase-modulated polarimeter/interferometer has been used to simultaneously measure the time evolution of the line-averaged electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak. The measurements, performed along four chords of the plasma column, have been correlated with poloidal field changes associated with a ramp in the Ohmic-heating current and by neutral-beam injection. These are the first simultaneous measurements of line electron density and Faraday rotation to be made along a chord of submillimetre laser beam in a tokamak plasma. (author)

  19. ASSEMBLER program group for preliminary data processing on-line with ES-1010

    Pshenichnyj, V.A.; Gritsaj, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with programs on the ASSEMBLER language for processing of physical data, obtained in a time-of-flight neutron spectrometer. A program which provides the connection between a measuring room with a computer is given. There are also auxilliary programs for spectra processing recorded on a magnetic disk, spectra plotting and for calculation of areas under peaks for a ν-spectrum ed on a magnetic disk, spectra plotting and for cal

  20. DNA fingerprinting of glioma cell lines and considerations on similarity measurements.

    Bady, Pierre; Diserens, Annie-Claire; Castella, Vincent; Kalt, Stefanie; Heinimann, Karl; Hamou, Marie-France; Delorenzi, Mauro; Hegi, Monika E

    2012-06-01

    Glioma cell lines are an important tool for research in basic and translational neuro-oncology. Documentation of their genetic identity has become a requirement for scientific journals and grant applications to exclude cross-contamination and misidentification that lead to misinterpretation of results. Here, we report the standard 16 marker short tandem repeat (STR) DNA fingerprints for a panel of 39 widely used glioma cell lines as reference. Comparison of the fingerprints among themselves and with the large DSMZ database comprising 9 marker STRs for 2278 cell lines uncovered 3 misidentified cell lines and confirmed previously known cross-contaminations. Furthermore, 2 glioma cell lines exhibited identity scores of 0.8, which is proposed as the cutoff for detecting cross-contamination. Additional characteristics, comprising lack of a B-raf mutation in one line and a similarity score of 1 with the original tumor tissue in the other, excluded a cross-contamination. Subsequent simulation procedures suggested that, when using DNA fingerprints comprising only 9 STR markers, the commonly used similarity score of 0.8 is not sufficiently stringent to unambiguously differentiate the origin. DNA fingerprints are confounded by frequent genetic alterations in cancer cell lines, particularly loss of heterozygosity, that reduce the informativeness of STR markers and, thereby, the overall power for distinction. The similarity score depends on the number of markers measured; thus, more markers or additional cell line characteristics, such as information on specific mutations, may be necessary to clarify the origin.

  1. Interlaboratory comparison of measuring results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power line

    Grbić Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of measured results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power lines obtained by three laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison was performed to ensure confidence in the quality of the test results. The measured results were analyzed with standard methods, using En number, based on which the evaluation of the laboratories was performed.

  2. Measurement of the vacuum decay rate of orthopositronium formed in an MgO-lined cavity

    Gidley, D.W.; Zitzewitz, P.W.

    1978-01-01

    Orthopositronium decay rates are measured in MgO-lined cavities with various volumes and entrance apertures. Systematic effects of the entrance aperture, cavity geometry, and collisional pick-off are measured. The vacuum decay rate is determined to be 7.050+-0.013 μs -1 . (Auth.)

  3. Current-zero measurements of vacuum circuit breakers interrupting short-line faults

    Smeets, R.P.P.; Linden, van der W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Current zero measurements are performed during short-line fault interruption tests of vacuum circuit breakers. This switching cycle is characterized by a very steep transient recovery voltage. High-resolution measurements of near current-zero arc current and voltage were carried out. Various

  4. Evaluation of the monitor cursor-line method for measuring pulmonary artery and central venous pressures.

    Pasion, Editha; Good, Levell; Tizon, Jisebelle; Krieger, Staci; O'Kier, Catherine; Taylor, Nicole; Johnson, Jennifer; Horton, Carrie M; Peterson, Mary

    2010-11-01

    To determine if the monitor cursor-line feature on bedside monitors is accurate for measuring central venous and pulmonary artery pressures in cardiac surgery patients. Central venous and pulmonary artery pressures were measured via 3 methods (end-expiratory graphic recording, monitor cursor-line display, and monitor digital display) in a convenience sample of postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Pressures were measured twice during both mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences between measurement methods and the percentage of monitor pressures that differed by 4 mm Hg or more from the measurement obtained from the graphic recording. Significance level was set at P less than .05. Twenty-five patients were studied during mechanical ventilation (50 measurements) and 21 patients during spontaneous breathing (42 measurements). Measurements obtained via the 3 methods did not differ significantly for either type of pressure (P > .05). Graphically recorded pressures and measurements obtained via the monitor cursor-line or digital display methods differed by 4 mm Hg or more in 4% and 6% of measurements, respectively, during mechanical ventilation and 4% and 11%, respectively, during spontaneous breathing. The monitor cursor-line method for measuring central venous and pulmonary artery pressures may be a reasonable alternative to the end-expiratory graphic recording method in hemodynamically stable, postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Use of the digital display on the bedside monitor may result in larger discrepancies from the graphically recorded pressures than when the cursor-line method is used, particularly in spontaneously breathing patients.

  5. Real-time line-width measurements: a new feature for reticle inspection systems

    Eran, Yair; Greenberg, Gad; Joseph, Amnon; Lustig, Cornel; Mizrahi, Eyal

    1997-07-01

    The significance of line width control in mask production has become greater with the lessening of defect size. There are two conventional methods used for controlling line widths dimensions which employed in the manufacturing of masks for sub micron devices. These two methods are the critical dimensions (CD) measurement and the detection of edge defects. Achieving reliable and accurate control of line width errors is one of the most challenging tasks in mask production. Neither of the two methods cited above (namely CD measurement and the detection of edge defects) guarantees the detection of line width errors with good sensitivity over the whole mask area. This stems from the fact that CD measurement provides only statistical data on the mask features whereas applying edge defect detection method checks defects on each edge by itself, and does not supply information on the combined result of error detection on two adjacent edges. For example, a combination of a small edge defect together with a CD non- uniformity which are both within the allowed tolerance, may yield a significant line width error, which will not be detected using the conventional methods (see figure 1). A new approach for the detection of line width errors which overcomes this difficulty is presented. Based on this approach, a new sensitive line width error detector was developed and added to Orbot's RT-8000 die-to-database reticle inspection system. This innovative detector operates continuously during the mask inspection process and scans (inspects) the entire area of the reticle for line width errors. The detection is based on a comparison of measured line width that are taken on both the design database and the scanned image of the reticle. In section 2, the motivation for developing this new detector is presented. The section covers an analysis of various defect types, which are difficult to detect using conventional edge detection methods or, alternatively, CD measurements. In section 3

  6. Measuring Satisfaction in the Program Manager, Procuring Contracting Officer Relationship

    Gray, John

    1997-01-01

    .... To comply with this Executive Order, Navy contracting offices require an effective methodology for developing an instrument to measure the satisfaction of their customers, Navy Program Managers...

  7. LOOM-P: a finite element mesh generation program with on-line graphic display

    Ise, Takeharu; Yamazaki, Toshio.

    1977-06-01

    A description of the two-dimensional mesh generation program, LOOM-P, is given in detail. The program is developed newly to produce a mesh network for a reactor core geometry with the help of an automatic mesh generation routine built in it, under the control of the refresh-type graphic display. It is therefore similar to the edit program of the self-organizing mesh generator, QMESH-RENUM. Additional techniques are incorporated to improve the pattern of mesh elements by means of on-line conversational mode. The obtained mesh network is edited out as input data to the three-dimensional neutron diffusion theory code, FEM-BABEL. (auth.)

  8. Preferred Methods of Learning for Nursing Students in an On-Line Degree Program.

    Hampton, Debra; Pearce, Patricia F; Moser, Debra K

    Investigators have demonstrated that on-line courses result in effective learning outcomes, but limited information has been published related to preferred teaching strategies. Delivery of on-line courses requires various teaching methods to facilitate interaction between students, content, and technology. The purposes of this study were to understand student teaching/learning preferences in on-line courses to include (a) differences in preferred teaching/learning methods for on-line nursing students across generations and (b) which teaching strategies students found to be most engaging and effective. Participants were recruited from 2 accredited, private school nursing programs (N=944) that admit students from across the United States and deliver courses on-line. Participants provided implied consent, and 217 (23%) students completed the on-line survey. Thirty-two percent of the students were from the Baby Boomer generation (1946-1964), 48% from Generation X (1965-1980), and 20% from the Millennial Generation (born after 1980). The preferred teaching/learning methods for students were videos or narrated PowerPoint presentations, followed by synchronous Adobe Connect educations sessions, assigned journal article reading, and e-mail dialog with the instructor. The top 2 methods identified by participants as the most energizing/engaging and most effective for learning were videos or narrated PowerPoint presentations and case studies. The teaching/learning method least preferred by participants and that was the least energizing/engaging was group collaborative projects with other students; the method that was the least effective for learning was wikis. Baby Boomers and Generation X participants had a significantly greater preference for discussion board (PBaby Boomer and Generation X students and rated on-line games as significantly more energizing/engaging and more effective for learning (PBaby Boomer and Generation X students. In conclusion, the results of this

  9. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanfords Interim Stabilization Program

    TORRES, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000a), defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of waste transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000b), has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications associated with Interim Stabilization. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning, RPP-6028 Section 3.2.7. Performance Incentive Number ORP-05 requires that all the Single Shell Tanks be Interim Stabilized by September 30, 2003. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone M-41-00, enforced by a federal consent decree, requires all the Single Shell Tanks to be Interim stabilized by September 30, 2004. By meeting the Performance Incentive the TPA milestone is met. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment used to transfer waste have a life in excess of the forecasted operational time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer, published literature and calculations. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are the hose material's resistance to the harmful effects of process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, exposure to ionizing radiation and the

  10. Development of new on-line statistical program for the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology.

    Song, Si Yeol; Ahn, Seung Do; Chung, Weon Kuu; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2015-06-01

    To develop new on-line statistical program for the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology (KOSRO) to collect and extract medical data in radiation oncology more efficiently. The statistical program is a web-based program. The directory was placed in a sub-folder of the homepage of KOSRO and its web address is http://www.kosro.or.kr/asda. The operating systems server is Linux and the webserver is the Apache HTTP server. For database (DB) server, MySQL is adopted and dedicated scripting language is the PHP. Each ID and password are controlled independently and all screen pages for data input or analysis are made to be friendly to users. Scroll-down menu is actively used for the convenience of user and the consistence of data analysis. Year of data is one of top categories and main topics include human resource, equipment, clinical statistics, specialized treatment and research achievement. Each topic or category has several subcategorized topics. Real-time on-line report of analysis is produced immediately after entering each data and the administrator is able to monitor status of data input of each hospital. Backup of data as spread sheets can be accessed by the administrator and be used for academic works by any members of the KOSRO. The new on-line statistical program was developed to collect data from nationwide departments of radiation oncology. Intuitive screen and consistent input structure are expected to promote entering data of member hospitals and annual statistics should be a cornerstone of advance in radiation oncology.

  11. Development of new on line statistical program for the Korean society for radiation oncology

    Song, Si Yeol; Ahn, Seung Do; Choi, Eun Kyung; Chung, Weon Kuu; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2015-01-01

    To develop new on-line statistical program for the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology (KOSRO) to collect and extract medical data in radiation oncology more efficiently. The statistical program is a web-based program. The directory was placed in a sub-folder of the homepage of KOSRO and its web address is http://www.kosro.or.kr/asda. The operating systems server is Linux and the webserver is the Apache HTTP server. For database (DB) server, MySQL is adopted and dedicated scripting language is the PHP. Each ID and password are controlled independently and all screen pages for data input or analysis are made to be friendly to users. Scroll-down menu is actively used for the convenience of user and the consistence of data analysis. Year of data is one of top categories and main topics include human resource, equipment, clinical statistics, specialized treatment and research achievement. Each topic or category has several subcategorized topics. Real-time on-line report of analysis is produced immediately after entering each data and the administrator is able to monitor status of data input of each hospital. Backup of data as spread sheets can be accessed by the administrator and be used for academic works by any members of the KOSRO. The new on-line statistical program was developed to collect data from nationwide departments of radiation oncology. Intuitive screen and consistent input structure are expected to promote entering data of member hospitals and annual statistics should be a cornerstone of advance in radiation oncology

  12. Development of new on line statistical program for the Korean society for radiation oncology

    Song, Si Yeol; Ahn, Seung Do; Choi, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Weon Kuu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Kangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwan Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To develop new on-line statistical program for the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology (KOSRO) to collect and extract medical data in radiation oncology more efficiently. The statistical program is a web-based program. The directory was placed in a sub-folder of the homepage of KOSRO and its web address is http://www.kosro.or.kr/asda. The operating systems server is Linux and the webserver is the Apache HTTP server. For database (DB) server, MySQL is adopted and dedicated scripting language is the PHP. Each ID and password are controlled independently and all screen pages for data input or analysis are made to be friendly to users. Scroll-down menu is actively used for the convenience of user and the consistence of data analysis. Year of data is one of top categories and main topics include human resource, equipment, clinical statistics, specialized treatment and research achievement. Each topic or category has several subcategorized topics. Real-time on-line report of analysis is produced immediately after entering each data and the administrator is able to monitor status of data input of each hospital. Backup of data as spread sheets can be accessed by the administrator and be used for academic works by any members of the KOSRO. The new on-line statistical program was developed to collect data from nationwide departments of radiation oncology. Intuitive screen and consistent input structure are expected to promote entering data of member hospitals and annual statistics should be a cornerstone of advance in radiation oncology.

  13. Measurement control program for NDA instruments

    Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement control checks for nondestructive assay instruments have been a constant and continuing concern at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper summarizes the evolution of the measurement control checks in the various high-resolution gamma systems we have developed. In-plant experiences with these systems and checks will be discussed. Based on these experiences, a set of measurement control checks is recommended for high-resolution gamma-ray systems

  14. Measurement of response time and detection of degradation in pressure sensor/sensing-line systems

    Buchanan, M.E.; Miller, L.F.; Kerlin, T.W.; Ragan, G.; March-Leuba, J.; Thie, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A team evaluated several methods for remote measurement of the response time and detection of degradation (blockage or air in lines) of pressure sensor/sensing line systems typical of nuclear power plants. A method was developed for obtaining the response time of force-balance pressure transmitters by briefly interrupting the power supply to the transmitter. The data thus generated are then analyzed in conjunction with a model to predict transmitter response to an actual pressure perturbation. The research team also evaluated a pressure perturbation method for determining the asymptotic delay time of a pressure-sensing line and found that this method yields accurate results for essentially unblocked sensing lines. However, these pressure perturbation tests are not recommended for use in nuclear power plants because they are difficult to implement on-line. A third method for remote measurement applied noise analysis method that yielded accurate estimates of asymptotic delay times for blockage or air in sensing lines. Even though noise analysis methods worked well in the laboratory, it is recommended that further evaluation be performed in operating nuclear plants. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of response time and detection of degradation in pressure sensor/sensing line systems

    Buchanan, M.E.; Miller, L.F.; Thie, J.A.; Kerlin, T.W.; Ragan, G.E.; March-Leuba, J.

    1985-09-01

    A team evaluated several methods for remote measurement of the response time and detection of degradation (blockage or air in lines) of pressure sensor/sensing line systems typical of nuclear power plants. A method was developed for obtaining the response time of force-balance pressure transmitters by briefly interrupting the power supply to the transmitter. The data thus generated are then analyzed in conjunction with a model to predict transmitter response to an actual pressure perturbation. The research team also evaluated a pressure perturbation method for determining the asymptotic delay time of a pressure-sensing line and found that this method yields accurate results for essentially unblocked sensing lines. However, these pressure perturbation tests are not recommended for use in nuclear power plants because they are difficult to implement on-line. A third method for remote measurement applied noise analysis methods that yielded accurate estimates of asymptotic delay times for blockage or air in sensing lines. Even though noise analysis methods worked well in the laboratory, it is recommended that further evaluation be performed in operating nuclear plants

  16. Temperature Measurements in the Solar Transition Region Using N III Line Intensity Ratios

    Doron, R.; Doschek, G. A.; Laming, J. M.; Feldman, U.; Bhatia, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    UV emission from B-like N and O ions a rather rare opportunity for recording spectral lines in a narrow wavelength range that can potentially be used to derive temperatures relevant to the solar transition region. In these ions, the line intensity ratios of the type (2s2p(sup 2) - 2p(sup 3)) / (2s(sup 2)2p - 2s2p(sup 2)) are very sensitive to the electron temperature. Additionally, the lines involving the ratios fall within a range of only - 12 A; in N III the lines fall in the 980 - 992 A range and in O IV in the 780 - 791 A range. In this work, we explore the use of these atomic systems, primarily in N III, for temperature diagnostics of the transition region by analyzing UV spectra obtained by the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer flown on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The N III temperature-sensitive line ratios are measured in more than 60 observations. Most of the measured ratios correspond to temperatures in the range 5.7x10(exp 4) - 6.7x10(exp 4) K. This range is considerably lower than the calculated temperature of maximum abundance of N III, which is approx. 7.6x10(exp 4) K. Detailed analysis of the spectra further indicates that the measured ratios are probably somewhat overestimated due to resonant scattering effects in the 2s(sup 2)2p - 2s2p(sup 2) lines and small blends in the 2s2p(sup 2) - 2p3 lines. Actual lower ratios would only increase the disagreement between the ionization balance calculations and present temperature measurements based on a collisional excitation model. In the case of the O IV spectra, we determined that due to the close proximity in wavelength of the weak line (2s2p(sup 2)-2p3 transitions) to a strong Ne VIII line, sufficiently accurate ratio measurements cannot be obtained. Subject headings: atomic data --- atomic processes --- Sun: transition region --- Sun: U V radiation --- techniques: spectroscopic

  17. Practical applications of the routine measuring program

    Busl, G.; Dehos, R.; Erl, S.; Kohl, R.; Pieper, H.; Winkovich, J.

    1989-01-01

    The colloquium participants were primarily concerned with discussing the tasks defined by Paragraph 3 of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act (StrVG). There are 23 papers in the proceedings focussing on the various tasks and their practical aspects, such as sampling, sample preparation, measurement and measuring techniques, data evaluation, and reporting and documentation. (HP) [de

  18. On-line stable isotope measurements during plant and soil gas exchange

    Yakir, D.

    2001-01-01

    Recent techniques for on-line stable isotope measurements during plant and soil exchange of CO 2 and/or water vapor are briefly reviewed. For CO 2 , these techniques provide means for on-line measurements of isotopic discrimination during CO 2 exchange by leaves in the laboratory and in the field, of isotopic discrimination during soil respiration and during soil-atmosphere CO 2 exchange, and of isotopic discrimination in O 2 during plant respiration. For water vapor, these techniques provide means to measure oxygen isotopic composition of water vapor during leaf transpiration and for the analysis of sub microliter condensed water vapor samples. Most of these techniques involve on-line sampling of CO 2 and water vapor from a dynamic, intact soil or plant system. In the laboratory, these systems also allow on-line isotopic analysis by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The information obtained with these on-line techniques is becoming increasingly valuable, and often critical, for ecophysiologial research and in the study of biosphere-atmosphere interactions. (author)

  19. Measurement of the profile and intensity of the solar He I lambda 584-A resonance line

    Maloy, J. O.; Hartmann, U. G.; Judge, D. L.; Carlson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity and profile of the helium resonance line at 584 A from the entire disk of the sun was investigated by using a rocket-borne helium-filled spectrometer and a curve-of-growth technique. The line profile was found to be accurately represented by a Gaussian profile with full width at half maximum of 122 + or - 10 mA, while the integrated intensity was measured to be 2.6 + or - 1.3 billion photons/s per sq cm at solar activity levels of F(10.7) = 90.8 x 10 to the -22nd per sq m/Hz and Rz = 27. The measured line width is in good agreement with previous spectrographic measurements, but the integrated intensity is larger than most previous photoelectric measurements. However, the derived line center flux of 20 + or - 10 billion photons/s per sq cm/A is in good agreement with values inferred from airglow measurements.

  20. Establishing a volumetric measurement control program

    Holt, S.H.; Jenkins, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), several facilities have nearly all their special nuclear material in solution and therefore, volume measurements play a key role in the accountability of these materials. Normally, facilities rely on frequent instrument calibrations, periodic tank calibrations and proper instrument configuration to ensure measurement control. At SRS, methods have been employed that go beyond these basic steps to monitor the volume measurement systems and provide real time indication of measurement control. These methods can be used to indicate if a tank requires recalibration, if there is a sampling problem, or if there is an instrument problem. The methods include: sample density comparison, in-tank to laboratory density comparison, redundant instrument comparison and tank to tank transfer comparison. This paper describes these methods and the generation of control charts to track these comparisons in real time

  1. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experimental Spherical Torus

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang, E-mail: yjshi@snu.ac.kr; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Chung, Kyoung-Jae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Soo-Ghee [Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advanced Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of H{sub α} and H{sub β} radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  2. Towards identifying programming expertise with the use of physiological measures

    Kontogiorgos, Dimosthenis; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this position paper we propose means of measuring programming expertise on novice and expert programmers. Our approach is to measure the cognitive load of programmers while they assess Java/Python code in accordance with their experience in programming. Our hypothesis is that expert programmers...

  3. A Program to Generate a Particle Distribution from Emittance Measurements

    Bouma, DS; Lallement, JB

    2010-01-01

    We have written a program to generate a particle distribution based on emittance measurements in x-x’ and y-y’. The accuracy of this program has been tested using real and constructed emittance measurements. Based on these tests, the distribution generated by the program can be used to accurately simulate the beam in multi-particle tracking codes, as an alternative to a Gaussian or uniform distribution.

  4. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time and (2) there will be no differences between limbs on lunge scores, MJH, or COP. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Thirty-seven healthy, active participants completed the first 3 tasks of the FMS (eg, deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge), unilateral drop jumps, and 36.6-meter sprints. A 3-dimensional motion analysis system captured MJH. Force platforms measured COP excursion. A laser timing system measured 36.6-m sprint time. Statistical analyses were used to determine whether a relationship existed between lunge scores and COP, MJH, and 36.6-m speed (Spearman rho tests) and whether differences existed between limbs in lunge scores (Wilcoxon signed-rank test), MJH, and COP (paired t tests). Results: Lunge scores were not significantly correlated with COP, MJH, or 36.6-m sprint time. Lunge scores, COP excursion, and MJH were not statistically different between limbs. Conclusion: Performance on the FMS in-line lunge was not related to balance, power, or speed. Healthy participants were symmetrical in lunging measures and MJH. Clinical Relevance: Scores on the FMS in-line lunge should not be attributed to power, speed, or balance performance without further examination. However, assessing limb symmetry appears to be clinically relevant. PMID:24790688

  5. On-line measurement and control in sustainable mineral processing and energy production

    Sowerby, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    Sustainable development can be defined as development that 'meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs' (WCED, 1987). A sustainable minerals and energy industry will need to achieve a number of related objectives including greater energy efficiency, improved utilisation of ore deposits, improved utilisation of existing plant, improved product quality, reduction of waste material, reduction of pollution levels and improved safety margins. These objectives all relate in varying degrees to the triple bottom line of economic, social and environmental benefits. One critical component in achieving these objectives is to develop and apply improved control systems across the full range of industry applications from mining to processing and utilisation. However process control relies heavily on the availability of suitable on-line process instrumentation to provide the data and feedback necessary for its implementation. There is a lot of truth in the saying 'if you can't measure it you can't control it'. In the past measurement was achieved by manual sampling followed by sample preparation (such as drying, mixing, crushing and dividing) and off-line laboratory analysis. However this procedure is often subject to significant sampling errors and, most importantly, the measurements are too slow for control purposes. By contrast, on-line analysis can provide rapid and accurate measurement in real time thus opening up new possibilities for improved process control. As a result, there has been a rapid increase in the industrial application of on-line analysis instrumentation over the past few decades. The main purpose of this paper is to briefly review some past Australian developments of on-line analysis systems in the mineral and coal industries and to discuss present developments and future trends

  6. Relationship of the functional movement screen in-line lunge to power, speed, and balance measures.

    Hartigan, Erin H; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C

    2014-05-01

    The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time and (2) there will be no differences between limbs on lunge scores, MJH, or COP. Descriptive laboratory study. Level 3. Thirty-seven healthy, active participants completed the first 3 tasks of the FMS (eg, deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge), unilateral drop jumps, and 36.6-meter sprints. A 3-dimensional motion analysis system captured MJH. Force platforms measured COP excursion. A laser timing system measured 36.6-m sprint time. Statistical analyses were used to determine whether a relationship existed between lunge scores and COP, MJH, and 36.6-m speed (Spearman rho tests) and whether differences existed between limbs in lunge scores (Wilcoxon signed-rank test), MJH, and COP (paired t tests). Lunge scores were not significantly correlated with COP, MJH, or 36.6-m sprint time. Lunge scores, COP excursion, and MJH were not statistically different between limbs. Performance on the FMS in-line lunge was not related to balance, power, or speed. Healthy participants were symmetrical in lunging measures and MJH. Scores on the FMS in-line lunge should not be attributed to power, speed, or balance performance without further examination. However, assessing limb symmetry appears to be clinically relevant.

  7. Software Programs Derive Measurements from Photographs

    2012-01-01

    Even under the most unfortunate circumstances, NASA continues on a path of innovation. After the Space Shuttle Columbia reentered the atmosphere on February 1, 2003, it experienced a catastrophic failure, and the entire crew and vehicle were lost. For the two weeks prior to the accident, Columbia STS-107 was on a mission to perform physical, life, and space sciences research in the unique environment of microgravity. Following the accident, the remaining shuttles - Endeavor, Atlantis, and Discovery - were grounded, and an intense investigation ensued. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board spent nearly 7 months examining the cause of the accident and determining what would ensure a safe return to flight. To this end, investigators performed an extensive review down five analytic paths: aerodynamic, thermodynamic, sensor data timeline, debris reconstruction, and imaging. As part of the evaluation of all the available imagery from Columbia's ascent, orbit, and entry, investigators needed a new method for analyzing still video images to determine the size of the material that fell from Columbia, as well as the distance that the material traveled. John Lane, a scientist at Kennedy Space Center, devised a software program to calculate the unknown dimension of the material in the images, and soon after the investigation was complete, continued to enhance the technology. Eventually, the program that assisted in the Columbia investigation became available for licensing.

  8. Improving integrity of on-line grammage measurement with traceable basic calibration.

    Kangasrääsiö, Juha

    2010-07-01

    The automatic control of grammage (basis weight) in paper and board production is based upon on-line grammage measurement. Furthermore, the automatic control of other quality variables such as moisture, ash content and coat weight, may rely on the grammage measurement. The integrity of Kr-85 based on-line grammage measurement systems was studied, by performing basic calibrations with traceably calibrated plastic reference standards. The calibrations were performed according to the EN ISO/IEC 17025 standard, which is a requirement for calibration laboratories. The observed relative measurement errors were 3.3% in the first time calibrations at the 95% confidence level. With the traceable basic calibration method, however, these errors can be reduced to under 0.5%, thus improving the integrity of on-line grammage measurements. Also a standardised algorithm, based on the experience from the performed calibrations, is proposed to ease the adjustment of the different grammage measurement systems. The calibration technique can basically be applied to all beta-radiation based grammage measurements. 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Simulation and off-line programming at Sandia`s Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center

    Xavier, P.G.; Fahrenholtz, J.C.; McDonald, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center] [and others

    1997-11-01

    One role of the Intelligent Robotics and System Center (ISRC) at Sandia National Laboratories is to address certain aspects of Sandia`s mission to design, manufacture, maintain, and dismantle nuclear weapon components. Hazardous materials, devices, and environments are often involved. Because of shrinking resources, these tasks must be accomplished with a minimum of prototyping, while maintaining high reliability. In this paper, the authors describe simulation, off-line programming/planning, and related tools which are in use, under development, and being researched to solve these problems at the ISRC.

  10. Measuring the complex permittivity tensor of uniaxial biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line

    A simple and accurate technique is described for measuring the uniaxial permittivity tensor of biological materials with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line configuration. Permittivity tensor results are presented for several chicken and beef fresh meat samples at 2.45 GHz....

  11. The measurement and interpretation of Ne VII spectral line intensity ratios

    Lang, J.

    1983-03-01

    Results are presented for the measurement, using the branching ratios calibration method, of the spectral intensities of Ne VII lines emitted from a theta-pinch plasma whose electron temperature and density have been found by laser scattering and alternate techniques. (author)

  12. Validation of the actuator line method using near wake measurements of the MEXICO rotor

    Nilsson, Karl; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to validate the capability of the actuator line method to compute vortex structures in the near wake behind the MEXICO experimental wind turbine rotor. In the MEXICO project/MexNext Annex, particle image velocimetry measurements have made it possible to determine...

  13. Validation of the actuator line and disc techniques using the New MEXICO measurements

    Sarmast, Sasan; Shen, Wen Z.; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2016-01-01

    Actuator line and disc techniques are employed to analyse the wake obtained in the New MEXICO wind turbine experiment. The New MEXICO measurement campaign done in 2014 is a follow-up to the MEXICO campaign, which was completed in 2006. Three flow configurations in axial flow condition are simulated...

  14. Report of the supplementary measuring program Chernobyl

    Vaas, L.H.

    1988-06-01

    In this report, which is a continuation of the report of the Dutch Coordination Commission for measurement of Radioactivity and Xenobiotic materials (CCRX) ''Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the reactor accident in Chernobylsk'' of October 1986, the results are discussed of the supplementary measuring programme, till October 1st 1987, and a survey is given of the state of affairs with regard to the execution of the recommendations from the first Chernobylsk report. (H.W.). 53 refs.; 28 figs.; 50 tabs

  15. On line local measurement of thermal neutron flux on BNCT patient using SPND

    Miller, M.E.; Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, M.L.; Gonzalez, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The first on-line neutron flux measurement on a patient using a self-powered neutron detector (SPND) was assessed during the fourth clinical trial of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project carried out at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) and the medical center Angel H. Roffo. The SPND was specially developed and assembled for BNCT by CNEA. Its small size, 1 cm sensible length and 1.9 mm diameter, allowed performing a localized measurement. Since the treated tumors were cutaneous melanomas of nodular type, the SPND was located on the patient's skin. The patient was exposed to three different and consecutive fields and in each of them the SPND was used to measure local thermal neutron fluxes at selected dosimetric reference points. The values of the measured fluxes agreed with the ones estimated by calculation. This trial also demonstrated the usefulness of the SPND for assessing flux on-line. (author)

  16. Electron temperature measurements by the plasma line technique at the French incoherent scatter radar facilities

    Kofman, W.; Lejeune, G.; Hagfors, T.; Bauer, P.

    1981-01-01

    The results of experiments aimed at the determination of the electron temperature by a plasma line technique are presented. Using the multistatic capabilities of the French incoherent scatter radar, the plasma line frequencies were simultaneously measured at two receiving stations (Mende and Nancay) at the altitude corresponding to the maximum of the F layer. Different plasma line frequencies are measued because of different effective k vectors that appear in the thermal term of the plasma dispersion relation. We derive and apply two data analysis procedures that enable us to determine this frequency difference. Comparison of this measured frequency difference to that calculated using the ion component electron temperature demonstrates that the plasma lines could indeed be used to determine the electron temperature. A strong dependence of the power in the plasma line as a function of the angle between k vector and magnetic field is observed in agreement with the theory. The future developments of this technique with the EISCAT radar facilities are discussed

  17. A Measurement and Power Line Communication System Design for Renewable Smart Grids

    Kabalci, E.; Kabalci, Y.

    2013-10-01

    The data communication over the electric power lines can be managed easily and economically since the grid connections are already spread around all over the world. This paper investigates the applicability of Power Line Communication (PLC) in an energy generation system that is based on photovoltaic (PV) panels with the modeling study in Matlab/Simulink. The Simulink model covers the designed PV panels, boost converter with Perturb and Observe (P&O) control algorithm, full bridge inverter, and the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modem that is utilized to transfer the measured data over the power lines. This study proposes a novel method to use the electrical power lines not only for carrying the line voltage but also to transmit the measurements of the renewable energy generation plants. Hence, it is aimed at minimizing the additional monitoring costs such as SCADA, Ethernet-based or GSM based systems by using the proposed technique. Although this study is performed with solar power plants, the proposed model can be applied to other renewable generation systems. Consequently, the usage of the proposed technique instead of SCADA or Ethernet-based systems eliminates additional monitoring costs.

  18. A Comparison of Multiscale Permutation Entropy Measures in On-Line Depth of Anesthesia Monitoring.

    Su, Cui; Liang, Zhenhu; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Duan; Li, Yongwang; Ursino, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Multiscale permutation entropy (MSPE) is becoming an interesting tool to explore neurophysiological mechanisms in recent years. In this study, six MSPE measures were proposed for on-line depth of anesthesia (DoA) monitoring to quantify the anesthetic effect on the real-time EEG recordings. The performance of these measures in describing the transient characters of simulated neural populations and clinical anesthesia EEG were evaluated and compared. Six MSPE algorithms-derived from Shannon permutation entropy (SPE), Renyi permutation entropy (RPE) and Tsallis permutation entropy (TPE) combined with the decomposition procedures of coarse-graining (CG) method and moving average (MA) analysis-were studied. A thalamo-cortical neural mass model (TCNMM) was used to generate noise-free EEG under anesthesia to quantitatively assess the robustness of each MSPE measure against noise. Then, the clinical anesthesia EEG recordings from 20 patients were analyzed with these measures. To validate their effectiveness, the ability of six measures were compared in terms of tracking the dynamical changes in EEG data and the performance in state discrimination. The Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was used to assess the relationship among MSPE measures. CG-based MSPEs failed in on-line DoA monitoring at multiscale analysis. In on-line EEG analysis, the MA-based MSPE measures at 5 decomposed scales could track the transient changes of EEG recordings and statistically distinguish the awake state, unconsciousness and recovery of consciousness (RoC) state significantly. Compared to single-scale SPE and RPE, MSPEs had better anti-noise ability and MA-RPE at scale 5 performed best in this aspect. MA-TPE outperformed other measures with faster tracking speed of the loss of unconsciousness. MA-based multiscale permutation entropies have the potential for on-line anesthesia EEG analysis with its simple computation and sensitivity to drug effect changes. CG-based multiscale permutation

  19. Optical fiber-spectrophotometer coupling: when will the measurement be on line

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Ten years of research and development made at CEA in colorimetry and remote spectrometry by optical fibers allow to define more precisely the best conditions for on-line measurement in industrial process controls and in laboratory analysis in adverse environment. This article presents the new possibilities brought by this type of measurement. One of them is the simultaneous determination of many components; current studies concern the control ''in situ'' of uranium (IV) and (VI) and plutonium (III) and (IV) mixtures [fr

  20. Measurement of collisional self broadening of atomic resonance lines in selective reflection experiment

    Papoyan, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    A method is developed to measure directly the collisional self broadening rate for a dense atomic vapor from selective reflection spectra. Experimental realization for the atomic D 1 and D 2 resonance lines of Rb confirms a validity of the proposed technique. The deflection of experimentally measured values is not more than 20% from theoretically predicted ones in the atomic number density range of 7· 10 16 - 7· 10 17 cm - 3 . 10 refs

  1. Environment of symbolic and graphic programming for the SYMPATI-2 line processor

    Fernandez, Pascal

    1991-01-01

    This research thesis reports the development of a programming environment which can be easily used at all levels of development of an application in the field of image processing. The author first presents different programming environments by distinguishing, on the one hand, languages or environments which are not specific to a machine, and, on the other hand, languages or environments which are dedicated to a specialised parallel architecture. Then, after a recall of the structure of the line processor from an operational point of view, the author proposes a detailed presentation of the 4LP language, i.e. the layer 0 of the environment. The three other layers are then presented. They respectively comprise a high level symbolic language, a user-friendly and interactive graphic tool, and an interactive graphic tool for the development of applications from programme icons

  2. 49 CFR 192.487 - Remedial measures: Distribution lines other than cast iron or ductile iron lines.

    2010-10-01

    ... cast iron or ductile iron lines. 192.487 Section 192.487 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... iron or ductile iron lines. (a) General corrosion. Except for cast iron or ductile iron pipe, each... the purpose of this paragraph. (b) Localized corrosion pitting. Except for cast iron or ductile iron...

  3. SNP Polymorphism Survey of the Parental Lines of ISRA Sorghum Breeding Program as Part of the Feed the Future

    US Agency for International Development — Polymorphism of SNP Markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) was assessed on 24 parental lines of the ISRA sorghum breeding program . About 1300 SNP have been used...

  4. Measurement problem in Program Universe. Revision

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is in our view an artifact of its philosophical and mathematical underpinnings. We describe a new philosophical view of theory formation, rooted in Wittgenstein, and Bishop's and Martin-Loef's constructivity, which obviates such discussions. We present an unfinished, but very encouraging, theory which is compatible with this philosophical framework. The theory is based on the concepts of counting and combinatorics in the framework provided by the combinatorial hierarchy, a unique hierarchy of bit strings which interact by an operation called discrimination. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact. 15 refs

  5. Measurement problem in Program Universe. Revision

    Noyes, H. P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M. J.

    1985-07-01

    The measurement problem of contemporary physics is in our view an artifact of its philosophical and mathematical underpinnings. We describe a new philosophical view of theory formation, rooted in Wittgenstein, and Bishop's and Martin-Loef's constructivity, which obviates such discussions. We present an unfinished, but very encouraging, theory which is compatible with this philosophical framework. The theory is based on the concepts of counting and combinatorics in the framework provided by the combinatorial hierarchy, a unique hierarchy of bit strings which interact by an operation called discrimination. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar and m/sub p/ or (not and) G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact.

  6. High precision wavelength measurements of X-ray lines emitted from TS-Tokamak plasmas

    Platz, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Cornille, M.; Dubau, J. [Observatoire de Paris, 92 - Meudon (France)

    1996-01-01

    X-ray line spectra from highly charged impurity ions have been taken with a high-resolution Bragg-crystal spectrometer on the Tore Supra (TS) tokamak. By cross-checking the wavelengths of reference lines from the heliumlike ions Ti20 + (2.6 Angstroms) and Ar16 + (3.95 Angstroms) we first demonstrate that it is possible to measure wavelengths with a precision, {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}, of better than 50000. We than determine the wavelengths of n=3 to n=2 transitions of neonlike Ag37+ in the 4 Angstroms spectral range. (authors). 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. 235U Holdup Measurement Program in support of facility shutdown

    Thomason, R.S.; Griffin, J.C.; Lien, O.G.; McElroy, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989, the Department of Energy directed shutdown of an enriched uranium processing facility at Savannah River Site. As part of the shutdown requirements, deinventory and cleanout of process equipment and nondestructive measurement of the remaining 235 U holdup were required. The holdup measurements had safeguards, accountability, and nuclear criticality safety significance; therefore, a technically defensible and well-documented holdup measurement program was needed. Appropriate standards were fabricated, measurement techniques were selected, and an aggressive schedule was followed. Early in the program, offsite experts reviewed the measurement program, and their recommendations were adopted. Contact and far-field methods were used for most measurements, but some process equipment required special attention. All holdup measurements were documented, and each report was subjected to internal peer review. Some measured values were checked against values obtained by other methods; agreement was generally good

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has expressed a need for an on-line, real-time instrument for assaying alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) in effluent waters leaving DOE sites to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Due to the short range of alpha particles in water (approximately40 Tm), it is necessary now to intermittently collect samples of water and send them to a central laboratory for analysis. A lengthy and costly procedure is used to separate and measure the radionuclides from each sample. Large variations in radionuclide concentrations in the water may go undetected due to the sporadic sampling. Even when detected, the reading may not be representative of the actual stream concentration. To address these issues, Tecogen, a division of Thermo Power Corporation, a Thermo Electron company, is developing a real-time, field-deployable, alpha monitor based on a solid-state silicon wafer semiconductor (patent pending, to be assigned to the Department of Energy). The Thermo Alpha Monitor (TAM) will serve to monitor effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area) and will be suitable for process control of remediation as well as decontamination and decommissioning operations, such as monitoring scrubber or rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste Focus Area and D and D Focus Area). It would be applicable for assaying other liquids, such as oil, or solids after proper preconditioning. Rapid isotopic alpha air monitoring is also possible using this technology. This instrument for direct counting of alpha-emitters in aqueous streams is presently being developed by Thermo Power under a development program funded by the DOE Environmental Management program (DOE-EM), administered by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Under this contract, Thermo Power has demonstrated a solid-state, silicon-based semiconductor instrument, which uses a proprietary film-based collection system to quantitatively extract the

  9. The Development of On-Line Statistics Program for Radiation Oncology

    Kim, Yoon Jong; Lee, Dong Hoon; Ji, Young Hoon; Lee, Dong Han; Jo, Chul Ku; Kim, Mi Sook; Ru, Sung Rul; Hong, Seung Hong

    2001-01-01

    Purpose : By developing on-line statistics program to record the information of radiation oncology to share the information with internet. It is possible to supply basic reference data for administrative plans to improve radiation oncology. Materials and methods : The information of radiation oncology statistics had been collected by paper forms about 52 hospitals in the past. Now, we can input the data by internet web browsers. The statistics program used windows NT 4.0 operation system, Internet Information Server 4.0 (IIS4.0) as a web server and the Microsoft Access MDB. We used Structured Query Language (SQL), Visual Basic, VBScript and JAVAScript to display the statistics according to years and hospitals. Results : This program shows present conditions about man power, research, therapy machines, technic, brachytherapy, clinic statistics, radiation safety management, institution, quality assurance and radioisotopes in radiation oncology department. The database consists of 38 inputs and 6 outputs windows. Statistical output windows can be increased continuously according to user need. Conclusion : We have developed statistics program to process all of the data in department of radiation oncology for reference information. Users easily could input the data by internet web browsers and share the information

  10. From mission to measures: performance measure development for a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Equipment line-up developed for structuring programmed digital systems important to safety

    Remus, L.; Colling, J.M.; Buisson, J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of the programmed digital techniques in systems important to safety led to developing equipment line-ups which allow to procedure, through using a restricted number of sub-assemblies, a variety of facilities capable of performing diversified functions. Upon remembering the requirements that such equipment are required to meet (quality assurance both at the design and production stages, qualification, testing opportunities, etc.) the equipments produced by MERLIN GERIN are described in this paper. Such equipments include a whole set of printed circuit boards, plug-in units with self-engaging connectors and the related cabinets to accomodate them. The following systems are made up of such equipments: Digital integrated protection system; Rod control and monitoring system; Reactor power distribution monitoring equipment. This equipment line-up has been gradually complemented and is still further expanding both as a result of the component further development or for the purpose of meeting new requirements or applications (new digital neutron instrumentation, local area networks). Experience gained thus far provides us with the capability of working out in a short time programmed systems for further applications in the nuclear power field

  12. Line width measurement below 60 nm using an optical interferometer and artificial neural network

    See, Chung W.; Smith, Richard J.; Somekh, Michael G.; Yacoot, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    We have recently described a technique for optical line-width measurements. The system currently is capable of measuring line-width down to 60 nm with a precision of 2 nm, and potentially should be able to measure down to 10nm. The system consists of an ultra-stable interferometer and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The former is used to generate optical profiles which are input to the ANNs. The outputs of the ANNs are the desired sample parameters. Different types of samples have been tested with equally impressive results. In this paper we will discuss the factors that are essential to extend the application of the technique. Two of the factors are signal conditioning and sample classification. Methods, including principal component analysis, that are capable of performing these tasks will be considered.

  13. Apparatus and method of measuring fluctuations of excavated mud amount in a slurry line

    Yamazaki, H.; Kubota, R.; Uchida, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Seki, N.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring fluctuations in amount of soil in slurry or soil-containing fluid line is described. Each system of feeding the slurry typically to tunneling face and draining it therefrom in the slurry line is provided with gamma-ray densimeter and electromagnetic flow-meter to obtain respective amounts of soil only (dry-soil amounts) in the slurry flowing through each of said systems from respective outputs of these meters in each system, so that actually excavated amount through ground layer of a shielded excavator at the tunneling face can be measured by the difference between the respective dry-soil amounts. The excavator will be advanced depending on this measured amount

  14. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines.

    Busschots, Steven; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J; Stordal, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Many protocols used for measuring the growth of adherent monolayer cells in vitro are invasive, destructive and do not allow for the continued, undisturbed growth of cells within flasks. Protocols often use indirect methods for measuring proliferation. Microscopy techniques can analyse cell proliferation in a non-invasive or non-destructive manner but often use expensive equipment and software algorithms. In this method images of cells within flasks are captured by photographing under a standard inverted phase contract light microscope using a digital camera with a camera lens adaptor. Images are analysed for confluence using ImageJ freeware resulting in a measure of confluence known as an Area Fraction (AF) output. An example of the AF method in use on OVCAR8 and UPN251 cell lines is included. •Measurements of confluence from growing adherent cell lines in cell culture flasks is obtained in a non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free manner.•The technique is quick, affordable and eliminates sample manipulation.•The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3) was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01) and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01) cell lines.

  15. Linear polarization measurements at H. beta. of early-type emission line stars

    Clarke, D; McLean, I S [Glasgow Univ. (UK)

    1976-02-01

    Linear polarization measurements across the H..beta.. emission lines of the stars ..gamma.. Cas, zeta Tau and 48 Per are presented. For the first two stars there is a marked reduction of the polarization at the centre of the line and for ..gamma.. Cas, this varies from night to night. During the H..beta.. observations of zeta Tau, a change of polarization over tens of minutes was indicated in a monitor channel tuned to the continuum on the blue side of H..beta... For the fainter star, 48 Per, the uncertainties of the polarimetry were increased in relation to ..gamma.. Cas and zeta Tau by a factor of about two and at this precision, no differential effects across the line were recorded. Observations of ..cap alpha.. Cyg are also given to demonstrate the reliability of the polarimeter.

  16. Transport measurements on superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin film lines

    Moeckly, B.H.; Lathrop, D.K.; Redinbo, G.F.; Russek, S.E.; Buhrman, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Critical current densities, magnetic field response, and microwave response have been measured for laser ablated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thin film lines on MgO and SrTiO 3 substrates. Films on SrTiO 3 have critical current densities > 1 x 10 6 A/cm 2 at 77 K and show uniform transport properties in lines of all sizes. Films on MgO have critical current densities which range between 10 2 and 10 6 A/cm 2 at 77 K and show considerable variation from device to device on the same chip. Narrow lines on MgO with low critical current densities show Josephson weak link structure which includes RSJ-like IV curves, microwave induced constant voltage steps, and a high sensitivity to magnetic field. The presence of the Josephson weak links if correlated with small amounts of misaligned grains in film on MgO

  17. Precision measurements of high-energy conversion electron lines and determination of neutron binding energies

    Braumandl, F.

    1979-01-01

    The paper first discusses the energy accuracy of the BILL conversion electron spectrometer at the Grenoble high flux reactor. With an improved temperature stabilisation of the magnets, an energy accuracy of ΔE/E -5 can be reached. After this, highly exact measurements of high-energy conversion electron lines of the 200 Hg, 114 Cd, 165 Dy, 168 Er, 239 U nuclei and the 13 C, 28 Al 3 H and 92 Zr photoelectron lines were carried out. Energy calibration of the spectrometer was carried out in the 1.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV range with intensive high-energy transitions of the 200 Hg nucleus. Systematic calibration errors could be investigated by means of combinations between the calibration lines. A calibration for absolute energies was obtained by comparing low-energy gamma transitions of 200 Hg with the 411.8 keV gold standard. (orig.) [de

  18. Measurement of the 0.511 MeV #betta# ray line from the galactic center

    Jardim, J.O.D.; Benson, J.L.; Jardim, M.V.A.; Martin, I.M.

    1981-02-01

    The detection of the 0.511 MeV electron-positron annihilation line coming from the Galactic Center can provide the means to estimate the rate of positron production and to test some theoretical sources of positrons. The result of the measurements of the 0.511 MeV line flux made in a gamma-ray experiment on board a stratospheric balloon is presented. Thedetector field of view looked at the galactic longitude range-31 0 0 . The observed flux is (6.70 + - 0.85)x10 - 3 photons cm - 2 s - 1 , which is in good agreement with the expected flux when assuming that the Galactic Center is a line source emitting uniformly. (Author) [pt

  19. Accurate fault location algorithm on power transmission lines with use of two-end unsynchronized measurements

    Mohamed Dine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to fault location on power transmission lines. This approach uses two-end unsynchronised measurements of the line and benefits from the advantages of digital technology and numerical relaying, which are available today and can easily be applied for off-line analysis. The approach is to modify the apparent impedance method using a very simple first-order formula. The new method is independent of fault resistance, source impedances and pre-fault currents. In addition, the data volume communicated between relays is sufficiently small enough to be transmitted easily using a digital protection channel. The proposed approach is tested via digital simulation using MATLand the applied test results corroborate the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  20. Irradiation temperature measurements in the surveillance program

    Pav, T.; Krhounek, V.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of the diamond monitor method for the determination of the irradiation temperature in the surveillance programme of WWER-440 reactors is discussed. One of the difficulties with the practical application of the method is that the measured values of irradiation temperature are unlikely high. Using a thermodynamical model of the processes in the annealing of the irradiated diamond crystals, it was shown that experimental difficulties came from the principles of the method used. An analysis was performed of the thermal field inside the capsule of the surveillance chain in operational conditions, using the finite element method. The diamond monitor method was suggested to be eliminated from the surveillance programme and the use was proposed of the value of 273+-3 degC (as the most likely value) for the irradiation temperature of surveillance samples in WWER-440 reactors. (Z.S.). 3 tabs., 6 figs., 4 refs

  1. Scatterometry measurement of nested lines, dual space, and rectangular contact CD on phase-shift masks

    Lee, Kyung M.; Yedur, Sanjay; Henrichs, Sven; Tavassoli, Malahat; Baik, Kiho

    2007-03-01

    Evaluation of lithography process or stepper involves very large quantity of CD measurements and measurement time. In this paper, we report on a application of Scatterometry based metrology for evaluation of binary photomask lithography. Measurements were made on mask level with ODP scatterometer then on wafer with CD-SEM. 4 to 1 scaling from mask to wafer means 60nm line on wafer translates to 240nm on mask, easily measurable on ODP. Calculation of scatterometer profile information was performed by a in-situ library-based analysis (5sec/site). We characterized the CD uniformity, linearity, and metal film thickness uniformity. Results show that linearity measured from fixed-pitch, varying line/space ratio targets show good correlation to top-down CD-SEM with R2 of more than 0.99. ODP-SEM correlation results for variable pitch shows that careful examination of scatterometer profile results in order to obtain better correlation to CD SEM, since both tools react differently to the target profile variation. ODP results show that global CD distribution is clearly measurable with less outliers compared to CD SEM data. This is thought to be due to 'averaging' effect of scatterometer. The data show that Scatterometry provides a nondestructive and faster mean of characterizing lithography stepper performanceprofiles. APSM 1st level (before Cr removal) 'dual-space' CDs and EPSM rectangular contacts were also measured with and results demonstrates that Scatterometer is capable of measuring these targets with reasonable correlation to SEM.

  2. Polarization measurement of iron L-shell lines on EBIT-I

    Chen, Hui; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Robbins, Darron; Smith, A.J.; Gu, Ming Feng

    2004-01-01

    We report measurements of the line polarization of Ne-like and F-like of iron n=3 to n=2 transitions in the x-ray region. We used the ''two-crystal technique'' developed in previous polarization measurements in our laboratory. Preliminary results from our measurements are presented together with the theoretical calculations using the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC). Our calculations show that contributions from cascades play an important role in the polarization calculations of most of the transitions. The uncertainties and difficulties of our experiments are also discussed. (author)

  3. Resolution of sonographic B-lines as a measure of pulmonary decongestion in acute heart failure.

    Martindale, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    Objective noninvasive measures of dyspnea in patients with acute heart failure are lacking. In this review, we describe lung ultrasound as a tool to estimate the degree of pulmonary congestion in patients presenting with acute heart failure and to monitor therapeutic efficacy. Serial semiquantitative measures of sonographic B-lines in acute heart failure patients can be converted to pulmonary edema scores obtained at admission and hospital discharge. These scores provide prognostic information for short-term clinical outcomes. Lung ultrasound has the potential to measure changes in pulmonary edema during acute heart failure management and improve risk stratification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Coulomb field strength measurement by electro-optic spectral decoding system at the CALIFES beam line

    Pan, R; Lefevre, T; Gillepsie, WA; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Electro-optic (EO) techniques are increasingly used for longitudinal bunch profile measurements. A bunch profile monitor, based on electro-optic spectral decoding(EOSD), has been developed and demonstrated on the CALIFES beam line at CERN. The EO response is analysed using a frequency domain description, and two methods for extraction of absolute Coulomb field strengths from the electron bunch are demonstrated. Measurements at field strengths up to 1.3 MV/m agree with the expectation based on independent charge measurements.

  5. On-line velocity measurements using phase probes at the SuperHILAC

    Feinberg, B.; Meaney, D.; Thatcher, R.; Timossi, C.

    1987-12-01

    Phase probes have been placed in several external beam lines at the LBL heavy ion linear accelerator (SuperHILAC) to provide non- destructive velocity measurements independent of the ion being accelerated. The system uses three probes in each line to obtain accurate velocity measurements at all beam energies. Automatic gain control and signal analysis are performed so that the energy/nucleon along with up to three probe signals are displayed on a vector graphics display with a refresh rate better than twice per second. The system uses a sensitive pseudo-correlation technique to pick out the signal from the noise, features simultaneous measurements of up to four ion velocities when more than one beam is being accelerated, and is controlled by a touch-screen operator interface. It is accurate to within /+-/0.25% and has provisions for on-line calibration tests. The phase probes thus provide a velocity measurement independent of the mass defect associated with the use of crystal detectors, which can become significant for heavy elements. They are now used as a routine tuning aid to ensure proper bunch structure, and as a beam velocity monitor. 3 refs., 5 figs

  6. Comparison of Echo 7 field line length measurements to magnetospheric model predictions

    Nemzek, R.J.; Winckler, J.R.; Malcolm, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Echo 7 sounding rocket experiment injected electron beams on central tail field lines near L = 6.5. Numerous injections returned to the payload as conjugate echoes after mirroring in the southern hemisphere. The authors compare field line lengths calculated from measured conjugate echo bounce times and energies to predictions made by integrating electron trajectories through various magnetospheric models: the Olson-Pfitzer Quiet and Dynamic models and the Tsyganenko-Usmanov model. Although Kp at launch was 3-, quiet time magnetic models est fit the echo measurements. Geosynchronous satellite magnetometer measurements near the Echo 7 field lies during the flight were best modeled by the Olson-Pfitzer Dynamic Model and the Tsyganenko-Usmanov model for Kp = 3. The discrepancy between the models that best fit the Echo 7 data and those that fit the satellite data was most likely due to uncertainties in the small-scale configuration of the magnetospheric models. The field line length measured by the conjugate echoes showed some temporal variation in the magnetic field, also indicated by the satellite magnetometers. This demonstrates the utility an Echo-style experiment could have in substorm studies

  7. On-line tritium production and heat deposition rate measurements at the Lotus facility

    Joneja, O.P.; Scherrer, P.; Anand, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Integral tritium production and heat deposition measurement in a prototype fusion blanket would enable verification of the computational codes and the data based employed for the calculations. A large number of tritium production rate measurements have been reported for different type of blankets, whereas the direct heat deposition due to the mixed radiation field in the fusion environment, is still in its infancy. In order to ascertain the kerma factors and the photon production libraries, suitable techniques must be developed to directly measure the nuclear heat deposition rates in the materials required for the fusion systems. In this context, at the Lotus facility, we have developed an extremely efficient double ionizing chamber, for the on-line tritium production measurements and employed a pure graphite calorimeter to measure the nuclear heat deposition due to the mixed radiation field of the 14 MeV, Haefely neutron generator. This paper presents both systems and some of the recent measurements. (authors). 8 refs., 13 figs

  8. Status of beta measurement evaluation and upgrade program

    Swinth, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    In 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a program to evaluate and upgrade beta dosimetry capabilities at DOE and DOE-contractor facilities. The program has several elements which structure the development of improvements in beta measurement practices. In addition to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), universities, private corporations, and other DOE facilities are involved in the research efforts

  9. Manipulation and handling processes off-line programming and optimization with use of K-Roset

    Gołda, G.; Kampa, A.

    2017-08-01

    Contemporary trends in development of efficient, flexible manufacturing systems require practical implementation of modern “Lean production” concepts for maximizing customer value through minimizing all wastes in manufacturing and logistics processes. Every FMS is built on the basis of automated and robotized production cells. Except flexible CNC machine tools and other equipments, the industrial robots are primary elements of the system. In the studies, authors look for wastes of time and cost in real tasks of robots, during manipulation processes. According to aspiration for optimization of handling and manipulation processes with use of the robots, the application of modern off-line programming methods and computer simulation, is the best solution and it is only way to minimize unnecessary movements and other instructions. The modelling process of robotized production cell and offline programming of Kawasaki robots in AS-Language will be described. The simulation of robotized workstation will be realized with use of virtual reality software K-Roset. Authors show the process of industrial robot’s programs improvement and optimization in terms of minimizing the number of useless manipulator movements and unnecessary instructions. This is realized in order to shorten the time of production cycles. This will also reduce costs of handling, manipulations and technological process.

  10. National radon measurement-proficiency program: Individual proficiency report

    1992-05-01

    In February 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program to assist the public in identifying organizations capable of providing reliable radon measurement services. In December 1991, EPA announced the new individual proficiency listing category in the RMP Program. Individuals applying for this new listing status must demonstrate knowledge of radon measurement fundamentals by passing a written proficiency examination, maintain affiliation with an RMP listed organization, and meet other program requirements. This report lists those individuals who have met the requirements of the RMP Program as of April 30, 1992. These requirements are designed to provide minimum proficiency criteria for individuals who provide radon measurement services on-site in a residential environment

  11. Measurements of line overlap for resonant spoiling of x-ray lasing transitions

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Elliott, S.R.; MacGowan, B.J.; Nilsen, J.

    1994-06-01

    High-precision measurements are presented of candidate line pairs for resonant spoiling of x-ray lasing transitions in the nickel-like W 46+ , the neon-like Fe 16+ , and the neon-like La 47+ x-ray lasers. Our measurements were carried out with high-resolution crystal spectrometers, and a typical precision of 20--50 ppM was achieved. While most resonances appear insufficient for effective photo-spoiling, two resonance pairs are identified that provide a good overlap. These are the 4p 1/2 → 3d 3/2 transition in nickel-like W 46+ with the 2p 3/2 → 1s 1/2 transition in hydrogenic Al 12+ , and the 3s 1/2 → 2p 3/2 transition in neon-like La 47+ with the 1 1 S 0 -2 1 P 1 line in heliumlike Ti 20+

  12. Solving of some Problems with On-Line Mode Measurement of Partial Discharges

    Karel Zalis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems discussing the transition from off-line diagnostic methods to on-line ones. Based on the experience with commercial partial discharge measuring equipment a new digital system for the evaluation of partial discharge measurement including software and hardware facilities has been developed at the Czech Technical University in Prague. Two expert systems work in this complex evaluating system: a rule-based expert system performing an amplitude analysis of partial discharge impulses for determining the damage of the insulation system, and a neural network which is used for a phase analysis of partial discharge impulses to determine the kind of partial discharge activity. Problem of the elimination of disturbances is also discussed.

  13. Line overlap measurements for resonant photo-pumping of x-ray lasers

    Elliott, S.R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Nilsen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement taken on the LLNL EBIT to search for the possible photo-pumping of the 3p-3s lasing transitions in Ni-like ions of elements with Z=30--40 and the 4d-4p lasing transitions in Ne-like ions of elements with Z=47-73 are reported. A high-resolution crystral spectrometer was used to measure wavelengths of the Ne-like 2p-4d and the Ni-like 3d-5f and 3d-6f laser level feeding transitions relative to candidate pump lines in various H-, He-, and Ni-like ions. To date, the most promising candidate is Ni-like Pt pumping Ne-like Rb at 2512 eV. The line energies differ by 0.4±0.1 eV or by 160 ppm

  14. On the Use of Line Depth Ratios to Measure Starspot Properties on Magnetically Active Stars

    O'Neal, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic techniques have proven to be effective ways to measure the properties of dark, cool starspots on magnetically active stars. Recently, a technique was introduced using atomic line depth ratios (LDRs) to measure starspot properties. Carefully reproducing this technique using a new set of spectroscopic observations of active stars, we find that the LDR technique encounters difficulties, specifically by overestimating spot temperatures (because the atomic lines blend with titanium oxide absorption in cooler spots) and by not tightly constraining the filling factor of spots. While the use of LDRs for active star studies has great promise, we believe that these concerns need to be addressed before the technique is more widely applied. This paper includes data taken at McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.

  15. Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling

    Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, E.K. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

  16. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines

    Steven Busschots

    2015-01-01

    • The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3 was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01 and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01 cell lines.

  17. Modified thermogravimetric apparatus to measure magnetic susceptibility on-line during annealing of metastable ferromagnetic materials

    Luciani, G.; Constantini, A.; Branda, F.; Ausanio, G.; Hison, C.; Iannotti, V.; Luponio, C.; Lanotte, L.

    2004-01-01

    The insertion of proper coils to generate a magnetic field, with controlled gradient, in a standard thermogravimetric apparatus is shown to be a valid solution to measure on-line, upon heat treatment, the magnetic susceptibility in ribbon shaped samples of a metastable ferromagnetic material. The method is very useful to individuate the annealing conditions that optimise soft or hard magnetic properties without using separate apparatuses for heat treatment, control of the structural phase transition and characterization of magnetic susceptibility

  18. Reliability of a new method for measuring coronal trunk imbalance, the axis-line-angle technique.

    Zhang, Rui-Fang; Liu, Kun; Wang, Xue; Liu, Qian; He, Jia-Wei; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Yan, Zhi-Han

    2015-12-01

    Accurate determination of the extent of trunk imbalance in the coronal plane plays a key role in an evaluation of patients with trunk imbalance, such as patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. An established, widely used practice in evaluating trunk imbalance is to drop a plumb line from the C7 vertebra to a key reference axis, the central sacral vertical line (CSVL) in full-spine standing anterioposterior radiographs, and measuring the distance between them, the C7-CSVL. However, measuring the CSVL is subject to intraobserver differences, is error-prone, and is of poor reliability. Therefore, the development of a different way to measure trunk imbalance is needed. This study aimed to describe a new method to measure coronal trunk imbalance, the axis-line-angle technique (ALAT), which measures the angle at the intersection between the C7 plumb line and an axis line drawn from the vertebral centroid of the C7 to the middle of the superior border of the symphysis pubis, and to compare the reliability of the ALAT with that of the C7-CSVL. A prospective study at a university hospital was used. The patient sample consisted of sixty-nine consecutively enrolled men and women patients, aged 10-18 years, who had trunk imbalance defined as C7-CSVL longer than 20 mm on computed full-spine standing anterioposterior radiographs. Data were analyzed to determine the correlation between C7-CSVL and ALAT measurements and to determine intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities. Using a picture archiving and communication system, three radiologists independently evaluated trunk imbalance on the 69 computed radiographs by measuring the C7-CSVL and by measuring the angle determined by the ALAT. Data were analyzed to determine the correlations between the two measures of trunk imbalance, and to determine intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities of each of them. Overall results from the measurements by the C7-CSVL and the ALAT were significantly moderately correlated

  19. Plasma core electron density and temperature measurements using CVI line emissions in TCABR Tokamak

    Nascimento, F. do, E-mail: fellypen@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Componentes Semicondutores; Machida, M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Severo, J.H.F.; Sanada, E.; Ronchi, G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-08-15

    In this work, we present results of electron temperature (T{sub e} ) and density (n {sub e} ) measurements obtained in Tokamak Chauffage Alfven Bresilien (TCABR) tokamak using visible spectroscopy from CVI line emissions which occurs mainly near the center of the plasma column. The presented method is based on a well-known relationship between the particle flux (Γ {sub ion}) and the photon flux (ø {sub ion}) emitted by an ion species combined with ionizations per photon atomic data provided by the atomic data and analysis structure (ADAS) database. In the experiment, we measured the photon fluxes of three different CVI spectral line emissions, 4685.2, 5290.5, and 6200.6 Å (one line per shot). Using this method it was possible to find out the temporal evolution of T{sub e} and n{sub e} in the plasma. The results achieved are in good agreement with T{sub e} and n{sub e} measurements made using other diagnostic tools. (author)

  20. The split-cross-bridge resistor for measuring the sheet resistance, linewidth, and line spacing of conducting layers

    Buehler, M. G.; Hershey, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    A new test structure was developed for evaluating the line spacing between conductors on the same layer using an electrical measurement technique. This compact structure can also be used to measure the sheet resistance, linewidth, and line pitch of the conducting layer. Using an integrated-circuit fabrication process, this structure was fabricated in diffused polycrystalline silicon and metal layers and measured optically and electrically. For the techniques used, the optical measurements were typically one-quarter micron greater than the electrical measurements. Most electrically measured line pitch values were within 2 percent of the designed value. A small difference between the measured and designed line pitch is used to validate sheet resistance, linewidth, and line spacing values.

  1. Electron temperature measurement by a helium line intensity ratio method in helicon plasmas

    Boivin, R.F.; Kline, J.L.; Scime, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    Electron temperature measurements in helicon plasmas are difficult. The presence of intense rf fields in the plasma complicates the interpretation of Langmuir probe measurements. Furthermore, the non-negligible ion temperature in the plasma considerably shortens the lifetime of conventional Langmuir probes. A spectroscopic technique based on the relative intensities of neutral helium lines is used to measure the electron temperature in the HELIX (Hot hELicon eXperiment) plasma [P. A. Keiter et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 2741 (1997)]. This nonintrusive diagnostic is based on the fact that electron impact excitation rate coefficients for helium singlet and triplet states differ as a function of the electron temperature. The different aspects related to the validity of this technique to measure the electron temperature in rf generated plasmas are discussed in this paper. At low plasma density (n e ≤10 11 cm -3 ), this diagnostic is believed to be very reliable since the population of the emitting level can be easily estimated with reasonable accuracy by assuming that all excitation originates from the ground state (steady-state corona model). At higher density, secondary processes (excitation transfer, excitation from metastable, cascading) become more important and a more complex collisional radiative model must be used to predict the electron temperature. In this work, different helium transitions are examined and a suitable transition pair is identified. For an electron temperature of 10 eV, the line ratio is measured as a function of plasma density and compared to values predicted by models. The measured line ratio function is in good agreement with theory and the data suggest that the excitation transfer is the dominant secondary process in high-density plasmas

  2. Theodolite Polar measurements system and definition of the grid-lines method

    Andréa de Seixas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of construction quality, mainly in the car and airplane industries, accelerate the development of new 3D-Measurement Systems and Measurement Processes that make possible the automatic object recording and it’s post-processing on the basis, for example, on deformations. The geometrical reconstruction of objects or surface requires a minimal number of points, which abstracts and will be fulfill through interpolation its exact form and quality of the object in each case. The applications of the laser for the active signalization of a point object in combination with the directional measurement make possible in such way the determination of objects or surfaces, including also, places where the use of artificial targets is dangerous or impossible. This work describes the development of such measurement system based on two measurement robots or a reflector-free measuring tachymeter. The system is capable of reaching the intersections points of a grid-line that is defined in an appropriate coordinate system. The aim of this paper is to present the development of measurement methods that can reconstruct unknown three-dimensional and not signalized objects. The existing deformation-measurement, based on Pointer Theodolite and a Video Theodolite Measurement System and the other reflector-free Tachymeter Measurement System in context with the problematic analysis of deformation will be presented. The grid-lines Methods appear a solution and stand as new alternative for the geometrical reconstruction of the object surfaces. Its definition and preparations in a suitable coordinate system are discussed in detail.

  3. A Bilevel Programming Model to Optimize Train Operation Based on Satisfaction for an Intercity Rail Line

    Zhipeng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The passenger travel demands for intercity rail lines fluctuate obviously during different time periods, which makes the rail departments unable to establish an even train operation scheme. This paper considers an optimization problem for train operations which respond to passenger travel demands of different periods in intercity rail lines. A satisfactory function of passenger travelling is proposed by means of analyzing the passengers’ travel choice behavior and correlative influencing factors. On this basis, the paper formulates a bilevel programming model which maximizes interests of railway enterprises and travelling satisfaction of each passenger. The trains operation in different periods can be optimized through upper layer planning of the model, while considering the passenger flow distribution problem based on the Wardrop user equilibrium principle in the lower layer planning. Then, a genetic algorithm is designed according to model features for solving the upper laying. The Frank-Wolfe algorithm is used for solving the lower layer planning. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the application of the method proposed in this paper.

  4. Distributed power-line outage detection based on wide area measurement system.

    Zhao, Liang; Song, Wen-Zhan

    2014-07-21

    In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i) high computational complexity; and (ii) relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  5. [Measurement and analysis of smile line of 62 Han-Chinese].

    Hu, Xiu-lian; Heberer, Susanne; Nelson, Katja; Lin, Ye

    2011-11-01

    To analyze smile features in maximum lip-dynamic in Chinese. Sixty-two Han-Chinese, travelling in Germany, with a mean age of 28.5 years were enrolled and photographed. Standardized digital photos were made to measure the height of displayed maxillary gingiva, papilla and tooth during an enjoyment smile. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney-U Test and non-parametric analysis. The mean height of tooth display for the central incisors was 10 mm, with no significant difference between the gender (P > 0.05). The mean height of gingival display was 1.3 mm and the mean papilla height was 3.4 mm. There was no significant difference between the genders (P > 0.05). 31% (19/62) of the subjects belonged to high smile line type, 50% (31/62) to medium smile line type and 19% (12/62) to low smile line type. The red esthetics is a paramount factor for Chinese men and women in the esthetic restoration. 81% of the Chinese studied showed various degree of gingival exposure from central incisor to the premolars, which defined the esthetic area for Chinese people. Papilla is a critical parameter for esthetic evaluation and treatment design. The ratio of high smile line in Chinese may be higher than that in Caucasian.

  6. In-line bulk supersaturation measurement by electrical conductometry in KDP crystal growth from aqueous solution

    Bordui, P. F.; Loiacono, G. M.

    1984-07-01

    A method is presented for in-line bulk supersaturation measurement in crystal growth from aqueous solution. The method is based on a computer-controlled concentration measurement exploiting an experimentally predetermined cross-correlation between the concentration, electrical conductivity, and temperature of the growth solution. The method was applied to Holden crystallization of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). An extensive conductivity-temperature-concentration data base was generated for this system over a temperature range of 31 to 41°C. The method yielded continous, automated bulk supersaturation output accurate to within ±0.05 g KDP100 g water (±0.15% relative supersaturation).

  7. Direct measurement of the quantum state of the electromagnetic field in a superconducting transmission line

    Melo, F. de; Aolita, L.; Davidovich, L.; Toscano, F.

    2006-01-01

    We propose an experimental procedure to directly measure the state of an electromagnetic field inside a resonator, corresponding to a superconducting transmission line, coupled to a Cooper-pair box (CPB). The measurement protocol is based on the use of a dispersive interaction between the field and the CPB, and the coupling to an external classical field that is tuned to resonance with either the field or the CPB. We present a numerical simulation that demonstrates the feasibility of this protocol, which is within reach of present technology

  8. Measurement of magnetic fields in the direct proximity of power line conductors

    Mamishev, A.V.; Russell, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    Modeling and managing of power frequency magnetic fields requires verification of theory with actual measurements. Measurements only at ground level are not always sufficient for comprehensive studies. The technique and the results of three-dimensional mapping of the power frequency magnetic fields high above ground level are presented in this paper. Comparative calculations illustrate relevance and approximations of the existing theoretical approach to field modeling. The influence of harmonics on the elliptical rotation of the magnetic field vector is illustrated. The possibility of use of the magnetic fields for the power line proximity detection is discussed

  9. On-line measurement of microwave power in ECR ion source

    Zhou Changgeng; Kang Wu; Hu Yonghong; Li Yan; Lou Benchao; Zu Xiulan; Xiong Riheng; Chen Junguang; Li Xiaoyun

    2005-01-01

    It is a new technology to apply an ECR ion source to the neutron generator. Because of the structure limitation, working state of the ECR ion source could not be judged by the color of gas discharging in discharge chamber. Therefore, it was hard to estimate if the ECR ion source was working properly in the neutron generator. The method to resolve the problem was described in this paper. The microwave power was measured on-line by a directional coupler and a small microwave power meter. The ion beam current could be educed from the measured incidence microwave power, and discharge state in discharge chamber could be determined. (authors)

  10. Measuring a Fiber-Optic Delay Line Using a Mode-Locked Laser

    Tu, Meirong; McKee, Michael R.; Pak, Kyung S.; Yu, Nan

    2010-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts a laboratory setup for determining the optical length of a fiber-optic delay line at a precision greater than that obtainable by use of optical time-domain reflectometry or of mechanical measurement of length during the delay-line-winding process. In this setup, the delay line becomes part of the resonant optical cavity that governs the frequency of oscillation of a mode-locked laser. The length can then be determined from frequency-domain measurements, as described below. The laboratory setup is basically an all-fiber ring laser in which the delay line constitutes part of the ring. Another part of the ring - the laser gain medium - is an erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped by a diode laser at a wavelength of 980 nm. The loop also includes an optical isolator, two polarization controllers, and a polarizing beam splitter. The optical isolator enforces unidirectional lasing. The polarization beam splitter allows light in only one polarization mode to pass through the ring; light in the orthogonal polarization mode is rejected from the ring and utilized as a diagnostic output, which is fed to an optical spectrum analyzer and a photodetector. The photodetector output is fed to a radio-frequency spectrum analyzer and an oscilloscope. The fiber ring laser can generate continuous-wave radiation in non-mode-locked operation or ultrashort optical pulses in mode-locked operation. The mode-locked operation exhibited by this ring is said to be passive in the sense that no electro-optical modulator or other active optical component is used to achieve it. Passive mode locking is achieved by exploiting optical nonlinearity of passive components in such a manner as to obtain ultra-short optical pulses. In this setup, the particular nonlinear optical property exploited to achieve passive mode locking is nonlinear polarization rotation. This or any ring laser can support oscillation in multiple modes as long as sufficient gain is present to overcome

  11. Measurement assurance program for LSC analyses of tritium samples

    Levi, G.D. Jr.; Clark, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) for Tritium is done on 600 to 800 samples daily as part of a contamination control program at the Savannah River Site's Tritium Facilities. The tritium results from the LSCs are used: to release items as radiologically clean; to establish radiological control measures for workers; and to characterize waste. The following is a list of the sample matrices that are analyzed for tritium: filter paper smears, aqueous, oil, oily rags, ethylene glycol, ethyl alcohol, freon and mercury. Routine and special causes of variation in standards, counting equipment, environment, operators, counting times, samples, activity levels, etc. produce uncertainty in the LSC measurements. A comprehensive analytical process measurement assurance program such as JTIPMAP trademark has been implemented. The process measurement assurance program is being used to quantify and control many of the sources of variation and provide accurate estimates of the overall measurement uncertainty associated with the LSC measurements. The paper will describe LSC operations, process improvements, quality control and quality assurance programs along with future improvements associated with the implementation of the process measurement assurance program

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has expressed a need for an on-line, real-time instrument for assaying alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) in effluent waters leaving DOE sites to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Due to the short range of alpha particles in water (approximately40 Im), it is necessary now to intermittently collect samples of water and send them to a central laboratory for analysis. A lengthy and costly procedure is used to separate and measure the radionuclides from each sample. Large variations in radionuclide concentrations in the water may go undetected due to the sporadic sampling. Even when detected, the reading may not be representative of the actual stream concentration. To address these issues, the Advanced Technologies Group of Thermo Power Corporation (a Thermo Electron company) is developing a real-time, field-deployable alpha monitor based on a solid-state silicon wafer semiconductor (US Patent 5,652,013 and pending, assigned to the US Department of Energy). The Thermo Water Alpha Monitor will serve to monitor effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area) and will be suitable for process control of remediation as well as decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) operations, such as monitoring scrubber or rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste, Plutonium, and D and D Focus Area). It would be applicable for assaying other liquids, such as oil, or solids after proper preconditioning. Rapid isotopic alpha air monitoring is also possible using this technology. This report details the program's accomplishments to date. Most significantly, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument was successfully field demonstrated on water 100X below the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed safe drinking water limit--down to under 1 pCi/1. During the Field Test, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument successfully analyzed isotopic uranium levels on a total of five different surface water, process water, and

  13. On-line measurement of mechanical, optical properties and roughness parameters

    Hartman, H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available On-line measurements become a central importance for the control of production line output. The target is to replace traditional single local destructive quality checks by a continuous survey of the product properties. Other traditional like pyrometric temperature measurements suffer of well-known but non-soluble weakness points. New methods need the unambiguous correlation with the results of traditional testing to be representative for valid proof standards.EKO Stahl GmbH introduces several methods of on-line measurements focused actually on temperature measurement means of FTIR-Spectrometer, prediction of the mechanical properties of steel strips using the information of residual magnetization after a magnetization pulse and optical roughness measurements. The correlation between the results of the new methods and the classical proof processes has been established in a satisfactory manner.

    Las medidas on line van tomando una importancia central para el control de la calidad de la producción . El objetivo es reemplazar las pruebas destructivas puntuales tradicionales por un control continuo de las características del producto. Otros métodos tradicionales, como la medida de la temperatura con pirómetros, adolecen de conocidos pero insolubles puntos débiles. Los nuevos métodos necesitan la correlación inequívoca con los resultados de los métodos corrientes clásicos para obtener la autoridad de un estándar de prueba. La EKO Stahl GmbH ha introducido varios métodos de medidas on line y actualmente concentrados en la medida de la temperatura con espectrómetro FTIR, predicción de las características mecánicas usando la información del magnetismo residual, a partir de un impulso magnético inicial así como la medida óptica de la rugosidad. La correlación entre los resultados de los nuevos métodos y los métodos clásicos ha quedado establecida de manera satisfactoria.

  14. Validation of the actuator line/Navier Stokes technique using mexico measurements

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the contribution of DTU MEK in the international research collaboration project (MexNext) within the framework of IEA Annex 29 to validate aerodynamic models or CFD codes using the existing measurements made in the previous EU funded projectMEXICO (Model Experiments in Control......This paper concerns the contribution of DTU MEK in the international research collaboration project (MexNext) within the framework of IEA Annex 29 to validate aerodynamic models or CFD codes using the existing measurements made in the previous EU funded projectMEXICO (Model Experiments...... in Controlled Conditions). The Actuator Line/Navier Stokes (AL/NS) technique developed at DTU is validated against the detailed MEXICO measurements. The AL/NS computations without the DNW wind tunnel with speeds of 10m/s, 15m/s and 24m/s. Comparisons of blade loading between computations and measurements show...

  15. AUTOMATED INSPECTION OF POWER LINE CORRIDORS TO MEASURE VEGETATION UNDERCUT USING UAV-BASED IMAGES

    M. Maurer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Power line corridor inspection is a time consuming task that is performed mostly manually. As the development of UAVs made huge progress in recent years, and photogrammetric computer vision systems became well established, it is time to further automate inspection tasks. In this paper we present an automated processing pipeline to inspect vegetation undercuts of power line corridors. For this, the area of inspection is reconstructed, geo-referenced, semantically segmented and inter class distance measurements are calculated. The presented pipeline performs an automated selection of the proper 3D reconstruction method for on the one hand wiry (power line, and on the other hand solid objects (surrounding. The automated selection is realized by performing pixel-wise semantic segmentation of the input images using a Fully Convolutional Neural Network. Due to the geo-referenced semantic 3D reconstructions a documentation of areas where maintenance work has to be performed is inherently included in the distance measurements and can be extracted easily. We evaluate the influence of the semantic segmentation according to the 3D reconstruction and show that the automated semantic separation in wiry and dense objects of the 3D reconstruction routine improves the quality of the vegetation undercut inspection. We show the generalization of the semantic segmentation to datasets acquired using different acquisition routines and to varied seasons in time.

  16. Automated Inspection of Power Line Corridors to Measure Vegetation Undercut Using Uav-Based Images

    Maurer, M.; Hofer, M.; Fraundorfer, F.; Bischof, H.

    2017-08-01

    Power line corridor inspection is a time consuming task that is performed mostly manually. As the development of UAVs made huge progress in recent years, and photogrammetric computer vision systems became well established, it is time to further automate inspection tasks. In this paper we present an automated processing pipeline to inspect vegetation undercuts of power line corridors. For this, the area of inspection is reconstructed, geo-referenced, semantically segmented and inter class distance measurements are calculated. The presented pipeline performs an automated selection of the proper 3D reconstruction method for on the one hand wiry (power line), and on the other hand solid objects (surrounding). The automated selection is realized by performing pixel-wise semantic segmentation of the input images using a Fully Convolutional Neural Network. Due to the geo-referenced semantic 3D reconstructions a documentation of areas where maintenance work has to be performed is inherently included in the distance measurements and can be extracted easily. We evaluate the influence of the semantic segmentation according to the 3D reconstruction and show that the automated semantic separation in wiry and dense objects of the 3D reconstruction routine improves the quality of the vegetation undercut inspection. We show the generalization of the semantic segmentation to datasets acquired using different acquisition routines and to varied seasons in time.

  17. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L. [SeaSpace Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  18. The New Brunswick Laboratory Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program

    Cacic, C.G.; Trahey, N.M.; Zook, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) has been tasked by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) to assess and evaluate the adequacy of measurement technology as applied to materials accounting in DOE nuclear facilities. The Safeguards Measurement Evaluation (SME) Program was developed as a means to monitor and evaluate the quality and effectiveness of accounting measurements by site, material balance area (MBA), or unit process. Phase I of the SME Program, initiated during 1985, involved evaluation of the primary accountability measurement methods at six DOE Defense Programs facilities: Savannah River Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Y-12 Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Rockwell Hanford Operations, and NBL. Samples of uranyl nitrate solution, dried plutonium nitrates, and plutonium oxides were shipped to the participants for assay and isotopic abundance measurements. Resulting data are presented and evaluated as indicators of current state-of-the-practice accountability measurement methodology, deficiencies in materials accounting practices, and areas for possible assistance in upgrading measurement capabilities. Continuing expansion of the SME Program to include materials which are representative of specific accountability measurement points within the DOE complex is discussed

  19. A Methodology to Measure Synergy Among Energy-Efficiency Programs at the Program Participant Level

    Tonn, B.E.

    2003-11-14

    This paper presents a methodology designed to measure synergy among energy-efficiency programs at the program participant level (e.g., households, firms). Three different definitions of synergy are provided: strong, moderate, and weak. Data to measure synergy can be collected through simple survey questions. Straightforward mathematical techniques can be used to estimate the three types of synergy and explore relative synergistic impacts of different subsets of programs. Empirical research is needed to test the concepts and methods and to establish quantitative expectations about synergistic relationships among programs. The market for new energy-efficient motors is the context used to illustrate all the concepts and methods in this paper.

  20. New developments in velocity profile measurement and pipe wall wear monitoring for hydrotransport lines

    O' Keefe, C.; Maron, R.J. [CiDRA Minerals Processing Inc., Wallingford, CT (United States); Fernald, M.; Bailey, T. [CiDRA Corporate Services, Wallingford, CT (United States); Van der Spek, A. [ZDOOR, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Sonar array flow measurement technology was initially developed a decade ago with the goal of non-invasively measuring multi-phase flows in the petroleum industry. The same technology was later adapted to the mineral processing industry where it has been rapidly adopted. The specific sensor technology, based on piezoelectric film sensors, provides unique measurement capabilities, including the ability to non-invasively measure localized strains in the walls of pipes. Combined with sonar array processing algorithms, an axial array of such sensors can measure flow velocities within a pipe. The sensors are useful for monitoring and managing slurry flow in horizontal pipes since they provide real-time velocity profiles measurement. The information is useful in determining the approach and onset of solid deposition on the bottom of the pipe. The sensors also provide a non-invasive measurement of pipe wear on slurry lines. Such measurements are currently made by hand-held portable ultrasonic thickness gages. The shortfalls associated with this manual method are overcome with a set of permanently or semi-permanently installed transducers clamped onto the outside of the pipe, where sensors measure the thickness of the pipe. This system and approach results in better repeatability and accuracy compared to manual methods. It also decreases inspection labor costs and pipe access requirements. It was concluded that the potential impact on personnel safety and environmental savings will be significant. 3 refs., 20 figs.

  1. Wavelength Measurements of Ni L-shell Lines between 9 and 15 A

    Gu, Ming F.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Chen, H.; Thorn, D. B.; Kahn, S. M.

    2006-09-01

    We present accurate wavelength measurements of nikel L-shell X-ray lines resulting from Δ n ≥ 1 transitions (mostly, 2 - 3 transitions) between 9 and 15 Å. We have used the electron beam ion trap, SuperEBIT, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a flat field grating spectrometer to record the spectra. Most significant emission lines of Ni XIX -- XXVI in our spectral coverage are identified. The resulting data set provides valuable input in the analyses of high resolution X-ray spectra of stellar coronae sources, including the Sun. This work was performed under the auspices of U.S. DOE contract No. W-7405-Eng-48, and supported by NASA APRA Grant NAG5-5419.

  2. High resolution measurements and modeling of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles

    B. S. Lanchester

    Full Text Available Measurements in the visible wavelength range at high spectral resolution (1.3 Å have been made at Longyearbyen, Svalbard (15.8 E,78.2 N during an interval of intense proton precipitation. The shape and Doppler shift of hydrogen Balmer beta line profiles have been compared with model line profiles, using as input ion energy spectra from almost coincident passes of the FAST and DMSP spacecraft. The comparison shows that the simulation contains the important physical processes that produce the profiles, and confirms that measured changes in the shape and peak wave-length of the hydrogen profiles are the result of changing energy input. This combination of high resolution measurements with modeling provides a method of estimating the incoming energy and changes in flux of precipitating protons over Svalbard, for given energy and pitch-angle distributions. Whereas for electron precipitation, information on the incident particles is derived from brightness and brightness ratios which require at least two spectral windows, for proton precipitation the Doppler profile of resulting hydrogen emission is directly related to the energy and energy flux of the incident energetic protons and can be used to gather information about the source region. As well as the expected Doppler shift to shorter wavelengths, the measured profiles have a significant red-shifted component, the result of upward flowing emitting hydrogen atoms.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  3. High resolution measurements and modeling of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles

    B. S. Lanchester

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements in the visible wavelength range at high spectral resolution (1.3 Å have been made at Longyearbyen, Svalbard (15.8 E,78.2 N during an interval of intense proton precipitation. The shape and Doppler shift of hydrogen Balmer beta line profiles have been compared with model line profiles, using as input ion energy spectra from almost coincident passes of the FAST and DMSP spacecraft. The comparison shows that the simulation contains the important physical processes that produce the profiles, and confirms that measured changes in the shape and peak wave-length of the hydrogen profiles are the result of changing energy input. This combination of high resolution measurements with modeling provides a method of estimating the incoming energy and changes in flux of precipitating protons over Svalbard, for given energy and pitch-angle distributions. Whereas for electron precipitation, information on the incident particles is derived from brightness and brightness ratios which require at least two spectral windows, for proton precipitation the Doppler profile of resulting hydrogen emission is directly related to the energy and energy flux of the incident energetic protons and can be used to gather information about the source region. As well as the expected Doppler shift to shorter wavelengths, the measured profiles have a significant red-shifted component, the result of upward flowing emitting hydrogen atoms.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  4. Virtual sensors for on-line wheel wear and part roughness measurement in the grinding process.

    Arriandiaga, Ander; Portillo, Eva; Sánchez, Jose A; Cabanes, Itziar; Pombo, Iñigo

    2014-05-19

    Grinding is an advanced machining process for the manufacturing of valuable complex and accurate parts for high added value sectors such as aerospace, wind generation, etc. Due to the extremely severe conditions inside grinding machines, critical process variables such as part surface finish or grinding wheel wear cannot be easily and cheaply measured on-line. In this paper a virtual sensor for on-line monitoring of those variables is presented. The sensor is based on the modelling ability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for stochastic and non-linear processes such as grinding; the selected architecture is the Layer-Recurrent neural network. The sensor makes use of the relation between the variables to be measured and power consumption in the wheel spindle, which can be easily measured. A sensor calibration methodology is presented, and the levels of error that can be expected are discussed. Validation of the new sensor is carried out by comparing the sensor's results with actual measurements carried out in an industrial grinding machine. Results show excellent estimation performance for both wheel wear and surface roughness. In the case of wheel wear, the absolute error is within the range of microns (average value 32 μm). In the case of surface finish, the absolute error is well below Ra 1 μm (average value 0.32 μm). The present approach can be easily generalized to other grinding operations.

  5. High level programming for the control of a tele operating mobile robot and with line following

    Bernal U, E.

    2006-01-01

    The TRASMAR automated vehicle was built with the purpose of transporting radioactive materials, it has a similar kinematic structure to that of a tricycle, in where the front wheel is the one in charge of offering the traction and direction, both rear wheels rotate freely and they are subject to a common axle. The electronic design was carried out being based on a MC68HC811 micro controller of the Motorola company. Of the characteristics that the robot possesses it stands out that it counts with an obstacle perception system through three ultrasonic sensors located in the front part of the vehicle to avoid collisions. The robot has two operation modes, the main mode is the manual, manipulated through a control by infrareds, although it can also move in autonomous way by means of the line pursuit technique using two reflective infrared sensors. As any other electronic system, the mobile robot required of improvements and upgrades. The modifications to be carried out were focused to the control stage. Its were intended as elements of upgrade the incorporation of the MC68HC912B32 micro controller and to replace the assembler language characteristic of this type of systems, by a high level language for micro controllers of this type, in this case the FORTH. In a same way it was implemented inside the program the function of the robot's displacement in an autonomous way by means of the line pursuit technique using control with fuzzy logic. The carried out work is distributed in the following way: In the chapter 1 the robot's characteristics are mentioned, as well as the objectives that thought about to the beginning of the project and the justifications that motivated the realization of this upgrade. In the chapters 2 at 5 are presented in a theoretical way the supports used for the the robot's upgrade, as the used modules of the micro controller, those main characteristics of the FORTH language, the theory of the fuzzy logic and the design of the stage of power that

  6. Measurement of borders in power transmission lines; Medicao de fronteira em linhas de transmissao

    Doria, Celso [Bandeirante Energia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The creation of Bandeirantes Energia S/A, which is a energy distributor company and at the same time one of the four originated companies from the division of ELETROPAULO Eletricidade S/A, generated the need of consumed energy measurements. Different from a previous situation, which had been accomplished in the 230, 345 and 440 Kv transformer stations. With the aggravating of having been created two distribution companies by this division, which later possessed transmission lines in common finishing a border scenery of 88/138 kv in connection with CTEEP, EPTE, Furnas in station terminals and ELETROPAULO Metropolitana in transmission lines. In order to measure the consumed energy it has been necessary to install meters in all energy entrance subsystems, but there were certain cases for which part of the energy had been absorbed by other distribution company, some times before the connection with Bandeirantes some times after this connection to have been done. For these cases, it has been necessary to install meters at de middle of the line, it means installed meters at the border between the two companies. In February of 1999, they were initiate the studies of viability for these measurements implantation in all of the interface points among Bandeirantes and the other concessionaires, based on the premise that from 01/01/2000 on all the consumed energy by the company should be measured. In the end of May of 1999, with the design final definitions the studies were finished, after that, it has been started the equipment purchases and the actions to hire companies to execute these activities. Finally, in the last week of August of 1999 the construction activities were initiated and the circuits were energized in December of that year.

  7. Size characterization of airborne SiO2 nanoparticles with on-line and off-line measurement techniques: an interlaboratory comparison study

    Motzkus, C.; Macé, T.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Ducourtieux, S.; Delvallee, A.; Dirscherl, K.; Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Popov, I.; Popov, O.; Kuselman, I.; Takahata, K.; Ehara, K.; Ausset, P.; Maillé, M.; Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.; Gensdarmes, F.; Morawska, L.; Johnson, G. R.; Faghihi, E. M.; Kim, C. S.; Kim, Y. H.; Chu, M. C.; Guardado, J. A.; Salas, A.; Capannelli, G.; Costa, C.; Bostrom, T.; Jämting, Å. K.; Lawn, M. A.; Adlem, L.; Vaslin-Reimann, S.

    2013-10-01

    Results of an interlaboratory comparison on size characterization of SiO2 airborne nanoparticles using on-line and off-line measurement techniques are discussed. This study was performed in the framework of Technical Working Area (TWA) 34—"Properties of Nanoparticle Populations" of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) in the project no. 3 "Techniques for characterizing size distribution of airborne nanoparticles". Two types of nano-aerosols, consisting of (1) one population of nanoparticles with a mean diameter between 30.3 and 39.0 nm and (2) two populations of non-agglomerated nanoparticles with mean diameters between, respectively, 36.2-46.6 nm and 80.2-89.8 nm, were generated for characterization measurements. Scanning mobility particle size spectrometers (SMPS) were used for on-line measurements of size distributions of the produced nano-aerosols. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used as off-line measurement techniques for nanoparticles characterization. Samples were deposited on appropriate supports such as grids, filters, and mica plates by electrostatic precipitation and a filtration technique using SMPS controlled generation upstream. The results of the main size distribution parameters (mean and mode diameters), obtained from several laboratories, were compared based on metrological approaches including metrological traceability, calibration, and evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. Internationally harmonized measurement procedures for airborne SiO2 nanoparticles characterization are proposed.

  8. Size characterization of airborne SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with on-line and off-line measurement techniques: an interlaboratory comparison study

    Motzkus, C., E-mail: charles.motzkus@lne.fr; Mace, T.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Ducourtieux, S.; Delvallee, A. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE) (France); Dirscherl, K. [Danish Fundamental Metrology (DFM) (Denmark); Hodoroaba, V.-D. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany); Popov, I. [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Unit for Nanocharacterization (Israel); Popov, O.; Kuselman, I. [National Physical Laboratory of Israel (INPL) (Israel); Takahata, K.; Ehara, K. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) (Japan); Ausset, P.; Maille, M. [Universite Paris-Est Creteil et Universite Paris-Diderot, Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), UMR CNRS 7583 (France); Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.; Gensdarmes, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, SCA, LPMA (France); Morawska, L.; Johnson, G. R.; Faghihi, E. M. [Queensland University of Technology (QUT), International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health (ILAQH) (Australia); and others

    2013-10-15

    Results of an interlaboratory comparison on size characterization of SiO{sub 2} airborne nanoparticles using on-line and off-line measurement techniques are discussed. This study was performed in the framework of Technical Working Area (TWA) 34-'Properties of Nanoparticle Populations' of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) in the project no. 3 'Techniques for characterizing size distribution of airborne nanoparticles'. Two types of nano-aerosols, consisting of (1) one population of nanoparticles with a mean diameter between 30.3 and 39.0 nm and (2) two populations of non-agglomerated nanoparticles with mean diameters between, respectively, 36.2-46.6 nm and 80.2-89.8 nm, were generated for characterization measurements. Scanning mobility particle size spectrometers (SMPS) were used for on-line measurements of size distributions of the produced nano-aerosols. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used as off-line measurement techniques for nanoparticles characterization. Samples were deposited on appropriate supports such as grids, filters, and mica plates by electrostatic precipitation and a filtration technique using SMPS controlled generation upstream. The results of the main size distribution parameters (mean and mode diameters), obtained from several laboratories, were compared based on metrological approaches including metrological traceability, calibration, and evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. Internationally harmonized measurement procedures for airborne SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles characterization are proposed.

  9. Size characterization of airborne SiO2 nanoparticles with on-line and off-line measurement techniques: an interlaboratory comparison study

    Motzkus, C.; Macé, T.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Ducourtieux, S.; Delvallee, A.; Dirscherl, K.; Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Popov, I.; Popov, O.; Kuselman, I.; Takahata, K.; Ehara, K.; Ausset, P.; Maillé, M.; Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.; Gensdarmes, F.; Morawska, L.; Johnson, G. R.; Faghihi, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an interlaboratory comparison on size characterization of SiO 2 airborne nanoparticles using on-line and off-line measurement techniques are discussed. This study was performed in the framework of Technical Working Area (TWA) 34—“Properties of Nanoparticle Populations” of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) in the project no. 3 “Techniques for characterizing size distribution of airborne nanoparticles”. Two types of nano-aerosols, consisting of (1) one population of nanoparticles with a mean diameter between 30.3 and 39.0 nm and (2) two populations of non-agglomerated nanoparticles with mean diameters between, respectively, 36.2–46.6 nm and 80.2–89.8 nm, were generated for characterization measurements. Scanning mobility particle size spectrometers (SMPS) were used for on-line measurements of size distributions of the produced nano-aerosols. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used as off-line measurement techniques for nanoparticles characterization. Samples were deposited on appropriate supports such as grids, filters, and mica plates by electrostatic precipitation and a filtration technique using SMPS controlled generation upstream. The results of the main size distribution parameters (mean and mode diameters), obtained from several laboratories, were compared based on metrological approaches including metrological traceability, calibration, and evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. Internationally harmonized measurement procedures for airborne SiO 2 nanoparticles characterization are proposed

  10. On-line mass spectrometry measurement of fission gas release from nuclear fuel submitted to thermal transients

    Guigues, E.; Janulyte, A.; Zerega, Y.; Pontillon, Y.

    2013-06-01

    The work presented in this paper has been performed in the framework of a joint research program between Aix-Marseille University and CEA Cadarache. The aim is to develop a mass spectrometer (MS) device for the MERARG facility. MERARG is devoted to the study of fission gas release measurement, from nuclear fuels submitted to annealing tests in high activity laboratory such as LECA-STAR, thanks to gamma spectrometry. The mass spectrometer will then extend the measurement capability from the γ-emitters gases to all the gases involved in the release in order to have a better understanding of the fission gas release dynamics from fuel during thermal transients. Furthermore, the mass spectrometer instrument combines the capabilities and performances of both on-line (for release kinetic) and off-line implementations (for delayed accurate analysis of capacities containing total release gas). The paper deals with two main axes: (1) the modelling of gas sampling inlet device and its performance and (2) the first MS qualification/calibration results. The inlet device samples the gas and also adapts the pressure between MERARG sweeping line at 1.2 bar and mass spectrometer chamber at high vacuum. It is a two-stage device comprising a capillary at inlet, an intermediate vacuum chamber, a molecular leak inlet and a two-stage pumping device. Pressure drops, conductance and throughputs are estimated both for mass spectrometer operation and for exhaust gas recovery. Possible gas segregation is also estimated and device modification is proposed to attain a more accurate calibration. First experimental results obtained from a standard gas bottle show that the quantitative analysis at a few ppm level can be achieved for all isotopes of Kr and Xe, as well as masses 2 and 4 u. (authors)

  11. Water-vapor absorption line measurements in the 940-nm band by using a Raman-shifted dye laser

    Chu, Zhiping; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Singh, Upendra N.

    1993-01-01

    We report water-vapor absorption line measurements that are made by using the first Stokes radiation (930-982 nm) with HWHM 0.015/cm generated by a narrow-linewidth, tunable dye laser. Forty-five absorption line strengths are measured with an uncertainty of 6 percent and among them are fourteen strong lines that are compared with previous measurements for the assessment of spectral purity of the light source. Thirty air-broadened linewidths are measured with 8 percent uncertainty at ambient atmospheric pressure with an average of 0.101/cm. The lines are selected for the purpose of temperature-sensitive or temperature-insensitive lidar measurements. Results for these line strengths and linewidths are corrected for broadband radiation and finite laser linewidth broadening effects and compared with the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption.

  12. Summary of neutron measurements for the Viking Program

    Anderson, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    The results of neutron measurements for 238 Pu-fueled, 683-W (thermal) capsules fabricated for the Viking Program (Mars Lander) are presented. These results include, for each capsule, the total neutron emission rate and neutron multiplication and, for one capsule, the neutron energy spectrum. A precision long counter was used for the neutron emission rate measurements and a single stilbene crystal for the neutron spectrum measurement. (U.S.)

  13. Social network analysis of public health programs to measure partnership.

    Schoen, Martin W; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Prewitt, Kim; Carothers, Bobbi J

    2014-12-01

    In order to prevent chronic diseases, community-based programs are encouraged to take an ecological approach to public health promotion and involve many diverse partners. Little is known about measuring partnership in implementing public health strategies. We collected data from 23 Missouri communities in early 2012 that received funding from three separate programs to prevent obesity and/or reduce tobacco use. While all of these funding programs encourage partnership, only the Social Innovation for Missouri (SIM) program included a focus on building community capacity and enhancing collaboration. Social network analysis techniques were used to understand contact and collaboration networks in community organizations. Measurements of average degree, density, degree centralization, and betweenness centralization were calculated for each network. Because of the various sizes of the networks, we conducted comparative analyses with and without adjustment for network size. SIM programs had increased measurements of average degree for partner collaboration and larger networks. When controlling for network size, SIM groups had higher measures of network density and lower measures of degree centralization and betweenness centralization. SIM collaboration networks were more dense and less centralized, indicating increased partnership. The methods described in this paper can be used to compare partnership in community networks of various sizes. Further research is necessary to define causal mechanisms of partnership development and their relationship to public health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  15. Uncertainty characterization of particle depth measurement using digital in-line holography and the hybrid method.

    Gao, Jian; Guildenbecher, Daniel R; Reu, Phillip L; Chen, Jun

    2013-11-04

    In the detection of particles using digital in-line holography, measurement accuracy is substantially influenced by the hologram processing method. In particular, a number of methods have been proposed to determine the out-of-plane particle depth (z location). However, due to the lack of consistent uncertainty characterization, it has been unclear which method is best suited to a given measurement problem. In this work, depth determination accuracies of seven particle detection methods, including a recently proposed hybrid method, are systematically investigated in terms of relative depth measurement errors and uncertainties. Both synthetic and experimental holograms of particle fields are considered at conditions relevant to particle sizing and tracking. While all methods display a range of particle conditions where they are most accurate, in general the hybrid method is shown to be the most robust with depth uncertainty less than twice the particle diameter over a wide range of particle field conditions.

  16. Systematic comparison between line integrated densities measured with interferometry and polarimetry at JET

    Brombin, M.; Zilli, E.; Giudicotti, L.; Boboc, A.; Murari, A.

    2009-01-01

    A systematic comparison between the line integrated electron density derived from interferometry and polarimetry at JET has been carried out. For the first time the reliability of the measurements of the Cotton-Mouton effect has been analyzed for a wide range of main plasma parameters and the possibility to evaluate the electron density directly from polarimetric data has been studied. The purpose of this work is to recover the interferometric data with the density derived from the measured Cotton-Mouton effect, when the fringe jump phenomena occur. The results show that the difference between the line integrated electron density from interferometry and polarimetry is with one fringe (1.143x10 19 m -2 ) for more than 90% of the cases. It is possible to consider polarimetry as a satisfactory alternative method to interferometry to measure the electron density and it could be used to recover interferometric signal when a fringe jumps occurs, preventing difficulties for the real-time control of many experiments at the JET machine.

  17. Measurement of contact-line dissipation in a nanometer-thin soap film.

    Guo, Shuo; Lee, Chun Huen; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

    2015-01-01

    We report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient ξ(c) of two fluctuating contact lines formed on a fiber surface when a long glass fiber intersects the two water-air interfaces of a thin soap film. The glass fiber of diameter d in the range of 0.4-4 μm and length 100-300 μm is glued onto the front end of a rectangular cantilever used for atomic force microscopy. As a sensitive mechanical resonator, the hanging fiber probe can accurately measure a minute change of its viscous damping caused by the soap film. By measuring the broadening of the resonant peak of the hanging fiber probe with varying viscosity η of the soap film and different surface treatments of the glass fiber, we confirm that the contact line dissipation obeys a universal scaling law, ξ(c)=απdη, where the coefficient α=1.1±0.3 is insensitive to the change of liquid-solid contact angle. The experimental result is in good agreement with the numerical result based on the phase field model under the generalized Navier boundary conditions.

  18. Measurement of X-ray emission efficiency for K-lines.

    Procop, M

    2004-08-01

    Results for the X-ray emission efficiency (counts per C per sr) of K-lines for selected elements (C, Al, Si, Ti, Cu, Ge) and for the first time also for compounds and alloys (SiC, GaP, AlCu, TiAlC) are presented. An energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) of known detection efficiency (counts per photon) has been used to record the spectra at a takeoff angle of 25 degrees determined by the geometry of the secondary electron microscope's specimen chamber. Overall uncertainty in measurement could be reduced to 5 to 10% in dependence on the line intensity and energy. Measured emission efficiencies have been compared with calculated efficiencies based on models applied in standardless analysis. The widespread XPP and PROZA models give somewhat too low emission efficiencies. The best agreement between measured and calculated efficiencies could be achieved by replacing in the modular PROZA96 model the original expression for the ionization cross section by the formula given by Casnati et al. (1982) A discrepancy remains for carbon, probably due to the high overvoltage ratio.

  19. Prediction of the dynamic response of complex transmission line systems for unsteady pressure measurements

    Antonini, C; Persico, G; Rowe, A L

    2008-01-01

    Among the measurement and control systems of gas turbine engines, a recent new issue is the possibility of performing unsteady pressure measurements to detect flow anomalies in an engine or to evaluate loads on aerodynamic surfaces. A possible answer to this demand could be extending the use of well known and widely used transmission line systems, which have been applied so far to steady monitoring, to unsteady measurements thanks to proper dynamic modeling and compensation. Despite the huge number of models existing in the literature, a novel method has been developed, which is at the same time easy-to-handle, flexible and capable of reproducing the actual physics of the problem. Furthermore, the new model is able to deal with arbitrary complex networks of lines and cavities, and thus its applicability is not limited to series-connected systems. The main objectives of this paper are to show the derivation of the model, its validation against experimental tests and example of its applicability

  20. An atomic force microscopy-based method for line edge roughness measurement

    Fouchier, M.; Pargon, E.; Bardet, B. [CNRS/UJF-Grenoble1/CEA LTM, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2013-03-14

    With the constant decrease of semiconductor device dimensions, line edge roughness (LER) becomes one of the most important sources of device variability and needs to be controlled below 2 nm for the future technological nodes of the semiconductor roadmap. LER control at the nanometer scale requires accurate measurements. We introduce a technique for LER measurement based upon the atomic force microscope (AFM). In this technique, the sample is tilted at about 45 Degree-Sign and feature sidewalls are scanned along their length with the AFM tip to obtain three-dimensional images. The small radius of curvature of the tip together with the low noise level of a laboratory AFM result in high resolution images. Half profiles and LER values on all the height of the sidewalls are extracted from the 3D images using a procedure that we developed. The influence of sample angle variations on the measurements is shown to be small. The technique is applied to the study of a full pattern transfer into a simplified gate stack. The images obtained are qualitatively consistent with cross-section scanning electron microscopy images and the average LER values agree with that obtained by critical dimension scanning electron microscopy. In addition to its high resolution, this technique presents several advantages such as the ability to image the foot of photoresist lines, complex multi-layer stacks regardless of the materials, and deep re-entrant profiles.

  1. Mobile on-line working radioaerosol-measuring systems in Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Aures, R.; Wenzel, H.

    1998-01-01

    In Baden-Wuerttemberg eight on-line measuring radioaerosol monitoring stations are successfully working since a lot of years. These monitoring stations spread over the whole country give only a rough overview of the radiological situation in the environment after an event like the Chernobyl accident. But it is expensive to increase the number of the monitoring stations in this network. This is why the 'Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg' (LfU) got the order from the 'Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Verkehr Baden-Wuerttemberg' to conceive a mobile on-line working radioaerosol-measuring system for environmental measurements (MORAM). The LfU had made the plans and a company built up the first prototype. In action the MORAM should send every time automatically data of radioactivity in the air and datas of meteorology from its position to the controlling center in Karlsruhe. The MORAM works by remote control, needs little servicing and is independent from main connection. In case of a nuclear event several MORAMs could be used as a local monitoring network or they could increase the number of the radioaerosol monitoring stations for a certain time. Normally, the MORAMs will be storaged and are always ready for action. All the tests with the prototype 1 are finished in the meantime and the result of the tests is a new improved prototype 2, which can be used in the emergency case. This prototype was given to the LfU. (orig.) [de

  2. Measuring the diffusion of innovative health promotion programs.

    Steckler, A; Goodman, R M; McLeroy, K R; Davis, S; Koch, G

    1992-01-01

    Once a health promotion program has proven to be effective in one or two initial settings, attempts may be made to transfer the program to new settings. One way to conceptualize the transference of health promotion programs from one locale to another is by considering the programs to be innovations that are being diffused. In this way, diffusion of innovation theory can be applied to guide the process of program transference. This article reports on the development of six questionnaires to measure the extent to which health promotion programs are successfully disseminated: Organizational Climate, Awareness-Concern, Rogers's Adoption Variables, Level of Use, Level of Success, and Level of Institutionalization. The instruments are being successfully used in a study of the diffusion of health promotion/tobacco prevention curricula to junior high schools in North Carolina. The instruments, which measure the four steps of the diffusion process, have construct validity since they were developed within existing theories and are derived from the work of previous researchers. No previous research has attempted to use instruments like these to measure sequentially the stages of the diffusion process.

  3. On-line component ratio measurement of oil/gas/water mixtures using an admittance sensor

    Andersen, J A

    1984-01-01

    The operator of a production platform is primarily interested in which types of fluids a well is producing and how quickly these different components are being produced. The component ratio and production rate of a well vary during the life of a field. To optimize production, measurement of each well's output is thus desirable. Current designs for subsea production systems lack means of continuously measuring three-component flows. A new method of component ratio measurement is described. The fraction of oil, gas and water flowing between two insulated electrode plates is determined by measuring both the electrical conductance and suseptance across the sensor. A preliminary evaluation of the new measurement system has been performed using a process oil/ water/air mixture. The method is not limited to small pipe diameters. The only possible limitation is that for low velocities in very large pipe diameters an in-line mixer may be required. Advantages of this new system are that real-time measurement of void fraction and water content is possible if a non-intrusive rugged sensor is used, and there are no range limitations, as each component may be measured for any given concentration. 4 references.

  4. Computation and measurement of a plasma temperature using the emission lines of copper

    Sassi, M.; Pierre, L.; Benard, J.; Cahen, C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of copper emission lines for temperature measurement in plasma environments is presented. The article features the problems encountered with such a measurement method when used in a stationary and a non-stationary plasma. In the first case, we were concerned with the temperature measurements in the jet of a 2 MW industrial plasma torche. The plasma was stationary and the measurement geometry allowed the use of the Abel inversion method to recover the temperature profiles in the plasma jet. The limitations of the measurement method on the jet boundaries as well as the cooling of the plasma by entrainement of cold air are discussed. In the second case, a non-stationary plasma in a 1.4 MW electric furnace was studied. This study allowed to feature the role of the detector dynamics as related to the dynamics of the observed medium. The obtained measurements show only a probable temperature in the immediate proximity of the arc. Finally, we conclude on the validity of copper as a tracer and the use of spontaneous emission spectroscopy, and easy method to implement, compared to other sophisticated temperature measurement methods. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    El Sherbini, A.M.; El Sherbini, Th.M.; Hegazy, H.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    In quantitative Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements it is essential to account for the effect of self-absorption on the emission lines intensity. In order to quantify this effect, in this paper we propose a simple method for evaluating the ratio between the actual measured line intensity and the intensity expected in absence of self-absorption and, if necessary, correcting the effect of self-absorption on line intensity. The method, based on a homogeneous plasma model, is applicable when the plasma electron density is known and in particular to lines whose Stark broadening parameter is available

  6. Evidence for Broad-Line Region Outflows and Their Impact on Black Hole Mass Measurements

    Denney, K. D.; Assef, R. J.; Horne, K.

    2012-01-01

    could not be fully and accurately interpreted from the 1D velocity-resolved reverberation signal. From the VDM, an outflow component to the emission remains possible but appears to be in addition to an underlying, disk-like BLR structure consistent in size with the measured reverberation lag. The black...... hole (BH) mass derived from this data is therefore secure from any uncertainties possibly derived from gravitationally unbound gas contributing to the emission. Additionally, we demonstrate that BLR emission from the C IV ¿1549 broad emission line can reliably be used as a virial BH mass estimator...

  7. Actuator line/Navier–Stokes computations for the MEXICO rotor: comparison with detailed measurements

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2012-01-01

    In the European collaborative MEXICO (Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions) project, a series of experiments was carried out on a 4.5 m diameter wind turbine rotor to validate numerical diagnostics tools. Here, some of the measured data are compared with computations of the combined actuator...... line/Navier–Stokes (AL/NS) model developed at the Technical University of Denmark. The AL/NS model was combined with a large eddy simulation technique and used to compute the flow past the MEXICO rotor in free air and in the DNW German‐Dutch wind tunnel for three commonly defined test cases at wind...

  8. Measuring the light scattering and orientation of a spheroidal particle using in-line holography.

    Seo, Kyung Won; Byeon, Hyeok Jun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-07-01

    The light scattering properties of a horizontally and vertically oriented spheroidal particle under laser illumination are experimentally investigated using digital in-line holography. The reconstructed wave field shows the bright singular points as a result of the condensed beam formed by a transparent spheroidal particle acting as a lens. The in-plane (θ) and out-of-plane (ϕ) rotating angles of an arbitrarily oriented spheroidal particle are measured by using these scattering properties. As a feasibility test, the 3D orientation of a transparent spheroidal particle suspended in a microscale pipe flow is successfully reconstructed by adapting the proposed method.

  9. The efficacy of stuttering measurement training: evaluating two training programs.

    Bainbridge, Lauren A; Stavros, Candace; Ebrahimian, Mineh; Wang, Yuedong; Ingham, Roger J

    2015-04-01

    Two stuttering measurement training programs currently used for training clinicians were evaluated for their efficacy in improving the accuracy of total stuttering event counting. Four groups, each with 12 randomly allocated participants, completed a pretest-posttest design training study. They were evaluated by their counts of stuttering events on eight 3-min audiovisual speech samples from adults and children who stutter. Stuttering judgment training involved use of either the Stuttering Measurement System (SMS), Stuttering Measurement Assessment and Training (SMAAT) programs, or no training. To test for the reliability of any training effect, SMS training was repeated with the 4th group. Both SMS-trained groups produced approximately 34% improvement, significantly better than no training or the SMAAT program. The SMAAT program produced a mixed result. The SMS program was shown to produce a "medium" effect size improvement in the accuracy of stuttering event counts, and this improvement was almost perfectly replicated in a 2nd group. Half of the SMAAT judges produced a 36% improvement in accuracy, but the other half showed no improvement. Additional studies are needed to demonstrate the durability of the reported improvements, but these positive effects justify the importance of stuttering measurement training.

  10. VACTIV: A graphical dialog based program for an automatic processing of line and band spectra

    Zlokazov, V. B.

    2013-05-01

    and estimation of parameters of interest. VACTIV can run on any standard modern laptop. Reasons for the new version: At the time of its creation (1999) VACTIV was seemingly the first attempt to apply the newest programming languages and styles to systems of spectrum analysis. Its goal was to both get a convenient and efficient technique for data processing, and to elaborate the formalism of spectrum analysis in terms of classes, their properties, their methods and events of an object-oriented programming language. Summary of revisions: Compared with ACTIV, VACTIV preserves all the mathematical algorithms, but provides the user with all the benefits of an interface, based on a graphical dialog. It allows him to make a quick intervention in the work of the program; in particular, to carry out the on-line control of the fitting process: depending on the intermediate results and using the visual form of data representation, to change the conditions for the fitting and so achieve the optimum performance, selecting the optimum strategy. To find the best conditions for the fitting one can compress the spectrum, delete the blunders from it, smooth it using a high-frequency spline filter and build the background using a low-frequency spline filter; use not only automatic methods for the blunder deletion, the peak search, the peak model forming and the calibration, but also use manual mouse clicking on the spectrum graph. Restrictions: To enhance the reliability and portability of the program the majority of the most important arrays have a static allocation; all the arrays are allocated with a surplus, and the total pool of the program is restricted only by the size of the computer virtual memory. A spectrum has the static size of 32 K real words. The maximum size of the least-square matrix is 314 (the maximum number of fitted parameters per one analyzed spectrum interval, not for the whole spectrum), from which it follows that the maximum number of peaks in one spectrum

  11. Recent results from the MISTRAL mass measurement program at ISOLDE

    Lunney, M D; Audi, G; Bollen, G; Borcea, C; Doubre, H; Gaulard, C; Henry, S; De Saint-Simon, M; Thibault, C; Toader, C F; Vieira, N

    2001-01-01

    The MISTRAL experiment (Mass measurements at ISOLDE with a Transmission and Radiofrequency spectrometer on-Line), conceived for very short-lived nuclides, has reached the end of its commissioning phase. Installed in 1997, results have been obtained consistent with all aspects of the projected spectrometer performance: nuclides with half-lives as short as 30 ms have been measured and accuracies of $\\pm$0.4 have been achieved, despite the presence of a systematic shift and difficulties with isobaric contamination. Masses of several nuclides, including $^{25-26}\\!$Ne and $^{32}$Mg that forms the famous island of inversion around N=20, have been significantly improved.

  12. Fast intersection detection algorithm for PC-based robot off-line programming

    Fedrowitz, Christian H.

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents a method for fast and reliable collision detection in complex production cells. The algorithm is part of the PC-based robot off-line programming system of the University of Siegen (Ropsus). The method is based on a solid model which is managed by a simplified constructive solid geometry model (CSG-model). The collision detection problem is divided in two steps. In the first step the complexity of the problem is reduced in linear time. In the second step the remaining solids are tested for intersection. For this the Simplex algorithm, which is known from linear optimization, is used. It computes a point which is common to two convex polyhedra. The polyhedra intersect, if such a point exists. Regarding the simplified geometrical model of Ropsus the algorithm runs also in linear time. In conjunction with the first step a resultant collision detection algorithm is found which requires linear time in all. Moreover it computes the resultant intersection polyhedron using the dual transformation.

  13. GOSPEG-1 a program for routine analysis of γ-ray spectra by an in line IBM S/7 computer

    Godio, G.P.; Gozzellino, F.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper a program for routine analysis of γ-ray spectra of samples coming from irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is described. An IBM S/7 computer (SK words of memory) which is installed at the CNEN-EUREX reprocessing plant and which is in-line connected with a multichannel analyzer and Ge(Li) detector, has been utilized for this work. The program has been written in Assembler S/7 language

  14. Measurement of transition probabilities in Kr II UV and visible spectral lines

    Mar, S; Val, J A del; RodrIguez, F; Pelaez, R J; Gonzalez, V R; Gonzalo, A B; Castro, A de; Aparicio, J A

    2006-01-01

    This work reports an extensive collection of 120 atomic transition probabilities of Kr II lines in the spectral region 350-720 nm, all of them measured in an emission experiment. For many of them, these are the first data up to the authors' knowledge. Relative intensity measurements have been obtained on a pulsed discharge lamp and the absolute A ki -values have been calculated by considering the available data from the literature as reference for the plasma temperature diagnosis. Excitation temperature (14 000-28 000 K) has been determined by using the Boltzmann-plot method. The plasma electron density (0.2-0.8 x 10 23 m -3 ) has been determined by two-wavelength interferometry. This work extends a previous one already published by our laboratory [1, 2]. Comparisons have also been made with previous literature values

  15. Measurements of a crenelated iron pole tip for the VLHC transmission line magnet

    Di Marco, J; Kashikhin, V V; Makarov, A A; Schlabach, P; MacKay, W W

    1999-01-01

    The Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) is under conceptual design in Fermilab. One option under development is a 2-Tesla warm iron 2-in-1 single turn superferric magnet built around an 80 kA superconducting transmission line. A normal-conducting test stand was built to optimize the iron lamination shape for this magnet. It uses a water- cooled copper winding to provide the 100 kA-turns needed to generate 2 Tesla fields in both 20 mm air gaps of the magnet. A magnetic measurement facility has been set up for magnetic field mapping, which includes a flat measurement coil, precision stage for coil motion and integrator. Results from a first test of the "crenelation" technique to mitigate the saturation sextupole in iron magnets are described and future plans are discussed. (5 refs).

  16. Software Sub-system in Loading Automatic Test System for the Measurement of Power Line Filters

    Yu Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The loading automatic test system for measurement of power line filters are in urgent demand. So the software sub-system of the whole test system was proposed. Methods: structured the test system based on the virtual instrument framework, which consisted of lower and up computer and adopted the top down approach of design to perform the system and its modules, according to the measurement principle of the test system. Results: The software sub-system including human machine interface, data analysis and process software, expert system, communication software, control software in lower computer, etc. had been designed. Furthermore, it had been integrated into the entire test system. Conclusion: This sub-system provided a fiendly software platform for the whole test system, and had many advantages such as strong functions, high performances, low prices. It not only raises the test efficiency of EMI filters, but also renders some creativities.

  17. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  18. Design of x-ray diagnostic beam line for a synchrotron radiation source and measurement results

    Garg, Akash Deep, E-mail: akash-deep@rrcat.gov.in; Karnewar, A.K.; Ojha, A.; Shrivastava, B.B.; Holikatti, A.C.; Puntambekar, T.A.; Navathe, C.P.

    2014-08-01

    Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV synchrotron radiation source (SRS) operational at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We have designed, developed and commissioned x-ray diagnostic beam line (X-DBL) at the Indus-2. It is based on pinhole array imaging (8–18 keV). We have derived new equations for online measurements of source position and emission angle with pinhole array optics. Measured values are compared with the measurements at an independent x-ray beam position monitor (staggered pair blade monitor) installed in the X-DBL. The measured values are close to the theoretical expected values within ±12 µm (or ±1.5 μrad) for sufficiently wide range of the beam movements. So, beside the beam size and the beam emittance, online information for the vertical position and angle is also used in the orbit steering. In this paper, the various design considerations of the X-DBL and online measurement results are presented.

  19. First Calorimetric Measurement of OI-line in the Electron Capture Spectrum of $^{163}$Ho

    Ranitzsch, P. C. -O.; Wegner, M.; Kempf, S.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.; Gastaldo, L.; Herlert, A.; Johnston, K.

    2014-01-01

    The isotope $^{163}$Ho undergoes an electron capture process with a recommended value for the energy available to the decay, $Q_{\\rm EC}$, of about 2.5 keV. According to the present knowledge, this is the lowest $Q_{\\rm EC}$ value for electron capture processes. Because of that, $^{163}$Ho is the best candidate to perform experiments to investigate the value of the electron neutrino mass based on the analysis of the calorimetrically measured spectrum. We present for the first time the calorimetric measurement of the atomic de-excitation of the $^{163}$Dy daughter atom upon the capture of an electron from the 5s shell in $^{163}$Ho, OI-line. The measured peak energy is 48 eV. This measurement was performed using low temperature metallic magnetic calorimeters with the $^{163}$Ho ion implanted in the absorber. We demonstrate that the calorimetric spectrum of $^{163}$Ho can be measured with high precision and that the parameters describing the spectrum can be learned from the analysis of the data. Finally, we dis...

  20. Rock mass and shaft concrete lining temperature measurement procedure: Final draft

    1986-10-01

    This procedure document describes the equipment and procedures which will be used to obtain temperature data from within rock-mass and shaft linings at the Deaf Smith Exploratory Shaft Facility. Temperature measurement methods for instrument temperature correction, fluid temperature correction, heated surface monitoring and air temperature monitoring are outside the scope of this procedure, and are covered in the appropriate individual test procedures. Calibration, acceptance testing and the assignment of transducer reference numbers are outside the scope of this procedure. Section 2.0 provides a summary of the temperature measurement methods which will be employed, together with the measurement locations, environmental considerations and measurement requirements. Test layouts, including detailed descriptions of instruments, support requirements and detailed installation procedures are also presented. Section 3.0 describes the requirements for data recording, ADAS monitoring, and data reporting. Section 4.0 defines personnel responsibilities and qualifications. In addition a measurement and installation schedule is provided, and safety and contingency plans are described. Section 5.0 discusses management and quality assurance requirements. Cited references are listed in Section 6.0. 7 refs., 9 figs

  1. A new beam emission polarimetry diagnostic for measuring the magnetic field line angle at the plasma edge of ASDEX Upgrade.

    Viezzer, E; Dux, R; Dunne, M G

    2016-11-01

    A new edge beam emission polarimetry diagnostic dedicated to the measurement of the magnetic field line angle has been installed on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The new diagnostic relies on the motional Stark effect and is based on the simultaneous measurement of the polarization direction of the linearly polarized π (parallel to the electric field) and σ (perpendicular to the electric field) lines of the Balmer line D α . The technical properties of the system are described. The calibration procedures are discussed and first measurements are presented.

  2. The Efficacy of Stuttering Measurement Training: Evaluating Two Training Programs

    Bainbridge, Lauren A.; Stavros, Candace; Ebrahimian, Mineh; Wang, Yuedong; Ingham, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Two stuttering measurement training programs currently used for training clinicians were evaluated for their efficacy in improving the accuracy of total stuttering event counting. Method: Four groups, each with 12 randomly allocated participants, completed a pretest-posttest design training study. They were evaluated by their counts of…

  3. Effects of Goal Line Feedback on Level, Slope, and Stability of Performance within Curriculum-Based Measurement.

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nineteen special educators implemented Curriculum-Based Measurement with a total of 36 learning-disabled math pupils in grades 2-8 to examine the effects of goal line feedback. Results indicated comparable levels and slopes of student performance across treatment conditions, although goal line feedback was associated with greater performance…

  4. An evaluation of measurement uncertainties in the on-line measurement of coal ash content by gamma-ray transmission

    Wenzhong, Liu; Li, Kong; Tan, Qu; Jingjing, Cheng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a significant effect producing systematic errors in the on-line measurement using gamma-ray transmission is revealed. Ash content fluctuations or thickness changes lead to a permanent negative systematic error in the results of the measurements. To study uncertainties in the measurements applicable to time-independent ash content indicators and to investigate the characteristics of the radiation attenuation process, the behavior of the quantity in question is modeled with a stationary Gaussian distribution. A systematic error-producing effect has been found, and a quantitative correction is given to compensate for it. For some other quantities in question that vary in time, a linear model is used to discuss the systematic errors in the case of automated coal gangue separator. Results of experiments that demonstrate different systematic errors for different sampling intervals are presented. The reason for these errors is the nonlinearity of the relationship between the radiation intensity, on the one hand, and the sample thickness and mass attention, on the other

  5. Anterior Chamber Angle Measurements Using Schwalbe's Line with High Resolution Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Qin, Bing; Francis, Brian A.; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong; Zhang, Xinbo; Jiang, Chunhui; Cleary, Catherine; Huang, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To use Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the angle opening distance at Schwalbe's line (AOD-SL) and determine its value in anterior chamber angle assessment. Methods Horizontal scans of the nasal and temporal anterior chamber angles in glaucoma subjects were performed by 830 nm wavelength Fourier-domain OCT. Images were graded by two ophthalmologists who assessed the visibility of Schwalbe’s line (SL), anterior limbus (AL), scleral spur (SS), and angle recess (AR). AOD-SL was measured with computer calipers. SL was manually identified by the termination of the corneal endothelium. Gonioscopy was used to classify anterior chamber angles according to a modified Shaffer system. Spearman's rho analysis was performed to assess correlation between AOD-SL and modified Shaffer grade. A cut-off value of AOD-SL for diagnosing occludable angles (modified Shaffer grade ≤1) was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Results Thirty-five glaucoma subjects (65 eyes) were enrolled. SL, AL, AR, and SS were visible by OCT in 97.7%, 99.2%, 87.3%, and 80.8% of eyes, respectively. Nasal and temporal AOD-SLs were 322.6 ± 200.2 µm and 341.4 ± 197.4 µm, respectively. Correlation coefficients between AOD-SL and modified Shaffer grade were 0.80 (nasal) and 0.81 (temporal). The diagnostic cut-off value of AOD-SL for occludable angles was 290 µm. The areas under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity values were 0.90, 0.80, 0.87 (nasal) and 0.90, 0.85, 0.77 (temporal). Conclusions The measurement of AOD-SL by Fourier-domain OCT is highly correlated with gonioscopy and may be a useful noncontact method of assessing angle closure risk. PMID:22827999

  6. A bio-inspired real-time capable artificial lateral line system for freestream flow measurements.

    Abels, C; Qualtieri, A; De Vittorio, M; Megill, W M; Rizzi, F

    2016-06-03

    To enhance today's artificial flow sensing capabilities in aerial and underwater robotics, future robots could be equipped with a large number of miniaturized sensors distributed over the surface to provide high resolution measurement of the surrounding fluid flow. In this work we show a linear array of closely separated bio-inspired micro-electro-mechanical flow sensors whose sensing mechanism is based on a piezoresistive strain-gauge along a stress-driven cantilever beam, mimicking the biological superficial neuromasts found in the lateral line organ of fishes. Aiming to improve state-of-the-art flow sensing capability in autonomously flying and swimming robots, our artificial lateral line system was designed and developed to feature multi-parameter freestream flow measurements which provide information about (1) local flow velocities as measured by the signal amplitudes from the individual cantilevers as well as (2) propagation velocity, (3) linear forward/backward direction along the cantilever beam orientation and (4) periodicity of pulses or pulse trains determined by cross-correlating sensor signals. A real-time capable cross-correlation procedure was developed which makes it possible to extract freestream flow direction and velocity information from flow fluctuations. The computed flow velocities deviate from a commercial system by 0.09 m s(-1) at 0.5 m s(-1) and 0.15 m s(-1) at 1.0 m s(-1) flow velocity for a sampling rate of 240 Hz and a sensor distance of 38 mm. Although experiments were performed in air, the presented flow sensing system can be applied to underwater vehicles as well, once the sensors are embedded in a waterproof micro-electro-mechanical systems package.

  7. Increasing of MERARG experimental performances: on-line fission gas release measurement by mass spectrometry

    Pontillon, Y.; Capdevila, H.; Clement, S. [CEA, DEN, DEC, SA3C, LAMIR, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance, (France); Guigues, E.; Janulyte, A.; Zerega, Y.; Andre, J. [Aix-Marseille Universite, LISA EA 4672, 13397 MARSEILLE cedex 20, (France)

    2015-07-01

    The MERARG device - implemented at the LECASTAR Hot Laboratory, at the CEA Cadarache - allows characterizing nuclear fuels with respect to the behaviour of fission gases during thermal transients representative of normal or off normal operating nuclear power plant conditions. The fuel is heated in order to extract a part or the total gas inventory it contains. Fission Gas Release (FGR) is actually recorded by mean of both on-line gamma spectrometry station and micro gas chromatography. These two devices monitor the quantity and kinetics of fission gas release rate. They only address {sup 85}Kr radioactive isotope and the elemental quantification of Kr, Xe and He (with a relatively low detection limit in the latter case, typically 5-10 ppm). In order to better estimate the basic mechanisms that promote fission gas release from irradiated nuclear fuels, the CEA fuel study department decided to improve its experimental facility by modifying MERARG to extend the studies of gamma emitter fission gases to all gases (including Helium) with a complete isotopic distribution capability. To match these specifications, a Residual Gas Analyser (RGA) has been chosen as mass spectrometer. This paper presents a review of the main aspects of the qualification/calibration phase of the RGA type analyser. In particular, results recorded over three mass ranges 1-10 u, 80-90 u and 120-140 u in the two classical modes of MERARG, i.e. on-line and off-line measurements are discussed. Results obtained from a standard gas bottle show that the quantitative analysis at a few ppm levels can be achieved for all isotopes of Kr and Xe, as well as masses 2 and 4 u. (authors)

  8. Thermal measurement of brake pad lining surfaces during the braking process

    Piątkowski, Tadeusz; Polakowski, Henryk; Kastek, Mariusz; Baranowski, Pawel; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Małachowski, Jerzy; Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the test campaign concept and definition and the analysis of the recorded measurements. One of the most important systems in cars and trucks are brakes. The braking temperature on a lining surface can rise above 500°C. This shows how linings requirements are so strict and, what is more, continuously rising. Besides experimental tests, very supportive method for investigating processes which occur on the brake pad linings are numerical analyses. Experimental tests were conducted on the test machine called IL-68. The main component of IL-68 is so called frictional unit, which consists of: rotational head, which convey a shaft torque and where counter samples are placed and translational head, where samples of coatings are placed and pressed against counter samples. Due to the high rotational speeds and thus the rapid changes in temperature field, the infrared camera was used for testing. The paper presents results of analysis registered thermograms during the tests with different conditions. Furthermore, based on this testing machine, the numerical model was developed. In order to avoid resource demanding analyses only the frictional unit (described above) was taken into consideration. Firstly the geometrical model was performed thanks to CAD techniques, which in the next stage was a base for developing the finite element model. Material properties and boundary conditions exactly correspond to experimental tests. Computations were performed using a dynamic LS-Dyna code where heat generation was estimated assuming full (100%) conversion of mechanical work done by friction forces. Paper presents the results of dynamic thermomechanical analysis too and these results were compared with laboratory tests.

  9. On-line measurement of ski-jumper trajectory: combining stereo vision and shape description

    Nunner, T.; Sidla, O.; Paar, G.; Nauschnegg, B.

    2010-01-01

    Ski jumping has continuously raised major public interest since the early 70s of the last century, mainly in Europe and Japan. The sport undergoes high-level analysis and development, among others, based on biodynamic measurements during the take-off and flight phase of the jumper. We report on a vision-based solution for such measurements that provides a full 3D trajectory of unique points on the jumper's shape. During the jump synchronized stereo images are taken by a calibrated camera system in video rate. Using methods stemming from video surveillance, the jumper is detected and localized in the individual stereo images, and learning-based deformable shape analysis identifies the jumper's silhouette. The 3D reconstruction of the trajectory takes place on standard stereo forward intersection of distinct shape points, such as helmet top or heel. In the reported study, the measurements are being verified by an independent GPS measurement mounted on top of the Jumper's helmet, synchronized to the timing of camera exposures. Preliminary estimations report an accuracy of +/-20 cm in 30 Hz imaging frequency within 40m trajectory. The system is ready for fully-automatic on-line application on ski-jumping sites that allow stereo camera views with an approximate base-distance ratio of 1:3 within the entire area of investigation.

  10. Study on on-Line Measurement and Controlling System of the Foundation Trench-Leveling Machine

    Yi, J G; Jiang, H Y; Xing, Y Z; Chen, J; Liu, J T

    2006-01-01

    Research the system software and hardware composing, the control mode, the online measurement and control principle based on the laser receiver and the inclination sensor as the signal source. After the laser receiver accepts the laser signal, the laser signal is carried through the light filter treatment so as to reduce the sunlight interference, and then amplified and modulated, last transmitted to the control unit. The inclination sensor adapts XWQJ02-01S, measure the slope angle the x and y verticality direction. The error adjusting range is ±0.05 0 . The separate time treatment avoids simultaneously adjusting the laser and inclination signal to each other interfere. The on-line measurement and control system realizes the parts to work on the plane that parallels with the datum plane of the laser beam scan. The trench-leveling machine must retain ±0.05 0 with the datum plane. Adapting the least square method to fit the linear curve, the movement trend of the work parts on the work plane is judged through the slope number. The test result shows that thought the combination measurement and control of the laser and slope angle the leveling precision are ±5mm/100. Its can satisfy with the construction criterion request

  11. Relative localization in wireless sensor networks for measurement of electric fields under HVDC transmission lines.

    Cui, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Yuan, Haiwen; Song, Xiao; Hu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luxing

    2015-02-04

    In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes' neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  12. Relative Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks for Measurement of Electric Fields under HVDC Transmission Lines

    Yong Cui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes’ neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  13. Measurement and monitoring technologies are important SITE program component

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    An ongoing component of the Superfund Innovative Technologies Evaluation (SITE) Program, managed by the US EPA at its Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, is the development and demonstration of new and innovative measurement and monitoring technologies that will be applicable to Superfund site characterization. There are four important roles for monitoring and measurement technologies at Superfund sites: (1) to assess the extent of contamination at a site, (2) to supply data and information to determine impacts to human health and the environment, (3) to supply data to select the appropriate remedial action, and (4) to monitor the success or effectiveness of the selected remedy. The Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada (EMSL-LV) has been supporting the development of improved measurement and monitoring techniques in conjunction with the SITE Program with a focus on two areas: Immunoassay for toxic substances and fiber optic sensing for in-situ analysis at Superfund sites

  14. Program scheme using common source lines in channel stacked NAND flash memory with layer selection by multilevel operation

    Kim, Do-Bin; Kwon, Dae Woong; Kim, Seunghyun; Lee, Sang-Ho; Park, Byung-Gook

    2018-02-01

    To obtain high channel boosting potential and reduce a program disturbance in channel stacked NAND flash memory with layer selection by multilevel (LSM) operation, a new program scheme using boosted common source line (CSL) is proposed. The proposed scheme can be achieved by applying proper bias to each layer through its own CSL. Technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations are performed to verify the validity of the new method in LSM. Through TCAD simulation, it is revealed that the program disturbance characteristics is effectively improved by the proposed scheme.

  15. On-line dry wood measurement in chips by nuclear means

    Oftedal, E.

    1978-01-01

    A system which has been installed and operating for two years in a Norwegian paper mill is described. It consists of a radiometric conveyor belt weighing instrument, a radiometric moisture guage and a data processor. The weighing instrument uses a cesium 137 source located above the conveyor belt with the radiation detector under the belt. The moisture gauge employs an americium-beryllium neutron source and a slow neutron detector, both placed above the belt. The data is processed and the moisture content calculated is continuously displayed. 4 analogue outputs are also available for automatic on-line process control. The results over a period of 20 months are shown, compared with results from laboratory measurements of samples. The two curves follow each other fairly closely. (JIW)

  16. Micro-PIXE line-scan measurements of the yellow eel's otolith

    Zheng, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Guo, H.; Tang, W.; Wei, K. [Laboratory of Ichthyology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306 (China); Shen, H., E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.cn [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, M.; Mi, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Anguilla japonica has a high economic value. The abundance had decreased significantly due to excessive fishing and change in the aquatic ecology. Life history patterns of A. japonica have been studied to prevent excessive fishing and make management plans. Strontium (Sr)-calcium (Ca) ratio along a line down the long axis from the core to the edge of the yellow eel's otolith was measured using micro proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). An efficient and precise method was proposed to locate the core where an otolith begins to grow, based on Sr concentration and distribution. Using this method, life history patterns of the yellow eels collected from Jingjiang River in China were investigated. In general, there are two types, river eels and estuarine eels.

  17. Micro-PIXE line-scan measurements of the yellow eel's otolith

    Zheng, Y.; Guo, H.; Tang, W.; Wei, K.; Shen, H.; Yang, M.; Mi, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Anguilla japonica has a high economic value. The abundance had decreased significantly due to excessive fishing and change in the aquatic ecology. Life history patterns of A. japonica have been studied to prevent excessive fishing and make management plans. Strontium (Sr)-calcium (Ca) ratio along a line down the long axis from the core to the edge of the yellow eel's otolith was measured using micro proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). An efficient and precise method was proposed to locate the core where an otolith begins to grow, based on Sr concentration and distribution. Using this method, life history patterns of the yellow eels collected from Jingjiang River in China were investigated. In general, there are two types, river eels and estuarine eels.

  18. Advanced power cycling test for power module with on-line on-state VCE measurement

    Choi, Ui-min; Trintis, Ionut; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    module. The proposed concept can perform various stress conditions which is valid in a real mission profile and it is using a real power converter application with small loss. The concept of the proposed test setup is first presented. Then, the on-line on-state collector-emitter voltage VCE measurement......Recent research has made an effort to improve the reliability of power electronic systems to comply with more stringent constraints on cost, safety, predicted lifetime and availability in many applications. For this, studies about failure mechanisms of power electronic components and lifetime...... estimation of power semiconductor devices and capacitors have been done. Accelerated power cycling test is one of the common tests to assess the power device module and develop the lifetime model considering the physics of failure. In this paper, a new advanced power cycling test setup is proposed for power...

  19. Expert System Development on On-line Measurement of Sewage Treatment Based Process

    Jianjun QIN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article puts forward a solution in which an instrument on-line automatic measurement and expert system process are optimized according to the complexity and great process dynamics of sewage treatment process. Firstly modeling has been set up with configuration sewage treatment process in which the process has been integrated into the computer software environment. Secondly certain number of water quality automatic monitoring instruments and sensor probes are set in the reaction tanks according to the needs of process changes and management. The data information acquired can be displayed and recorded at the real time. A human-machine integration expert system featuring computer automation management is developed for the base by one-off method thus to realize the intelligent and unmanned management. The advantages brought about from it can fill up the inexperience of the on-site management personnel and solve the contradiction between the water quality dynamics and difficulty in the process adjustment.

  20. Measured signatures of low energy, physical sputtering in the line shape of neutral carbon emission

    Brooks, N.H. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)]. E-mail: brooks@fusion.gat.com; Isler, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Whyte, D.G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Groebner, R.J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Stangeby, P.C. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, M3H 5T6 (Canada); Heidbrink, W.W. [University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Jackson, G.L. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Mahdavi, M.A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); West, W.P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The most important mechanisms for introducing carbon into the DIII-D divertors [J.L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42 (2002) 614] are physical and chemical sputtering. Previous investigations have indicated that operating conditions where one or the other of these is dominant can be distinguished by using CD and C{sub 2} emissions to infer C I influxes from dissociation of hydrocarbons and comparing to measured C I influxes. The present work extends these results through detailed analysis of the C I spectral line shapes. In general, it is found that the profiles are actually asymmetric and have shifted peaks. These features are interpreted as originating from a combination of an anisotropic velocity distribution from physical sputtering (the Thompson model) and an isotropic distribution from molecular dissociation. The present study utilizes pure helium plasmas to benchmark C I spectral profiles arising from physical sputtering alone.

  1. Natural gas large volumes measurement: going for on-line custody transfer; Medicao de grandes volumes de gas natural: rumo a transferencia de custodia on-line

    Mercon, Eduardo G.; Frisoli, Caetano [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the structure of the natural gas flow measurement process in TRANSPETRO, and comments features and performance of existing or under-implantation equipment and systems, reviewing best practices and technology in use. This process runs through three interrelated segments: data flow measurement, strictly speaking; data transfer and acquisition; and data flow measurement certification (data consolidation to invoice). Initially, the work makes an approach to the data flow measurement segment, evaluating technical features of flow meters, and describing configurations and functions of the operating gas flow computers in TRANSPETRO's custody transfer stations. In this part it will also be presented the implantation of TRANSPETRO's system for gas chromatography data input on-line to flow computers. Further, in data transfer and acquisition, SCADA system technical aspects will be evaluated, considering communications protocols and programmable logic controllers functions in remote terminal units, and discussing their places in the measurement process. Additionally, TRANSPETRO's experience in data measurement certification tools is in discussion, as well as new upcoming tools and their potential features, from what new practices will be suggested. Finally, all the work has been conceived and carried out always aiming to the state-of-the-art technology in gas flow measurement: on-line custody transfer. (author)

  2. THE NUCLEAR MATERIAL MEASUREMENT PROGRAM PLAN FOR GOSATOMNADZOR OF RUSSIA

    Bokov, Dmitry; Byers, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    As the Russian State regulatory agency responsible for oversight of nuclear material control and accounting (MC and A), Gosatomnadzor of Russia determines the status of the MC and A programs at Russian facilites by testing the nuclear material inventory for accounting record accuracy. Currently, Gosatomnadzor is developing and implementing an approach to planning and conducting MC and A inspections using non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments that will provide for consistent application of MC and A measurement inspection objectives throughtout Russia. This Gosatomnadzor NDA Program Plan documents current NDA measurement capability in all regions of Gosatomnadzor; provides justification for upgrades to equipment, procedures and training; and defines the inspector-facility operator interface as it relates to NDA measurement equipment use. This plan covers a three-year measurement program cycle, but will be reviewed and updated annually to ensure that adequate inspection resources are available to meet the demands of the inspection schedule. This paper presents the elements of this plan and describes the process by which Gosatomnadzor ensures that its NDA instruments are effectively utilized, procedures are developed and certified, and inspection personnel are properly trained to provide assurance that Russian nuclear facilities are in compliance with Russian MC and A regulations.

  3. Gaussian process tomography for the analysis of line-integrated measurements in fusion plasmas

    Li, Dong

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear fusion research, a variety of diagnostics have been devised for the measurements of different physical quantities, such as electromagnetic radiation in different wavelength intervals. The radiation, including the soft X-ray spectral range, H α emission as well as others, can be recorded by specifically designed detectors with different sampling frequencies. Commonly, only the line-integrated observations are possible due to the fact that the detectors have to view the plasma from a position outside of the plasma. Therefore, tomography algorithms have been developed to infer the local information of the targeted physical variable from a number of line-integrated data. This thesis presents a Bayesian Gaussian Process Tomographic (GPT) method applied to both soft X-ray and bolometer systems. For the ill-posed inversion problem of reconstructing a 2D emissivity distribution from a number of noisy line-integrated data, Bayesian probability theory can provide a posterior probability distribution about many possible solutions centered at a single most probable solution. The combination of Gaussian Process (GP) prior and multivariate normal (MVN) likelihood enables the posterior probability to be a MVN distribution which provides both the solution and its associated uncertainty. The GP prior enforces the regularization on smoothness by adjusting the length-scale defined in a covariance function. Particularly, a non-stationary GP has been developed to improve the accuracy of reconstruction by using locally adaptive length-scales to take into account the varying smoothness at different positions. The parameters embedded in the model assumption can be optimized through maximizing a joint probability of them based on a Bayesian Occam's razor formalism. In contrast with other tomographic techniques, this method is analytic and non-iterative, thus it can be fast enough for real-time applications under an approximate optimization state. The uncertainty of the

  4. On-line measurement of oil contaminants in water by filter-based infrared analyzers

    Niemelae, P.

    1994-01-01

    The properties of a dedicated infrared analyzer for on-line measurement of the oil content of water, the Oili analyzer, are evaluated theoretically and with laboratory measurements. The analyzer was originally developed for controlling the discharge of ballast and bilge water from oil tankers and more than 200 such instruments have now been supplied for that purpose, representing about 10 % of the total market. Some technical improvements are suggested, and the improved instrument is shown to be capable of measuring oil in water to an accuracy of +- 20 % down to a detection limit of +5-10 ppm in the presence of high concentrations of interfering components and under varying environmental conditions. This opens up new potential applications for the instrument, e.g. the monitoring of water discharges from oil and gas production platforms. The infrared analyzer responds only to the dispersed oil fraction, and if the dissolved fraction is of interest as well, the instrument must be equipped with a UV option, as suggested here

  5. Absolute orbit determination using line-of-sight vector measurements between formation flying spacecraft

    Ou, Yangwei; Zhang, Hongbo; Li, Bin

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that absolute orbit determination can be achieved based on spacecraft formation. The relative position vectors expressed in the inertial frame are used as measurements. In this scheme, the optical camera is applied to measure the relative line-of-sight (LOS) angles, i.e., the azimuth and elevation. The LIDAR (Light radio Detecting And Ranging) or radar is used to measure the range and we assume that high-accuracy inertial attitude is available. When more deputies are included in the formation, the formation configuration is optimized from the perspective of the Fisher information theory. Considering the limitation on the field of view (FOV) of cameras, the visibility of spacecraft and the installation of cameras are investigated. In simulations, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used to estimate the position and velocity. The results show that the navigation accuracy can be enhanced by using more deputies and the installation of cameras significantly affects the navigation performance.

  6. A measurement evaluation program to support nuclear material control and accountability measurements in Brazilian laboratories

    Dias, Fabio C., E-mail: fabio@ird.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mason, Peter, E-mail: peter.mason@ch.doe.gov [New Brunswick Laboratory (DOE/NBL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A measurement evaluation program (MEP) is one of a number of valuable tools that analytical chemists can use to ensure that the data produced in the laboratory are fit for their intended purpose and consistent with expected performance values at a given time. As such, participation in a MEP is an important indicator of the quality of analytical data, and is recognized as such by independent regulatory and/or accreditation bodies. With the intent to implement such a program in Brazil, in November 2012 the Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN), with support from the Department of Energy of the United States' (US-DOE International Safeguards and Engagement Program), decided to initiate a technical cooperation project aiming at organizing a Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program (SMEP) for Brazilian facilities. The project, entitled Action Sheet 23, was formalized under the terms of the Agreement between the US-DOE and the CNEN concerning research and development in nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, physical protection, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for International Safeguards Applications. The work, jointly performed by the CNEN's Safeguards Laboratory (LASAL) and the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), has the objective to strengthen the traceability of accountability measurements and ensure adequate quality of safeguards measurements for facilities within Brazil, utilizing test samples characterized and provided by NBL. Recommendations to participants included measurement frequency, number of results per sample and format for reporting results using ISO methods for calculating and expressing measurement uncertainties. In this paper, we discuss the main steps taken by CNEN and NBL aiming at implementing such a program and the expected results, in particular the impact of uncertainty estimation on the evaluation of performance of each participant laboratory. The program is considered by Brazilian safeguards

  7. A measurement evaluation program to support nuclear material control and accountability measurements in Brazilian laboratories

    Dias, Fabio C.; Mason, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A measurement evaluation program (MEP) is one of a number of valuable tools that analytical chemists can use to ensure that the data produced in the laboratory are fit for their intended purpose and consistent with expected performance values at a given time. As such, participation in a MEP is an important indicator of the quality of analytical data, and is recognized as such by independent regulatory and/or accreditation bodies. With the intent to implement such a program in Brazil, in November 2012 the Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN), with support from the Department of Energy of the United States' (US-DOE International Safeguards and Engagement Program), decided to initiate a technical cooperation project aiming at organizing a Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program (SMEP) for Brazilian facilities. The project, entitled Action Sheet 23, was formalized under the terms of the Agreement between the US-DOE and the CNEN concerning research and development in nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, physical protection, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for International Safeguards Applications. The work, jointly performed by the CNEN's Safeguards Laboratory (LASAL) and the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), has the objective to strengthen the traceability of accountability measurements and ensure adequate quality of safeguards measurements for facilities within Brazil, utilizing test samples characterized and provided by NBL. Recommendations to participants included measurement frequency, number of results per sample and format for reporting results using ISO methods for calculating and expressing measurement uncertainties. In this paper, we discuss the main steps taken by CNEN and NBL aiming at implementing such a program and the expected results, in particular the impact of uncertainty estimation on the evaluation of performance of each participant laboratory. The program is considered by Brazilian safeguards authorities

  8. Development and application of an on-line tritium production rate measuring method

    Yamaguchi, Seiya

    1989-06-01

    A highly sensitive on-line method for measuring the tritium production rate (TPR) of 6 Li was developed using the response difference of 6 Li and 7 Li-glass scintillators in a mixed neutron-gamma radiation field. A fitting method for subtracting the pulse height spectrum of 7 Li-glass from that of 6 Li-glass was introduced. The contribution of competing reactions such as 6 Li (n, n 'd) 4 He was estimated by kinematical analyses. An absolute value of the 6 Li content was determined by a chemical analysis. The thermal flux perturbation due to 6 Li-glass of various thickness and 6 Li contents was evaluated by measurement in a thermal neutron field and calculation by the modified Skyrme theory. A Monte Carlo calculation of the self-shielding effect was also made. The dependence of the self-shielding on neutron energy was examined by this Monte Carlo code. The edge effect, i.e., distortion of the pulse height spectrum due to partial energy deposition of the alpha and/or the triton, was investigated by measurement in a thermal neutron field and by a Monte Carlo simulation that was based on the scintillation mechanism and considered Bragg absorption and the ratio of contributions to luminescence by the alpha and the triton. The dependence of the edge effect on neutron energy was examined by this Monte Carlo code. This method was applied to the measurement of TPR distributions in simulated fusion blanket assemblies bombarded by D-T neutrons. Absolute values of the TPR were obtained with an experimental error of 3∼6 %. The measured results were compared with those of conventional β-counting methods and good agreement was obtained. An optical fiber system, using miniature lithium-glass scintillators, was fabricated for purpose of microminiaturization of detector size and adaption to strong electromagnetic field. Applicability of this system to a D-T neutron field was demonstrated. (author)

  9. Development of a 2D temperature measurement technique for combustion diagnostics using 2-line atomic fluorescence

    Engstroem, Johan

    2001-01-01

    The present thesis is concerned with the development and application of a novel planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for temperature measurements in a variety of combusting flows. Accurate measurement of temperature is an essential task in combustion diagnostics, since temperature is one of the most fundamental quantities for the characterization of combustion processes. The technique is based on two-line atomic fluorescence (TLAF) from small quantities of atomic indium (In) seeded into the fuel. It has been developed from small-scale experiments in laboratory flames to the point where practical combustion systems can be studied. The technique is conceptually simple and reveals temperature information in the post-flame regions. The viability of the technique has been tested in three extreme measurement situations: in spark ignition engine combustion, in ultra-lean combustion situations such as lean burning aero-engine concepts and, finally, in fuel-rich combustion. TLAF was successfully applied in an optical Sl engine using isooctane as fuel. The wide temperature sensitivity, 700 - 3000 K, of the technique using indium atoms allowed measurements over the entire combustion cycle in the engine to be performed. In applications in lean combustion a potential problem caused by the strong oxidation processes of indium atoms was encountered. This limits measurement times due to deposits of absorbing indium oxide on measurement windows. The seeding requirement is a disadvantage of the technique and can be a limitation in some applications. The results from experiments performed in sooting flames are very promising for thermometry measurements in such environments. Absorption by hydrocarbons and other native species was found to be negligible. Since low laser energies and low seeding concentrations could be used, the technique did not, unlike most other incoherent optical thermometry techniques, suffer interferences from LII of soot particles or LIF from PAH

  10. Penempatan Optimal Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) Dengan Integer Programming

    Amrulloh, Yunan Helmy

    2013-01-01

    Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) merupakan peralatan yang mampu memberikan pengukuran fasor tegangan dan arus secara real-time. PMU dapat digunakan untuk monitoring, proteksi dan kontrol pada sistem tenaga listrik. Tugas akhir ini membahas penempatan PMU secara optimal berdasarkan topologi jaringan sehingga sistem tenaga listrik dapat diobservasi. Penempatan optimal PMU dirumuskan sebagai masalah Binary Integer Programming (BIP) yang akan memberikan variabel dengan pilihan nilai (0,1) yang menu...

  11. Direct mass measurements of 100Sn and magic nuclei near the N=Z line

    Chartier, M.

    1996-01-01

    The masses of nuclei far from stability are of particular interest in nuclear structure studies, and many methods of varying precision have been developed to undertake their measurement. A direct time of flight technique in conjunction with the SPEG spectrometer at GANIL has been extended to the mass measurement of proton-rich nuclei near N = Z line in the mass region A ≅ 60-80 known to provide input for astrophysical modelling of the rp-process and information relevant to the nuclear structure in a region of high deformation. The radioactive beams were produced via the fragmentation of a 78 Kr beam on a nat Ni target, using the new SISSI device. A purification method based on the stripping of the secondary ions was successfully used for the first time, and the masses of 70 Se and 71 Se were measured. In order to improve the mass resolution for heavier nuclei, another method using the second cyclotron of GANIL (CSS2) as a high resolution spectrometer has been developed. An experiment aimed at measuring the masses of A 100 isobars in the vicinity of the doubly magic nucleus 100 Sn was successfully performed, using this original technique. Secondary ions of 100 Ag, 100 Cd, 100 In and 100 Sn produced via fusion-evaporation reaction 50 Cr + 58 Ni and simultaneously accelerated in the CSS2 cyclotron. The mass of 100 Cd and, for the first time, the masses of 100 Sn were determined directly with respect to the reference mass of 100 Ag. These results have been compared to various theoretical predictions and open the discussion on considerations of spin-isospin symmetry. (author)

  12. Neon-like Iron Ion Lines Measured in NIFS/Large Helical Device (LHD) and Hinode /EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Hara, Hirohisa [National Astronomical Observatory, National Institutes of Natural Sciences 2-21-1 Osawa Mitaka Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Morita, Shigeru [SOKENDAI (Graduate University for Advanced Studies) Hayama, Miura-gun, Kanagawa, 240-0193 (Japan); Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tamura, Naoki [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Yamamoto, Norimasa [Chubu University 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai Aichi, 487-0027 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: watanabe@uvlab.mtk.nao.ac.jp [The University of Electro-Communications 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan)

    2017-06-10

    Line intensities emerging from the Ne-sequence iron ion (Fe xvii) are measured in the laboratory, by the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, and in the solar corona by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode mission. The intensity ratios of Fe xvii λ 204.6/ λ 254.8 are derived in the laboratory by unblending the contributions of the Fe xiii and xii line intensities. They are consistent with theoretical predictions and solar observations, the latter of which endorses the in-flight radiometric calibrations of the EIS instrument. The still remaining temperature-dependent behavior of the line ratio suggests the contamination of lower-temperature iron lines that are blended with the λ 204.6 line.

  13. Dehydration studies using a novel multichamber microscale fluid bed dryer with in-line near-infrared measurement

    Räsänen, Eetu; Rantanen, Jukka; Mannermaa, Jukka-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of two process parameters (temperature and moisture content) on dehydration behavior of different materials using a novel multichamber microscale fluid bed dryer with a process air control unit and in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy....... The materials studied were disodium hydrogen phosphates with three different levels of hydrate water and wet theophylline granules. Measured process parameters of fluid bed drying were logged, including in-line NIR signals. Off-line analyses consisted of X-ray powder diffraction patterns, Fourier transform NIR...... spectra and moisture contents of studied materials. During fluid bed drying, the stepwise dehydration of materials was observed by the water content difference of inlet and outlet air, the pressure difference over the bed, and the in-line NIR spectroscopy. The off-line analysis confirmed the state...

  14. Extending the Capabilities of the Mooring Analysis Program: A Survey of Dynamic Mooring Line Theories for Integration into FAST: Preprint

    Masciola, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-03-01

    Techniques to model dynamic mooring lines come in various forms. The most widely used models include either a heuristic representation of the physics (such as a Lumped-Mass, LM, system), a Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) discretization of the lines (discretized in space), or a Finite-Difference (FD) model (which is discretized in both space and time). In this paper, we explore the features of the various models, weigh the advantages of each, and propose a plan for implementing one dynamic mooring line model into the open-source Mooring Analysis Program (MAP). MAP is currently used as a module for the FAST offshore wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool to model mooring systems quasi-statically, although dynamic mooring capabilities are desired. Based on the exploration in this manuscript, the lumped-mass representation is selected for implementation in MAP based on its simplicity, computational cost, and ability to provide similar physics captured by higher-order models.

  15. GSA On-Line Procurement Programs Lack Documentation and Reliability Testing

    Perry, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    .... For example, as part of an effort to improve the functioning of the government and achieve efficiencies of operations, the President has requested agencies to expand their use of on-line procurement in fiscal year 2OO2...

  16. Precise predictions of H2O line shapes over a wide pressure range using simulations corrected by a single measurement

    Ngo, N. H.; Nguyen, H. T.; Tran, H.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we show that precise predictions of the shapes of H2O rovibrational lines broadened by N2, over a wide pressure range, can be made using simulations corrected by a single measurement. For that, we use the partially-correlated speed-dependent Keilson-Storer (pcsdKS) model whose parameters are deduced from molecular dynamics simulations and semi-classical calculations. This model takes into account the collision-induced velocity-changes effects, the speed dependences of the collisional line width and shift as well as the correlation between velocity and internal-state changes. For each considered transition, the model is corrected by using a parameter deduced from its broadening coefficient measured for a single pressure. The corrected-pcsdKS model is then used to simulate spectra for a wide pressure range. Direct comparisons of the corrected-pcsdKS calculated and measured spectra of 5 rovibrational lines of H2O for various pressures, from 0.1 to 1.2 atm, show very good agreements. Their maximum differences are in most cases well below 1%, much smaller than residuals obtained when fitting the measurements with the Voigt line shape. This shows that the present procedure can be used to predict H2O line shapes for various pressure conditions and thus the simulated spectra can be used to deduce the refined line-shape parameters to complete spectroscopic databases, in the absence of relevant experimental values.

  17. Improved non-invasive method for aerosol particle charge measurement employing in-line digital holography

    Tripathi, Anjan Kumar

    Electrically charged particles are found in a wide range of applications ranging from electrostatic powder coating, mineral processing, and powder handling to rain-producing cloud formation in atmospheric turbulent flows. In turbulent flows, particle dynamics is influenced by the electric force due to particle charge generation. Quantifying particle charges in such systems will help in better predicting and controlling particle clustering, relative motion, collision, and growth. However, there is a lack of noninvasive techniques to measure particle charges. Recently, a non-invasive method for particle charge measurement using in-line Digital Holographic Particle Tracking Velocimetry (DHPTV) technique was developed in our lab, where charged particles to be measured were introduced to a uniform electric field, and their movement towards the oppositely charged electrode was deemed proportional to the amount of charge on the particles (Fan Yang, 2014 [1]). However, inherent speckle noise associated with reconstructed images was not adequately removed and therefore particle tracking data was contaminated. Furthermore, particle charge calculation based on particle deflection velocity neglected the particle drag force and rebound effect of the highly charged particles from the electrodes. We improved upon the existing particle charge measurement method by: 1) hologram post processing, 2) taking drag force into account in charge calculation, 3) considering rebound effect. The improved method was first fine-tuned through a calibration experiment. The complete method was then applied to two different experiments, namely conduction charging and enclosed fan-driven turbulence chamber, to measure particle charges. In all three experiments conducted, the particle charge was found to obey non-central t-location scale family of distribution. It was also noted that the charge distribution was insensitive to the change in voltage applied between the electrodes. The range of voltage

  18. Comparison between measurements of hyperfine structures of Pr II - lines investigated by collinear laser ion beam spectroscopy (CLIBS) ans saturation spectroscopy

    Akhtar, Nadeem; Anjum, Naveed [Inst. f. Experimentalphysik, Techn. Univ. Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Optics Labs, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Huehnermann, Harry [Inst. f. Experimentalphysik, Techn. Univ. Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Fachbereich Physik, Univ. Marburg/Lahn (Germany); Windholz, Laurentius [Inst. f. Experimentalphysik, Techn. Univ. Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    Investigation of narrow hyperfine structures needs a reduction of the Doppler broadening of the investigated lines. Here we have used two methods: collinear laser spectroscopy (CLIBS) and laser saturation spectroscopy. In the first method, the Doppler width is reduced by accelerating Pr ions to a high velocity and excitation with a collinear laser beam, while in the second method ions with velocity group zero are selected by nonlinear saturation. In this work the hyperfine spectra of several Pr II lines were investigated using CLIBS. A line width of ca. 60 MHz was measured. The same lines were then investigated in a hollow cathode discharge lamp using intermodulated laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Using this technique a spectral line width of about 200 MHz was achieved. In both methods, the excitation source is a ring dye laser operated with R6G. Using a fit program, magnetic dipole interaction constants A and the electric-quadrupole interaction constants B of the involved levels have been determined in both cases. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of both methods.

  19. Apparatus for dynamic measurement of gases released from materials heated under programmed temperature-time control

    Early, J.W.; Abernathey, R.M.

    1982-04-01

    This apparatus, a prototype of one being constructed for hotcell examination of irradiated nuclear materials, measures dynamic release rates and integrated volumes of individual gases from materials heated under controlled temperature-time programs. It consists of an inductively heated vacuum furnace connected to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A computerized control system with data acquisition provides scanning rates down to 1s and on-line tabular and graphic displays. Heating rates are up to 1300 0 C/min to a maximum temperature of 2000 0 C. The measurement range is about 10 -6 to 10 -2 torr-liter/s for H 2 , CH 4 , H 2 O, N 2 , and CO and 10 -8 to 10 -2 torr-liter/s for He, Kr, and Xe. Applications are described for measurements of Kr and Xe in mixed oxide fuel, various gases in UO 2 pellets, and He in 238 PuO 2 power and heat sources

  20. A Computer Program to Measure the Energy Spread of Multi-turn Beam in the Fermilab Booster at Injection

    Nelson, Jovan; Bhat, Chandrashekhara; Hendricks, Brian

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a computer program interfaced with the ACNET environment for Fermilab accelerators in order to measure the energy spread of the injected proton beam from the LINAC, at the energy of 400 MeV. This program allows the user to configure a digitizing oscilloscope and timing devices to optimize data acquisition from a resistive wall current monitor. When the program is launched, it secures control of the oscilloscope and then generates a ``one-shot'' timeline which initiates injection into the Booster. Once this is complete, a kicker is set to create a notch in the beam and the line charge distribution data is collected by the oscilloscope. The program then analyzes this data in order to obtain notch width, beam revolution period, and beam energy spread. This allows the program to be a possible useful diagnostic tool for the beginning of the acceleration cycle for the proton beam. Thank you to the SIST program at Fermilab.

  1. IDEN2-A program for visual identification of spectral lines and energy levels in optical spectra of atoms and simple molecules

    Azarov, V. I.; Kramida, A.; Vokhmentsev, M. Ya.

    2018-04-01

    The article describes a Java program that can be used in a user-friendly way to visually identify spectral lines observed in complex spectra with theoretically predicted transitions between atomic or molecular energy levels. The program arranges various information about spectral lines and energy levels in such a way that line identification and determination of positions of experimentally observed energy levels become much easier tasks that can be solved fast and efficiently.

  2. Establishment of X-ray Measurement System for On-line Monitoring of Water Content in Powder

    Hwang, J. S. [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B. J. [Idealsystem Co., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    On-line process monitoring is of critical importance in many industries, and therefore a variety of the state-of-the-art physical and chemical measurement techniques have been proposed. But, these techniques have their own pros and cons under the field process environments. Because the field process environments are very different from the well-organized chemical laboratories, many factors should be considered in order to optimize the process monitoring system. However, there have been few studies on the on-line measurement of water content in powder materials. For that reason, the X-ray measurement system based on the X-ray scattering technique, which was first proposed in 2011 as a new method for the determination of water content in powder, has been improved. in the present study, our original X-ray measurement system has been modified for more rapid, simple, and adequate for maximizing the field applicability of the on-line monitoring system

  3. Measurements of downwelling far-infrared radiance during the RHUBC-II campaign at Cerro Toco, Chile and comparisons with line-by-line radiative transfer calculations

    Mast, Jeffrey C.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Cageao, Richard P.; Kratz, David P.; Latvakoski, Harri; Johnson, David G.; Turner, David D.; Mlawer, Eli J.

    2017-09-01

    Downwelling radiances at the Earth's surface measured by the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument in an environment with integrated precipitable water (IPW) as low as 0.03 cm are compared with calculated spectra in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. FIRST (a Fourier transform spectrometer) was deployed from August through October 2009 at 5.38 km MSL on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile. There FIRST took part in the Radiative Heating in Unexplored Bands Campaign Part 2 (RHUBC-II), the goal of which is the assessment of water vapor spectroscopy. Radiosonde water vapor and temperature vertical profiles are input into the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to compute modeled radiances. The LBLRTM minus FIRST residual spectrum is calculated to assess agreement. Uncertainties (1-σ) in both the measured and modeled radiances are also determined. Measured and modeled radiances nearly all agree to within combined (total) uncertainties. Features exceeding uncertainties can be corrected into the combined uncertainty by increasing water vapor and model continuum absorption, however this may not be necessary due to 1-σ uncertainties (68% confidence). Furthermore, the uncertainty in the measurement-model residual is very large and no additional information on the adequacy of current water vapor spectral line or continuum absorption parameters may be derived. Similar future experiments in similarly cold and dry environments will require absolute accuracy of 0.1% of a 273 K blackbody in radiance and water vapor accuracy of ∼3% in the profile layers contributing to downwelling radiance at the surface.

  4. Effectiveness of Human Research Protection Program Performance Measurements.

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Nguyen, Yen

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed human research protection program performance metric data of all Department of Veterans Affairs research facilities obtained from 2010 to 2016. Among a total of 25 performance metrics, 21 (84%) showed improvement, four (16%) remained unchanged, and none deteriorated during the study period. The overall improvement from these 21 performance metrics was 81.1% ± 18.7% (mean ± SD), with a range of 30% to 100%. The four performance metrics that did not show improvement all had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance metrics that showed improvement ranged from 0.05% to 60%. However, of the 21 performance metrics that showed improvement, 10 had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance measurement is an effective tool in improving the performance of human research protection programs.

  5. Measuring quality of delivery in a substance use prevention program.

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions, self-disclosed personal anecdotes, and corrected student misbehavior. These teacher behaviors loaded on three factors: classroom management, acknowledgment, and student-centered methods. Classroom management was negatively related to student engagement. Acknowledgment was negatively related to students' normative beliefs. Student-centered methods were positively related to student idealism and normative beliefs, and marginally predicted decreases in student marijuana use. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors provide a promising approach to studying pedagogical prevention approaches, and they also link teaching processes to student outcomes. This study of program delivery should be of general interest (i.e., not limited to substance use prevention) to practitioners and researchers.

  6. High-resolution positron Q-value measurements and nuclear-structure studies far from the stability line. Progress report

    Avignone, F.T. III.

    1981-01-01

    Extensive data analysis and theoretical analysis has been done to complete the extensive decay scheme investigation of 206 208 Fr and the level structures of 206 208 Rn. A final version of a journal article is presented in preprint form. Extensive Monte Carlo calculations have been made to correct the end point energies of positron spectra taken with intrinsic Ge detectors for annihilation radiation interferences. These calculations were tested using the decay of 82 Sr which has previously measured positron branches. This technique was applied to the positron spectra collected at the on-line UNISOR isotope separator. The reactions used were 60 Ni( 20 Ne;p2n) 77 Rb and 60 Ni( 20 Ne;pn) 78 Rb. Values for 5, γ-β + coincidence positron end point energies are given for the decay of 77 Rb. The implied Q-value is 5.075 +- 0.010 MeV. A complete paper on the calculated corrections is presented. A flow chart of a more complete program which accounts for positrons scattering out of the detector and for bremsstralung radiation is also presented. End-point energies of four β + branches in 77 Rb are given as well as a proposed energy level scheme of 75 Kr based on γ-γ coincidence data taken at UNISOR

  7. New instrument for on-line viscosity measurement of fermentation media.

    Picque, D; Corrieu, G

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to resolve the difficult problem of on-line determination of the viscosity of non-Newtonian fermentation media, the authors have used a vibrating rod sensor mounted on a bioreactor. The sensor signal decreases nonlinearly with increased apparent viscosity. Electronic filtering of the signal damps the interfering effect of aeration and mechanical agitation. Sensor drift is very low (0.03% of measured value per hour). On the rheological level the sensor is primarily an empirical tool that must be specifically calibrated for each fermentation process. Once this is accomplished, it becomes possible to establish linear or second-degree correlations between the electrical signal from the sensor and the essential parameters of the fermentation process in question (pH of a fermented milk during acidification, concentration of extra cellular polysaccharide). In addition, by applying the power law to describe the rheological behavior of fermentation media, we observe a second-order polynomial correlation between the sensor signal and the behavior index (n).

  8. On-line measurements of RuO{sub 4} during a PWR severe accident

    Reymond-Laruinaz, S.; Doizi, D. [CEA, DEN, Departement de Physico-chimie, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, (France); Manceron, L. [Societe Civile Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, St-Aubin BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, (France); MONARIS, UMR 8233, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, case 49, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05, (France); Boudon, V. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex, (France); Ducros, G. [CEA, DEN, Departement d' Etudes des Combustibles, CEA/Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance cedex, (France)

    2015-07-01

    After the Fukushima accident, it became essential to have a way to monitor in real time the evolution of a nuclear reactor during a severe accident, in order to react efficiently and minimize the industrial, ecological and health consequences of the accident. Among gaseous fission products, the tetroxide of ruthenium RuO{sub 4} is of prime importance since it has a significant radiological impact. Ruthenium is a low volatile fission product but in case of the rupture of the vessel lower head by the molten corium, the air entering into the vessel oxidizes Ru into gaseous RuO{sub 4}, which is not trapped by the Filtered Containment Venting Systems. To monitor the presence of RuO{sub 4} allows making a diagnosis of the core degradation and quantifying the release into the atmosphere. To determine the presence of RuO{sub 4}, FTIR spectrometry was selected. To study the feasibility of the monitoring, high-resolution IR measurements were realized at the French synchrotron facility SOLEIL on the infrared beam line AILES. Thereafter, theoretical calculations were done to simulate the FTIR spectrum to describe the specific IR fingerprint of the molecule for each isotope and based on its partial pressure in the air. (authors)

  9. First application of the spectral difference method for lifetime measurements of doppler attenuated line shapes

    Duckwitz, Hannah [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln Univ. (Germany); Petkov, Pavel [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-07-01

    In this new approach to lifetime measurements via Doppler attenuated line shapes, the spectra of a feeding f and a deexciting transition d of the level of interest are used to determine the lifetime without any lineshape analysis of the feeding transition (direct or indirect). Similarly to the DDC method, the decay function λ{sub d}n{sub d}(t) of the deexciting transition is determined. The feeding of the level is included via the spectral difference of the two successive decays. Consequently, the determined lifetime is the real lifetime. After transforming both transitions into the same energy region, their spectral difference D(v{sub θ}) = S{sub d}(v{sub θ})-S{sub f}(v{sub θ}) = ∫{sub 0}{sup ∞}(∂P{sub θ}(t,v{sub θ}))/(∂t)n{sub d}(t) dt, is solved for n{sub d}(t). Dividing n{sub d}(t) by the decay function λ{sub d}n{sub d}(t) should yield a constant τ value for the level lifetime as a function of the time t. After the development and test of the procedure in 2015, it is now applied for the first time. Two level lifetimes are determined in {sup 86}Sr for the 2{sup +}{sub 2} and the 2{sup +}{sub 3} levels.

  10. Measurement of the Σπ photoproduction line shapes near the Λ(1405)

    Moriya, K.; Schumacher, R. A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bellis, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Sanctis, E.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Fleming, J. A.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kvaltine, N. D.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McCracken, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mirazita, M.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Nepali, C. S.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, S.; Taylor, C. E.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Torayev, B.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Weygand, D. P.; Williams, M.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2013-03-01

    The reaction γ+p→K++Σ+π was used to determine the invariant mass distributions or “line shapes” of the Σ+π-, Σ-π+, and Σ0π0 final states, from threshold at 1328 MeV/c2 through the mass range of the Λ(1405) and the Λ(1520). The measurements were made with the CLAS system at Jefferson Lab using tagged real photons, for center-of-mass energies 1.95

  11. Turbidimetric Measurement for On-line Monitoring of SiO2 Particles

    Kim, In Sook; Lim, H. B.; Kim, Yang Sun

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the fundamental study of on-line monitoring of SiO 2 particles in the size range of 40 nm to 725 nm was carried out using turbidimetry. The size of particle was measured using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The factors affecting on the turbidity were discussed, for example, wavelength, size, and concentration. In order to observe the dependence of turbidity on the wavelength, a turbidimetric system equipped with charged coupled detector (CCD) was built. The shape of the transmitted peak was changed and the peak maximum was shifted to the red when the concentration of particle was increased. This result indicates that the turbidity is related to the wavelength, which corresponds to the characteristic of the Mie extinction coefficient, Q, that is a function of not only particle diameter and refractive index but also wavelength. It is clear that a linear calibration curve for each particle in different size can be obtained at an optimized wavelength

  12. An Approach to Dynamic Line Rating State Estimation at Steady State Using Direct and Indirect Measurements

    Alvarez, David; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Mombello, Enrique E.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic line rating has emerged as a solution for reducing congestion in overhead lines, allowing the optimization of power systems assets. This technique is based on direct and/or indirect monitoring of conductor temperature. Different devices and methods have been developed to sense conductor...

  13. Zenith distribution and flux of atmospheric muons measured with the 5-line ANTARES detector

    Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubertg, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Berting, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunnerg, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenweing, J. -P.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kretschmer, W.; Loehner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The ANTARES high-energy neutrino telescope is a three-dimensional array of about 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 mooring lines installed in the Mediterranean Sea. Between February and November 2007 it acquired data in a 5-line configuration. The zenith angular distribution of the

  14. Measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk samples in Londrina (Parana State, Brazil) region

    Melquiades, Fabio Luiz

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma spectrometry, using a HPGe detector with relative efficiency of 10%, coupled to the electronic nuclear chain and a multichannel card of 8192 channels. Some tests were realized before beginning the measurements. The first of them was to define the shield to be used, making several measured with different shields according to the available materials, opting finally for a shield composed of bricks of lead (10 cm thickness), plates of iron (4nm thickness) and of aluminum (2 mm thickness). Four different geometries for the samples recipients were tested, and the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 liters totally filled was the one which supplied the best peak/background ratio. A statistical inference was also realized to determine the sampling that represents each one of the lots of milk to be measured, resulting in a number of 6 samples, for a confidence level of 95%. Two different kinds of powdered milk produced at Londrina were analyzed, Integral Powdered Milk Cativa and Integral Powdered Milk Polly. The samples were properly put in the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 L, sealed and kept for 40 days to reach the secular equilibrium. The counting time for each measurement was two days. It was possible to identify the radionuclides 40 K, 137 Cs and 232 Th (from 208 Tl), whose activities were calculated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency norms (IAEA, 1989). The detector efficiency was measured using calibrated samples, prepared with the certified reference materials IAEA-326 and IAEA-375. Corrections for self-absorption were accomplished, based on measures of samples with different densities. The results obtained for the powdered milk Cativa were: 464± 12 Bq/kg for 40 K, 3,46 ± 1,05 and 0,46 ± 1,05 and 0,46 ± 0,16 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of 137 Cs and 232 Th, respectively. For the milk Polly, the results were: 452±10 Bq/kg for 40 K, 3,19 ± 0

  15. Performance measures in the earth observations commercialization applications program

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1996-03-01

    Performance measures in the Earth Observations Commercialization Application Program (EOCAP) are key to its success and include net profitability; enhancements to industry productivity through generic innovations in industry practices, standards, and protocols; and documented contributions to public policy governing the newly developing remote sensing industry. Because EOCAP requires company co-funding, both parties to the agreement (the government and the corporate partner) have incentives to pursue these goals. Further strengthening progress towards these goals are requirements for business plans in the company's EOCAP proposal, detailed scrutiny given these plans during proposal selection, and regularly documented progress reports during project implementation.

  16. An On-Line Water Monitor for Low Level {beta}-Radioactivity Measurements

    Quirk, E J.M.

    1968-05-15

    A detection system is described for the continuous monitoring of {beta}-radioactivity in the secondary cooling water at the Studsvik R2 reactor. Radiation emanating from a water surface is measured by a large area gas proportional detector. To protect the detector from splash caused by bursting bubbles a protective film and heater assembly is interposed between the detector and the water surface. A special feature is the programmed 'exercise' sequence for the magnetic valves which eliminates a tendency for them to stick after prolonged periods of idleness. The extent to which contamination affects the background counting rate has been studied. It is shown that for the duration of the tests described the monitor remains free from the effects of contamination so long as the scaler live time is suitably chosen. Minimum measurable specific activities obtainable in practice extend from 4 x 10{sup -6} to 3.86 x 10{sup -8} Ci/m{sup 3} depending on the {beta} end-point energy in the range 167 keV - 2.26 MeV.

  17. Advancing nursing leadership: a model for program implementation and measurement.

    Omoike, Osei; Stratton, Karen M; Brooks, Beth A; Ohlson, Susan; Storfjell, Judy Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    Despite the abundant literature documenting the need for nurse management education and career development, only recently have professional standards been targeted for this group. Competency standards for nurse leaders repeatedly identify systems-level concepts including finance and budget, communication skills, strategic management, human resources management, change management, and computer technology skills. However, educational initiatives to meet these standards are still at the early stages and most nurse leaders continue to acquire knowledge and experience through "on-the-job" training. This article will illustrate the need for partnerships and collaboration between academia and hospitals to advance nursing leadership to the next century. In addition, a tool to measure the impact of a graduate certificate program in nursing administration on nurse leader competencies is presented. Overall, the certificate program has been successful in multiple ways; it has "graduated" almost 80 nurse leaders, improved participant competence in their role at the systems level, as well as providing an impetus for completion of a graduate degree post program.

  18. Large scale intender test program to measure sub gouge displacements

    Been, Ken; Lopez, Juan [Golder Associates Inc, Houston, TX (United States); Sancio, Rodolfo [MMI Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The production of submarine pipelines in an offshore environment covered with ice is very challenging. Several precautions must be taken such as burying the pipelines to protect them from ice movement caused by gouging. The estimation of the subgouge displacements is a key factor in pipeline design for ice gouged environments. This paper investigated a method to measure subgouge displacements. An experimental program was implemented in an open field to produce large scale idealized gouges on engineered soil beds (sand and clay). The horizontal force required to produce the gouge, the subgouge displacements in the soil and the strain imposed by these displacements were monitored on a buried model pipeline. The results showed that for a given keel, the gouge depth was inversely proportional to undrained shear strength in clay. The subgouge displacements measured did not show a relationship with the gouge depth, width or soil density in sand and clay tests.

  19. Practical utility of on-line clearance and blood temperature monitors as noninvasive techniques to measure hemodialysis blood access flow.

    Fontseré, Néstor; Blasco, Miquel; Maduell, Francisco; Vera, Manel; Arias-Guillen, Marta; Herranz, Sandra; Blanco, Teresa; Barrufet, Marta; Burrel, Marta; Montaña, Javier; Real, Maria Isabel; Mestres, Gaspar; Riambau, Vicenç; Campistol, Josep M

    2011-01-01

    Access blood flow (Qa) measurements are recommended by the current guidelines as one of the most important components in vascular access maintenance programs. This study evaluates the efficiency of Qa measurement with on-line conductivity (OLC-Qa) and blood temperature monitoring (BTM-Qa) in comparison with the gold standard saline dilution method (SDM-Qa). 50 long-term hemodialysis patients (42 arteriovenous fistulas/8 arteriovenous grafts) were studied. Bland-Altman and Lin's coefficient (ρ(c)) were used to study accuracy and precision. Mean values were 1,021.7 ± 502.4 ml/min SDM-Qa, 832.8 ± 574.3 ml/min OLC-Qa (p = 0.007) and 1,094.9 ± 491.9 ml/min with BTM-Qa (p = NS). Biases and ρ(c) obtained were -188.8 ml/min (ρ(c) 0.58) OLC-Qa and 73.2 ml/min (ρ(c) 0.89) BTM-Qa. The limits of agreement (bias ± 1.96 SD) obtained were from -1,119 to 741.3 ml/min (OLC-Qa) and -350.6 to 497.2 ml/min (BTM-Qa). BTM-Qa and OLC-Qa are valid noninvasive and practical methods to estimate Qa, although BTM-Qa was more accurate and had better concordance than OLC-Qa compared with SDM-Qa. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The possible direct use of satellite radiance measurements by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    1993-03-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a major research program initiated by the Department of Energy to improve our understanding of radiative and cloud processes critical to predicting the Earth's climate and its changes. Central to this concept is the use of four to six intensively instrumented sites for long-term study and characterization of the processes of interest. The instrumentation suites will include ground-based, high-accuracy radiometers for measuring the short and longwave surface flux, as well as an extensive set of ground-and air-based instrumentation for characterizing the intervening atmospheric column. Satellite-based measurements are expected to play a very important role in providing top-of-the-atmosphere measurements. In this study, we examine the possibility of comparing ARM outputs directly with satellite measurements, thereby ensuring the independence of these two important data sets. Thus we focused on what do satellites really measure and how well do they measure it. On what can we do about the general lack of adequate visible channel calibration. On what is the best way for ARM to obtain near-real-time access to this unprocessed data. And on what is the optimum way for ARM to make use of satellite data

  1. Sex differences on a measure of conformity in automated teller machine lines.

    Reysen, Stephen; Reysen, Matthew B

    2004-10-01

    Sex differences in conformity were examined as participants approached two ATMs, one of which was occupied by three confederates and the other immediately available. The number of men and women in the line in front of one of the ATMs was manipulated (3 men or 3 women), and an unobtrusive observer recorded the sex of each participant. The results indicated that women were more likely than men to wait in line to use the ATM regardless of the makeup of the line. Thus, the present study provides evidence in favor of the idea that sex differences in conformity are evident on a common task performed in a natural setting.

  2. Impact of SSSC on Measured Impedance in Single Phase to Ground Fault Condition on 220 kV Transmission Line

    Mohamed ZELLAGUI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and compares the impact of SSSC on measured impedance for single phase to ground fault condition. The presence of Static Synchronous SSSC on a transmission line has a great influence on the ZRelay in distance protection. The protection of the high voltage 220 kV single circuit transmission line in eastern Algerian electrical transmission networks is affected in the case with resistance fault RF. The paper investigate the effect of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC on the measured impedance (Relay taking into account the distance fault point (n and fault resistance (RF. The resultants simulation is performed in MATLAB software environment.

  3. Effect of duct shape, Mach number, and lining construction on measured suppressor attenuation and comparison with theory

    Olsen, W. A.; Krejsa, E. A.; Coats, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Noise attenuation was measured for several types of cylindrical suppressors that use a duct lining composed of honeycomb cells covered with a perforated plate. The experimental technique used gave attenuation data that were repeatable and free of noise floors and other sources of error. The suppressor length, the effective acoustic diameter, suppressor shape and flow velocity were varied. The agreement among the attenuation data and two widely used analytical models was generally satisfactory. Changes were also made in the construction of the acoustic lining to measure their effect on attenuation. One of these produced a very broadband muffler.

  4. Internal electric-field-lines distribution in CdZnTe detectors measured using X-ray mapping

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Yao, H.W.; James, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, 1 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field

  5. Measurement of the $\\Sigma \\pi$ photoproduction line shapes near the $\\Lambda(1405)$

    Moriya, K; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Aghasyan, M; Anderson, M D; Anefalos Pereira, S; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Bellis, M; Biselli, A S; Bono, J; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, W J; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Crede, V; D& #x27; Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Deur, A; Dey, B; Djalali, C; Doughty, R; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Fassi, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Fersch, R; Fleming, J A; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Harrison, N; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Ho, D; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jo, H S; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khertarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Kubarovsky, A; Kubarovsky, V; Kuleshov, S V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I.J. D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McCracken, M; McKinnon, B; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mirazita, M; Mineeva, T; Mokeev, V; Montgomery, R A; Munevar, E; Munoz Camacho, C; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Nepali, C S; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, E; Phillips, J J; Pisano, S; Pivnyuk, N; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Protopopescu, D; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatio, F; Saini, M S; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, E S; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, S; Taylor, C E; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S; Torayev, B; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vlassov, A V; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Watts, D P

    2013-03-01

    The reaction {gamma} + p -> K{sup +} + {Sigma} + {p}i was used to determine the invariant mass distributions or "line shapes" of the {Sigma}{sup +} {pi}{sup -}, {Sigma}{sup -} {pi}{sup +} and {Sigma}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} final states, from threshold at 1328 MeV/c^2 through the mass range of the {Lambda}(1405) and the {Lambda}(1520). The measurements were made with the CLAS system at Jefferson Lab using tagged real photons, for center-of-mass energies 1.95 < W < 2.85 GeV. The three mass distributions differ strongly in the vicinity of the I=0 {Lambda}(1405), indicating the presence of substantial I=1 strength in the reaction. Background contributions to the data from the {Sigma}{sup 0}(1385) and from K* {Sigma} production were studied and shown to have negligible influence. To separate the isospin amplitudes, Breit-Wigner model fits were made that included channel-coupling distortions due to the Nkbar threshold. A best fit to all the data was obtained after including a phenomenological I=1, J{sup P} = 1/2{sup -} amplitude with a centroid at 1394\\pm20 MeV/c^2 and a second I=1 amplitude at 1413\\pm10 MeV/c^2. The centroid of the I=0 {Lambda}(1405) strength was found at the {Sigma} {pi} threshold, with the observed shape determined largely by channel-coupling, leading to an apparent overall peak near 1405 MeV/c^2.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, January 2001.; TOPICAL

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    In the realm of global climate modeling, numerous variables affect the state of the atmosphere and climate. One important area is soil moisture and temperature. The ARM Program uses several types of instruments to gather soil moisture information. An example is the soil water and temperature system (SWATS). A SWATS is located at each of 21 extended facility sites within the CART site boundary. Each system is configured to measure soil moisture and temperature at eight distinct subsurface levels. A special set of probes used in the SWATS measures soil temperature, soil-water potential, and volumetric water content. Sensors are placed at eight different depths below the soil surface, starting at approximately 5 cm (2 in.) below the surface and ending as deep as 175 cm (69 in.). Each site has two identical sets of probes buried 1 m (3.3 ft) apart, to yield duplicate measurements as a quality control measure. At some sites, impenetrable soil or rock layers prevented installation of probes at the deeper levels. The sensors are connected to an electronic data logger that collects and stores the data. Communication equipment transfers data from the site. All of the electronic equipment is housed in a weatherproof enclosure mounted on a concrete slab

  7. A program-compiling method of nuclear data on-line fast analysis

    Li Shangbai

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how to perform assembly float point operation by using some subroutine of applesoft system, and a program compiling method of nuclear data fast analysis in apple microcomputer is introduced

  8. Terahertz spectroscopy applied to the measurement of strengths and self-broadening coefficients for high- J lines of OCS

    Matton, S.; Rohart, F.; Bocquet, R.; Mouret, G.; Bigourd, D.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.

    2006-10-01

    A spectrometer operating in the 100-2000 GHz range and allowing for absolute line strength measurements has been developed. The continuous wave terahertz radiation is generated by mixing two Ti:Sapphire laser beams in a vertically integrated low temperature grown GaAs (LTG-GaAs) photomixer. Pure rotational lines of 16O 12C 32S in the ground vibrational state have been considered for J values up to 90. Observed self-broadening parameters are in agreement with those deduced from infrared experiments. For the first time in the submillimeter range, absolute line strengths have been determined, allowing for a determination of the electric dipole moment in good agreement with the value previously obtained from Stark effect measurements.

  9. Developing and establishing the validity and reliability of the perceptions toward Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) questionnaires

    Steckel, Richard J.

    Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) are voluntary safety reporting programs developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist air carriers in discovering and fixing threats, errors and undesired aircraft states during normal flights that could result in a serious or fatal accident. These programs depend on voluntary participation of and reporting by air carrier pilots to be successful. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measurement scale to measure U.S. air carrier pilots' perceived benefits and/or barriers to participating in ASAP and LOSA programs. Data from these surveys could be used to make changes to or correct pilot misperceptions of these programs to improve participation and the flow of data. ASAP and LOSA a priori models were developed based on previous research in aviation and healthcare. Sixty thousand ASAP and LOSA paper surveys were sent to 60,000 current U.S. air carrier pilots selected at random from an FAA database of pilot certificates. Two thousand usable ASAP and 1,970 usable LOSA surveys were returned and analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analysis of the data using confirmatory actor analysis and model generation resulted in a five factor ASAP model (Ease of use, Value, Improve, Trust and Risk) and a five factor LOSA model (Value, Improve, Program Trust, Risk and Management Trust). ASAP and LOSA data were not normally distributed, so bootstrapping was used. While both final models exhibited acceptable fit with approximate fit indices, the exact fit hypothesis and the Bollen-Stine p value indicated possible model mis-specification for both ASAP and LOSA models.

  10. On-line and precise measurement of iron wear using thin layer activation reactions by proton beam

    Kosako, Toshiso; Nishimura, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    For the purpose of the on-line measurement of iron wear, thin layer activation (TLA) method or surface layer activation (SLA) method has been carried out since early 1970s. This method uses the irradiation of charged particle beam like protons from an accelerator onto a metal surface to produce a thin activated layer of several tens μm. The wear of this activated layer is measured by nondestructive on-line method with a radiation detector. There are two methods of the measurement. One is the activity loss measurement on the surface, and the other is the activity measurement of the metal debris collected in a filter. The former method is considered here. The purpose it to measure the wear of engine cam noses to help the development of good engine oil. Proton beam irradiation with a tandem van de Graaff accelerator, wear calibration using a gamma ray spectrometer, on-line wear measurement of cam noses of car engines by TLA method and so on are reported. The 7.00 MeV proton beam from a van de Graaff accelerator was used for activation, and Co-56, Co-57 and Co-58 were obtained in thin layers. (K.I.)

  11. Velocities of dislocation groups in very thin neutron-irradiated copper single crystals measured by slip line cinematography

    Potthoff, H.H. (Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Metallphysik und Nukleare Festkoerperphysik)

    1983-05-16

    Slip line development on very thin flat single crystals of neutron-irradiated Cu (thickness down to only 15 to 20 ..mu..m, orientation for single glide, yield region, room temperature) is recorded by high-speed cinematography during tensile deformation. In such very thin crystals glide dislocations on the slip plane must be arranged in a rather simple way. Drops in tensile load occuring during initiation of single slip lines at the Lueders band front indicate that in the beginning of a slip line development dislocation groups traverse the whole glide plane in very short times. Evaluating the data measured for the slip line growth v/sub s/ >= 10 cm/s is found for screw dislocations and v/sub e/ >= v/sub s/ for edge dislocations. For later stages on thin crystals and for all stages on thick crystals (>= several 100 ..mu..m) slip line development is much slower and slip line show many cross slip events which then appear to control the mean velocity of the dislocations.

  12. Velocities of dislocation groups in very thin neutron-irradiated copper single crystals measured by slip line cinematography

    Potthoff, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Slip line development on very thin flat single crystals of neutron-irradiated Cu (thickness down to only 15 to 20 μm, orientation for single glide, yield region, room temperature) is recorded by high-speed cinematography during tensile deformation. In such very thin crystals glide dislocations on the slip plane must be arranged in a rather simple way. Drops in tensile load occuring during initiation of single slip lines at the Lueders band front indicate that in the beginning of a slip line development dislocation groups traverse the whole glide plane in very short times. Evaluating the data measured for the slip line growth v/sub s/ >= 10 cm/s is found for screw dislocations and v/sub e/ >= v/sub s/ for edge dislocations. For later stages on thin crystals and for all stages on thick crystals (>= several 100 μm) slip line development is much slower and slip line show many cross slip events which then appear to control the mean velocity of the dislocations. (author)

  13. Utilize the spectral line pair of the same ionized state ion to measure the ion temperature of tokamak plasma

    Lin Xiaodong

    2000-01-01

    Making use of a Fabry-Perot interferometer driven by a piezoelectric crystal and selecting the suitable separation of plates, the ion temperature is defined by measuring the superimposed profile of the spectral line pair of the same ionized state ions in Tokamak. The advantage of this method is to higher spectral resolution and wider spectral range select

  14. A system for accurate on-line measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in microbioreactors

    van Leeuwen, Michiel; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Oudshoorn, Arthur; Noorman, Henk; Visser, Jan; van der Wielen, Luuk A.M.; van Gulik, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed, based on pressure controlled gas pumping, for accurate measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in the nmol/min range, applicable for on-line monitoring of bioconversions in microbioreactors. The system was validated by carrying out a bioconversion with

  15. Measuring MFT's Mental Health Literacy and Competence: The Effects of an On-Line Introductory Workshop on Eating Disorders

    Beck-Ellsworth, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of study: The purpose of the validity study was to establish known-groups validity of the two measures used for the main study by comparing the responses of the Eating Disorder experts and non-experts. The purpose of the main study was to develop an on-line introductory workshop on eating disorders and investigate the levels of competency…

  16. The magnetic field near power lines in the Moscow region: the results of measurements and their analyze

    Prokofyeva A.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim: to analyze the real power frequency magnetic field (50 Hz values near power lines. The material. Long-term measurements of the power frequency magnetic field (50 Hz near power lines of 110 kV, 220 kVand 500 kVin the Moscow region. Methods. Measurements were made by tracks which were perpendicular to the wires. Length of tracks was up to 40 m. Sensor of measurer was located on 1.8 m under the ground. General quantity of measurement points were 1103. The results. Was obtained general characteristics of real values of strength of electric field and values of magnetic flux density depending to distance to the projection last wire near power lines. Conclusion. Analysis of the results has the values of the magnetic field of power lines correspond to the Russian rules in all cases. Using additional World Health Organization safety criteria for magnetic fields (the class of carcinogenic risks 2B requires the expansion of the health safety zone 2-3 times.

  17. Increasing Student Interest and Comprehension of Production Planning and Control and Operations Performance Measurement Concepts Using a Production Line Game

    Cox, James F., III; Walker, Edward D., II

    2005-01-01

    Production planning and control (PPC) systems and operations performance measures are topics that students generally find both boring and difficult to understand. In the article, the authors present a production line game that they have found to be an effective tool to increase student interest in the topics as well as student comprehension. The…

  18. Design for coordinated measurements of Faraday rotation and line-of-sight electron density using heterodyne techniques

    Jacobson, A.R.

    1977-07-01

    This report proposes a device which can overcome certain of the compromises of conventional Faraday rotation methods and at the same time measure the optical phase as well as the polarization. This would be useful for unfolding the Faraday rotation signal using the line-of-sight density along exactly the same path. Preliminary design parameters using a CO 2 laser are presented

  19. Line facilities outline

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  20. Penempatan Optimal Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU dengan Integer Programming

    Yunan Helmy Amrulloh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU merupakan peralatan yang mampu memberikan pengukuran fasor tegangan dan arus secara real-time. PMU dapat digunakan untuk monitoring, proteksi dan kontrol pada sistem tenaga listrik. Tugas akhir ini membahas penempatan PMU secara optimal berdasarkan topologi jaringan sehingga sistem tenaga listrik  dapat diobservasi. Penempatan optimal PMU dirumuskan sebagai masalah Binary Integer Programming (BIP yang akan memberikan variabel dengan pilihan nilai (0,1 yang menunjukkan tempat yang harus dipasang PMU. Dalam tugas akhir ini, BIP diterapkan untuk menyelesaikan masalah penempatan PMU secara optimal pada sistem tenaga listrik  Jawa-Bali 500 KV yang selanjutnya diterapkan dengan penambahan konsep incomplete observability. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa penerapan BIP pada sistem dengan incomplete observability memberikan jumlah PMU yang lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan sistem tanpa konsep incomplete observability.

  1. Joint FAM/Line Management Assessment Report on LLNL Machine Guarding Safety Program

    Armstrong, J. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-07-19

    The LLNL Safety Program for Machine Guarding is implemented to comply with requirements in the ES&H Manual Document 11.2, "Hazards-General and Miscellaneous," Section 13 Machine Guarding (Rev 18, issued Dec. 15, 2015). The primary goal of this LLNL Safety Program is to ensure that LLNL operations involving machine guarding are managed so that workers, equipment and government property are adequately protected. This means that all such operations are planned and approved using the Integrated Safety Management System to provide the most cost effective and safest means available to support the LLNL mission.

  2. Ion temperature measurements of turbulently heated tokamak plasma by Doppler-broadening of visible lines in TRIAM-1

    Hiraki, N; Nakamura, K; Toi, K; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1981-01-01

    In the turbulent heating experiment of the high-field tokamak TRIAM-1, the bulk ion heating shown by the neutral energy analyzer measurement is confirmed by the Doppler broadening measurement of visible lines. The increasing rate and decay time of the Doppler ion temperature are almost the same as those derived from the neutral energy analyzer measurement. From both methods of ion temperature measurements, it is shown that the ion temperature has a parabolic profile within 50 ..mu..s after the application of the heating pulse.

  3. Intensity and bunch length measurement for lepton beam in the injection lines of the SPS and LEP

    Boccard, C; Papis, J P; Vos, L

    1995-01-01

    We describe a system which is used operationally to measure the absolute intensity of single lepton bunches in a beam transfer line. It is based on the detailed knowledge of every single item of a complex measuring chain that comprises a beam coupler on one end and an acquisition system on the other end. This knowledge can be acquired by a well tested theoretical model and careful measurement of the transfer function of each processing module. A precision better than 3 % can be obtained and no external calibration is required. A value for the bunch length can be deduced from a spectral intensity measurement at two well chosen frequencies.

  4. Frequency metrology of the acetylene lines near 789 nm from lamb-dip measurements

    Tao, Lei-Gang; Hua, Tian-Peng; Sun, Yu R.; Wang, Jin; Liu, An-Wen; Hu, Shui-Ming

    2018-05-01

    Lamb-dips of the ro-vibrational lines of 12C2H2 near 789 nm were recorded using cavity ring-down saturation spectroscopy. Calibrated by an optical frequency comb, frequencies of 45 acetylene lines were determined with an accuracy of 1.1 ×10-7 cm-1 (δν / ν = 8 ×10-12), which is over two orders of magnitude more accurate than previous Doppler-limited studies. An averaged shift of about 0.01 cm-1 were found by comparing the upper energies obtained in this work to those recently presented by Chubb et al. from a MARVEL analysis.

  5. Basic Botany On-Line: A Training Tool for the Master Gardener Program.

    VanDerZanden, Ann Marie; Rost, Bob; Eckel, Rick

    2002-01-01

    A noncredit, online training module on botany was offered to participants in the Oregon Master Gardener program. The 48 participants felt the module was a useful training tool. They also noted that the convenience of completing the material at their own pace and during a time that fit into their schedule. (SK)

  6. Comparison of On-line and F2F Education Methods in Teaching Computer Programming

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available lthough online education provides opportunities to people who traditionally do not have access to universities, there is a need for more empirical studies to gain better understanding on how to deliver quality online education, especially when the subject of the course is related with IT. Learning to program is a complicated process. This study aims to find out the difference between students’ performance in online and face-to-face (F2F settings during a computer programming in the fall semester of the year 2010. The study was conducted at the Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University. This online course is one of the required courses for students majoring in Mathematics. It is delivered in a learning management system developed in house through a project funded by Istanbul University. The goal is to introduce students with structured programming using the programming language C. Two topics -“Functions in C Programming” and “Loops in C Programming” - were presented to students online and F2F. The total of 62 students formed two groups: the online and F2F groups. The content analysis statistical technique is used, as well as a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions, which performed as a data collection tool to find out the views of the students in context to the process. While some results concluded that the performance of online students was satisfactory, but that their aggregate final grade was significantly lower than that of students who took an equivalent F2F class, others arrived at a conclusion reporting that there were no significant differences in overall outcomes. In case of making transition from F2F to online mode of teaching, prepossession about a new way of teaching is always an important barrier in students’ perceptions. One of the further researches is investigation of strategies for incorporating blended learning opportunities in programming courses.

  7. Higher‐order mode absorption measurement of X-band choke-mode cavities in a radial line structure

    Zha, Hao [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing CN-100086 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Shi, Jiaru, E-mail: shij@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing CN-100086 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Wu, Xiaowei; Chen, Huaibi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing CN-100086 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2016-04-01

    An experiment is presented to study the higher-order mode (HOM) suppression of X-band choke-mode structures with a vector network analyzer (VNA). Specific radial line disks were built to test the reflection from the corresponding damping load and different choke geometries. The mismatch between the radial lines and the VNA was calibrated through a special multi-short-load calibration method. The measured reflections of different choke geometries showed good agreement with the theoretical calculations and verified the HOM absorption feature of each geometric design.

  8. Higher‐order mode absorption measurement of X-band choke-mode cavities in a radial line structure

    Zha, Hao; Shi, Jiaru; Wu, Xiaowei; Chen, Huaibi

    2016-01-01

    An experiment is presented to study the higher-order mode (HOM) suppression of X-band choke-mode structures with a vector network analyzer (VNA). Specific radial line disks were built to test the reflection from the corresponding damping load and different choke geometries. The mismatch between the radial lines and the VNA was calibrated through a special multi-short-load calibration method. The measured reflections of different choke geometries showed good agreement with the theoretical calculations and verified the HOM absorption feature of each geometric design.

  9. Ion temperature measurements of turbulently heated TRIAM-1 plasmas by the Doppler-broadening of visible lines

    Hiraki, N; Nakamura, K; Toi, K; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1980-07-01

    The ion temperature of the turbulently heated TRIAM-1 plasma is obtained from the Doppler-broadening of visible lines. The radial profiles of the volume emission of visible lines are measured beforehand to examine whether the volume emissions are localized at a specified position of the minor cross-section of the plasma or not. The ion temperature of the specified position is determined from these profiles. The time behaviour of thus obtained Doppler ion temperature shows a good agreement with that of the one derived from the Neutral Energy Analyzer.

  10. FT-IR measurements of NH3 in the 1.5 μm region: line positions, intensities and their quantum assignments

    Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.; Huang, X.; Schwenke, D. W.; Lee, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of an effort to provide a complete set of spectroscopic line parameters of NH3 in the 1.5 μm region, we have analyzed the laboratory spectra recorded at various temperatures (200 - 299 K) with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) on Kitt Peak Observatory in Arizona. The integrated sum of observed line strengths is measured to be 4.7×10-19 cm/molecule in the 6300 - 7000 cm-1 region. In this poster, we present line positions and strengths for the lines from four strong bands (2v1, 2v3, v1+v3, v1+2v4 and v3+2v4), which contribute more than 65% of opacity in the region. Lower state energies and quantum assignments determined by constructing combination differences are also presented. A theoretical IR linelist (X. Huang, D. W. Schwenke, and T. J. Lee. J. Chem. Phys., 134, 044320/044321, 2011) built upon the recent HSL-2 potential energy surface (nonadiabatic corrections included) is complementarily used for the quantum assignments. This work will support spectroscopic studies of atmospheres of outer planets, low mass brown dwarfs, and possibly extrasolar planets, in the 1.5 μm region (the H-band), where ammonia is one of significant opacity sources. (Research described in this talk was performed at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and was supported by the Planetary Atmospheric Research Program under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The AMES group acknowledges support from the NASA APRA & Herschel GO Program, and X.H. acknowledges the support by NASA/SETI Institute Co-operative Agreement.)

  11. A measurement system for large, complex software programs

    Rone, Kyle Y.; Olson, Kitty M.; Davis, Nathan E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes measurement systems required to forecast, measure, and control activities for large, complex software development and support programs. Initial software cost and quality analysis provides the foundation for meaningful management decisions as a project evolves. In modeling the cost and quality of software systems, the relationship between the functionality, quality, cost, and schedule of the product must be considered. This explicit relationship is dictated by the criticality of the software being developed. This balance between cost and quality is a viable software engineering trade-off throughout the life cycle. Therefore, the ability to accurately estimate the cost and quality of software systems is essential to providing reliable software on time and within budget. Software cost models relate the product error rate to the percent of the project labor that is required for independent verification and validation. The criticality of the software determines which cost model is used to estimate the labor required to develop the software. Software quality models yield an expected error discovery rate based on the software size, criticality, software development environment, and the level of competence of the project and developers with respect to the processes being employed.

  12. Number line estimation strategies in children with mathematical learning difficulties measured by eye tracking

    van 't Noordende, Jaccoline E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369862422; van Hoogmoed, Anne H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314839496; Schot, Willemijn D; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241607949

    INTRODUCTION: Number line estimation is one of the skills related to mathematical performance. Previous research has shown that eye tracking can be used to identify differences in the estimation strategies children with dyscalculia and children with typical mathematical development use on number

  13. Number line estimation strategies in children with mathematical learning difficulties measured by eye tracking

    van’t Noordende, Jaccoline E.; van Hoogmoed, Anne H.; Schot, Willemijn D.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Number line estimation is one of the skills related to mathematical performance. Previous research has shown that eye tracking can be used to identify differences in the estimation strategies children with dyscalculia and children with typical mathematical development use on number

  14. Measurement and Analysis of P2P IPTV Program Resource

    Wenxian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of P2P technology, P2P IPTV applications have received more and more attention. And program resource distribution is very important to P2P IPTV applications. In order to collect IPTV program resources, a distributed multi-protocol crawler is proposed. And the crawler has collected more than 13 million pieces of information of IPTV programs from 2009 to 2012. In addition, the distribution of IPTV programs is independent and incompact, resulting in chaos of program names, which obstructs searching and organizing programs. Thus, we focus on characteristic analysis of program resources, including the distributions of length of program names, the entropy of the character types, and hierarchy depth of programs. These analyses reveal the disorderly naming conventions of P2P IPTV programs. The analysis results can help to purify and extract useful information from chaotic names for better retrieval and accelerate automatic sorting of program and establishment of IPTV repository. In order to represent popularity of programs and to predict user behavior and popularity of hot programs over a period, we also put forward an analytical model of hot programs.

  15. Measurement and analysis of P2P IPTV program resource.

    Wang, Wenxian; Chen, Xingshu; Wang, Haizhou; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of P2P technology, P2P IPTV applications have received more and more attention. And program resource distribution is very important to P2P IPTV applications. In order to collect IPTV program resources, a distributed multi-protocol crawler is proposed. And the crawler has collected more than 13 million pieces of information of IPTV programs from 2009 to 2012. In addition, the distribution of IPTV programs is independent and incompact, resulting in chaos of program names, which obstructs searching and organizing programs. Thus, we focus on characteristic analysis of program resources, including the distributions of length of program names, the entropy of the character types, and hierarchy depth of programs. These analyses reveal the disorderly naming conventions of P2P IPTV programs. The analysis results can help to purify and extract useful information from chaotic names for better retrieval and accelerate automatic sorting of program and establishment of IPTV repository. In order to represent popularity of programs and to predict user behavior and popularity of hot programs over a period, we also put forward an analytical model of hot programs.

  16. An inertia-free filter line-search algorithm for large-scale nonlinear programming

    Chiang, Nai-Yuan; Zavala, Victor M.

    2016-02-15

    We present a filter line-search algorithm that does not require inertia information of the linear system. This feature enables the use of a wide range of linear algebra strategies and libraries, which is essential to tackle large-scale problems on modern computing architectures. The proposed approach performs curvature tests along the search step to detect negative curvature and to trigger convexification. We prove that the approach is globally convergent and we implement the approach within a parallel interior-point framework to solve large-scale and highly nonlinear problems. Our numerical tests demonstrate that the inertia-free approach is as efficient as inertia detection via symmetric indefinite factorizations. We also demonstrate that the inertia-free approach can lead to reductions in solution time because it reduces the amount of convexification needed.

  17. Fracture network evaluation program (FraNEP): A software for analyzing 2D fracture trace-line maps

    Zeeb, Conny; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul D.; Virgo, Simon; Blum, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    Fractures, such as joints, faults and veins, strongly influence the transport of fluids through rocks by either enhancing or inhibiting flow. Techniques used for the automatic detection of lineaments from satellite images and aerial photographs, LIDAR technologies and borehole televiewers significantly enhanced data acquisition. The analysis of such data is often performed manually or with different analysis software. Here we present a novel program for the analysis of 2D fracture networks called FraNEP (Fracture Network Evaluation Program). The program was developed using Visual Basic for Applications in Microsoft Excel™ and combines features from different existing software and characterization techniques. The main novelty of FraNEP is the possibility to analyse trace-line maps of fracture networks applying the (1) scanline sampling, (2) window sampling or (3) circular scanline and window method, without the need of switching programs. Additionally, binning problems are avoided by using cumulative distributions, rather than probability density functions. FraNEP is a time-efficient tool for the characterisation of fracture network parameters, such as density, intensity and mean length. Furthermore, fracture strikes can be visualized using rose diagrams and a fitting routine evaluates the distribution of fracture lengths. As an example of its application, we use FraNEP to analyse a case study of lineament data from a satellite image of the Oman Mountains.

  18. 7 CFR 1484.72 - How is program effectiveness measured?

    2010-01-01

    ... export sales achieved, including the ratio of additional export sales in relation to Cooperator program... findings and recommendations and proposes changes in program strategy or design as a result of the...

  19. Military Personnel: Performance Measures Needed to Determine How Well DOD’s Credentialing Program Helps Servicemembers

    2016-10-01

    MILITARY PERSONNEL Performance Measures Needed to Determine How Well DOD’s Credentialing Program Helps Servicemembers...Measures Needed to Determine How Well DOD’s Credentialing Program Helps Servicemembers What GAO Found The Department of Defense (DOD) has taken steps to...establish the statutorily required credentialing program, but it has not developed performance measures to gauge the program’s effectiveness

  20. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.; TOPICAL

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Our Changing Climate-Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is

  1. Applications of MODIS Fluorescent Line Height Measurements to Monitor Water Quality Trends and Algal Bloom Activity

    Fischer, Andrew; Moreno-Mardinan, Max; Ryan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in satellite and airborne remote sensing, such as improvements in sensor and algorithm calibrations, processing techniques and atmospheric correction procedures have provided for increased coverage of remote-sensing, ocean-color products for coastal regions. In particular, for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensor calibration updates, improved aerosol retrievals and new aerosol models has led to improved atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters and have improved the retrieval of ocean color in coastal waters. This has opened the way for studying ocean phenomena and processes at finer spatial scales, such as the interactions at the land-sea interface, trends in coastal water quality and algal blooms. Human population growth and changes in coastal management practices have brought about significant changes in the concentrations of organic and inorganic, particulate and dissolved substances entering the coastal ocean. There is increasing concern that these inputs have led to declines in water quality and have increase local concentrations of phytoplankton, which cause harmful algal blooms. In two case studies we present MODIS observations of fluorescence line height (FLH) to 1) assess trends in water quality for Tampa Bay, Florida and 2) illustrate seasonal and annual variability of algal bloom activity in Monterey Bay, California as well as document estuarine/riverine plume induced red tide events. In a comprehensive analysis of long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data and satellite imagery from Tampa Bay we assess the validity of the MODIS FLH product against chlorophyll-a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout a large optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay is undertaken to understand how the relationship between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a responds to varying conditions and to develop a near decadal trend in

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  3. 76 FR 34385 - Program Integrity: Gainful Employment-Debt Measures

    2011-06-13

    ... bachelor's and master's degree programs, and 20 years for programs that lead to a doctoral or first...-risk and underserved populations of students; and limit the growth of, and innovation in, new programs... and to society in general, nor that they would represent a poor financial risk. Sen. Rep. No. 758...

  4. Process Analytical Technology and On-Line Spectroscopic Measurements of Chemical Meat Quality

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin

    This thesis deals with process analytical technology and how it can be implemented in the meat industry through on-line grading of chemical meat quality. The focus will be on two applications, namely the rapid quality control of fat quality and the development of a method for on-line detection...... of nano-molar quantification in few seconds, in addition to an accelerated extraction-free GC-MS method that through automation can deliver results much faster than other similar methods. The implementation of these high tech methods will provide the meat industry with a leading edge not only with product...... of boar taint. The chemical makeup of fat has a large effect on meat cut quality. Fat quality has traditionally been determined by methylation of a tissue sample followed by chromatography on a GC-MS system, elucidating the composition of the individual fatty acids. As this procedure typically takes far...

  5. A two-dimensional detector with delay line readout for slow neutron fields measurements

    Cheremukhina, G.A.; Chernenko, S.P.; Ivanov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the description of a two-dimensional detector of slow neutrons together with its readout and data acquisition electronics based on a PC/AT> The detector with a sensitive area of 260x140 mm 2 is based on a high pressure multiwire proportional chamber with delay line readout and gas filling of 3.0 atm. 3 He + propane. 25 refs.; 10 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Infrared Line Intensities for Formaldehyde from Simultaneous Measurements in the Infrared and Far Infrared Spectral Ranges

    Fissiaux, L.; Földes, T.; Tchana, F. Kwabia; Daumont, L.; Lepère, M.; Vander Auwera, J.

    2011-06-01

    Formaldehyde (H_2CO) is an important intermediate compound in the degradation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including methane, in the terrestrial troposphere. Its observation using optical remote sensing in the infrared range relies on the 3.6 and 5.7 μm absorption bands. Band and individual line intensities have been reported in both ranges. With the present work, we aim to also derive infrared line intensities for formaldehyde, however relying on pure rotation line intensities and the known electric dipole moment to determine the particle density. Indeed, because formaldehyde polymerizes or degrades easily, the gas phase may contain polymerization or degradation products. Spectra of H_2CO diluted in 10 hPa of N_2 were therefore simultaneously recorded in the 20-60 Cm-1 and 3.6 μm ranges, respectively using a Bruker IFS125HR Fourier transform spectrometer and a tunable diode laser. see A. Perrin, D. Jacquemart, F. Kwabia Tchana, N. Lacome, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110 (2009) 700-716, and references therein

  7. Nitrogen Approach Program. In line with the European law?; Aanpak van stikstof. Europeesrechtelijk in de pas?

    Schrijnemaekers, J.; Van der Sluis, C. [Ploum Lodder Princen, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    Nitrogen deposition is causing problems in protected areas designated by the Natural 2000 program with a view to protect biodiversity . To deal with these problems the Dutch government developed the Programmatic Approach to Nitrogen (Programmatische Aanpak Stikstof - PAS). This approach is discussed in this article. [Dutch] De depositie van stikstof in gebieden waarvoor het zogenaamde Natura 2000 programma de biodiversiteit moet beschermen zorgt voor problemen. Om de problemen het hoofd te bieden heeft de Nederlandse overheid de Programmatische Aanpak Stikstof (PAS) ontwikkeld. In dit artikel wordt aandacht besteed aan PAS.

  8. Properties of laser-produced GaAs plasmas measured from highly resolved X-ray line shapes and ratios

    Seely, J. F.; Fein, J.; Manuel, M.; Keiter, P.; Drake, P.; Kuranz, C.; Belancourt, Patrick; Ralchenko, Yu.; Hudson, L.; Feldman, U.

    2018-03-01

    The properties of hot, dense plasmas generated by the irradiation of GaAs targets by the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were determined by the analysis of high resolution K shell spectra in the 9 keV to 11 keV range. The laser parameters, such as relatively long pulse duration and large focal spot, were chosen to produce a steady-state plasma with minimal edge gradients, and the time-integrated spectra were compared to non-LTE steady state spectrum simulations using the FLYCHK and NOMAD codes. The bulk plasma streaming velocity was measured from the energy shifts of the Ga He-like transitions and Li-like dielectronic satellites. The electron density and the electron energy distribution, both the thermal and the hot non-thermal components, were determined from the spectral line ratios. After accounting for the spectral line broadening contributions, the plasma turbulent motion was measured from the residual line widths. The ionization balance was determined from the ratios of the He-like through F-like spectral features. The detailed comparison of the experimental Ga spectrum and the spectrum simulated by the FLYCHK code indicates two significant discrepancies, the transition energy of a Li-like dielectronic satellite (designated t) and the calculated intensity of a He-like line (x), that should lead to improvements in the kinetics codes used to simulate the X-ray spectra from highly-charged ions.

  9. Application of non-destructive liner thickness measurement technique for manufacturing and inspection process of zirconium lined cladding tube

    Nakazawa, Norio; Fukuda, Akihiro; Fujii, Noritsugu; Inoue, Koichi

    1986-01-01

    Recently, in order to meet the difference of electric power demand owing to electric power situation, large scale load following operation has become necessary. Therefore, the development of the cladding tubes which withstand power variation has been carried out, as the result, zirconium-lined zircaloy 2 cladding tubes have been developed. In order to reduce the sensitivity to stress corrosion cracking, these zirconium-lined cladding tubes require uniform liner thickness over the whole surface and whole length. Kobe Steel Ltd. developed the nondestructive liner thickness measuring technique based on ultrasonic flaw detection technique and eddy current flaw detection technique. These equipments were applied to the manufacturing and inspection processes of the zirconium-lined cladding tubes, and have demonstrated superiority in the control and assurance of the liner thickness of products. Zirconium-lined cladding tubes, the development of the measuring technique for guaranteeing the uniform liner thickness and the liner thickness control in the manufacturing and inspection processes are described. (Kako, I.)

  10. Evidence-based measures to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections: a systematic review.

    Perin, Daniele Cristina; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Higashi, Giovana Dorneles Callegaro; Sasso, Grace Teresinha Marcon Dal

    2016-09-01

    to identify evidence-based care to prevent CLABSI among adult patients hospitalized in ICUs. systematic review conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Web of Science, Lilacs, Bdenf and Cochrane Studies addressing care and maintenance of central venous catheters, published from January 2011 to July 2014 were searched. The 34 studies identified were organized in an instrument and assessed by using the classification provided by the Joanna Briggs Institute. the studies presented care bundles including elements such as hand hygiene and maximal barrier precautions; multidimensional programs and strategies such as impregnated catheters and bandages and the involvement of facilities in and commitment of staff to preventing infections. care bundles coupled with education and the commitment of both staff and institutions is a strategy that can contribute to decreased rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections among adult patients hospitalized in intensive care units. identificar evidências de cuidados para prevenção de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada a cateter venoso central em pacientes adultos em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. revisão Sistemática realizada por meio de busca nas bases de dados Pubmed, Scopus, Cinahl, Web of Science, Lilacs, Bdenf e Cochrane. Foram buscadas pesquisas com cuidados com a cateterização e manutenção do cateter venoso central, publicados de janeiro de 2011 a julho de 2014. Os 34 estudos incluídos foram organizados em um instrumento e avaliados por meio da classificação do The Joanna Briggs Institute. os estudos apresentaram bundles de cuidados com elementos como a higiene das mãos e precauções máximas de barreira; programas multidimensionais e estratégias como cateteres e curativos impregnados e o envolvimento da instituição e engajamento da equipe nos esforços para prevenção de infecção. os cuidados no formato de bundles aliados com a educação e engajamento da equipe e

  11. Overview of the aerial radiological measuring system (ARMS) program

    Deal, L.J.; Doyle, J.F. III.

    1975-01-01

    Since 1960 EG and G, Inc. has developed and maintained for the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) a state-of-the-art radiation surveillance program called the Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS). Radiological surveys covering more than 300,000 square miles have been performed. In addition to the radiation detector gear, the system includes an inertial navigation system, radar altimeter, meteorological probes, air sampler, air sample analyzer, multispectral cameras, aerial mapping camera and infrared scanner. The recently improved data acquisition system, REDAR, records all inputs digitally on magnetic tape and is readily mounted in fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters. The data analysis system, REDAC, is mounted in a mobile processing laboratory which accompanies the aircraft on surveys. Radiation isopleth maps, both for gross counts and selected isotopes, can be prepared in the field. Special computer software enables the ARMS to detect changes of less than 1.0 μR/hr in exposure rates between successive surveys of a given site

  12. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE's programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols

  13. The device for the poloidal profile measurement of H sub(α)-line emission by photodiode and its calibration

    Miura, Yukitoshi; Kasai, Satoshi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Koichi

    1985-11-01

    The device for the poloidal profile measurement of H sub(α)-line emission has been equipped by photodiode (S1225-5BQ by HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K.) and operational amplifier. The absolute efficiency was calibrated by using He-Ne laser. The device is constructed by 44 channels. The fast type of 8 channels is for the monitor of pellet abration profile. The slow type of 36 channels is for the poloidal profile measurement of H sub(α)-line emission from JFT-2M plasma. The rise time of the fast type and the slow type is about 2.8 μsec and about 350 μsec, respectively. The absolute efficiency of the fast type and the slow type is 72.7 V/mW and 18.2 V/μW, respectively. (author)

  14. Short-coherence in-line phase-shifting infrared digital holographic microscopy for measurement of internal structure in silicon

    Xi, Teli; Dou, Jiazhen; Di, Jianglei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jiwei; Ma, Chaojie; Zhao, Jianlin

    2017-06-01

    Short-coherence in-line phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy based on Michelson interferometer is proposed to measure internal structure in silicon. In the configuration, a short-coherence infrared laser is used as the light source in order to avoid the interference formed by the reference wave and the reflected wave from the front surface of specimen. At the same time, in-line phase-shifting configuration is introduced to overcome the problem of poor resolution and large pixel size of the infrared camera and improve the space bandwidth product of the system. A specimen with staircase structure is measured by using the proposed configuration and the 3D shape distribution are given to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the method.

  15. On-line depth measurement for laser-drilled holes based on the intensity of plasma emission

    Ho, Chao-Ching; Chiu, Chih-Mu; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Kuo, Chia-Lung

    2014-09-01

    The direct time-resolved depth measurement of blind holes is extremely difficult due to the short time interval and the limited space inside the hole. This work presents a method that involves on-line plasma emission acquisition and analysis to obtain correlations between the machining processes and the optical signal output. Given that the depths of laser-machined holes can be estimated on-line using a coaxial photodiode, this was employed in our inspection system. Our experiments were conducted in air under normal atmospheric conditions without gas assist. The intensity of radiation emitted from the vaporized material was found to correlate with the depth of the hole. The results indicate that the estimated depths of the laser-drilled holes were inversely proportional to the maximum plasma light emission measured for a given laser pulse number.

  16. Diameter and axial position measurement of micrometric particles by in-line digital holography using wavelet transform

    Torres, Y M; Amezquita, R; Monroy, F

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the size and axial position of micrometric particles is obtained for an in-line Fraunhofer holography setup. The hologram reconstruction was realized using the wavelet transform. By digital image processing tools, the size distribution histogram for the particles in the sample was obtained. The contrast measurement in the amplitude reconstruction presents a peak when the axial coordinate and the register distance are equal. This fact lets the axial position in the sample be determined.

  17. Simulation and measurement of the electrostatic beam kicker in the low-energy undulator test line

    Waldschmidt, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    An electrostatic kicker has been constructed for use in the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The function of the kicker is to limit the amount of beam current to be accelerated by the APS linac. Two electrodes within the kicker create an electric field that adjusts the trajectory of the beam. This paper will explore the static fields that are set up between the offset electrode plates and determine the reaction of the beam to this field. The kicker was numerically simulated using the electromagnetic solver package MAFIA [1

  18. Measurement of genome changes of greenable albino mutation line c.v. W25

    Wu Dianxing; Xia Yingwu; Shu Qingyao; Zhang Yaozhou; Liu Guifu

    1997-01-01

    W25 was a greenable albino mutation line, which was derived from a temperature-sensitive genic male sterile rice 2177s, with 300 Gy gamma rays irradiation. During the whole growth duration, the leaves of W25 showed the following characters: white, greenism, albinism and greenism again. 70 primers were used for the detection of polymorphism, one of them gave polymorphic products. RAPD analysis of W25 and 2177s with random primer H05 indicated that there were two DNA bands differences

  19. Electric field measurements from satellites-to-forbidden line ratios in an Omega-Upgrade laser-produced plasma. Semi-annual report, February 1--May 31, 1996

    Griem, H.R.; Elton, R.C.; Welch, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Under this FY-96 NLUF program, the authors began their search for satellite lines to forbidden transitions for localized laser-induced electric field measurements by preparing in their laboratory a flat-field grazing incidence spectrograph for use on the OMEGA-Upgrade facility. This involved wavelength calibration using a (small) laser-produced plasma, as well as designing and constructing a mounting table compatible with the large 60-beam target chamber at LLE. Beginning in April 1996 they installed and aligned the spectrograph at LLE. Following final alignment on Monday, April 29, they obtained the following day their first time-integrated spectral data in the 30--250 angstrom range. A total of 28 successful shots were obtained. For most shots, two beams of the OMEGA-Upgrade laser were used at nominal uv-pulse widths of 1.1 ns and energies ranging from 76--470 J/beam, with focal spots of 80--450 microm and irradiances covering approximately 10 14 --10 16 Watt/cm 2 . Planar targets used consisted of Mg and NaF, as well as boron mounted on a plastic film, with some of the former two overcoated with 5 microm of CH on each side for containing the plasma, at least during the early portion of the pulse. Preliminary analyses indicate that they do indeed observe the desired Li-like L-shell spectra for oxygen, fluorine, sodium and magnesium, as well as L-shell lines in the corresponding H-(Balmer) and He-like species. Similarly, they recorded K-shell lines from B and C. Sample traces for Mg and Na fluoride from their soft x-ray spectrograph are shown. Both of these shots were obtained at a rather low applied irradiance of 2 X 10 14 W/cm 2 , and were chosen mainly for line identification. The parent Li-like 2s-3p allowed lines corresponding to the forbidden-line satellites sought for E-field determinations are clearly present. The calculated satellite line intensity relative to the intensity from this 2s-3p transition is ∼ 3%

  20. Measurement of Line-to-Ground Capacitance in Distribution Network Considering Magnetizing Impedance’s Frequency Characteristic

    Qing Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal injection method (SIM is widely applied to the insulation parameters’ measurement in distribution network for its convenience and safety. It can be divided into two kinds of patterns: injecting a specific frequency signal or several frequencies’ groups, and scanning frequency in a scheduled frequency scope. In order to avoid the disadvantages in related researches, improved signal injection method (ISIM, in which the frequency characteristic of the transformer magnetizing impedance is taken into consideration, is proposed. In addition, optimization for signal injection position has been accomplished, and the corresponding three calculation methods of line-to-ground capacitance has been derived. Calculations are carried out through the vector information (vector calculation method, the amplitude information (amplitude calculation method, the phase information (phase calculation method of voltage and current in signal injecting port, respectively. The line-to-ground capacitance is represented by lumped parameter capacitances in high-voltage simulation test. Eight different sinusoidal signals are injected into zero-sequence circuit, and then line-to-ground capacitance is calculated with the above-mentioned vector calculation method based on the voltage and the current data of the injecting port. The results obtained by the vector calculation method show that ISIM has a wider application frequency range compared with signal injection method with rated parameters (RSIM and SIM. The RSIM is calculated with the rated transformer parameters of magnetizing impedance, and the SIM based on the ideal transformer model, and the relative errors of calculation results of ISIM are smaller than that for other methods in general. The six groups of two-frequency set are chosen in a specific scope which is recommended by vector calculation results. Based on ISIM, the line-to-ground capacitance calculations through the amplitude calculation method and

  1. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    Geslot, B.; Vermeeren, L.; Filliatre, P.; Lopez, A. Legrand; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Bréaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F.

    2011-03-01

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 × 1020 n/cm2. A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  2. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    Geslot, B.; Filliatre, P.; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Breaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, SPEx/LDCI, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vermeeren, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Lopez, A. Legrand [CEA, DEN, Saclay, SIREN/LECSI, F-91400 Saclay (France)

    2011-03-15

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2}. A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  3. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    Geslot, B.; Filliatre, P.; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Breaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F.; Vermeeren, L.; Lopez, A. Legrand

    2011-01-01

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 x 10 20 n/cm 2 . A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  4. Sustained Implementation Support Scale: Validation of a Measure of Program Characteristics and Workplace Functioning for Sustained Program Implementation.

    Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T; Sanders, Matthew R; Filus, Ania

    2017-07-01

    An evaluation measure of enablers and inhibitors to sustained evidence-based program (EBP) implementation may provide a useful tool to enhance organizations' capacity. This paper outlines preliminary validation of such a measure. An expert informant and consumer feedback approach was used to tailor constructs from two existing measures assessing key domains associated with sustained implementation. Validity and reliability were evaluated for an inventory composed of five subscales: Program benefits, Program burden, Workplace support, Workplace cohesion, and Leadership style. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 593 Triple P-Positive Parenting Program-practitioners led to a 28-item scale with good reliability and good convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Practitioners sustaining implementation at least 3 years post-training were more likely to have supervision/peer support, reported higher levels of program benefit, workplace support, and positive leadership style, and lower program burden compared to practitioners who were non-sustainers.

  5. The importance of on-line monitoring systems within the environmental monitoring program of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    Koenig, L.A.; Winter, M.; Schmitt, A.

    1980-10-01

    The two on-line monitoring systems used in KfK environmental monitoring should be taken as measures of accident precaution and they are restricted to measurement of gamma local dose rates and of the (β + γ)-radiation levels. One of the systems serves to monitor the KfK operational area, the second serves to monitor the surrounding communities up to a radius of 8 km. By use of two different types of detectors the first system covers a range of measurement of 10 μrem/h to 1000 rem/h. By the second system only increases in the radiation level can be detected. It allows to record accidents in which countermeasures must be taken very urgently. The two monitoring systems are described which have been operated and partly been developed at the KfK. The possibilities and limits of using them for environmental monitoring are discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    Thermo Power Corporation has proven the technical viability of an on-line, real-time alpha radionuclide instrument for aqueous sample analysis through laboratory and initial field tests of the instrument. The instrument has been shown to be isotonically sensitive to extremely low (ten parts per trillion, or femto Curies per liter) levels of a broad range of radioisotopes. Performance enhancement and other scaling data obtained during the course of this investigation have shown that on-line, real-time operation is possible, with a sub 30-minute response time analyzing 20 ppb (30 pCi/1) natural uranium. Now that these initial field tests in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have been successfully completed, Thermo Power plans to conduct comprehensive field tests of the instrument. The purpose of these endurance tests will be to determine the endurance characteristics of the Thermo Alpha Monitor for Water when it is used by non-Thermo Power personnel in a series of one or more extended field tests. Such endurance testing is the vital next step towards the commercialization of the Alpha Monitor. Subsequently, it will be possible to provide the DOE with an instrument that has the capability of obtaining rapid feedback about the concentrations of alpha-emitting isotope contamination in effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area). It will also be useful for process control of remediation and D and D operations such as monitoring scrubber/rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste, Plutonium and D and D Focus Areas)

  7. Further observations of the lambda 10830 He line in stars and their significance as a measure of stellar activity

    Zirin, H.

    1975-11-01

    Measurements of the lambda 10830 He line in 198 stars are given along with data on other features in that spectral range. Nearly 80% of all G and K stars show some lambda 10830; of these, half are variable and 1/4 show emission. It was confirmed that lambda 10830 is not found in M stars, is weak in F stars, and is particularly strong in close binaries. The line is found in emission in extremely late M and S stars, along with P gamma, but P gamma is not in emission in G and K stars with lambda 10830 emissions. Variable He emission and Ti I emission are found in the RV Tauri variables R Scuti and U Mon. In R Aqr the Fe XIII coronal line lambda 10747 and a line at lambda 11012, which may be singlet He or La II, are found, as well as lambda 10830 and P gamma. The nature of coronas or hot chromospheres in the various stars is discussed. It was concluded that the lambda 10830 intensity must be more or less proportional to the energy deposited in the chromosphere corona by non-thermal processes

  8. Influence Of Specific Mechanical Energy On Cornmeal Viscosity Measured By An On-line System During Twin-screw Extrusion

    Chang Y.K.; Martinez-Bustos F.; Park T.S.; Kokini J.L.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of specific mechanical energy (SME) on cornmeal viscosity during the twin-screw extrusion at feed moisture contents of 25 and 30% and screw speeds in the range from 100 to 500 rpm was measured. Cornmeal was extruded in a co-rotating, intermeshing twin-screw coupled to a slit die rheometer. One approach to the on-line rheological measurement is to use a slit die with the extruder. In the present work it was show that shear viscosity decreased as a function of SME. The viscosity o...

  9. Optics measurements and transfer line matching for the SPS injection of the CERN Multi-Turn Extraction beam

    Benedetto, E; Cettour Cave, S; Follin, F; Gilardoni, S; Giovannozzi, M; Roncarolo, F

    2010-01-01

    Dispersion and beam optics measurements were carried out in the transfer line between the CERN PS and SPS for the new Multi-Turn Extraction beam. Since the extraction conditions of the four islands and the core are different and strongly dependent on the non-linear effects used to split the beam in the transverse plane, a special care was taken during the measurement campaigns. Furthermore, an appropriate strategy was devised to minimize the overall optical mismatch at SPS injection. All this led to a new optical configuration that will be presented in the paper.

  10. Evaluation of an on-line methodology for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOC) fluxes by eddy-covariance with a PTR-TOF-Qi-MS

    Loubet, Benjamin; Buysse, Pauline; Lafouge, Florence; Ciuraru, Raluca; Decuq, Céline; Zurfluh, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Field scale flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are essential for improving our knowledge of VOC emissions from ecosystems. Many VOCs are emitted from and deposited to ecosystems. Especially less known, are crops which represent more than 50% of French terrestrial surfaces. In this study, we evaluate a new on-line methodology for measuring VOC fluxes by Eddy Covariance with a PTR-Qi-TOF-MS. Measurements were performed at the ICOS FR-GRI site over a crop using a 30 m long high flow rate sampling line and an ultrasonic anemometer. A Labview program was specially designed for acquisition and on-line covariance calculation: Whole mass spectra ( 240000 channels) were acquired on-line at 10 Hz and stored in a temporary memory. Every 5 minutes, the spectra were mass-calibrated and normalized by the primary ion peak integral at 10 Hz. The mass spectra peaks were then retrieved from the 5-min averaged spectra by withdrawing the baseline, determining the resolution and using a multiple-peak detection algorithm. In order to optimize the peak detection algorithm for the covariance, we determined the covariances as the integrals of the peaks of the vertical-air-velocity-fluctuation weighed-averaged-spectra. In other terms, we calculate , were w is the vertical component of the air velocity, Sp is the spectra, t is time, lag is the decorrelation lag time and denotes an average. The lag time was determined as the decorrelation time between w and the primary ion (at mass 21.022) which integrates the contribution of all reactions of VOC and water with the primary ion. Our algorithm was evaluated by comparing the exchange velocity of water vapor measured by an open path absorption spectroscopy instrument and the water cluster measured with the PTRQi-TOF-MS. The influence of the algorithm parameters and lag determination is discussed. This study was supported by the ADEME-CORTEA COV3ER project (http://www6.inra.fr/cov3er).

  11. Structural measurements and cell line studies of the copper-PEG-Rifampicin complex against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Manning, Thomas; Mikula, Rachel; Wylie, Greg; Phillips, Dennis; Jarvis, Jackie; Zhang, Fengli

    2015-02-01

    The bacterium responsible for tuberculosis is increasing its resistance to antibiotics resulting in new multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). In this study, several analytical techniques including NMR, FT-ICR, MALDI-MS, LC-MS and UV/Vis are used to study the copper-Rifampicin-Polyethylene glycol (PEG-3350) complex. The copper (II) cation is a carrier for the antibiotic Rifampicin as well as nutrients for the bacterium. The NIH-NIAID cell line containing several Tb strains (including antibiotic resistant strains) is tested against seven copper-PEG-RIF complex variations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal Boundary Layer Effects on Line-of-Sight Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) Gas Concentration Measurements.

    Qu, Zhechao; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2018-06-01

    The effects of thermal boundary layers on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement results must be quantified when using the line-of-sight (LOS) TDLAS under conditions with spatial temperature gradient. In this paper, a new methodology based on spectral simulation is presented quantifying the LOS TDLAS measurement deviation under conditions with thermal boundary layers. The effects of different temperature gradients and thermal boundary layer thickness on spectral collisional widths and gas concentration measurements are quantified. A CO 2 TDLAS spectrometer, which has two gas cells to generate the spatial temperature gradients, was employed to validate the simulation results. The measured deviations and LOS averaged collisional widths are in very good agreement with the simulated results for conditions with different temperature gradients. We demonstrate quantification of thermal boundary layers' thickness with proposed method by exploitation of the LOS averaged the collisional width of the path-integrated spectrum.

  13. Scan-Less Line Field Optical Coherence Tomography, with Automatic Image Segmentation, as a Measurement Tool for Automotive Coatings

    Samuel Lawman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the thicknesses of layers is important for the quality assurance of industrial coating systems. Current measurement techniques only provide a limited amount of information. Here, we show that spectral domain Line Field (LF Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT is able to return to the user a cross sectional B-Scan image in a single shot with no mechanical moving parts. To reliably extract layer thicknesses from such images of automotive paint systems, we present an automatic graph search image segmentation algorithm. To show that the algorithm works independently of the OCT device, the measurements are repeated with a separate time domain Full Field (FF OCT system. This gives matching mean thickness values within the standard deviations of the measured thicknesses across each B-Scan image. The combination of an LF-OCT with graph search segmentation is potentially a powerful technique for the quality assurance of non-opaque industrial coating layers.

  14. On-line measurement of moisture content of powdered food using microwave free-space transmission technique

    Kim, Ki Bok; Park, Seong Un; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jong Heon; Lee, ChanJoo

    2006-01-01

    The moisture content of food is not only the most important quality factor but also one of the essential parameters affecting their physical and chemical properties related to storage, capability of processing and quality control. The moisture measurement technique using microwave is very attractive because that method has merits of rapid and accurate measurement in the wider range of moisture content, simple implementation and inexpensive compared with other methods. In this study, microwave free-space transmission technique was applied to measure the moisture content of powdered food. The on-line measurement system consisting of microwave system with 2.5 GHz, 7.0 GHz and 10.5 GHz, conveying device to move the food samples, inlet and outlet of the food samples, guide plate to control the thickness of the food samples, temperature sensing nit, taco-meter and central processing unit having analog to digital convert and microprocessor was constructed and its performance was evaluated.

  15. Application of a chronoamperometric measurement to the on-line monitoring of a lithium metal reduction for uranium oxide

    Kim, Tack-Jin; Cho, Young-Hwan; Choi, In-Kyu; Kang, Jun-Gill; Song, Kyuseok; Jee, Kwang-Yong

    2008-01-01

    Both a potentiometric and a chronoamperometric electrochemical technique have been applied in an attempt to develop an efficient method for an on-line monitoring of a lithium metal reduction process of uranium oxides at a high-temperature in a molten salt medium. As a result of this study, it was concluded that the chronoamperometric method provided a simple and effective way for a direct on-line monitoring measurement of a lithium metal reduction process of uranium oxides at 650 o C by the measuring electrical currents dependency on a variation of the reduction time for the reaction. A potentiometric method, by adopting a homemade oxide ion selective electrode made of ZrO 2 stabilized by a Y 2 O 3 doping, however, was found to be inappropriate for an on-line monitoring of the reduction reaction of uranium oxide in the presence of lithium metal due to an abnormal behavior of the adopted electrodes. The observed experimental results were discussed in detail by comparing them with previously published experimental data

  16. Fourier transform measurements of water vapor line parameters in the 4200-6600 cm{sup -1} region

    Jenouvrier, Alain [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: alain.jenouvrier@univ-reims.fr; Daumont, Ludovic [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Regalia-Jarlot, Laurence [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Tyuterev, Vladimir G. [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Carleer, Michel [Service de Chimie Quantique et de Photophysique, CP 160/09, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Av. F.D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Vandaele, Ann Carine [Institut d' Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique, Av. Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Mikhailenko, Semen [Laboratory of Theoretical Spectroscopy, Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1, Av. Akademichesskii, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Fally, Sophie [Service de Chimie Quantique et de Photophysique, CP 160/09, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Av. F.D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-06-15

    New high-resolution water vapor absorption spectra were obtained at room temperature in the 4200-6600 cm{sup -1} spectral region by combining Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) with single and multiple reflection cells. With absorption paths from 0.3 to 1800 m in pure and air diluted water vapor, accurate measurements of about 10400 lines in an intensity range from 10{sup -29} to 10{sup -19} cm/molecule have been performed. Positions, intensities, self- and air-broadening coefficients and air-induced shifts were determined for the H{sub 2} {sup 16}O, H{sub 2} {sup 17}O, H{sub 2} {sup 18}O and HDO isotopologues. The rovibrational assignment of the observed lines was performed with the use of global variational predictions and allowed the identification of several new energy levels. One major contribution of this work consists of the identification of 3280 new weak lines. A very close agreement between the new measured parameters and those listed in the database is reported as well as between the observations and the most recent variational calculations for the positions and the intensities. The present parameters provide an extended and homogeneous data set for water vapor, which is shown to significantly improve the databases for atmospheric applications, especially in the transmission windows on both sides of the band centered at 5400 cm{sup -1}.

  17. Measuring learning, student engagement, and program effectiveness: a strategic process.

    Jantzi, Julie; Austin, Connie

    2005-01-01

    What if there was an effective way to address the age-old question from students, "Why do we have to do this assignment?" And from faculty, "How do we know our students are really learning?" And from administrators, "How will we demonstrate to our peers, our accrediting agencies, and other program stakeholders that our programs are educationally effective?" As it undertook a curriculum redesign, faculty in a baccalaureate school of nursing developed a 9-step process for curriculum implementation. The authors discuss how they applied the 9 steps strategically, positioning the program for 2 successful accreditation self-studies and concurrently addressing, with greater confidence, some of these age-old questions.

  18. 2D image of local density and magnetic fluctuations from line-integrated interferometry-polarimetry measurements.

    Lin, L; Ding, W X; Brower, D L

    2014-11-01

    Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (∼1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ∼0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved.

  19. 2D image of local density and magnetic fluctuations from line-integrated interferometry-polarimetry measurements

    Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (∼1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ∼0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved

  20. High-resolution measurements and multichannel quantum defect analysis of spectral line shapes of autoionizing Rydberg series

    Ueda, Kiyoshi

    1997-01-01

    Spectral line shapes for autoionizing Rydberg series are briefly reviewed within the framework of multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT). Recent high-resolution measurements and MQDT analysis for the spectra line shapes are reviewed for the mp 5 ( 2 P 1/2 )ns ' and nd ' J=1 odd spectra of the Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms (m=3,4,5 for Ar, Kr, and Xe) and the 3p 5 ( 2 P 1/2 )nd ' J=2 and 3 odd spectra of Ar*3p 5 4p excited atoms. Some results are also discussed for the Ca 4p( 2 P 1/2,3/2 )ns and nd J=1 odd spectrum and the Ba 5d( 2 P 5/2 )nd J=1 odd spectrum

  1. On-line fast response device and method for measuring dissolved gas in a fluid

    Tutu, Narinder Kumar [Manorville, NY

    2011-01-11

    A method and device for the measurement of dissolved gas within a fluid. The fluid, substantially a liquid, is pumped into a pipe. The flow of the fluid is temporally restricted, creating one or more low pressure regions. A measurement indicative of trapped air is taken before and after the restriction. The amount of dissolved air is calculated from the difference between the first and second measurements. Preferably measurements indicative of trapped air is obtained from one or more pressure transducers, capacitance transducers, or combinations thereof. In the alternative, other methods such as those utilizing x-rays or gamma rays may also be used to detect trapped air. Preferably, the fluid is a hydraulic fluid, whereby dissolved air in the fluid is detected.

  2. New method of noncontact temperature measurement in on-line textile production

    Cheng, Xianping; Song, Xing-Li; Deng, Xing-Zhong

    1993-09-01

    Based on the condition of textile production the method of infrared non-contact temperature measurement is adcpted in the heat-setting and drying heat-treatment process . This method is used to monitor the moving cloth. The temperature of the cloth is displayed rapidly and exactly. The principle of the temperature measurement is analysed theoretically in this paper. Mathematical analysis and calculation are used for introducing signal transmitting method. Adopted method of combining software with hardware the temperature is corrected and compensated with the aid of a single-chip microcomputer. The results of test indicate that the application of temperature measurement instrument provides reliable parameters in the quality control. And it is an important measure on improving the quality of products.

  3. Accreditation of Medical Education Programs: Moving From Student Outcomes to Continuous Quality Improvement Measures.

    Blouin, Danielle; Tekian, Ara

    2018-03-01

    Accreditation of undergraduate medical education programs aims to ensure the quality of medical education and promote quality improvement, with the ultimate goal of providing optimal patient care. Direct linkages between accreditation and education quality are, however, difficult to establish. The literature examining the impact of accreditation predominantly focuses on student outcomes, such as performances on national examinations. However, student outcomes present challenges with regard to data availability, comparability, and contamination.The true impact of accreditation may well rest in its ability to promote continuous quality improvement (CQI) within medical education programs. The conceptual model grounding this paper suggests accreditation leads medical schools to commit resources to and engage in self-assessment activities that represent best practices of CQI, leading to the development within schools of a culture of CQI. In line with this model, measures of the impact of accreditation on medical schools need to include CQI-related markers. The CQI orientation of organizations can be measured using validated instruments from the business and management fields. Repeated determinations of medical schools' CQI orientation at various points throughout their accreditation cycles could provide additional evidence of the impact of accreditation on medical education. Strong CQI orientation should lead to high-quality medical education and would serve as a proxy marker for the quality of graduates and possibly for the quality of care they provide.It is time to move away from a focus on student outcomes as measures of the impact of accreditation and embrace additional markers, such as indicators of organizational CQI orientation.

  4. Measured neutron beam line shielding effectiveness of several iron/polyethylene configurations

    Legate, G.L.; Howe, M.L.; Mundis, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray leakage measurements were taken at various stages of shield construction of neutron flight path 5 (the Lash-up flight path) at LANSCE, to compare the relative effectiveness of several configurations. Dose equivalent rates were determined for three categories: ''low-energy neutrons'', below 20 MeV; ''high- energy neutrons'', above 20 MeV; and gamma rays, as measured by hand-held survey instruments. The low energy neutrons were measured by activation of an indium foil in a paraffin-filled cadmium canister, sized to be generally insensitive above 20 MeV. High-energy neutrons were measured by (n,2n) production of Carbon 11 in a plastic scintillator with a 20-MeV threshold. Thermal neutrons were not measured at the shield-leakage test points. Room-scattered neutrons were observed by Albatross IV detector readings, which were taken beside the shield as a measure of variation of room background as the shield configuration changed. 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Trajectory measurements and correlations in the final focus beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    Renier, Y.; Bambade, P.; Tauchi, T.; White, G. R.; Boogert, S.

    2013-06-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) commissioning group aims to demonstrate the feasibility of the beam delivery system of the next linear colliders (ILC and CLIC) as well as to define and to test the tuning methods. As the design vertical beam sizes of the linear colliders are about few nanometers, the stability of the trajectory as well as the control of the aberrations are very critical. ATF2 commissioning started in December 2008, and thanks to submicron resolution beam position monitors (BPMs), it has been possible to measure the beam position fluctuation along the final focus of ATF2 during the 2009 runs. The optics was not the nominal one yet, with a lower focusing to make the tuning easier. In this paper, a method to measure the noise of each BPM every pulse, in a model-independent way, will be presented. A method to reconstruct the trajectory’s fluctuations is developed which uses the previously determined BPM resolution. As this reconstruction provides a measurement of the beam energy fluctuations, it was also possible to measure the horizontal and vertical dispersion function at each BPMs parasitically. The spatial and angular dispersions can be fitted from these measurements with uncertainties comparable with usual measurements.

  6. Trajectory measurements and correlations in the final focus beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    Y. Renier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2 commissioning group aims to demonstrate the feasibility of the beam delivery system of the next linear colliders (ILC and CLIC as well as to define and to test the tuning methods. As the design vertical beam sizes of the linear colliders are about few nanometers, the stability of the trajectory as well as the control of the aberrations are very critical. ATF2 commissioning started in December 2008, and thanks to submicron resolution beam position monitors (BPMs, it has been possible to measure the beam position fluctuation along the final focus of ATF2 during the 2009 runs. The optics was not the nominal one yet, with a lower focusing to make the tuning easier. In this paper, a method to measure the noise of each BPM every pulse, in a model-independent way, will be presented. A method to reconstruct the trajectory’s fluctuations is developed which uses the previously determined BPM resolution. As this reconstruction provides a measurement of the beam energy fluctuations, it was also possible to measure the horizontal and vertical dispersion function at each BPMs parasitically. The spatial and angular dispersions can be fitted from these measurements with uncertainties comparable with usual measurements.

  7. Ground-Based Photometric Measurements HAES Program Support.

    1979-01-31

    A3, A-, E, F (J) Spatial structure of optical irregularities from F (K) Auroral electric fields from G, (BI, 132) ( L ) Pederson and Hall...investigator on this program was Mr. R. D. Sears. Also contributing significantly to the program were D. R. Hillendahl and G. Rogers . We acknowledge the...WBM experiment 57 23 Plot of height-integrated Pederson conductivities versus horizontal distance from Chatanika zenith for WBM experiment 58 24

  8. Scanning electron microscope measurement of width and shape of 10 nm patterned lines using a JMONSEL-modeled library

    Villarrubia, J.S., E-mail: john.villarrubia@nist.gov [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Vladár, A.E.; Ming, B. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Kline, R.J.; Sunday, D.F. [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Chawla, J.S.; List, S. [Intel Corporation, RA3-252, 5200 NE Elam Young Pkwy, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The width and shape of 10 nm to 12 nm wide lithographically patterned SiO{sub 2} lines were measured in the scanning electron microscope by fitting the measured intensity vs. position to a physics-based model in which the lines' widths and shapes are parameters. The approximately 32 nm pitch sample was patterned at Intel using a state-of-the-art pitch quartering process. Their narrow widths and asymmetrical shapes are representative of near-future generation transistor gates. These pose a challenge: the narrowness because electrons landing near one edge may scatter out of the other, so that the intensity profile at each edge becomes width-dependent, and the asymmetry because the shape requires more parameters to describe and measure. Modeling was performed by JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo Simulation of Secondary Electrons), which produces a predicted yield vs. position for a given sample shape and composition. The simulator produces a library of predicted profiles for varying sample geometry. Shape parameter values are adjusted until interpolation of the library with those values best matches the measured image. Profiles thereby determined agreed with those determined by transmission electron microscopy and critical dimension small-angle x-ray scattering to better than 1 nm.

  9. Scanning electron microscope measurement of width and shape of 10nm patterned lines using a JMONSEL-modeled library.

    Villarrubia, J S; Vladár, A E; Ming, B; Kline, R J; Sunday, D F; Chawla, J S; List, S

    2015-07-01

    The width and shape of 10nm to 12 nm wide lithographically patterned SiO2 lines were measured in the scanning electron microscope by fitting the measured intensity vs. position to a physics-based model in which the lines' widths and shapes are parameters. The approximately 32 nm pitch sample was patterned at Intel using a state-of-the-art pitch quartering process. Their narrow widths and asymmetrical shapes are representative of near-future generation transistor gates. These pose a challenge: the narrowness because electrons landing near one edge may scatter out of the other, so that the intensity profile at each edge becomes width-dependent, and the asymmetry because the shape requires more parameters to describe and measure. Modeling was performed by JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo Simulation of Secondary Electrons), which produces a predicted yield vs. position for a given sample shape and composition. The simulator produces a library of predicted profiles for varying sample geometry. Shape parameter values are adjusted until interpolation of the library with those values best matches the measured image. Profiles thereby determined agreed with those determined by transmission electron microscopy and critical dimension small-angle x-ray scattering to better than 1 nm. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Hydrogen Atom Collision Processes in Cool Stellar Atmospheres: Effects on Spectral Line Strengths and Measured Chemical Abundances in Old Stars

    Barklem, Paul S

    2012-01-01

    The precise measurement of the chemical composition of stars is a fundamental problem relevant to many areas of astrophysics. State-of-the-art approaches attempt to unite accurate descriptions of microphysics, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) line formation and 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. In this paper I review progress in understanding inelastic collisions of hydrogen atoms with other species and their influence on spectral line formation and derived abundances in stellar atmospheres. These collisions are a major source of uncertainty in non-LTE modelling of spectral lines and abundance determinations, especially for old, metal-poor stars, which are unique tracers of the early evolution of our galaxy. Full quantum scattering calculations of direct excitation processes X(nl) + H ↔ X(n'l') + H and charge transfer processes X(nl) + H ↔ X + + H − have been done for Li, Na and Mg [1,2,3] based on detailed quantum chemical data, e.g. [4]. Rate coefficients have been calculated and applied to non-LTE modelling of spectral lines in stellar atmospheres [5,6,7,8,9]. In all cases we find that charge transfer processes from the first excited S-state are very important, and the processes affect measured abundances for Li, Na and Mg in some stars by as much as 60%. Effects vary with stellar parameters (e.g. temperature, luminosity, metal content) and so these processes are important not only for accurate absolute abundances, but also for relative abundances among dissimilar stars.

  11. Improvement of local position accuracy of robots for off-line programming

    Borm, Jin Hwan; Choi, Jong Cheon

    1992-01-01

    For the implementation of industrial robots in a CIM environment, it is necessary to be able to position their end-effectors to an abstractly defined cartesian position with desired accuracy. In other words, it is necessary to find accurate actuator command values corresponding to given goal positions which are expressed with respect to a certain coordinate frame. If the teaching -by-doing method is used, very accurate actuator command values are obtained from transducer readings. For the case when the goal positions are mathematically expressed, however, the actuator command values for the goal positions must be calculated using robot kinematics. It is, however, well known that the position errors in the order of 10 mm is not unusual while many industrial robots have the repeatability in the order of 0.1mm. In here, the position error is referred to as the difference between the specified goal position and the position where a robot is actually controlled. To reduce the position errors, many researchers proposed calibration methods which are based on robot kinematic identification. However, those methods are quite complex and require an accurate position measuring device. In this paper, a new method which dose not require the accurate kinematic identification, is introduced. In this method, the accurate actuator command values are calculated using the nominal kinematic model which is appropriatly altered based on the available encoder readings of the several reference frames. To demonstrate the simplicity and the effectiveness of the method, computer simulations as well as experimental studies are performed and their results are discussed. (Author)

  12. Critical evaluation of measured line positions of 14N16O in X2П state

    Sulakshina, O. N.; Borkov, Yu. G.

    2018-04-01

    All available line positions for unresolved and resolved Λ-doublets of the 14N16O molecule in the X2 П state were collected from the literature and tested using the RITZ computer code. These data have been critically analysed and used to obtain the most complete set of 1789 experimental energy levels of unresolved Λ-doublets covering the 0-35,866 cm-1 interval. A set of 425 experimental energy levels of resolved Λ-doublets covering the 0-5957 cm-1 interval for two states 2П1/2 and 2П3/2 also have been obtained. These levels together with calculated correlation matrix can be used to generate the precise list of transitions with confidence intervals. Comparisons with the HITRAN as well as with Amiot calculations are discussed. The systematic shift between experimental energy levels of unresolved Λ-doublets and those calculated by Amiot for 2П3/2 state was found. The same systematic shift for transitions frequencies of unresolved Λ-doublets in forbidden subbands 2П1/2↔2П3/2 is also established in the HITRAN database. Comparison of the RITZ energy levels with calculated energy levels by Wong at al. was also done. It was found, that experimental RITZ energy levels for resolved Λ-doublets of 14N16O coincide with those calculated by Wong at al. within experimental uncertainties.

  13. On-line measurement of gaseous iodine species during a PWR severe accident

    Haykal, I.; Doizi, D. [CEA, DEN, Departement de Physico-chimie, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, (France); Perrin, A. [CNRS-University of Paris Est and Paris 7, Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, 94010 Creteil, (France); Vincent, B. [University of Burgundy, Laboratoire de physique, CNRS UMR 5027, 9, Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex, (France); Manceron, L. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, St-Aubin BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, (France); Mejean, G. [University of Joseph Fourier in Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique-CNRS UMR 5588, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres, (France); Ducros, G. [CEA Cadarache, CEA, DEN, Departement d' Etudes des Combustibles, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance cedex, (France)

    2015-07-01

    A long-range remote sensing of severe accidents in nuclear power plants can be obtained by monitoring the online emission of volatile fission products such as xenon, krypton, caesium and iodine. The nuclear accident in Fukushima was ranked at level 7 of the International Nuclear Event Scale by the NISA (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency) according to the importance of the radionuclide release and the off-site impact. Among volatile fission products, iodine species are of high concern, since they can be released under aerosols as well as gaseous forms. Four years after the Fukushima accident, the aerosol/gaseous partition is still not clear. Since the iodine gaseous forms are less efficiently trapped by the Filtered Containment Venting Systems than aerosol forms, it is of crucial importance to monitor them on-line during a nuclear accident, in order to improve the source term assessment in such a situation. Therefore, we propose to detect and quantify these iodine gaseous forms by the use of highly sensitive optical methods. (authors)

  14. Dynamic measurements at THz frequencies with a fast rotary delay line

    Guerboukha, Hichem; Markov, Andrey; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-02-01

    Fabrication, characterization, and applications of a fast rotary linear optical delay line (FRLODL) for THz time-domain spectroscopy are presented. The FRLODL features two reflective surfaces with spatially separated incoming and outgoing beams. It has been manufactured using CNC machining. A linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle allows a straightforward extraction of the conversion factor between the acquisition time (in ms) and the terahertz pulse time (in ps). The FRLODL has been tested using rotation speeds of up to 48 Hz, corresponding to an acquisition rate of up to 192 Hz with four blades incorporated on the same disk. At high speeds we observe a decrease of the bandwidth due to the limitations of the electronics, in particular, the transimpedance amplifier. An error analysis is performed by experimentally evaluating the signal-to-noise ratio and the dynamic range. With regard to the applications of the FRLODL, we first present observation of the evaporation of liquids, namely water, acetone and methanol. We then demonstrate monitoring of the spray painting process. Finally, detection of fast moving objects at 1 m/s and their thickness characterization are presented.

  15. RECEIVER OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS MEASURE FOR THE RECOGNITION OF STUTTERING DYSFLUENCIES USING LINE SPECTRAL FREQUENCIES

    Nahrul Khair Alang Rashid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a motor-speech disorder, having common features with other motor control disorders such as dystonia, Parkinson’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome. Stuttering results from complex interactions between factors such as motor, language, emotional and genetic. This study used Line Spectral Frequency (LSF for the feature extraction, while using three classifiers for the identification purpose, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP, Recurrent Neural Network (RNN and Radial Basis Function (RBF. The UCLASS (University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech release 1 was used as database in this research. These recordings were from people of ages 12y11m to 19y5m, who were referred to clinics in London for assessment of their stuttering. The performance metrics used for interpreting the results are sensitivity, accuracy, precision and misclassification rate. Only M1 and M2 had below 100% sensitivity for RBF. The sensitivity of M1 was found to be between 40 & 60%, therefore categorized as moderate, while that of M2 falls between 60 & 80%, classed as substantial. Overall, RBF outperforms the two other classifiers, MLP and RNN for all the performance metrics considered.

  16. Multi Parameter Flow Meter for On-Line Measurement of Gas Mixture Composition

    Egbert van der Wouden

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the development of a system and model to analyze the composition of gas mixtures up to four components. The system consists of a Coriolis mass flow sensor, density, pressure and thermal flow sensor. With this system it is possible to measure the viscosity, density, heat capacity and flow rate of the medium. In a next step the composition can be analyzed if the constituents of the mixture are known. This makes the approach universally applicable to all gasses as long as the number of components does not exceed the number of measured properties and as long as the properties are measured with a sufficient accuracy. We present measurements with binary and ternary gas mixtures, on compositions that range over an order of magnitude in value for the physical properties. Two platforms for analyses are presented. The first platform consists of sensors realized with MEMS fabrication technology. This approach allows for a system with a high level of integration. With this system we demonstrate a proof of principle for the analyses of binary mixtures with an accuracy of 10%. In the second platform we utilize more mature steel sensor technology to demonstrate the potential of this approach. We show that with this technique, binary mixtures can be measured within 1% and ternary gas mixtures within 3%.

  17. A method for the measurement of in line pistachio aflatoxin concentration based on the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Paghaleh, Soodeh Jamali; Askari, Hassan Ranjbar; Marashi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Rahimi, Mojtaba; Bahrampour, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of pistachio nuts with aflatoxin is one of the most significant issues related to pistachio health and expert. A fast pistachio aflatoxin concentration measurement method based on the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) is proposed. The proposed method from theoretical and experimental points of view is analyzed. In our experiments XeCl Excimer laser is employed as an Ultra Violet (UV) source (λ=308 nm) and a UV–visible (UV–vis) spectrometer is used for fluorescent emission detection. Our setup is employed to measure the concentration of different type of Aflatoxins in pistachio nuts. Measurements results obtained by the LIFS method are compared with those are measured by the standard HPLC method. Aflatoxins concentrations are in good agreement with those are obtained by the HPLC method. The proposed laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy can be used as an in line aflatoxins concentrations measurement instrument for industrial applications. - Highlights: • XeCl Excimer laser is employed as an UV source for measurement of AFs in pistachio nuts. • Results are compared with those are measured by the standard HPLC method. • LIFS is an online AFs concentration measurement method for industrial applications

  18. On-line gamma spectroscopy measuring station for cover gas monitoring at KNK II

    Hoffmann, G.; Letz, K.D.

    1980-02-01

    An automated Ge-γ-spectrometer was developed for cover gas monitoring at KNK II which, by the gamma spectra measured, is to allow the following statements to be made on fuel cladding failure: Type, size, variation with time and subsequent development of the failure. In this report the hardware and software will be explained. Besides, an instruction manual was written for the measuring station, which allows to operate it without detailed knowledge of the manuals for the individual hardware components. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  19. Measure a carbon impact methodology in line with a 2 degree scenario

    Coeslier, Manuel; Finidori, Esther; Smia, Ladislas

    2015-11-01

    Today, high expectations surround the measurement of carbon impact. Voluntary initiatives and - little by little - legislation push institutional investors to consider the impact that financial portfolios have on the climate and energy transition. However, current methods (of carbon footprint measurement) are not adequate to determine an investment portfolio's contribution to these issues. Current approaches, which do not take a life-cycle vision of carbon foot-printing, have the particular flaw of not accounting for emissions related to companies' products and services. The impact of these products and services on the climate is, however, crucial in many sectors - whether positively in the case of renewable energy and energy efficiency solutions, or negatively in the case of fossil fuels. Following this observation, Mirova and Carbone 4 decided to create a partnership dedicated to developing a new methodology capable of providing a carbon measurement that is aligned with the issues of energy transition: Carbon Impact Analytics (CIA). The CIA methodology focuses primarily on three indicators: - A measure of emissions 'induced' by a company's activity from a life-cycle approach, taking into account direct emissions as well as emissions from product suppliers; - A measure of the emissions which are 'avoided' due to efficiency efforts or deployment of 'low-carbon' solutions; - An overall evaluation that takes into account, in addition to carbon measurement, further information on the company's evolution and the type of capital or R and D expenditures. For these evaluations, the methodology employs a bottom-up approach in which each company is examined individually according to an evaluation framework adapted to each sector. Particular scrutiny is devoted to companies with a significant climate impact: energy producers, carbon-intensive sectors (industry, construction, transport), and providers of low-carbon equipment and solutions. Evaluations are then aggregated at

  20. Optics Measurements and Matching of TT2-TT10 Line for Injection of the LHC Beam in the SPS

    Benedetto, E

    2008-01-01

    A well matched injection in the SPS is very important for preserving the emittance of the LHC beam. The paper presents the algorithms used for the analysis and the results of the 2007 optics measurements campaign done in the transfer line TT2-TT10 and in the SPS. The dispersion is computed by varying the beam momentum and recording the offsets at the BPMs, while the Twiss parameters and emittance measurements in TT2-TT10 are performed with beam profile monitors equipped with OTR screens. Finally, on the basis of such measurements, a betatron and dispersion matching of TT2-TT10 for injection in the SPS has been performed and successfully put in operation since October 2007.

  1. Meanings for Fraction as Number-Measure by Exploring the Number Line

    Psycharis, Giorgos; Latsi, Maria; Kynigos, Chronis

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a case-study design experiment in the domain of fraction as number-measure. We designed and implemented a set of exploratory tasks concerning comparison and ordering of fractions as well as operations with fractions. Two groups of 12-year-old students worked collaboratively using paper and pencil as well as a specially…

  2. On-line fresh-cut lettuce quality measurement system using hyperspectral imaging

    Lettuce, which is a main type of fresh-cut vegetable, has been used in various fresh-cut products. In this study, an online quality measurement system for detecting foreign substances on the fresh-cut lettuce was developed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The online detection system with a s...

  3. On-line nuclear half life and spectroscopic measurements on mass-separated fission product nuclei

    McDonald, J.; Fogelberg, B.; Baecklin, A.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of the methods and equipment employed for nuclear spectroscopy studies of short lived fission product nuclei at the OSIRIS ISOL facility in Studsvik, Sweden. Furthermore a table of new nuclear half-lives measured with this equipment is presented. (author)

  4. Laser measurements of radii and moments of barium nuclei near the proton drip line

    Eastham; Smith, J.R.H.; Groves, J.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique of laser spectroscopy has been used to measure the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moment of /sup 121/Ba, and the r.m.s. charge radii of /sup 120,121/Ba. The results are discussed in terms of the unified model

  5. In-Line Capacitance Sensor for Real-Time Water Absorption Measurements

    Nurge, Mark A.; Perusich, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    A capacitance/dielectric sensor was designed, constructed, and used to measure in real time the in-situ water concentration in a desiccant water bed. Measurements were carried out with two experimental setups: (1) passing nitrogen through a humidity generator and allowing the gas stream to become saturated at a measured temperature and pressure, and (2) injecting water via a syringe pump into a nitrogen stream. Both water vapor generating devices were attached to a downstream vertically-mounted water capture bed filled with 19.5 g of Moisture Gone desiccant. The sensor consisted of two electrodes: (1) a 1/8" dia stainless steel rod placed in the middle of the bed and (2) the outer shell of the stainless steel bed concentric with the rod. All phases of the water capture process (background, heating, absorption, desorption, and cooling) were monitored with capacitance. The measured capacitance was found to vary linearly with the water content in the bed at frequencies above 100 kHz indicating dipolar motion dominated the signal; below this frequency, ionic motion caused nonlinearities in the water concentration/capacitance relationship. The desiccant exhibited a dielectric relaxation whose activation energy was lowered upon addition of water indicating either a less hindered rotational motion or crystal reorientation.

  6. On-line display used with cathode ray tube film measuring device

    Fortney, L.R.; Robertson, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved display has been developed for use on our computer controlled measuring device (RIPPLE). The device features a television image of the film and a digital presentation on the same X, Y display. The television image is formed using a modified left and right raster scan which can cover 50% more area in the same time as the traditional raster

  7. Optical fiber couplers for spectrophotometry. Perspectives for in-situ on-line and remote measurements

    Boisde, G.; Linger, C.; Chevalier, G.; Perez, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Optical fiber couplers have been developed specially for nuclear chemical spectrophotometric applications. Coupling devices are described for TELEPHOT industrial photometers and some commercial spectrophotometer, together with the probes and measurement cells employed. The value of optical multiplexing is mentioned. Non nuclear applications in medical analysis are also mentioned, together with the possibilities offered by these devices for uses other than spectrophotometry [fr

  8. Optics Measurements and Matching of TT2-TT10 Line for Injection of the LHC Beam in the SPS

    Benedetto, E; Guerrero, A; Jacquet, D

    2008-01-01

    A well matched injection in the SPS is very important for preserving the emittance of the LHC beam. The paper presents the algorithms used for the analysis and the results of the optics measurements done in the transfer line TT2-TT10 and in the SPS. The dispersion is computed by varying the beam momentum and recording the offsets at the BPMs, while the Twiss parameters and emittance measurements in TT2-TT10 are performed with beam profile monitors equipped with OTR screens. These results are completed by those obtained with a matching monitor installed in the SPS as a prototype for the LHC. This device makes use of an OTR screen and a fast acquisition system, to get the turn by turn beam profiles right at injection in the ring, from which the beam mismatch is computed and compared with the results obtained in the line. Finally, on the basis of such measurements, a betatron and dispersion matching of TT2-TT10 for injection in the SPS has been performed and successfully put in operation.

  9. Figures of merit for measuring aging management program effectiveness

    Knudson, R.; Sciacca, F.; Walsh, R.; Zigler, G.

    1991-01-01

    One of the requirements for nuclear plant license renewal may be the establishment and demonstration of an effective aging management program. An analysis of both qualitative and quantitative information will be required to define the contents of this aging management program. The authors propose two quantitative figures of merit, Mean Event Detection Frequency and Mean Renewal Rate, that can be used to compare the effectiveness of various inspection, surveillance, test, and monitoring (ISTM) activities for aging mitigation. An example showing the relative effectiveness of an enhanced Loose Parts Monitoring System with current ISTM activities for steam generators and reactor internals is provided. (author)

  10. Comparison between IEEE and CIGRE Thermal Behaviour Standards and Measured Temperature on a 132-kV Overhead Power Line

    Alberto Arroyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the steady and dynamic thermal balances of an overhead power line proposed by CIGRE (Technical Brochure 601, 2014 and IEEE (Std.738, 2012 standards. The estimated temperatures calculated by the standards are compared with the averaged conductor temperature obtained every 8 min during a year. The conductor is a LA 280 Hawk type, used in a 132-kV overhead line. The steady and dynamic state comparison shows that the number of cases with deviations to conductor temperatures higher than 5 ∘ C decreases from around 20% to 15% when the dynamic analysis is used. As some of the most critical variables are magnitude and direction of the wind speed, ambient temperature and solar radiation, their influence on the conductor temperature is studied. Both standards give similar results with slight differences due to the different way to calculate the solar radiation and convection. Considering the wind, both standards provide better results for the estimated conductor temperature as the wind speed increases and the angle with the line is closer to 90 ∘ . In addition, if the theoretical radiation is replaced by that measured with the pyranometer, the number of samples with deviations higher than 5 ∘ C is reduced from around 15% to 5%.

  11. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    ) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data.

  12. Distance Protection Impedance Measurement for Inhomogeneous Multiple-Circuit 400/150 kV Transmission Lines with Shared Towers

    Bak, Claus Leth; Sigurbjörnsson, Ragnar; Bukh, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    are interconnected in a simple way but via transformers and infeed from remaining parts of the network. Distance relay measured fault loop impedance shows wide ranges of variations for both phase-phase loops as well as phase-earth loops. No simple relations exist. Simulation models can be used to study fault loop...... impedance for combined faults and thereby shed light on relay trips. This study uses actual fault records, analytical method and PSCAD simulation studies to analyse combined faults in an existing 400 and 150 kV transmission line owned by Danish TSO Energinet.dk. The results clearly show that an accurate...

  13. On-line measurement of the microwave power in ECR ion source

    Zhou Changgeng; Kang Wu; Hu Yonghong; Li Yan; Lou Benchao; Zu Xiulan; Xiong Riheng; Chen Junguang

    2005-01-01

    It is a new technology that ECR ion source is applied in the neutron generator. Because of effect of the structure, working state of ECR ion source could not be judged by the color of gas discharging in discharging chamber as doing in high frequency ion source. Therefore, state adjusting of ECR ion source was difficult in running of the neutron generator. The method to resolve the question is described in this paper. The micro-wave power was measured in case of running by using the method of directional coupler adding small microwave power meter. Because both were in the direct proportion, the ion beam current could be educed from microwave incidence power measured, and discharge state in discharge chamber could be judged. Finally, the neutron generator might be operated in best running state. (authors)

  14. A measurement control program for plutonium isotopic gamma-ray systems at the Rocky Flats Plant

    Fleissner, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    A sound measurement control (MC) program should be an integral part of every nondestructive assay measurement system used for the assay of special nuclear materials. This paper describes a measurement control program for plutonium isotopic composition measurements, using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, that has been implemented in the Analytical Laboratories and the Chemistry Standards Laboratory at the Rocky Flats Plant. This MC program emphasizes the standardization of data collection procedures along with the implementation of internal and external measurement control checks to provide the requisite measurement quality assurance

  15. Heavy ion effects on mammalian cells: Inactivation measurements with different cell lines

    Wulf, H.; Kraft-Weyrather, W.; Miltenburger, H.G.; Kraft, G.

    1985-07-01

    In track segment experiments, the inactivation of different mammalian cells by heavy charged particles between helium and uranium in the energy range between 1 and 1000 MeV/u has been measured at the heavy ion accelerator Unilac, Darmstadt, the Tandem Van de Graaf, Heidelberg and the Bevalac, Berkeley. The inactivation cross sections calculated from the final slope of the dose effect curves are given as a function of the particle energy and the LET. (orig.)

  16. On-line plutonium measurement by alpha counting using a silica glass sensor

    Edeline, J.C.; Furgolle, B.

    1980-01-01

    Some cerium activated high purity silica glasses are good sensors for ionising particles counting. These sensors may be used for measuring plutonium concentrations in corrosive solutions which are typical in reprocessing operations. The thickness of the sensor has been reduced to minimize beta sensitivity. The thin sensor is hold by molecular adhesion to a thick glass mount which is soldered to the stainless steel sample cell [fr

  17. Equilibrium adsorption data from temperature-programmed desorption measurements

    Foeth, F.; Mugge, J.M.; van der Vaart, R.; van der Vaart, Rick; Bosch, H.; Reith, T.

    1996-01-01

    This work describes a novel method that enables the calculation of a series of adsorption isotherms basically from a single Temperature-Programmed Desorption (TPD) experiment. The basic idea is to saturate an adsorbent packed in a fixed bed at a certain feed concentration and temperature and to

  18. Computer programs for optical dendrometer measurements of standing tree profiles

    Jacob R. Beard; Thomas G. Matney; Emily B. Schultz

    2015-01-01

    Tree profile equations are effective volume predictors. Diameter data for building these equations are collected from felled trees using diameter tapes and calipers or from standing trees using optical dendrometers. Developing and implementing a profile function from the collected data is a tedious and error prone task. This study created a computer program, Profile...

  19. Measuring Service Quality in Recreational Programs with SERVQUAL.

    Bauch, Joel R.

    Many directors of college recreational programs are feeling pressure for increased accountability in the face of shrinking financial resources and increased demand for services. One method of providing that accountability and learning about the strengths and weaknesses of services offered is by assessing the level of client satisfaction. Developed…

  20. Guidance for implementing an environmental, safety, and health assurance program. Volume 10. Model guidlines for line organization environmental, safety and health audits and appraisals

    Ellingson, A.C.

    1981-10-01

    This is 1 of 15 documents designed to illustrate how an Environmental, Safety and Health (ES and H) Assurance Program may be implemented. The generic definition of ES and H Assurance Programs is given in a companion document entitled An Environmental, Safety and Health Assurance Program Standard. The Standard specifies that the operational level of an institution must have an internal assurance function, and this document provides guidance for the audit/appraisal portion of the operational level's ES and H program. The appendixes include an ES and H audit checklist, a sample element rating guide, and a sample audit plan for working level line organization internal audits

  1. Bias Correction and Random Error Characterization for the Assimilation of HRDI Line-of-Sight Wind Measurements

    Tangborn, Andrew; Menard, Richard; Ortland, David; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new approach to the analysis of systematic and random observation errors is presented in which the error statistics are obtained using forecast data rather than observations from a different instrument type. The analysis is carried out at an intermediate retrieval level, instead of the more typical state variable space. This method is carried out on measurements made by the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). HRDI, a limb sounder, is the only satellite instrument measuring winds in the stratosphere, and the only instrument of any kind making global wind measurements in the upper atmosphere. HRDI measures doppler shifts in the two different O2 absorption bands (alpha and B) and the retrieved products are tangent point Line-of-Sight wind component (level 2 retrieval) and UV winds (level 3 retrieval). This analysis is carried out on a level 1.9 retrieval, in which the contributions from different points along the line-of-sight have not been removed. Biases are calculated from O-F (observed minus forecast) LOS wind components and are separated into a measurement parameter space consisting of 16 different values. The bias dependence on these parameters (plus an altitude dependence) is used to create a bias correction scheme carried out on the level 1.9 retrieval. The random error component is analyzed by separating the gamma and B band observations and locating observation pairs where both bands are very nearly looking at the same location at the same time. It is shown that the two observation streams are uncorrelated and that this allows the forecast error variance to be estimated. The bias correction is found to cut the effective observation error variance in half.

  2. Hygrometric measurement for on-line monitoring of PWR vessel head penetrations

    Germain, J.L.; Loisy, F.; Apolzan, S.

    1994-06-01

    In September 1991, a small leak was found on one of the reactor's upper vessel head penetrations. After inspection, other non-throughwall cracks were localized in the lower part of the vessel head adapter in questions. The same type of crack was later found inside some adapters on other French PWR units. After repairs, the safety authorities granted approval to continue unit operation, with the specific provision that a system for ongoing monitoring of the penetrations be set up. Two types of system were selected to detect leaks through any potential cracks: the first is based on nitrogen-13 detection and the second on steam detection. Both systems call for sampling the air in a confined space above the vessel head. The number and distribution of sampling taps in the circuit, and the balancing of their respective flow rates, are factors in proper monitoring of all vessel head penetrations. Gas-injection holes are also installed in the confined space. These holes are used during the sampling system qualification tests to simulate leaks in various positions and calculate the effective performance of the sampling system. Leaks are simulated using a helium-base gas tracer and measuring tracer concentrations in the sampling system. The system for measuring steam levels in air samples uses chilled-mirror hygrometers. A microcomputer takes regular readings, drives the various automatic functions of the measurement system and automatically analyses the readings so as to monitor operations and trigger an alarm at the first sign of a leak. This system has now been installed for a year and a half on three French PWR units and is functioning satisfactorily. (authors). 5 figs

  3. On-line measurements of liquid carry-over from scrubbers using radioactive tracers

    Haugan, A; Hassfjell, S [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Finborud, A [Mator, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    A method to measure liquid carry-over from scrubbers using gamma-emitting tracers is described and results from field tests at two onshore installations are presented. One water/1,2-ethanediol (MEG) and two hydrocarbon liquid (condensate) tracers have been used in the tests. One of the condensate tracers deposited to some extent inside the process pipe, while the other had a too high vapor pressure. The water/MEG tracer showed no MEG carry-over while the carry-over of MEG was documented to be considerable. (author)

  4. On-line measurements of liquid carry-over from scrubbers using radioactive tracers

    Haugan, A.; Hassfjell, S.; Finborud, A.

    2004-01-01

    A method to measure liquid carry-over from scrubbers using gamma-emitting tracers is described and results from field tests at two onshore installations are presented. One water/1,2-ethanediol (MEG) and two hydrocarbon liquid (condensate) tracers have been used in the tests. One of the condensate tracers deposited to some extent inside the process pipe, while the other had a too high vapor pressure. The water/MEG tracer showed no MEG carry-over while the carry-over of MEG was documented to be considerable. (author)

  5. Energy measurement and longitudinal beam emittance reconstruction in L4T line

    Meng, C; Garoby, R; Lallement, JB; Lombardi, A; Tang, J Y; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2013-01-01

    LINAC4 is a new linear accelerator for H- ion which will replace proton Linac2 as injector for the CERN proton accelerator complex. LINAC4 accelerates H− ions from 45 keV to 160 MeV in a sequence of normal conducting structures. Then, H- ions with a kinetic energy of 160 MeV will be sent to the PS Booster. This note describes two energy measurement methods and a improved method that will be used for longitudinal emittance reconstruction with space charge by multi-particle tracking code and the expected results.

  6. In-Line Measurement of Water Content in Ethanol Using a PVA-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Byoung Chul Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance is contacted with ethanol containing a small amount of water, the water is absorbed into the PVA increasing the load on the microbalance surface to cause a frequency drop. The determination performance of the PVA-coated microbalance is examined by measuring the frequency decreases in ethanol containing 2% to 10% water while the ethanol flows through the measurement device. The measurements indicates that the higher water content is the more the frequency reduction is, though some deviation in the measurements is observed. This indicates that the frequency measurement of an unknown concentration of water in ethanol can be used to determine the water content in ethanol. The PVA coating is examined by microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  7. Measurement of sheath thickness by lining out grooves in the Hall-type stationary plasma thrusters

    Yu Daren; Wu Zhiwen; Ning Zhongxi; Wang Xiaogang

    2007-01-01

    Using grooves created along the axial direction of the discharge channel, a method for measuring sheath thickness in Hall-type stationary plasma thrusters has been developed. By distorting the wall surface using these grooves, it is possible to numerically study the effect of the wall surface on the sheath and near wall conductivity. Monte Carlo method is applied to calculate the electron temperature variation with different groove depths. The electron dynamic process in the plasma is described by a test particle method with the electron randomly entering the sheath from the discharge channel and being reflected back. Numerical results show that the reflected electron temperature is hardly affected by the wall surface if the groove depth is much less than the sheath thickness. On the other hand, the reflected electron temperature increases if the groove depth is much greater than the sheath thickness. The reflected electron temperature has a sharp jump when the depth of groove is on the order of the sheath thickness. The simulation is repeated with different sheath thicknesses and the results are the same. Therefore, a diagnosis mean of the sheath thickness can be developed based on the method. Also the simulation results are in accord with the experimental data. Besides, the measurement method may be applicable to other plasma device with similar orthogonal steady state electrical and magnetic fields

  8. Size optimization for complex permeability measurement of magnetic thin films using a short-circuited microstrip line up to 30 GHz

    Takeda, Shigeru; Naoe, Masayuki

    2018-03-01

    High-frequency permeability spectra of magnetic films were measured over a wideband frequency range of 0.1-30 GHz using a shielded and short-circuited microstrip line jig. In this measurement, spurious resonances had to be suppressed up to the highest frequency. To suppress these resonances, characteristic impedance of the microstrip line should approach 50 Ω at the junction between connector and microstrip line. The main factors dominating these resonances were structures of the jig and the sample. The dimensions were optimized in various experiments, and results demonstrated that the frequency could be raised to at least 20 GHz. For the transverse electromagnetic mode to transmit stably along the microstrip line, the preferred sample was rectangular, with the shorter side parallel to the line and the longer side perpendicular to it, and characteristic impedance strongly depended on the signal line width of the jig. However, too small a jig and sample led to a lower S/N ratio.

  9. Measuring Perceptions of Engagement in Teamwork in Youth Development Programs

    Cater, Melissa; Jones, Kimberly Y.

    2014-01-01

    The literature regarding teamwork has supported the idea that the key to improving team performance is to understand team processes. Early work within the realm of teamwork focused on quantifiable measures of team performance, like number of products developed. The measure of a successful team hinged on whether or not the team accomplished the end…

  10. Measurement and modeling of nitrogen resonance line profiles from an electrodeless discharge lamp

    Wood, D.R.; Skinner, G.B.; Lifshitz, A.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental profiles of the 1200 A resonance triplet of atomic nitrogen were measured for a variety of operating conditions of an end-on electrodeless lamp, and corresponding absorption curves were calculated. Each source profile was determined by fitting parameters to an empirical two-layer model, then convoluting with the instrumental function for comparison with experimental data. Each three-component profile was fitted with three adjustable parameters: an absorption parameter for each of the two layers and a third absorption parameter to adjust for radiation trapping. Curves of absorption as a function of atom concentration, calculated from these profiles, are very similar to the shock tube calibrations of Thielen and Roth in which a source of similar design has been used

  11. Crosstalk Models for Short VDSL2 Lines from Measured 30 MHz Data

    Leshem A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing interest in hybrid fiber-copper access solutions, as in fiber to the basement (FTTB and fiber to the curb/cabinet (FTTC. The twisted pair segment in these architectures is in the range of a few hundred meters, thus supporting transmission over tens of MHz. This paper provides crosstalk models derived from measured data for quad cable, lengths between 75 and 590 meters, and frequencies up to MHz. The results indicate that the log-normal statistical model (with a simple parametric law for the frequency-dependent mean fits well up to MHz for both FEXT and NEXT. This extends earlier log-normal statistical modeling and validation results for NEXT over bandwidths in the order of a few MHz. The fitted crosstalk power spectra are useful for modem design and simulation. Insertion loss, phase, and impulse response duration characteristics of the direct channels are also provided.

  12. Pressure broadening measurement of submillimeter-wave lines of O3

    Yamada, M.M.; Amano, T.

    2005-01-01

    The pressure broadening coefficients and their temperature dependences for two submillimeter-wave transitions of ozone, one being monitored with Odin and the other to be monitored with JEM/SMILES and EOS-MLS, have been determined by using a BWO based submillimeter-wave spectrometer. The measurements have also been extended to one of the symmetric isotopic species, 16 O 18 O 16 O. The isotopic species is observed in natural abundance and as a consequence the temperature dependence is not determined due to weak signal intensity. The pressure broadening parameters are determined with better than 1% accuracy, while the temperature dependence exponents are obtained within 1.5-3% accuracy for the normal species transitions

  13. PIV measurements of acoustic and flow-induced vibration in main stream lines

    Li, Yanrong; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Systems with closed side-branches are liable to an excitation of sound, as called cavity tone. In this study, flow-induced acoustic resonances of piping systems containing closed side-branches were investigated experimentally. The present investigation on the coaxial closed side-branches is the first rudimentary study to measure the pressure at the downstream side opening of the cavity by microphone and to visualize the fluid flow in the cross-section by using PIV. High-time-resolved PIV has a possibility to analyze the velocity field and the relation between sound propagation and flow field. The fluid flows at different points in the cavity interact with some phase differences and the relation can be clarified. (author)

  14. On-line fission products measurements during a PWR severe accident: the French DECA-PF project

    Ducros, G.; Allinei, P.G.; Roure, C. [CEA, DEN, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, (France); Rozel, C. [EDF SEPTEN, 12-14 Avenue Dutrievoz, F-69628, Villeurbanne, (France); Blanc De Lanaute, N. [CANBERRA, 1 rue des Herons, F-78182, Saint Quentin en Yvelines, (France); Musoyan, G. [AREVA, Tour AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, F-92084 Paris La Defense Cedex, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, a lot of recommendations was drawn by international organizations (IAEA, OECD, NUGENIA network...) in order to improve the safety in such accidental conditions and mitigate their consequences. One of these recommendations was to improve the robustness of the instrumentation, which was dramatically lacking at Fukushima, as well as to better determine the Source Term involved in nuclear accident. The DECA-PF project (Diagnosis of a degraded reactor core through Fission Product measurements) was elaborated in this context and selected as one of 21 collaborative R and D projects in the field of nuclear safety and radioprotection, funded in May 2013 by the French National Research Agency. Over the months following the Fukushima accident, a CEA crisis team was held in order to analyze on-line the situation taking into account the data delivered by TEPCO and other organizations. Despite the difficulties encountered concerning the reliability of these data, the work performed showed the high capacity of Fission Products (FP) measurements to get a diagnosis relative to the status of the reactors and the spent fuel pools (SFP). Based on these FP measurements, it was possible to conclude that the main origin of the releases was coming from the cores and not from the SFP, in particular for SFP-4 which was of high concern, and that the degradation level of the reactors was very large, including probably an extensive core melting. To improve the reliability of this kind of diagnosis, the necessity to get such measurements as soon as possible after the accident and as near as possible from the reactor was stressed. In this way the present DECA-PF project intends to develop a new and innovative instrumentation taking into account the design of the French nuclear power plants on which sand bed filters have been implemented for severe accident management. Three complementary techniques, devoted to measure the FP release on-line, are being studied

  15. The Amalgamation of SVR and ANFIS Models with Synchronized Phasor Measurements for On-Line Voltage Stability Assessment

    Mohammed Amroune

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of support vector regression (SVR and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS models that are amalgamated with synchronized phasor measurements for on-line voltage stability assessment. As the performance of SVR model extremely depends on the good selection of its parameters, the recently developed ant lion optimizer (ALO is adapted to seek for the SVR’s optimal parameters. In particular, the input vector of ALO-SVR and ANFIS soft computing models is provided in the form of voltage magnitudes provided by the phasor measurement units (PMUs. In order to investigate the effectiveness of ALO-SVR and ANFIS models towards performing the on-line voltage stability assessment, in-depth analyses on the results have been carried out on the IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems considering different topologies and operating conditions. Two statistical performance criteria of root mean square error (RMSE and correlation coefficient (R were considered as metrics to further assess both of the modeling performances in contrast with the power flow equations. The results have demonstrated that the ALO-SVR model is able to predict the voltage stability margin with greater accuracy compared to the ANFIS model.

  16. Security Measures in Automated Assessment System for Programming Courses

    Jana Šťastná

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A desirable characteristic of programming code assessment is to provide the learner the most appropriate information regarding the code functionality as well as a chance to improve. This can be hardly achieved in case the number of learners is high (500 or more. In this paper we address the problem of risky code testing and availability of an assessment platform Arena, dealing with potential security risks when providing an automated assessment for a large set of source code. Looking at students’ programs as if they were potentially malicious inspired us to investigate separated execution environments, used by security experts for secure software analysis. The results also show that availability issues of our assessment platform can be conveniently resolved with task queues. A special attention is paid to Docker, a virtual container ensuring no risky code can affect the assessment system security. The assessment platform Arena enables to regularly, effectively and securely assess students' source code in various programming courses. In addition to that it is a motivating factor and helps students to engage in the educational process.

  17. An FPGA-Integrated Time-to-Digital Converter Based on a Ring Oscillator for Programmable Delay Line Resolution Measurement

    Chao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the architecture of a time-to-digital converter (TDC, specially intended to measure the delay resolution of a programmable delay line (PDL. The configuration, which consists of a ring oscillator, a frequency divider (FD, and a period measurement circuit (PMC, is implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA device. The ring oscillator realized in loop containing a PDL and a look-up table (LUT generates periodic oscillatory pulses. The FD amplifies the oscillatory period from nanosecond range to microsecond range. The time-to-digital conversion is based on counting the number of clock cycles between two consecutive pulses of the FD by the PMC. Experiments have been conducted to verify the performance of the TDC. The achieved relative errors for four PDLs are within 0.50%–1.21% and the TDC has an equivalent resolution of about 0.4 ps.

  18. From Knowledge to Action: Tips for Encouraging and Measuring Program-Related Behavior Change

    Chazdon, Scott; Horntvedt, Jody; Templin, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to document the behavior changes that result from Extension programming. This article describes an evaluation method we call the "action items method." Unlike other approaches for measuring behavior change, this method requires program participants to define their own action plans as part of a program and then asks them…

  19. 75 FR 6673 - Expert Meeting on Measurement Criteria for Children's Health Insurance Program; Reauthorization...

    2010-02-10

    ... on Measurement Criteria for Children's Health Insurance Program; Reauthorization Act Pediatric... enacted in the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA). DATES: The meeting will...) reauthorized the Child Health Insurance Program (CHIP) originally established in 1997, and in Title IV of the...

  20. Usage of I++ Simulator to Program Coordinate Measuring Machines when Common Programming Methods are difficult to apply

    Gąska A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, simulators facilitate tasks performed daily by the engineers of different branches, including coordinate metrologists. Sometimes it is difficult or almost impossible to program a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM using standard methods. This happens, for example, during measurements of nano elements or in cases when measurements are performed on high-precision (accurate measuring machines which work in strictly air-conditioned spaces and the presence of the operator in such room during the programming of CMM could cause an increase in temperature, which in turn could make it necessary to wait some time until conditions stabilize. This article describes functioning of a simulator and its usage during Coordinate Measuring Machine programming in the latter situation. Article also describes a general process of programming CMMs which ensures the correct machine performance after starting the program on a real machine. As an example proving the presented considerations, measurement of exemplary workpiece, which was performed on the machine working in the strictly air-conditioned room, was described